WorldWideScience

Sample records for single zip code

  1. VT ZIP Code Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) A ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) is a statistical geographic entity that approximates the delivery area for a U.S. Postal Service five-digit...

  2. Zip Codes - MDC_WCSZipcode

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — The WCSZipcode polygon feature class was created by Miami-Dade Enterprise Technology Department to be used in the WCS batch jobs to assign the actual zip code of...

  3. Allegheny County Zip Code Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the zip code boundaries that lie within Allegheny County.If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open...

  4. Changing Postal ZIP Code Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-23

    for distribution to a specific delivery post office, identified by the fourth and fifth digits. For example, the ZIP Code for Alturas , the county seat...distribution point for some California post offices such as Alturas , Cedarville (96104), Fort Bidwell (96112), and Likely (96116), distinguished by the

  5. Plan Selections by ZIP Code in the Marketplace April 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The dataset provides the total number of Qualified Health Plan selections by ZIP Code for the 37 states that use the HealthCare.gov platform, including the...

  6. Determining Market Categorization of United States Zip Codes for Purposes of Army Recruiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    to the areas that are expected to have higher production . This circular logic presents the risk that there are ZIP codes in the United States that... production activities deduction A03240 Income Tax Average Domestic production activities deduction amount N04470 Income Tax Percentage of returns...Zone Improvement Plan (ZIP) codes to assign recruiters and to track recruit production . ZIP codes have different densities of potential recruits; the

  7. Efficient Proximity Computation Techniques Using ZIP Code Data for Smart Cities †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Harist Murdani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we are interested in computing ZIP code proximity from two perspectives, proximity between two ZIP codes (Ad-Hoc and neighborhood proximity (Top-K. Such a computation can be used for ZIP code-based target marketing as one of the smart city applications. A naïve approach to this computation is the usage of the distance between ZIP codes. We redefine a distance metric combining the centroid distance with the intersecting road network between ZIP codes by using a weighted sum method. Furthermore, we prove that the results of our combined approach conform to the characteristics of distance measurement. We have proposed a general and heuristic approach for computing Ad-Hoc proximity, while for computing Top-K proximity, we have proposed a general approach only. Our experimental results indicate that our approaches are verifiable and effective in reducing the execution time and search space.

  8. Efficient Proximity Computation Techniques Using ZIP Code Data for Smart Cities †.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdani, Muhammad Harist; Kwon, Joonho; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Hong, Bonghee

    2018-03-24

    In this paper, we are interested in computing ZIP code proximity from two perspectives, proximity between two ZIP codes ( Ad-Hoc ) and neighborhood proximity ( Top-K ). Such a computation can be used for ZIP code-based target marketing as one of the smart city applications. A naïve approach to this computation is the usage of the distance between ZIP codes. We redefine a distance metric combining the centroid distance with the intersecting road network between ZIP codes by using a weighted sum method. Furthermore, we prove that the results of our combined approach conform to the characteristics of distance measurement. We have proposed a general and heuristic approach for computing Ad-Hoc proximity, while for computing Top-K proximity, we have proposed a general approach only. Our experimental results indicate that our approaches are verifiable and effective in reducing the execution time and search space.

  9. Recipients of Excess Food by Zip Code, US and Territories, 2015, EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features that represent generalized USPS 5-digit zip code boundaries for the US and its territories. Data is licensed to US EPA by...

  10. R2 & NE: NAVTEQ 2011 Q3 ZIP Code 5-Digit Area Points for the United States, including Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands in SDC Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The USA_ZIP5_PNTS layer contains 5 digit ZIP code points. Each feature in the USA_ZIP5_POLYS layer encloses an associated USA_ZIP5_PNTS feature. This NAVTEQ dataset...

  11. Life Expectancy at Birth in Milwaukee County: A Zip Code-Level Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica S. LeCounte

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Life expectancy at birth is used as a barometer of the health and well-being of a population. Life expectancies vary widely across Wisconsin counties. While much of the analysis of life expectancy in Wisconsin has focused on counties, there may be important differences in life expectancy within counties by zip code. Methods: To calculate life expectancy, death count data and population estimates were entered into an abridged life table using the Chiang methodology. Data were linked with measures from the American Community Survey to examine the relationship between life expectancy and zip code characteristics. Results: Life expectancy varies greatly across zip codes in Milwaukee County. Overall, there was a 12-year difference in the life expectancy of children born into zip codes with the lowest and highest life expectancy: 53206 (71.3 years and 53217 (83.2 years. There was a strong positive correlation between life expectancy and median household income (r = 0.784, P < 0.0001, educational attainment of a bachelor’s degree or higher (r = 0.741, P < 0.0001 and the socioeconomic index combining education and income (r = 0.819, P < 0.0001. Conclusions: Disparities in life expectancy within Milwaukee County are stark and correlate with differences in social and economic factors. To improve health outcomes such as life expectancy, health care practitioners and health care systems must become more involved in activities at the social and policy levels to improve social and economic conditions that would allow their patients to live healthier and longer lives.

  12. Simultaneous Detection of Different MicroRNA Types Using the ZIP-Code Array System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja U. Weishaupt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are important negative regulators of gene expression. Their implication in tumorigenesis is based on their dysregulation in many human cancer diseases. Interestingly, in tumor cells, an altered ratio of precursor and mature miRNA levels has been described. Consequently, differences in miRNA type levels have a high potential as biomarkers and comparative high-throughput-based detection might permit a more accurate characterization of subtypes, especially in the case of very heterogeneous tumor entities. Several molecular methods exist for the detection of mature and precursor miRNAs. DNA microarrays are predestinated as a high-throughput method for comprehensive miRNA detection in tumors. However, the simultaneous array-based detection of both these miRNA types is limited because the mature miRNA sequence is identically present in both forms. Here we present a ZIP-code DNA microarray-based system in combination with a novel labeling approach, which enables the simultaneous detection of precursor and mature miRNAs in one single experiment. Using synthetic miRNA templates, we demonstrate the specificity of the method for the different miRNA types, as well as the detection range up to four orders of magnitude. Moreover, mature and precursor miRNAs were detected and validated in human tumor cells.

  13. Why Your ZIP Code Matters More Than Your Genetic Code: Promoting Healthy Outcomes from Mother to Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Garth N

    2016-10-01

    Health equity has long been the dominant theme in the work of the Aetna Foundation. Recent data have focused on disparities through another lens, particularly the correlation between where people live (i.e., ZIP code) and their quality-and length-of life. In various cities across America, average life expectancies in certain communities are 20-30 years shorter than those mere miles away. In general, health disparities are founded on a complex interplay of racial, economic, educational, and other social factors. For example, breastfeeding rates in the United States differ significantly depending upon the race and income of the mother. Government policy makers are acutely aware of these disparities, but recent health system reforms have focused predominately on the processes used to administer, finance, and deliver care. What is needed is an approach that considers the health and wellness of all people in a geographic area, beyond established patients, and that measures more than clinical factors-such as genetics, environmental health, social circumstances, and individual behaviors. Solutions also must extend beyond the traditional healthcare arena. In particular, novel technological innovations show promise to bridge gaps between our healthcare capabilities and the needs of underserved populations. Digital tools are poised to revolutionize measurement, diagnostics, treatment, and global aspect of our healthcare system. The Aetna Foundation views technology as a core strategy in reducing health inequities through an approach that addresses both clinical and social factors in populations to dismantle the persistent paradigm of ZIP code as personal health destiny.

  14. Bias with respect to socioeconomic status: A closer look at zip code matching in a pneumococcal vaccine effectiveness study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Link-Gelles

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13 was introduced in the US for prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease in children. Individual-level socioeconomic status (SES is a potential confounder of the estimated effectiveness of PCV13 and is often controlled for in observational studies using zip code as a proxy. We assessed the utility of zip code matching for control of SES in a post-licensure evaluation of the effectiveness of PCV13 (calculated as [1-matched odds ratio]*100. We used a directed acyclic graph to identify subsets of confounders and collected SES variables from birth certificates, geocoding, a parent interview, and follow-up with medical providers. Cases tended to be more affluent than eligible controls (for example, 48.3% of cases had private insurance vs. 44.6% of eligible controls, but less affluent than enrolled controls (52.9% of whom had private insurance. Control of confounding subsets, however, did not result in a meaningful change in estimated vaccine effectiveness (original estimate: 85.1%, 95% CI 74.8–91.9%; adjusted estimate: 82.5%, 95% CI 65.6–91.1%. In the context of a post-licensure vaccine effectiveness study, zip code appears to be an adequate, though not perfect, proxy for individual SES. Keywords: Socioeconomic status, PCV13, Pneumococcus, Pneumococcal vaccine, Vaccine effectiveness, Matched case-control

  15. Cross-sectional association between ZIP code-level gentrification and homelessness among a large community-based sample of people who inject drugs in 19 US cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Sabriya L; Cooper, Hannah Lf; Kelley, Mary E; Karnes, Conny C; Ross, Zev; Wolfe, Mary E; Friedman, Samuel R; Jarlais, Don Des; Semaan, Salaam; Tempalski, Barbara; Sionean, Catlainn; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Wejnert, Cyprian; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2017-06-20

    Housing instability has been associated with poor health outcomes among people who inject drugs (PWID). This study investigates the associations of local-level housing and economic conditions with homelessness among a large sample of PWID, which is an underexplored topic to date. PWID in this cross-sectional study were recruited from 19 large cities in the USA as part of National HIV Behavioral Surveillance. PWID provided self-reported information on demographics, behaviours and life events. Homelessness was defined as residing on the street, in a shelter, in a single room occupancy hotel, or in a car or temporarily residing with friends or relatives any time in the past year. Data on county-level rental housing unaffordability and demand for assisted housing units, and ZIP code-level gentrification (eg, index of percent increases in non-Hispanic white residents, household income, gross rent from 1990 to 2009) and economic deprivation were collected from the US Census Bureau and Department of Housing and Urban Development. Multilevel models evaluated the associations of local economic and housing characteristics with homelessness. Sixty percent (5394/8992) of the participants reported homelessness in the past year. The multivariable model demonstrated that PWID living in ZIP codes with higher levels of gentrification had higher odds of homelessness in the past year (gentrification: adjusted OR=1.11, 95% CI=1.04 to 1.17). Additional research is needed to determine the mechanisms through which gentrification increases homelessness among PWID to develop appropriate community-level interventions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Zip Code Points (Generalized), US, 2015 Q4, HERE and SEGS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This downloadable data layer displays 5-digit postal code points in the US and its territories from HERE (formerly Navteq). This SEGS dataset was procured for EPA...

  17. Zip Code Polygons (Ungeneralized), US, 2015 Q4, HERE and SEGS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This downloadable data layer displays ungeneralized 5-digit postal code polygons in the US and its territories from HERE (formerly Navteq). Polygonal water features...

  18. Zip Code Manager

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The system used to associate what Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP) and Federal Employees Dental/Vision Program (FEDVIP) health, dental, and vision...

  19. An Agent-Based Model for Zip-Code Level Diffusion of Electric Vehicles and Electricity Consumption in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Ahkamiraad

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Current power grids in many countries are not fully prepared for high electric vehicle (EV penetration, and there is evidence that the construction of additional grid capacity is constantly outpaced by EV diffusion. If this situation continues, then it will compromise grid reliability and cause problems such as system overload, voltage and frequency fluctuations, and power losses. This is especially true for densely populated areas where the grid capacity is already strained with existing old infrastructure. The objective of this research is to identify the zip-code level electricity consumption that is associated with large-scale EV adoption in New York City, one of the most densely populated areas in the United States (U.S.. We fuse the Fisher and Pry diffusion model and Rogers model within the agent-based simulation to forecast zip-code level EV diffusion and the required energy capacity to satisfy the charging demand. The research outcomes will assist policy makers and grid operators in making better planning decisions on the locations and timing of investments during the transition to smarter grids and greener transportation.

  20. Separate Turbo Code and Single Turbo Code Adaptive OFDM Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burr Alister

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper discusses the application of adaptive modulation and adaptive rate turbo coding to orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM, to increase throughput on the time and frequency selective channel. The adaptive turbo code scheme is based on a subband adaptive method, and compares two adaptive systems: a conventional approach where a separate turbo code is used for each subband, and a single turbo code adaptive system which uses a single turbo code over all subbands. Five modulation schemes (BPSK, QPSK, 8AMPM, 16QAM, and 64QAM are employed and turbo code rates considered are and . The performances of both systems with high ( and low ( BER targets are compared. Simulation results for throughput and BER show that the single turbo code adaptive system provides a significant improvement.

  1. Separate Turbo Code and Single Turbo Code Adaptive OFDM Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ye

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of adaptive modulation and adaptive rate turbo coding to orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM, to increase throughput on the time and frequency selective channel. The adaptive turbo code scheme is based on a subband adaptive method, and compares two adaptive systems: a conventional approach where a separate turbo code is used for each subband, and a single turbo code adaptive system which uses a single turbo code over all subbands. Five modulation schemes (BPSK, QPSK, 8AMPM, 16QAM, and 64QAM are employed and turbo code rates considered are 1/2 and 1/3. The performances of both systems with high (10−2 and low (10−4 BER targets are compared. Simulation results for throughput and BER show that the single turbo code adaptive system provides a significant improvement.

  2. A Comparison of the Nutritional Quality of Food Products Advertised in Grocery Store Circulars of High- versus Low-Income New York City Zip Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danna Ethan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Grocery stores can be an important resource for health and nutrition with the variety and economic value of foods offered. Weekly circulars are a means of promoting foods at a sale price. To date, little is known about the extent that nutritious foods are advertised and prominently placed in circulars. This study’s aim was to compare the nutritional quality of products advertised on the front page of online circulars from grocery stores in high- versus low-income neighborhoods in New York City (NYC. Circulars from grocery stores in the five highest and five lowest median household income NYC zip codes were analyzed. Nutrition information for food products was collected over a two-month period with a total of 805 products coded. The study found no significant difference between the nutritional quality of products advertised on the front page of online circulars from grocery stores in high- versus low-income neighborhoods in New York City (NYC. In both groups, almost two-thirds of the products advertised were processed, one-quarter were high in carbohydrates, and few to no products were low-sodium, high-fiber, or reduced-, low- or zero fat. Through innovative partnerships with health professionals, grocery stores are increasingly implementing in-store and online health promotion strategies. Weekly circulars can be used as a means to regularly advertise and prominently place more healthful and seasonal foods at an affordable price, particularly for populations at higher risk for nutrition-related chronic disease.

  3. Coding in pigeons: Multiple-coding versus single-code/default strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Carlos; Machado, Armando

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the coding strategies that pigeons may use in a temporal discrimination tasks, pigeons were trained on a matching-to-sample procedure with three sample durations (2s, 6s and 18s) and two comparisons (red and green hues). One comparison was correct following 2-s samples and the other was correct following both 6-s and 18-s samples. Tests were then run to contrast the predictions of two hypotheses concerning the pigeons' coding strategies, the multiple-coding and the single-code/default. According to the multiple-coding hypothesis, three response rules are acquired, one for each sample. According to the single-code/default hypothesis, only two response rules are acquired, one for the 2-s sample and a "default" rule for any other duration. In retention interval tests, pigeons preferred the "default" key, a result predicted by the single-code/default hypothesis. In no-sample tests, pigeons preferred the key associated with the 2-s sample, a result predicted by multiple-coding. Finally, in generalization tests, when the sample duration equaled 3.5s, the geometric mean of 2s and 6s, pigeons preferred the key associated with the 6-s and 18-s samples, a result predicted by the single-code/default hypothesis. The pattern of results suggests the need for models that take into account multiple sources of stimulus control. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  4. Best practice for caching of single-path code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Cilku, Bekim; Prokesch, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Single-path code has some unique properties that make it interesting to explore different caching and prefetching alternatives for the stream of instructions. In this paper, we explore different cache organizations and how they perform with single-path code....

  5. Best Practice for Caching of Single-Path Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Cilku, Bekim; Prokesch, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Single-path code has some unique properties that make it interesting to explore different caching and prefetching alternatives for the stream of instructions. In this paper, we explore different cache organizations and how they perform with single-path code....

  6. Stress sensing in plants by the ER stress sensor/transducer, bZIP28

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu eSrivastava

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Two classes of ER stress sensors are known in plants, membrane associated bZIP transcription factors and RNA splicing factors. ER stress occurs under adverse environmental conditions and results from the accumulation of misfolded or unfolded proteins in the ER lumen. One of the membrane-associated transcription factors activated by heat and ER stress agents is bZIP28. In its inactive form, bZIP28 is a type II protein with a single pass transmembrane domain, residing in the ER. bZIP28’s N-terminus, containing a transcriptional activation domain, is oriented towards the cytoplasm and its C-terminal tail is inserted into the ER lumen. In response to stress, bZIP28 exits the ER and moves to the Golgi where it is proteolytically processed, liberating its cytosolic component which relocates to the nucleus to upregulate stress-response genes. bZIP28 is thought to sense stress through its interaction with the major ER chaperone, BIP. BiP binds to bZIP28’s lumenal domain under unstressed conditions and retains it in the ER. BIP binds to the intrinsically disordered regions on bZIP28’s lumen-facing tail. A truncated form of bZIP28, without its C-terminal tail is not retained in the ER but migrates constitutively to the nucleus. Upon stress, BiP releases bZIP28 allowing it to exit the ER. One model to account for the release of bZIP28 by BiP is that BiP is competed away from bZIP28 by the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER. However, other forces such as changes in energy charge levels, redox conditions or interaction with DNAJ proteins may also promote release of bZIP28 from BiP. Movement of bZIP28 from the ER to the Golgi is assisted by the interaction of elements of the COPII machinery with the cytoplasmic domain of bZIP28. Thus, the mobilization of bZIP28 in response to stress involves the dissociation of factors that retain it in the ER and the association of factors that mediate its further organelle-to-organelle movement.

  7. Code Single Point Positioning Using Nominal GNSS Constellations (Future Perception)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, A. M. A.

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) have an endless number of applications in industry, science, military, transportation and recreation & sports. Two systems are currently in operation, namely GPS (the USA Global Positioning System) and GLONASS (the Russian GLObal NAvigation Satellite System), and a third is planned, the European satellite navigation system GALILEO. The potential performance improvements achievable through combining these systems could be significant and expectations are high. The need is inevitable to explore the future of positioning from different nominal constellations. In this research paper, Bernese 5.0 software could be modified to simulate and process GNSS observations from three different constellations (GPS, GLONASS and Galileo) using different combinations. This study presents results of code single point positioning for five stations using the three constellations and different combinations.

  8. The Evolutionary unZIPping of a Dimerization Motif—A Comparison of ZIP and PrP Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The cellular prion protein, notorious for its causative role in a range of fatal neurodegenerative diseases, evolved from a Zrt-/Irt-like Protein (ZIP zinc transporter approximately 500 million years ago. Whilst atomic structures for recombinant prion protein (PrP from various species have been available for some time, and are believed to stand for the structure of PrPC, the first structure of a ZIP zinc transporter ectodomain was reported only recently. Here, we compare this ectodomain structure to structures of recombinant PrP. A shared feature of both is a membrane-adjacent helix-turn-helix fold that is coded by a separate exon in the respective ZIP transporters and is stabilized by a disulfide bridge. A ‘CPALL’ amino acid motif within this cysteine-flanked core domain appears to be critical for dimerization and has undergone stepwise regression in fish and mammalian prion proteins. These insights are intriguing in the context of repeated observations of PrP dimers. Other structural elements of ZIP transporters and PrP are discussed with a view to distilling shared versus divergent biological functions.

  9. Improving performance of single-path code through a time-predictable memory hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilku, Bekim; Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Prokesch, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    . The single-path code generation overcomes these problems by generating time-predictable code that has a single execution trace. However, the simplicity of this approach comes at the cost of longer execution times. This paper addresses performance improvements for single-path code. We propose a time......-predictable memory hierarchy with a prefetcher that exploits the predictability of execution traces in single-path code to speed up code execution. The new memory hierarchy reduces both the cache-miss penalty time and the cache-miss rate on the instruction cache. The benefit of the approach is demonstrated through...

  10. Two Cassava Basic Leucine Zipper (bZIP Transcription Factors (MebZIP3 and MebZIP5 Confer Disease Resistance against Cassava Bacterial Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Basic domain-leucine zipper (bZIP transcription factor, one type of conserved gene family, plays an important role in plant development and stress responses. Although 77 MebZIPs have been genome-wide identified in cassava, their in vivo roles remain unknown. In this study, we analyzed the expression pattern and the function of two MebZIPs (MebZIP3 and MebZIP5 in response to pathogen infection. Gene expression analysis indicated that MebZIP3 and MebZIP5 were commonly regulated by flg22, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam, salicylic acid (SA, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Subcellular localization analysis showed that MebZIP3 and MebZIP5 are specifically located in cell nucleus. Through overexpression in tobacco, we found that MebZIP3 and MebZIP5 conferred improved disease resistance against cassava bacterial blight, with more callose depositions. On the contrary, MebZIP3- and MebZIP5-silenced plants by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS showed disease sensitive phenotype, lower transcript levels of defense-related genes and less callose depositions. Taken together, this study highlights the positive role of MebZIP3 and MebZIP5 in disease resistance against cassava bacterial blight for further utilization in genetic improvement of cassava disease resistance.

  11. A Single Model Explains both Visual and Auditory Precortical Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Honghao; Tong, Matthew H.; Cottrell, Garrison W.

    2016-01-01

    Precortical neural systems encode information collected by the senses, but the driving principles of the encoding used have remained a subject of debate. We present a model of retinal coding that is based on three constraints: information preservation, minimization of the neural wiring, and response equalization. The resulting novel version of sparse principal components analysis successfully captures a number of known characteristics of the retinal coding system, such as center-surround rece...

  12. Single integrated device for optical CDMA code processing in dual-code environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue-Kai; Glesk, Ivan; Greiner, Christoph M; Iazkov, Dmitri; Mossberg, Thomas W; Wang, Ting; Prucnal, Paul R

    2007-06-11

    We report on the design, fabrication and performance of a matching integrated optical CDMA encoder-decoder pair based on holographic Bragg reflector technology. Simultaneous encoding/decoding operation of two multiple wavelength-hopping time-spreading codes was successfully demonstrated and shown to support two error-free OCDMA links at OC-24. A double-pass scheme was employed in the devices to enable the use of longer code length.

  13. Potential novel bZIP-like gene for resistance to Erysiphe necator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results reveal that it was in lower lever in flower than in leaf, stem, tendril and fruit. The CDS of VpbZIP-like was inserted into the prokaryotic expression construct pGEX-4T-1, and then transformed into Escherichia coli BL21-code induced by isopropyl-b-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) which resulted in the production of a ...

  14. hZip2 and hZip3 zinc transporters are down regulated in human prostate adenocarcinomatous glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Renty B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The normal human prostate glandular epithelium has the unique function of accumulating high levels of zinc. In prostate cancer this capability is lost as an early event in the development of the malignant cells. The mechanism and factors responsible for the ability of the normal epithelial cells to accumulate zinc and the loss of this capability in the malignant cells need to be identified. We previously reported that Zip1 is an important zinc uptake transporter in prostate cells and is down regulated in the malignant cells in situ along with the depletion of zinc levels. In this report we investigated the expression of two other Zip family zinc transporters, Zip2 and Zip3 in malignant versus nonmalignant (normal and BPH glands. Zip2 and Zip3 relative protein levels were determined by immunohistochemistry analysis of human prostate tissue sections. Results Normal and BPH glandular epithelium consistently exhibited the strong presence of both Zip 2 and Zip3; whereas both transporters consistently were essentially non-detectable in the malignant glands. This represents the first report of the expression of Zip3 in human prostate tissue; and more importantly, reveals that ZiP2 and Zip3 are down regulated in malignant cells in situ as we also had demonstrated for Zip1. Zip2 and Zip3 transporter proteins were localized predominantly at the apical cell membrane, which is in contrast to the Zip1 localization at the basolateral membrane. Zip2 and Zip3 seemingly are associated with the re-uptake of zinc from prostatic fluid. Conclusion These results coupled with previous reports implicate Zip2 and Zip3 along with Zip1 as important zinc uptake transporters involved in the unique ability of prostate cells to accumulate high cellular zinc levels. Zip1 is important for the extraction of zinc from circulation as the primary source of cellular zinc. Zip 2 and Zip3 appear to be important for retention of the zinc in the cellular compartment

  15. Single-layer HDR video coding with SDR backward compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasserre, S.; François, E.; Le Léannec, F.; Touzé, D.

    2016-09-01

    The migration from High Definition (HD) TV to Ultra High Definition (UHD) is already underway. In addition to an increase of picture spatial resolution, UHD will bring more color and higher contrast by introducing Wide Color Gamut (WCG) and High Dynamic Range (HDR) video. As both Standard Dynamic Range (SDR) and HDR devices will coexist in the ecosystem, the transition from Standard Dynamic Range (SDR) to HDR will require distribution solutions supporting some level of backward compatibility. This paper presents a new HDR content distribution scheme, named SL-HDR1, using a single layer codec design and providing SDR compatibility. The solution is based on a pre-encoding HDR-to-SDR conversion, generating a backward compatible SDR video, with side dynamic metadata. The resulting SDR video is then compressed, distributed and decoded using standard-compliant decoders (e.g. HEVC Main 10 compliant). The decoded SDR video can be directly rendered on SDR displays without adaptation. Dynamic metadata of limited size are generated by the pre-processing and used to reconstruct the HDR signal from the decoded SDR video, using a post-processing that is the functional inverse of the pre-processing. Both HDR quality and artistic intent are preserved. Pre- and post-processing are applied independently per picture, do not involve any inter-pixel dependency, and are codec agnostic. Compression performance, and SDR quality are shown to be solidly improved compared to the non-backward and backward-compatible approaches, respectively using the Perceptual Quantization (PQ) and Hybrid Log Gamma (HLG) Opto-Electronic Transfer Functions (OETF).

  16. Reducing BER of spectral-amplitude coding optical code-division multiple-access systems by single photodiode detection technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khafaji, H. M. R.; Aljunid, S. A.; Amphawan, A.; Fadhil, H. A.; Safar, A. M.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we present a single photodiode detection (SPD) technique for spectral-amplitude coding optical code-division multiple-access (SAC-OCDMA) systems. The proposed technique eliminates both phase-induced intensity noise (PIIN) and multiple-access interference (MAI) in the optical domain. Analytical results show that for 35 simultaneous users transmitting at data rate of 622 Mbps, the bit-error rate (BER) = 1.4x10^-28 for SPD technique is much better compared to 9.3x10^-6 and 9.6x10^-3 for the modified-AND as well as the AND detection techniques, respectively. Moreover, we verified the improved performance afforded by the proposed technique using data transmission simulations.

  17. Atractividad local en la bifurcación de zip Local atractivity in zip bifurcation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mario Escobar–Callejas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se estudia la atractividad local del segmento de equilibriosque se forma en el fenómeno de la bifurcación de zip para un sistematridimensional de ecuaciones diferenciales no lineales. Este trabajo puede serconsiderado como una generalización de un resultado de Farkas en bifurcaciónde zip de modelos en competición.In this paper the local segment attractiveness equilibrium that forms on the phenomenon of zip bifurcation for a three–dimensional system of differential equations nonlinear is studied. This work may be regarded as a generalization as a result on Farkas’s zip bifurcation in competition models.

  18. Adaptive Morse-coded single-switch communication system for the disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, C H; Shih, C H

    1996-04-01

    Automatic recognition of Morse-code is generally developed at a fixed typing rate. However, this is not suitable for the disabled due to their difficulty in maintaining a stable typing rate. In this paper, a system recognizing varying typing speeds is developed using an adaptive technique, the Least-Mean Square (LMS) algorithm. This system helps the disabled have a wide latitude and varying typing speeds in single-switch communication with the Morse-code.

  19. SYN3D: a single-channel, spatial flux synthesis code for diffusion theory calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C. H.

    1976-07-01

    This report is a user's manual for SYN3D, a computer code which uses single-channel, spatial flux synthesis to calculate approximate solutions to two- and three-dimensional, finite-difference, multigroup neutron diffusion theory equations. SYN3D is designed to run in conjunction with any one of several one- and two-dimensional, finite-difference codes (required to generate the synthesis expansion functions) currently being used in the fast reactor community. The report describes the theory and equations, the use of the code, and the implementation on the IBM 370/195 and CDC 7600 of the version of SYN3D available through the Argonne Code Center.

  20. SYN3D: a single-channel, spatial flux synthesis code for diffusion theory calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, C.H.

    1976-07-01

    This report is a user's manual for SYN3D, a computer code which uses single-channel, spatial flux synthesis to calculate approximate solutions to two- and three-dimensional, finite-difference, multigroup neutron diffusion theory equations. SYN3D is designed to run in conjunction with any one of several one- and two-dimensional, finite-difference codes (required to generate the synthesis expansion functions) currently being used in the fast reactor community. The report describes the theory and equations, the use of the code, and the implementation on the IBM 370/195 and CDC 7600 of the version of SYN3D available through the Argonne Code Center

  1. Single-shot secure quantum network coding on butterfly network with free public communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owari, Masaki; Kato, Go; Hayashi, Masahito

    2018-01-01

    Quantum network coding on the butterfly network has been studied as a typical example of quantum multiple cast network. We propose a secure quantum network code for the butterfly network with free public classical communication in the multiple unicast setting under restricted eavesdropper’s power. This protocol certainly transmits quantum states when there is no attack. We also show the secrecy with shared randomness as additional resource when the eavesdropper wiretaps one of the channels in the butterfly network and also derives the information sending through public classical communication. Our protocol does not require verification process, which ensures single-shot security.

  2. A modified detector concept for SuperCDMS: The HiZIP and its charge performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Kedar Mohan [Queen' s U.

    2013-01-01

    SuperCDMS (Super Cryogenic Dark Matter Search) is a leading direct dark mat-ter search experiment which uses solid state detectors (Ge crystals) at milliKelvintemperatures to look for nuclear recoils caused by dark matter interactions in the de-tector. `Weakly Interacting Massive Particles' (WIMPs) are the most favoured darkmatter candidate particles. SuperCDMS, like many other direct dark matter searchexperiments, primarily looks for WIMPs. The measurement of both the ionizationand the lattice vibration (phonon) signals from an interaction in the detector allow itto discriminate against electron recoils which are the main source of background forWIMP detection.SuperCDMS currently operates about 9 kg of Ge detectors at the Soudan under-ground lab in northern Minnesota. In its next phase, SuperCDMS SNOLAB plansto use 100-200 kg of target mass (Ge) which would allow it to probe more of theinteresting and and as of yet unexplored parameter space for WIMPs predicted bytheoretical models. The SuperCDMS Queen's Test Facility is a detector test facilitywhich is intended to serve as detector testing and detector research and developmentpurposes for the SuperCDMS experiment.A modifed detector called the HiZIP (Half-iZIP), which is reduced in complex-ity in comparison to the currently used iZIP (interleaved Z-sensitive Ionization and Phonon mediated) detectors, is studied in this thesis. The HiZIP detector designalso serves to discriminate against background from multiple scatter events occurringclose to the surfaces in a single detector. Studies carried out to compare the surfaceevent leakage in the HiZIP detector using limited information from iZIP data takenat SuperCDMS test facility at UC Berkley produce a highly conservative upper limitof 5 out of 10,000 events at 90% condence level. This upper limit is the best amongmany different HiZIP congurations that were investigated and is comparable to theupper limit calculated for an HiZIP detector in the same way

  3. Correction Model of BeiDou Code Systematic Multipath Errors and Its Impacts on Single-frequency PPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Jie

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There are systematic multipath errors on BeiDou code measurements, which are range from several decimeters to larger than 1 meter. They can be divided into two categories, which are systematic variances in IGSO/MEO code measurement and in GEO code measurement. In this contribution, a methodology of correcting BeiDou GEO code multipath is proposed base on Kalman filter algorithm. The standard deviation of GEO MP Series decreases about 10%~16% after correction. The weight of code in single-frequency PPP is great, therefore, code systematic multipath errors have impact on single-frequency PPP. Our analysis indicate that about 1 m bias will be caused by these systematic errors. Then, we evaluated the improvement of single-frequency PPP accuracy after code multipath correction. The systematic errors of GEO code measurements are corrected by applying our proposed Kalman filter method. The systematic errors of IGSO and MEO code measurements are corrected by applying elevation-dependent model proposed by Wanninger and Beer. Ten days observations of four MGEX (Multi-GNSS Experiment stations are processed. The results indicate that the single-frequency PPP accuracy can be improved remarkably by applying code multipath correction. The accuracy in up direction can be improved by 65% after IGSO and MEO code multipath correction. By applying GEO code multipath correction, the accuracy in up direction can be further improved by 15%.

  4. Processing Government Data: ZIP Codes, Python, and OpenRefine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Donnelly

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While there is a vast amount of useful US government data on the web, some of it is in a raw state that is not readily accessible to the average user. Data librarians can improve accessibility and usability for their patrons by processing data to create subsets of local interest and by appending geographic identifiers to help users select and aggregate data. This case study illustrates how census geography crosswalks, Python, and OpenRefine were used to create spreadsheets of non-profit organizations in New York City from the IRS Tax-Exempt Organization Masterfile. This paper illustrates the utility of Python for data librarians and should be particularly insightful for those who work with address-based data.

  5. Three-Dimensional Terahertz Coded-Aperture Imaging Based on Single Input Multiple Output Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuo; Luo, Chenggao; Deng, Bin; Wang, Hongqiang; Cheng, Yongqiang; Zhuang, Zhaowen

    2018-01-19

    As a promising radar imaging technique, terahertz coded-aperture imaging (TCAI) can achieve high-resolution, forward-looking, and staring imaging by producing spatiotemporal independent signals with coded apertures. In this paper, we propose a three-dimensional (3D) TCAI architecture based on single input multiple output (SIMO) technology, which can reduce the coding and sampling times sharply. The coded aperture applied in the proposed TCAI architecture loads either purposive or random phase modulation factor. In the transmitting process, the purposive phase modulation factor drives the terahertz beam to scan the divided 3D imaging cells. In the receiving process, the random phase modulation factor is adopted to modulate the terahertz wave to be spatiotemporally independent for high resolution. Considering human-scale targets, images of each 3D imaging cell are reconstructed one by one to decompose the global computational complexity, and then are synthesized together to obtain the complete high-resolution image. As for each imaging cell, the multi-resolution imaging method helps to reduce the computational burden on a large-scale reference-signal matrix. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed architecture can achieve high-resolution imaging with much less time for 3D targets and has great potential in applications such as security screening, nondestructive detection, medical diagnosis, etc.

  6. Three-Dimensional Terahertz Coded-Aperture Imaging Based on Single Input Multiple Output Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As a promising radar imaging technique, terahertz coded-aperture imaging (TCAI can achieve high-resolution, forward-looking, and staring imaging by producing spatiotemporal independent signals with coded apertures. In this paper, we propose a three-dimensional (3D TCAI architecture based on single input multiple output (SIMO technology, which can reduce the coding and sampling times sharply. The coded aperture applied in the proposed TCAI architecture loads either purposive or random phase modulation factor. In the transmitting process, the purposive phase modulation factor drives the terahertz beam to scan the divided 3D imaging cells. In the receiving process, the random phase modulation factor is adopted to modulate the terahertz wave to be spatiotemporally independent for high resolution. Considering human-scale targets, images of each 3D imaging cell are reconstructed one by one to decompose the global computational complexity, and then are synthesized together to obtain the complete high-resolution image. As for each imaging cell, the multi-resolution imaging method helps to reduce the computational burden on a large-scale reference-signal matrix. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed architecture can achieve high-resolution imaging with much less time for 3D targets and has great potential in applications such as security screening, nondestructive detection, medical diagnosis, etc.

  7. Three-dimensional polarization marked multiple-QR code encryption by optimizing a single vectorial beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao; Shen, Xueju; Hua, Binbin; Wang, Zhisong

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of three dimensional (3D) polarization multiplexing by optimizing a single vectorial beam using a multiple-signal window multiple-plane (MSW-MP) phase retrieval algorithm. Original messages represented with multiple quick response (QR) codes are first partitioned into a series of subblocks. Then, each subblock is marked with a specific polarization state and randomly distributed in 3D space with both longitudinal and transversal adjustable freedoms. A generalized 3D polarization mapping protocol is established to generate a 3D polarization key. Finally, multiple-QR code is encrypted into one phase only mask and one polarization only mask based on the modified Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) algorithm. We take the polarization mask as the cyphertext and the phase only mask as additional dimension of key. Only when both the phase key and 3D polarization key are correct, original messages can be recovered. We verify our proposal with both simulation and experiment evidences.

  8. 3D color reconstructions in single DMD holographic display with LED source and complex coding scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlipała, Maksymilian; Kozacki, Tomasz

    2017-06-01

    In the paper we investigate the possibility of color reconstructions of holograms with a single DMD and incoherent LED source illumination. Holographic display is built with 4F imaging system centering reconstruction volume around the DMD surface. The display design employs complex coding scheme, which allows reconstructing complex wave from a binary hologram. In order to improve the quality of reconstructed holograms time multiplexing method is used. During the optical reconstructions we analyze quality of reconstructed holograms with incoherent RGB light sources as a function of reconstruction distance, present the possibility of 3D hologram reconstruction, and investigate temporal coherence effects in holographic display with the DMD.

  9. Iron importers Zip8 and Zip14 are expressed in retina and regulated by retinal iron levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Jacob; Guttha, Samyuktha; Song, Ying; Song, Delu; Hadziahmetovic, Majda; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2017-02-01

    Intracellular retinal iron accumulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of irreversible blindness among individuals over the age of 50. Ceruloplasmin/hephaestin double knockout mice (Cp/Heph DKO) and hepcidin knockout mice (Hepc KO) accumulate retinal iron and model some features of AMD. Two canonical pathways govern cellular iron import - transferrin-bound iron import and non-transferrin bound iron import. In Cp/Heph DKO and Hepc KO iron-loaded retinas, transferrin-bound iron import is downregulated. Despite this effort to reduce cellular iron burden, iron continues to accumulate in these retinas in an age-dependent manner. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western analysis were used to quantify the expression of three ferrous iron importers, Dmt1, Zip8, and Zip14, in wild-type (Wt), Cp/Heph DKO, and Hepc KO retinas. Zip8 and Zip14 protein levels were analyzed using Western analysis in mice injected intravitreally with either apo- or holo-transferrin to elucidate one possible mechanism of Zip14 regulation in the retina. Both zip8 and zip14 were expressed in the mouse retina. Paradoxically, protein levels of non-transferrin bound iron importers were upregulated in both Cp/Heph DKO and Hepc KO retinas. Intravitreal holo-transferrin injection decreased Zip 14 protein levels. These data indicate that Zip8 and Zip14 may take up increasing amounts of non-transferrin bound iron in these two mouse models of retinal iron accumulation. Their upregulation in these already iron-loaded retinas suggests a vicious cycle leading to toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Single stock dynamics on high-frequency data: from a compressed coding perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh Fushing

    Full Text Available High-frequency return, trading volume and transaction number are digitally coded via a nonparametric computing algorithm, called hierarchical factor segmentation (HFS, and then are coupled together to reveal a single stock dynamics without global state-space structural assumptions. The base-8 digital coding sequence, which is capable of revealing contrasting aggregation against sparsity of extreme events, is further compressed into a shortened sequence of state transitions. This compressed digital code sequence vividly demonstrates that the aggregation of large absolute returns is the primary driving force for stimulating both the aggregations of large trading volumes and transaction numbers. The state of system-wise synchrony is manifested with very frequent recurrence in the stock dynamics. And this data-driven dynamic mechanism is seen to correspondingly vary as the global market transiting in and out of contraction-expansion cycles. These results not only elaborate the stock dynamics of interest to a fuller extent, but also contradict some classical theories in finance. Overall this version of stock dynamics is potentially more coherent and realistic, especially when the current financial market is increasingly powered by high-frequency trading via computer algorithms, rather than by individual investors.

  11. Single-image super-resolution reconstruction via learned geometric dictionaries and clustered sparse coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuyuan; Wang, Min; Chen, Yiguang; Sun, Yaxin

    2012-09-01

    Recently, single image super-resolution reconstruction (SISR) via sparse coding has attracted increasing interest. In this paper, we proposed a multiple-geometric-dictionaries-based clustered sparse coding scheme for SISR. Firstly, a large number of high-resolution (HR) image patches are randomly extracted from a set of example training images and clustered into several groups of "geometric patches," from which the corresponding "geometric dictionaries" are learned to further sparsely code each local patch in a low-resolution image. A clustering aggregation is performed on the HR patches recovered by different dictionaries, followed by a subsequent patch aggregation to estimate the HR image. Considering that there are often many repetitive image structures in an image, we add a self-similarity constraint on the recovered image in patch aggregation to reveal new features and details. Finally, the HR residual image is estimated by the proposed recovery method and compensated to better preserve the subtle details of the images. Some experiments test the proposed method on natural images, and the results show that the proposed method outperforms its counterparts in both visual fidelity and numerical measures.

  12. All-fiber single-mode high modulation rate pseudorandom-coded laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Yang, Fang; Liu, Yuan; He, Yan; Hou, Xia; Chen, Weibiao

    2013-12-01

    An all-fiber high modulation speed pseudorandom-coded laser based on master oscillator power amplifier configuration is proposed. We use a high modulation rate distributed feedback laser diode as the seed laser to generate the original pseudorandom pulse train. The modulation rate is 1 Gb/s, which corresponds to a minimum pulse interval of 1 ns. A 1 kHz repetition frequency of 10-order M-sequence pseudorandom pulse train is chosen to balance on-line data processing speed and laser ranging resolution. Then, the pseudorandom pulse train is amplified by two-stage amplifiers to boost the output power. All components used in the amplifiers are built in single mode (SM) fiber, so the final output laser is SM with excellent beam quality. Finally, the peak power of pseudorandom code laser is amplified to 23.6 W from 1.5 mW without wave distortion, corresponding to a gain of 42 dB. The ranging experiment of using the optical fiber delay method indoors shows the transmitter of combining modulated laser diode and multistage fiber amplifiers as a promising solution for developing laser for pseudorandom-coded laser ranging.

  13. High-affinity single-domain binding proteins with a binary-code interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, Akiko; Gilbreth, Ryan N; Esaki, Kaori; Tereshko, Valentina; Koide, Shohei

    2007-04-17

    High degrees of sequence and conformation complexity found in natural protein interaction interfaces are generally considered essential for achieving tight and specific interactions. However, it has been demonstrated that specific antibodies can be built by using an interface with a binary code consisting of only Tyr and Ser. This surprising result might be attributed to yet undefined properties of the antibody scaffold that uniquely enhance its capacity for target binding. In this work we tested the generality of the binary-code interface by engineering binding proteins based on a single-domain scaffold. We show that Tyr/Ser binary-code interfaces consisting of only 15-20 positions within a fibronectin type III domain (FN3; 95 residues) are capable of producing specific binding proteins (termed "monobodies") with a low-nanomolar K(d). A 2.35-A x-ray crystal structure of a monobody in complex with its target, maltose-binding protein, and mutation analysis revealed dominant contributions of Tyr residues to binding as well as striking molecular mimicry of a maltose-binding protein substrate, beta-cyclodextrin, by the Tyr/Ser binary interface. This work suggests that an interaction interface with low chemical diversity but with significant conformational diversity is generally sufficient for tight and specific molecular recognition, providing fundamental insights into factors governing protein-protein interactions.

  14. Single stock dynamics on high-frequency data: from a compressed coding perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushing, Hsieh; Chen, Shu-Chun; Hwang, Chii-Ruey

    2014-01-01

    High-frequency return, trading volume and transaction number are digitally coded via a nonparametric computing algorithm, called hierarchical factor segmentation (HFS), and then are coupled together to reveal a single stock dynamics without global state-space structural assumptions. The base-8 digital coding sequence, which is capable of revealing contrasting aggregation against sparsity of extreme events, is further compressed into a shortened sequence of state transitions. This compressed digital code sequence vividly demonstrates that the aggregation of large absolute returns is the primary driving force for stimulating both the aggregations of large trading volumes and transaction numbers. The state of system-wise synchrony is manifested with very frequent recurrence in the stock dynamics. And this data-driven dynamic mechanism is seen to correspondingly vary as the global market transiting in and out of contraction-expansion cycles. These results not only elaborate the stock dynamics of interest to a fuller extent, but also contradict some classical theories in finance. Overall this version of stock dynamics is potentially more coherent and realistic, especially when the current financial market is increasingly powered by high-frequency trading via computer algorithms, rather than by individual investors.

  15. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in coding regions of canine dopamine- and serotonin-related genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingaas Frode

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphism in genes of regulating enzymes, transporters and receptors of the neurotransmitters of the central nervous system have been associated with altered behaviour, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs represent the most frequent type of genetic variation. The serotonin and dopamine signalling systems have a central influence on different behavioural phenotypes, both of invertebrates and vertebrates, and this study was undertaken in order to explore genetic variation that may be associated with variation in behaviour. Results Single nucleotide polymorphisms in canine genes related to behaviour were identified by individually sequencing eight dogs (Canis familiaris of different breeds. Eighteen genes from the dopamine and the serotonin systems were screened, revealing 34 SNPs distributed in 14 of the 18 selected genes. A total of 24,895 bp coding sequence was sequenced yielding an average frequency of one SNP per 732 bp (1/732. A total of 11 non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs, which may be involved in alteration of protein function, were detected. Of these 11 nsSNPs, six resulted in a substitution of amino acid residue with concomitant change in structural parameters. Conclusion We have identified a number of coding SNPs in behaviour-related genes, several of which change the amino acids of the proteins. Some of the canine SNPs exist in codons that are evolutionary conserved between five compared species, and predictions indicate that they may have a functional effect on the protein. The reported coding SNP frequency of the studied genes falls within the range of SNP frequencies reported earlier in the dog and other mammalian species. Novel SNPs are presented and the results show a significant genetic variation in expressed sequences in this group of genes. The results can contribute to an improved understanding of the genetics of behaviour.

  16. Optimized and secure technique for multiplexing QR code images of single characters: application to noiseless messages retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trejos, Sorayda; Barrera, John Fredy; Torroba, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    We present for the first time an optical encrypting–decrypting protocol for recovering messages without speckle noise. This is a digital holographic technique using a 2f scheme to process QR codes entries. In the procedure, letters used to compose eventual messages are individually converted into a QR code, and then each QR code is divided into portions. Through a holographic technique, we store each processed portion. After filtering and repositioning, we add all processed data to create a single pack, thus simplifying the handling and recovery of multiple QR code images, representing the first multiplexing procedure applied to processed QR codes. All QR codes are recovered in a single step and in the same plane, showing neither cross-talk nor noise problems as in other methods. Experiments have been conducted using an interferometric configuration and comparisons between unprocessed and recovered QR codes have been performed, showing differences between them due to the involved processing. Recovered QR codes can be successfully scanned, thanks to their noise tolerance. Finally, the appropriate sequence in the scanning of the recovered QR codes brings a noiseless retrieved message. Additionally, to procure maximum security, the multiplexed pack could be multiplied by a digital diffuser as to encrypt it. The encrypted pack is easily decoded by multiplying the multiplexing with the complex conjugate of the diffuser. As it is a digital operation, no noise is added. Therefore, this technique is threefold robust, involving multiplexing, encryption, and the need of a sequence to retrieve the outcome. (paper)

  17. Optimized and secure technique for multiplexing QR code images of single characters: application to noiseless messages retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejos, Sorayda; Fredy Barrera, John; Torroba, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    We present for the first time an optical encrypting-decrypting protocol for recovering messages without speckle noise. This is a digital holographic technique using a 2f scheme to process QR codes entries. In the procedure, letters used to compose eventual messages are individually converted into a QR code, and then each QR code is divided into portions. Through a holographic technique, we store each processed portion. After filtering and repositioning, we add all processed data to create a single pack, thus simplifying the handling and recovery of multiple QR code images, representing the first multiplexing procedure applied to processed QR codes. All QR codes are recovered in a single step and in the same plane, showing neither cross-talk nor noise problems as in other methods. Experiments have been conducted using an interferometric configuration and comparisons between unprocessed and recovered QR codes have been performed, showing differences between them due to the involved processing. Recovered QR codes can be successfully scanned, thanks to their noise tolerance. Finally, the appropriate sequence in the scanning of the recovered QR codes brings a noiseless retrieved message. Additionally, to procure maximum security, the multiplexed pack could be multiplied by a digital diffuser as to encrypt it. The encrypted pack is easily decoded by multiplying the multiplexing with the complex conjugate of the diffuser. As it is a digital operation, no noise is added. Therefore, this technique is threefold robust, involving multiplexing, encryption, and the need of a sequence to retrieve the outcome.

