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Sample records for single x-linked gene

  1. Bruton's tyrosine kinase gene mutations in Turkish patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia from a single center: Novel mutations in βTK gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ç. Aydoǧmuş (Çiǧdem); Y. Camcioǧlu (Yildiz); M. van der Burg (Mirjam); H. Çokuǧraş (H.); N. Akçakaya (Necla); J.J.M. van Dongen (Jacques)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective: X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is caused by a mutation in the Bruton's tyrosine kinase gene and is characterized by a delay in the maturation and differentiation of B lymphocytes. Patients with XLA have either absent or very low levels of circulating mature B cells (<1%),

  2. ABCD1 gene mutations in Chinese patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hong; Xiong, Hui; Wu, Ye; Zhang, Yue-Hua; Bao, Xin-Hua; Jiang, Yu-Wu; Wu, Xi-Ru

    2005-08-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) protein gene ABCD1. This study used direct sequencing of genomic polymerase chain reaction products to perform mutational analysis of ABCD1 in 34 unrelated Chinese X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy patients and 27 of their maternal relatives. Thirty-two different mutations were identified in 34 patients. Most of the mutations (62.5%, 20/32) were missense mutations, six of which are novel. One novel single nucleotide polymorphism, c.1047 C>A, was also found in three patients and their mothers, which can also be observed in 1 of 120 normal control alleles. Two synonymous mutations (p.L516L and p.V349V) appeared in two unrelated patients, and no other mutations were evident after screening the gene's 10 exons. Seventeen of the probands' mothers were found to be heterozygous for the same mutations present in their sons' ABCD1 gene. Eight of the 10 screened sisters and cousins were identified as carriers. There were no hot spot mutations in the ABCD1 gene of Chinese patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. However, over half of the mutations (19/34) were located in exon 1 and exon 6, suggesting possible hot exons. No obvious relationship between genotype and phenotype was observed.

  3. X linked agammaglobulinemia: a single centre experience from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Rashid H; Parekh, Deep; Ahmad, Noor; Madkaikar, Manisha; Ahmed, Javed

    2014-01-01

    The authors report a series of seven cases of X-linked Agammaglobulinemia, diagnosed and receiving treatment at a tertiary care centre in Mumbai. The ages of the patients ranged from 15 mo to 15 y. After diagnosis at a mean age of 3 ½ y, all were advised intravenous immunoglobulin (IvIg) infusion therapy in doses of 400-600 mg/kg every 3-4 wk. They were followed up for an average duration of 9 y, throughout which the complications and overall response to immunoglobulin therapy have been observed. The clinical profiles of each of these cases were retrospectively analysed with respect to age at diagnosis, frequency and severity of infections before and after initiation of treatment, co-morbidities and response to therapy. The results demonstrate the importance of early diagnosis and its correlation with decreased complications.

  4. Refinement of the localization of the X-linked ocular albinism gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergen, A. A.; Zijp, P.; Schuurman, E. J.; Bleeker-Wagemakers, E. M.; Apkarian, P.; van Ommen, G. J.

    1993-01-01

    Although physical and genetic mapping studies assigned the X-linked ocular albinism gene to Xp22.3, the exact gene order in this region is still unclear. We present additional genetic mapping data concerning X-linked ocular albinism that suggests the consensus order Xpter-STS-DXS237-KAL-(OA1,

  5. Drosophila X-Linked Genes Have Lower Translation Rates than Autosomal Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenguo; Presgraves, Daven C

    2016-02-01

    In Drosophila, X-linked and autosomal genes achieve comparable expression at the mRNA level. Whether comparable X-autosome gene expression is realized at the translational and, ultimately, the protein levels is, however, unknown. Previous studies suggest the possibility of higher translation rates for X-linked genes owing to stronger usage of preferred codons. In this study, we use public ribosome profiling data from Drosophila melanogaster to infer translation rates on the X chromosome versus the autosomes. We find that X-linked genes have consistently lower ribosome densities than autosomal genes in S2 cells, early embryos, eggs, and mature oocytes. Surprisingly, the lower ribosome densities of X-linked genes are not consistent with faster translation elongation but instead imply slower translation initiation. In particular, X-linked genes have sequence features known to slow translation initiation such as stronger mRNA structure near start codons and longer 5'-UTRs. Comparison to outgroup species suggests that stronger mRNA structure is an evolved feature of Drosophila X chromosomes. Finally, we find that the magnitude of the X-autosome difference in ribosome densities is smaller for genes encoding members of protein complexes, suggesting that stoichiometry constrains the evolution of translation rates. In sum, our analyses suggest that Drosophila X-linked genes have evolved lower translation rates than autosomal genes despite stronger usage of preferred codons. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. X-linked hydrocephalus : A novel missense mutation in the L1CAM gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sztriha, L; Vos, YJ; Verlind, E; Johansen, J; Berg, B