  18. Can you build an iPhone app without writing a single line of code?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, R.; Maskey, M.

    2011-12-01

    At the last ESIP summer meeting, a study was conducted to explore different commercial tools now available that allow one to create a mobile app without writing a single line of code. The proposed research comprised of two components. First, systematically evaluate different tools to create mobile apps along the dimensions of features and price. Second, create an iPhone app prototype for the ESIP community using some of these tools. The initial assessment classified the currently available tools to create mobile app tools into two categories. The tools that fall under the first category require no programming, but the content for the mobile apps are fed to it either via a web site RSS feed or entered manually. Consequently, these tools only support limited user interactivity. These tools follow the business model of website hosting services. This business model offers a set of templates to the end users with limited customization features to create their content in order to publish to websites. The second category of tools requires programming, but the code can be written in popular languages such as Javascript (compatible with most mobile platforms) rather than mobile app specific languages. For the second component of the study, two ESIP iPhone app prototypes were created. The first prototype required no programming and used the AppMakr tool. Objective C was used to create the second iPhone prototype from scratch and the source code for this prototype is available on the ESIP website. The study concluded that existing tools do make it easy to create a simple mobile app especially if one already has a well designed website. The associated costs are adequate but not cheap. However, if the mobile app has requirements that require interactivity and specialized customization then one needs to work with a mobile app developer.

  19. Pan-Domain Analysis of ZIP Zinc Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Lehtovirta-Morley

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ZIP (Zrt/Irt-like protein family of zinc transporters is found in all three domains of life. However, little is known about the phylogenetic relationship amongst ZIP transporters, their distribution, or their origin. Here we employed phylogenetic analysis to explore the evolution of ZIP transporters, with a focus on the major human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans. Pan-domain analysis of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and human proteins revealed a complex relationship amongst the ZIP family members. Here we report (i a eukaryote-wide group of cellular zinc importers, (ii a fungal-specific group of zinc importers having genetic association with the fungal zincophore, and, (iii a pan-kingdom supercluster made up of two distinct subgroups with orthologues in bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic phyla.

  20. Archive of Census Related Products (ACRP): 1990 ZIP Equivalency Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 1990 Zip Equivalency Files portion of the Archive of Census Related Products (ACRP) contains population and housing data derived from the U.S. Census Bureau's...

  1. Implementation of the Single European Code in a Multi-Tissue Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, Jan; Schulz, Tino; Schroeter, Bernard; Fleischhauer, Katrin; Pruß, Axel

    2017-11-01

    The traceability of tissue and cells transplants is important to ensure a high level of safety for the recipients. With the final introduction of the Single European Code (SEC) in April 2017 in the EU a consistent system among all member states became mandatory. The regulations for the SEC on EU and national level were evaluated. An overview on the different parts of the SEC with detailed explanations is given. Our own experiences with the implementation of the SEC in our multi-tissue bank are reported in addition. The implementation of the SEC in our multi-tissue bank could be successfully realized. However, it revealed a number of difficulties, especially the sterile labeling of certain tissue transplants and the complex update of the existing database. The introduction of the SEC has made a contribution to the safety of recipients of tissue and cells transplants through a system of comprehensive and transparent traceability.

  2. A Ramie bZIP Transcription Factor BnbZIP2 Is Involved in Drought, Salt, and Heavy Metal Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chengjian; Zhou, Jinghua; Jie, Yucheng; Xing, Hucheng; Zhong, Yingli; Yu, Weilin; She, Wei; Ma, Yushen; Liu, Zehang; Zhang, Ying

    2016-12-01

    bZIP transcription factors play key roles in plant growth, development, and stress signaling. A bZIP gene BnbZIP2 (GenBank accession number: KP642148) was cloned from ramie. BnbZIP2 has a 1416 base pair open reading frame, encoding a 471 amino acid protein containing a characteristic bZIP domain and a leucine zipper. BnbZIP2 shares high sequence similarity with bZIP factors from other plants. The BnbZIP2 protein is localized to both nuclei and cytoplasm. Transcripts of BnbZIP2 were found in various tissues in ramie, with significantly higher levels in female and male flowers. Its expression was induced by drought, high salinity, and abscisic acid treatments. Analysis of the cis-elements in promoters of BnbZIP2 identified cis-acting elements involved in growth, developmental processes, and a variety of stress responses. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants' overexpression of BnbZIP2 exhibited more sensitivity to drought and heavy metal Cd stress during seed germination, whereas more tolerance to high-salinity stress than the wild type during both seed germination and plant development. Thus, BnbZIP2 may act as a positive regulator in plants' response to high-salinity stress and be an important candidate gene for molecular breeding of salt-tolerant plants.

  3. Visual mismatch and predictive coding: A computational single-trial ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanics, Gabor; Heinzle, Jakob; Attila Horváth, András; Enno Stephan, Klaas

    2018-03-26

    Predictive coding (PC) posits that the brain employs a generative model to infer the environmental causes of its sensory data and uses precision-weighted prediction errors (pwPE) to continuously update this model. While supported by much circumstantial evidence, experimental tests grounded in formal trial-by-trial predictions are rare. One partial exception are event-related potential (ERP) studies of the auditory mismatch negativity (MMN), where computational models have found signatures of pwPEs and related model-updating processes.Here, we tested this hypothesis in the visual domain, examining possible links between visual mismatch responses and pwPEs. We used a novel visual 'roving standard' paradigm to elicit mismatch responses in humans (of both sexes) by unexpected changes in either color or emotional expression of faces. Using a hierarchical Bayesian model, we simulated pwPE trajectories of a Bayes-optimal observer and used these to conduct a comprehensive trial-by-trial analysis across the time×sensor space. We found significant modulation of brain activity by both color and emotion pwPEs. The scalp distribution and timing of these single-trial pwPE responses were in agreement with visual mismatch responses obtained by traditional averaging and subtraction (deviant-minus-standard) approaches. Finally, we compared the Bayesian model to a more classical change detection (CD) model of MMN. Model comparison revealed that trial-wise pwPEs explained the observed mismatch responses better than categorical change detection.Our results suggest that visual mismatch responses reflect trial-wise pwPEs, as postulated by PC. These findings go beyond classical ERP analyses of visual mismatch and illustrate the utility of computational analyses for studying automatic perceptual processes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Human perception is thought to rely on a predictive model of the environment which is updated via precision-weighted prediction errors (pwPE) when events violate

  4. MEMS variable capacitance devices utilizing the substrate: II. Zipping varactors

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.

    2010-03-22

    This paper, the second and last in this series, introduces PolyMUMPS zipping varactors that exploit the substrate and provide a high tuning range and a high quality factor. Building on the important findings of part I of this paper, the substrate was utilized effectively once again in the design and fabrication of zipping varactors to attain devices with very good performance. Two zipping varactors are proposed, analysed theoretically, simulated, fabricated and tested successfully. The tuning range, quality factor and actuation voltage of those varactors are 4.5, 16.4, 55 V and 4.2, 17, 55 V respectively. Finally, and based on one of the proposed zipping varactors, a very large capacitance value varactor array, with a tuning range of 5.3, was designed and tested. To the best of our knowledge, these zipping varactors exhibit the best reported characteristics in PolyMUMPS to date within their category in terms of tuning range, quality factor, required actuation voltage and total area consumed. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  5. Zipping dielectric elastomer actuators: characterization, design and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maffli, L; Rosset, S; Shea, H R

    2013-01-01

    We report on miniature dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) operating in zipping mode with an analytical model that predicts their behavior. Electrostatic zipping is a well-known mechanism in silicon MEMS to obtain large deformations and forces at lower voltages than for parallel plate electrostatic actuation. We extend this concept to DEAs, which allows us to obtain much larger out-of-plane displacements compared to silicon thanks to the softness of the elastomer membrane. We study experimentally the effect of sidewall angles and elastomer prestretch on 2.3 mm diameter actuators with PDMS membranes. With 15° and 22.5° sidewall angles, the devices zip in a bistable manner down 300 μm to the bottom of the chambers. The highly tunable bistable behavior is controllable by both chamber geometry and membrane parameters. Other specific characteristics of zipping DEAs include well-controlled deflected shape, tunable displacement versus voltage characteristics to virtually any shape, including multi-stable modes, sealing of embedded holes or channels for valving action and the reduction of the operating voltage. These properties make zipping DEAs an excellent candidate for applications such as integrated microfluidics actuators or Braille displays. (paper)

  6. Arabidopsis IRE1 catalyses unconventional splicing of bZIP60 mRNA to produce the active transcription factor

    KAUST Repository

    Nagashima, Yukihiro

    2011-07-01

    IRE1 plays an essential role in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response in yeast and mammals. We found that a double mutant of Arabidopsis IRE1A and IRE1B (ire1a/ire1b) is more sensitive to the ER stress inducer tunicamycin than the wild-type. Transcriptome analysis revealed that genes whose induction was reduced in ire1a/ire1b largely overlapped those in the bzip60 mutant. We observed that the active form of bZIP60 protein detected in the wild-type was missing in ire1a/ire1b. We further demonstrated that bZIP60 mRNA is spliced by ER stress, removing 23 ribonucleotides and therefore causing a frameshift that replaces the C-terminal region of bZIP60 including the transmembrane domain (TMD) with a shorter region without a TMD. This splicing was detected in ire1a and ire1b single mutants, but not in the ire1a/ire1b double mutant. We conclude that IRE1A and IRE1B catalyse unconventional splicing of bZIP60 mRNA to produce the active transcription factor.

  7. Review and Evaluation of a Turbomachinery Throughflow Finite Element Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    stare. and ZIP code) 7b Address (city, state, and ZIP code,, Monterev, CA 93943- 5000 Monterey, CA 93943- 50001 Sa Name of Funding Sponsoring...Rotor Tip Section ............................. 52 Figure 27. Computational Mesh for the Blade-to-Blade Solution .............. 53 Figure 28. Iso -pressure...computation, the results are presented here for Case 5 at a flow coefficient of 0.61. The computed iso -pressure lines on the axisvrmrnetric stream surface at

  8. Human coding synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms at ramp regions of mRNA translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quan; Qu, Hui-Qi

    2013-01-01

    According to the ramp model of mRNA translation, the first 50 codons favor rare codons and have slower speed of translation. This study aims to detect translational selection on coding synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (sSNP) to support the ramp theory. We investigated fourfold degenerate site (FFDS) sSNPs with A ↔ G or C ↔ T substitutions in human genome for distribution bias of synonymous codons (SC), grouped by CpG or non-CpG sites. Distribution bias of sSNPs between the 3(rd) ~50(th) codons and the 51(st) ~ remainder codons at non-CpG sites were observed. In the 3(rd) ~50(th) codons, G → A sSNPs at non-CpG sites are favored than A → G sSNPs [P = 2.89 × 10(-3)], and C → T at non-CpG sites are favored than T → C sSNPs [P = 8.50 × 10(-3)]. The favored direction of SC usage change is from more frequent SCs to less frequent SCs. The distribution bias is more obvious in synonymous substitutions CG(G → A), AC(C → T), and CT(C → T). The distribution bias of sSNPs in human genome, i.e. frequent SCs to less frequent SCs is favored in the 3(rd) ~50(th) codons, indicates translational selection on sSNPs in the ramp regions of mRNA templates.

  9. Human coding synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms at ramp regions of mRNA translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Li

    Full Text Available According to the ramp model of mRNA translation, the first 50 codons favor rare codons and have slower speed of translation. This study aims to detect translational selection on coding synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (sSNP to support the ramp theory. We investigated fourfold degenerate site (FFDS sSNPs with A ↔ G or C ↔ T substitutions in human genome for distribution bias of synonymous codons (SC, grouped by CpG or non-CpG sites. Distribution bias of sSNPs between the 3(rd ~50(th codons and the 51(st ~ remainder codons at non-CpG sites were observed. In the 3(rd ~50(th codons, G → A sSNPs at non-CpG sites are favored than A → G sSNPs [P = 2.89 × 10(-3], and C → T at non-CpG sites are favored than T → C sSNPs [P = 8.50 × 10(-3]. The favored direction of SC usage change is from more frequent SCs to less frequent SCs. The distribution bias is more obvious in synonymous substitutions CG(G → A, AC(C → T, and CT(C → T. The distribution bias of sSNPs in human genome, i.e. frequent SCs to less frequent SCs is favored in the 3(rd ~50(th codons, indicates translational selection on sSNPs in the ramp regions of mRNA templates.

  10. Quartz crystal microbalance detection of DNA single-base mutation based on monobase-coded cadmium tellurium nanoprobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuqin; Lin, Fanbo; Zhang, Youyu; Li, Haitao; Zeng, Yue; Tang, Hao; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2011-01-01

    A new method for the detection of point mutation in DNA based on the monobase-coded cadmium tellurium nanoprobes and the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technique was reported. A point mutation (single-base, adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine, namely, A, T, C and G, mutation in DNA strand, respectively) DNA QCM sensor was fabricated by immobilizing single-base mutation DNA modified magnetic beads onto the electrode surface with an external magnetic field near the electrode. The DNA-modified magnetic beads were obtained from the biotin-avidin affinity reaction of biotinylated DNA and streptavidin-functionalized core/shell Fe(3)O(4)/Au magnetic nanoparticles, followed by a DNA hybridization reaction. Single-base coded CdTe nanoprobes (A-CdTe, T-CdTe, C-CdTe and G-CdTe, respectively) were used as the detection probes. The mutation site in DNA was distinguished by detecting the decreases of the resonance frequency of the piezoelectric quartz crystal when the coded nanoprobe was added to the test system. This proposed detection strategy for point mutation in DNA is proved to be sensitive, simple, repeatable and low-cost, consequently, it has a great potential for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection. 2011 © The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry

  11. Expression analysis of OsbZIP transcription factors in resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They have been shown to regulate diverse plant specific phenomena, including germination, floral induction and development, seed maturation, photomorphogenesis, biotic and abiotic stresses. Resistance response mediated by the rice blast resistance gene Pi36 is a typical signal transduction, in which 12 OsbZIP genes ...

  12. Single-intensity-recording optical encryption technique based on phase retrieval algorithm and QR code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-peng; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Hong-zhao; Qin, Yi

    2014-12-01

    Based on phase retrieval algorithm and QR code, a new optical encryption technology that only needs to record one intensity distribution is proposed. In this encryption process, firstly, the QR code is generated from the information to be encrypted; and then the generated QR code is placed in the input plane of 4-f system to have a double random phase encryption. For only one intensity distribution in the output plane is recorded as the ciphertext, the encryption process is greatly simplified. In the decryption process, the corresponding QR code is retrieved using phase retrieval algorithm. A priori information about QR code is used as support constraint in the input plane, which helps solve the stagnation problem. The original information can be recovered without distortion by scanning the QR code. The encryption process can be implemented either optically or digitally, and the decryption process uses digital method. In addition, the security of the proposed optical encryption technology is analyzed. Theoretical analysis and computer simulations show that this optical encryption system is invulnerable to various attacks, and suitable for harsh transmission conditions.

  13. Qualification of the NRC's single-rod fuel performance codes FRAPCON-3 and FRAPTRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, C.E.; Cunningham, M.E.; Lanning, D.D.

    1998-01-01

    The GAPCON, FRAPCON and FRAP-T codes, developed in the 1970's and early 1980's, were used by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to predict fuel performance during steady-state and transient power conditions, respectively. The newest versions of the codes are called FRAPCON-3 and FRAPTRAN and are intended to provide best-estimate predictions under steady-state and fast transient power conditions up to extended fuel burn-ups (> 65 GWd/MTU). The improvements to FRAPCON-3 are complete. An assessment has been made against a database independent of the database used for code benchmarking, a peer review has been performed, and code documentation has been published. Estimates of the FRAPCON-3 predictive uncertainties have been made based on comparisons to benchmark and independent databases. The FRAPTRAN code development and preliminary assessment will be completed in 1998. The peer review process for FRAPTRAN will begin in 1998 and final code assessment against both benchmark and independent databases will be complete in 1999. (author)

  14. Engineering of a novel zipFv using leucine zipper motif against rabies virus glycoprotein G with improved protection potency in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Hualong; Zhang, Kaixin; Yin, Yanchun; Gu, Tiejun; Sun, Qing; Li, Zhuang; Cheng, Yue; Jiang, Chunlai; Kong, Wei; Wu, Yongge

    2017-06-01

    Rabies is an acute zoonotic infectious disease with a high fatality rate but is preventable with vaccination and rabies immunoglobulin (RIG). The single-chain Fv fragment (scFv), a small engineered antigen-binding protein derived from antibody variable heavy (V H ) and light (V L ) chains connected by a peptide linker, can potentially be used to replace RIG. Here, we produced two peptides V H -JUN-HIS and V L -FOS-HA separately in Escherichia coli and assembled them to form zipFv successfully in vitro. The new zipFv utilizes FOS and JUN leucine zippers to form an antibody structure similar to the IgG counterpart with two free N-terminal ends of V H and V L . The zipFv protein showed notable improvement in binding ability and affinity over its corresponding scFv. The zipFv also demonstrated greater stability in serum and the same protective rate as RIG against challenge with a standard rabies virus (CVS-24) in mice. Our results indicated zipFv as a novel and efficient antibody form with enhanced neutralizing potency. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Genomic survey of bZIP transcription factor genes related to tanshinone biosynthesis in Salvia miltiorrhiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tanshinones are a class of bioactive components in the traditional Chinese medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza, and their biosynthesis and regulation have been widely studied. Current studies show that basic leucine zipper (bZIP proteins regulate plant secondary metabolism, growth and developmental processes. However, the bZIP transcription factors involved in tanshinone biosynthesis are unknown. Here, we conducted the first genome-wide survey of the bZIP gene family and analyzed the phylogeny, gene structure, additional conserved motifs and alternative splicing events in S. miltiorrhiza. A total of 70 SmbZIP transcription factors were identified and categorized into 11 subgroups based on their phylogenetic relationships with those in Arabidopsis. Moreover, seventeen SmbZIP genes underwent alternative splicing events. According to the transcriptomic data, the SmbZIP genes that were highly expressed in the Danshen root and periderm were selected. Based on the prediction of bZIP binding sites in the promoters and the co-expression analysis and co-induction patterns in response to Ag+ treatment via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, we concluded that SmbZIP7 and SmbZIP20 potentially participate in the regulation of tanshinone biosynthesis. These results provide a foundation for further functional characterization of the candidate SmbZIP genes, which have the potential to increase tanshinone production. KEY WORDS: bZIP genes, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Phylogenetic analysis, Expression pattern analysis, Tanshinone biosynthesis

  16. Zip4 mediated zinc influx stimulates insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre B Hardy

    Full Text Available Zinc has an important role in normal pancreatic beta cell physiology as it regulates gene transcription, insulin crystallization and secretion, and cell survival. Nevertheless, little is known about how zinc is transported through the plasma membrane of beta cells and which of the class of zinc influx transporters (Zip is involved. Zip4 was previously shown to be expressed in human and mouse beta cells; however, its function there is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define the zinc transport role of Zip4 in beta cells. To investigate this, Zip4 was over-expressed in MIN6 beta cells using a pCMV6-Zip4GFP plasmid. Organelle staining combined with confocal microscopy showed that Zip4 exhibits a widespread localization in MIN6 cells. Time-lapse zinc imaging experiments showed that Zip4 increases cytoplasmic zinc levels. This resulted in increased granular zinc content and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Interestingly, it is unlikely that the increased glucose stimulated insulin secretion was triggered by a modulation of mitochondrial function, as mitochondrial membrane potential remained unchanged. To define the role of Zip4 in-vivo, we generated a beta cell-specific knockout mouse model (Zip4BKO. Deletion of the Zip4 gene was confirmed in Zip4BKO islets by PCR, RT-PCR, and immuno-histochemistry. Zip4BKO mice showed slightly improved glucose homeostasis but no change in insulin secretion during an oral glucose tolerance test. While Zip4 was not found to be essential for proper glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion in vivo in mice, this study also found that Zip4 mediates increases in cytoplasmic and granular zinc pools and stimulates glucose dependant insulin secretion in-vitro.

  17. The bZIP protein from Tamarix hispida, ThbZIP1, is ACGT elements binding factor that enhances abiotic stress signaling in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoyu; Liu, Guifeng; Liu, Yujia; Zheng, Lei; Nie, Xianguang; Wang, Yucheng

    2013-10-04

    Tamarix spp. are woody halophyte, which are very tolerant to abiotic stresses such as salinity and drought, but little is known about their specific stress response systems. Basic leucine zipper proteins (bZIPs) play important roles in the ability of plants to withstand adverse environmental conditions. However, their exact roles in abiotic stress tolerance are still not fully known. In the current study, we functionally characterized a bZIP gene (ThbZIP1) from Tamarix hispida in response to abiotic stresses. We addressed the regulatory network of ThbZIP1 in three levels, i.e. its upstream regulators, the cis-acting elements recognized by ThbZIP1, and its downstream target genes. Two MYCs were found to bind to E-box, in the promoter of ThbZIP1 to activate its expression. Expression of ThbZIP1 is induced by ABA, salt, drought, methyl viologen and cold. ThbZIP1 can specifically bind to ACGT elements, with the highest binding affinity to the C-box, followed by the G-box and lastly the A-box. Compared with wild-type (Col-0) Arabidopsis, transgenic plants expressing ThbZIP1 had an increased tolerance to drought and salt, but had an increased sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and root growth; meanwhile, ROS level, cell death and water loss rate in transgenic plants were significantly reduced. Microarray analyses showed that many ROS scavenging genes were up-regulated by ThbZIP1 under salt stress conditions. Based on these data, we suggest that ThbZIP1 confers abiotic stress tolerance through activating stress tolerance genes to modulate ROS scavenging ability and other physiological changes involved in stress tolerance, and plays an important role in the ABA-mediated stress response of T. hispida.

  18. A model of competing species that exhibits zip bifurcation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Echeverri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar un modelo concreto d e poblaciones de especies en competición que exhibe la bifurc ación Zip. La bifurcación zip fue introducida por Farkas en 1984 para un si stema tridi- mensional de ecuaciones diferenciales ordinarias que desc ribe un quimiostato. Estudiaremos un sistema tridimensional de ecuaciones dife renciales ordinarias que modela la competición de dos poblaciones distintas de pr edadores por una única población presa. El sistema usa funciones trigonomét ricas concretas pa- ra representar la tasa de crecimiento de la presa y la respues ta funcional del predador. El modelo exhibe diferentes clases de comportami entos y muestra ejemplos de los llamados principio de exclusión competitiva y la competición de un r-estratega contra un k-estratega . Adicionalmente, para ilustrar la bi- furcacion zip, presentaremos algunas simulaciones numéri cas.

  19. Advanced single-stream HDR coding using JVET JEM with backward compatibility options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topiwala, Pankaj; Dai, Wei; Krishnan, Madhu

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a state of the art approach in HDR/WCG video coding developed at FastVDO called FVHDR, and based on the JEM 6 Test Model of the Joint Exploration Team, a joint committee of ITU|ISO/IEC. A fully automatic adaptive video process that differs from a known HDR video processing chain (analogous to HDR10, herein called "anchor") developed recently in the standards committee JVET, is used. FVHDR works entirely within the framework of JEM software model, but adds additional tools. These tools can become an integral part of a future video coding standard, or be extracted as additional pre- and post-processing chains. Reconstructed video sequences using FVHDR show a subjective visual quality superior to the output of the anchor. Moreover the resultant SDR content generated by the data adaptive grading process is backward compatible. Representative objective results for the system include: results for DE100, and PSNRL100, were -13.4%, and -3.8% respectively.

  20. FV10: an efficient single-layer approach to HDR coding, with backward compatibility options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topiwala, Pankaj; Dai, Wei; Krishnan, Madhu

    2016-09-01

    High Dynamic Range and Wide Color Gamut (HDR/WCG) video is now at the forefront of modern broadcast and other video delivery systems. The efficient transmission and display of such video over diverse networks and systems is an important problem. This paper presents a novel, state of the art approach in HDR/WCG video coding (called FV10) which uses a new, fully automatic video data adaptive regrading process, which converts HDR to Standard Dynamic Range (SDR). Our method differs from one developed recently in standards committees (the Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding, or JCT-VC, of ITU|ISO/IEC), based on the HEVC Main10 Profile as the core codec, which is an HDR10 compliant system ("anchor"). FV10 also works entirely within the framework of HEVC Main10 Profile, but makes greater use of existing SEI messages. Reconstructed video using our methods show a subjective visual quality superior to the output of an example HDR10 anchor. Moreover, a usable backwards compatible SDR video is obtained as a byproduct in the processing chain, allowing service efficiencies. Representative objective results for the system include: results for RGB-PSNR, DE100, MD100, tOSNR-XYZ were -46.0%, -21.6%, -29.6%, 16.2% respectively.

  1. TRANSPA: a code for transient thermal analysis of a single fuel pin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenger, F.C.

    1985-02-01

    An analytical model (TRANSPA) for the transient thermal analysis of a single uranium carbide fuel pin was developed. This model uses thermal boundary conditions obtained from COBRA-WC output and calculates the transient thermal response of a single fuel pin to changes in internal power generation, coolant flowrate, or fuel pin physical configuration. The model uses the MITAS finite difference thermal analyzer. MITAS provides the means to input separate conductance models through the use of a user subroutine input capability. The model is a lumped-mass representation of the fuel pin using 26 nodes and 42 conductors. Run time for each transient analysis is approximately one minute of central processor time on the NOS operating system

  2. Functional Analysis of Maize Silk-Specific ZmbZIP25 Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanying Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ZmbZIP25 (Zea mays bZIP (basic leucine zipper transcription factor 25 is a function-unknown protein that belongs to the D group of the bZIP transcription factor family. RNA-seq data showed that the expression of ZmbZIP25 was tissue-specific in maize silks, and this specificity was confirmed by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In situ RNA hybridization showed that ZmbZIP25 was expressed exclusively in the xylem of maize silks. A 5′ RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends assay identified an adenine residue as the transcription start site of the ZmbZIP25 gene. To characterize this silk-specific promoter, we isolated and analyzed a 2450 bp (from −2083 to +367 and a 2600 bp sequence of ZmbZIP25 (from −2083 to +517, the transcription start site was denoted +1. Stable expression assays in Arabidopsis showed that the expression of the reporter gene GUS driven by the 2450 bp ZmbZIP25 5′-flanking fragment occurred exclusively in the papillae of Arabidopsis stigmas. Furthermore, transient expression assays in maize indicated that GUS and GFP expression driven by the 2450 bp ZmbZIP25 5′-flanking sequences occurred only in maize silks and not in other tissues. However, no GUS or GFP expression was driven by the 2600 bp ZmbZIP25 5′-flanking sequences in either stable or transient expression assays. A series of deletion analyses of the 2450 bp ZmbZIP25 5′-flanking sequence was performed in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, and probable elements prediction analysis revealed the possible presence of negative regulatory elements within the 161 bp region from −1117 to −957 that were responsible for the specificity of the ZmbZIP25 5′-flanking sequence.

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of F-bZIP transcription factors indicates conservation of the zinc deficiency response across land plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Pedro Humberto Araújo R F; Lilay, Grmay Hailu; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    data, we performed an evolutionary and structural characterization of plant F-bZIPs. We observed divergence during seed plant evolution, into two groups and inferred different selective pressures for each. Group 1 contains AtbZIP19 and AtbZIP23 and appears more conserved, whereas Group 2, containing......Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors control important developmental and physiological processes in plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the three gene F-bZIP subfamily has been associated with zinc deficiency and salt stress response. Benefiting from the present abundance of plant genomic...... of AtZIP4. A survey of AtZIP4 orthologs promoters across different plant taxa revealed an enrichment of the Zinc Deficiency Response Element (ZDRE) to which both AtbZIP19/23 bind. Overall, our results indicate that while the AtbZIP24 function in the regulation of the salt stress response may...

  4. NOVOMIR: De Novo Prediction of MicroRNA-Coding Regions in a Single Plant-Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teune, Jan-Hendrik; Steger, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small regulatory, noncoding RNA molecules that are transcribed as primary miRNAs (pri-miRNA) from eukaryotic genomes. At least in plants, their regulatory activity is mediated through base-pairing with protein-coding messenger RNAs (mRNA) followed by mRNA degradation or translation repression. We describe NOVOMIR, a program for the identification of miRNA genes in plant genomes. It uses a series of filter steps and a statistical model to discriminate a pre-miRNA from other RNAs and does rely neither on prior knowledge of a miRNA target nor on comparative genomics. The sensitivity and specificity of NOVOMIR for detection of premiRNAs from Arabidopsis thaliana is ~0.83 and ~0.99, respectively. Plant pre-miRNAs are more heterogeneous with respect to size and structure than animal pre-miRNAs. Despite these difficulties, NOVOMIR is well suited to perform searches for pre-miRNAs on a genomic scale. NOVOMIR is written in Perl and relies on two additional, free programs for prediction of RNA secondary structure (RNALFOLD, RNASHAPES). PMID:20871826

  5. On the Influence of the Extrinsic Information Scaling Coefficient on the Performance of Single and Double Binary Turbo Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALTA, H.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the influence of the extrinsic information scaling coefficient value (eic on the bit and frame error rate (BER/FER, for single and double binary turbo codes (S/DBTC decoded with maximum a posteriori (MAP and maximum logarithmic MAP (MaxLogMAP component algorithms. Firstly, we estimate the distance spectrum of the code with the so-called error impulse method (EIM, and we analyze its dependence as well as the dependence of the asymptotic FER on eic. Secondly, we estimate the actual FER using Monte Carlo simulations with eic as a parameter. The comparison of the FER(eic curves obtained by the two methods allows us, on the one hand, to assess the quality of the decoding algorithms, and on the other hand, to estimate the very low BER/FER performance of TCs, where the Monte Carlo method is practically unusable. The results presented also provide a practical guide for the appreciation of the optimal value of the scaling factor, eic. We may notice that also the MAP algorithm performance could be improved using eic<1.

  6. HvZIP7 mediates zinc accumulation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) at moderately high zinc supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiong, Jingwen; Mcdonald, Glenn K.; Genc, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    in dicots. Overexpression of HvZIP7 in barley plants increased Zn uptake when moderately high concentrations of Zn were supplied. Significantly, there was a specific enhancement of shoot Zn accumulation, with no measurable increase in iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd). HvZIP7 displays...

  7. Reprogramming of metabolism by the Arabidopsis thaliana bZIP11 transcription factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Arabidopsis bZIP11 transcription factor is known to regulate amino acid metabolism, and transcriptomic analysis suggests that bZIP11 has a broader regulatory effects in metabolism. Moreover, sucrose controls its translation via its uORF and all the available evidences point to the fact that

  8. Differential expression of four soybean bZIP genes during Phakopsora pachyrhizi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Murilo S; Soares, Zamira G; Vidigal, Pedro M P; Barros, Everaldo G; Poddanosqui, Adriana M P; Aoyagi, Luciano N; Abdelnoor, Ricardo V; Marcelino-Guimarães, Francismar C; Fietto, Luciano G

    2015-11-01

    Asian soybean rust (ASR), caused by the obligate biotrophic fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is one of most important diseases in the soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) agribusiness. The identification and characterization of genes related to plant defense responses to fungal infection are essential to develop ASR-resistant plants. In this work, we describe four soybean genes, GmbZIP62, GmbZIP105, GmbZIPE1, and GmbZIPE2, which encode transcription factors containing a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain from two divergent classes, and that are responsive to P. pachyrhizi infection. Molecular phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that these genes encode proteins similar to bZIP factors responsive to pathogens. Yeast transactivation assays showed that only GmbZIP62 has strong transactivation activity in yeast. In addition, three of the bZIP transcription factors analyzed were also differentially expressed by plant defense hormones, and all were differentially expressed by fungal attack, indicating that these proteins might participate in response to ASR infection. The results suggested that these bZIP proteins are part of the plant defense response to P. pachyrhizi infection, by regulating the gene expression related to ASR infection responses. These bZIP genes are potential targets to obtain new soybean genotypes resistant to ASR.

  9. The Tumor Suppressor, P53, Decreases the Metal Transporter, ZIP14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningning Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Loss of p53’s proper function accounts for over half of identified human cancers. We identified the metal transporter ZIP14 (Zinc-regulated transporter (ZRT and Iron-regulated transporter (IRT-like Protein 14 as a p53-regulated protein. ZIP14 protein levels were upregulated by lack of p53 and downregulated by increased p53 expression. This regulation did not fully depend on the changes in ZIP14’s mRNA expression. Co-precipitation studies indicated that p53 interacts with ZIP14 and increases its ubiquitination and degradation. Moreover, knockdown of p53 resulted in higher non-transferrin-bound iron uptake, which was mediated by increased ZIP14 levels. Our study highlights a role for p53 in regulating nutrient metabolism and provides insight into how iron and possibly other metals such as zinc and manganese could be regulated in p53-inactivated tumor cells.

  10. ZIP13: A Study of Drosophila Offers an Alternative Explanation for the Corresponding Human Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiran Xiao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has become an important model organism to investigate metal homeostasis and human diseases. Previously we identified dZIP13 (CG7816, a member of the ZIP transporter family (SLC39A and presumably a zinc importer, is in fact physiologically primarily responsible to move iron from the cytosol into the secretory compartments in the fly. This review will discuss the implication of this finding for the etiology of Spondylocheirodysplasia-Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (SCD–EDS, a human disease defective in ZIP13. We propose an entirely different model in that lack of iron in the secretory compartment may underlie SCD-EDS. Altogether three different working models are discussed, supported by relevant findings made in different studies, with uncertainties, and questions remained to be solved. We speculate that the distinct ZIP13 sequence features, different from those of all other ZIP family members, may confer it special transport properties.

  11. The regulatory network of ThbZIP1 in response to abscisic acid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu eJi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Previously, a bZIP transcription factor from Tamarix hispida, ThbZIP1, was characterized: plants overexpressing ThbZIP1 displayed improved salt stress tolerance but were sensitive to abscisic acid (ABA. In the current study, we further characterized the regulatory network of ThbZIP1 and the mechanism of ABA sensitivity mediated by ThbZIP1. An ABF transcription factor from T. hispida, ThABF1, directly regulates the expression of ThbZIP1. Microarray analysis identified 1,662 and 1,609 genes that were respectively significantly upregulated or downregulated by ThbZIP1 when exposed to ABA. GO analysis showed that the processes including response to stimulus, catalytic activity, binding function, and metabolic process were highly altered in ThbZIP1 expressing plants exposed to ABA. The gene expression in ThbZIP1 transformed plants were compared between exposed to ABA and salt on the genome scale. Genes differentially regulated by both salt and ABA treatment only accounted for 9.75% of total differentially regulated genes. GO analysis showed that structural molecule activity, organelle part, membrane-enclosed lumen, reproduction and reproductive process are enhanced by ABA but inhibited by salt stress. Conversely, immune system and multi-organism process were improved by salt but inhibited by ABA. Transcription regulator activity, enzyme regulator activity and developmental process were significantly altered by ABA but were not affected by salt stress. Our study provides insights into how ThbZIP1 mediates ABA and salt stress response at the molecular level.

  12. Identification of an Arabidopsis transmembrane bZIP transcription factor involved in the endoplasmic reticulum stress response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Hiromi; Iwata, Yuji; Iwano, Megumi; Takayama, Seiji; Koizumi, Nozomu

    2008-01-01

    Among 75 bZIP transcription factors identified in Arabidopsis, 3 (AtbZIP17, AtbZIP28, and AtbZIP49) possess a putative transmembrane domain (TMD) in addition to AtbZIP60, which was characterized previously. In the present study, cDNAs of AtbZIP17 and AtbZIP28 were isolated. Truncated forms of AtbZIP17 and AtbZIP28 lacking the C-terminal domain including TMD were examined as putative active forms. One of them, AtbZIP28ΔC, activated BiP1 and BiP3 promoters through the cis-elements P-UPRE and ERSE responsible for the ER stress response. Subsequently, a fusion protein of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and AtbZIP28 was expressed in Arabidopsis cultured cells. Under non-stress conditions, GFP fluorescence localization almost overlapped with an ER marker; however, tunicamycin and dithiothreitol treatment clearly increased GFP fluorescence in the nucleus suggesting that the N-terminal fragment of AtbZIP28 translocates to the nucleus in response to ER stress

  13. Simulation of single-phase rod bundle flow. Comparison between CFD-code ESTET, PWR core code THYC and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mur, J.; Larrauri, D.

    1998-07-01

    Computer simulation of flow in configurations close to pressurized water reactor (PWR) geometry is of great interest for Electricite de France (EDF). Although simulation of the flow through a whole PWR core with an all purpose CFD-code is not yet achievable, such a tool cna be quite useful to perform numerical experiments in order to try and improve the modeling introduced in computer codes devoted to reactor core thermal-hydraulic analysis. Further to simulation in small bare rod bundle configurations, the present study is focused on the simulation, with CFD-code ESTET and PWR core code THYC, of the flow in the experimental configuration VATICAN-1. ESTET simulation results are compared on the one hand to local velocity and concentration measurements, on the other hand with subchannel averaged values calculated by THYC. As far as the comparison with measurements is concerned, ESTET results are quite satisfactory relatively to available experimental data and their uncertainties. The effect of spacer grids and the prediction of the evolution of an unbalanced velocity profile seem to be correctly treated. As far as the comparison with THYC subchannel averaged values is concerned, the difficulty of a direct comparison between subchannel averaged and local values is pointed out. ESTET calculated local values are close to experimental local values. ESTET subchannel averaged values are also close to THYC calculation results. Thus, THYC results are satisfactory whereas their direct comparison to local measurements could show some disagreement. (author)

  14. Structural insights of ZIP4 extracellular domain critical for optimal zinc transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tuo; Sui, Dexin; Hu, Jian

    2016-06-01

    The ZIP zinc transporter family is responsible for zinc uptake from the extracellular milieu or intracellular vesicles. The LIV-1 subfamily, containing nine out of the 14 human ZIP proteins, is featured with a large extracellular domain (ECD). The critical role of the ECD is manifested by disease-causing mutations on ZIP4, a representative LIV-1 protein. Here we report the first crystal structure of a mammalian ZIP4-ECD, which reveals two structurally independent subdomains and an unprecedented dimer centred at the signature PAL motif. Structure-guided mutagenesis, cell-based zinc uptake assays and mapping of the disease-causing mutations indicate that the two subdomains play pivotal but distinct roles and that the bridging region connecting them is particularly important for ZIP4 function. These findings lead to working hypotheses on how ZIP4-ECD exerts critical functions in zinc transport. The conserved dimeric architecture in ZIP4-ECD is also demonstrated to be a common structural feature among the LIV-1 proteins.

  15. Molecular pathogenesis of Spondylocheirodysplastic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome caused by mutant ZIP13 proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Bum-Ho; Hojyo, Shintaro; Hosaka, Toshiaki; Bhin, Jinhyuk; Kano, Hiroki; Miyai, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Mariko; Kimura-Someya, Tomomi; Shirouzu, Mikako; Cho, Eun-Gyung; Fukue, Kazuhisa; Kambe, Taiho; Ohashi, Wakana; Kim, Kyu-Han; Seo, Juyeon; Choi, Dong-Hwa; Nam, Yeon-Ju; Hwang, Daehee; Fukunaka, Ayako; Fujitani, Yoshio; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Ikegawa, Shiro; Lee, Tae Ryong; Fukada, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    The zinc transporter protein ZIP13 plays critical roles in bone, tooth, and connective tissue development, and its dysfunction is responsible for the spondylocheirodysplastic form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (SCD-EDS, OMIM 612350). Here, we report the molecular pathogenic mechanism of SCD-EDS caused by two different mutant ZIP13 proteins found in human patients: ZIP13G64D, in which Gly at amino acid position 64 is replaced by Asp, and ZIP13ΔFLA, which contains a deletion of Phe-Leu-Ala. We demonstrated that both the ZIP13G64D and ZIP13ΔFLA protein levels are decreased by degradation via the valosin-containing protein (VCP)-linked ubiquitin proteasome pathway. The inhibition of degradation pathways rescued the protein expression levels, resulting in improved intracellular Zn homeostasis. Our findings uncover the pathogenic mechanisms elicited by mutant ZIP13 proteins. Further elucidation of these degradation processes may lead to novel therapeutic targets for SCD-EDS. PMID:25007800

  16. Analysis of Void Fraction Distribution and Departure from Nucleate Boiling in Single Subchannel and Bundle Geometries Using Subchannel, System, and Computational Fluid Dynamics Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taewan Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the accuracy and validity of subchannel, system, and computational fluid dynamics codes, the Paul Scherrer Institut has participated in the OECD/NRC PSBT benchmark with the thermal-hydraulic system code TRACE5.0 developed by US NRC, the subchannel code FLICA4 developed by CEA, and the computational fluid dynamic code STAR-CD developed by CD-adapco. The PSBT benchmark consists of a series of void distribution exercises and departure from nucleate boiling exercises. The results reveal that the prediction by the subchannel code FLICA4 agrees with the experimental data reasonably well in both steady-state and transient conditions. The analyses of single-subchannel experiments by means of the computational fluid dynamic code STAR-CD with the CD-adapco boiling model indicate that the prediction of the void fraction has no significant discrepancy from the experiments. The analyses with TRACE point out the necessity to perform additional assessment of the subcooled boiling model and bulk condensation model of TRACE.

  17. Current 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Cibola County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Lincoln County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. Current 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Guadalupe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Chaves County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Quay County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. A Statistical Estimation of Navy Enlistment Supply Models Using Zip Code Level Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    strong correlation between youth unemployment and the requirement for recruiters. As the unemployment rate increases, expected civilian earnings decline...Subsequently, increases in unemployment rate will increase supply to the armed forces. If youth unemployment falls, additional recruiting resources...that the use of total unemployment rate might not have yielded results as accurate as use of the youth unemployment rate would have. [Goldberg, 1982

  5. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Catron County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. Current 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Lea County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. Accessibility to Essential Medicines in New York City by Zip Code Income Levels and Boroughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Addo-Atuah, PhD

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Access to essential medicines is fundamental to medication adherence, continuity of care and hence population health outcomes and overall quality of life. Disparities in the availability and the cost of these medications in New York City, especially for low income neighborhoods, would compound the underlying health disparities in these neighborhoods. This study examined the physical and financial accessibility to 8 of the 150 Most Frequently Prescribed Drugs in New York, 2 each for Asthma, Diabetes, Hypertension, and Hyperlipidemia, 4 conditions that are among the top 10 most costly conditions in the United States. The study did not find any significant differences in mean drug prices between the high, medium, and low income neighborhoods in the City. However, the significantly different income levels and uninsured rates across neighborhood income strata in the City (p<0.001 for both, coupled with the high disease burden and other underlying disparities in low income neighborhoods, would point to potential affordability challenges for needed medications in these neighborhoods. On the other hand, significant differences in mean prices between the 5 City boroughs were found for 3 of the study drugs: Advair®, p=0.009; Amlodipine 10mg, p<0.001; and Lisinopril 10mg, p=0.046. No such significant differences were observed for the mean prices of the other 5 study drugs-Proventil HFA,® Metformin HCL 500mg, Glipizide ER 5mg, Simvastatin 20mg, and Atorvastatin 10mg. The study findings did not also suggest that drug prices are dictated by the number of pharmacies in a neighborhood.Further studies would be needed to better understand the complexities associated with the accessibility of essential medicines in New York City. These studies could include qualitative ones which would examine the perceptions and experiences of City residents with respect to the accessibility of prescribed medications as the basis for targeted interventions directed at promoting access to needed medications for all New Yorkers.

  8. Accessibility to Essential Medicines in New York City by Zip Code Income Levels and Boroughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Aronson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Access to essential medicines is fundamental to medication adherence, continuity of care and hence population health outcomes and overall quality of life. Disparities in the availability and the cost of these medications in New York City, especially for low income neighborhoods, would compound the underlying health disparities in these neighborhoods. This study examined the physical and financial accessibility to 8 of the 150 Most Frequently Prescribed Drugs in New York, 2 each for Asthma, Diabetes, Hypertension, and Hyperlipidemia, 4 conditions that are among the top 10 most costly conditions in the United States. The study did not find any significant differences in mean drug prices between the high, medium, and low income neighborhoods in the City. However, the significantly different income levels and uninsured rates across neighborhood income strata in the City (p<0.001 for both, coupled with the high disease burden and other underlying disparities in low income neighborhoods, would point to potential affordability challenges for needed medications in these neighborhoods. On the other hand, significant differences in mean prices between the 5 City boroughs were found for 3 of the study drugs: Advair™, p=0.009; Amlodipine 10mg, p<0.001; and Lisinopril 10mg, p=0.046. No such significant differences were observed for the mean prices of the other 5 study drugs-Proventil HFA,™ Metformin HCL 500mg, Glipizide ER 5mg, Simvastatin 20mg, and Atorvastatin 10mg. The study findings did not also suggest that drug prices are dictated by the number of pharmacies in a neighborhood. Further studies would be needed to better understand the complexities associated with the accessibility of essential medicines in New York City. These studies could include qualitative ones which would examine the perceptions and experiences of City residents with respect to the accessibility of prescribed medications as the basis for targeted interventions directed at promoting access to needed medications for all New Yorkers.   Type: Student Project

  9. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Sandoval County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. Current 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Lea County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. Current 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Quay County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. New Mexico, 2010 Census 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA5)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  14. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Socorro County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. Interplay of auxin, KANADI and Class III HD-ZIP transcription factors in vascular tissue formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilegems, Michael; Douet, Véronique; Meylan-Bettex, Marlyse; Uyttewaal, Magalie; Brand, Lukas; Bowman, John L; Stieger, Pia A

    2010-03-01

    Class III HD-ZIP and KANADI gene family members have complementary expression patterns in the vasculature and their gain-of-function and loss-of-function mutants have complementary vascular phenotypes. This suggests that members of the two gene families are involved in the establishment of the spatial arrangement of phloem, cambium and xylem. In this study, we have investigated the role of these two gene families in vascular tissue differentiation, in particular their interactions with the plant hormone auxin. We have analyzed the vasculature of plants that have altered expression levels of Class III HD-ZIP and KANADI transcription factors in provascular cells. Removal of either KANADI or Class III HD-ZIP expression in procambium cells led to a wider distribution of auxin in internal tissues, to an excess of procambium cell recruitment and to increased cambium activity. Ectopic expression of KANADI1 in provascular cells inhibited procambium cell recruitment due to negative effects of KANADI1 on expression and polar localization of the auxin efflux-associated protein PIN-FORMED1. Ectopic expression of Class III HD-ZIP genes promoted xylem differentiation. We propose that Class III HD-ZIP and KANADI transcription factors control cambium activity: KANADI proteins by acting on auxin transport, and Class III HD-ZIP proteins by promoting axial cell elongation and xylem differentiation.

  16. Using Wireless Pedometers to Measure Children’s Physical Activity: How Reliable is the Fitbit Zip?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Xu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the reliability of wireless pedometers in measuring elementary school children’s physical activity. Activity measurement using a wireless pedometer Fitbit ZipTM was compared to activity measurement using Yamax Digi-WalkerTM SW701 for a group of randomly selected 25 children in Grades 3, 4, and 5. Fitbit ZipTM wireless pedometers were found to have an appropriate degree (Nunnally & Bernstein, 1994 of accuracy and reliability compared to the Yamax Digi-WalkerTM SW701 pedometer. The Fitbit ZipTM wireless pedometer collected more step counts than the Yamax Digi-WalkerTM SW701 pedometer; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Participants reported that they preferred wearing the Fitbit ZipTM to the Yamax Digi-WalkerTM SW701 because the Fitbit ZipTM was more comfortable to wear and less likely to fall off. Participants also reported being more motivated to move while wearing the Fitbit ZipTM.

  17. Mini review roles of the bZIP gene family in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Z G; Zhang, Y P; Zhou, J H; Wang, L

    2014-04-16

    The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) genes encode transcription factors involved in the regulation of various biological processes. Similar to WRKY, basic helix-loop-helix, and several other groups of proteins, the bZIP proteins form a superfamily of transcription factors that mediate plant stress responses. In this review, we present the roles of bZIP proteins in multiple biological processes that include pathogen defense; responses to abiotic stresses; seed development and germination; senescence; and responses to salicylic, jasmonic, and abscisic acids in rice. We also examined the characteristics of the bZIP proteins and their genetic composition. To ascertain the evolutionary changes in and functions of this supergene family, we performed an exhaustive comparison among the 89 rice bZIP genes that were previously described and those more recently listed in the MSU Rice Genome Annotation Project Database using a Hidden Markov Model. We excluded 3 genes from the list, resulting in a total of 86 bZIP genes in japonica rice.

  18. Elucidation of the Specific Formation of Homo- and Heterodimeric Forms of ThbZIP1 and Its Role in Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianguang Nie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein–protein interactions are important for the molecular understanding of the biological processes of proteins. The dimerization of bZIPs (basic leucine zipper proteins is involved in modifying binding site specificities, altering dimer stability, and permitting a new set of specific protein-to-protein interactions to occur at the promoter. In the present study, we studied the whether ThbZIP1 form homo- and heterodimers using the yeast two-hybrid method. Five bZIP genes were cloned from Tamarix hispida to investigate their interaction with ThbZIP1. Our results showed that ThbZIP1 can form homodimers with itself, and three out of five bZIPs could interact with the ThbZIP1 protein to form heterodimers. Real-time RT-PCR results suggested that these ThbZIPs can all respond to abiotic stresses and abscisic acid (ABA, and shared very similar expression patterns in response to NaCl, ABA or PEG6000. Subcellular localization studies showed that all ThbZIPs are targeted to the nucleus. Our results showed that ThbZIP1 are dimeric proteins, which can form homo- or heterodimers.

  19. A novel bZIP gene from Tamarix hispida mediates physiological responses to salt stress in tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yucheng; Gao, Caiqiu; Liang, Yenan; Wang, Chao; Yang, Chuanping; Liu, Guifeng

    2010-02-15

    Basic leucine zipper proteins (bZIPs) are transcription factors that bind abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive elements (ABREs) and enable plants to withstand adverse environmental conditions. In the present study, a novel bZIP gene, ThbZIP1 was cloned from Tamarix hispida. Expression studies in T. hispida showed differential regulation of ThbZIP1 in response to treatment with NaCl, polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000, NaHCO(3), and CdCl(2), suggesting that ThbZIP1 is involved in abiotic stress responses. To identify the physiological responses mediated by ThbZIP1, transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing exogenous ThbZIP1 were generated. Various physiological parameters related to salt stress were measured and compared between transgenic and wild type (WT) plants. Our results indicate that overexpression of ThbZIP1 can enhance the activity of both peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and increase the content of soluble sugars and soluble proteins under salt stress conditions. These results suggest that ThbZIP1 contributes to salt tolerance by mediating signaling through multiple physiological pathways. Furthermore, ThbZIP1 confers stress tolerance to plants by enhancing reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, facilitating the accumulation of compatible osmolytes, and inducing and/or enhancing the biosynthesis of soluble proteins. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. ZipA binds to FtsZ with high affinity and enhances the stability of FtsZ protofilaments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Kuchibhatla

    Full Text Available A bacterial membrane protein ZipA that tethers FtsZ to the membrane is known to promote FtsZ assembly. In this study, the binding of ZipA to FtsZ was monitored using fluorescence spectroscopy. ZipA was found to bind to FtsZ with high affinities at three different (6.0, 6.8 and 8.0 pHs, albeit the binding affinity decreased with increasing pH. Further, thick bundles of FtsZ protofilaments were observed in the presence of ZipA under the pH conditions used in this study indicating that ZipA can promote FtsZ assembly and stabilize FtsZ polymers under unfavorable conditions. Bis-ANS, a hydrophobic probe, decreased the interaction of FtsZ and ZipA indicating that the interaction between FtsZ and ZipA is hydrophobic in nature. ZipA prevented the dilution induced disassembly of FtsZ polymers suggesting that it stabilizes FtsZ protofilaments. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled ZipA was found to be uniformly distributed along the length of the FtsZ protofilaments indicating that ZipA stabilizes FtsZ protofilaments by cross-linking them.

  1. Slc39a7/zip7 plays a critical role in development and zinc homeostasis in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Slc39a7/Zip7, also known as Ke4, is a member of solute carrier family 39 (Slc39a and plays a critical role in regulating cell growth and death. Because the function of Zip7 in vivo was unclear, the present study investigated the function of zip7 in vertebrate development and zinc metabolism using zebrafish as a model organism. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Using real-time PCR to determine the gene expression pattern of zip7 during zebrafish development, we found that zip7 mRNA is expressed throughout embryonic development and into maturity. Interestingly, whole mount in situ hybridization revealed that while zip7 mRNA is ubiquitously expressed until 12 hours post-fertilization (hpf; at 24 hpf and beyond, zip7 mRNA was specifically detected only in eyes. Morpholino-antisense (MO gene knockdown assay revealed that downregulation of zip7 expression resulted in several morphological defects in zebrafish including decreased head size, smaller eyes, shorter palates, and shorter and curved spinal cords. Analysis by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF showed reduced concentrations of zinc in brain, eyes, and gills of zip7-MO-injected embryos. Furthermore, incubation of the zip7 knockdown embryos in a zinc-supplemented solution was able to rescue the MO-induced morphological defects. SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that zip7 is required for eye, brain, and skeleton formation during early embryonic development in zebrafish. Moreover, zinc supplementation can partially rescue defects resulting from zip7 gene knockdown. Taken together, our data provide critical insight into a novel function of zip7 in development and zinc homeostasis in vivo in zebrafish.

  2. SUMIT: a computer code to interpolate and sum single release atmospheric model results onto a master grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begovich, C.L.; DeBliek, N.J.; Holdeman, J.T. Jr.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Miller, C.W.

    1984-10-01

    This report describes a computer code for the Systematic Unification of Multiple Input Tables of data (SUMIT). This code is designed to be an integral part of the Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System (CRRIS) for assessing the health impacts of airborne releases of radioactive pollutants. SUMIT reads radionuclide air concentrations and ground deposition rates for different release points and combines them over a specified master grid. The resulting SUMIT grid may be circular, rectangular, or consist of irregularly spaced points. SUMIT can apply a different scaling factor to all data from each source. This program is designed to sum data written by the CRRIS code ANEMOS. Of course, SUMIT could read any data organized in the same manner at ANEMOS output. Descriptions of the necessary user input and data files are provided along with a complete listing of the SUMIT code. 10 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  3. EPA FRS Facilities State Single File CSV Download

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides state comma separated value (CSV) files containing key information of all facilities and sites within the Facility Registry System (FRS). Each state zip file contains a single CSV file of key facility-level information.

  4. Generalized concatenated quantum codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassl, Markus; Shor, Peter; Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John; Zeng Bei

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the concept of generalized concatenated quantum codes. This generalized concatenation method provides a systematical way for constructing good quantum codes, both stabilizer codes and nonadditive codes. Using this method, we construct families of single-error-correcting nonadditive quantum codes, in both binary and nonbinary cases, which not only outperform any stabilizer codes for finite block length but also asymptotically meet the quantum Hamming bound for large block length.

  5. Characterization of pollen-expressed bZIP protein interactions and the role of ATbZIP18 in the male gametophyte

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gibalová, A.; Steinbachová, L.; Hafidh, S.; Bláhová, Veronika; Gadiou, Z.; Michailidis, Ch.; Müller, K.; Pleskot, Roman; Dupľáková, N.; Honys, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-17 ISSN 2194-7953 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : bZIP * transcription factors * regulatory network * male gametophyte * Y2H * pollen development Subject RIV: ED - Physiology; CE - Biochemistry (UOCHB-X) OBOR OECD: Physiology (including cytology); Biochemistry and molecular biology (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 2.629, year: 2016

  6. PLOT3D (version-5): a computer code for drawing three dimensional graphs, maps and histograms, in single or multiple colours, for mono or stereoscopic viewing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaswal, Balhans

    1987-01-01

    PLOT3D series of graphic codes (version 1 to 5) have been developed for drawing three dimensional graphs, maps, histograms and simple layout diagrams on monochrome or colour raster graphic terminal and plotter. Of these, PLOT3D Version-5 is an advanced code, equipped with several features that make it specially suitable for drawing 3D maps, multicolour 3D and contour graphs, and 3D layout diagrams, in axonometric or perspective projection. Prior to drawing, graphic parameters that define orientation, magnification, smoothening, shading, colour-map, etc. of the figure can be selected interactively by means of simple commands on the user terminal, or by reading those commands from an input data file. This code requires linking with any one of three supporting libraries: PLOT 10 TCS, PLOT 10 IGL, and CALCOMP, and the figure can be plotted in single colour, or displayed in single or multiple colours depending upon the type of library support and output device. Furthermore, this code can also be used to plot left and right eye view projections of 3D figure for composing a stereoscopic image from them with the aid of a viewer. 14 figures. (author)

  7. A Petunia Homeodomain-Leucine Zipper Protein, PhHD-Zip, Plays an Important Role in Flower Senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaoxiao; Donnelly, Linda; Sun, Daoyang; Rao, Jingping; Reid, Michael S.; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Flower senescence is initiated by developmental and environmental signals, and regulated by gene transcription. A homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, PhHD-Zip, is up-regulated during petunia flower senescence. Virus-induced gene silencing of PhHD-Zip extended flower life by 20% both in unpollinated and pollinated flowers. Silencing PhHD-Zip also dramatically reduced ethylene production and the abundance of transcripts of genes involved in ethylene (ACS, ACO), and ABA (NCED) biosynthesis. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29) was also dramatically reduced in the silenced flowers. Over-expression of PhHD-Zip accelerated petunia flower senescence. Furthermore, PhHD-Zip transcript abundance in petunia flowers was increased by application of hormones (ethylene, ABA) and abiotic stresses (dehydration, NaCl and cold). Our results suggest that PhHD-Zip plays an important role in regulating petunia flower senescence. PMID:24551088

  8. A Petunia homeodomain-leucine zipper protein, PhHD-Zip, plays an important role in flower senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaoxiao; Donnelly, Linda; Sun, Daoyang; Rao, Jingping; Reid, Michael S; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Flower senescence is initiated by developmental and environmental signals, and regulated by gene transcription. A homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, PhHD-Zip, is up-regulated during petunia flower senescence. Virus-induced gene silencing of PhHD-Zip extended flower life by 20% both in unpollinated and pollinated flowers. Silencing PhHD-Zip also dramatically reduced ethylene production and the abundance of transcripts of genes involved in ethylene (ACS, ACO), and ABA (NCED) biosynthesis. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29) was also dramatically reduced in the silenced flowers. Over-expression of PhHD-Zip accelerated petunia flower senescence. Furthermore, PhHD-Zip transcript abundance in petunia flowers was increased by application of hormones (ethylene, ABA) and abiotic stresses (dehydration, NaCl and cold). Our results suggest that PhHD-Zip plays an important role in regulating petunia flower senescence.

  9. A Petunia homeodomain-leucine zipper protein, PhHD-Zip, plays an important role in flower senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Chang

    Full Text Available Flower senescence is initiated by developmental and environmental signals, and regulated by gene transcription. A homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, PhHD-Zip, is up-regulated during petunia flower senescence. Virus-induced gene silencing of PhHD-Zip extended flower life by 20% both in unpollinated and pollinated flowers. Silencing PhHD-Zip also dramatically reduced ethylene production and the abundance of transcripts of genes involved in ethylene (ACS, ACO, and ABA (NCED biosynthesis. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29 was also dramatically reduced in the silenced flowers. Over-expression of PhHD-Zip accelerated petunia flower senescence. Furthermore, PhHD-Zip transcript abundance in petunia flowers was increased by application of hormones (ethylene, ABA and abiotic stresses (dehydration, NaCl and cold. Our results suggest that PhHD-Zip plays an important role in regulating petunia flower senescence.

  10. Single nucleotide polymorphisms with cis-regulatory effects on long non-coding transcripts in human primary monocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Carlsson Almlöf

    Full Text Available We applied genome-wide allele-specific expression analysis of monocytes from 188 samples. Monocytes were purified from white blood cells of healthy blood donors to detect cis-acting genetic variation that regulates the expression of long non-coding RNAs. We analysed 8929 regions harboring genes for potential long non-coding RNA that were retrieved from data from the ENCODE project. Of these regions, 60% were annotated as intergenic, which implies that they do not overlap with protein-coding genes. Focusing on the intergenic regions, and using stringent analysis of the allele-specific expression data, we detected robust cis-regulatory SNPs in 258 out of 489 informative intergenic regions included in the analysis. The cis-regulatory SNPs that were significantly associated with allele-specific expression of long non-coding RNAs were enriched to enhancer regions marked for active or bivalent, poised chromatin by histone modifications. Out of the lncRNA regions regulated by cis-acting regulatory SNPs, 20% (n = 52 were co-regulated with the closest protein coding gene. We compared the identified cis-regulatory SNPs with those in the catalog of SNPs identified by genome-wide association studies of human diseases and traits. This comparison identified 32 SNPs in loci from genome-wide association studies that displayed a strong association signal with allele-specific expression of non-coding RNAs in monocytes, with p-values ranging from 6.7×10(-7 to 9.5×10(-89. The identified cis-regulatory SNPs are associated with diseases of the immune system, like multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis.

  11. Computer code for single-point thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen/oxygen expander-cycle rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Arthur J.; Jones, Scott M.

    1991-01-01

    This analysis and this computer code apply to full, split, and dual expander cycles. Heat regeneration from the turbine exhaust to the pump exhaust is allowed. The combustion process is modeled as one of chemical equilibrium in an infinite-area or a finite-area combustor. Gas composition in the nozzle may be either equilibrium or frozen during expansion. This report, which serves as a users guide for the computer code, describes the system, the analysis methodology, and the program input and output. Sample calculations are included to show effects of key variables such as nozzle area ratio and oxidizer-to-fuel mass ratio.

  12. An electrocorticographic BCI using code-based VEP for control in video applications: A single-subject study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eKapeller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A brain-computer-interface (BCI allows the user to control a device or software with brain activity. Many BCIs rely on visual stimuli with constant stimulation cycles that elicit steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP in the electroencephalogram (EEG. This EEG response can be generated with a LED or a computer screen flashing at a constant frequency, and similar EEG activity can be elicited with pseudo-random stimulation sequences on a screen (code-based BCI. Using electrocorticography (ECoG instead of EEG promises higher spatial and temporal resolution and leads to more dominant evoked potentials due to visual stimulation. This work is focused on BCIs based on visual evoked potentials (VEP and its capability as a continuous control interface for augmentation of video applications. One 35 year old female subject with implanted subdural grids participated in the study. The task was to select one out of four visual targets, while each was flickering with a code sequence. After a calibration run including 200 code sequences, a linear classifier was used during an evaluation run to identify the selected visual target based on the generated code-based VEPs over 20 trials. Multiple ECoG buffer lengths were tested and subject reached a mean online classification accuracy of 99.21 % for a window length of 3.15 s. Finally, the subject performed an unsupervised free run in combination with visual feedback of the current selection. Additionally, an algorithm was implemented that allowed to suppress false positive selections and this allowed the subject to start and stop the BCI at any time. The code-based BCI system attained very high online accuracy, which makes this approach very promising for control applications where a continuous control signal is needed.

  13. Uncharacterized conserved motifs outside the HD-Zip domain in HD-Zip subfamily I transcription factors; a potential source of functional diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabello Julieta V

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant HD-Zip transcription factors are modular proteins in which a homeodomain is associated to a leucine zipper. Of the four subfamilies in which they are divided, the tested members from subfamily I bind in vitro the same pseudopalindromic sequence CAAT(A/TATTG and among them, several exhibit similar expression patterns. However, most experiments in which HD-Zip I proteins were over or ectopically expressed under the control of the constitutive promoter 35S CaMV resulted in transgenic plants with clearly different phenotypes. Aiming to elucidate the structural mechanisms underlying such observation and taking advantage of the increasing information in databases of sequences from diverse plant species, an in silico analysis was performed. In addition, some of the results were also experimentally supported. Results A phylogenetic tree of 178 HD-Zip I proteins together with the sequence conservation presented outside the HD-Zip domains allowed the distinction of six groups of proteins. A motif-discovery approach enabled the recognition of an activation domain in the carboxy-terminal regions (CTRs and some putative regulatory mechanisms acting in the amino-terminal regions (NTRs and CTRs involving sumoylation and phosphorylation. A yeast one-hybrid experiment demonstrated that the activation activity of ATHB1, a member of one of the groups, is located in its CTR. Chimerical constructs were performed combining the HD-Zip domain of one member with the CTR of another and transgenic plants were obtained with these constructs. The phenotype of the chimerical transgenic plants was similar to the observed in transgenic plants bearing the CTR of the donor protein, revealing the importance of this module inside the whole protein. Conclusions The bioinformatical results and the experiments conducted in yeast and transgenic plants strongly suggest that the previously poorly analyzed NTRs and CTRs of HD-Zip I proteins play an important

  14. A super-high angular resolution principle for coded-mask X-ray imaging beyond the diffraction limit of a single pinhole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chen; Zhang Shuangnan

    2009-01-01

    High angular resolution X-ray imaging is always useful in astrophysics and solar physics. In principle, it can be performed by using coded-mask imaging with a very long mask-detector distance. Previously, the diffraction-interference effect was thought to degrade coded-mask imaging performance dramatically at the low energy end with its very long mask-detector distance. The diffraction-interference effect is described with numerical calculations, and the diffraction-interference cross correlation reconstruction method (DICC) is developed in order to overcome the imaging performance degradation. Based on the DICC, a super-high angular resolution principle (SHARP) for coded-mask X-ray imaging is proposed. The feasibility of coded mask imaging beyond the diffraction limit of a single pinhole is demonstrated with simulations. With the specification that the mask element size is 50 x 50 μm 2 and the mask-detector distance is 50 m, the achieved angular resolution is 0.32 arcsec above about 10 keV and 0.36 arcsec at 1.24 keV (λ = 1 nm), where diffraction cannot be neglected. The on-axis source location accuracy is better than 0.02 arcsec. Potential applications for solar observations and wide-field X-ray monitors are also briefly discussed. (invited reviews)

  15. Salt and drought stress and ABA responses related to bZIP genes from V. radiata and V. angularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanfen; Zhu, Jifeng; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Shumin; Wu, Jing

    2018-04-20

    Mung bean and adzuki bean are warm-season legumes widely cultivated in China. However, bean production in major producing regions is limited by biotic and abiotic stress, such as drought and salt stress. Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) genes play key roles in responses to various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, only several bZIP genes involved in drought and salt stress in legumes, especially Vigna radiata and Vigna angularis, have been identified. In this study, we identified 54 and 50 bZIP proteins from whole-genome sequences of V. radiata and V. angularis, respectively. First, we comprehensively surveyed the characteristics of all bZIP genes, including their gene structure, chromosome distribution and motif composition. Phylogenetic trees showed that VrbZIP and VabZIP proteins were divided into ten clades comprising nine known and one unknown subgroup. The results of the nucleotide substitution rate of the orthologous gene pairs showed that bZIP proteins have undergone strong purifying selection: V. radiata and V. angularis diverged 1.25 million years ago (mya) to 9.20 mya (average of 4.95 mya). We also found that many cis-acting regulatory elements (CAREs) involved in abiotic stress and plant hormone responses were detected in the putative promoter regions of the bZIP genes. Finally, using the quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) method, we performed expression profiling of the bZIP genes in response to drought, salt and abscisic acid (ABA). We identified several bZIP genes that may be involved in drought and salt responses. Generally, our results provided useful and rich resources of VrbZIP and VabZIP genes for the functional characterization and understanding of bZIP transcription factors (TFs) in warm-season legumes. In addition, our results revealed important and interesting data - a subset of VrbZIP and VabZIP gene expression profiles in response to drought, salt and ABA stress. These results provide gene expression evidence for the selection of

  16. Epitaxial growth of hetero-Ln-MOF hierarchical single crystals for domain- and orientation-controlled multicolor luminescence 3D coding capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Mei; Zhu, Yi-Xuan; Wu, Kai; Chen, Ling; Hou, Ya-Jun; Yin, Shao-Yun; Wang, Hai-Ping; Fan, Ya-Nan [MOE Laboratory of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry, Lehn Institute of Functional Materials, School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Su, Cheng-Yong [MOE Laboratory of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry, Lehn Institute of Functional Materials, School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou (China)

    2017-11-13

    Core-shell or striped heteroatomic lanthanide metal-organic framework hierarchical single crystals were obtained by liquid-phase anisotropic epitaxial growth, maintaining identical periodic organization while simultaneously exhibiting spatially segregated structure. Different types of domain and orientation-controlled multicolor photophysical models are presented, which show either visually distinguishable or visible/near infrared (NIR) emissive colors. This provides a new bottom-up strategy toward the design of hierarchical molecular systems, offering high-throughput and multiplexed luminescence color tunability and readability. The unique capability of combining spectroscopic coding with 3D (three-dimensional) microscale spatial coding is established, providing potential applications in anti-counterfeiting, color barcoding, and other types of integrated and miniaturized optoelectronic materials and devices. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Optimization of a DPP-BOTDA sensor with 25 cm spatial resolution over 60 km standard single-mode fiber using Simplex codes and optical pre-amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Marcelo A; Taki, Mohammad; Bolognini, Gabriele; Di Pasquale, Fabrizio

    2012-03-26

    Sub-meter distributed optical fiber sensing based on Brillouin optical time-domain analysis with differential pulse-width pairs (DPP-BOTDA) is combined with the use of optical pre-amplification and pulse coding. In order to provide significant measurement SNR enhancement and to avoid distortions in the Brillouin gain spectrum due to acoustic-wave pre-excitation, the pulse width and duty cycle of Simplex coding based on return-to-zero pulses are optimized through simulations. In addition, the use of linear optical pre-amplification increases the receiver sensitivity and the overall dynamic range of DPP-BOTDA measurements. Experimental results demonstrate for first time a spatial resolution of ~25 cm over a 60 km standard single-mode fiber (equivalent to ~240 k discrete sensing points) with temperature resolution of 1.2°C and strain resolution of 24 με.

  18. Cloning and molecular analysis of HlbZip1 and HlbZip2 transcription factors putatively involved in the regulation of the lupulin metabolome in hop (Humulus lupulus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matousek, Jaroslav; Kocábek, Tomás; Patzak, Josef; Stehlík, Jan; Füssy, Zoltan; Krofta, Karel; Heyerick, Arne; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Maloukh, Lina; De Keukeleire, Denis

    2010-01-27

    Hop (Humulus lupulus L.), the essential source of beer flavor is of interest from a medicinal perspective in view of its high content in health-beneficial terpenophenolics including prenylflavonoids. The dissection of biosynthetic pathway(s) of these compounds in lupulin glands, as well as its regulation by transcription factors (TFs), is important for efficient biotechnological manipulation of the hop metabolome. TFs of the bZIP class were preselected from the hop transcriptome using a cDNA-AFLP approach and cloned from a cDNA library based on glandular tissue-enriched hop cones. The cloned TFs HlbZIP1A and HlbZIP2 have predicted molecular masses of 27.4 and 34.2 kDa, respectively, and both are similar to the group A3 bZIP TFs according to the composition of characteristic domains. While HlbZIP1A is rather neutral (pI 6.42), HlbZIP2 is strongly basic (pI 8.51). A truncated variant of HlbZIP1 (HlbZIP1B), which is strongly basic but lacks the leucine zipper domain, has also been cloned from hop. Similar to the previously cloned HlMyb3 from hop, both bZIP TFs show a highly specific expression in lupulin glands, although low expression was observed also in other tissues including roots and immature pollen. Comparative functional analyses of HlbZip1A, HlbZip2, and subvariants of HlMyb3 were performed in a transient expression system using Nicotiana benthamiana leaf coinfiltration with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains bearing hop TFs and selected promoters fused to the GUS reference gene. Both hop bZIP TFs and HlMyb3 mainly activated the promoters of chalcone synthase chs_H1 and the newly cloned O-methyl transferase 1 genes, while the response of the valerophenone synthase promoter to the cloned hop TFs was very low. These analyses also showed that the cloned bZIP TFs are not strictly G-box-specific. HPLC analysis of secondary metabolites in infiltrated Petunia hybrida showed that both hop bZIP TFs interfere with the accumulation and the composition of flavonol

  19. The Populus Class III HD ZIP transcription factor POPCORONA affects cell differentiation during secondary growth of woody stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Du; Eriko Miura; Marcel Robischon; Ciera Martinez; Andrew Groover

    2011-01-01

    The developmental mechanisms regulating cell differentiation and patterning during the secondary growth of woody tissues are poorly understood. Class III HD ZIP transcription factors are evolutionarily ancient and play fundamental roles in various aspects of plant development. Here we investigate the role of a Class III HD ZIP transcription factor, ...

  20. Genome-Wide Identification and Structural Analysis of bZIP Transcription Factor Genes in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The basic region/leucine zipper motif (bZIP transcription factor family is one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in plants. bZIP genes have been systematically characterized in some plants, but not in rapeseed (Brassica napus. In this study, we identified 247 BnbZIP genes in the rapeseed genome, which we classified into 10 subfamilies based on phylogenetic analysis of their deduced protein sequences. The BnbZIP genes were grouped into functional clades with Arabidopsis genes with similar putative functions, indicating functional conservation. Genome mapping analysis revealed that the BnbZIPs are distributed unevenly across all 19 chromosomes, and that some of these genes arose through whole-genome duplication and dispersed duplication events. All expression profiles of 247 bZIP genes were extracted from RNA-sequencing data obtained from 17 different B. napus ZS11 tissues with 42 various developmental stages. These genes exhibited different expression patterns in various tissues, revealing that these genes are differentially regulated. Our results provide a valuable foundation for functional dissection of the different BnbZIP homologs in B. napus and its parental lines and for molecular breeding studies of bZIP genes in B. napus.

  1. Genome-Wide Identification and Structural Analysis of bZIP Transcription Factor Genes in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Xu, Daixiang; Jia, Ledong; Huang, Xiaohu; Ma, Guoqiang; Wang, Shuxian; Zhu, Meichen; Zhang, Aoxiang; Guan, Mingwei; Lu, Kun; Xu, Xinfu; Wang, Rui; Li, Jiana; Qu, Cunmin

    2017-10-24

    The basic region/leucine zipper motif (bZIP) transcription factor family is one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in plants. bZIP genes have been systematically characterized in some plants, but not in rapeseed ( Brassica napus ). In this study, we identified 247 BnbZIP genes in the rapeseed genome, which we classified into 10 subfamilies based on phylogenetic analysis of their deduced protein sequences. The BnbZIP genes were grouped into functional clades with Arabidopsis genes with similar putative functions, indicating functional conservation. Genome mapping analysis revealed that the BnbZIPs are distributed unevenly across all 19 chromosomes, and that some of these genes arose through whole-genome duplication and dispersed duplication events. All expression profiles of 247 bZIP genes were extracted from RNA-sequencing data obtained from 17 different B . napus ZS11 tissues with 42 various developmental stages. These genes exhibited different expression patterns in various tissues, revealing that these genes are differentially regulated. Our results provide a valuable foundation for functional dissection of the different BnbZIP homologs in B . napus and its parental lines and for molecular breeding studies of bZIP genes in B . napus .

  2. Genomic identification of bZIP family genes involved in drought and heat stresses in strawberry (Fragaria vesca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) genes are known to play dominant roles in plant response to development signals, as well as abiotic or biotic stress stimuli. Fifty bZIP genes across the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) genome were identified and analyzed. They can be divided into 10 clades according...

  3. Design and simulations of a spectral efficient optical code division multiple access scheme using alternated energy differentiation and single-user soft-decision demodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Garba, Aminata

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to optical Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) network transmission scheme using alternated amplitude sequences and energy differentiation at the transmitters to allow concurrent and secure transmission of several signals. The proposed system uses error control encoding and soft-decision demodulation to reduce the multi-user interference at the receivers. The design of the proposed alternated amplitude sequences, the OCDMA energy modulators and the soft decision, single-user demodulators are also presented. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme allows achieving spectral efficiencies higher than several reported results for optical CDMA and much higher than the Gaussian CDMA capacity limit.

  4. Simulation of Containment Pressurization in a Large Break-Loss of Coolant Accident Using Single-Cell and Multicell Models and CONTAIN Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Noori-Kalkhoran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the inception of nuclear power as a commercial energy source, safety has been recognized as a prime consideration in the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of nuclear power plants. The release of radioactivity to the environment requires the failure of multiple safety systems and the breach of three physical barriers: fuel cladding, the reactor cooling system, and containment. In this study, nuclear reactor containment pressurization has been modeled in a large break-loss of coolant accident (LB-LOCA by programming single-cell and multicell models in MATLAB. First, containment has been considered as a control volume (single-cell model. In addition, spray operation has been added to this model. In the second step, the single-cell model has been developed into a multicell model to consider the effects of the nodalization and spatial location of cells in the containment pressurization in comparison with the single-cell model. In the third step, the accident has been simulated using the CONTAIN 2.0 code. Finally, Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP containment has been considered as a case study. The results of BNPP containment pressurization due to LB-LOCA have been compared between models, final safety analysis report, and CONTAIN code’s results.

  5. ZmbZIP60 mRNA is spliced in maize in response to ER stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yanjie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse environmental conditions produce ER stress and elicit the unfolded protein response (UPR in plants. Plants are reported to have two "arms" of the ER stress signaling pathway-one arm involving membrane-bound transcription factors and the other involving a membrane-associated RNA splicing factor, IRE1. IRE1 in yeast to mammals recognizes a conserved twin loop structure in the target RNA. Results A segment of the mRNA encoding ZmbZIP60 in maize can be folded into a twin loop structure, and in response to ER stress this mRNA is spliced, excising a 20b intron. Splicing converts the predicted protein from a membrane-associated transcription factor to one that is targeted to the nucleus. Splicing of ZmbZIP60 can be elicited in maize seedlings by ER stress agents such as dithiothreitol (DTT or tunicamycin (TM or by heat treatment. Younger, rather than older seedlings display a more robust splicing response as do younger parts of leaf, along a developmental gradient in a leaf. The molecular signature of an ER stress response in plants includes the upregulation of Binding Protein (BIP genes. Maize has numerous BIP-like genes, and ER stress was found to upregulate one of these, ZmBIPb. Conclusions The splicing of ZmbZIP60 mRNA is an indicator of ER stress in maize seedlings resulting from adverse environmental conditions such as heat stress. ZmbZIP60 mRNA splicing in maize leads predictively to the formation of active bZIP transcription factor targeted to the nucleus to upregulate stress response genes. Among the genes upregulated by ER stress in maize is one of 22 BIP-like genes, ZmBIPb.

  6. Abscisic-acid-dependent basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors in plant abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aditya; Roychoudhury, Aryadeep

    2017-01-01

    One of the major causes of significant crop loss throughout the world is the myriad of environmental stresses including drought, salinity, cold, heavy metal toxicity, and ultraviolet-B (UV-B) rays. Plants as sessile organisms have evolved various effective mechanism which enable them to withstand this plethora of stresses. Most of such regulatory mechanisms usually follow the abscisic-acid (ABA)-dependent pathway. In this review, we have primarily focussed on the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors (TFs) activated by the ABA-mediated signalosome. Upon perception of ABA by specialized receptors, the signal is transduced via various groups of Ser/Thr kinases, which phosphorylate the bZIP TFs. Following such post-translational modification of TFs, they are activated so that they bind to specific cis-acting sequences called abscisic-acid-responsive elements (ABREs) or GC-rich coupling elements (CE), thereby influencing the expression of their target downstream genes. Several in silico techniques have been adopted so far to predict the structural features, recognize the regulatory modification sites, undergo phylogenetic analyses, and facilitate genome-wide survey of TF under multiple stresses. Current investigations on the epigenetic regulation that controls greater accessibility of the inducible regions of DNA of the target gene to the bZIP TFs exclusively under stress situations, along with the evolved stress memory responses via genomic imprinting mechanism, have been highlighted. The potentiality of overexpression of bZIP TFs, either in a homologous or in a heterologous background, in generating transgenic plants tolerant to various abiotic stressors have also been addressed by various groups. The present review will provide a coherent documentation on the functional characterization and regulation of bZIP TFs under multiple environmental stresses, with the major goal of generating multiple-stress-tolerant plant cultivars in near future.

  7. Data-Driven Prediction and Design of bZIP Coiled-Coil Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, Vladimir; Kaplan, Jenifer B.; Keating, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Selective dimerization of the basic-region leucine-zipper (bZIP) transcription factors presents a vivid example of how a high degree of interaction specificity can be achieved within a family of structurally similar proteins. The coiled-coil motif that mediates homo- or hetero-dimerization of the bZIP proteins has been intensively studied, and a variety of methods have been proposed to predict these interactions from sequence data. In this work, we used a large quantitative set of 4,549 bZIP coiled-coil interactions to develop a predictive model that exploits knowledge of structurally conserved residue-residue interactions in the coiled-coil motif. Our model, which expresses interaction energies as a sum of interpretable residue-pair and triplet terms, achieves a correlation with experimental binding free energies of R = 0.68 and significantly out-performs other scoring functions. To use our model in protein design applications, we devised a strategy in which synthetic peptides are built by assembling 7-residue native-protein heptad modules into new combinations. An integer linear program was used to find the optimal combination of heptads to bind selectively to a target human bZIP coiled coil, but not to target paralogs. Using this approach, we designed peptides to interact with the bZIP domains from human JUN, XBP1, ATF4 and ATF5. Testing more than 132 candidate protein complexes using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay confirmed the formation of tight and selective heterodimers between the designed peptides and their targets. This approach can be used to make inhibitors of native proteins, or to develop novel peptides for applications in synthetic biology or nanotechnology. PMID:25695764

  8. A regulatory code for neuron-specific odor receptor expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandasankar Ray

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs must select-from a large repertoire-which odor receptors to express. In Drosophila, most ORNs express one of 60 Or genes, and most Or genes are expressed in a single ORN class in a process that produces a stereotyped receptor-to-neuron map. The construction of this map poses a problem of receptor gene regulation that is remarkable in its dimension and about which little is known. By using a phylogenetic approach and the genome sequences of 12 Drosophila species, we systematically identified regulatory elements that are evolutionarily conserved and specific for individual Or genes of the maxillary palp. Genetic analysis of these elements supports a model in which each receptor gene contains a zip code, consisting of elements that act positively to promote expression in a subset of ORN classes, and elements that restrict expression to a single ORN class. We identified a transcription factor, Scalloped, that mediates repression. Some elements are used in other chemosensory organs, and some are conserved upstream of axon-guidance genes. Surprisingly, the odor response spectra and organization of maxillary palp ORNs have been extremely well-conserved for tens of millions of years, even though the amino acid sequences of the receptors are not highly conserved. These results, taken together, define the logic by which individual ORNs in the maxillary palp select which odor receptors to express.

  9. The role of bZIP transcription factors in green plant evolution: adaptive features emerging from four founder genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo Guedes Corrêa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transcription factors of the basic leucine zipper (bZIP family control important processes in all eukaryotes. In plants, bZIPs are regulators of many central developmental and physiological processes including photomorphogenesis, leaf and seed formation, energy homeostasis, and abiotic and biotic stress responses. Here we performed a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of bZIP genes from algae, mosses, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified 13 groups of bZIP homologues in angiosperms, three more than known before, that represent 34 Possible Groups of Orthologues (PoGOs. The 34 PoGOs may correspond to the complete set of ancestral angiosperm bZIP genes that participated in the diversification of flowering plants. Homologous genes dedicated to seed-related processes and ABA-mediated stress responses originated in the common ancestor of seed plants, and three groups of homologues emerged in the angiosperm lineage, of which one group plays a role in optimizing the use of energy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that the ancestor of green plants possessed four bZIP genes functionally involved in oxidative stress and unfolded protein responses that are bZIP-mediated processes in all eukaryotes, but also in light-dependent regulations. The four founder genes amplified and diverged significantly, generating traits that benefited the colonization of new environments.

  10. Isolation and characterization of a gene from Medicago sativa L., encoding a bZIP transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Sun, Yan; Yang, Qingchuan; Fang, Feng; Kang, Junmei; Zhang, Tiejun

    2013-02-01

    A full-length cDNA of 1,537 nucleotides was cloned from Medicago sativa L. cv. "Zhongmu No. 1" by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. It was designated as MsZIP, encoding a protein of 340 amino acids. The protein molecular weight was 36.43 kDa, and the theoretical isoelectric point was 5.72. The MsZIP preferentially localized in nucleus and have signal peptide. Blast analysis revealed that MsZIP shared the highest homology with some bZIP proteins of M. truncatula. The transcript of MsZIP was strongly enriched in leaf compared with root and stem of mature alfalfa plants. MsZIP was strongly induced by 15 % PEG6000 (polyethylene glycol), 50 μM abscisic acid, 200 mM NaCl, 70 μM gibberellic acid, 5 mM salicylic acid and 200 μM methyl jasmonate. Physiological resistance parameters were measured in the transgenic tobacco. Malondialdehyde content, relative water content, soluble sugar content, soluble protein content and proline content in transgenic tobacco increased compared with non-transgenic tobacco under salt stress or drought stress. The results showed that accumulation of the MsZIP protein in the vegetative tissues of transgenic plants enhanced their tolerance to osmotic pressure stress. These results demonstrate a role for the MsZIP protein in stress protection and suggest the potential of the MsZIP gene for genetic engineering of salt tolerance and drought tolerance.

  11. Simultaneous fluid-flow, heat-transfer and solid-stress computation in a single computer code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, D.B. [Concentration Heat and Momentum Ltd, London (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    Computer simulation of flow- and thermally-induced stresses in mechanical-equipment assemblies has, in the past, required the use of two distinct software packages, one to determine the forces and the temperatures, and the other to compute the resultant stresses. The present paper describes how a single computer program can perform both tasks at the same time. The technique relies on the similarity of the equations governing velocity distributions in fluids to those governing displacements in solids. The same SIMPLE-like algorithm is used for solving both. Applications to 1-, 2- and 3-dimensional situations are presented. It is further suggested that Solid-Fluid-Thermal, ie SFT analysis may come to replace CFD on the one hand and the analysis of stresses in solids on the other, by performing the functions of both. (author) 7 refs.

  12. A specific role for the ZipA protein in cell division: stabilization of the FtsZ protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Manuel; Natale, Paolo; Vicente, Miguel

    2013-02-01

    In Escherichia coli, the cell division protein FtsZ is anchored to the cytoplasmic membrane by the action of the bitopic membrane protein ZipA and the cytoplasmic protein FtsA. Although the presence of both ZipA and FtsA is strictly indispensable for cell division, an FtsA gain-of-function mutant FtsA* (R286W) can bypass the ZipA requirement for cell division. This observation casts doubts on the role of ZipA and its need for cell division. Maxicells are nucleoid-free bacterial cells used as a whole cell in vitro system to probe protein-protein interactions without the need of protein purification. We show that ZipA protects FtsZ from the ClpXP-directed degradation observed in E. coli maxicells and that ZipA-stabilized FtsZ forms membrane-attached spiral-like structures in the bacterial cytoplasm. The overproduction of the FtsZ-binding ZipA domain is sufficient to protect FtsZ from degradation, whereas other C-terminal ZipA partial deletions lacking it are not. Individual overproduction of the proto-ring component FtsA or its gain-of-function mutant FtsA* does not result in FtsZ protection. Overproduction of FtsA or FtsA* together with ZipA does not interfere with the FtsZ protection. Moreover, neither FtsA nor FtsA* protects FtsZ when overproduced together with ZipA mutants lacking the FZB domain. We propose that ZipA protects FtsZ from degradation by ClpP by making the FtsZ site of interaction unavailable to the ClpX moiety of the ClpXP protease. This role cannot be replaced by either FtsA or FtsA*, suggesting a unique function for ZipA in proto-ring stability.

  13. Does it really matter that people zip through ads? Testing the effectiveness of simultaneous presentation advertising in an IDTV environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yoonjae; Kwon, Kyonghee H; Lee, Sungjoon

    2010-04-01

    In an IDTV environment, which facilitates self-scheduling, skipping advertisements by zipping is an emerging ad-avoidance behavior. This study explores whether an alternative ad format, called simultaneous presentation advertising (SPA), may overcome the limitations of classical sequential advertising (CSA) in controlling zipping behavior and increasing the effectiveness of ads. The experiment revealed that SPA is more effective than CSA in reducing zipping and increasing recall, but SPA was more intrusive and produced a negative product image. There was no difference regarding cognitive avoidance. This work discusses the implications of these findings in the interactive media environment.

  14. Characterization of pollen-expressed bZIP protein interactions and the role of ATbZIP18 in the male gametophyte

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gibalová, Antónia; Steinbachová, Lenka; Hafidh, Said; Bláhová, Veronika; Gadiou, Zuzana; Michailidis, Christos; Müller, Karel; Pleskot, Roman; Dupľáková, Nikoleta; Honys, David

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-17 ISSN 2194-7953 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-22720S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-32292S; GA ČR GP13-41444P; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14109 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : reticulum stress -response * transcription factor * arabidopsis-thaliana * molecular-interactions * plant transformation * gene-expression * heterodimerization * dimerization * evolution * specificity * bZIP * Transcription factors * Regulatory network * Male gametophyte * y2h * Pollen development Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.629, year: 2016

  15. Panda code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altomare, S.; Minton, G.

    1975-02-01

    PANDA is a new two-group one-dimensional (slab/cylinder) neutron diffusion code designed to replace and extend the FAB series. PANDA allows for the nonlinear effects of xenon, enthalpy and Doppler. Fuel depletion is allowed. PANDA has a completely general search facility which will seek criticality, maximize reactivity, or minimize peaking. Any single parameter may be varied in a search. PANDA is written in FORTRAN IV, and as such is nearly machine independent. However, PANDA has been written with the present limitations of the Westinghouse CDC-6600 system in mind. Most computation loops are very short, and the code is less than half the useful 6600 memory size so that two jobs can reside in the core at once. (auth)

  16. Development of T cell lymphoma in HTLV-1 bZIP factor and Tax double transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tiejun; Satou, Yorifumi; Matsuoka, Masao

    2014-07-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive T-cell malignancy caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). ATL cells possess a CD4+ CD25+ phenotype, similar to that of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Tax has been reported to play a crucial role in the leukemogenesis of HTLV-1. The HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ), which is encoded by the minus strand of the viral genomic RNA, is expressed in all ATL cases and induces neoplastic and inflammatory disease in vivo. To test whether HBZ and Tax are both required for T cell malignancy, we generated HBZ/Tax double transgenic mice in which HBZ and Tax are expressed exclusively in CD4+ T cells. Survival was much reduced in HBZ/Tax double-transgenic mice compared with wild type littermates. Transgenic expression of HBZ and Tax induced skin lesions and T-cell lymphoma in mice, resembling diseases observed in HTLV-1 infected individuals. However, Tax single transgenic mice did not develop major health problems. In addition, memory CD4+ T cells and Foxp3+ Treg cells counts were increased in HBZ/Tax double transgenic mice, and their proliferation was enhanced. There was very little difference between HBZ single and HBZ/Tax double transgenic mice. Taken together, these results show that HBZ, in addition to Tax, plays a critical role in T-cell lymphoma arising from HTLV-1 infection.

  17. Up-regulation of Slc39A2(Zip2) mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yan-ting; Huang, Qing; Jiang, Ya-li; Wang, Xiao-lei; Sun, Ping; Tian, Yuanyuan; Wu, Hai-liang; Zhang, Min; Meng, Si-bo; Wang, Yu-shu; Sun, Qing; Zhang, Lian-ying

    2013-08-01

    Zinc is the most common trace mineral after iron in the human body. In organisms, zinc transporters help zinc influx and efflux from cells. A previous study has reported that Zip2 was up-regulated over 27-fold in human monocytic THP-1 cells, when intracellular zinc was depleted by TPEN. Our study found Zip2 was over-expressed in leukocytes of asthmatic infants, especially those in which the serum zinc level was lower than those in healthy infants. Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients have significantly low serum zinc levels. Here we investigated whether Zip2 level was changed in the patients with PTB. Zip2 mRNA and protein levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from PTB (n1=23) and healthy controls (n2=42) were detected by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot, respectively. mRNA expression levels of another four zinc transporters, Zip1, Zip6, Zip8 and ZnT1, were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Zip2 mRNA level was significantly up-regulated in PTB patients (P=0.001), and Zip8 mRNA level was significantly down-regulated compared with control individuals (Plevels of Zip1, Zip6 and ZnT1 in either group (P>0.05). Zip2 protein expression levels increased in PTB patients compared with control individuals. Our study found that knockdown of ZIP2 with siRNA caused a decrease in Zip2 levels in PBMC of PTB patients, while reducing the expression of INF-γ (Pinitial infection control of the human body, by promoting and maintaining the immune response of adaptive T cells.

  18. Functional mapping of brain synapses by the enriching activity-marker SynaptoZip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Mattia; Lamanna, Jacopo; Ripamonti, Maddalena; Racchetti, Gabriella; Arena, Alessandro; Spadini, Sara; Montesano, Giovanni; Cortese, Riccardo; Zimarino, Vincenzo; Malgaroli, Antonio

    2017-10-31

    Ideally, elucidating the role of specific brain circuits in animal behavior would require the ability to measure activity at all involved synapses, possibly with unrestricted field of view, thus even at those boutons deeply located into the brain. Here, we introduce and validate an efficient scheme reporting synaptic vesicle cycling in vivo. This is based on SynaptoZip, a genetically encoded molecule deploying in the vesicular lumen a bait moiety designed to capture upon exocytosis a labeled alien peptide, Synbond. The resulting signal is cumulative and stores the number of cycling events occurring at individual synapses. Since this functional signal is enduring and measurable both online and ex post, SynaptoZip provides a unique method for the analysis of the history of synaptic activity in regions several millimeters below the brain surface. We show its broad applicability by reporting stimulus-evoked and spontaneous circuit activity in wide cortical fields, in anesthetized and freely moving animals.

  19. The use of ZIP and CART to model cryptosporidiosis in relation to climatic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenbiao; Mengersen, Kerrie; Fu, Shiu-Yun; Tong, Shilu

    2010-07-01

    This research assesses the potential impact of weekly weather variability on the incidence of cryptosporidiosis disease using time series zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) and classification and regression tree (CART) models. Data on weather variables, notified cryptosporidiosis cases and population size in Brisbane were supplied by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Queensland Department of Health, and Australian Bureau of Statistics, respectively. Both time series ZIP and CART models show a clear association between weather variables (maximum temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and wind speed) and cryptosporidiosis disease. The time series CART models indicated that, when weekly maximum temperature exceeded 31 degrees C and relative humidity was less than 63%, the relative risk of cryptosporidiosis rose by 13.64 (expected morbidity: 39.4; 95% confidence interval: 30.9-47.9). These findings may have applications as a decision support tool in planning disease control and risk-management programs for cryptosporidiosis disease.

  20. Gene family structure, expression and functional analysis of HD-Zip III genes in angiosperm and gymnosperm forest trees

    OpenAIRE

    C?t?, Caroline L; Boileau, Francis; Roy, Vicky; Ouellet, Mario; Levasseur, Caroline; Morency, Marie-Jos?e; Cooke, Janice EK; S?guin, Armand; MacKay, John J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Class III Homeodomain Leucine Zipper (HD-Zip III) proteins have been implicated in the regulation of cambium identity, as well as primary and secondary vascular differentiation and patterning in herbaceous plants. They have been proposed to regulate wood formation but relatively little evidence is available to validate such a role. We characterised and compared HD-Zip III gene family in an angiosperm tree, Populus spp. (poplar), and the gymnosperm Picea glauca (white spruc...