    2002-01-01

    X-linked hydrocephalus is associated with mutations in the L1 neuronal cell adhesion molecule gene. L1 protein plays a key role in neurite outgrowth, axonal guidance, and pathfinding during the development of the nervous system. A male is described with X-linked hydrocephalus who had multiple small

  7. X-linked genes and risk of orofacial clefts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jugessur, Astanand; Skare, Øivind; Lie, Rolv T

    2012-01-01

    Orofacial clefts are common birth defects of complex etiology, with an excess of males among babies with cleft lip and palate, and an excess of females among those with cleft palate only. Although genes on the X chromosome have been implicated in clefting, there has been no association analysis...

  8. Rare novel variants in the ZIC3 gene cause X-linked heterotaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulussen, Aimee D C; Steyls, Anja; Vanoevelen, Jo; Van Tienen, Florence H J; Krapels, Ingrid P C; Claes, Godelieve R F; Chocron, Sonja; Velter, Crool; Tan-Sindhunata, Gita M.; Lundin, Catarina; Valenzuela, Irene; Nagy, Balint; Bache, Iben; Maroun, Lisa Leth; Avela, Kristiina; Brunner, Han G.; Smeets, Hubert J M; Bakkers, Jeroen; Van Den Wijngaard, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Variants in the ZIC3 gene are rare, but have demonstrated their profound clinical significance in X-linked heterotaxy, affecting in particular male patients with abnormal arrangement of thoracic and visceral organs. Several reports have shown relevance of ZIC3 gene variants in both familial and

  9. The genomic structure of human BTK, the defective gene in X-linked agammaglobulinemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, J.; Parolini, O. [St. Jude Children`s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Conley, M.E. [St. Jude Children`s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)]|[Univ. of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis, TN (United States); Belmont, J.W. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    It has recently been demonstrated that mutations in the gene for Bruton`s tyrosine kinase (BTK) are responsible for X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Southern blot analysis and sequencing of cDNA were used to document deletions, insertions, and single base pair substitutions. To facilitate analysis of BTK regulation and to permit the development of assays that could be used to screen genomic DNA for mutations in BTK, the authors determined the genomic organization of this gene. Subcloning of a cosmid and a yeast artificial chromosome showed that BTK is divided into 19 exons spanning 37 kilobases of genomic DNA. Analysis of the region 5{prime} to the first untranslated exon revealed no consensus TATAA or CAAT boxes; however, three retinoic acid binding sites were identified in this region. Comparison of the structure of BTK with that of other nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, including SRC, FES, and CSK, demonstrated a lack of conservation of exon borders. Information obtained in this study will contribute to understanding of the evolution of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases. It will also be useful in diagnostic studies, including carrier detection, and in studies directed towards gene therapy or gene replacement. 29 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy: Molecular and Functional Analysis of the ABCD1 Gene in Argentinean Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amorosi, Cyntia Anabel; Myskóva, Helena; Monti, Mariela Roxana; Argaraña, Carlos Enrique; Morita, Masashi; Kemp, Stephan; Dodelson de Kremer, Raquel; Dvoráková, Lenka; Oller de Ramírez, Ana María

    2012-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is an inherited metabolic disease associated with mutations in the ABCD1 gene that encodes an ATP-binding cassette transporter protein, ALDP. The disease is characterized by increased concentrations of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) in plasma and in

  11. Mutations in the polyglutamine binding protein 1 gene cause X-linked mental retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalscheuer, Vera M; Freude, Kristine; Musante, Luciana

    2003-01-01

    We found mutations in the gene PQBP1 in 5 of 29 families with nonsyndromic (MRX) and syndromic (MRXS) forms of X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). Clinical features in affected males include mental retardation, microcephaly, short stature, spastic paraplegia and midline defects. PQBP1 has previou...