  1. Overexpression of ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 Enhances Iron and Zinc Accumulation in Transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzhen Li

    Full Text Available Iron and zinc are important micronutrients for both the growth and nutrient availability of crop plants, and their absorption is tightly controlled by a metal uptake system. Zinc-regulated transporters, iron-regulated transporter-like proteins (ZIP, is considered an essential metal transporter for the acquisition of Fe and Zn in graminaceous plants. Several ZIPs have been identified in maize, although their physiological function remains unclear. In this report, ZmIRT1 was shown to be specifically expressed in silk and embryo, whereas ZmZIP3 was a leaf-specific gene. Both ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 were shown to be localized to the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing ZmIRT1 or ZmZIP3 were generated, and the metal contents in various tissues of transgenic and wild-type plants were examined based on ICP-OES and Zinpyr-1 staining. The Fe and Zn concentration increased in roots and seeds of ZmIRT1-overexpressing plants, while the Fe content in shoots decreased. Overexpressing ZmZIP3 enhanced Zn accumulation in the roots of transgenic plants, while that in shoots was repressed. In addition, the transgenic plants showed altered tolerance to various Fe and Zn conditions compared with wild-type plants. Furthermore, the genes associated with metal uptake were stimulated in ZmIRT1 transgenic plants, while those involved in intra- and inter- cellular translocation were suppressed. In conclusion, ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 are functional metal transporters with different ion selectivities. Ectopic overexpression of ZmIRT1 may stimulate endogenous Fe uptake mechanisms, which may facilitate metal uptake and homeostasis. Our results increase our understanding of the functions of ZIP family transporters in maize.

  2. The transcription factor bZIP14 regulates the TCA cycle in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthijs, Michiel; Fabris, Michele; Obata, Toshihiro; Foubert, Imogen; Franco-Zorrilla, José Manuel; Solano, Roberto; Fernie, Alisdair R; Vyverman, Wim; Goossens, Alain

    2017-06-01

    Diatoms are amongst the most important marine microalgae in terms of biomass, but little is known concerning the molecular mechanisms that regulate their versatile metabolism. Here, the pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was studied at the metabolite and transcriptome level during nitrogen starvation and following imposition of three other stresses that impede growth. The coordinated upregulation of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle during the nitrogen stress response was the most striking observation. Through co-expression analysis and DNA binding assays, the transcription factor bZIP14 was identified as a regulator of the TCA cycle, also beyond the nitrogen starvation response, namely in diurnal regulation. Accordingly, metabolic and transcriptional shifts were observed upon overexpression of bZIP14 in transformed P. tricornutum cells. Our data indicate that the TCA cycle is a tightly regulated and important hub for carbon reallocation in the diatom cell during nutrient starvation and that bZIP14 is a conserved regulator of this cycle. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Changes in skin structure of the Zip13-KO mouse by Makomo (Zizania latifolia) feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Takeshi; Hirose, Takuya; Sato, Kaho; Iwai, Kenji; Takahashi, Naoki; Minaguchi, Jun; Ueno, Takeshi; Tangkawattana, Prasarn; Takehana, Kazushige

    2017-09-29

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a group of disorders caused by abnormalities in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays a crucial role in formation of the ECM by the SMAD (Sma-and Mad-related protein, mothers against decapentaplegic homolog) pathway. It has been reported that loss of function of zinc transporter ZRT/IRT-like protein 13 (ZIP13) is the cause of the spondylocheiro dysplastic form of EDS (SCD-EDS: OMIM 612350). Our previous study suggested that TGF-β1 has a relationship with the skin pathological condition in the Zip13-Knockout (KO) mouse, which is a model of SCD-EDS. Thus far, effective treatment based on modern medicine for this syndrome has not yet been established. According to an approach of traditional Chinese medicine, the present study investigates the medicinal effects of Makomo (Zizania latifolia) on certain aspects of SCD-EDS, such as skin morphology and plasma TGF-β1, in Zip13-KO mice. Increases in densities of collagen fibers and fibrils without a significant change in thickness of the dermal layer were observed in the group of mice fed a Makomo-containing diet. No change in the amount of collagen suggests that Makomo feed does not elevate collagen synthesis, but changes the length of glycosaminoglycan chains and decreases the distance between collagen fibrils. In conclusion, the changes of the skin structure suggest that Makomo can increase the mechanical strength of skin.

  4. Tissue Plasminogen Activator Alters Intracellular Sequestration of Zinc through Interaction with the Transporter ZIP4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmetsberger, Jaime; Mirrione, Martine M.; Zhou, Chun; Fernandez-Monreal, Monica; Siddiq, Mustafa M.; Ji, Kyungmin; Tsirka, Stella E. (SBU)

    2010-09-17

    Glutamatergic neurons contain free zinc packaged into neurotransmitter-loaded synaptic vesicles. Upon neuronal activation, the vesicular contents are released into the synaptic space, whereby the zinc modulates activity of postsynaptic neurons though interactions with receptors, transporters and exchangers. However, high extracellular concentrations of zinc trigger seizures and are neurotoxic if substantial amounts of zinc reenter the cells via ion channels and accumulate in the cytoplasm. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a secreted serine protease, is also proepileptic and excitotoxic. However, tPA counters zinc toxicity by promoting zinc import back into the neurons in a sequestered form that is nontoxic. Here, we identify the zinc influx transporter, ZIP4, as the pathway through which tPA mediates the zinc uptake. We show that ZIP4 is upregulated after excitotoxin stimulation of the mouse, male and female, hippocampus. ZIP4 physically interacts with tPA, correlating with an increased intracellular zinc influx and lysosomal sequestration. Changes in prosurvival signals support the idea that this sequestration results in neuroprotection. These experiments identify a mechanism via which neurons use tPA to efficiently neutralize the toxic effects of excessive concentrations of free zinc.

  5. Enhancement of biomass and lipid productivity by overexpression of a bZIP transcription factor in Nannochloropsis salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sohee; Kang, Nam Kyu; Koh, Hyun Gi; Shin, Sung-Eun; Lee, Bongsoo; Jeong, Byeong-Ryool; Chang, Yong Keun

    2018-02-01

    Microalgae are considered as excellent platforms for biomaterial production that can replace conventional fossil fuel-based fuels and chemicals. Genetic engineering of microalgae is prerequisite to maximize production of materials and to reduce costs for the production. Transcription factors (TFs) are emerging as key regulators of metabolic pathways to enhance production of molecules for biofuels and other materials. TFs with the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain have been known as stress regulators and are associated with lipid metabolism in plants. We overexpressed a bZIP TF, NsbZIP1, in Nannochloropsis salina, and found that transformants showed enhanced growth with concomitant increase in lipid contents. The improved phenotypes were also notable under stress conditions including N limitation and high salt. To understand the mechanism underlying improved phenotypes, we analyzed expression patterns of predicted target genes involved in lipid metabolism via quantitative RT-PCR, confirming increases transcript levels. NsbZIP1 appeared to be one of type C bZIPs in plants that has been known to regulate lipid metabolism under stress. Taken together, we demonstrated that NsbZIP1 could improve both growth and lipid production, and TF engineering can serve as an excellent genetic engineering tool for production of biofuels and biomaterials in microalgae. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Functional characterization of a transition metal ion transporter, OsZIP6 from rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    P G, Kavitha; Kuruvilla, Sam; Mathew, M K

    2015-12-01

    Micronutrients are important for the growth and development of plants, which deploy families of transporters for their uptake and distribution. We have functionally characterized a novel transition metal ion transporter from rice, OsZIP6 (Oryza sativa zinc regulated transporter, iron regulated transporter-like protein 6). The transporter was found to be transcriptionally activated in shoot and root tissues in response to deficiency in Fe(2+), Zn(2+) and Mn(2+). OsZIP6 was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, where currents were observed on addition of Co(2+), Fe(2+) and Cd(2+) but not Zn(2+), Mn(2+) and Ni(2+). This substrate range for OsZIP6, identified using two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology was confirmed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Ion transport by OsZIP6 was found to be pH dependent and enhanced transport was observed at acidic pH. Radioisotope uptake suggested that Co(2+) competitively inhibits Fe(2+) uptake by OsZIP6. Identification and characterization of ZIP family members from crop plants will contribute to an understanding of nutrient mineral homeostasis in these plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Bioinformatic Analysis of Deleterious Non-Synonymous Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (nsSNPs in the Coding Regions of Human Prion Protein Gene (PRNP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Bamdad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Single nucleotide polymorphisms are the cause of genetic variation to living organisms. Single nucleotide polymorphisms alter residues in the protein sequence. In this investigation, the relationship between prion protein gene polymorphisms and its relevance to pathogenicity was studied. Material & Method: Amino acid sequence of the main isoform from the human prion protein gene (PRNP was extracted from UniProt database and evaluated by FoldAmyloid and AmylPred servers. All non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs from SNP database (dbSNP were further analyzed by bioinformatics servers including SIFT, PolyPhen-2, I-Mutant-3.0, PANTHER, SNPs & GO, PHD-SNP, Meta-SNP, and MutPred to determine the most damaging nsSNPs. Results: The results of the first structure analyses by FoldAmyloid and AmylPerd servers implied that regions including 5-15, 174-178, 180-184, 211-217, and 240-252 were the most sensitive parts of the protein sequence to amyloidosis. Screening all nsSNPs of the main protein isoform using bioinformatic servers revealed that substitution of Aspartic acid with Valine at position 178 (ID code: rs11538766 was the most deleterious nsSNP in the protein structure. Conclusion:  Substitution of the Aspartic acid with Valine at position 178 (D178V was the most pathogenic mutation in the human prion protein gene. Analyses from the MutPred server also showed that beta-sheets’ increment in the secondary structure was the main reason behind the molecular mechanism of the prion protein aggregation.

  8. ZIP8 zinc transporter: indispensable role for both multiple-organ organogenesis and hematopoiesis in utero.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gálvez-Peralta

    Full Text Available Previously this laboratory characterized Slc39a8-encoded ZIP8 as a Zn(2+/(HCO(3(-(2 symporter; yet, the overall physiological importance of ZIP8 at the whole-organism level remains unclear. Herein we describe the phenotype of the hypomorphic Slc39a8(neo/neo mouse which has retained the neomycin-resistance gene in intron 3, hence causing significantly decreased ZIP8 mRNA and protein levels in embryo, fetus, placenta, yolk sac, and several tissues of neonates. The Slc39a8(neo allele is associated with diminished zinc and iron uptake in mouse fetal fibroblast and liver-derived cultures; consequently, Slc39a8(neo/neo newborns exhibit diminished zinc and iron levels in several tissues. Slc39a8(neo/neo homozygotes from gestational day(GD-11.5 onward are pale, growth-stunted, and die between GD18.5 and 48 h postnatally. Defects include: severely hypoplastic spleen; hypoplasia of liver, kidney, lung, and lower limbs. Histologically, Slc39a8(neo/neo neonates show decreased numbers of hematopoietic islands in yolk sac and liver. Low hemoglobin, hematocrit, red cell count, serum iron, and total iron-binding capacity confirmed severe anemia. Flow cytometry of fetal liver cells revealed the erythroid series strikingly affected in the hypomorph. Zinc-dependent 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, required for heme synthesis, was not different between Slc39a8(+/+ and Slc39a8(neo/neo offspring. To demonstrate further that the mouse phenotype is due to ZIP8 deficiency, we bred Slc39a8(+/neo with BAC-transgenic BTZIP8-3 line (carrying three extra copies of the Slc39a8 allele; this cross generated viable Slc39a8(neo/neo_BTZIP8-3(+/+ pups showing none of the above-mentioned congenital defects-proving Slc39a8(neo/neo causes the described phenotype. Our study demonstrates that ZIP8-mediated zinc transport plays an unappreciated critical role during in utero and neonatal growth, organ morphogenesis, and hematopoiesis.

  9. Overexpression of the transporters AtZIP1 and AtMTP1 in cassava changes zinc accumulation and partitioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana eGaitan-Solis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Zinc deficiency in humans is a serious problem worldwide with an estimated one third of populations at risk for insufficient zinc in diet which leads to impairment of cognitive abilities and immune system function. The goal of this research was to increase the bioavailable zinc in the edible portion of cassava roots to improve the overall zinc nutrition of populations that rely on cassava as a dietary staple. To increase zinc concentrations, two A. thaliana genes coding for ZIP1 and MTP1 were overexpressed with a tuber-specific or constitutive promoter. Eighteen transgenic events from four constructs, out of a total of 73 events generated, showed significantly higher zinc concentrations in the edible portion of the storage root compared to the non-transgenic controls. The zinc content in the transgenic lines ranged from 4 - 73 mg/Kg Dry Weight (DW as compared to the non-transgenic control which contained 8 mg/Kg. Striking changes in whole plant phenotype such as smaller plant size and chlorotic leaves were observed in transgenic lines that over accumulated zinc. In a confined field trial five transgenic events grown for 12 months showed a range of zinc concentrations from 18 – 217 mg/Kg DW. Although the overexpression of zinc transporters was successful in increasing the zinc concentrations in 25% of the transgenic lines generated, it also resulted in a decrease in plant and tuber size and overall yield due to what appears to be zinc deficiency in the aerial parts of the plant.

  10. LiZIP3 is a cellular zinc transporter that mediates the tightly regulated import of zinc in Leishmania infantum parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sandra; da Silva, Rosa Barreira; Shawki, Ali; Castro, Helena; Lamy, Márcia; Eide, David; Costa, Vítor; Mackenzie, Bryan; Tomás, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cellular zinc homeostasis ensures that the intracellular concentration of this element is kept within limits that enable its participation in critical physiological processes without exerting toxic effects. We report here the identification and characterization of the first mediator of zinc homeostasis in Leishmania infantum, LiZIP3, a member of the ZIP family of divalent metal-ion transporters. The zinc transporter activity of LiZIP3 was first disclosed by its capacity to rescue the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains deficient in zinc acquisition. Subsequent expression of LiZIP3 in Xenopus laevis oocytes was shown to stimulate the uptake of a broad range of metal ions, among which Zn2+ was the preferred LiZIP3 substrate (K0.5 ≈ 0.1 μM). Evidence that LiZIP3 functions as a zinc importer in L. infantum came from the observations that the protein locates to the cell membrane and that its overexpression leads to augmented zinc internalization. Importantly, expression and cell-surface location of LiZIP3 are lost when parasites face high zinc bioavailability. LiZIP3 decline in response to zinc is regulated at the mRNA level in a process involving (a) short-lived protein(s). Collectively, our data reveal that LiZIP3 enables L. infantum to acquire zinc in a highly regulated manner, hence contributing to zinc homeostasis. PMID:25644708

  11. Transcriptome-Wide Survey and Expression Profile Analysis of Putative Chrysanthemum HD-Zip I and II Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping Song

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip transcription factor family is a key transcription factor family and unique to the plant kingdom. It consists of a homeodomain and a leucine zipper that serve in combination as a dimerization motif. The family can be classified into four subfamilies, and these subfamilies participate in the development of hormones and mediation of hormone action and are involved in plant responses to environmental conditions. However, limited information on this gene family is available for the important chrysanthemum ornamental species (Chrysanthemum morifolium. Here, we characterized 17 chrysanthemum HD-Zip genes based on transcriptome sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that 17 CmHB genes were distributed in the HD-Zip subfamilies I and II and identified two pairs of putative orthologous proteins in Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum and four pairs of paralogous proteins in chrysanthemum. The software MEME was used to identify 7 putative motifs with E values less than 1e-3 in the chrysanthemum HD-Zip factors, and they can be clearly classified into two groups based on the composition of the motifs. A bioinformatics analysis predicted that 8 CmHB genes could be targeted by 10 miRNA families, and the expression of these 17 genes in response to phytohormone treatments and abiotic stresses was characterized. The results presented here will promote research on the various functions of the HD-Zip gene family members in plant hormones and stress responses.

  12. System-wide characterization of bZIP transcription factor proteins involved in infection-related morphogenesis of Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Ru, Yanyan; Hong, Li; Zhu, Qian; Zuo, Rongfang; Guo, Xianxian; Wang, Jingzhen; Zhang, Haifeng; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Zhengguang

    2015-04-01

    The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain-containing transcription factors (TFs) function as key regulators of cellular growth and differentiation in eukaryotic organisms including fungi. We have previously identified MoAp1 and MoAtf1 as bZIP TFs in Magnaporthe oryzae and demonstrated that they regulate the oxidative stress response and are critical in conidiogenesis and pathogenicity. Studies of bZIP proteins could provide a novel strategy for controlling rice blast, but a systematic examination of the bZIP proteins has not been carried out. Here, we identified 19 additional bZIP TFs and characterized their functions. We found that the majority of these TFs exhibit active functions, most notably, in conidiogenesis. We showed that MoHac1 regulates the endoplasmic reticulum stress response through a conserved unfolded protein response pathway, MoMetR controls amino acid metabolism to govern growth and differentiation, and MoBzip10 governs appressorium function and invasive hyphal growth. Moreover, MoBzip5 participates in appressorium formation through a pathway distinct from that MoBzip10, and MoMeaB appears to exert a regulatory role through nutrient uptake and nitrogen utilization. Collectively, our results provide insights into shared and specific functions associated with each of these TFs and link the regulatory roles to the fungal growth, conidiation, appressorium formation, host penetration and pathogenicity. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Use of a Single CPT Code for Risk Adjustment in American College of Surgeons NSQIP Database: Is There Potential Bias with Practice-Pattern Differences in Multiple Procedures under the Same Anesthetic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Mark E; Liu, Yaoming; Liu, Jason B; Ko, Clifford Y; Hall, Bruce L

    2018-03-01

    American College of Surgeons NSQIP risk-adjustment models rely on the designated "principal" CPT code to account for procedure-related risk. However, if hospitals differ in their propensity to undertake multiple major operations under the same anesthetic, then risk adjustment using only a single code could bias hospital quality estimates. This study investigated this possibility for bias. We examined hospital odds ratios (ORs) when either the principal CPT code was used for risk adjustment (along with other standard NSQIP predictor variables) or when this code was used in addition to the remaining reported CPT code with the highest associated risk. We examined models for general surgery mortality and morbidity and morbidity in datasets that included mastectomy and/or breast reconstruction, or hysterectomy and/or gynecologic reconstruction as areas known to likely involve more than 1 procedure. Hospital ORs based on 1 vs 2 CPT codes for risk adjustment were essentially the same for mortality and morbidity general surgery models and for the mastectomy and/or breast reconstruction model. For hysterectomy and/or gynecologic reconstruction, the 1 CPT code model tended to slightly overestimate ORs compared with the 2 CPT codes model, when the hospital's OR and the proportion of combined operations were large. Conditions under which practice-pattern-associated modeling bias might exist appear to be uncommon and to have a small impact on quality assessments for the areas examined. The evidence suggests that, within the American College of Surgeons NSQIP modeling paradigm, the principal CPT code adequately risk adjusts for operative procedure in performance assessments. Copyright © 2018 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in the Coding Region of Bovine Chemerin Gene and Their Associations with Carcass Traits in Japanese Black Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Yamauchi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemerin, highly expressed in adipose and liver tissues, regulates glucose and lipid metabolism and immunity in these tissues in ruminants and mice. Our previous reports showed that chemerin is involved in adipogenesis and lipid metabolism in adipose tissue as an adipokine. The aim of the present study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the coding region of the chemerin gene and to analyze their effects on carcass traits and intramuscular fatty acid compositions in Japanese Black cattle. The SNPs in the bovine chemerin gene were detected in 232 Japanese Black steers (n = 161 and heifers (n = 71 using DNA sequencing. The results revealed five novel silent mutations: NM_001046020: c.12A>G (4aa, c.165GT (92aa, c.321 A>G (107aa, and c.396C>T (132aa. There was no association between 4 of the SNPs (c.12A>G [4aa], c.165GG [107aa], and c.396C>T and carcass traits or intramuscular fatty acid compositions. Regarding the remaining SNP, c.276C>T, we found that cattle with genotype CC had a higher beef marbling score than that of cattle with genotype CT, whereas cattle with genotype CT had a higher body condition score (pT SNP is small. It is suggested that the c.276C>T SNP of the chemerin gene has potential in cattle breeding using modern methods, such as marker assisted selection. So, further functional and physiological research elucidating the impact of the chemerin gene on bovine lipid metabolism including fatty acid synthesis will help in understanding these results.

  15. Systematic analysis of sequences and expression patterns of drought-responsive members of the HD-Zip gene family in maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Members of the homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip gene family encode transcription factors that are unique to plants and have diverse functions in plant growth and development such as various stress responses, organ formation and vascular development. Although systematic characterization of this family has been carried out in Arabidopsis and rice, little is known about HD-Zip genes in maize (Zea mays L.. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this study, we described the identification and structural characterization of HD-Zip genes in the maize genome. A complete set of 55 HD-Zip genes (Zmhdz1-55 were identified in the maize genome using Blast search tools and categorized into four classes (HD-Zip I-IV based on phylogeny. Chromosomal location of these genes revealed that they are distributed unevenly across all 10 chromosomes. Segmental duplication contributed largely to the expansion of the maize HD-ZIP gene family, while tandem duplication was only responsible for the amplification of the HD-Zip II genes. Furthermore, most of the maize HD-Zip I genes were found to contain an overabundance of stress-related cis-elements in their promoter sequences. The expression levels of the 17 HD-Zip I genes under drought stress were also investigated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. All of the 17 maize HD-ZIP I genes were found to be regulated by drought stress, and the duplicated genes within a sister pair exhibited the similar expression patterns, suggesting their conserved functions during the process of evolution. CONCLUSIONS: Our results reveal a comprehensive overview of the maize HD-Zip gene family and provide the first step towards the selection of Zmhdz genes for cloning and functional research to uncover their roles in maize growth and development.

  16. 2000 Census 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Los Alamos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. Current 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Los Alamos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. 2000 Census 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Los Alamos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. 2000 Census 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Harding County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. 2000 Census 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for San Miguel County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. 2000 Census 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Quay County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Los Alamos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. 2000 Census 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Socorro County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. 2000 Census 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. Current 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Santa Fe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. 2000 Census 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Union County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. 2000 Census 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. 2000 Census 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Dona Ana County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. 2000 Census 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Otero County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. 2000 Census 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for McKinley County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for San Juan County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. 2000 Census 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Curry County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. 2000 Census 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Mora County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. 2000 Census 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Quay County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  17. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  18. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  19. 2000 Census 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Roosevelt County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. 2000 Census 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Santa Fe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Santa Fe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. 2000 Census 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Santa Fe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Dona Ana County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. bZIP transcription factor interactions regulate DIF responses in Dictyostelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Eryong; Blagg, Simone L; Keller, Thomas; Katoh, Mariko; Shaulsky, Gad; Thompson, Christopher R L

    2006-02-01

    The signalling molecule DIF-1 is required for normal cell fate choice and patterning in Dictyostelium. To understand how these developmental processes are regulated will require knowledge of how cells receive and respond to the DIF-1 signal. Previously, we have described a bZIP transcription factor, DimA, which is required for cells to respond to DIF-1. However, it was unknown whether DimA activity is required to activate the DIF response pathway in certain cells or is a component of the response pathway itself. In this study, we describe the identification of a DimA-related bZIP transcription factor, DimB. Rapid changes in the subcellular localisation of both DimA and DimB in response to DIF-1 suggest that they are directly downstream of the DIF-1 signal. Genetic and biochemical interactions between DimA and DimB provides evidence that their ability to regulate diverse targets in response to DIF-1 is partly due to their ability to form homo- and heterodimeric complexes. DimA and DimB are therefore direct regulators of cellular responses to DIF-1.

  5. Assessment of uncertainties in core melt phenomenology and their impact on risk at the Z/IP facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, W.T.; Ludewig, H.; Bari, R.A.; Meyer, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    An evaluation of core meltdown accidents in the Z/IP facilities has been performed. Containment event trees have been developed to relate the progression of a given accident to various potential containment building failure modes. An extensive uncertainty analysis related to core melt phenomenology has been performed. A major conclusion of the study is that large variations in parameters associated with major phenomenological uncertainties have a relatively minor impact on risk when external initiators are considered. This is due to the inherent capability fo the Z/IP containment buildings to contain a wide range of core meltdown accidents. 12 references, 2 tables

  6. Doubled Color Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravyi, Sergey

    Combining protection from noise and computational universality is one of the biggest challenges in the fault-tolerant quantum computing. Topological stabilizer codes such as the 2D surface code can tolerate a high level of noise but implementing logical gates, especially non-Clifford ones, requires a prohibitively large overhead due to the need of state distillation. In this talk I will describe a new family of 2D quantum error correcting codes that enable a transversal implementation of all logical gates required for the universal quantum computing. Transversal logical gates (TLG) are encoded operations that can be realized by applying some single-qubit rotation to each physical qubit. TLG are highly desirable since they introduce no overhead and do not spread errors. It has been known before that a quantum code can have only a finite number of TLGs which rules out computational universality. Our scheme circumvents this no-go result by combining TLGs of two different quantum codes using the gauge-fixing method pioneered by Paetznick and Reichardt. The first code, closely related to the 2D color code, enables a transversal implementation of all single-qubit Clifford gates such as the Hadamard gate and the π / 2 phase shift. The second code that we call a doubled color code provides a transversal T-gate, where T is the π / 4 phase shift. The Clifford+T gate set is known to be computationally universal. The two codes can be laid out on the honeycomb lattice with two qubits per site such that the code conversion requires parity measurements for six-qubit Pauli operators supported on faces of the lattice. I will also describe numerical simulations of logical Clifford+T circuits encoded by the distance-3 doubled color code. Based on a joint work with Andrew Cross.

  7. Coding Partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Burderi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of decipherability conditions for codes weaker than Unique Decipherability (UD, we introduce the notion of coding partition. Such a notion generalizes that of UD code and, for codes that are not UD, allows to recover the ``unique decipherability" at the level of the classes of the partition. By tacking into account the natural order between the partitions, we define the characteristic partition of a code X as the finest coding partition of X. This leads to introduce the canonical decomposition of a code in at most one unambiguouscomponent and other (if any totally ambiguouscomponents. In the case the code is finite, we give an algorithm for computing its canonical partition. This, in particular, allows to decide whether a given partition of a finite code X is a coding partition. This last problem is then approached in the case the code is a rational set. We prove its decidability under the hypothesis that the partition contains a finite number of classes and each class is a rational set. Moreover we conjecture that the canonical partition satisfies such a hypothesis. Finally we consider also some relationships between coding partitions and varieties of codes.

  8. The phylogeny of C/S1 bZIP transcription factors reveals a shared algal ancestry and the pre-angiosperm translational regulation of S1 transcripts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peviani, Alessia; Lastdrager, Jeroen; Hanson, Johannes; Snel, Berend

    2016-01-01

    Basic leucine zippers (bZIPs) form a large plant transcription factor family. C and S1 bZIP groups can heterodimerize, fulfilling crucial roles in seed development and stress response. S1 sequences also harbor a unique regulatory mechanism, termed Sucrose-Induced Repression of Translation (SIRT).

  9. Genome-wide analysis of the HD-ZIP IV transcription factor family in Gossypium arboreum and GaHDG11 involved in osmotic tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Eryong; Zhang, Xueyan; Yang, Zhaoen; Wang, Xiaoqian; Yang, Zuoren; Zhang, Chaojun; Wu, Zhixia; Kong, Depei; Liu, Zhao; Zhao, Ge; Butt, Hamama Islam; Zhang, Xianlong; Li, Fuguang

    2017-06-01

    HD-ZIP IV proteins belong to the homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) transcription factor family and are involved in trichome development and drought stress in plants. Although some functions of the HD-ZIP IV group are well understood in Arabidopsis, little is known about their function in cotton. In this study, HD-ZIP genes were identified from three Gossypium species (G. arboreum, G. raimondii and G. hirsutum) and clustered into four families (HD-ZIP I, II, III and IV) to separate HD-ZIP IV from the other three families. Systematic analyses of phylogeny, gene structure, conserved domains, and expression profiles in different plant tissues and the expression patterns under osmotic stress in leaves were further conducted in G. arboreum. More importantly, ectopic overexpression of GaHDG11, a representative of the HD-ZIP IV family, confers enhanced osmotic tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, possibly due to elongated primary root length, lower water loss rates, high osmoprotectant proline levels, significant levels of antioxidants CAT, and/or SOD enzyme activity with reduced levels of MDA. Taken together, these observations may lay the foundation for future functional analysis of cotton HD-ZIP IV genes to unravel their biological roles in cotton.

  10. Comprehensive characterization and RNA-Seq profiling of the HD-Zip transcription factor family in soybean (Glycine max) during dehydration and salt stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    The homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factor family is one of the largest plant specific superfamilies, and includes genes with roles in modulation of plant growth and response to environmental stresses. Many HD-Zip genes are well characterized in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), ...

  11. Zinc Deficiency via a Splice Switch in Zinc Importer ZIP2/SLC39A2 Causes Cystic Fibrosis-Associated MUC5AC Hypersecretion in Airway Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Kamei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Airway mucus hyperproduction and fluid imbalance are important hallmarks of cystic fibrosis (CF, the most common life-shortening genetic disorder in Caucasians. Dysregulated expression and/or function of airway ion transporters, including cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC, have been implicated as causes of CF-associated mucus hypersecretory phenotype. However, the contributory roles of other substances and transporters in the regulation of CF airway pathogenesis remain unelucidated. Here, we identified a novel connection between CFTR/ENaC expression and the intracellular Zn2+ concentration in the regulation of MUC5AC, a major secreted mucin that is highly expressed in CF airway. CFTR-defective and ENaC-hyperactive airway epithelial cells specifically and highly expressed a unique, alternative splice isoform of the zinc importer ZIP2/SLC39A2 (ΔC-ZIP2, which lacks the C-terminal domain. Importantly, ΔC-ZIP2 levels correlated inversely with wild-type ZIP2 and intracellular Zn2+ levels. Moreover, the splice switch to ΔC-ZIP2 as well as decreased expression of other ZIPs caused zinc deficiency, which is sufficient for induction of MUC5AC; while ΔC-ZIP2 expression per se induced ENaC expression and function. Thus, our findings demonstrate that the novel splicing switch contributes to CF lung pathology via the novel interplay of CFTR, ENaC, and ZIP2 transporters.

  12. Monitoring structural changes in intrinsically disordered proteins using QCM-D: application to the bacterial cell division protein ZipA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Gil, Pablo; Tsortos, Achilleas; Vélez, Marisela; Gizeli, Electra

    2016-05-05

    The sensitivity of QCM-D to molecular hydrodynamic properties is applied in this work to study conformational changes of the intrinsically disordered protein ZipA. Acoustic measurements can clearly follow ZipA's unstructured domain expansion and contraction with salt content and be correlated with changes in the hydrodynamic radius of 1.8 nm or less.

  13. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Sammenfatning af de mest væsentlige pointer fra hovedrapporten: Dokumentation og evaluering af Coding Class......Sammenfatning af de mest væsentlige pointer fra hovedrapporten: Dokumentation og evaluering af Coding Class...

  14. Comparison of THALES and VIPRE-01 Subchannel Codes for Loss of Flow and Single Reactor Coolant Pump Rotor Seizure Accidents using Lumped Channel APR1400 Geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezdemir, Erdal; Moon, Kang Hoon; Oh, Seung Jong; Kim, Yongdeog

    2014-01-01

    Subchannel analysis plays important role to evaluate safety critical parameters like minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratio (MDNBR), peak clad temperature and fuel centerline temperature. In this study, two different subchannel codes, VIPRE-01 (Versatile Internals and Component Program for Reactors: EPRI) and THALES (Thermal Hydraulic AnaLyzer for Enhanced Simulation of core) are examined. In this study, two different transient cases for which MDNBR result play important role are selected to conduct analysis with THALES and VIPRE-01 subchannel codes. In order to get comparable results same core geometry, fuel parameters, correlations and models are selected for each code. MDNBR results from simulations by both code are agree with each other with negligible difference. Whereas, simulations conducted by enabling conduction model in VIPRE-01 shows significant difference from the results of THALES

  15. DINÁMICA DE LA BIFURCACIÓN DE HOPF EN UNA CLASE DE MODELOS DE COMPETENCIA QUE EXHIBEN LA BIFURCACIÓN ZIP Hopf Bifurcation Dynamic in a Class of Competence Model Exhibiting Zip Bifurcation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mario Escobar Callejas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo de investigación se caracteriza el tipo de bifurcación de Hopf que se presenta en el fenómeno de la bifurcación de zip para un sistema tridimensional no lineal de ecuaciones diferenciales que satisface las condiciones planteadas por Butler y Farkas, las cuales modelan la competición de dos especies predadoras por una presa singular que se regenera. Se demuestra que en todas las variedades bidimensionales invariantes del sistema considerado se desarrolla una bifurcación de Hopf supercrítica lo cual es una extensión de algunos resultados sobre el tipo de bifurcación de Hopf que se forma en el fenómeno de la bifurcación de zip en sistema con respuesta funcional del predador del tipo Holling II, [1].This research article characterizes the type of Hopf bifurcation occurring in the Zip bifurcation phenomenon for a non-linear 3D system of differential equations which meets the conditions stated by Butler and Farkas to model competition of two predators struggling for a prey. It is shown that a supercritical Hopf bifurcation is developed in all invariant two-dimensional varieties of the system considered, which is an extension of some results about the kind of Hopf bifurcation which is formed in the Zip bifurcation phenomenon in a system with functional response of the Holling-type predator.

  16. Induction of a bZIP Type Transcription Factor and Amino Acid Catabolism-Related Genes in Soybean Seedling in Response to Starvation Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yuasa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To address roles of bZIP transcription factors on regulation of amino acid catabolism under autophagy-induced plant cells, we examined the effect of nutrient starvation on the expression of low energy stress-related transcription factor homologs, GmbZIP53A and GmbZIP53B, and amino acid catabolism-related genes in soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr.. Sucrose starvation treatment significantly enhanced the expressions of GmbZIP53A, but not GmbZIP53B asparagine synthase (GmASN1, proline dehydrogenase1 (GmProDH, and branched chain amino acid transaminase 3 (GmBCAT3. GmbZIP53-related immunoreactive signals were upregulated under severe starvation with sucrose starvation and protease inhibitors, while 3% sucrose and sucrose starvation had no or marginal effects on the signal. Profiles of induction of GmASN1, GmProDH and GmBCAT3 under various nutrient conditions were consistent with the profiles of GmbZIP53 protein levels but not with those of GmbZIP mRNA levels. These results indicate that GmbZIP53 proteins levels are regulated by posttranslational mechanism in response to severe starvation stress and that the increased protein of GmbZIP53 under severe starvation accelerates transcriptional induction of GmASN1, GmProDH, and GmBCAT3. Furthermore, it is conceivable that decrease of branched chain amino acid level by the BCAT-mediated degradation eventually enhances autophagy under severe starvation.

  17. Characterization of a putative grapevine Zn transporter, VvZIP3, suggests its involvement in early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gainza-Cortés Felipe

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zinc (Zn deficiency is one of the most widespread mineral nutritional problems that affect normal development in plants. Because Zn cannot passively diffuse across cell membranes, it must be transported into intracellular compartments for all biological processes where Zn is required. Several members of the Zinc-regulated transporters, Iron-regulated transporter-like Protein (ZIP gene family have been characterized in plants, and have shown to be involved in metal uptake and transport. This study describes the first putative Zn transporter in grapevine. Unravelling its function may explain an important symptom of Zn deficiency in grapevines, which is the production of clusters with fewer and usually smaller berries than normal. Results We identified and characterized a putative Zn transporter from berries of Vitis vinifera L., named VvZIP3. Compared to other members of the ZIP family identified in the Vitis vinifera L. genome, VvZIP3 is mainly expressed in reproductive tissue - specifically in developing flowers - which correlates with the high Zn accumulation in these organs. Contrary to this, the low expression of VvZIP3 in parthenocarpic berries shows a relationship with the lower Zn accumulation in this tissue than in normal seeded berries where its expression is induced by Zn. The predicted protein sequence indicates strong similarity with several members of the ZIP family from Arabidopsis thaliana and other species. Moreover, VvZIP3 complemented the growth defect of a yeast Zn-uptake mutant, ZHY3, and is localized in the plasma membrane of plant cells, suggesting that VvZIP3 has the function of a Zn uptake transporter. Conclusions Our results suggest that VvZIP3 encodes a putative plasma membrane Zn transporter protein member of the ZIP gene family that might play a role in Zn uptake and distribution during the early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L., indicating that the availability of this micronutrient

  18. Overexpression of an EaZIP gene devoid of transit peptide sequence induced leaf variegation in tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiayu Guan

    Full Text Available Leaf variegation is an ornamental trait that is not only biologically but also economically important. In our previous study, a Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester cyclase homologue, EaZIP (Epipremnum aureum leucine zipper was found to be associated with leaf variegation in Epipremnum aureum (Linden & Andre G.S. Bunting. The protein product of this nuclear-encoded gene is targeted back to chloroplast involving in chlorophyll biosynthesis. Based on a web-based homology analysis, the EaZIP was found to lack a chloroplast transit peptide (cTP sequence. In the present study, we tested if overexpression of the EaZIP cDNA with or without the cTP sequence could affect leaf variegation. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing EaZIP genes with (EaZIPwcTP and without (EaZIPwocTP cTP sequence were generated. Many plant lines harboring EaZIPwocTP showed variegated leaves, while none of the plant lines with EaZIPwcTP produced such a phenotype. Molecular analysis of T0 plants and selfed T1 progeny, as well as observations of tagged marker GFP (green fluorescent protein did not show any other difference in patterns of gene integrity and expression. Results from this study indicate that transgenic approach for expressing EaZIPwocTP could be a novel method of generating variegated plants even through the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated.

  19. The Populus class III HD ZIP, popREVOLUTA, influences cambium initiation and patterning of woody stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robischon, Marcel; Du, Juan; Miura, Eriko; Groover, Andrew

    2011-03-01

    The secondary growth of a woody stem requires the formation of a vascular cambium at an appropriate position and proper patterning of the vascular tissues derived from the cambium. Class III homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD ZIP) transcription factors have been implicated in polarity determination and patterning in lateral organs and primary vascular tissues and in the initiation and function of shoot apical meristems. We report here the functional characterization of a Populus class III HD ZIP gene, popREVOLUTA (PRE), that demonstrates another role for class III HD ZIPs in regulating the development of cambia and secondary vascular tissues. PRE is orthologous to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) REVOLUTA and is expressed in both the shoot apical meristem and in the cambial zone and secondary vascular tissues. Transgenic Populus expressing a microRNA-resistant form of PRE presents unstable phenotypic abnormalities affecting both primary and secondary growth. Surprisingly, phenotypic changes include abnormal formation of cambia within cortical parenchyma that can produce secondary vascular tissues in reverse polarity. Genes misexpressed in PRE mutants include transcription factors and auxin-related genes previously implicated in class III HD ZIP functions during primary growth. Together, these results suggest that PRE plays a fundamental role in the initiation of the cambium and in regulating the patterning of secondary vascular tissues.

  20. The Populus Class III HD ZIP, popREVOLUTA, influences cambium initiation and patterning of woody stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcel Robischon; Juan Du; Eriko Miura; Andrew Groover

    2011-01-01

    The secondary growth of a woody stem requires the formation of a vascular cambium at an appropriate position and proper patterning of the vascular tissues derived from the cambium. Class III homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD ZIP) transcription factors have been implicated in polarity determination and patterning in lateral organs and primary vascular tissues and in the...

  1. Gene expression of the zinc transporter ZIP14 (SLC39a14) is affected by weight loss and metabolic status and associates with PPARγ in human adipose tissue and 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Trine Maxel; Smidt, Kamille; Larsen, Agnete

    2015-01-01

    of clinical importance, including body mass index, triglyceride, and insulin resistance, were inversely correlated with ZIP14. During early adipogensis an up-regulation of ZIP14 gene expression was found. PPARγ gene expression was positively correlated with the ZIP14 gene expression in both adipose tissue...... as a potential biomarker for metabolic stress....

  2. The Tap code - a code similar to Morse code for communication by tapping

    OpenAIRE

    Rafler, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    A code is presented for fast, easy and efficient communication over channels that allow only two signal types: a single sound (e.g. a knock), or no sound (i.e. silence). This is a true binary code while Morse code is a ternary code and does not work in such situations. Thus the presented code is more universal than Morse and can be used in much more situations. Additionally it is very tolerant to variations in signal strength or duration. The paper contains various ways in which the code can ...

  3. Magnetic resonance diagnosis of posterior horn tears of the lateral meniscus using a thin axial plane: the zip sign - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savoye, P.Y.; Ravey, J.N.; Dubois, C.; Barbier, L.P.; Ferretti, G.; Courvoisier, A.; Saragaglia, D.

    2011-01-01

    The ''zip'' sign is a newly described form of meniscal tear progressing from the distal insertion of menisco-femoral ligaments (MFLs) through the lateral meniscal wall; the tear occurs during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the zip sign on knee MRI within the context of ACL injuries. From a series of 261 MR examinations for acute knee injury, we selected 97 patients with both MR and arthroscopic data for a retrospective blinded review. The zip sign was defined on axial thin MR sections as a straight line from the distal insertion of MFLs in association with five sagittal images lateral to the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) where the MFLs were identified. Sensitivity and specificity in detecting lateral meniscal tears before and after having defined the zip sign were calculated. Sensitivity in detecting the tears of the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus (PHLM) reached 87.5% (CI 0.68-0.97) after zip sign criteria were defined. The zip sign has excellent inter-observer agreement, K > 0.90. The zip sign indicates a lesion at the insertion site of MFLs into the PHLM on thin axial images associated with sagittal MR sections that may improve MR sensitivity in detecting PHLM tears. (orig.)

  4. Magnetic resonance diagnosis of posterior horn tears of the lateral meniscus using a thin axial plane: the zip sign - a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savoye, P.Y.; Ravey, J.N.; Dubois, C.; Barbier, L.P.; Ferretti, G. [CHU Grenoble, Clinique Universitaire de Radiologie et d' Imagerie Medicale, B.P 217, Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Courvoisier, A.; Saragaglia, D. [CHU Grenoble, Clinique Universitaire de Chirurgie Orthopedique et Traumatologique, Grenoble (France)

    2011-01-15

    The ''zip'' sign is a newly described form of meniscal tear progressing from the distal insertion of menisco-femoral ligaments (MFLs) through the lateral meniscal wall; the tear occurs during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the zip sign on knee MRI within the context of ACL injuries. From a series of 261 MR examinations for acute knee injury, we selected 97 patients with both MR and arthroscopic data for a retrospective blinded review. The zip sign was defined on axial thin MR sections as a straight line from the distal insertion of MFLs in association with five sagittal images lateral to the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) where the MFLs were identified. Sensitivity and specificity in detecting lateral meniscal tears before and after having defined the zip sign were calculated. Sensitivity in detecting the tears of the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus (PHLM) reached 87.5% (CI 0.68-0.97) after zip sign criteria were defined. The zip sign has excellent inter-observer agreement, K > 0.90. The zip sign indicates a lesion at the insertion site of MFLs into the PHLM on thin axial images associated with sagittal MR sections that may improve MR sensitivity in detecting PHLM tears. (orig.)

  5. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    message symbols downstream, network coding achieves vast performance gains by permitting intermediate nodes to carry out algebraic oper- ations on the incoming data. In this article we present a tutorial introduction to network coding as well as an application to the e±cient operation of distributed data-storage networks.

  6. Membrane androgen receptor characteristics of human ZIP9 (SLC39A) zinc transporter in prostate cancer cells: Androgen-specific activation and involvement of an inhibitory G protein in zinc and MAP kinase signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Peter; Pang, Yefei; Dong, Jing

    2017-05-15

    Characteristics of novel human membrane androgen receptor (mAR), ZIP9 (SLC39A9), were investigated in ZIP9-transfected PC-3 cells (PC3-ZIP9). Ligand blot analysis showed plasma membrane [ 3 H]-T binding corresponds to the position of ZIP9 on Western blots which suggests ZIP9 can bind [ 3 H]-T alone, without a protein partner. Progesterone antagonized testosterone actions, blocking increases in zinc, Erk phosphorylation and apoptosis, further evidence that ZIP9 is specifically activated by androgens. Pre-treatment with GTPγS and pertussis toxin decreased plasma membrane [ 3 H]-T binding and blocked testosterone-induced increases in Erk phosphorylation and intracellular zinc, indicating ZIP9 is coupled to an inhibitory G protein (Gi) that mediates both MAP kinase and zinc signaling. Testosterone treatment of nuclei and mitochondria which express ZIP9 decreased their zinc contents, suggesting ZIP9 also regulates free zinc through releasing it from these intracellular organelles. The results show ZIP9 is a specific Gi coupled-mAR mediating testosterone-induced MAP kinase and zinc signaling in PC3-ZIP9 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Gene family structure, expression and functional analysis of HD-Zip III genes in angiosperm and gymnosperm forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Caroline L; Boileau, Francis; Roy, Vicky; Ouellet, Mario; Levasseur, Caroline; Morency, Marie-Josée; Cooke, Janice E K; Séguin, Armand; MacKay, John J

    2010-12-11

    Class III Homeodomain Leucine Zipper (HD-Zip III) proteins have been implicated in the regulation of cambium identity, as well as primary and secondary vascular differentiation and patterning in herbaceous plants. They have been proposed to regulate wood formation but relatively little evidence is available to validate such a role. We characterised and compared HD-Zip III gene family in an angiosperm tree, Populus spp. (poplar), and the gymnosperm Picea glauca (white spruce), representing two highly evolutionarily divergent groups. Full-length cDNA sequences were isolated from poplar and white spruce. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that some of the gymnosperm sequences were derived from lineages that diverged earlier than angiosperm sequences, and seem to have been lost in angiosperm lineages. Transcript accumulation profiles were assessed by RT-qPCR on tissue panels from both species and in poplar trees in response to an inhibitor of polar auxin transport. The overall transcript profiles HD-Zip III complexes in white spruce and poplar exhibited substantial differences, reflecting their evolutionary history. Furthermore, two poplar sequences homologous to HD-Zip III genes involved in xylem development in Arabidopsis and Zinnia were over-expressed in poplar plants. PtaHB1 over-expression produced noticeable effects on petiole and primary shoot fibre development, suggesting that PtaHB1 is involved in primary xylem development. We also obtained evidence indicating that expression of PtaHB1 affected the transcriptome by altering the accumulation of 48 distinct transcripts, many of which are predicted to be involved in growth and cell wall synthesis. Most of them were down-regulated, as was the case for several of the poplar HD-Zip III sequences. No visible physiological effect of over-expression was observed on PtaHB7 transgenic trees, suggesting that PtaHB1 and PtaHB7 likely have distinct roles in tree development, which is in agreement with the functions that

  8. Gene family structure, expression and functional analysis of HD-Zip III genes in angiosperm and gymnosperm forest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooke Janice EK

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Class III Homeodomain Leucine Zipper (HD-Zip III proteins have been implicated in the regulation of cambium identity, as well as primary and secondary vascular differentiation and patterning in herbaceous plants. They have been proposed to regulate wood formation but relatively little evidence is available to validate such a role. We characterised and compared HD-Zip III gene family in an angiosperm tree, Populus spp. (poplar, and the gymnosperm Picea glauca (white spruce, representing two highly evolutionarily divergent groups. Results Full-length cDNA sequences were isolated from poplar and white spruce. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that some of the gymnosperm sequences were derived from lineages that diverged earlier than angiosperm sequences, and seem to have been lost in angiosperm lineages. Transcript accumulation profiles were assessed by RT-qPCR on tissue panels from both species and in poplar trees in response to an inhibitor of polar auxin transport. The overall transcript profiles HD-Zip III complexes in white spruce and poplar exhibited substantial differences, reflecting their evolutionary history. Furthermore, two poplar sequences homologous to HD-Zip III genes involved in xylem development in Arabidopsis and Zinnia were over-expressed in poplar plants. PtaHB1 over-expression produced noticeable effects on petiole and primary shoot fibre development, suggesting that PtaHB1 is involved in primary xylem development. We also obtained evidence indicating that expression of PtaHB1 affected the transcriptome by altering the accumulation of 48 distinct transcripts, many of which are predicted to be involved in growth and cell wall synthesis. Most of them were down-regulated, as was the case for several of the poplar HD-Zip III sequences. No visible physiological effect of over-expression was observed on PtaHB7 transgenic trees, suggesting that PtaHB1 and PtaHB7 likely have distinct roles in tree development

  9. IRE1/bZIP60-mediated unfolded protein response plays distinct roles in plant immunity and abiotic stress responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian A Moreno

    Full Text Available Endoplasmic reticulum (ER-mediated protein secretion and quality control have been shown to play an important role in immune responses in both animals and plants. In mammals, the ER membrane-located IRE1 kinase/endoribonuclease, a key regulator of unfolded protein response (UPR, is required for plasma cell development to accommodate massive secretion of immunoglobulins. Plant cells can secrete the so-called pathogenesis-related (PR proteins with antimicrobial activities upon pathogen challenge. However, whether IRE1 plays any role in plant immunity is not known. Arabidopsis thaliana has two copies of IRE1, IRE1a and IRE1b. Here, we show that both IRE1a and IRE1b are transcriptionally induced during chemically-induced ER stress, bacterial pathogen infection and treatment with the immune signal salicylic acid (SA. However, we found that IRE1a plays a predominant role in the secretion of PR proteins upon SA treatment. Consequently, the ire1a mutant plants show enhanced susceptibility to a bacterial pathogen and are deficient in establishing systemic acquired resistance (SAR, whereas ire1b is unaffected in these responses. We further demonstrate that the immune deficiency in ire1a is due to a defect in SA- and pathogen-triggered, IRE1-mediated cytoplasmic splicing of the bZIP60 mRNA, which encodes a transcription factor involved in the expression of UPR-responsive genes. Consistently, IRE1a is preferentially required for bZIP60 splicing upon pathogen infection, while IRE1b plays a major role in bZIP60 processing upon Tunicamycin (Tm-induced stress. We also show that SA-dependent induction of UPR-responsive genes is altered in the bzip60 mutant resulting in a moderate susceptibility to a bacterial pathogen. These results indicate that the IRE1/bZIP60 branch of UPR is a part of the plant response to pathogens for which the two Arabidopsis IRE1 isoforms play only partially overlapping roles and that IRE1 has both bZIP60-dependent and bZIP60-independent

  10. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Denne rapport rummer evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet1. Coding Class projektet blev igangsat i skoleåret 2016/2017 af IT-Branchen i samarbejde med en række medlemsvirksomheder, Københavns kommune, Vejle Kommune, Styrelsen for IT- og Læring (STIL) og den frivillige forening......, design tænkning og design-pædagogik, Stine Ejsing-Duun fra Forskningslab: It og Læringsdesign (ILD-LAB) ved Institut for kommunikation og psykologi, Aalborg Universitet i København. Vi har fulgt og gennemført evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet i perioden november 2016 til maj 2017....... Coding Class projektet er et pilotprojekt, hvor en række skoler i København og Vejle kommuner har igangsat undervisningsaktiviteter med fokus på kodning og programmering i skolen. Evalueringen og dokumentationen af projektet omfatter kvalitative nedslag i udvalgte undervisningsinterventioner i efteråret...

  11. Coding Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony McCosker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As well as introducing the Coding Labour section, the authors explore the diffusion of code across the material contexts of everyday life, through the objects and tools of mediation, the systems and practices of cultural production and organisational management, and in the material conditions of labour. Taking code beyond computation and software, their specific focus is on the increasingly familiar connections between code and labour with a focus on the codification and modulation of affect through technologies and practices of management within the contemporary work organisation. In the grey literature of spreadsheets, minutes, workload models, email and the like they identify a violence of forms through which workplace affect, in its constant flux of crisis and ‘prodromal’ modes, is regulated and governed.

  12. Major zircon megacryst suites of the Indo-Pacific lithospheric margin (ZIP) and their petrogenetic and regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Lin; Graham, Ian; Yaxley, Gregory; Armstrong, Richard; Giuliani, Gaston; Hoskin, Paul; Nechaev, Victor; Woodhead, Jon

    2016-04-01

    Zircon megacrysts (± gem corundum) appear in basalt fields of Indo-Pacific origin over a 12,000 km zone (ZIP) along West Pacific continental margins. Age-dating, trace element, oxygen and hafnium isotope studies on representative zircons (East Australia-Asia) indicate diverse magmatic sources. The U-Pb (249 to 1 Ma) and zircon fission track (ZFT) ages (65 to 1 Ma) suggest thermal annealing during later basalt transport, with slab subduction.

  13. Activation of the Arabidopsis membrane-bound transcription factor bZIP28 is mediated by site-2 protease, but not site-1 protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Yuji; Ashida, Makoto; Hasegawa, Chisa; Tabara, Kazuki; Mishiba, Kei-Ichiro; Koizumi, Nozomu

    2017-08-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a homeostatic cellular response conserved in eukaryotic cells to alleviate the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Arabidopsis bZIP28 is a membrane-bound transcription factor activated by proteolytic cleavage in response to ER stress, thereby releasing its cytosolic portion containing the bZIP domain from the membrane to translocate into the nucleus where it induces the transcription of genes encoding ER-resident molecular chaperones and folding enzymes. It has been widely recognized that the proteolytic activation of bZIP28 is mediated by the sequential cleavage of site-1 protease (S1P) and site-2 protease (S2P). In the present study we provide evidence that bZIP28 protein is cleaved by S2P, but not by S1P. We demonstrated that wild-type and s1p mutant plants produce the active, nuclear form of bZIP28 in response to the ER stress inducer tunicamycin. In contrast, tunicamycin-treated s2p mutants do not accumulate the active, nuclear form of bZIP28. Consistent with these observations, s2p mutants, but not s1p mutants, exhibited a defective transcriptional response of ER stress-responsive genes and significantly higher sensitivity to tunicamycin. Interestingly, s2p mutants accumulate two membrane-bound bZIP28 fragments with a shorter ER lumen-facing C-terminal domain. Importantly, the predicted cleavage sites are located far from the canonical S1P recognition motif previously described. We propose that ER stress-induced proteolytic activation of bZIP28 is mediated by the sequential actions of as-yet-unidentified protease(s) and S2P, and does not require S1P. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. AtbZIP34 is required for Arabidopsis pollen wall patterning and the control of several metabolic pathways in developing pollen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gibalová, Antónia; Reňák, David; Matczuk, Katarzyna; Dupľáková, Nikoleta; Cháb, David; Twell, D.; Honys, David

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 5 (2009), s. 581-601 ISSN 0167-4412 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/06/0896; GA ČR GA522/09/0858; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : bZIP transcription factor * AtbZIP34 * Male gametophyte development Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.978, year: 2009

  15. The bZIP transcription factor PERIANTHIA: A multifunctional hub for meristem control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eLohmann

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As sessile organisms, plants are exposed to extreme variations in environmental conditions over the course of their lives. Since plants grow and initiate new organs continuously, they have to modulate the underlying developmental program accordingly to cope with this challenge. At the heart of this extraordinary developmental plasticity are pluripotent stem cells, which are maintained during the entire life-cycle of the plant and that are embedded within dynamic stem cell niches. While the complex regulatory principles of plant stem cell control under artificial constant growth conditions begin to emerge, virtually nothing is known about how this circuit adapts to variations in the environment. In addition to the local feedback system constituted by the homeodomain transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS and the CLAVATA signaling cascade in the center of the shoot apical meristem (SAM, the bZIP transcription factor PERIANTHIA (PAN not only has a broader expression domain in SAM and flowers, but also carries out more diverse functions in meristem maintenance: pan mutants show alterations in environmental response, shoot meristem size, floral organ number and exhibit severe defects in termination of floral stem cells in an environment dependent fashion. Genetic and genomic analyses indicate that PAN interacts with a plethora of developmental pathways including light, plant hormone and meristem control systems, suggesting that PAN is as an important regulatory node in the network of plant stem cell control.

  16. A bZIP/bRLZ transcription factor required for DIF signaling in Dictyostelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Christopher R L; Fu, Qing; Buhay, Caroline; Kay, Robert R; Shaulsky, Gad

    2004-02-01

    The intermingled differentiation and sorting out of Dictyostelium prestalk-O and prespore cells requires the diffusible signaling molecule DIF-1, and provides an example of a spatial information-independent patterning mechanism. To further understand this patterning process, we used genetic selection to isolate mutants in the DIF-1 response pathway. The disrupted gene in one such mutant, dimA(-), encodes a bZIP/bRLZ transcription factor, which is required for every DIF-1 response investigated. Furthermore, the dimA(-) mutant shows strikingly similar developmental defects to the dmtA(-) mutant, which is specifically defective in DIF-1 synthesis. However, key differences exist: (1) the dmtA(-) mutant responds to DIF-1 but does not produce DIF-1; (2) the dimA(-) mutant produces DIF-1 but does not respond to DIF-1; and (3) the dimA(-) mutant exhibits cell autonomous defects in cell type differentiation. These results suggest that dimA encodes the key transcriptional regulator required to integrate DIF-1 signaling and subsequent patterning in Dictyostelium.

  17. HTLV-1 bZIP factor induces T-cell lymphoma and systemic inflammation in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yorifumi Satou

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is the causal agent of a neoplastic disease of CD4+ T cells, adult T-cell leukemia (ATL, and inflammatory diseases including HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, dermatitis, and inflammatory lung diseases. ATL cells, which constitutively express CD25, resemble CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells (T(reg. Approximately 60% of ATL cases indeed harbor leukemic cells that express FoxP3, a key transcription factor for T(reg cells. HTLV-1 encodes an antisense transcript, HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ, which is expressed in all ATL cases. In this study, we show that transgenic expression of HBZ in CD4+ T cells induced T-cell lymphomas and systemic inflammation in mice, resembling diseases observed in HTLV-1 infected individuals. In HBZ-transgenic mice, CD4+Foxp3+ T(reg cells and effector/memory CD4+ T cells increased in vivo. As a mechanism of increased T(reg cells, HBZ expression directly induced Foxp3 gene transcription in T cells. The increased CD4+Foxp3+ T(reg cells in HBZ transgenic mice were functionally impaired while their proliferation was enhanced. HBZ could physically interact with Foxp3 and NFAT, thereby impairing the suppressive function of T(reg cells. Thus, the expression of HBZ in CD4+ T cells is a key mechanism of HTLV-1-induced neoplastic and inflammatory diseases.

  18. The Populus Class III HD ZIP transcription factor POPCORONA affects cell differentiation during secondary growth of woody stems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Du

    Full Text Available The developmental mechanisms regulating cell differentiation and patterning during the secondary growth of woody tissues are poorly understood. Class III HD ZIP transcription factors are evolutionarily ancient and play fundamental roles in various aspects of plant development. Here we investigate the role of a Class III HD ZIP transcription factor, POPCORONA, during secondary growth of woody stems. Transgenic Populus (poplar trees expressing either a miRNA-resistant POPCORONA or a synthetic miRNA targeting POPCORONA were used to infer function of POPCORONA during secondary growth. Whole plant, histological, and gene expression changes were compared for transgenic and wild-type control plants. Synthetic miRNA knock down of POPCORONA results in abnormal lignification in cells of the pith, while overexpression of a miRNA-resistant POPCORONA results in delayed lignification of xylem and phloem fibers during secondary growth. POPCORONA misexpression also results in coordinated changes in expression of genes within a previously described transcriptional network regulating cell differentiation and cell wall biosynthesis, and hormone-related genes associated with fiber differentiation. POPCORONA illustrates another function of Class III HD ZIPs: regulating cell differentiation during secondary growth.

  19. The Populus Class III HD ZIP transcription factor POPCORONA affects cell differentiation during secondary growth of woody stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Miura, Eriko; Robischon, Marcel; Martinez, Ciera; Groover, Andrew

    2011-02-28

    The developmental mechanisms regulating cell differentiation and patterning during the secondary growth of woody tissues are poorly understood. Class III HD ZIP transcription factors are evolutionarily ancient and play fundamental roles in various aspects of plant development. Here we investigate the role of a Class III HD ZIP transcription factor, POPCORONA, during secondary growth of woody stems. Transgenic Populus (poplar) trees expressing either a miRNA-resistant POPCORONA or a synthetic miRNA targeting POPCORONA were used to infer function of POPCORONA during secondary growth. Whole plant, histological, and gene expression changes were compared for transgenic and wild-type control plants. Synthetic miRNA knock down of POPCORONA results in abnormal lignification in cells of the pith, while overexpression of a miRNA-resistant POPCORONA results in delayed lignification of xylem and phloem fibers during secondary growth. POPCORONA misexpression also results in coordinated changes in expression of genes within a previously described transcriptional network regulating cell differentiation and cell wall biosynthesis, and hormone-related genes associated with fiber differentiation. POPCORONA illustrates another function of Class III HD ZIPs: regulating cell differentiation during secondary growth.

  20. Variation Analysis of Physiological Traits in Betula platyphylla Overexpressing TaLEA-ThbZIP Gene under Salt Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyang Zhao

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether transgenic birch (Betula platyphylla ectopic overexpressing a late embryogenesis abundant (LEA gene and a basic leucine zipper (bZIP gene from the salt-tolerant genus Tamarix (salt cedar show increased tolerance to salt (NaCl stress. Co-transfer of TaLEA and ThbZIP in birch under the control of two independent CaMV 35S promoters significantly enhanced salt stress. PCR and northern blot analyses indicated that the two genes were ectopically overexpressed in several dual-gene transgenic birch lines. We compared the effects of salt stress among three transgenic birch lines (L-4, L-5, and L-8 and wild type (WT. In all lines, the net photosynthesis values were higher before salt stress treatment than afterwards. After the salt stress treatment, the transgenic lines L-4 and L-8 showed higher values for photosynthetic traits, chlorophyll fluorescence, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, and lower malondialdehyde and Na+ contents, compared with those in WT and L-5. These different responses to salt stress suggested that the transcriptional level of the TaLEA and ThbZIP genes differed among the transgenic lines, resulting in a variety of genetic and phenotypic effects. The results of this research can provide a theoretical basis for the genetic engineering of salt-tolerant trees.

  1. SnRK1-triggered switch of bZIP63 dimerization mediates the low-energy response in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Andrea; Pedrotti, Lorenzo; Wurzinger, Bernhard; Anrather, Dorothea; Simeunovic, Andrea; Weiste, Christoph; Valerio, Concetta; Dietrich, Katrin; Kirchler, Tobias; Nägele, Thomas; Vicente Carbajosa, Jesús; Hanson, Johannes; Baena-González, Elena; Chaban, Christina; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Dröge-Laser, Wolfgang; Teige, Markus

    2015-08-11

    Metabolic adjustment to changing environmental conditions, particularly balancing of growth and defense responses, is crucial for all organisms to survive. The evolutionary conserved AMPK/Snf1/SnRK1 kinases are well-known metabolic master regulators in the low-energy response in animals, yeast and plants. They act at two different levels: by modulating the activity of key metabolic enzymes, and by massive transcriptional reprogramming. While the first part is well established, the latter function is only partially understood in animals and not at all in plants. Here we identified the Arabidopsis transcription factor bZIP63 as key regulator of the starvation response and direct target of the SnRK1 kinase. Phosphorylation of bZIP63 by SnRK1 changed its dimerization preference, thereby affecting target gene expression and ultimately primary metabolism. A bzip63 knock-out mutant exhibited starvation-related phenotypes, which could be functionally complemented by wild type bZIP63, but not by a version harboring point mutations in the identified SnRK1 target sites.

  2. Human prostate cancer ZIP1/zinc/citrate genetic/metabolic relationship in the TRAMP prostate cancer animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Leslie C; Franklin, Renty B; Zou, Jing; Feng, Pei; Bok, Robert; Swanson, Mark G; Kurhanewicz, John

    2011-12-15

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men. The availability of animal models that represent the events and factors that exist in the natural history and biology of human prostate cancer is essential in dealing with prostate cancer. In recent decades and presently, emphasis has been directed at the development and employment of prostate cancer induced in transgenic mice. However, the important consistent hallmark characteristic and event of decrease in zinc and citrate and downregulation of ZIP1 zinc transporter in prostate malignancy has not been studied or identified in any animal model. We investigated the status of these parameters in TRAMP tumors as compared with human prostate cancer. The results show that citrate levels are markedly decreased in the developing and advancing stages of malignancy in TRAMP. Zinc levels are also decreased and ZIP1 transporter is lost in TRAMP tumors. In vitro studies show that zinc treatment of TRAMP C2 cells exhibits cytotoxic effects. Collectively, these results mimic the ZIP1, zinc, and citrate status and relationship that exist in human prostate cancer. This is the first report that establishes the existence of the human prostate zinc/citrate hallmark characteristic and relationship in an animal model. It now appears that the TRAMP model will be suitable for studies relating to the implications and role of zinc- and citrate-related metabolism in the development and progression of human prostate cancer.

  3. DNA Methylation Influences Chlorogenic Acid Biosynthesis in Lonicera japonica by Mediating LjbZIP8 to Regulate Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase 2 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangping Zha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The content of active compounds differ in buds and flowers of Lonicera japonica (FLJ and L. japonica var. chinensis (rFLJ. Chlorogenic acid (CGAs were major active compounds of L. japonica and regarded as measurements for quality evaluation. However, little is known concerning the formation of active compounds at the molecular level. We quantified the major CGAs in FLJ and rFLJ, and found the concentrations of CGAs were higher in the buds of rFLJ than those of FLJ. Further analysis of CpG methylation of CGAs biosynthesis genes showed differences between FLJ and rFLJ in the 5′-UTR of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 2 (PAL2. We identified 11 LjbZIP proteins and 24 rLjbZIP proteins with conserved basic leucine zipper domains, subcellular localization, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that the transcription factor LjbZIP8 is a nuclear-localized protein that specifically binds to the G-box element of the LjPAL2 5′-UTR. Additionally, a transactivation assay and LjbZIP8 overexpression in transgenic tobacco indicated that LjbZIP8 could function as a repressor of transcription. Finally, treatment with 5-azacytidine decreased the transcription level of LjPAL2 and CGAs content in FLJ leaves. These results raise the possibility that DNA methylation might influence the recruitment of LjbZIP8, regulating PAL2 expression level and CGAs content in L. japonica.

  4. Speech coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  5. NETWORK CODING BY BEAM FORMING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Network coding by beam forming in networks, for example, in single frequency networks, can provide aid in increasing spectral efficiency. When network coding by beam forming and user cooperation are combined, spectral efficiency gains may be achieved. According to certain embodiments, a method...

  6. Error correcting coding for OTN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Larsen, Knud J.; Pedersen, Lars A.

    2010-01-01

    Forward error correction codes for 100 Gb/s optical transmission are currently receiving much attention from transport network operators and technology providers. We discuss the performance of hard decision decoding using product type codes that cover a single OTN frame or a small number...

  7. NSURE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rattan, D.S.

    1993-11-01

    NSURE stands for Near-Surface Repository code. NSURE is a performance assessment code. developed for the safety assessment of near-surface disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). Part one of this report documents the NSURE model, governing equations and formulation of the mathematical models, and their implementation under the SYVAC3 executive. The NSURE model simulates the release of nuclides from an engineered vault, their subsequent transport via the groundwater and surface water pathways tot he biosphere, and predicts the resulting dose rate to a critical individual. Part two of this report consists of a User's manual, describing simulation procedures, input data preparation, output and example test cases

  8. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    Speaking Code begins by invoking the “Hello World” convention used by programmers when learning a new language, helping to establish the interplay of text and code that runs through the book. Interweaving the voice of critical writing from the humanities with the tradition of computing and softwa...... expression in the public realm. The book’s line of argument defends language against its invasion by economics, arguing that speech continues to underscore the human condition, however paradoxical this may seem in an era of pervasive computing....

  9. The Aster code; Code Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, J.M

    1999-07-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  10. The Dictyostelium prestalk inducer DIF-1 directs phosphorylation of a bZIP transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yoko; Kubohara, Yuzuru; Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Oshima, Yoshiteru; Wang, Hong-Yu; Ross, Susan; Williams, Jeffrey G

    2013-01-01

    DIF-1, a chlorinated hexaphenone produced by developing Dictyostelium cells, induces prestalk differentiation. DimB is a bZIP transcription factor that accumulates in the nucleus upon exposure to DIF-1, where it directly activates transcription of DIF-responsive genes. The signaling steps upstream of DimB and downstream of DIF-1 are entirely unknown. Analysis by mass spectrometry shows that incubation with DIF-1 rapidly stimulates phosphorylation at several sites in DimB. We characterize the most highly responsive site, S590, which is located very close to the C terminus. A point mutation in this site, S590A, does not inhibit DimB nuclear accumulation in response to DIF. However, this seems likely to reflect functional redundancy with other sites; because a panel of chemical variants on the structure of DIF-1 show a correlation between their potencies as inducers of DimB nuclear accumulation and their potencies as inducers of phosphorylation at S590. Furthermore, the S590A mutant is fully active in mutant rescue of a dimB null strain, arguing against an alternative role in transcriptional activation of target genes. We conclude that i) DIF-1 directs phosphorylation at S590, ii) although it is not essential for nuclear accumulation in response to DIF-1 correlative evidence, based upon a panel of DIF-1 related molecules, suggests that this modification may play a redundant role in the process. iii) We also present evidence that the kinase activity, which phosphorylates S590, is non-nuclear and that this signalling pathway is, in part at least, independent of the DIF-regulated STATc activation pathway.

  11. ANIMAL code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1979-02-28

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables.

  12. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 7. Network Coding. K V Rashmi Nihar B Shah P Vijay Kumar. General Article Volume 15 Issue 7 July 2010 pp 604-621. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/07/0604-0621 ...

  13. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  14. Expander Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Codes and Channels. A noisy communication channel is illustrated in Fig- ... nication channel. Suppose we want to transmit a message over the unreliable communication channel so that even if the channel corrupts some of the bits we are able to recover ..... is d-regular, meaning thereby that every vertex has de- gree d.

  15. Expander Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Expander Codes - The Sipser–Spielman Construction. Priti Shankar. General Article Volume 10 ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560 012, India.

  16. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Network coding is a technique to increase the amount of information °ow in a network by mak- ing the key observation that information °ow is fundamentally different from commodity °ow. Whereas, under traditional methods of opera- tion of data networks, intermediate nodes are restricted to simply forwarding their incoming.

  17. Post-test calculations of out-of-pile single rod burst experiments with Argentine ZRY-4 tubes using SSYST codes system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassini, H.; Meyder, R.

    1988-11-01

    The calculations were performed with SSYST-3 code system. The experiments have been carried out with shortened REBEKA simulators. The main goal was to verify whether the model for describing the Zircaloy cladding deformation and rupture at high temperatures (NORA2 model) is able to predict the Argentine cladding material behaviour under such conditions. A good agreement between experimental results and model predictions was found in the range of temperatures from 700 to 850 0 C (in α phase and first half of α+β transition phase). There were some discrepances at higher temperatures, probably due to the strong influence of heating rate on material properties. According to the results of these post-test calculations, it can be concluded that NORA2 model is able to well describe the Argentine Zircaloy cladding deformation and rupture under LOCA conditions, because there was a good agreement in the range of burst (ballooning) temperatures which are expected in this type of accident. (orig./HP) [de

  18. 27. The impact of introduction of code-stemi program on clinical outcomes of acute st-elevation myocardial infarction (stemi patients undergoing primary pci: Single center study in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ALYAHYA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of direct Emergency Department activation of the Catheterization Lab on door to balloon (D2B time and outcomes of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI patients in King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH. Establishing dedicated comprehensive STEMI programs aiming at reducing door to balloon time will impact favourably the outcomes of patients presenting with acute STEMI. This was a retrospective cohort study that involved 100 patients in KKUH who presented with acute STEMI and underwent primary percutaneous intervention (PPCI, between June 2010 and January 2015. The cohort was divided into two groups, the first group consisted of 50 patients who were treated before establishing the Code-STEMI protocol, whereas the second group were 50 patients who were treated according to the protocol, which was implemented in June 2013. Code-STEMI program is a comprehensive program that includes direct activation of the cath lab team using a single call system, data monitoring and feedback, and standardized order forms. The mean age in both groups was 54 ± 12 years and 86% (43 and 94% (47 of the patients in the two groups were males, respectively. 90% (90 of patients in both groups had one or more comorbidities.Code-STEMI group had a significantly lower D2BT with 70% of patients treated within the recommended 90 minutes (median = 76.5 min, IQR: 63–90 min compared to only 26% of pre code-STEMI patients (median = 107 min, IQR: 74–149 min In-hospital complications were lower in the Code-STEMI group; however, the only statistically significant reduction was in non-fatal re-infarction, (8% vs. 0%, p = 0.043. In addition, the number of patients with more than one in-hospital complications was also reduced by 20%.Implementation of direct ER-Catheterization lab activation protocol was associated with a significant reduction in D2B time, and an overall improvement of in-hospital outcomes.

  19. Single-quantum-dot tracking reveals altered membrane dynamics of an attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder-derived dopamine transporter coding variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovtun, Oleg; Sakrikar, Dhananjay; Tomlinson, Ian D; Chang, Jerry C; Arzeta-Ferrer, Xochitl; Blakely, Randy D; Rosenthal, Sandra J

    2015-04-15

    The presynaptic, cocaine- and amphetamine-sensitive dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT, SLC6A3) controls the intensity and duration of synaptic dopamine signals by rapid clearance of DA back into presynaptic nerve terminals. Abnormalities in DAT-mediated DA clearance have been linked to a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including addiction, autism, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Membrane trafficking of DAT appears to be an important, albeit incompletely understood, post-translational regulatory mechanism; its dysregulation has been recently proposed as a potential risk determinant of these disorders. In this study, we demonstrate a link between an ADHD-associated DAT mutation (Arg615Cys, R615C) and variation on DAT transporter cell surface dynamics, a combination only previously studied with ensemble biochemical and optical approaches that featured limited spatiotemporal resolution. Here, we utilize high-affinity, DAT-specific antagonist-conjugated quantum dot (QD) probes to establish the dynamic mobility of wild-type and mutant DATs at the plasma membrane of living cells. Single DAT-QD complex trajectory analysis revealed that the DAT 615C variant exhibited increased membrane mobility relative to DAT 615R, with diffusion rates comparable to those observed after lipid raft disruption. This phenomenon was accompanied by a loss of transporter mobilization triggered by amphetamine, a common component of ADHD medications. Together, our data provides the first dynamic imaging of single DAT proteins, providing new insights into the relationship between surface dynamics and trafficking of both wild-type and disease-associated transporters. Our approach should be generalizable to future studies that explore the possibilities of perturbed surface DAT dynamics that may arise as a consequence of genetic alterations, regulatory changes, and drug use that contribute to the etiology or treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  20. Conformation effects of CpG methylation on single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides: analysis of the opioid peptide dynorphin-coding sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Mumtaz Taqi

    Full Text Available Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA is characterized by high conformational flexibility that allows these molecules to adopt a variety of conformations. Here we used native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE, circular dichroism (CD spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy to show that cytosine methylation at CpG sites affects the conformational flexibility of short ssDNA molecules. The CpG containing 37-nucleotide PDYN (prodynorphin fragments were used as model molecules. The presence of secondary DNA structures was evident from differences in oligonucleotide mobilities on PAGE, from CD spectra, and from formation of A-T, G-C, and non-canonical G-T base pairs observed by NMR spectroscopy. The oligonucleotides displayed secondary structures at 4°C, and some also at 37°C. Methylation at CpG sites prompted sequence-dependent formation of novel conformations, or shifted the equilibrium between different existing ssDNA conformations. The effects of methylation on gel mobility and base pairing were comparable in strength to the effects induced by point mutations in the DNA sequences. The conformational effects of methylation may be relevant for epigenetic regulatory events in a chromatin context, including DNA-protein or DNA-DNA recognition in the course of gene transcription, and DNA replication and recombination when double-stranded DNA is unwinded to ssDNA.

  1. A Calculation Method of PKA, KERMA and DPA from Evaluated Nuclear Data with an Effective Single-particle Emission Approximation (ESPEA) and Introduction of Event Generator Mode in PHITS Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukahori, Tokio; Iwamoto, Yosuke

    2012-01-01

    The displacement calculation method from evaluated nuclear data file has been developed by using effective single-particle emission approximation (ESPEA). The ESPEA can be used effectively below about 50 MeV, because of since multiplicity of emitted particles. These are also reported in the Ref. 24. The displacement calculation method in PHITS has been developed. In the high energy region (≥ 20 MeV) for proton and neutron beams, DPA created by secondary particles increase due to nuclear reactions. For heavy-ion beams, DPA created by the primaries are dominant to total DPA due to the large Coulomb scattering cross sections. PHITS results agree with FLUKA ones within a factor of 1.7. In the high-energy region above 10 MeV/nucleon, comparisons among codes and measurements of displacement damage cross section are necessary. (author)

  2. Maternal single nucleotide polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase 1 and 2 coding regions modify the impact of prenatal supplementation with DHA on birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Casanova, Ines; Rzehak, Peter; Stein, Aryeh D; Garcia Feregrino, Raquel; Rivera Dommarco, Juan A; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Demmelmair, Hans; Romieu, Isabelle; Villalpando, Salvador; Martorell, Reynaldo; Koletzko, Berthold; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2016-04-01

    Specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene affect the activity and efficiency of enzymes that are responsible for the conversion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into their long-chain active form. A high prevalence of SNPs that are associated with slow PUFA conversion has been described in Hispanic populations. We assessed the heterogeneity of the effect of prenatal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on birth weight across selected FADS SNPs in a sample of Mexican women and their offspring. We obtained information on the maternal genotype from stored blood samples of 654 women who received supplementation with 400 mg DHA/d or a placebo from weeks 18 to 22 of gestation through delivery as part of a randomized controlled trial conducted in Cuernavaca, Mexico. We selected 4 tag SNPs (rs174455, rs174556, rs174602, and rs498793) in the FADS region for analysis. We used an ANOVA to test for the heterogeneity of the effect on birth weight across each of the 4 SNPs. The mean ± SD birth weight was 3210 ± 470 g, and the weight-for-age z score (WAZ) was -0.24 ± 1.00. There were no intention-to-treat differences in birth weights. We showed significant heterogeneity by SNP rs174602 (P= 0.02); offspring of carriers of alleles TT and TC in the intervention group were heavier than those in the placebo group (WAZ: -0.13 ± 0.14 and -0.20 ± 0.08 compared with -0.55 ± 0.15 and -0.39 ± 0.09, respectively); there were no significant differences in offspring of rs174602 CC homozygotes (WAZ: -0.26 ± 0.09 in the intervention group compared with -0.04 ± 0.09 in the placebo group). We showed no significant heterogeneity across the other 3 FADS SNPs. Differential responses to prenatal DHA supplementation on the basis of the genetic makeup of target populations could explain the mixed evidence of the impact of DHA supplementation on birth weight. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00646360. © 2016

  3. From concatenated codes to graph codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom

    2004-01-01

    We consider codes based on simple bipartite expander graphs. These codes may be seen as the first step leading from product type concatenated codes to more complex graph codes. We emphasize constructions of specific codes of realistic lengths, and study the details of decoding by message passing...

  4. Identification of Candidate Iron Transporters From the ZIP/ZnT Gene Families in the Mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Tsujimoto

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-transmitted viral pathogens, such as dengue and Zika, afflict tens of thousands of people every year. These viruses are transmitted during the blood-feeding process that is required for mosquito reproduction, the most important vector being Aedes aegypti. While vertebrate blood is rich in protein, its high iron content is potentially toxic to mosquitoes. Although iron transport and sequestration are essential in the reproduction of vector mosquitoes, we discovered that culicine mosquitoes lack homologs of the common iron transporter NRAMP. Using a novel cell-based screen, we identified two ZIP and one ZnT genes as candidate iron transporters in the mosquito A. aegypti, the vector of dengue, Zika, and chikungunya. We determined the organ-specific expression pattern of these genes at critical time points in early reproduction. The result indicates modulation of these genes upon blood feeding, especially a ZIP13 homolog that is highly up-regulated after blood feeding, suggesting its importance in iron mobilization during blood digestion and reproduction. Gene silencing resulted in differential iron accumulation in the midgut and ovaries. This study sets a foundation for further investigation of iron transport and control strategies of this viral vector.

  5. Non-Protein Coding RNAs

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Nils G; Batey, Robert T

    2009-01-01

    This book assembles chapters from experts in the Biophysics of RNA to provide a broadly accessible snapshot of the current status of this rapidly expanding field. The 2006 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to the discoverers of RNA interference, highlighting just one example of a large number of non-protein coding RNAs. Because non-protein coding RNAs outnumber protein coding genes in mammals and other higher eukaryotes, it is now thought that the complexity of organisms is correlated with the fraction of their genome that encodes non-protein coding RNAs. Essential biological processes as diverse as cell differentiation, suppression of infecting viruses and parasitic transposons, higher-level organization of eukaryotic chromosomes, and gene expression itself are found to largely be directed by non-protein coding RNAs. The biophysical study of these RNAs employs X-ray crystallography, NMR, ensemble and single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy, optical tweezers, cryo-electron microscopy, and ot...

  6. Coding isotropic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneal, J. B., Jr.; Natarajan, T. R.

    1976-01-01

    Rate distortion functions for two-dimensional homogeneous isotropic images are compared with the performance of 5 source encoders designed for such images. Both unweighted and frequency weighted mean square error distortion measures are considered. The coders considered are differential PCM (DPCM) using six previous samples in the prediction, herein called 6 pel (picutre element) DPCM; simple DPCM using single sample prediction; 6 pel DPCM followed by entropy coding; 8 x 8 discrete cosine transform coder, and 4 x 4 Hadamard transform coder. Other transform coders were studied and found to have about the same performance as the two transform coders above. With the mean square error distortion measure DPCM with entropy coding performed best. The relative performance of the coders changes slightly when the distortion measure is frequency weighted mean square error. The performance of all the coders was separated by only about 4 dB.

  7. An implicit Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Charles E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2000-05-01

    An implicit version of the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) code SPHINX has been written and is working. In conjunction with the SPHINX code the new implicit code models fluids and solids under a wide range of conditions. SPH codes are Lagrangian, meshless and use particles to model the fluids and solids. The implicit code makes use of the Krylov iterative techniques for solving large linear-systems and a Newton-Raphson method for non-linear corrections. It uses numerical derivatives to construct the Jacobian matrix. It uses sparse techniques to save on memory storage and to reduce the amount of computation. It is believed that this is the first implicit SPH code to use Newton-Krylov techniques, and is also the first implicit SPH code to model solids. A description of SPH and the techniques used in the implicit code are presented. Then, the results of a number of tests cases are discussed, which include a shock tube problem, a Rayleigh-Taylor problem, a breaking dam problem, and a single jet of gas problem. The results are shown to be in very good agreement with analytic solutions, experimental results, and the explicit SPHINX code. In the case of the single jet of gas case it has been demonstrated that the implicit code can do a problem in much shorter time than the explicit code. The problem was, however, very unphysical, but it does demonstrate the potential of the implicit code. It is a first step toward a useful implicit SPH code.

  8. Dedicated Searches for Low and High Mass Wimps with the SuperCDMS Soudan iZIP Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welliver, Bradford [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Recent cosmological evidence suggests most of the mass of the universe takes the form of a type of particle that we have not been able to directly detect. Nearly 80 years that have elapsed since the rst hints of this dark matter started to appear from astronomers without any direct detection. The high precision era of cosmology and unifying models of particle physics developed in the 20 th century have presented us with an exciting mystery at the intersection of these two elds that needs to be solved. SuperCDMS Soudan operates specialized germanium detectors (iZIPs) that are cooled to milliKelvin temperatures deep underground in the Soudan Underground Laboratory with the hope of detecting a rare collision between dark matter and a nucleus. A search for low-mass dark matter comes with multiple unique challenges since the background discrimination abilities of these detectors becomes less powerful at the low energies needed to probe low-mass dark matter since the signal to noise ratio deteriorates. Using a sophisticated background model via a pulse rescaling technique, SuperCDMS Soudan was able to produce a world leading exclusion limit on low-mass dark matter. Effort is to extend the analysis to higher masses require long running times during which many aspects of the detectors or the environment can change. Additional challenges are offered by the powerful background discrimination ability of the iZIP. The background distributions are well separated from the signal region, meaning most of the leakage arises from low-probability tails of the background distributions. In the absence of an enormous dataset, extrapolations from the bulk of the distribution are required. While attempting to obtain a model of gamma induced electron-recoils leaking into the signal region of the detector from high radius a curious asymmetry between the sides of the detectors was discovered potentially indicating an electronics or detector design problem. This thesis describes the physics

  9. Automatic coding method of the ACR Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kwi Ae; Ihm, Jong Sool; Ahn, Woo Hyun; Baik, Seung Kook; Choi, Han Yong; Kim, Bong Gi

    1993-01-01

    The authors developed a computer program for automatic coding of ACR(American College of Radiology) code. The automatic coding of the ACR code is essential for computerization of the data in the department of radiology. This program was written in foxbase language and has been used for automatic coding of diagnosis in the Department of Radiology, Wallace Memorial Baptist since May 1992. The ACR dictionary files consisted of 11 files, one for the organ code and the others for the pathology code. The organ code was obtained by typing organ name or code number itself among the upper and lower level codes of the selected one that were simultaneous displayed on the screen. According to the first number of the selected organ code, the corresponding pathology code file was chosen automatically. By the similar fashion of organ code selection, the proper pathologic dode was obtained. An example of obtained ACR code is '131.3661'. This procedure was reproducible regardless of the number of fields of data. Because this program was written in 'User's Defined Function' from, decoding of the stored ACR code was achieved by this same program and incorporation of this program into program in to another data processing was possible. This program had merits of simple operation, accurate and detail coding, and easy adjustment for another program. Therefore, this program can be used for automation of routine work in the department of radiology

  10. Fundamentals of convolutional coding

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesson, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Convolutional Coding, Second Edition, regarded as a bible of convolutional coding brings you a clear and comprehensive discussion of the basic principles of this field * Two new chapters on low-density parity-check (LDPC) convolutional codes and iterative coding * Viterbi, BCJR, BEAST, list, and sequential decoding of convolutional codes * Distance properties of convolutional codes * Includes a downloadable solutions manual

  11. The Populus Class III HD ZIP, popREVOLUTA, Influences Cambium Initiation and Patterning of Woody Stems1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robischon, Marcel; Du, Juan; Miura, Eriko; Groover, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The secondary growth of a woody stem requires the formation of a vascular cambium at an appropriate position and proper patterning of the vascular tissues derived from the cambium. Class III homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD ZIP) transcription factors have been implicated in polarity determination and patterning in lateral organs and primary vascular tissues and in the initiation and function of shoot apical meristems. We report here the functional characterization of a Populus class III HD ZIP gene, popREVOLUTA (PRE), that demonstrates another role for class III HD ZIPs in regulating the development of cambia and secondary vascular tissues. PRE is orthologous to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) REVOLUTA and is expressed in both the shoot apical meristem and in the cambial zone and secondary vascular tissues. Transgenic Populus expressing a microRNA-resistant form of PRE presents unstable phenotypic abnormalities affecting both primary and secondary growth. Surprisingly, phenotypic changes include abnormal formation of cambia within cortical parenchyma that can produce secondary vascular tissues in reverse polarity. Genes misexpressed in PRE mutants include transcription factors and auxin-related genes previously implicated in class III HD ZIP functions during primary growth. Together, these results suggest that PRE plays a fundamental role in the initiation of the cambium and in regulating the patterning of secondary vascular tissues. PMID:21205615

  12. Effects of superglue fuming on materials characterization of zip-lock polyethylene bags for route forensic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, C.J.; Grant, P.M.; Blankenship, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Using cyanoacrylate or 'superglue' fuming to develop latent dermatoglyphic prints significantly altered the volatile and semivolatile compounds within the material of polyethylene zip-lock bags. Comparisons of SPME-GC/MS analyses of poly bags obtained before and after application of a glue fuming fingermark-developing technique resulted in markedly different material profiles of the bags. Not only were species added to the chemical composition of a bag, but other compounds that had been initially present were removed. These effects are particularly important for nuclear forensic investigations in the realm of route (pathway) analyses, and may also be of general interest to criminalistics laboratories that examine illicit drugs and their packaging. (author)

  13. Pepper CabZIP63 acts as a positive regulator during Ralstonia solanacearum or high temperature–high humidity challenge in a positive feedback loop with CaWRKY40

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Zhiqin; Yang, Sheng; Yang, Tong; Liang, Jiaqi; Wen, Jiayu; Liu, Yanyan; Li, Jiazhi; Shi, Lanping; Tang, Qian; Shi, Wei; Hu, Jiong; Liu, Cailing; Zhang, Yangwen; Lin, Wei; Wang, Rongzhang; Yu, Huanxin; Mou, Shaoliang; Hussain, Ansar; Cheng, Wei; Cai, Hanyang; He, Li; Guan, Deyi; Wu, Yang; He, Shuilin

    2016-01-01

    CaWRKY40 is known to act as a positive regulator in the response of pepper (Capsicum annuum) to Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation (RSI) or high temperature–high humidity (HTHH), but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Herein, we report that CabZIP63, a pepper bZIP family member, participates in this process by regulating the expression of CaWRKY40. CabZIP63 was found to localize in the nuclei, be up-regulated by RSI or HTHH, bind to promoters of both CabZIP63 (pCabZIP63) and CaWRKY40 (pCaWRKY40), and activate pCabZIP63- and pCaWRKY40-driven β-glucuronidase expression in a C- or G-box-dependent manner. Silencing of CabZIP63 by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in pepper plants significantly attenuated their resistance to RSI and tolerance to HTHH, accompanied by down-regulation of immunity- or thermotolerance-associated CaPR1, CaNPR1, CaDEF1, and CaHSP24. Hypersensitive response-mediated cell death and expression of the tested immunity- and thermotolerance-associated marker genes were induced by transient overexpression (TOE) of CabZIP63, but decreased by that of CabZIP63-SRDX. Additionally, binding of CabZIP63 to pCaWRKY40 was up-regulated by RSI or HTHH, and the transcript level of CaWRKY40 and binding of CaWRKY40 to the promoters of CaPR1, CaNPR1, CaDEF1 and CaHSP24 were up-regulated by TOE of CabZIP63. On the other hand, CabZIP63 was also up-regulated transcriptionally by TOE of CaWRKY40. The data suggest collectively that CabZIP63 directly or indirectly regulates the expression of CaWRKY40 at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level, forming a positive feedback loop with CaWRKY40 during pepper’s response to RSI or HTHH. Altogether, our data will help to elucidate the underlying mechanism of crosstalk between pepper’s response to RSI and HTHH. PMID:26936828

  14. Extreme Population Differences in the Human Zinc Transporter ZIP4 (SLC39A4) Are Explained by Positive Selection in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pybus, Marc; Andrews, Glen K.; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Comas, David; Sekler, Israel; de la Rasilla, Marco; Rosas, Antonio; Stoneking, Mark; Valverde, Miguel A.; Vicente, Rubén; Bosch, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Extreme differences in allele frequency between West Africans and Eurasians were observed for a leucine-to-valine substitution (Leu372Val) in the human intestinal zinc uptake transporter, ZIP4, yet no further evidence was found for a selective sweep around the ZIP4 gene (SLC39A4). By interrogating allele frequencies in more than 100 diverse human populations and resequencing Neanderthal DNA, we confirmed the ancestral state of this locus and found a strong geographical gradient for the derived allele (Val372), with near fixation in West Africa. In extensive coalescent simulations, we show that the extreme differences in allele frequency, yet absence of a classical sweep signature, can be explained by the effect of a local recombination hotspot, together with directional selection favoring the Val372 allele in Sub-Saharan Africans. The possible functional effect of the Leu372Val substitution, together with two pathological mutations at the same codon (Leu372Pro and Leu372Arg) that cause acrodermatitis enteropathica (a disease phenotype characterized by extreme zinc deficiency), was investigated by transient overexpression of human ZIP4 protein in HeLa cells. Both acrodermatitis mutations cause absence of the ZIP4 transporter cell surface expression and nearly absent zinc uptake, while the Val372 variant displayed significantly reduced surface protein expression, reduced basal levels of intracellular zinc, and reduced zinc uptake in comparison with the Leu372 variant. We speculate that reduced zinc uptake by the ZIP4-derived Val372 isoform may act by starving certain pathogens of zinc, and hence may have been advantageous in Sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, these functional results may indicate differences in zinc homeostasis among modern human populations with possible relevance for disease risk. PMID:24586184

  15. Extreme population differences in the human zinc transporter ZIP4 (SLC39A4 are explained by positive selection in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Engelken

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Extreme differences in allele frequency between West Africans and Eurasians were observed for a leucine-to-valine substitution (Leu372Val in the human intestinal zinc uptake transporter, ZIP4, yet no further evidence was found for a selective sweep around the ZIP4 gene (SLC39A4. By interrogating allele frequencies in more than 100 diverse human populations and resequencing Neanderthal DNA, we confirmed the ancestral state of this locus and found a strong geographical gradient for the derived allele (Val372, with near fixation in West Africa. In extensive coalescent simulations, we show that the extreme differences in allele frequency, yet absence of a classical sweep signature, can be explained by the effect of a local recombination hotspot, together with directional selection favoring the Val372 allele in Sub-Saharan Africans. The possible functional effect of the Leu372Val substitution, together with two pathological mutations at the same codon (Leu372Pro and Leu372Arg that cause acrodermatitis enteropathica (a disease phenotype characterized by extreme zinc deficiency, was investigated by transient overexpression of human ZIP4 protein in HeLa cells. Both acrodermatitis mutations cause absence of the ZIP4 transporter cell surface expression and nearly absent zinc uptake, while the Val372 variant displayed significantly reduced surface protein expression, reduced basal levels of intracellular zinc, and reduced zinc uptake in comparison with the Leu372 variant. We speculate that reduced zinc uptake by the ZIP4-derived Val372 isoform may act by starving certain pathogens of zinc, and hence may have been advantageous in Sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, these functional results may indicate differences in zinc homeostasis among modern human populations with possible relevance for disease risk.

  16. CRUCIB: an axisymmetric convection code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertram, L.A.

    1975-03-01

    The CRUCIB code was written in support of an experimental program aimed at measurement of thermal diffusivities of refractory liquids. Precise values of diffusivity are necessary to realistic analysis of reactor safety problems, nuclear waste disposal procedures, and fundamental metal forming processes. The code calculates the axisymmetric transient convective motions produced in a right circular cylindrical crucible, which is surface heated by an annular heat pulse. Emphasis of this report is placed on the input-output options of the CRUCIB code, which are tailored to assess the importance of the convective heat transfer in determining the surface temperature distribution. Use is limited to Prandtl numbers less than unity; larger values can be accommodated by replacement of a single block of the code, if desired. (U.S.)

  17. Continuous-variable topological codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimae, Tomoyuki

    2013-10-01

    Topological code is a stabilizer quantum error correcting code whose generators are local but logical operators are topologically nontrivial and nonlocal. It offers interesting features such as the homological deformations of string operators and anyonic excitations on it. Topological codes are also closely related to the “topological order,” which has been an important concept in condensed-matter physics. In this paper, we consider continuous-variable versions of topological codes, including the toric code by Kitaev [A. Y. Kitaev, Ann. Phys.APNYA60003-491610.1016/S0003-4916(02)00018-0 303, 2 (2003)] with a single type of stabilizer on the checkerboard lattice, and the color code by Bombin and Martin-Delgado [H. Bombin and M. A. Martin-Delgado, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.97.180501 97, 180501 (2006)]. We show that it is possible to consider continuous-variable analog of these topological codes.

  18. Coded communications with nonideal interleaving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Shaul

    1991-02-01

    Burst error channels - a type of block interference channels - feature increasing capacity but decreasing cutoff rate as the memory rate increases. Despite the large capacity, there is degradation in the performance of practical coding schemes when the memory length is excessive. A short-coding error parameter (SCEP) was introduced, which expresses a bound on the average decoding-error probability for codes shorter than the block interference length. The performance of a coded slow frequency-hopping communication channel is analyzed for worst-case partial band jamming and nonideal interleaving, by deriving expressions for the capacity and cutoff rate. The capacity and cutoff rate, respectively, are shown to approach and depart from those of a memoryless channel corresponding to the transmission of a single code letter per hop. For multiaccess communications over a slot-synchronized collision channel without feedback, the channel was considered as a block interference channel with memory length equal to the number of letters transmitted in each slot. The effects of an asymmetrical background noise and a reduced collision error rate were studied, as aspects of real communications. The performance of specific convolutional and Reed-Solomon codes was examined for slow frequency-hopping systems with nonideal interleaving. An upper bound is presented for the performance of a Viterbi decoder for a convolutional code with nonideal interleaving, and a soft decision diversity combining technique is introduced.