  12. A novel gene mutation in a family with X-linked retinoschisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yu-Hung; Huang, Shun-Ping; Chen, Shee-Ping; Hu, Pei-Shin; Lin, Shu-Fung; Sheu, Min-Muh; Wang, Hwei-Zu; Tsai, Rong Kung

    2015-09-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics of a Taiwanese family with X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) and to investigate the molecular genetics of a novel mutation in the retinoschisin 1 (RS1) gene. A total of 15 participants in this XLRS family were analyzed. Complete ophthalmic examinations and fundus photography were performed on 15 family members. These tests identified five affected males and two female carriers. Blood samples were collected, and genomic DNA was extracted. Best-corrected visual acuity, optical coherence tomography (OCT), electroretinogram (ERG), and direct DNA sequence analysis of the RS1 gene were performed on 15 family members. Five affected males, with visual acuity ranging from 0.2 to 0.7, had macular schisis and abnormal retinal pigment epithelium pigmentation. The mixed scotopic ERG "b" wave was more reduced than the "a" wave. OCT revealed typical microcystic schisis cavities within the macula area. Direct DNA sequence analysis revealed a single base pair deletion, 97delT, in all the affected individuals. This deletion resulted in a frameshift mutation of the RS1 gene, causing protein truncation. The affected males in this family showed moderately decreased visual acuity and dysfunction in both cone cells and phototransduction. We identified a novel RS1 (97delT) mutation in a Taiwanese family with XLRS. This finding expands the RS1 mutation spectrum and may help to further understand the molecular pathogenesis of XLRS. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. CD1 Gene Polymorphisms and Phenotypic Variability in X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Barbier, Mathieu; Sabbagh, Audrey; Kasper, Edwige; Asheuer, Muriel; Ahouansou, Ornella; Pribill, Ingrid; Forss-Petter, Sonja; Vidaud, Michel; Berger, Johannes; Aubourg, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is characterized by marked phenotypic variation ranging from adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) to childhood cerebral ALD (CCALD). X-ALD is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene, but no genotype-phenotype correlation has been established so far and modifier gene variants are suspected to modulate phenotypes. Specific classes of lipids, enriched in very long-chain fatty acids that accumulate in plasma and tissues from X-ALD patients are suspected to be involved i...

  14. CRISPR/Cas9 Promotes Functional Study of Testis Specific X-Linked Gene In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minyan Li

    Full Text Available Mammalian spermatogenesis is a highly regulated multistage process of sperm generation. It is hard to uncover the real function of a testis specific gene in vitro since the in vitro model is not yet mature. With the development of the CRISPR/Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated 9 system, we can now rapidly generate knockout mouse models of testis specific genes to study the process of spermatogenesis in vivo. SYCP3-like X-linked 2 (SLX2 is a germ cell specific component, which contains a Cor1 domain and belongs to the XLR (X-linked, lymphocyte regulated family. Previous studies suggested that SLX2 might play an important role in mouse spermatogenesis based on its subcellular localization and interacting proteins. However, the function of SLX2 in vivo is still elusive. Here, to investigate the functions of SLX2 in spermatogenesis, we disrupted the Slx2 gene by using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Since Slx2 is a testis specific X-linked gene, we obtained knockout male mice in the first generation and accelerated the study process. Compared with wild-type mice, Slx2 knockout mice have normal testis and epididymis. Histological observation of testes sections showed that Slx2 knockout affected none of the three main stages of spermatogenesis: mitosis, meiosis and spermiogenesis. In addition, we further confirmed that disruption of Slx2 did not affect the number of spermatogonial stem cells, meiosis progression or XY body formation by immunofluorescence analysis. As spermatogenesis was normal in Slx2 knockout mice, these mice were fertile. Taken together, we showed that Slx2 itself is not an essential gene for mouse spermatogenesis and CRISPR/Cas9 technique could speed up the functional study of testis specific X-linked gene in vivo.