  19. Surgical navigation with QR codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katanacho Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The presented work is an alternative to established measurement systems in surgical navigation. The system is based on camera based tracking of QR code markers. The application uses a single video camera, integrated in a surgical lamp, that captures the QR markers attached to surgical instruments and to the patient.

  20. Generalized optical code construction for enhanced and Modified Double Weight like codes without mapping for SAC-OCDMA systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumawat, Soma; Ravi Kumar, M.

    2016-07-01

    Double Weight (DW) code family is one of the coding schemes proposed for Spectral Amplitude Coding-Optical Code Division Multiple Access (SAC-OCDMA) systems. Modified Double Weight (MDW) code for even weights and Enhanced Double Weight (EDW) code for odd weights are two algorithms extending the use of DW code for SAC-OCDMA systems. The above mentioned codes use mapping technique to provide codes for higher number of users. A new generalized algorithm to construct EDW and MDW like codes without mapping for any weight greater than 2 is proposed. A single code construction algorithm gives same length increment, Bit Error Rate (BER) calculation and other properties for all weights greater than 2. Algorithm first constructs a generalized basic matrix which is repeated in a different way to produce the codes for all users (different from mapping). The generalized code is analysed for BER using balanced detection and direct detection techniques.

  1. Model Children's Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.

    The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…

  2. Affine Grassmann codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Beelen, Peter; Ghorpade, Sudhir Ramakant

    2010-01-01

    We consider a new class of linear codes, called affine Grassmann codes. These can be viewed as a variant of generalized Reed-Muller codes and are closely related to Grassmann codes.We determine the length, dimension, and the minimum distance of any affine Grassmann code. Moreover, we show that af...

  3. GAMERA - The New Magnetospheric Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, J.; Sorathia, K.; Zhang, B.; Merkin, V. G.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Daldorff, L. K. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) code has been a main-line magnetospheric simulation code for 30 years. The code base, designed in the age of memory to memory vector ma- chines,is still in wide use for science production but needs upgrading to ensure the long term sustainability. In this presentation, we will discuss our recent efforts to update and improve that code base and also highlight some recent results. The new project GAM- ERA, Grid Agnostic MHD for Extended Research Applications, has kept the original design characteristics of the LFM and made significant improvements. The original de- sign included high order numerical differencing with very aggressive limiting, the ability to use arbitrary, but logically rectangular, grids, and maintenance of div B = 0 through the use of the Yee grid. Significant improvements include high-order upwinding and a non-clipping limiter. One other improvement with wider applicability is an im- proved averaging technique for the singularities in polar and spherical grids. The new code adopts a hybrid structure - multi-threaded OpenMP with an overarching MPI layer for large scale and coupled applications. The MPI layer uses a combination of standard MPI and the Global Array Toolkit from PNL to provide a lightweight mechanism for coupling codes together concurrently. The single processor code is highly efficient and can run magnetospheric simulations at the default CCMC resolution faster than real time on a MacBook pro. We have run the new code through the Athena suite of tests, and the results compare favorably with the codes available to the astrophysics community. LFM/GAMERA has been applied to many different situations ranging from the inner and outer heliosphere and magnetospheres of Venus, the Earth, Jupiter and Saturn. We present example results the Earth's magnetosphere including a coupled ring current (RCM), the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, and the inner heliosphere.

  4. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2016, 2010 nation, U.S., 2010 Census 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA5) National

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  5. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2015, 2010 nation, U.S., 2010 Census 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA5) National

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  6. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2017, 2010 nation, U.S., 2010 Census 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA5) National

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  7. Cross-sectional association between ZIP code-level gentrification and homelessness among a large community-based sample of people who inject drugs in 19 US cities

    OpenAIRE

    Linton, Sabriya L; Cooper, Hannah LF; Kelley, Mary E; Karnes, Conny C; Ross, Zev; Wolfe, Mary E; Friedman, Samuel R; Jarlais, Don Des; Semaan, Salaam; Tempalski, Barbara; Sionean, Catlainn; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Wejnert, Cyprian; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Background Housing instability has been associated with poor health outcomes among people who inject drugs (PWID). This study investigates the associations of local-level housing and economic conditions with homelessness among a large sample of PWID, which is an underexplored topic to date. Methods PWID in this cross-sectional study were recruited from 19 large cities in the USA as part of National HIV Behavioral Surveillance. PWID provided self-reported information on demographics, behaviour...

  8. A novel Glycine soja homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) I gene, Gshdz4, positively regulates bicarbonate tolerance and responds to osmotic stress in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Yu, Yang; DuanMu, Huizi; Chen, Chao; Duan, Xiangbo; Zhu, Pinghui; Chen, Ranran; Li, Qiang; Zhu, Yanming; Ding, Xiaodong

    2016-08-24

    Wild soybean (Glycine soja) is a highly adaptive plant species which can grow well in saline-alkaline soils. In soybean genome, there exist about 140 HD-Zip (Homeodomain-leucine Zipper) genes. HD-Zip transcription factor family is one of the largest plant specific superfamilies and plays important roles in response to abiotic stresses. Although HD-Zip transcription factors have been broadly reported to be involved in plant resistance to abiotic stresses like salt and drought, their roles in response to bicarbonate stress is largely unknown. From our previous transcriptome profile analysis of wild soybean treated by 50 mM NaHCO3, we identified an HD-Zip gene (Gshdz4) which showed high response to the alkaline stress. Our result of qRT-PCR showed that the expression of Gshdz4 was induced by alkaline stress (NaHCO3) in both leaves and roots of wild soybean. Overexpression of Gshdz4 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced tolerance to NaHCO3 and KHCO3 during the process of plant growth and development. However, the growths of transgenic and WT plants were not significantly different on the medium with high pH adjusted by KOH, implicating Gshdz4 is only responsible for resisting HCO3 (-) but not high pH. The transgenic plants had less MDA contents but higher POD activities and chlorophyll contents than the WT plants. Moreover, the transcript levels of stress-related genes, such as NADP-ME, H (+) -Ppase, RD29B and KIN1 were increased with greater extent in the transgenic plants than the wild plants. On the contrary, Gshdz4 overexpression lines were much sensitive to osmotic stress at seed germination and stocking stages compared to the wild plants. We revealed that the important and special roles of Gshdz4 in enhancing bicarbonate tolerance and responding to osmotic stress. It is the first time to elucidate these novel functions of HD-ZIP transcription factors. All the evidences broaden our understanding of functions of HD-Zip family and provide clues for uncovering the

  9. Rateless feedback codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Koike-Akino, Toshiaki; Orlik, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept called rateless feedback coding. We redesign the existing LT and Raptor codes, by introducing new degree distributions for the case when a few feedback opportunities are available. We show that incorporating feedback to LT codes can significantly decrease both...... the coding overhead and the encoding/decoding complexity. Moreover, we show that, at the price of a slight increase in the coding overhead, linear complexity is achieved with Raptor feedback coding....

  10. Coding for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    Hands-on exercises help you learn to code like a pro No coding experience is required for Coding For Dummies,your one-stop guide to building a foundation of knowledge inwriting computer code for web, application, and softwaredevelopment. It doesn't matter if you've dabbled in coding or neverwritten a line of code, this book guides you through the basics.Using foundational web development languages like HTML, CSS, andJavaScript, it explains in plain English how coding works and whyit's needed. Online exercises developed by Codecademy, a leading online codetraining site, help hone coding skill

  11. Advanced video coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wen

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive and accessible text/reference presents an overview of the state of the art in video coding technology. Specifically, the book introduces the tools of the AVS2 standard, describing how AVS2 can help to achieve a significant improvement in coding efficiency for future video networks and applications by incorporating smarter coding tools such as scene video coding. Topics and features: introduces the basic concepts in video coding, and presents a short history of video coding technology and standards; reviews the coding framework, main coding tools, and syntax structure of AV

  12. Tailored Codes for Small Quantum Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alan; Granade, Christopher; Bartlett, Stephen D.; Flammia, Steven T.

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate that small quantum memories, realized via quantum error correction in multiqubit devices, can benefit substantially by choosing a quantum code that is tailored to the relevant error model of the system. For a biased noise model, with independent bit and phase flips occurring at different rates, we show that a single code greatly outperforms the well-studied Steane code across the full range of parameters of the noise model, including for unbiased noise. In fact, this tailored code performs almost optimally when compared with 10 000 randomly selected stabilizer codes of comparable experimental complexity. Tailored codes can even outperform the Steane code with realistic experimental noise, and without any increase in the experimental complexity, as we demonstrate by comparison in the observed error model in a recent seven-qubit trapped ion experiment.

  13. The zygomatic implant perforated (ZIP) flap: a new technique for combined surgical reconstruction and rapid fixed dental rehabilitation following low-level maxillectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Butterworth, C. J.; Rogers, S. N.

    2017-01-01

    This aim of this report is to describe the development and evolution of a new surgical technique for the immediate surgical reconstruction and rapid post-operative prosthodontic rehabilitation with a fixed dental prosthesis following low-level maxillectomy for malignant disease. The technique involves the use of a zygomatic oncology implant perforated micro-vascular soft tissue flap (ZIP flap) for the primary management of maxillary malignancy with surgical closure of the resultant maxillary ...

  14. Environmental regulation of lateral root emergence in Medicago truncatula requires the HD-Zip I transcription factor HB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Federico; Diet, Anouck; Verdenaud, Marion; Gruber, Véronique; Frugier, Florian; Chan, Raquel; Crespi, Martin

    2010-07-01

    The adaptation of root architecture to environmental constraints is a major agricultural trait, notably in legumes, the third main crop worldwide. This root developmental plasticity depends on the formation of lateral roots (LRs) emerging from primary roots. In the model legume Medicago truncatula, the HD-Zip I transcription factor HB1 is expressed in primary and lateral root meristems and induced by salt stress. Constitutive expression of HB1 in M. truncatula roots alters their architecture, whereas hb1 TILLING mutants showed increased lateral root emergence. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay, promoter mutagenesis, and chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR assays revealed that HB1 directly recognizes a CAATAATTG cis-element present in the promoter of a LOB-like (for Lateral Organ Boundaries) gene, LBD1, transcriptionally regulated by auxin. Expression of these genes in response to abscisic acid and auxin and their behavior in hb1 mutants revealed an HB1-mediated repression of LBD1 acting during LR emergence. M. truncatula HB1 regulates an adaptive developmental response to minimize the root surface exposed to adverse environmental stresses.

  15. Nuclear Import of the Parsley bZIP Transcription Factor CPRF2 Is Regulated by Phytochrome Photoreceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, Stefan; Wellmer, Frank; Nick, Peter; Rügner, Alexander; Schäfer, Eberhard; Harter, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    In plants, light perception by photoreceptors leads to differential expression of an enormous number of genes. An important step for differential gene expression is the regulation of transcription factor activities. To understand these processes in light signal transduction we analyzed the three well-known members of the common plant regulatory factor (CPRF) family from parsley (Petroselinum crispum). Here, we demonstrate that these CPRFs, which belong to the basic- region leucine-zipper (bZIP) domain-containing transcription factors, are differentially distributed within parsley cells, indicating different regulatory functions within the regulatory networks of the plant cell. In particular, we show by cell fractionation and immunolocalization approaches that CPRF2 is transported from the cytosol into the nucleus upon irradiation due to action of phytochrome photoreceptors. Two NH2-terminal domains responsible for cytoplasmic localization of CPRF2 in the dark were characterized by deletion analysis using a set of CPRF2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene fusion constructs transiently expressed in parsley protoplasts. We suggest that light-induced nuclear import of CPRF2 is an essential step in phytochrome signal transduction. PMID:9922448

  16. JUNGBRUNNEN1 Confers Drought Tolerance Downstream of the HD-Zip I Transcription Factor AtHB13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saghar Ebrahimian-Motlagh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Low water availability is the major environmental factor limiting growth and productivity of plants and crops and is therefore considered of high importance for agriculture affected by climate change. Identifying regulatory components controlling the response and tolerance to drought stress is thus of major importance. The NAC transcription factor (TF JUNGBRUNNEN1 (JUB1 from Arabidopsis thaliana extends leaf longevity under non-stress growth conditions, lowers cellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 level, and enhances tolerance against heat stress and salinity. Here, we additionally find that JUB1 strongly increases tolerance to drought stress in Arabidopsis when expressed from both, a constitutive (CaMV 35S and an abiotic stress-induced (RD29A promoter. Employing a yeast one-hybrid screen we identified HD-Zip class I TF AtHB13 as an upstream regulator of JUB1. AtHB13 has previously been reported to act as a positive regulator of drought tolerance. AtHB13 and JUB1 thereby establish a joint drought stress control module.

  17. Tribbles ortholog NIPI-3 and bZIP transcription factor CEBP-1 regulate a Caenorhabditis elegans intestinal immune surveillance pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Deborah L; Feinbaum, Rhonda L; Stroustrup, Nicholas; Haas, Wilhelm; Conery, Annie L; Anselmo, Anthony; Sadreyev, Ruslan; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2016-12-07

    Many pathogens secrete toxins that target key host processes resulting in the activation of immune pathways. The secreted Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin Exotoxin A (ToxA) disrupts intestinal protein synthesis, which triggers the induction of a subset of P. aeruginosa-response genes in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We show here that one ToxA-induced C. elegans gene, the Tribbles pseudokinase ortholog nipi-3, is essential for host survival following exposure to P. aeruginosa or ToxA. We find that NIPI-3 mediates the post-developmental expression of intestinal immune genes and proteins and primarily functions in parallel to known immune pathways, including p38 MAPK signaling. Through mutagenesis screening, we identify mutants of the bZIP C/EBP transcription factor cebp-1 that suppress the hypersusceptibility defects of nipi-3 mutants. NIPI-3 is a negative regulator of CEBP-1, which in turn negatively regulates protective immune mechanisms. This pathway represents a previously unknown innate immune signaling pathway in intestinal epithelial cells that is involved in the surveillance of cellular homeostasis. Because NIPI-3 and CEBP-1 are also essential for C. elegans development, NIPI-3 is analogous to other key innate immune signaling molecules such as the Toll receptors in Drosophila that have an independent role during development.

  18. BnaA.bZIP1 Negatively Regulates a Novel Small Peptide Gene, BnaC.SP6, Involved in Pollen Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanpeng Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Small peptides secreted to the extracellular matrix control many aspects of the plant’s physiological activities which were identified in Arabidopsis thaliana, called ATSPs. Here, we isolated and characterized the small peptide gene Bna.SP6 from Brassica napus. The BnaC.SP6 promoter was cloned and identified. Promoter deletion analysis suggested that the -447 to -375 and -210 to -135 regions are crucial for the silique septum and pollen expression of BnaC.SP6, respectively. Furthermore, the minimal promoter region of p158 (-210 to -52 was sufficient for driving gene expression specifically in pollen and highly conserved in Brassica species. In addition, BnaA.bZIP1 was predominantly expressed in anthers where BnaC.SP6 was also expressed, and was localized to the nuclei. BnaA.bZIP1 possessed transcriptional activation activity in yeast and protoplast system. It could specifically bind to the C-box in p158 in vitro, and negatively regulate p158 activity in vivo. BnaA.bZIP1 functions as a transcriptional repressor of BnaC.SP6 in pollen activity. These results provide novel insight into the transcriptional regulation of BnaC.SP6 in pollen activity and the pollen/anther-specific promoter regions of BnaC.SP6 may have their potential agricultural application for new male sterility line generation.

  19. Locally orderless registration code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows.......This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows....

  20. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sound quality is, in essence, obtained by accurate waveform coding and decoding of the audio signals. In addition, the coded audio information is protected against disc errors by the use of a Cross Interleaved Reed-Solomon Code (CIRC). Reed-. Solomon codes were discovered by Irving Reed and Gus Solomon in 1960.

  1. The Use and Effectiveness of Triple Multiplex System for Coding Region Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Mitochondrial DNA Typing of Archaeologically Obtained Human Skeletons from Premodern Joseon Tombs of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Seok Oh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous study showed that East Asian mtDNA haplogroups, especially those of Koreans, could be successfully assigned by the coupled use of analyses on coding region SNP markers and control region mutation motifs. In this study, we tried to see if the same triple multiplex analysis for coding regions SNPs could be also applicable to ancient samples from East Asia as the complementation for sequence analysis of mtDNA control region. By the study on Joseon skeleton samples, we know that mtDNA haplogroup determined by coding region SNP markers successfully falls within the same haplogroup that sequence analysis on control region can assign. Considering that ancient samples in previous studies make no small number of errors in control region mtDNA sequencing, coding region SNP analysis can be used as good complimentary to the conventional haplogroup determination, especially of archaeological human bone samples buried underground over long periods.

  2. Network Coding Taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson , Brian; Adjih , Cédric; Bilbao , Josu; Firoiu , Victor; Fitzek , Frank; Samah , Ghanem ,; Lochin , Emmanuel; Masucci , Antonia; Montpetit , Marie-Jose; Pedersen , Morten V.; Peralta , Goiuri; Roca , Vincent; Paresh , Saxena; Sivakumar , Senthil

    2017-01-01

    Internet Research Task Force - Working document of the Network Coding Research Group (NWCRG), draft-irtf-nwcrg-network-coding-taxonomy-05 (work in progress), https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/draft-irtf-nwcrg-network-coding-taxonomy/; This document summarizes a recommended terminology for Network Coding concepts and constructs. It provides a comprehensive set of terms with unique names in order to avoid ambiguities in future Network Coding IRTF and IETF documents. This document is intended to ...

  3. QR Codes 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  4. HTLV-1 bZIP factor induces inflammation through labile Foxp3 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanae Yamamoto-Taguchi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 causes both a neoplastic disease and inflammatory diseases, including HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. The HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ gene is encoded in the minus strand of the proviral DNA and is constitutively expressed in infected cells and ATL cells. HBZ increases the number of regulatory T (Treg cells by inducing the Foxp3 gene transcription. Recent studies have revealed that some CD4⁺Foxp3⁺ T cells are not terminally differentiated but have a plasticity to convert to other T-cell subsets. Induced Treg (iTreg cells tend to lose Foxp3 expression, and may acquire an effector phenotype accompanied by the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ. In this study, we analyzed a pathogenic mechanism of chronic inflammation related with HTLV-1 infection via focusing on HBZ and Foxp3. Infiltration of lymphocytes was observed in the skin, lung and intestine of HBZ-Tg mice. As mechanisms, adhesion and migration of HBZ-expressing CD4⁺ T cells were enhanced in these mice. Foxp3⁻CD4⁺ T cells produced higher amounts of IFN-γ compared to those from non-Tg mice. Expression of Helios was reduced in Treg cells from HBZ-Tg mice and HAM/TSP patients, indicating that iTreg cells are predominant. Consistent with this finding, the conserved non-coding sequence 2 region of the Foxp3 gene was hypermethylated in Treg cells of HBZ-Tg mice, which is a characteristic of iTreg cells. Furthermore, Treg cells in the spleen of HBZ-transgenic mice tended to lose Foxp3 expression and produced an excessive amount of IFN-γ, while Foxp3 expression was stable in natural Treg cells of the thymus. HBZ enhances the generation of iTreg cells, which likely convert to Foxp3⁻T cells producing IFN-γ. The HBZ-mediated proinflammatory phenotype of CD4⁺ T cells is implicated in the pathogenesis of HTLV-1-associated inflammation.

  5. Efficient Coding of Information: Huffman Coding -RE ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1. Introduction. Shannon's landmark paper 'A Mathematical Theory of. Communication' [1] laid the foundation for communica- ... coding theory, codes over graphs and iterative techniques, and informa- tion theory. .... An important consequence of independence is that if. {Xb X2 , . Xn} are independent random variables, each.

  6. Turbo Codes Extended with Outer BCH Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1996-01-01

    The "error floor" observed in several simulations with the turbo codes is verified by calculation of an upper bound to the bit error rate for the ensemble of all interleavers. Also an easy way to calculate the weight enumerator used in this bound is presented. An extended coding scheme is proposed...

  7. The Study of Address Tree Coding Based on the Maximum Matching Algorithm in Courier Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shumin; Tang, Bin; Li, Wen

    As an important component of EMS monitoring system, address is different from user name with great uncertainty because there are many ways to represent it. Therefore, address standardization is a difficult task. Address tree coding has been trying to resolve that issue for many years. Zip code, as its most widely used algorithm, can only subdivide the address down to a designated post office, not the recipients' address. This problem needs artificial identification method to be accurately delivered. This paper puts forward a new encoding algorithm of the address tree - the maximum matching algorithm to solve the problem. This algorithm combines the characteristics of the address tree and the best matching theory, and brings in the associated layers of tree nodes to improve the matching efficiency. Taking the variability of address into account, the thesaurus of address tree should be updated timely by increasing new nodes automatically through intelligent tools.

  8. Coding In-depth Semistructured Interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.; Quincy, Charles; Osserman, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Many social science studies are based on coded in-depth semistructured interview transcripts. But researchers rarely report or discuss coding reliability in this work. Nor is there much literature on the subject for this type of data. This article presents a procedure for developing coding scheme...... useful for situations where a single knowledgeable coder will code all the transcripts once the coding scheme has been established. This approach can also be used with other types of qualitative data and in other circumstances.......Many social science studies are based on coded in-depth semistructured interview transcripts. But researchers rarely report or discuss coding reliability in this work. Nor is there much literature on the subject for this type of data. This article presents a procedure for developing coding schemes...... for such data. It involves standardizing the units of text on which coders work and then improving the coding scheme’s discriminant capability (i.e., reducing coding errors) to an acceptable point as indicated by measures of either intercoder reliability or intercoder agreement. This approach is especially...

  9. zipHMMlib: a highly optimised HMM library exploiting repetitions in the input to speed up the forward algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Andreas; Kristiansen, Martin; Pedersen, Christian N S; Mailund, Thomas

    2013-11-22

    Hidden Markov models are widely used for genome analysis as they combine ease of modelling with efficient analysis algorithms. Calculating the likelihood of a model using the forward algorithm has worst case time complexity linear in the length of the sequence and quadratic in the number of states in the model. For genome analysis, however, the length runs to millions or billions of observations, and when maximising the likelihood hundreds of evaluations are often needed. A time efficient forward algorithm is therefore a key ingredient in an efficient hidden Markov model library. We have built a software library for efficiently computing the likelihood of a hidden Markov model. The library exploits commonly occurring substrings in the input to reuse computations in the forward algorithm. In a pre-processing step our library identifies common substrings and builds a structure over the computations in the forward algorithm which can be reused. This analysis can be saved between uses of the library and is independent of concrete hidden Markov models so one preprocessing can be used to run a number of different models.Using this library, we achieve up to 78 times shorter wall-clock time for realistic whole-genome analyses with a real and reasonably complex hidden Markov model. In one particular case the analysis was performed in less than 8 minutes compared to 9.6 hours for the previously fastest library. We have implemented the preprocessing procedure and forward algorithm as a C++ library, zipHMM, with Python bindings for use in scripts. The library is available at http://birc.au.dk/software/ziphmm/.

  10. ATF3, an HTLV-1 bZip factor binding protein, promotes proliferation of adult T-cell leukemia cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohshima Koichi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL is an aggressive malignancy of CD4+ T-cells caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1. The HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ gene, which is encoded by the minus strand of the viral genome, is expressed as an antisense transcript in all ATL cases. By using yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3 as an HBZ-interacting protein. ATF3 has been reported to be expressed in ATL cells, but its biological significance is not known. Results Immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed that ATF3 interacts with HBZ. Expression of ATF3 was upregulated in ATL cell lines and fresh ATL cases. Reporter assay revealed that ATF3 could interfere with the HTLV-1 Tax's transactivation of the 5' proviral long terminal repeat (LTR, doing so by affecting the ATF/CRE site, as well as HBZ. Suppressing ATF3 expression inhibited proliferation and strongly reduced the viability of ATL cells. As mechanisms of growth-promoting activity of ATF3, comparative expression profiling of ATF3 knockdown cells identified candidate genes that are critical for the cell cycle and cell death, including cell division cycle 2 (CDC2 and cyclin E2. ATF3 also enhanced p53 transcriptional activity, but this activity was suppressed by HBZ. Conclusions Thus, ATF3 expression has positive and negative effects on the proliferation and survival of ATL cells. HBZ impedes its negative effects, leaving ATF3 to promote proliferation of ATL cells via mechanisms including upregulation of CDC2 and cyclin E2. Both HBZ and ATF3 suppress Tax expression, which enables infected cells to escape the host immune system.

  11. SEVERO code - user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacramento, A.M. do.

    1989-01-01

    This user's manual contains all the necessary information concerning the use of SEVERO code. This computer code is related to the statistics of extremes = extreme winds, extreme precipitation and flooding hazard risk analysis. (A.C.A.S.)

  12. Model and code development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Progress in model and code development for reactor physics calculations is summarized. The codes included CINDER-10, PHROG, RAFFLE GAPP, DCFMR, RELAP/4, PARET, and KENO. Kinetics models for the PBF were developed

  13. Coding for optical channels

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan; Vasic, Bane

    2010-01-01

    This unique book provides a coherent and comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of optical communications, signal processing and coding for optical channels. It is the first to integrate the fundamentals of coding theory and optical communication.

  14. Enhancing QR Code Security

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Linfan; Zheng, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Quick Response code opens possibility to convey data in a unique way yet insufficient prevention and protection might lead into QR code being exploited on behalf of attackers. This thesis starts by presenting a general introduction of background and stating two problems regarding QR code security, which followed by a comprehensive research on both QR code itself and related issues. From the research a solution taking advantages of cloud and cryptography together with an implementation come af...

  15. Stylize Aesthetic QR Code

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Mingliang; Su, Hao; Li, Yafei; Li, Xi; Liao, Jing; Niu, Jianwei; Lv, Pei; Zhou, Bing

    2018-01-01

    With the continued proliferation of smart mobile devices, Quick Response (QR) code has become one of the most-used types of two-dimensional code in the world. Aiming at beautifying the appearance of QR codes, existing works have developed a series of techniques to make the QR code more visual-pleasant. However, these works still leave much to be desired, such as visual diversity, aesthetic quality, flexibility, universal property, and robustness. To address these issues, in this paper, we pro...

  16. ARC Code TI: CODE Software Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CODE is a software framework for control and observation in distributed environments. The basic functionality of the framework allows a user to observe a distributed...

  17. ARC Code TI: ROC Curve Code Augmentation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve Code Augmentation was written by Rodney Martin and John Stutz at NASA Ames Research Center and is a modification of ROC...

  18. Refactoring test code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon); A. van den Bergh; G. Kok

    2001-01-01

    textabstractTwo key aspects of extreme programming (XP) are unit testing and merciless refactoring. Given the fact that the ideal test code / production code ratio approaches 1:1, it is not surprising that unit tests are being refactored. We found that refactoring test code is different from

  19. Error Correcting Codes -34 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the reading of data from memory the receiving process. Protecting data in computer memories was one of the earliest applications of Hamming codes. We now describe the clever scheme invented by Hamming in 1948. To keep things simple, we describe the binary length 7 Hamming code. Encoding in the Hamming Code.

  20. Morse Code Activity Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Janeen S.

    This activity packet offers simple directions for setting up a Morse Code system appropriate to interfacing with any of several personal computer systems. Worksheets are also included to facilitate teaching Morse Code to persons with visual or other disabilities including blindness, as it is argued that the code is best learned auditorily. (PB)

  1. Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.

  2. The network code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Network Code defines the rights and responsibilities of all users of the natural gas transportation system in the liberalised gas industry in the United Kingdom. This report describes the operation of the Code, what it means, how it works and its implications for the various participants in the industry. The topics covered are: development of the competitive gas market in the UK; key points in the Code; gas transportation charging; impact of the Code on producers upstream; impact on shippers; gas storage; supply point administration; impact of the Code on end users; the future. (20 tables; 33 figures) (UK)

  3. The materiality of Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    , Twitter and Facebook). The focus is not to investigate the functionalities and efficiencies of the code, but to study and interpret the program level of code in order to trace the use of various technological methods such as third-party libraries and platforms’ interfaces. These are important...... to understand the socio-technical side of a changing network environment. Through the study of code, including but not limited to source code, technical specifications and other materials in relation to the artwork production, I would like to explore the materiality of code that goes beyond technical...

  4. Coding for Electronic Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. F.; Lee, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Scheme for coding facsimile messages promises to reduce data transmission requirements to one-tenth current level. Coding scheme paves way for true electronic mail in which handwritten, typed, or printed messages or diagrams sent virtually instantaneously - between buildings or between continents. Scheme, called Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), uses unsupervised character recognition and adaptive noiseless coding of text. Image quality of resulting delivered messages improved over messages transmitted by conventional coding. Coding scheme compatible with direct-entry electronic mail as well as facsimile reproduction. Text transmitted in this scheme automatically translated to word-processor form.

  5. Whether and Where to Code in the Wireless Relay Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Xiaomeng; Médard, Muriel; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2013-01-01

    The throughput benefits of random linear network codes have been studied extensively for wirelined and wireless erasure networks. It is often assumed that all nodes within a network perform coding operations. In energy-constrained systems, however, coding subgraphs should be chosen to control...... the number of coding nodes while maintaining throughput. In this paper, we explore the strategic use of network coding in the wireless packet erasure relay channel according to both throughput and energy metrics. In the relay channel, a single source communicates to a single sink through the aid of a half......-duplex relay. The fluid flow model is used to describe the case where both the source and the relay are coding, and Markov chain models are proposed to describe packet evolution if only the source or only the relay is coding. In addition to transmission energy, we take into account coding and reception...

  6. XSOR codes users manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jow, Hong-Nian; Murfin, W.B.; Johnson, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the source term estimation codes, XSORs. The codes are written for three pressurized water reactors (Surry, Sequoyah, and Zion) and two boiling water reactors (Peach Bottom and Grand Gulf). The ensemble of codes has been named ''XSOR''. The purpose of XSOR codes is to estimate the source terms which would be released to the atmosphere in severe accidents. A source term includes the release fractions of several radionuclide groups, the timing and duration of releases, the rates of energy release, and the elevation of releases. The codes have been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of the NUREG-1150 program. The XSOR codes are fast running parametric codes and are used as surrogates for detailed mechanistic codes. The XSOR codes also provide the capability to explore the phenomena and their uncertainty which are not currently modeled by the mechanistic codes. The uncertainty distributions of input parameters may be used by an. XSOR code to estimate the uncertainty of source terms

  7. DLLExternalCode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-14

    DLLExternalCode is the a general dynamic-link library (DLL) interface for linking GoldSim (www.goldsim.com) with external codes. The overall concept is to use GoldSim as top level modeling software with interfaces to external codes for specific calculations. The DLLExternalCode DLL that performs the linking function is designed to take a list of code inputs from GoldSim, create an input file for the external application, run the external code, and return a list of outputs, read from files created by the external application, back to GoldSim. Instructions for creating the input file, running the external code, and reading the output are contained in an instructions file that is read and interpreted by the DLL.

  8. zipHMMlib:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Andreas; Kristiansen, Martin; Pedersen, Christian Nørgaard Storm

    2013-01-01

    the computations in the forward algorithm which can be reused. This analysis can be saved between uses of the library and is independent of concrete hidden Markov models so one preprocessing can be used to run a number of different models. Using this library, we achieve up to 78 times shorter wall-clock time...... have built a software library for efficiently computing the likelihood of a hidden Markov model. The library exploits commonly occurring substrings in the input to reuse computations in the forward algorithm. In a pre-processing step our library identifies common substrings and builds a structure over...

  9. Zipping into fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Tingting

    2014-01-01

    Fusion of lipid bilayers in cells facilitates the active transport of chemicals. Non-viral membrane fusion is regulated by a cascade of proteins as the process is highly regulated both in space and time. In eukaryotic cells, the so-called SNARE protein complex is at the heart of fusion. However,

  10. Parallelization of Subchannel Analysis Code MATRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seongjin; Hwang, Daehyun; Kwon, Hyouk

    2014-01-01

    A stand-alone calculation of MATRA code used up pertinent computing time for the thermal margin calculations while a relatively considerable time is needed to solve the whole core pin-by-pin problems. In addition, it is strongly required to improve the computation speed of the MATRA code to satisfy the overall performance of the multi-physics coupling calculations. Therefore, a parallel approach to improve and optimize the computability of the MATRA code is proposed and verified in this study. The parallel algorithm is embodied in the MATRA code using the MPI communication method and the modification of the previous code structure was minimized. An improvement is confirmed by comparing the results between the single and multiple processor algorithms. The speedup and efficiency are also evaluated when increasing the number of processors. The parallel algorithm was implemented to the subchannel code MATRA using the MPI. The performance of the parallel algorithm was verified by comparing the results with those from the MATRA with the single processor. It is also noticed that the performance of the MATRA code was greatly improved by implementing the parallel algorithm for the 1/8 core and whole core problems

  11. The Aesthetics of Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    Computer art is often associated with computer-generated expressions (digitally manipulated audio/images in music, video, stage design, media facades, etc.). In recent computer art, however, the code-text itself – not the generated output – has become the artwork (Perl Poetry, ASCII Art, obfuscated...... code, etc.). The presentation relates this artistic fascination of code to a media critique expressed by Florian Cramer, claiming that the graphical interface represents a media separation (of text/code and image) causing alienation to the computer’s materiality. Cramer is thus the voice of a new ‘code...... avant-garde’. In line with Cramer, the artists Alex McLean and Adrian Ward (aka Slub) declare: “art-oriented programming needs to acknowledge the conditions of its own making – its poesis.” By analysing the Live Coding performances of Slub (where they program computer music live), the presentation...

  12. The aeroelastic code FLEXLAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, B. [Stork Product Eng., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1996-09-01

    To support the discussion on aeroelastic codes, a description of the code FLEXLAST was given and experiences within benchmarks and measurement programmes were summarized. The code FLEXLAST has been developed since 1982 at Stork Product Engineering (SPE). Since 1992 FLEXLAST has been used by Dutch industries for wind turbine and rotor design. Based on the comparison with measurements, it can be concluded that the main shortcomings of wind turbine modelling lie in the field of aerodynamics, wind field and wake modelling. (au)

  13. Gauge color codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bombin Palomo, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Color codes are topological stabilizer codes with unusual transversality properties. Here I show that their group of transversal gates is optimal and only depends on the spatial dimension, not the local geometry. I also introduce a generalized, subsystem version of color codes. In 3D they allow t...... the transversal implementation of a universal set of gates by gauge fixing, while error-dectecting measurements involve only four or six qubits....

  14. Phonological coding during reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-01-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early (pre-lexical) or that phonological codes come online late (post-lexical)) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eyetracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model (Van Order, 1987), dual-route model (e.g., Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001), parallel distributed processing model (Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989)) are discussed. PMID:25150679

  15. MORSE Monte Carlo code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The MORSE code is a large general-use multigroup Monte Carlo code system. Although no claims can be made regarding its superiority in either theoretical details or Monte Carlo techniques, MORSE has been, since its inception at ORNL in the late 1960s, the most widely used Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The principal reason for this popularity is that MORSE is relatively easy to use, independent of any installation or distribution center, and it can be easily customized to fit almost any specific need. Features of the MORSE code are described.

  16. Bar Code Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    American Bar Codes, Inc. developed special bar code labels for inventory control of space shuttle parts and other space system components. ABC labels are made in a company-developed anodizing aluminum process and consecutively marketed with bar code symbology and human readable numbers. They offer extreme abrasion resistance and indefinite resistance to ultraviolet radiation, capable of withstanding 700 degree temperatures without deterioration and up to 1400 degrees with special designs. They offer high resistance to salt spray, cleaning fluids and mild acids. ABC is now producing these bar code labels commercially or industrial customers who also need labels to resist harsh environments.

  17. QR codes for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Waters, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Find out how to effectively create, use, and track QR codes QR (Quick Response) codes are popping up everywhere, and businesses are reaping the rewards. Get in on the action with the no-nonsense advice in this streamlined, portable guide. You'll find out how to get started, plan your strategy, and actually create the codes. Then you'll learn to link codes to mobile-friendly content, track your results, and develop ways to give your customers value that will keep them coming back. It's all presented in the straightforward style you've come to know and love, with a dash of humor thrown

  18. MORSE Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The MORSE code is a large general-use multigroup Monte Carlo code system. Although no claims can be made regarding its superiority in either theoretical details or Monte Carlo techniques, MORSE has been, since its inception at ORNL in the late 1960s, the most widely used Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The principal reason for this popularity is that MORSE is relatively easy to use, independent of any installation or distribution center, and it can be easily customized to fit almost any specific need. Features of the MORSE code are described

  19. Tokamak Systems Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Barrett, R.J.; Brown, T.G.

    1985-03-01

    The FEDC Tokamak Systems Code calculates tokamak performance, cost, and configuration as a function of plasma engineering parameters. This version of the code models experimental tokamaks. It does not currently consider tokamak configurations that generate electrical power or incorporate breeding blankets. The code has a modular (or subroutine) structure to allow independent modeling for each major tokamak component or system. A primary benefit of modularization is that a component module may be updated without disturbing the remainder of the systems code as long as the imput to or output from the module remains unchanged

  20. ARC Code TI: ACCEPT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ACCEPT consists of an overall software infrastructure framework and two main software components. The software infrastructure framework consists of code written to...

  1. The zinc transporter SLC39A13/ZIP13 is required for connective tissue development; its involvement in BMP/TGF-beta signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Fukada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zinc (Zn is an essential trace element and it is abundant in connective tissues, however biological roles of Zn and its transporters in those tissues and cells remain unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report that mice deficient in Zn transporter Slc39a13/Zip13 show changes in bone, teeth and connective tissue reminiscent of the clinical spectrum of human Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS. The Slc39a13 knockout (Slc39a13-KO mice show defects in the maturation of osteoblasts, chondrocytes, odontoblasts, and fibroblasts. In the corresponding tissues and cells, impairment in bone morphogenic protein (BMP and TGF-beta signaling were observed. Homozygosity for a SLC39A13 loss of function mutation was detected in sibs affected by a unique variant of EDS that recapitulates the phenotype observed in Slc39a13-KO mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Hence, our results reveal a crucial role of SLC39A13/ZIP13 in connective tissue development at least in part due to its involvement in the BMP/TGF-beta signaling pathways. The Slc39a13-KO mouse represents a novel animal model linking zinc metabolism, BMP/TGF-beta signaling and connective tissue dysfunction.

  2. De Novo Synthesis of Basal Bacterial Cell Division Proteins FtsZ, FtsA, and ZipA Inside Giant Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusato, Takumi; Horie, Fumihiro; Matsubayashi, Hideaki T; Amikura, Kazuaki; Kuruma, Yutetsu; Ueda, Takuya

    2018-03-13

    Cell division is the most dynamic event in the cell cycle. Recently, efforts have been made to reconstruct it using the individual component proteins to obtain a better understanding of the process of self-reproduction of cells. However, such reconstruction studies are frequently hampered by difficulties in preparing membrane-associated proteins. Here we demonstrate a de novo synthesis approach based on a cell-free translation system. Genes for fundamental cell division proteins, FtsZ, FtsA, and ZipA, were expressed inside the lipid compartment of giant vesicles (GVs). The synthesized proteins showed polymerization, membrane localization, and eventually membrane deformation. Notably, we found that this morphological change of the vesicle is forced by only FtsZ and ZipA, which form clusters on the membrane at the vesicle interior. Our cell-free approach provides a platform for studying protein dynamics associated with lipid membrane and paves the way to create a synthetic cell that undergoes self-reproduction.

  3. Natural antioxidants exhibit chemopreventive characteristics through the regulation of CNC b-Zip transcription factors in estrogen-induced breast carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Anwesha; Ronghe, Amruta; Singh, Bhupendra; Bhat, Nimee K; Chen, Jie; Bhat, Hari K

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the role of resveratrol (Res) and vitamin C (VC) in prevention of estrogen-induced breast cancer through regulation of cap "n"collar (CNC) b-zip transcription factors. Human breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A was treated with 17β-estradiol (E2) and VC or Res with or without E2. mRNA and protein expression levels of CNC b-zip transcription factors nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 1 (Nrf1), nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 3 (Nrf3), and Nrf2-regulated antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) and quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) were quantified. The treatment with E2 suppressed, whereas VC and Res prevented E2-mediated decrease in the expression levels of SOD3, NQO1, Nrf2 mRNA, and protein in MCF-10A cells. The treatment with E2, Res, or VC significantly increased mRNA and protein expression levels of Nrf1. 17β-Estradiol treatment significantly increased but VC or Res decreased Nrf3 mRNA and protein expression levels. Our studies demonstrate that estrogen-induced breast cancer might be prevented through upregulation of antioxidant enzymes via Nrf-dependent pathways. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The zygomatic implant perforated (ZIP) flap: a new technique for combined surgical reconstruction and rapid fixed dental rehabilitation following low-level maxillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, C J; Rogers, S N

    2017-12-01

    This aim of this report is to describe the development and evolution of a new surgical technique for the immediate surgical reconstruction and rapid post-operative prosthodontic rehabilitation with a fixed dental prosthesis following low-level maxillectomy for malignant disease.The technique involves the use of a zygomatic oncology implant perforated micro-vascular soft tissue flap (ZIP flap) for the primary management of maxillary malignancy with surgical closure of the resultant maxillary defect and the installation of osseointegrated support for a zygomatic implant-supported maxillary fixed dental prosthesis.The use of this technique facilitates extremely rapid oral and dental rehabilitation within a few weeks of resective surgery, providing rapid return to function and restoring appearance following low-level maxillary resection, even in cases where radiotherapy is required as an adjuvant treatment post-operatively. The ZIP flap technique has been adopted as a standard procedure in the unit for the management of low-level maxillary malignancy, and this report provides a detailed step-by-step approach to treatment and discusses modifications developed over the treatment of an initial cohort of patients.

  5. The IRE1/bZIP60 pathway and bax inhibitor 1 suppress systemic accumulation of potyviruses and potexviruses in Arabidopsis and Nicotiana benthamiana Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaguancela, Omar Arias; Zúñiga, Lizbeth Peña; Arias, Alexis Vela

    2016-01-01

    that regulates cell death in response to environmental assaults. The potyvirus 6K2 and potexvirus TGB3 proteins are known to reside in the ER, serving, respectively, as anchors for the viral replicase and movement protein complex. This study used green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Turnip mosaic virus (Tu...... genes into plant cells activated bZIP60 and BI-1 expression in Arabidopsis thaliana, N. benthamiana, and S. tuberosum. Homozygous ire1a-2, ire1b-4, and ire1a-2/ire1b-4 mutant Arabidopsis plants were inoculated with TuMV-GFP or PlAMV-GFP. PlAMV accumulates to a higher level in ire1a-2 or ire1a-2/ire1b-4...... mutant plants than in ire1b-4 or wild-type plants. TuMV-GFP accumulates to a higher level in ire1a-2, ire1b-4, or ire1a-2/ire1b-4 compared with wild-type plants, suggesting that both isoforms contribute to TuMV-GFP infection. Gene silencing was used to knock down bZIP60 and BI-1 expression in N...

  6. On {\\sigma}-LCD codes

    OpenAIRE

    Carlet, Claude; Mesnager, Sihem; Tang, Chunming; Qi, Yanfeng

    2017-01-01

    Linear complementary pairs (LCP) of codes play an important role in armoring implementations against side-channel attacks and fault injection attacks. One of the most common ways to construct LCP of codes is to use Euclidean linear complementary dual (LCD) codes. In this paper, we first introduce the concept of linear codes with $\\sigma$ complementary dual ($\\sigma$-LCD), which includes known Euclidean LCD codes, Hermitian LCD codes, and Galois LCD codes. As Euclidean LCD codes, $\\sigma$-LCD ...

  7. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the coding region of PGC-1α is a male-specific modifier of Huntington disease age-at-onset in a large European cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weydt, Patrick; Soyal, Selma M; Landwehrmeyer, G Bernhard; Patsch, Wolfgang

    2014-01-02

    Genetic modifiers are important clues for the identification of therapeutic targets in neurodegenerative diseases. Huntington disease (HD) is one of the most common autosomal dominant inherited neurodegenerative diseases. The clinical symptoms include motor abnormalities, cognitive decline and behavioral disturbances. Symptom onset is typically between 40 and 50 years of age, but can vary by several decades in extreme cases and this is in part determined by modifying genetic factors. The metabolic master regulator PGC-1α, coded by the PPARGC1A gene, coordinates cellular respiration and was shown to play a role in neurodegenerative diseases, including HD. Using a candidate gene approach we analyzed a large European cohort (n = 1706) from the REGISTRY study for associations between PPARGC1A genotype and age at onset (AO) in HD. We report that a coding variant (rs3736265) in PPARGC1A is associated with an earlier motor AO in men but not women carrying the HD mutation. These results further strengthen the evidence for a role of PGC-1α in HD and unexpectedly suggest a gender effect.

  8. Opening up codings?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensig, Jakob; Heinemann, Trine

    2015-01-01

    We welcome Tanya Stivers’s discussion (Stivers, 2015/this issue) of coding social interaction and find that her descriptions of the processes of coding open up important avenues for discussion, among other things of the precise ad hoc considerations that researchers need to bear in mind, both when...

  9. Error Correcting Codes -34 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Science, Bangalore. Her interests are in. Theoretical Computer. Science. SERIES I ARTICLE. Error Correcting Codes. 2. The Hamming Codes. Priti Shankar. In the first article of this series we showed how redundancy introduced into a message transmitted over a noisy channel could improve the reliability of transmission. In.

  10. Decoding Codes on Graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    set up a well defined goal - that of achieving a per- formance bound set by the noisy channel coding theo- rem, proved in the paper. Whereas the goal appeared elusive twenty five years ago, today, there are practi- cal codes and decoding algorithms that come close to achieving it. It is interesting to note that all known.

  11. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. Error Correcting Codes - Reed Solomon Codes. Priti Shankar. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 3 March 1997 pp 33-47. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/03/0033-0047 ...

  12. Insurance billing and coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Rebecca H; Bruelheide, Lori S; Demann, Eric T K; Haug, Richard H

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of understanding various numeric and alpha-numeric codes for accurately billing dental and medically related services to private pay or third-party insurance carriers. In the United States, common dental terminology (CDT) codes are most commonly used by dentists to submit claims, whereas current procedural terminology (CPT) and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD.9.CM) codes are more commonly used by physicians to bill for their services. The CPT and ICD.9.CM coding systems complement each other in that CPT codes provide the procedure and service information and ICD.9.CM codes provide the reason or rationale for a particular procedure or service. These codes are more commonly used for "medical necessity" determinations, and general dentists and specialists who routinely perform care, including trauma-related care, biopsies, and dental treatment as a result of or in anticipation of a cancer-related treatment, are likely to use these codes. Claim submissions for care provided can be completed electronically or by means of paper forms.

  13. Codes of Conduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Million, June

    2004-01-01

    Most schools have a code of conduct, pledge, or behavioral standards, set by the district or school board with the school community. In this article, the author features some schools that created a new vision of instilling code of conducts to students based on work quality, respect, safety and courtesy. She suggests that communicating the code…

  14. Decoding Codes on Graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Computer. Science 'and Automation,. lISe. Their research addresses ... The fifty five year old history of error correcting codes began with Claude Shannon's path-breaking paper en- titled 'A ... given the limited computing power available then, Gal- lager's codes were not considered practical. A landmark.

  15. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. Error Correcting Codes - Reed Solomon Codes. Priti Shankar. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 3 March ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India ...