  15. Convergence of Human Genetics and Animal Studies: Gene Therapy for X-Linked Retinoschisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Ronald A.; Wei, Lisa L.; Sieving, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Retinoschisis is an X-linked recessive genetic disease that leads to vision loss in males. X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) typically affects young males; however, progressive vision loss continues throughout life. Although discovered in 1898 by Haas in two brothers, the underlying biology leading to blindness has become apparent only in the last 15 years with the advancement of human genetic analyses, generation of XLRS animal models, and the development of ocular monitoring methods such as the electroretinogram and optical coherence tomography. It is now recognized that retinoschisis results from cyst formations within the retinal layers that interrupt normal visual neurosignaling and compromise structural integrity. Mutations in the human retinoschisin gene have been correlated with disease severity of the human XLRS phenotype. Introduction of a normal human retinoschisin cDNA into retinoschisin knockout mice restores retinal structure and improves neural function, providing proof-of-concept that gene replacement therapy is a plausible treatment for XLRS. PMID:26101206

  16. X-linked gene expression in the Virginia opossum: differences between the paternally derived Gpd and Pgk-A loci

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samollow, P.B.; Ford, A.L.; VandeBerg, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Expression of X-linked glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and phosphoglycerate kinase-A (PGK-A) in the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) was studied electrophoretically in animals from natural populations and those produced through controlled laboratory crosses. Blood from most of the wild animals exhibited a common single-banded phenotype for both enzymes. Rare variant animals, regardless of sex, exhibited single-banded phenotypes different in mobility from the common mobility class of the respective enzyme. The laboratory crosses confirmed the allelic basis for the common and rare phenotypes. Transmission of PGK-A phenotypes followed the pattern of determinate (nonrandom) inactivation of the paternally derived Pgk-A allele, and transmission of G6PD also was consistent with this pattern. A survey of tissue-specific expression of G6PD phenotypes of heterozygous females revealed, in almost all tissues, three-banded patterns skewed in favor of the allele that was expressed in blood cells. Three-banded patterns were never observed in males or in putatively homozygous females. These patterns suggest simultaneous, but unequal, expression of the maternally and paternally derived Gpd alleles within individual cells. The absence of such partial expression was noted in a parallel survey of females heterozygous at the Pgd-A locus. Thus, it appears that Gpd and Pgk-A are X-linked in D. virginiana and subject to preferential paternal allele inactivation, but that dosage compensation may not be complete for all paternally derived X-linked genes.

  17. Adenoassociated Virus Serotype 9-Mediated Gene Therapy for X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Yi; Mu, Dakai; Prabhakar, Shilpa; Moser, Ann; Musolino, Patricia; Ren, JiaQian; Breakefield, Xandra O; Maguire, Casey A; Eichler, Florian S

    2015-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a devastating neurological disorder caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene that encodes a peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCD1) responsible for transport of CoA-activated very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) into the peroxisome for degradation. We used recombinant adenoassociated virus serotype 9 (rAAV9) vector for delivery of the human ABCD1 gene (ABCD1) to mouse central nervous system (CNS). In vitro, efficient delivery of ABCD1 gene was...

  18. X-linked agammaglobulinemia caused by new mutation in BTK gene: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlicekova, Zuzana; Jesenak, Milos; Freiberger, Tomas; Banovcin, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are becoming a recognized public health problem worldwide. The most important subgroup of these disorders are the antibody deficiencies. X-linked agammaglobulinaemia was the first described entity of this group and is characterised by early onset of recurrent bacterial infections, profound deficiency of all immunoglobulin isotypes and markedly reduced number of peripheral B-lymphocytes. We report the case of a 10-year old boy with X-linked agammaglobulinaemia caused by a previously non-described mutation in BTK gene with typical clinical presentation but delayed diagnosis. Following diagnosis, substitution therapy with intravenous immunoglobulins was started and the clinical status of the patient improved. We reported a case of X-linked agammaglobulinaemia with delayed diagnosis despite the typical anamnestic signs for primary humoral immunodeficiency. The disease was caused by a previously non-reported mutation in the BTK gene. Measurement of serum immunoglobulins should be performed in all children with recurrent, complicated respiratory infections as a screening test for humoral immunodeficiencies.

  19. Detection of mutations in the COL4A5 gene by SSCP in X-linked Alport syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Jens Michael; Juncker, I; Persson, U

    2001-01-01

    of type IV-collagen. We performed mutation analysis of the COL4A5 gene by PCR-SSCP analysis of each of the 51 exons with flanking intronic sequences in 81 patients suspected of X-linked Alport syndrome including 29 clear X-linked cases, 37 cases from families with a pedigree compatible with X...

  20. X-Linked Dyskeratosis Congenita Is Predominantly Caused by Missense Mutations in the DKC1 Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, S.W.; Heiss, N.S.; Vulliamy, T.J.; Greschner, S.; Stavrides, G.; Pai, G.S.; Lestringant, G.; Varma, N.; Mason, P.J.; Dokal, I.; Poustka, A.

    1999-01-01

    Dyskeratosis congenita is a rare inherited bone marrow-failure syndrome characterized by abnormal skin pigmentation, nail dystrophy, and mucosal leukoplakia. More than 80% of patients develop bone-marrow failure, and this is the major cause of premature death. The X-linked form of the disease (MIM 305000) has been shown to be caused by mutations in the DKC1 gene. The gene encodes a 514-amino-acid protein, dyskerin, that is homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cbf5p and rat Nap57 proteins. B...

  1. X-linked familial exudative vitreoretinopathy caused by an arginine to leucine substitution in exon 3 of the Norrie gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.; Perry, Y.M.; Ferrell, R.E. [Univ. of Pittsburg, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a disorder characterized by abnormal vascularization of the peripheral retina affecting both the retina and the vitreous body. This is a bilateral disorder and leads to a clinical phenotype resembling retinopathy of prematurity, but affected individuals experience a normal gestational period, and they do not have a history of oxygen therapy. Manifestations of the disorder may include retinal folds, retinal traction, sub- or intraretinal exudates, and in severe cases enophthalmos or phthisis ultimately leading to blindness. Autosomal dominant and X-linked patterns of segregation have been reported. We studied a large three-generation family in which FEVR segregated as an X-linked recessive trait. The Norrie gene was examined because of a prior report of mutation in this gene in a small X-linked FEVR family. Exons 1-3 of the Norrie gene were amplified and screened for mutations by single stranded conformational analysis. A variant conformer of exon 3 was observed in an affected male and in combination with the normal conformer in an obligate carrier female. Sequence analysis revealed a G{r_arrow}T transversion destroying an MspI restriction site. The mutation was present in all affected males, and all obligate carrier females were heterozygous for the mutation. The mutation was not present in unaffected males or in 108 randomly selected normal females. The G{r_arrow}T mutation leads to the substitution of a hydrophobic leucine residue for the positively charged arginine normally present at position 121 of the Norrie gene product. This study confirms that mutation in the Norrie gene can lead to the FEVR phenotype and the existence of allelic heterogeneity.

  2. Meiotic drive impacts expression and evolution of x-linked genes in stalk-eyed flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine A Reinhardt

    Full Text Available Although sex chromosome meiotic drive has been observed in a variety of species for over 50 years, the genes causing drive are only known in a few cases, and none of these cases cause distorted sex-ratios in nature. In stalk-eyed flies (Teleopsis dalmanni, driving X chromosomes are commonly found at frequencies approaching 30% in the wild, but the genetic basis of drive has remained elusive due to reduced recombination between driving and non-driving X chromosomes. Here, we used RNAseq to identify transcripts that are differentially expressed between males carrying either a driving X (XSR or a standard X chromosome (XST, and found hundreds of these, the majority of which are X-linked. Drive-associated transcripts show increased levels of sequence divergence (dN/dS compared to a control set, and are predominantly expressed either in testes or in the gonads of both sexes. Finally, we confirmed that XSR and XST are highly divergent by estimating sequence differentiation between the RNAseq pools. We found that X-linked transcripts were often strongly differentiated (whereas most autosomal transcripts were not, supporting the presence of a relatively large region of recombination suppression on XSR presumably caused by one or more inversions. We have identified a group of genes that are good candidates for further study into the causes and consequences of sex-chromosome drive, and demonstrated that meiotic drive has had a profound effect on sequence evolution and gene expression of X-linked genes in this species.