  16. Decoding Codes on Graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 9. Decoding Codes on Graphs - Low Density Parity Check Codes. A S Madhu Aditya Nori. General Article Volume 8 Issue 9 September 2003 pp 49-59. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. READING A NEURAL CODE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BIALEK, W; RIEKE, F; VANSTEVENINCK, RRD; WARLAND, D

    1991-01-01

    Traditional approaches to neural coding characterize the encoding of known stimuli in average neural responses. Organisms face nearly the opposite task - extracting information about an unknown time-dependent stimulus from short segments of a spike train. Here the neural code was characterized from

  18. Fracture flow code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dershowitz, W; Herbert, A.; Long, J.

    1989-03-01

    The hydrology of the SCV site will be modelled utilizing discrete fracture flow models. These models are complex, and can not be fully cerified by comparison to analytical solutions. The best approach for verification of these codes is therefore cross-verification between different codes. This is complicated by the variation in assumptions and solution techniques utilized in different codes. Cross-verification procedures are defined which allow comparison of the codes developed by Harwell Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and Golder Associates Inc. Six cross-verification datasets are defined for deterministic and stochastic verification of geometric and flow features of the codes. Additional datasets for verification of transport features will be documented in a future report. (13 figs., 7 tabs., 10 refs.) (authors)

  19. Validation of thermalhydraulic codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkie, D.

    1992-01-01

    Thermalhydraulic codes require to be validated against experimental data collected over a wide range of situations if they are to be relied upon. A good example is provided by the nuclear industry where codes are used for safety studies and for determining operating conditions. Errors in the codes could lead to financial penalties, to the incorrect estimation of the consequences of accidents and even to the accidents themselves. Comparison between prediction and experiment is often described qualitatively or in approximate terms, e.g. ''agreement is within 10%''. A quantitative method is preferable, especially when several competing codes are available. The codes can then be ranked in order of merit. Such a method is described. (Author)

  20. The computer code SEURBNUK-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yerkess, A.

    1984-01-01

    SEURBNUK-2 has been designed to model the hydrodynamic development in time of a hypothetical core disrupture accident in a fast breeder reactor. SEURBNUK-2 is a two-dimensional, axisymmetric, eulerian, finite difference containment code. The numerical procedure adopted in SEURBNUK to solve the hydrodynamic equations is based on the semi-implicit ICE method. SEURBNUK has a full thin shell treatment for tanks of arbitrary shape and includes the effects of the compressibility of the fluid. Fluid flow through porous media and porous structures can also be accommodated. An important feature of SEURBNUK is that the thin shell equations are solved quite separately from those of the fluid, and the time step for the fluid flow calculation can be an integer multiple of that for calculating the shell motion. The interaction of the shell with the fluid is then considered as a modification to the coefficients in the implicit pressure equations, the modifications naturally depending on the behaviour of the thin shell section within the fluid cell. The code is limited to dealing with a single fluid, the coolant, whereas the bubble and the cover gas are treated as cavities of uniform pressure calculated via appropriate pressure-volume-energy relationships. This manual describes the input data specifications needed for the execution of SEURBNUK-2 calculations and nine sample problems of varying degrees of complexity highlight the code capabilities. After explaining the output facilities information is included to aid those unfamiliar with SEURBNUK-2 to avoid the common pit-falls experienced by novices

  1. Report number codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.N.

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name

  2. Report number codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.N. (ed.)

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  3. Coded Modulation in C and MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamkins, Jon; Andrews, Kenneth S.

    2011-01-01

    This software, written separately in C and MATLAB as stand-alone packages with equivalent functionality, implements encoders and decoders for a set of nine error-correcting codes and modulators and demodulators for five modulation types. The software can be used as a single program to simulate the performance of such coded modulation. The error-correcting codes implemented are the nine accumulate repeat-4 jagged accumulate (AR4JA) low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, which have been approved for international standardization by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems, and which are scheduled to fly on a series of NASA missions in the Constellation Program. The software implements the encoder and decoder functions, and contains compressed versions of generator and parity-check matrices used in these operations.

  4. Distributed video coding with multiple side information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Brites, C.; Ascenso, J.

    2009-01-01

    Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a new video coding paradigm which mainly exploits the source statistics at the decoder based on the availability of some decoder side information. The quality of the side information has a major impact on the DVC rate-distortion (RD) performance in the same way...... the quality of the predictions had a major impact in predictive video coding. In this paper, a DVC solution exploiting multiple side information is proposed; the multiple side information is generated by frame interpolation and frame extrapolation targeting to improve the side information of a single...... estimation mode. Compared with the best available single side information solutions, the proposed DVC solution with multiple side information robustly improves the RD performance for the set of test sequences....

  5. Laser propagation code study

    OpenAIRE

    Rockower, Edward B.

    1985-01-01

    A number of laser propagation codes have been assessed as to their suitability for modeling Army High Energy Laser (HEL) weapons used in an anti- sensor mode. We identify a number of areas in which systems analysis HEL codes are deficient. Most notably, available HEL scaling law codes model the laser aperture as circular, possibly with a fixed (e.g. 10%) obscuration. However, most HELs have rectangular apertures with up to 30% obscuration. We present a beam-quality/aperture shape scaling rela...

  6. Transport theory and codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clancy, B.E.

    1986-01-01

    This chapter begins with a neutron transport equation which includes the one dimensional plane geometry problems, the one dimensional spherical geometry problems, and numerical solutions. The section on the ANISN code and its look-alikes covers problems which can be solved; eigenvalue problems; outer iteration loop; inner iteration loop; and finite difference solution procedures. The input and output data for ANISN is also discussed. Two dimensional problems such as the DOT code are given. Finally, an overview of the Monte-Carlo methods and codes are elaborated on

  7. Gravity inversion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhard, N.R.

    1979-01-01

    The gravity inversion code applies stabilized linear inverse theory to determine the topography of a subsurface density anomaly from Bouguer gravity data. The gravity inversion program consists of four source codes: SEARCH, TREND, INVERT, and AVERAGE. TREND and INVERT are used iteratively to converge on a solution. SEARCH forms the input gravity data files for Nevada Test Site data. AVERAGE performs a covariance analysis on the solution. This document describes the necessary input files and the proper operation of the code. 2 figures, 2 tables

  8. Decoding the productivity code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, David

    , that is, the productivity code of the 21st century, is dissolved. Today, organizations are pressured for operational efficiency, often in terms of productivity, due to increased global competition, demographical changes, and use of natural resources. Taylor’s principles for rationalization founded...... that swing between rationalization and employee development. The productivity code is the lack of alternatives to this ineffective approach. This thesis decodes the productivity code based on the results from a 3-year action research study at a medium-sized manufacturing facility. During the project period...

  9. CALIPSOS code report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanselau, R.W.; Thakkar, J.G.; Hiestand, J.W.; Cassell, D.S.

    1980-04-01

    CALIPSOS is a steady-state three-dimensional flow distribution code which predicts the fluid dynamics and heat transfer interactions of the secondary two-phase flow in a steam generator. The mathematical formulation is sufficiently general to accommodate two fluid models described by separate gas and liquid momentum equations. However, if the user selects the homogeneous flow option, the code automatically equates the gas and liquid phase velocities (thereby reducing the number of momentum equations solved to three) and utilizes a homogeneous density mixture. This report presents the basic features of the CALIPSOS code and includes assumptions, equations solved, the finite-difference grid, and highlights of the solution procedure

  10. Cryptography cracking codes

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    While cracking a code might seem like something few of us would encounter in our daily lives, it is actually far more prevalent than we may realize. Anyone who has had personal information taken because of a hacked email account can understand the need for cryptography and the importance of encryption-essentially the need to code information to keep it safe. This detailed volume examines the logic and science behind various ciphers, their real world uses, how codes can be broken, and the use of technology in this oft-overlooked field.

  11. Code Reuse and Modularity in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Computer programs can become long, unwieldy and confusing without special mechanisms for managing complexity. This lesson will show you how to reuse parts of your code by writing Functions and break your programs into Modules, in order to keep everything concise and easier to debug. Being able to remove a single dysfunctional module can save time and effort.

  12. The fast code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, L.N.; Wilson, R.E. [Oregon State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The FAST Code which is capable of determining structural loads on a flexible, teetering, horizontal axis wind turbine is described and comparisons of calculated loads with test data are given at two wind speeds for the ESI-80. The FAST Code models a two-bladed HAWT with degrees of freedom for blade bending, teeter, drive train flexibility, yaw, and windwise and crosswind tower motion. The code allows blade dimensions, stiffnesses, and weights to differ and models tower shadow, wind shear, and turbulence. Additionally, dynamic stall is included as are delta-3 and an underslung rotor. Load comparisons are made with ESI-80 test data in the form of power spectral density, rainflow counting, occurrence histograms, and azimuth averaged bin plots. It is concluded that agreement between the FAST Code and test results is good. (au)

  13. Fulcrum Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Fulcrum network codes, which are a network coding framework, achieve three objectives: (i) to reduce the overhead per coded packet to almost 1 bit per source packet; (ii) to operate the network using only low field size operations at intermediate nodes, dramatically reducing complexity...... in the network; and (iii) to deliver an end-to-end performance that is close to that of a high field size network coding system for high-end receivers while simultaneously catering to low-end ones that can only decode in a lower field size. Sources may encode using a high field size expansion to increase...... the number of dimensions seen by the network using a linear mapping. Receivers can tradeoff computational effort with network delay, decoding in the high field size, the low field size, or a combination thereof....

  14. Code Disentanglement: Initial Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlbier, John Greaton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelley, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rockefeller, Gabriel M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Calef, Matthew Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-27

    The first step to making more ambitious changes in the EAP code base is to disentangle the code into a set of independent, levelized packages. We define a package as a collection of code, most often across a set of files, that provides a defined set of functionality; a package a) can be built and tested as an entity and b) fits within an overall levelization design. Each package contributes one or more libraries, or an application that uses the other libraries. A package set is levelized if the relationships between packages form a directed, acyclic graph and each package uses only packages at lower levels of the diagram (in Fortran this relationship is often describable by the use relationship between modules). Independent packages permit independent- and therefore parallel|development. The packages form separable units for the purposes of development and testing. This is a proven path for enabling finer-grained changes to a complex code.

  15. Coded Random Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paolini, Enrico; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Liva, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    The rise of machine-to-machine communications has rekindled the interest in random access protocols as a support for a massive number of uncoordinatedly transmitting devices. The legacy ALOHA approach is developed under a collision model, where slots containing collided packets are considered...... as waste. However, if the common receiver (e.g., base station) is capable to store the collision slots and use them in a transmission recovery process based on successive interference cancellation, the design space for access protocols is radically expanded. We present the paradigm of coded random access......, in which the structure of the access protocol can be mapped to a structure of an erasure-correcting code defined on graph. This opens the possibility to use coding theory and tools for designing efficient random access protocols, offering markedly better performance than ALOHA. Several instances of coded...

  16. Induction technology optimization code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporaso, G.J.; Brooks, A.L.; Kirbie, H.C.

    1992-01-01

    A code has been developed to evaluate relative costs of induction accelerator driver systems for relativistic klystrons. The code incorporates beam generation, transport and pulsed power system constraints to provide an integrated design tool. The code generates an injector/accelerator combination which satisfies the top level requirements and all system constraints once a small number of design choices have been specified (rise time of the injector voltage and aspect ratio of the ferrite induction cores, for example). The code calculates dimensions of accelerator mechanical assemblies and values of all electrical components. Cost factors for machined parts, raw materials and components are applied to yield a total system cost. These costs are then plotted as a function of the two design choices to enable selection of an optimum design based on various criteria. (Author) 11 refs., 3 figs

  17. Code de conduite

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    irocca

    le respect de telles normes. Ce faisant, nous contribuons à la bonne réputation et à l'intégrité du Centre et allons dans le sens du Code de valeurs et d'éthique du secteur public du gouvernement du Canada. Je vous invite à prendre connaissance de cette nouvelle mouture du Code de conduite et à appliquer ses principes ...

  18. Towards advanced code simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scriven, A.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) uses advanced thermohydraulic codes extensively to support PWR safety analyses. A system has been developed to allow fully interactive execution of any code with graphical simulation of the operator desk and mimic display. The system operates in a virtual machine environment, with the thermohydraulic code executing in one virtual machine, communicating via interrupts with any number of other virtual machines each running other programs and graphics drivers. The driver code itself does not have to be modified from its normal batch form. Shortly following the release of RELAP5 MOD1 in IBM compatible form in 1983, this code was used as the driver for this system. When RELAP5 MOD2 became available, it was adopted with no changes needed in the basic system. Overall the system has been used for some 5 years for the analysis of LOBI tests, full scale plant studies and for simple what-if studies. For gaining rapid understanding of system dependencies it has proved invaluable. The graphical mimic system, being independent of the driver code, has also been used with other codes to study core rewetting, to replay results obtained from batch jobs on a CRAY2 computer system and to display suitably processed experimental results from the LOBI facility to aid interpretation. For the above work real-time execution was not necessary. Current work now centers on implementing the RELAP 5 code on a true parallel architecture machine. Marconi Simulation have been contracted to investigate the feasibility of using upwards of 100 processors, each capable of a peak of 30 MIPS to run a highly detailed RELAP5 model in real time, complete with specially written 3D core neutronics and balance of plant models. This paper describes the experience of using RELAP5 as an analyzer/simulator, and outlines the proposed methods and problems associated with parallel execution of RELAP5

  19. Aphasia for Morse code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyler, A R; Ray, M W

    1986-03-01

    The ability to communicate by Morse code at high speed has, to our knowledge, not been localized within the cerebral cortex, but might be suspected as residing within the left (dominant) hemisphere. We report a case of a 54-year-old male who suffered a left temporal tip intracerebral hematoma and who temporarily lost his ability to communicate in Morse code, but who was minimally aphasic.

  20. PEAR code review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, R.; Jamieson, T.; Lord, M.; Lafortune, J.F.

    1997-07-01

    As a necessary component in the continuous improvement and refinement of methodologies employed in the nuclear industry, regulatory agencies need to periodically evaluate these processes to improve confidence in results and ensure appropriate levels of safety are being achieved. The independent and objective review of industry-standard computer codes forms an essential part of this program. To this end, this work undertakes an in-depth review of the computer code PEAR (Public Exposures from Accidental Releases), developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to assess accidental releases from CANDU reactors. PEAR is based largely on the models contained in the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) N288.2-M91. This report presents the results of a detailed technical review of the PEAR code to identify any variations from the CSA standard and other supporting documentation, verify the source code, assess the quality of numerical models and results, and identify general strengths and weaknesses of the code. The version of the code employed in this review is the one which AECL intends to use for CANDU 9 safety analyses. (author)

  1. Allegheny County Fatal Accidental Overdoses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Fatal accidental overdose incidents in Allegheny County, denoting age, gender, race, drugs present, zip code of incident and zip code of residence. Zip code of...

  2. The SlZRT1 Gene Encodes a Plasma Membrane-Located ZIP (Zrt-, Irt-Like Protein Transporter in the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Suillus luteus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Coninx

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn is an essential micronutrient but may become toxic when present in excess. In Zn-contaminated environments, trees can be protected from Zn toxicity by their root-associated micro-organisms, in particular ectomycorrhizal fungi. The mechanisms of cellular Zn homeostasis in ectomycorrhizal fungi and their contribution to the host tree’s Zn status are however not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize transporters involved in Zn uptake in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus, a cosmopolitan pine mycobiont. Zn uptake in fungi is known to be predominantly governed by members of the ZIP (Zrt/IrtT-like protein family of Zn transporters. Four ZIP transporter encoding genes were identified in the S. luteus genome. By in silico and phylogenetic analysis, one of these proteins, SlZRT1, was predicted to be a plasma membrane located Zn importer. Heterologous expression in yeast confirmed the predicted function and localization of the protein. A gene expression analysis via RT-qPCR was performed in S. luteus to establish whether SlZRT1 expression is affected by external Zn concentrations. SlZRT1 transcripts accumulated almost immediately, though transiently upon growth in the absence of Zn. Exposure to elevated concentrations of Zn resulted in a significant reduction of SlZRT1 transcripts within the first hour after initiation of the exposure. Altogether, the data support a role as cellular Zn importer for SlZRT1 and indicate a key role in cellular Zn uptake of S. luteus. Further research is needed to understand the eventual contribution of SlZRT1 to the Zn status of the host plant.

  3. Rate-adaptive BCH codes for distributed source coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmistraro, Matteo; Larsen, Knud J.; Forchhammer, Søren

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes for distributed source coding. A feedback channel is employed to adapt the rate of the code during the decoding process. The focus is on codes with short block lengths for independently coding a binary source X and decoding it given its...... correlated side information Y. The proposed codes have been analyzed in a high-correlation scenario, where the marginal probability of each symbol, Xi in X, given Y is highly skewed (unbalanced). Rate-adaptive BCH codes are presented and applied to distributed source coding. Adaptive and fixed checking...

  4. Polynomial weights and code constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massey, J; Costello, D; Justesen, Jørn

    1973-01-01

    polynomial included. This fundamental property is then used as the key to a variety of code constructions including 1) a simplified derivation of the binary Reed-Muller codes and, for any primepgreater than 2, a new extensive class ofp-ary "Reed-Muller codes," 2) a new class of "repeated-root" cyclic codes...... that are subcodes of the binary Reed-Muller codes and can be very simply instrumented, 3) a new class of constacyclic codes that are subcodes of thep-ary "Reed-Muller codes," 4) two new classes of binary convolutional codes with large "free distance" derived from known binary cyclic codes, 5) two new classes...... of long constraint length binary convolutional codes derived from2^r-ary Reed-Solomon codes, and 6) a new class ofq-ary "repeated-root" constacyclic codes with an algebraic decoding algorithm....

  5. SPECTRAL AMPLITUDE CODING OCDMA SYSTEMS USING ENHANCED DOUBLE WEIGHT CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.N. HASOON

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A new code structure for spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access systems based on double weight (DW code families is proposed. The DW has a fixed weight of two. Enhanced double-weight (EDW code is another variation of a DW code family that can has a variable weight greater than one. The EDW code possesses ideal cross-correlation properties and exists for every natural number n. A much better performance can be provided by using the EDW code compared to the existing code such as Hadamard and Modified Frequency-Hopping (MFH codes. It has been observed that theoretical analysis and simulation for EDW is much better performance compared to Hadamard and Modified Frequency-Hopping (MFH codes.

  6. Some new ternary linear codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Daskalov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Let an $[n,k,d]_q$ code be a linear code of length $n$, dimension $k$ and minimum Hamming distance $d$ over $GF(q$. One of the most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with optimal minimum distances. In this paper 22 new ternary linear codes are presented. Two of them are optimal. All new codes improve the respective lower bounds in [11].

  7. ACE - Manufacturer Identification Code (MID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The ACE Manufacturer Identification Code (MID) application is used to track and control identifications codes for manufacturers. A manufacturer is identified on an...

  8. Algebraic and stochastic coding theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kythe, Dave K

    2012-01-01

    Using a simple yet rigorous approach, Algebraic and Stochastic Coding Theory makes the subject of coding theory easy to understand for readers with a thorough knowledge of digital arithmetic, Boolean and modern algebra, and probability theory. It explains the underlying principles of coding theory and offers a clear, detailed description of each code. More advanced readers will appreciate its coverage of recent developments in coding theory and stochastic processes. After a brief review of coding history and Boolean algebra, the book introduces linear codes, including Hamming and Golay codes.

  9. Optical coding theory with Prime

    CERN Document Server

    Kwong, Wing C

    2013-01-01

    Although several books cover the coding theory of wireless communications and the hardware technologies and coding techniques of optical CDMA, no book has been specifically dedicated to optical coding theory-until now. Written by renowned authorities in the field, Optical Coding Theory with Prime gathers together in one volume the fundamentals and developments of optical coding theory, with a focus on families of prime codes, supplemented with several families of non-prime codes. The book also explores potential applications to coding-based optical systems and networks. Learn How to Construct

  10. A CFD code comparison of wind turbine wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laan, van der, Paul Maarten; Storey, R. C.; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2014-01-01

    A comparison is made between the EllipSys3D and SnS CFD codes. Both codes are used to perform Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) of single wind turbine wakes, using the actuator disk method. The comparison shows that both LES models predict similar velocity deficits and stream-wise Reynolds-stresses fo...

  11. Continuous-variable quantum error correction I: code comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Victor V.; Duivenvoorden, Kasper; Noh, Kyungjoo; Brierley, R. T.; Reinhold, Philip; Li, Linshu; Shen, Chao; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Girvin, S. M.; Terhal, Barbara M.; Jiang, Liang

    There are currently four types of non-trivial encodings of quantum information in a single bosonic mode: cat, binomial, and numerically optimized codes are designed to protect against bosonic loss errors, while GKP codes are designed to protect against bosonic displacement errors. These four code types have yet to be compared using the same error model. We report on a numerical comparison of the entanglement fidelity of all codes with respect to the lossy bosonic channel, given an average occupation number constraint and the optimal recovery operation. GKP codes demonstrate the highest fidelities for all but the smallest values of the boson loss probability (the parameter which quantifies the strength of amplitude damping). Although designed to protect against small displacement noise, GKP codes can offer a high degree of protection against bosonic loss errors. We also examine the performance of the four code types with respect to the combination of amplitude damping and a strong Kerr non-linearity.

  12. Speech coding code- excited linear prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Bäckström, Tom

    2017-01-01

    This book provides scientific understanding of the most central techniques used in speech coding both for advanced students as well as professionals with a background in speech audio and or digital signal processing. It provides a clear connection between the whys hows and whats thus enabling a clear view of the necessity purpose and solutions provided by various tools as well as their strengths and weaknesses in each respect Equivalently this book sheds light on the following perspectives for each technology presented Objective What do we want to achieve and especially why is this goal important Resource Information What information is available and how can it be useful and Resource Platform What kind of platforms are we working with and what are their capabilities restrictions This includes computational memory and acoustic properties and the transmission capacity of devices used. The book goes on to address Solutions Which solutions have been proposed and how can they be used to reach the stated goals and ...

  13. Code of safety for nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Code is in chapters, entitled: general (including general safety principles and principles of risk acceptance); design criteria and conditions; ship design, construction and equipment; nuclear steam supply system; machinery and electrical installations; radiation safety (including radiological protection design; protection of persons; dosimetry; radioactive waste management); operation (including emergency operation procedures); surveys. Appendices cover: sinking velocity calculations; seaway loads depending on service periods; safety assessment; limiting dose-equivalent rates for different areas and spaces; quality assurance programme; application of single failure criterion. Initial application of the Code is restricted to conventional types of ships propelled by nuclear propulsion plants with pressurized light water type reactors. (U.K.)

  14. Computer code development plant for SMART design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Kyoo Hwan; Choi, S.; Cho, B.H.; Kim, K.K.; Lee, J.C.; Kim, J.P.; Kim, J.H.; Chung, M.; Kang, D.J.; Chang, M.H.

    1999-03-01

    In accordance with the localization plan for the nuclear reactor design driven since the middle of 1980s, various computer codes have been transferred into the korea nuclear industry through the technical transfer program from the worldwide major pressurized water reactor supplier or through the international code development program. These computer codes have been successfully utilized in reactor and reload core design works. As the results, design- related technologies have been satisfactorily accumulated. However, the activities for the native code development activities to substitute the some important computer codes of which usages are limited by the original technique owners have been carried out rather poorly. Thus, it is most preferentially required to secure the native techniques on the computer code package and analysis methodology in order to establish the capability required for the independent design of our own model of reactor. Moreover, differently from the large capacity loop-type commercial reactors, SMART (SYSTEM-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) design adopts a single reactor pressure vessel containing the major primary components and has peculiar design characteristics such as self-controlled gas pressurizer, helical steam generator, passive residual heat removal system, etc. Considering those peculiar design characteristics for SMART, part of design can be performed with the computer codes used for the loop-type commercial reactor design. However, most of those computer codes are not directly applicable to the design of an integral reactor such as SMART. Thus, they should be modified to deal with the peculiar design characteristics of SMART. In addition to the modification efforts, various codes should be developed in several design area. Furthermore, modified or newly developed codes should be verified their reliability through the benchmarking or the test for the object design. Thus, it is necessary to proceed the design according to the

  15. Spatially coded backscatter radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangavelu, S.; Hussein, E.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Conventional radiography requires access to two opposite sides of an object, which makes it unsuitable for the inspection of extended and/or thick structures (airframes, bridges, floors etc.). Backscatter imaging can overcome this problem, but the indications obtained are difficult to interpret. This paper applies the coded aperture technique to gamma-ray backscatter-radiography in order to enhance the detectability of flaws. This spatial coding method involves the positioning of a mask with closed and open holes to selectively permit or block the passage of radiation. The obtained coded-aperture indications are then mathematically decoded to detect the presence of anomalies. Indications obtained from Monte Carlo calculations were utilized in this work to simulate radiation scattering measurements. These simulated measurements were used to investigate the applicability of this technique to the detection of flaws by backscatter radiography

  16. Aztheca Code; Codigo Aztheca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quezada G, S.; Espinosa P, G. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Centeno P, J.; Sanchez M, H., E-mail: sequga@gmail.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciudad Universitaria, Circuito Exterior s/n, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2017-09-15

    This paper presents the Aztheca code, which is formed by the mathematical models of neutron kinetics, power generation, heat transfer, core thermo-hydraulics, recirculation systems, dynamic pressure and level models and control system. The Aztheca code is validated with plant data, as well as with predictions from the manufacturer when the reactor operates in a stationary state. On the other hand, to demonstrate that the model is applicable during a transient, an event occurred in a nuclear power plant with a BWR reactor is selected. The plant data are compared with the results obtained with RELAP-5 and the Aztheca model. The results show that both RELAP-5 and the Aztheca code have the ability to adequately predict the behavior of the reactor. (Author)

  17. Code query by example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucouleur, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    We introduce code query by example for customisation of evolvable software products in general and of enterprise resource planning systems (ERPs) in particular. The concept is based on an initial empirical study on practices around ERP systems. We motivate our design choices based on those empirical results, and we show how the proposed solution helps with respect to the infamous upgrade problem: the conflict between the need for customisation and the need for upgrade of ERP systems. We further show how code query by example can be used as a form of lightweight static analysis, to detect automatically potential defects in large software products. Code query by example as a form of lightweight static analysis is particularly interesting in the context of ERP systems: it is often the case that programmers working in this field are not computer science specialists but more of domain experts. Hence, they require a simple language to express custom rules.

  18. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...... as possible. Evaluations show that the proposed protocol provides considerable gains over the standard tree splitting protocol applying SIC. The improvement comes at the expense of an increased feedback and receiver complexity....

  19. Revised SRAC code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchihashi, Keichiro; Ishiguro, Yukio; Kaneko, Kunio; Ido, Masaru.

    1986-09-01

    Since the publication of JAERI-1285 in 1983 for the preliminary version of the SRAC code system, a number of additions and modifications to the functions have been made to establish an overall neutronics code system. Major points are (1) addition of JENDL-2 version of data library, (2) a direct treatment of doubly heterogeneous effect on resonance absorption, (3) a generalized Dancoff factor, (4) a cell calculation based on the fixed boundary source problem, (5) the corresponding edit required for experimental analysis and reactor design, (6) a perturbation theory calculation for reactivity change, (7) an auxiliary code for core burnup and fuel management, etc. This report is a revision of the users manual which consists of the general description, input data requirements and their explanation, detailed information on usage, mathematics, contents of libraries and sample I/O. (author)

  20. A Pseudorandom Code Modulated LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, K. P.; Eichinger, W. E.; Kruger, A.

    2009-12-01

    Typical Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) uses high power pulsed lasers to ensure a detectable return signal. For short ranges, modulated diode lasers offer an attractive alternative, particularly in the areas of size, weight, cost, eye safety and use of energy. Flexible electronic modulation of the laser diode allows the development of pseudorandom code (PRC) LIDAR systems that can overcome the disadvantage of low output power and thus low signal to noise ratios. Different PRCs have been proposed. For example, so called M-sequences can be generated simply, but are unbalanced: they have more ones than zeros, which results in a residual noise component. Other sequences such as the A1 and A2 sequences are balanced, but have two autocorrelation peaks, resulting in undesirable pickup of signals from different ranges. In this work, we investigate a new code, an M-sequence with a zero added at the end. The result is still easily generated and has a single autocorrelation peak, but is now balanced. We loaded these sequences into a commercial arbitrary waveform generator (ARB), an Agilent 33250A, which then modulates the laser diode. This allows sequences to be changed quickly and easily, permitting us to design and investigate a wide range of PRC sequences with desirable properties. The ARB modulates a Melles Griot 56ICS near infrared laser diode at a 10 MHz chip rate. Backscatter is collected and focused by a telescope and the detected signal is sampled and correlated with the known PRC. We have gathered data from this LIDAR system and experimentally assessed the performance of this new class of codes.

  1. Graph Codes with Reed-Solomon Component Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Justesen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    We treat a specific case of codes based on bipartite expander graphs coming from finite geometries. The code symbols are associated with the branches and the symbols connected to a given node are restricted to be codewords in a Reed-Solomon code. We give results on the parameters of the codes...

  2. Visualizing code and coverage changes for code review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterwaal, Sebastiaan; van Deursen, A.; De Souza Coelho, R.; Sawant, A.A.; Bacchelli, A.

    2016-01-01

    One of the tasks of reviewers is to verify that code modifications are well tested. However, current tools offer little support in understanding precisely how changes to the code relate to changes to the tests. In particular, it is hard to see whether (modified) test code covers the changed code.

  3. Principles of speech coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunfunmi, Tokunbo

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that all forms of communication-including voice-will be transmitted through packet-switched networks based on the Internet Protocol (IP). Therefore, the design of modern devices that rely on speech interfaces, such as cell phones and PDAs, requires a complete and up-to-date understanding of the basics of speech coding. Outlines key signal processing algorithms used to mitigate impairments to speech quality in VoIP networksOffering a detailed yet easily accessible introduction to the field, Principles of Speech Coding provides an in-depth examination of the

  4. Scrum Code Camps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene; Dahlgaard, Bente

    2013-01-01

    A classic way to choose a supplier is through a bidding process where tenders from competing companies are evaluated in relation to the customer’s requirements. If the customer wants to hire an agile software developing team instead of buying a software product, a new approach for comparing tenders...... is required. In this paper we present the design of such a new approach, the Scrum Code Camp, which can be used to assess agile team capability in a transparent and consistent way. A design science research approach is used to analyze properties of two instances of the Scrum Code Camp where seven agile teams...

  5. Supervised Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Affara, Lama Ahmed

    2018-04-08

    Convolutional Sparse Coding (CSC) is a well-established image representation model especially suited for image restoration tasks. In this work, we extend the applicability of this model by proposing a supervised approach to convolutional sparse coding, which aims at learning discriminative dictionaries instead of purely reconstructive ones. We incorporate a supervised regularization term into the traditional unsupervised CSC objective to encourage the final dictionary elements to be discriminative. Experimental results show that using supervised convolutional learning results in two key advantages. First, we learn more semantically relevant filters in the dictionary and second, we achieve improved image reconstruction on unseen data.

  6. CONCEPT computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delene, J.

    1984-01-01

    CONCEPT is a computer code that will provide conceptual capital investment cost estimates for nuclear and coal-fired power plants. The code can develop an estimate for construction at any point in time. Any unit size within the range of about 400 to 1300 MW electric may be selected. Any of 23 reference site locations across the United States and Canada may be selected. PWR, BWR, and coal-fired plants burning high-sulfur and low-sulfur coal can be estimated. Multiple-unit plants can be estimated. Costs due to escalation/inflation and interest during construction are calculated

  7. Decoding Codes on Graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lowing function is maximized,. This kind of decoding strategy is called the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) decoding strategy as it attempts to estimate each symbol of the codeword that ..... gate the effects of packet loss over digital networks. Un- doubtedly other applications will use these codes in the years to come.

  8. New code of conduct

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    During his talk to the staff at the beginning of the year, the Director-General mentioned that a new code of conduct was being drawn up. What exactly is it and what is its purpose? Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources (HR) Department, talked to us about the whys and wherefores of the project.   Drawing by Georges Boixader from the cartoon strip “The World of Particles” by Brian Southworth. A code of conduct is a general framework laying down the behaviour expected of all members of an organisation's personnel. “CERN is one of the very few international organisations that don’t yet have one", explains Anne-Sylvie Catherin. “We have been thinking about introducing a code of conduct for a long time but lacked the necessary resources until now”. The call for a code of conduct has come from different sources within the Laboratory. “The Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel (read also the "Equal opportuni...

  9. CERN Code of Conduct

    CERN Document Server

    Department, HR

    2010-01-01

    The Code is intended as a guide in helping us, as CERN contributors, to understand how to conduct ourselves, treat others and expect to be treated. It is based around the five core values of the Organization. We should all become familiar with it and try to incorporate it into our daily life at CERN.

  10. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    focused pictures of Triton, Neptune's largest moon. This great feat was in no small measure due to the fact that the sophisticated communication system on Voyager had an elaborate error correcting scheme built into it. At Jupiter and Saturn, a convolutional code was used to enhance the reliability of transmission, and at ...

  11. Nuclear safety code study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, H.H.; Ford, D.; Le, H.; Park, S.; Cooke, K.L.; Bleakney, T.; Spanier, J.; Wilburn, N.P.; O' Reilly, B.; Carmichael, B.

    1981-01-01

    The objective is to analyze an overpower accident in an LMFBR. A simplified model of the primary coolant loop was developed in order to understand the instabilities encountered with the MELT III and SAS codes. The computer programs were translated for switching to the IBM 4331. Numerical methods were investigated for solving the neutron kinetics equations; the Adams and Gear methods were compared. (DLC)

  12. Student Dress Codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uerling, Donald F.

    School officials see a need for regulations that prohibit disruptive and inappropriate forms of expression and attire; students see these regulations as unwanted restrictions on their freedom. This paper reviews court litigation involving constitutional limitations on school authority, dress and hair codes, state law constraints, and school…

  13. Differential pulse code modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C. F. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) encoding and decoding method is described along with an apparatus which is capable of transmission with minimum bandwidth. The apparatus is not affected by data transition density, requires no direct current (DC) response of the transmission link, and suffers from minimal ambiguity in resolution of the digital data.

  14. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    syndrome is an indicator of underlying disease. Here too, a non zero syndrome is an indication that something has gone wrong during transmission. SERIES I ARTICLE. The first matrix on the left hand side is called the parity check matrix H. Thus every codeword c satisfies the equation o o. HcT = o o. Therefore the code can ...

  15. Focusing Automatic Code Inspections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Automatic Code Inspection tools help developers in early detection of defects in software. A well-known drawback of many automatic inspection approaches is that they yield too many warnings and require a clearer focus. In this thesis, we provide such focus by proposing two methods to prioritize

  16. Reliability and code level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasperski, M.; Geurts, C.P.W.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the work of the IAWE Working Group WBG - Reliability and Code Level, one of the International Codification Working Groups set up at ICWE10 in Copenhagen. The following topics are covered: sources of uncertainties in the design wind load, appropriate design target values for the

  17. Broadcast Coded Slotted ALOHA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanov, Mikhail; Brännström, Frederik; Graell i Amat, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    We propose an uncoordinated medium access control (MAC) protocol, called all-to-all broadcast coded slotted ALOHA (B-CSA) for reliable all-to-all broadcast with strict latency constraints. In B-CSA, each user acts as both transmitter and receiver in a half-duplex mode. The half-duplex mode gives...

  18. Ready, steady… Code!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    This summer, CERN took part in the Google Summer of Code programme for the third year in succession. Open to students from all over the world, this programme leads to very successful collaborations for open source software projects.   Image: GSoC 2013. Google Summer of Code (GSoC) is a global programme that offers student developers grants to write code for open-source software projects. Since its creation in 2005, the programme has brought together some 6,000 students from over 100 countries worldwide. The students selected by Google are paired with a mentor from one of the participating projects, which can be led by institutes, organisations, companies, etc. This year, CERN PH Department’s SFT (Software Development for Experiments) Group took part in the GSoC programme for the third time, submitting 15 open-source projects. “Once published on the Google Summer for Code website (in April), the projects are open to applications,” says Jakob Blomer, one of the o...

  19. (Almost) practical tree codes

    KAUST Repository

    Khina, Anatoly

    2016-08-15

    We consider the problem of stabilizing an unstable plant driven by bounded noise over a digital noisy communication link, a scenario at the heart of networked control. To stabilize such a plant, one needs real-time encoding and decoding with an error probability profile that decays exponentially with the decoding delay. The works of Schulman and Sahai over the past two decades have developed the notions of tree codes and anytime capacity, and provided the theoretical framework for studying such problems. Nonetheless, there has been little practical progress in this area due to the absence of explicit constructions of tree codes with efficient encoding and decoding algorithms. Recently, linear time-invariant tree codes were proposed to achieve the desired result under maximum-likelihood decoding. In this work, we take one more step towards practicality, by showing that these codes can be efficiently decoded using sequential decoding algorithms, up to some loss in performance (and with some practical complexity caveats). We supplement our theoretical results with numerical simulations that demonstrate the effectiveness of the decoder in a control system setting.

  20. Physical layer network coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukui, Hironori; Popovski, Petar; Yomo, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has been proposed to improve throughput of the two-way relay channel, where two nodes communicate with each other, being assisted by a relay node. Most of the works related to PLNC are focused on a simple three-node model and they do not take into account...

  1. Corporate governance through codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haxhi, I.; Aguilera, R.V.; Vodosek, M.; den Hartog, D.; McNett, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The UK's 1992 Cadbury Report defines corporate governance (CG) as the system by which businesses are directed and controlled. CG codes are a set of best practices designed to address deficiencies in the formal contracts and institutions by suggesting prescriptions on the preferred role and

  2. Ptolemy Coding Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-05

    because this would combine Ptolemy II with the GPL’d code and thus encumber Ptolemy II with the GPL. Another GNU license is the GNU Library General...permission on the source.eecs.berkeley.edu repositories, then use your local repository. bash-3.2$ svn co svn+ ssh ://source.eecs.berkeley.edu/chess

  3. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  4. Causation, constructors and codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, Jan-Hendrik S

    2018-02-01

    Relational biology relies heavily on the enriched understanding of causal entailment that Robert Rosen's formalisation of Aristotle's four causes has made possible, although to date efficient causes and the rehabilitation of final cause have been its main focus. Formal cause has been paid rather scant attention, but, as this paper demonstrates, is crucial to our understanding of many types of processes, not necessarily biological. The graph-theoretic relational diagram of a mapping has played a key role in relational biology, and the first part of the paper is devoted to developing an explicit representation of formal cause in the diagram and how it acts in combination with efficient cause to form a mapping. I then use these representations to show how Von Neumann's universal constructor can be cast into a relational diagram in a way that avoids the logical paradox that Rosen detected in his own representation of the constructor in terms of sets and mappings. One aspect that was absent from both Von Neumann's and Rosen's treatments was the necessity of a code to translate the description (the formal cause) of the automaton to be constructed into the construction process itself. A formal definition of codes in general, and organic codes in particular, allows the relational diagram to be extended so as to capture this translation of formal cause into process. The extended relational diagram is used to exemplify causal entailment in a diverse range of processes, such as enzyme action, construction of automata, communication through the Morse code, and ribosomal polypeptide synthesis through the genetic code. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Simulation and interpretation codes for the JET ECE diagnostic. Part 1: physics of the codes' operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, D.V.

    1983-06-01

    The codes which have been developed for the analysis of electron cyclotron emission measurements in JET are described. Their principal function is to interpret the spectra measured by the diagnostic so as to give the spatial distribution of the electron temperature in the poloidal cross-section. Various systematic effects in the data are corrected using look-up tables generated by an elaborate simulation code. The part of this code responsible for the accurate calculation of single-pass emission and refraction has been written at CNR-Milan and is described in a separate report. The present report is divided into two parts. This first part describes the methods used for the simulation and interpretation of spectra, the physical/mathematical basis of the codes written at CEA-Fontenay and presents some illustrative results

  6. Simple scheme for encoding and decoding a qubit in unknown state for various topological codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łodyga, Justyna; Mazurek, Paweł; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał

    2015-03-01

    We present a scheme for encoding and decoding an unknown state for CSS codes, based on syndrome measurements. We illustrate our method by means of Kitaev toric code, defected-lattice code, topological subsystem code and 3D Haah code. The protocol is local whenever in a given code the crossings between the logical operators consist of next neighbour pairs, which holds for the above codes. For subsystem code we also present scheme in a noisy case, where we allow for bit and phase-flip errors on qubits as well as state preparation and syndrome measurement errors. Similar scheme can be built for two other codes. We show that the fidelity of the protected qubit in the noisy scenario in a large code size limit is of , where p is a probability of error on a single qubit per time step. Regarding Haah code we provide noiseless scheme, leaving the noisy case as an open problem.

  7. SWAT2: The improved SWAT code system by incorporating the continuous energy Monte Carlo code MVP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Hiroki; Suyama, Kenya; Okuno, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    SWAT is a code system, which performs the burnup calculation by the combination of the neutronics calculation code, SRAC95 and the one group burnup calculation code, ORIGEN2.1. The SWAT code system can deal with the cell geometry in SRAC95. However, a precise treatment of resonance absorptions by the SRAC95 code using the ultra-fine group cross section library is not directly applicable to two- or three-dimensional geometry models, because of restrictions in SRAC95. To overcome this problem, SWAT2 which newly introduced the continuous energy Monte Carlo code, MVP into SWAT was developed. Thereby, the burnup calculation by the continuous energy in any geometry became possible. Moreover, using the 147 group cross section library called SWAT library, the reactions which are not dealt with by SRAC95 and MVP can be treated. OECD/NEA burnup credit criticality safety benchmark problems Phase-IB (PWR, a single pin cell model) and Phase-IIIB (BWR, fuel assembly model) were calculated as a verification of SWAT2, and the results were compared with the average values of calculation results of burnup calculation code of each organization. Through two benchmark problems, it was confirmed that SWAT2 was applicable to the burnup calculation of the complicated geometry. (author)

  8. Entanglement-assisted quantum MDS codes constructed from negacyclic codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianzhang; Huang, Yuanyuan; Feng, Chunhui; Chen, Riqing

    2017-12-01

    Recently, entanglement-assisted quantum codes have been constructed from cyclic codes by some scholars. However, how to determine the number of shared pairs required to construct entanglement-assisted quantum codes is not an easy work. In this paper, we propose a decomposition of the defining set of negacyclic codes. Based on this method, four families of entanglement-assisted quantum codes constructed in this paper satisfy the entanglement-assisted quantum Singleton bound, where the minimum distance satisfies q+1 ≤ d≤ n+2/2. Furthermore, we construct two families of entanglement-assisted quantum codes with maximal entanglement.

  9. Codes of Good Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Sørensen, Ditte-Lene

    2013-01-01

    Good governance is a broad concept used by many international organizations to spell out how states or countries should be governed. Definitions vary, but there is a clear core of common public values, such as transparency, accountability, effectiveness, and the rule of law. It is quite likely......, however, that national views of good governance reflect different political cultures and institutional heritages. Fourteen national codes of conduct are analyzed. The findings suggest that public values converge and that they match model codes from the United Nations and the European Council as well...... as conceptions of good governance from other international organizations. While values converge, they are balanced and communicated differently, and seem to some extent to be translated into the national cultures. The set of global public values derived from this analysis include public interest, regime dignity...

  10. Efficient convolutional sparse coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlberg, Brendt

    2017-06-20

    Computationally efficient algorithms may be applied for fast dictionary learning solving the convolutional sparse coding problem in the Fourier domain. More specifically, efficient convolutional sparse coding may be derived within an alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) framework that utilizes fast Fourier transforms (FFT) to solve the main linear system in the frequency domain. Such algorithms may enable a significant reduction in computational cost over conventional approaches by implementing a linear solver for the most critical and computationally expensive component of the conventional iterative algorithm. The theoretical computational cost of the algorithm may be reduced from O(M.sup.3N) to O(MN log N), where N is the dimensionality of the data and M is the number of elements in the dictionary. This significant improvement in efficiency may greatly increase the range of problems that can practically be addressed via convolutional sparse representations.

  11. Multi-code applications using Syrthes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupp, I. [Simulog, N3S, Estet, Simail, 78 - Saint Quentin en Yvelyne (France); Peniguel, C. [Electricite de France, 78 - Chatou (France)

    1997-12-31

    In some complex industrial applications, several fluids separated by walls may thermally interact. It is typically, etc. SYRTHES solves the conduction and the radiation aspects, but also manages the coupling with one or several fluid domains. The flow data are calculated and stored at the interface of each fluid code, then gathered and interpolated at the solid interface where they are used as boundary conditions. Then, after solving the conduction problem, SYRTHES provides back updated temperature and dispatches the information towards the proper fluid code. PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) and CALCIUM allow the network of computers to appear as a single computer resources and allow computer tasks to communicate with each other. A simplified heat exchanger, where two N3S code handle respectively a hot laminar air flow and a cold turbulent water flow in two lateral channels, nine independent ESTET codes deal with natural convection flows occurring in the inner cavities filled with air. SYRTHES acting as the master code handles the conduction part and the thermal coupling arising between the eleven fluid domains. (authors)

  12. Benchmark calculation of subchannel analysis codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    In order to evaluate the analysis capabilities of various subchannel codes used in thermal-hydraulic design of light water reactors, benchmark calculations were performed. The selected benchmark problems and major findings obtained by the calculations were as follows: (1)As for single-phase flow mixing experiments between two channels, the calculated results of water temperature distribution along the flow direction were agreed with experimental results by tuning turbulent mixing coefficients properly. However, the effect of gap width observed in the experiments could not be predicted by the subchannel codes. (2)As for two-phase flow mixing experiments between two channels, in high water flow rate cases, the calculated distributions of air and water flows in each channel were well agreed with the experimental results. In low water flow cases, on the other hand, the air mixing rates were underestimated. (3)As for two-phase flow mixing experiments among multi-channels, the calculated mass velocities at channel exit under steady-state condition were agreed with experimental values within about 10%. However, the predictive errors of exit qualities were as high as 30%. (4)As for critical heat flux(CHF) experiments, two different results were obtained. A code indicated that the calculated CHF's using KfK or EPRI correlations were well agreed with the experimental results, while another code suggested that the CHF's were well predicted by using WSC-2 correlation or Weisman-Pei mechanistic model. (5)As for droplets entrainment and deposition experiments, it was indicated that the predictive capability was significantly increased by improving correlations. On the other hand, a remarkable discrepancy between codes was observed. That is, a code underestimated the droplet flow rate and overestimated the liquid film flow rate in high quality cases, while another code overestimated the droplet flow rate and underestimated the liquid film flow rate in low quality cases. (J.P.N.)

  13. Difference-Huffman Coding of Multidimensional Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Szépkúti, István

    2011-01-01

    A new compression method called difference-Huffman coding (DHC) is introduced in this paper. It is verified empirically that DHC results in a smaller multidimensional physical representation than those for other previously published techniques (single count header compression, logical position compression, base-offset compression and difference sequence compression). The article examines how caching influences the expected retrieval time of the multidimensional and table representations of re...

  14. Computer code FIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohmann, D.; Koehler, T.

    1987-02-01

    This is a description of the computer code FIT, written in FORTRAN-77 for a PDP 11/34. FIT is an interactive program to decude position, width and intensity of lines of X-ray spectra (max. length of 4K channels). The lines (max. 30 lines per fit) may have Gauss- or Voigt-profile, as well as exponential tails. Spectrum and fit can be displayed on a Tektronix terminal. (orig.) [de

  15. Status of MARS Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.V. Mokhov

    2003-04-09

    Status and recent developments of the MARS 14 Monte Carlo code system for simulation of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades in shielding, accelerator and detector components in the energy range from a fraction of an electronvolt up to 100 TeV are described. these include physics models both in strong and electromagnetic interaction sectors, variance reduction techniques, residual dose, geometry, tracking, histograming. MAD-MARS Beam Line Build and Graphical-User Interface.

  16. Cracking the Gender Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennison, Betina Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Why do men continue to fill most of the senior executive positions and seats in the board of directors in Western corporations? Almost everyone agrees that diversity is good, many women are coming down the pipeline, and companies, states and international organizations and institutions have done...... in leadership management, we must become more aware and take advantage of this complexity. We must crack the codes in order to crack the curve....

  17. Hydra Code Release

    OpenAIRE

    Couchman, H. M. P.; Pearce, F. R.; Thomas, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    Comment: A new version of the AP3M-SPH code, Hydra, is now available as a tar file from the following sites; http://coho.astro.uwo.ca/pub/hydra/hydra.html , http://star-www.maps.susx.ac.uk/~pat/hydra/hydra.html . The release now also contains a cosmological initial conditions generator, documentation, an installation guide and installation tests. A LaTex version of the documentation is included here

  18. Tokamak simulation code manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Moon Kyoo; Oh, Byung Hoon; Hong, Bong Keun; Lee, Kwang Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-01

    The method to use TSC (Tokamak Simulation Code) developed by Princeton plasma physics laboratory is illustrated. In KT-2 tokamak, time dependent simulation of axisymmetric toroidal plasma and vertical stability have to be taken into account in design phase using TSC. In this report physical modelling of TSC are described and examples of application in JAERI and SERI are illustrated, which will be useful when TSC is installed KAERI computer system. (Author) 15 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Tokamak simulation code manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Moon Kyoo; Oh, Byung Hoon; Hong, Bong Keun; Lee, Kwang Won

    1995-01-01

    The method to use TSC (Tokamak Simulation Code) developed by Princeton plasma physics laboratory is illustrated. In KT-2 tokamak, time dependent simulation of axisymmetric toroidal plasma and vertical stability have to be taken into account in design phase using TSC. In this report physical modelling of TSC are described and examples of application in JAERI and SERI are illustrated, which will be useful when TSC is installed KAERI computer system. (Author) 15 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  20. MELCOR computer code manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR`s phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package.

  1. Bar coded retroreflective target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Charles S.

    2000-01-01

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  2. MELCOR computer code manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L.; Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L.

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR's phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package

  3. Development of PARASOL code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Masanari [Research Organization for Information Science and Technology, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Takizuka, Tomonori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2000-05-01

    The divertor is expected to play key roles in tokamak reactors, such as ITER, for the heat removal, ash exhaust, and impurity shielding. Its performance is being predicted by using comprehensive simulation codes with the fluid model. In the fluid model for scrape-off layer (SOL) and divertor plasmas, various physics models are introduced. Kinetic approach is required to examine the validity of such physics models. One of the most powerful kinetic models is the particle simulation. Therefore a particle code PARASOL has been developed, and is being used for the simulation study of SOL and divertor plasmas. The PARASOL code treats the plasma bounded by two divertor plates, in which motions of ions and electrons are traced by using a electrostatic PIC method. Effects of Coulomb collisions are simulated by using a Monte-Carlo=method binary collision model. Motions of neutral particles are traced simultaneously with charged particles. In this report, we describe the physics model of PARASOL, the numerical methods, the configuration of the program, input parameters, output formats, samples of simulation results, the parallel computing method. The efficiency of the parallel computing with Paragon XP/S15-256 is demonstrated. (author)

  4. Code Modernization of VPIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Robert; Nystrom, David; Albright, Brian

    2017-10-01

    The ability of scientific simulations to effectively deliver performant computation is increasingly being challenged by successive generations of high-performance computing architectures. Code development to support efficient computation on these modern architectures is both expensive, and highly complex; if it is approached without due care, it may also not be directly transferable between subsequent hardware generations. Previous works have discussed techniques to support the process of adapting a legacy code for modern hardware generations, but despite the breakthroughs in the areas of mini-app development, portable-performance, and cache oblivious algorithms the problem still remains largely unsolved. In this work we demonstrate how a focus on platform agnostic modern code-development can be applied to Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations to facilitate effective scientific delivery. This work builds directly on our previous work optimizing VPIC, in which we replaced intrinsic based vectorisation with compile generated auto-vectorization to improve the performance and portability of VPIC. In this work we present the use of a specialized SIMD queue for processing some particle operations, and also preview a GPU capable OpenMP variant of VPIC. Finally we include a lessons learnt. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396 and supported by the LANL LDRD program.

  5. Quality Improvement of MARS Code and Establishment of Code Coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Jeong, Jae Jun; Kim, Kyung Doo

    2010-04-01

    The improvement of MARS code quality and coupling with regulatory auditing code have been accomplished for the establishment of self-reliable technology based regulatory auditing system. The unified auditing system code was realized also by implementing the CANDU specific models and correlations. As a part of the quality assurance activities, the various QA reports were published through the code assessments. The code manuals were updated and published a new manual which describe the new models and correlations. The code coupling methods were verified though the exercise of plant application. The education-training seminar and technology transfer were performed for the code users. The developed MARS-KS is utilized as reliable auditing tool for the resolving the safety issue and other regulatory calculations. The code can be utilized as a base technology for GEN IV reactor applications

  6. On Some Ternary LCD Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Darkunde, Nitin S.; Patil, Arunkumar R.

    2018-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to study $LCD$ codes. Linear code with complementary dual($LCD$) are those codes which have their intersection with their dual code as $\\{0\\}$. In this paper we will give rather alternative proof of Massey's theorem\\cite{8}, which is one of the most important characterization of $LCD$ codes. Let $LCD[n,k]_3$ denote the maximum of possible values of $d$ among $[n,k,d]$ ternary $LCD$ codes. In \\cite{4}, authors have given upper bound on $LCD[n,k]_2$ and extended th...

  7. Design of convolutional tornado code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Yang, Yao; Gao, Hongmin; Tan, Lu

    2017-09-01

    As a linear block code, the traditional tornado (tTN) code is inefficient in burst-erasure environment and its multi-level structure may lead to high encoding/decoding complexity. This paper presents a convolutional tornado (cTN) code which is able to improve the burst-erasure protection capability by applying the convolution property to the tTN code, and reduce computational complexity by abrogating the multi-level structure. The simulation results show that cTN code can provide a better packet loss protection performance with lower computation complexity than tTN code.

  8. Random linear codes in steganography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Kaczyński

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Syndrome coding using linear codes is a technique that allows improvement in the steganographic algorithms parameters. The use of random linear codes gives a great flexibility in choosing the parameters of the linear code. In parallel, it offers easy generation of parity check matrix. In this paper, the modification of LSB algorithm is presented. A random linear code [8, 2] was used as a base for algorithm modification. The implementation of the proposed algorithm, along with practical evaluation of algorithms’ parameters based on the test images was made.[b]Keywords:[/b] steganography, random linear codes, RLC, LSB

  9. Containment Code Validation Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Yu-Shan; Mathew, P.M.; Glowa, Glenn; Dickson, Ray; Liang, Zhe; Leitch, Brian; Barber, Duncan; Vasic, Aleks; Bentaib, Ahmed; Journeau, Christophe; Malet, Jeanne; Studer, Etienne; Meynet, Nicolas; Piluso, Pascal; Gelain, Thomas; Michielsen, Nathalie; Peillon, Samuel; Porcheron, Emmanuel; Albiol, Thierry; Clement, Bernard; Sonnenkalb, Martin; Klein-Hessling, Walter; Arndt, Siegfried; Weber, Gunter; Yanez, Jorge; Kotchourko, Alexei; Kuznetsov, Mike; Sangiorgi, Marco; Fontanet, Joan; Herranz, Luis; Garcia De La Rua, Carmen; Santiago, Aleza Enciso; Andreani, Michele; Paladino, Domenico; Dreier, Joerg; Lee, Richard; Amri, Abdallah

    2014-01-01

    The Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) formed the CCVM (Containment Code Validation Matrix) task group in 2002. The objective of this group was to define a basic set of available experiments for code validation, covering the range of containment (ex-vessel) phenomena expected in the course of light and heavy water reactor design basis accidents and beyond design basis accidents/severe accidents. It was to consider phenomena relevant to pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR), pressurised water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) designs of Western origin as well as of Eastern European VVER types. This work would complement the two existing CSNI validation matrices for thermal hydraulic code validation (NEA/CSNI/R(1993)14) and In-vessel core degradation (NEA/CSNI/R(2001)21). The report initially provides a brief overview of the main features of a PWR, BWR, CANDU and VVER reactors. It also provides an overview of the ex-vessel corium retention (core catcher). It then provides a general overview of the accident progression for light water and heavy water reactors. The main focus is to capture most of the phenomena and safety systems employed in these reactor types and to highlight the differences. This CCVM contains a description of 127 phenomena, broken down into 6 categories: - Containment Thermal-hydraulics Phenomena; - Hydrogen Behaviour (Combustion, Mitigation and Generation) Phenomena; - Aerosol and Fission Product Behaviour Phenomena; - Iodine Chemistry Phenomena; - Core Melt Distribution and Behaviour in Containment Phenomena; - Systems Phenomena. A synopsis is provided for each phenomenon, including a description, references for further information, significance for DBA and SA/BDBA and a list of experiments that may be used for code validation. The report identified 213 experiments, broken down into the same six categories (as done for the phenomena). An experiment synopsis is provided for each test. Along with a test description

  10. Evaluation of the FRAPCON-3 Computer Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jernkvist, Lars Olof; Massih, Ali

    2002-03-01

    The FRAPCON-3 computer code has been evaluated with respect to its applicability, modeling capability, user friendliness, source code structure and supporting experimental database. The code is intended for thermo-mechanical analyses of light water reactor nuclear fuel rods under steady-state operational conditions and moderate power excursions. It is applicable to both boiling- and pressurized water reactor fuel rods with UO 2 fuel, ranging up to about 65 MWd/kg U in rod average burnup. The models and numerical methods in FRAPCON-3 are relatively simple, which makes the code transparent and also fairly easy to modify and extend for the user. The fundamental equations for heat transfer, structural analysis and fuel fission gas release are solved in one-dimensional (radial) and stationary (time-independent) form, and interaction between axial segments of the rod is confined to calculations of coolant axial flow and rod internal gas pressure. The code is fairly easy to use; fuel rod design data and time histories of fuel rod power and coolant inlet conditions are input via a single text file, and the corresponding calculated variation with time of important fuel rod parameters are printed to a single output file in textual form. The results can also be presented in graphical form through an interface to the general graphics program xmgr. FRAPCON-3 also provides the possibility to export calculated results to the transient fuel rod analysis code FRAPTRAN, where the data can be used as burnup-dependent initial conditions to a postulated transient. Most of the source code to FRAPCON-3 is written in Fortran-IV, which is an archaic, non-standard dialect of the Fortran programming language. Since Fortran-IV is not accepted by all compilers for the latest standard of the language, Fortran-95, there is a risk that the source code must be partly rewritten in the future. Documentation of the code comprises (i) a general code description, which briefly presents models

  11. Evaluation of the FRAPCON-3 Computer Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jernkvist, Lars Olof; Massih, Ali [Quantum Technologies AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2002-03-01

    The FRAPCON-3 computer code has been evaluated with respect to its applicability, modeling capability, user friendliness, source code structure and supporting experimental database. The code is intended for thermo-mechanical analyses of light water reactor nuclear fuel rods under steady-state operational conditions and moderate power excursions. It is applicable to both boiling- and pressurized water reactor fuel rods with UO{sub 2} fuel, ranging up to about 65 MWd/kg U in rod average burnup. The models and numerical methods in FRAPCON-3 are relatively simple, which makes the code transparent and also fairly easy to modify and extend for the user. The fundamental equations for heat transfer, structural analysis and fuel fission gas release are solved in one-dimensional (radial) and stationary (time-independent) form, and interaction between axial segments of the rod is confined to calculations of coolant axial flow and rod internal gas pressure. The code is fairly easy to use; fuel rod design data and time histories of fuel rod power and coolant inlet conditions are input via a single text file, and the corresponding calculated variation with time of important fuel rod parameters are printed to a single output file in textual form. The results can also be presented in graphical form through an interface to the general graphics program xmgr. FRAPCON-3 also provides the possibility to export calculated results to the transient fuel rod analysis code FRAPTRAN, where the data can be used as burnup-dependent initial conditions to a postulated transient. Most of the source code to FRAPCON-3 is written in Fortran-IV, which is an archaic, non-standard dialect of the Fortran programming language. Since Fortran-IV is not accepted by all compilers for the latest standard of the language, Fortran-95, there is a risk that the source code must be partly rewritten in the future. Documentation of the code comprises (i) a general code description, which briefly presents models

  12. Construction of new quantum MDS codes derived from constacyclic codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Divya; Gupta, Manish; Narula, Rajesh; Bhullar, Jaskaran

    Obtaining quantum maximum distance separable (MDS) codes from dual containing classical constacyclic codes using Hermitian construction have paved a path to undertake the challenges related to such constructions. Using the same technique, some new parameters of quantum MDS codes have been constructed here. One set of parameters obtained in this paper has achieved much larger distance than work done earlier. The remaining constructed parameters of quantum MDS codes have large minimum distance and were not explored yet.

  13. Decoding of concatenated codes with interleaved outer codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Thommesen, Christian; Høholdt, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Recently Bleichenbacher et al. proposed a decoding algorithm for interleaved Reed/Solomon codes, which allows close to errors to be corrected in many cases. We discuss the application of this decoding algorithm to concatenated codes. (NK) N-K......Recently Bleichenbacher et al. proposed a decoding algorithm for interleaved Reed/Solomon codes, which allows close to errors to be corrected in many cases. We discuss the application of this decoding algorithm to concatenated codes. (NK) N-K...

  14. Decoding of concatenated codes with interleaved outer codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom; Thommesen, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Recently Bleichenbacher et al. proposed a decoding algorithm for interleaved (N, K) Reed-Solomon codes, which allows close to N-K errors to be corrected in many cases. We discuss the application of this decoding algorithm to concatenated codes.......Recently Bleichenbacher et al. proposed a decoding algorithm for interleaved (N, K) Reed-Solomon codes, which allows close to N-K errors to be corrected in many cases. We discuss the application of this decoding algorithm to concatenated codes....

  15. Roles of HTLV-1 basic Zip Factor (HBZ in Viral Chronicity and Leukemic Transformation. Potential New Therapeutic Approaches to Prevent and Treat HTLV-1-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Mesnard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available More than thirty years have passed since human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 was described as the first retrovirus to be the causative agent of a human cancer, adult T-cell leukemia (ATL, but the precise mechanism behind HTLV-1 pathogenesis still remains elusive. For more than two decades, the transforming ability of HTLV-1 has been exclusively associated to the viral transactivator Tax. Thirteen year ago, we first reported that the minus strand of HTLV-1 encoded for a basic Zip factor factor (HBZ, and since then several teams have underscored the importance of this antisense viral protein for the maintenance of a chronic infection and the proliferation of infected cells. More recently, we as well as others have demonstrated that HBZ has the potential to transform cells both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we focus on the latest progress in our understanding of HBZ functions in chronicity and cellular transformation. We will discuss the involvement of this paradigm shift of HTLV-1 research on new therapeutic approaches to treat HTLV-1-related human diseases.

  16. Modeling Associations between Principals' Reported Indoor Environmental Quality and Students' Self-Reported Respiratory Health Outcomes Using GLMM and ZIP Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyinbo, Oluyemi; Matilainen, Markus; Turunen, Mari; Putus, Tuula; Shaughnessy, Richard; Haverinen-Shaughnessy, Ulla

    2016-03-30

    The aim of this paper was to examine associations between school building characteristics, indoor environmental quality (IEQ), and health responses using questionnaire data from both school principals and students. From 334 randomly sampled schools, 4248 sixth grade students from 297 schools participated in a questionnaire. From these schools, 134 principals returned questionnaires concerning 51 IEQ related questions of their school. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) were used to study the associations between IEQ indicators and existence of self-reported upper respiratory symptoms, while hierarchical Zero Inflated Poisson (ZIP)-models were used to model the number of symptoms. Significant associations were established between existence of upper respiratory symptoms and unsatisfactory classroom temperature during the heating season (ORs 1.45 for too hot and cold, and 1.27 for too cold as compared to satisfactory temperature) and dampness or moisture damage during the year 2006-2007 (OR: 1.80 as compared to no moisture damage), respectively. The number of upper respiratory symptoms was significantly associated with inadequate ventilation and dampness or moisture damage. A higher number of missed school days due to respiratory infections were reported in schools with inadequate ventilation (RR: 1.16). The school level IEQ indicator variables described in this paper could explain a relatively large part of the school level variation observed in the self-reported upper respiratory symptoms and missed school days due to respiratory infections among students.

  17. Calcium-dependent protein kinases responsible for the phosphorylation of a bZIP transcription factor FD crucial for the florigen complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Nozomi; Sasabe, Michiko; Endo, Motomu; Machida, Yasunori; Araki, Takashi

    2015-02-09

    Appropriate timing of flowering is critical for reproductive success and necessarily involves complex genetic regulatory networks. A mobile floral signal, called florigen, is a key molecule in this process, and flowering locus T (FT) protein is its major component in Arabidopsis. FT is produced in leaves, but promotes the floral transition in the shoot apex, where it forms a complex with a basic region/leucine-zipper (bZIP) transcription factor, FD. Formation of the florigen complex depends on the supposed phosphorylation of FD; hitherto, however, the responsible protein kinase(s) have not been identified. In this study, we prepared protein extracts from shoot apices of plants around the floral transition, and detected a protein kinase activity that phosphorylates a threonine residue at position 282 of FD (FD T282), which is a crucial residue for the complex formation with FT via 14-3-3. The kinase activity was calcium-dependent. Subsequent biochemical, cellular, and genetic analyses showed that three calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) efficiently phosphorylate FD T282. Two of them (CPK6 and CPK33) are expressed in shoot apical meristem and directly interact with FD, suggesting they have redundant functions. The loss of function of one CDPK (CPK33) resulted in a weak but significant late-flowering phenotype.

  18. Glutamine rich and basic region/leucine zipper (bZIP) domains stabilize cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) binding to chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Bernhard M; Guzman, Ernesto; Montminy, Marc

    2005-04-15

    We have examined the dynamics of cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) binding to chromatin in live cells using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). CREB was found to bind to target sites with a residence time of 100 s, and exposure to a cAMP agonist had no effect on these kinetics. In addition to the basic region/leucine zipper (bZIP) domain, a glutamine-rich trans-activation domain in CREB called Q2 also appeared to be critical for promoter occupancy. Indeed, mutations in Q2 that reduced residence time by FRAP assay disrupted target gene activation via CREB in cells exposed to a cAMP agonist. Notably, insertion of the glutamine-rich B trans-activation domain of SP1 into a mutant CREB polypeptide lacking Q2 stabilized CREB occupancy and rescued target gene activation. These results suggest a novel mechanism by which the family of glutamine-rich activators promotes cellular gene expression.

  19. low bit rate video coding low bit rate video coding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Variable length bit rate (VLBR) ariable length bit rate (VLBR) ariable length bit rate (VLBR) broadly encompasses video coding which broadly encompasses video coding which broadly encompasses video coding which mandates a temporal frequency of 10 mandates a temporal frequency of 10 frames per frames per ...

  20. Code Flows : Visualizing Structural Evolution of Source Code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Auber, David

    2008-01-01

    Understanding detailed changes done to source code is of great importance in software maintenance. We present Code Flows, a method to visualize the evolution of source code geared to the understanding of fine and mid-level scale changes across several file versions. We enhance an existing visual

  1. MKAD (Open Sourced Code)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Multiple Kernel Anomaly Detection (MKAD) algorithm is designed for anomaly detection over a set of files. It combines multiple kernels into a single optimization...

  2. Rate adaptive multilevel coded modulation with high coding gain in intensity modulation direct detection optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fei; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lijia; Xin, Xiangjun; Zhang, Qi; Tian, Qinghua; Tian, Feng; Wang, Yongjun; Rao, Lan; Ullah, Rahat; Zhao, Feng; Li, Deng'ao

    2018-02-01

    A rate-adaptive multilevel coded modulation (RA-MLC) scheme based on fixed code length and a corresponding decoding scheme is proposed. RA-MLC scheme combines the multilevel coded and modulation technology with the binary linear block code at the transmitter. Bits division, coding, optional interleaving, and modulation are carried out by the preset rule, then transmitted through standard single mode fiber span equal to 100 km. The receiver improves the accuracy of decoding by means of soft information passing through different layers, which enhances the performance. Simulations are carried out in an intensity modulation-direct detection optical communication system using MATLAB®. Results show that the RA-MLC scheme can achieve bit error rate of 1E-5 when optical signal-to-noise ratio is 20.7 dB. It also reduced the number of decoders by 72% and realized 22 rate adaptation without significantly increasing the computing time. The coding gain is increased by 7.3 dB at BER=1E-3.

  3. Quick response codes in Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moidin Shakil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quick response (QR code codes are two-dimensional barcodes, which encodes for a large amount of information. QR codes in Orthodontics are an innovative approach in which patient details, radiographic interpretation, and treatment plan can be encoded. Implementing QR code in Orthodontics will save time, reduces paperwork, and minimizes manual efforts in storage and retrieval of patient information during subsequent stages of treatment.

  4. Bar codes for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keswani, A.N.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Bar codes similar to those used in supermarkets can be used to reduce the effort and cost of collecting nuclear materials accountability data. A wide range of equipment is now commercially available for printing and reading bar-coded information. Several examples of each of the major types of commercially available equipment are given, and considerations are discussed both for planning systems using bar codes and for choosing suitable bar code equipment

  5. The CORSYS neutronics code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caner, M.; Krumbein, A.D.; Saphier, D.; Shapira, M.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to assemble a code package for LWR core physics including coupled neutronics, burnup and thermal hydraulics. The CORSYS system is built around the cell code WIMS (for group microscopic cross section calculations) and 3-dimension diffusion code CITATION (for burnup and fuel management). We are implementing such a system on an IBM RS-6000 workstation. The code was rested with a simplified model of the Zion Unit 2 PWR. (authors). 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tabs

  6. The path of code linting

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Join the path of code linting and discover how it can help you reach higher levels of programming enlightenment. Today we will cover how to embrace code linters to offload cognitive strain on preserving style standards in your code base as well as avoiding error-prone constructs. Additionally, I will show you the journey ahead for integrating several code linters in the programming tools your already use with very little effort.

  7. The FLIC conversion codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basher, J.C.

    1965-05-01

    This report describes the FORTRAN programmes, FLIC 1 and FLIC 2. These programmes convert programmes coded in one dialect of FORTRAN to another dialect of the same language. FLIC 1 is a general pattern recognition and replacement programme whereas FLIC 2 contains extensions directed towards the conversion of FORTRAN II and S2 programmes to EGTRAN 1 - the dialect now in use on the Winfrith KDF9. FII or S2 statements are replaced where possible by their E1 equivalents; other statements which may need changing are flagged. (author)

  8. Physical Layer Network Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Shengli, Zhang; Liew, Soung-Chang; Lam, Patrick P. K.

    2007-01-01

    A main distinguishing feature of a wireless network compared with a wired network is its broadcast nature, in which the signal transmitted by a node may reach several other nodes, and a node may receive signals from several other nodes simultaneously. Rather than a blessing, this feature is treated more as an interference-inducing nuisance in most wireless networks today (e.g., IEEE 802.11). This paper shows that the concept of network coding can be applied at the physical layer to turn the b...

  9. Code Generation with Templates

    CERN Document Server

    Arnoldus, Jeroen; Serebrenik, A

    2012-01-01

    Templates are used to generate all kinds of text, including computer code. The last decade, the use of templates gained a lot of popularity due to the increase of dynamic web applications. Templates are a tool for programmers, and implementations of template engines are most times based on practical experience rather than based on a theoretical background. This book reveals the mathematical background of templates and shows interesting findings for improving the practical use of templates. First, a framework to determine the necessary computational power for the template metalanguage is presen

  10. Cinder begin creative coding

    CERN Document Server

    Rijnieks, Krisjanis

    2013-01-01

    Presented in an easy to follow, tutorial-style format, this book will lead you step-by-step through the multi-faceted uses of Cinder.""Cinder: Begin Creative Coding"" is for people who already have experience in programming. It can serve as a transition from a previous background in Processing, Java in general, JavaScript, openFrameworks, C++ in general or ActionScript to the framework covered in this book, namely Cinder. If you like quick and easy to follow tutorials that will let yousee progress in less than an hour - this book is for you. If you are searching for a book that will explain al

  11. A solution for automatic parallelization of sequential assembly code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Đorđe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since modern multicore processors can execute existing sequential programs only on a single core, there is a strong need for automatic parallelization of program code. Relying on existing algorithms, this paper describes one new software solution tool for parallelization of sequential assembly code. The main goal of this paper is to develop the parallelizator which reads sequential assembler code and at the output provides parallelized code for MIPS processor with multiple cores. The idea is the following: the parser translates assembler input file to program objects suitable for further processing. After that the static single assignment is done. Based on the data flow graph, the parallelization algorithm separates instructions on different cores. Once sequential code is parallelized by the parallelization algorithm, registers are allocated with the algorithm for linear allocation, and the result at the end of the program is distributed assembler code on each of the cores. In the paper we evaluate the speedup of the matrix multiplication example, which was processed by the parallelizator of assembly code. The result is almost linear speedup of code execution, which increases with the number of cores. The speed up on the two cores is 1.99, while on 16 cores the speed up is 13.88.

  12. MHD code using multi graphical processing units: SMAUG+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyenge, N.; Griffiths, M. K.; Erdélyi, R.

    2018-01-01

    This paper introduces the Sheffield Magnetohydrodynamics Algorithm Using GPUs (SMAUG+), an advanced numerical code for solving magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) problems, using multi-GPU systems. Multi-GPU systems facilitate the development of accelerated codes and enable us to investigate larger model sizes and/or more detailed computational domain resolutions. This is a significant advancement over the parent single-GPU MHD code, SMAUG (Griffiths et al., 2015). Here, we demonstrate the validity of the SMAUG + code, describe the parallelisation techniques and investigate performance benchmarks. The initial configuration of the Orszag-Tang vortex simulations are distributed among 4, 16, 64 and 100 GPUs. Furthermore, different simulation box resolutions are applied: 1000 × 1000, 2044 × 2044, 4000 × 4000 and 8000 × 8000 . We also tested the code with the Brio-Wu shock tube simulations with model size of 800 employing up to 10 GPUs. Based on the test results, we observed speed ups and slow downs, depending on the granularity and the communication overhead of certain parallel tasks. The main aim of the code development is to provide massively parallel code without the memory limitation of a single GPU. By using our code, the applied model size could be significantly increased. We demonstrate that we are able to successfully compute numerically valid and large 2D MHD problems.

  13. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes coding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The insulin-like growth factor 1 system plays a central role in the growth and development of the mammary gland. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) have been proposed as candidate genes for milk production traits. This study involved a population of 163 Montbeliarde cows.

  14. New tools to analyze overlapping coding regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayegan, Amir H; Garcia-Martin, Juan Antonio; Clote, Peter

    2016-12-13

    Retroviruses transcribe messenger RNA for the overlapping Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins, by using a programmed -1 ribosomal frameshift which requires a slippery sequence and an immediate downstream stem-loop secondary structure, together called frameshift stimulating signal (FSS). It follows that the molecular evolution of this genomic region of HIV-1 is highly constrained, since the retroviral genome must contain a slippery sequence (sequence constraint), code appropriate peptides in reading frames 0 and 1 (coding requirements), and form a thermodynamically stable stem-loop secondary structure (structure requirement). We describe a unique computational tool, RNAsampleCDS, designed to compute the number of RNA sequences that code two (or more) peptides p,q in overlapping reading frames, that are identical (or have BLOSUM/PAM similarity that exceeds a user-specified value) to the input peptides p,q. RNAsampleCDS then samples a user-specified number of messenger RNAs that code such peptides; alternatively, RNAsampleCDS can exactly compute the position-specific scoring matrix and codon usage bias for all such RNA sequences. Our software allows the user to stipulate overlapping coding requirements for all 6 possible reading frames simultaneously, even allowing IUPAC constraints on RNA sequences and fixing GC-content. We generalize the notion of codon preference index (CPI) to overlapping reading frames, and use RNAsampleCDS to generate control sequences required in the computation of CPI. Moreover, by applying RNAsampleCDS, we are able to quantify the extent to which the overlapping coding requirement in HIV-1 [resp. HCV] contribute to the formation of the stem-loop [resp. double stem-loop] secondary structure known as the frameshift stimulating signal. Using our software, we confirm that certain experimentally determined deleterious HCV mutations occur in positions for which our software RNAsampleCDS and RNAiFold both indicate a single possible nucleotide. We

  15. Order functions and evaluation codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Pellikaan, Ruud; van Lint, Jack

    1997-01-01

    Based on the notion of an order function we construct and determine the parameters of a class of error-correcting evaluation codes. This class includes the one-point algebraic geometry codes as wella s the generalized Reed-Muller codes and the parameters are detremined without using the heavy...... machinery of algebraic geometry....

  16. Network Coding Over The 232

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Heide, Janus; Vingelmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Creating efficient finite field implementations has been an active research topic for several decades. Many appli- cations in areas such as cryptography, signal processing, erasure coding and now also network coding depend on this research to deliver satisfactory performance. In this paper we...... will be useful in many network coding applications where large field sizes are required....

  17. Sub-Transport Layer Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Krigslund, Jeppe; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2014-01-01

    oblivious to the congestion control algorithms of the utilised transport layer protocol. Although our coding shim is indifferent towards the transport layer protocol, we focus on the performance of TCP when ran on top of our proposed coding mechanism due to its widespread use. The coding shim provides gains...

  18. Strongly-MDS convolutional codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gluesing-Luerssen, H; Rosenthal, J; Smarandache, R

    Maximum-distance separable (MDS) convolutional codes have the property that their free distance is maximal among all codes of the same rate and the same degree. In this paper, a class of MDS convolutional codes is introduced whose column distances reach the generalized Singleton bound at the

  19. Geochemical computer codes. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.

    1987-01-01

    In this report a review of available codes is performed and some code intercomparisons are also discussed. The number of codes treating natural waters (groundwater, lake water, sea water) is large. Most geochemical computer codes treat equilibrium conditions, although some codes with kinetic capability are available. A geochemical equilibrium model consists of a computer code, solving a set of equations by some numerical method and a data base, consisting of thermodynamic data required for the calculations. There are some codes which treat coupled geochemical and transport modeling. Some of these codes solve the equilibrium and transport equations simultaneously while other solve the equations separately from each other. The coupled codes require a large computer capacity and have thus as yet limited use. Three code intercomparisons have been found in literature. It may be concluded that there are many codes available for geochemical calculations but most of them require a user that us quite familiar with the code. The user also has to know the geochemical system in order to judge the reliability of the results. A high quality data base is necessary to obtain a reliable result. The best results may be expected for the major species of natural waters. For more complicated problems, including trace elements, precipitation/dissolution, adsorption, etc., the results seem to be less reliable. (With 44 refs.) (author)

  20. Authorship Attribution of Source Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Matthew F.

    2013-01-01

    Authorship attribution of source code is the task of deciding who wrote a program, given its source code. Applications include software forensics, plagiarism detection, and determining software ownership. A number of methods for the authorship attribution of source code have been presented in the past. A review of those existing methods is…

  1. Quantum Codes From Cyclic Codes Over The Ring R 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinel, Alev; Güzeltepe, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Let R 2 denotes the ring F 2 + μF 2 + υ 2 + μυ F 2 + wF 2 + μwF 2 + υwF 2 + μυwF 2 . In this study, we construct quantum codes from cyclic codes over the ring R 2 , for arbitrary length n, with the restrictions μ 2 = 0, υ 2 = 0, w 2 = 0, μυ = υμ, μw = wμ, υw = wυ and μ (υw) = (μυ) w. Also, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for cyclic codes over R 2 that contains its dual. As a final point, we obtain the parameters of quantum error-correcting codes from cyclic codes over R 2 and we give an example of quantum error-correcting codes form cyclic codes over R 2 . (paper)

  2. Genetic code for sine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Alyasa Gan; Wah, Yap Bee

    2015-02-01

    The computation of the approximate values of the trigonometric sines was discovered by Bhaskara I (c. 600-c.680), a seventh century Indian mathematician and is known as the Bjaskara's I's sine approximation formula. The formula is given in his treatise titled Mahabhaskariya. In the 14th century, Madhava of Sangamagrama, a Kerala mathematician astronomer constructed the table of trigonometric sines of various angles. Madhava's table gives the measure of angles in arcminutes, arcseconds and sixtieths of an arcsecond. The search for more accurate formulas led to the discovery of the power series expansion by Madhava of Sangamagrama (c.1350-c. 1425), the founder of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics. In 1715, the Taylor series was introduced by Brook Taylor an English mathematician. If the Taylor series is centered at zero, it is called a Maclaurin series, named after the Scottish mathematician Colin Maclaurin. Some of the important Maclaurin series expansions include trigonometric functions. This paper introduces the genetic code of the sine of an angle without using power series expansion. The genetic code using square root approach reveals the pattern in the signs (plus, minus) and sequence of numbers in the sine of an angle. The square root approach complements the Pythagoras method, provides a better understanding of calculating an angle and will be useful for teaching the concepts of angles in trigonometry.

  3. Supervised Transfer Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shedivat, Maruan

    2014-07-27

    A combination of the sparse coding and transfer learn- ing techniques was shown to be accurate and robust in classification tasks where training and testing objects have a shared feature space but are sampled from differ- ent underlying distributions, i.e., belong to different do- mains. The key assumption in such case is that in spite of the domain disparity, samples from different domains share some common hidden factors. Previous methods often assumed that all the objects in the target domain are unlabeled, and thus the training set solely comprised objects from the source domain. However, in real world applications, the target domain often has some labeled objects, or one can always manually label a small num- ber of them. In this paper, we explore such possibil- ity and show how a small number of labeled data in the target domain can significantly leverage classifica- tion accuracy of the state-of-the-art transfer sparse cod- ing methods. We further propose a unified framework named supervised transfer sparse coding (STSC) which simultaneously optimizes sparse representation, domain transfer and classification. Experimental results on three applications demonstrate that a little manual labeling and then learning the model in a supervised fashion can significantly improve classification accuracy.

  4. Continuous Non-malleable Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faust, Sebastian; Mukherjee, Pratyay; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2014-01-01

    Non-malleable codes are a natural relaxation of error correcting/ detecting codes that have useful applications in the context of tamper resilient cryptography. Informally, a code is non-malleable if an adversary trying to tamper with an encoding of a given message can only leave it unchanged or ...... applications of non-malleable codes in this setting required to perfectly erase the entire memory after each execution and required the adversary to be restricted in memory. We show that continuous non-malleable codes avoid these restrictions....

  5. The Art of Readable Code

    CERN Document Server

    Boswell, Dustin

    2011-01-01

    As programmers, we've all seen source code that's so ugly and buggy it makes our brain ache. Over the past five years, authors Dustin Boswell and Trevor Foucher have analyzed hundreds of examples of "bad code" (much of it their own) to determine why they're bad and how they could be improved. Their conclusion? You need to write code that minimizes the time it would take someone else to understand it-even if that someone else is you. This book focuses on basic principles and practical techniques you can apply every time you write code. Using easy-to-digest code examples from different languag

  6. Challenges to code status discussions for pediatric patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Kruse

    Full Text Available In the context of serious or life-limiting illness, pediatric patients and their families are faced with difficult decisions surrounding appropriate resuscitation efforts in the event of a cardiopulmonary arrest. Code status orders are one way to inform end-of-life medical decision making. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the extent to which pediatric providers have knowledge of code status options and explore the association of provider role with (1 knowledge of code status options, (2 perception of timing of code status discussions, (3 perception of family receptivity to code status discussions, and (4 comfort carrying out code status discussions.Nurses, trainees (residents and fellows, and attending physicians from pediatric units where code status discussions typically occur completed a short survey questionnaire regarding their knowledge of code status options and perceptions surrounding code status discussions.Single center, quaternary care children's hospital.203 nurses, 31 trainees, and 29 attending physicians in 4 high-acuity pediatric units responded to the survey (N = 263, 90% response rate. Based on an objective knowledge measure, providers demonstrate poor understanding of available code status options, with only 22% of providers able to enumerate more than two of four available code status options. In contrast, provider groups self-report high levels of familiarity with available code status options, with attending physicians reporting significantly higher levels than nurses and trainees (p = 0.0125. Nurses and attending physicians show significantly different perception of code status discussion timing, with majority of nurses (63.4% perceiving discussions as occurring "too late" or "much too late" and majority of attending physicians (55.6% perceiving the timing as "about right" (p<0.0001. Attending physicians report significantly higher comfort having code status discussions with families than do nurses or trainees

  7. Nanomechanical DNA origami 'single-molecule beacons' directly imaged by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzuya, Akinori; Sakai, Yusuke; Yamazaki, Takahiro; Xu, Yan; Komiyama, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    DNA origami involves the folding of long single-stranded DNA into designed structures with the aid of short staple strands; such structures may enable the development of useful nanomechanical DNA devices. Here we develop versatile sensing systems for a variety of chemical and biological targets at molecular resolution. We have designed functional nanomechanical DNA origami devices that can be used as 'single-molecule beacons', and function as pinching devices. Using 'DNA origami pliers' and 'DNA origami forceps', which consist of two levers ~170 nm long connected at a fulcrum, various single-molecule inorganic and organic targets ranging from metal ions to proteins can be visually detected using atomic force microscopy by a shape transition of the origami devices. Any detection mechanism suitable for the target of interest, pinching, zipping or unzipping, can be chosen and used orthogonally with differently shaped origami devices in the same mixture using a single platform. PMID:21863016

  8. Elements of algebraic coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso da Rocha, Jr, Valdemar

    2014-01-01

    Elements of Algebraic Coding Systems is an introductory text to algebraic coding theory. In the first chapter, you'll gain inside knowledge of coding fundamentals, which is essential for a deeper understanding of state-of-the-art coding systems. This book is a quick reference for those who are unfamiliar with this topic, as well as for use with specific applications such as cryptography and communication. Linear error-correcting block codes through elementary principles span eleven chapters of the text. Cyclic codes, some finite field algebra, Goppa codes, algebraic decoding algorithms, and applications in public-key cryptography and secret-key cryptography are discussed, including problems and solutions at the end of each chapter. Three appendices cover the Gilbert bound and some related derivations, a derivation of the Mac- Williams' identities based on the probability of undetected error, and two important tools for algebraic decoding-namely, the finite field Fourier transform and the Euclidean algorithm f...

  9. Introduction of SCIENCE code package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Haoliang; Li Jinggang; Zhu Ya'nan; Bai Ning

    2012-01-01

    The SCIENCE code package is a set of neutronics tools based on 2D assembly calculations and 3D core calculations. It is made up of APOLLO2F, SMART and SQUALE and used to perform the nuclear design and loading pattern analysis for the reactors on operation or under construction of China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group. The purpose of paper is to briefly present the physical and numerical models used in each computation codes of the SCIENCE code pack age, including the description of the general structure of the code package, the coupling relationship of APOLLO2-F transport lattice code and SMART core nodal code, and the SQUALE code used for processing the core maps. (authors)

  10. New class of photonic quantum error correction codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveri, Matti; Michael, Marios; Brierley, R. T.; Salmilehto, Juha; Albert, Victor V.; Jiang, Liang; Girvin, S. M.

    We present a new class of quantum error correction codes for applications in quantum memories, communication and scalable computation. These codes are constructed from a finite superposition of Fock states and can exactly correct errors that are polynomial up to a specified degree in creation and destruction operators. Equivalently, they can perform approximate quantum error correction to any given order in time step for the continuous-time dissipative evolution under these errors. The codes are related to two-mode photonic codes but offer the advantage of requiring only a single photon mode to correct loss (amplitude damping), as well as the ability to correct other errors, e.g. dephasing. Our codes are also similar in spirit to photonic ''cat codes'' but have several advantages including smaller mean occupation number and exact rather than approximate orthogonality of the code words. We analyze how the rate of uncorrectable errors scales with the code complexity and discuss the unitary control for the recovery process. These codes are realizable with current superconducting qubit technology and can increase the fidelity of photonic quantum communication and memories.

  11. Development of the integrated system reliability analysis code MODULE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S.H.; Yoo, K.J.; Kim, T.W.

    1987-01-01

    The major components in a system reliability analysis are the determination of cut sets, importance measure, and uncertainty analysis. Various computer codes have been used for these purposes. For example, SETS and FTAP are used to determine cut sets; Importance for importance calculations; and Sample, CONINT, and MOCUP for uncertainty analysis. There have been problems when the codes run each other and the input and output are not linked, which could result in errors when preparing input for each code. The code MODULE was developed to carry out the above calculations simultaneously without linking input and outputs to other codes. MODULE can also prepare input for SETS for the case of a large fault tree that cannot be handled by MODULE. The flow diagram of the MODULE code is shown. To verify the MODULE code, two examples are selected and the results and computation times are compared with those of SETS, FTAP, CONINT, and MOCUP on both Cyber 170-875 and IBM PC/AT. Two examples are fault trees of the auxiliary feedwater system (AFWS) of Korea Nuclear Units (KNU)-1 and -2, which have 54 gates and 115 events, 39 gates and 92 events, respectively. The MODULE code has the advantage that it can calculate the cut sets, importances, and uncertainties in a single run with little increase in computing time over other codes and that it can be used in personal computers

  12. Structural Encoding of Static Single Assignment Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Andreas; Probst, Christian; Franz, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Static Single Assignment (SSA) form is often used as an intermediate representation during code optimization in Java Virtual Machines. Recently, SSA has successfully been used for bytecode verification. However, constructing SSA at the code consumer is costly. SSAbased mobile code transport formats...... Java bytecode. While the resulting bytecode sequence can still be directly executed by traditional Virtual Machines, our novel VM can infer SSA form and confirm its safety with virtually no overhead....

  13. TOPIC: a debugging code for torus geometry input data of Monte Carlo transport code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Hiromasa; Kawasaki, Hiromitsu.

    1979-06-01

    TOPIC has been developed for debugging geometry input data of the Monte Carlo transport code. the code has the following features: (1) It debugs the geometry input data of not only MORSE-GG but also MORSE-I capable of treating torus geometry. (2) Its calculation results are shown in figures drawn by Plotter or COM, and the regions not defined or doubly defined are easily detected. (3) It finds a multitude of input data errors in a single run. (4) The input data required in this code are few, so that it is readily usable in a time sharing system of FACOM 230-60/75 computer. Example TOPIC calculations in design study of tokamak fusion reactors (JXFR, INTOR-J) are presented. (author)

  14. Galois LCD Codes over Finite Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiusheng; Fan, Yun; Liu, Hualu

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the complementary dual codes in more general setting (which are called Galois LCD codes) by a uniform method. A necessary and sufficient condition for linear codes to be Galois LCD codes is determined, and constacyclic codes to be Galois LCD codes are characterized. Some illustrative examples which constacyclic codes are Galois LCD MDS codes are provided as well. In particular, we study Hermitian LCD constacyclic codes. Finally, we present a construction of a class of ...

  15. GOC: General Orbit Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddox, L.B.; McNeilly, G.S.

    1979-08-01

    GOC (General Orbit Code) is a versatile program which will perform a variety of calculations relevant to isochronous cyclotron design studies. In addition to the usual calculations of interest (e.g., equilibrium and accelerated orbits, focusing frequencies, field isochronization, etc.), GOC has a number of options to calculate injections with a charge change. GOC provides both printed and plotted output, and will follow groups of particles to allow determination of finite-beam properties. An interactive PDP-10 program called GIP, which prepares input data for GOC, is available. GIP is a very easy and convenient way to prepare complicated input data for GOC. Enclosed with this report are several microfiche containing source listings of GOC and other related routines and the printed output from a multiple-option GOC run

  16. Code des baux 2018

    CERN Document Server

    Vial-Pedroletti, Béatrice; Kendérian, Fabien; Chavance, Emmanuelle; Coutan-Lapalus, Christelle

    2017-01-01

    Le code des baux 2018 vous offre un contenu extrêmement pratique, fiable et à jour au 1er août 2017. Cette 16e édition intègre notamment : le décret du 27 juillet 2017 relatif à l’évolution de certains loyers dans le cadre d’une nouvelle location ou d’un renouvellement de bail, pris en application de l’article 18 de la loi n° 89-462 du 6 juillet 1989 ; la loi du 27 janvier 2017 relative à l’égalité et à la citoyenneté ; la loi du 9 décembre 2016 relative à la transparence, à la lutte contre la corruption et à la modernisation de la vie économique ; la loi du 18 novembre 2016 de modernisation de la justice du xxie siècle

  17. Interferon-γ Promotes Inflammation and Development of T-Cell Lymphoma in HTLV-1 bZIP Factor Transgenic Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Mitagami

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is an etiological agent of several inflammatory diseases and a T-cell malignancy, adult T-cell leukemia (ATL. HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ is the only viral gene that is constitutively expressed in HTLV-1-infected cells, and it has multiple functions on T-cell signaling pathways. HBZ has important roles in HTLV-1-mediated pathogenesis, since HBZ transgenic (HBZ-Tg mice develop systemic inflammation and T-cell lymphomas, which are similar phenotypes to HTLV-1-associated diseases. We showed previously that in HBZ-Tg mice, HBZ causes unstable Foxp3 expression, leading to an increase in regulatory T cells (Tregs and the consequent induction of IFN-γ-producing cells, which in turn leads to the development of inflammation in the mice. In this study, we show that the severity of inflammation is correlated with the development of lymphomas in HBZ-Tg mice, suggesting that HBZ-mediated inflammation is closely linked to oncogenesis in CD4+ T cells. In addition, we found that IFN-γ-producing cells enhance HBZ-mediated inflammation, since knocking out IFN-γ significantly reduced the incidence of dermatitis as well as lymphoma. Recent studies show the critical roles of the intestinal microbiota in the development of Tregs in vivo. We found that even germ-free HBZ-Tg mice still had an increased number of Tregs and IFN-γ-producing cells, and developed dermatitis, indicating that an intrinsic activity of HBZ evokes aberrant T-cell differentiation and consequently causes inflammation. These results show that immunomodulation by HBZ is implicated in both inflammation and oncogenesis, and suggest a causal connection between HTLV-1-associated inflammation and ATL.

  18. Co-option of the bZIP transcription factor Vrille as the activator of Doublesex1 in environmental sex determination of the crustacean Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Ishak, Nur Syafiqah; Nong, Quang Dang; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Kato, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Hajime

    2017-11-01

    Divergence of upstream regulatory pathways of the transcription factor Doublesex (Dsx) serves as a basis for evolution of sex-determining mechanisms in animals. However, little is known about the regulation of Dsx in environmental sex determination. In the crustacean Daphnia magna, environmental sex determination is implemented by male-specific expression of the Dsx ortholog, Dsx1. Transcriptional regulation of Dsx1 comprises at least three phases during embryogenesis: non-sex-specific initiation, male-specific up-regulation, and its maintenance. Herein, we demonstrate that the male-specific up-regulation is controlled by the bZIP transcription factor, Vrille (Vri), an ortholog of the circadian clock genes-Drosophila Vri and mammalian E4BP4/NFIL3. Sequence analysis of the Dsx1 promoter/enhancer revealed a conserved element among two Daphnia species (D. magna and D. pulex), which contains a potential enhancer harboring a consensus Vri binding site overlapped with a consensus Dsx binding site. Besides non-sex-specific expression of Vri in late embryos, we found male-specific expression in early gastrula before the Dsx1 up-regulation phase begins. Knockdown of Vri in male embryos showed reduction of Dsx1 expression. In addition, transient overexpression of Vri in early female embryos up-regulated the expression of Dsx1 and induced male-specific trait. Targeted mutagenesis using CRISPR/Cas9 disrupted the enhancer on genome in males, which led to the reduction of Dsx1 expression. These results indicate that Vri was co-opted as a transcriptional activator of Dsx1 in environmental sex determination of D. magna. The data suggests the remarkably plastic nature of gene regulatory network in sex determination.

  19. A Remote Code Update Mechanism for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    deployment sizes. In this paper we present Multihop Over-the-Air Programming ( MOAP ), a code distribution mecha- nism specifically targeted for Mica-2...retransmission policies. We have implemented MOAP on Mica-2 motes and we eval- uate that implementation using both emulation and testbed experiments. We...especially as network sizes grow beyond the reach of a single radio. In this paper, we present Multihop Over-the-Air Programming ( MOAP ). MOAP is a code

  20. Entanglement-assisted quantum MDS codes from negacyclic codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liangdong; Li, Ruihu; Guo, Luobin; Ma, Yuena; Liu, Yang

    2018-03-01

    The entanglement-assisted formalism generalizes the standard stabilizer formalism, which can transform arbitrary classical linear codes into entanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting codes (EAQECCs) by using pre-shared entanglement between the sender and the receiver. In this work, we construct six classes of q-ary entanglement-assisted quantum MDS (EAQMDS) codes based on classical negacyclic MDS codes by exploiting two or more pre-shared maximally entangled states. We show that two of these six classes q-ary EAQMDS have minimum distance more larger than q+1. Most of these q-ary EAQMDS codes are new in the sense that their parameters are not covered by the codes available in the literature.