  3. X-linked agammaglobulinemia: Twenty years of single-center experience from North West India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surjit; Rawat, Amit; Suri, Deepti; Gupta, Anju; Garg, Ravinder; Saikia, Biman; Minz, Ranjana Walker; Sehgal, Shobha; Chan, Koon-Wing; Lau, Yu Lung; Kamae, Chikako; Honma, Kenichi; Nakagawa, Noriko; Imai, Kohsuke; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Oshima, Koichi; Mitsuiki, Noriko; Ohara, Osamu

    2016-10-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is an X-linked genetic defect in maturation of B lymphocytes that results in the absence of B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and profound hypogammaglobulinemia. It is caused by a mutation in the BTK gene located on the X chromosome. There are no large series describing XLA from the developing world. To analyze the clinical features, immunologic and genetic characteristics, and outcomes of 36 patients with XLA diagnosed and managed for a period of 2 decades. Diagnosis of XLA was made on the basis of presence of BTK gene mutation or marked reduction of B lymphocytes in peripheral blood with a family history of an affected male relative. The diagnosis was confirmed by genetic mutation studies in 28 patients with 25 unique mutations in the BTK gene. There was a significant delay in diagnosis in most of the patients. The mean (SD) delay in the diagnosis was 4.2 (3.5) years. Point mutations were the most common mutations detected, accounting for 68% of all mutations. Deletions and insertions were also seen in a few cases. Four of the mutations are novel mutations that have not been previously reported. Seven of the 36 patients (19%) were dead at the time of analysis in the present cohort. The mean survival was 137 months (95% confidence interval, 13-163 months). The present study is perhaps the largest series of patients with XLA from any developing country so far. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mutational analysis of Btk, the defective gene in X-linked agammaglobulinemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conley, M.E.; Fitch-Hilgenberg, M.E.; Rohrer, J. [St. Jude Children`s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), a disorder of B cell development, is due to mutations in an scr-like cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase, Btk. Thus far, mutations in this gene have been identified by sequencing of cDNA. To permit the detection of mutations in genomic DNA, we determined the structure of Btk and identified 19 exons in 37 kb of DNA. PCR primers were designed to amplify each exon with its splice sites. Two overlapping PCR products were employed for exons longer than 230 base pairs. Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was used to screen genomic DNA from 30 unrelated families presumed to carry a mutation in Btk. It was possible to amplify DNA in every reaction from every patient. None of the DNA samples demonstrated more than one aberrant SSCP pattern. Twenty three mutations were detected in 25 families. Seven point mutations resulting in amino acid substitutions were seen. An additional 7 base pair substitutions gave rise to premature stop codons. Two splice defects were noted. Small insertions or deletions, all resulting in frameshifts and premature stop codons were seen in eight patients. One patient had an A to G transition in the ATG start codon. Two mutations, both at CpG dinucleotides, were seen in more than one family. Haplotype analysis, using CA repeats closely linked to Btk, demonstrated that the mutations in these families arose independently. We conclude from these studies that the mutations in Btk in patients with XLA are highly variable. Large deletions are uncommon, although small 1 to 4 bp insertions or deletions constitute as many as one third of the mutations. Further analysis of patients with amino acid substitutions will permit structure/function correlations.

  5. Mutation of the BTK gene and clinical feature of X-linked agammaglobulinemia in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Kanegane, Hirokazu; Wang, Xiaochuan; Han, Xiaohua; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Shunying; Yu, Yeheng; Wang, Jingyi; Miyawaki, Toshio

    2009-05-01

    X-Linked agammaglobulinemia is a prototypical humoral immunodeficiency with the mutation of the Bruton's tyrosine kinase gene. We investigated the gene mutation and clinical features of 30 Chinese X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) patients from 27 families. There were 26 mutations, including 11 novel and 15 recurrent mutations, distributing over the entire gene. The nucleotide and amino acid aberration, 1129C>T(H333Y) and 1196T>A(I355N), in SH2 have not been reported before. Five (I355N, W124R, R520X, I590F, G594E) of the 24 mutations not detected in the mothers receiving gene analysis were determined to be de novo. Two mutations occurred within intronic splice-site sequences (intron5(-2)A>G, intron17(-2)A>T). There are eight mutations in the PH domain, two mutations in the SH3 domain, three mutations in the SH2 domain, one mutation in the TH domain, and other 16 mutations in the TK domain. The mutations of protein domain is most common in TK (53%) domain and then in PH(8%) domain. Missense and nonsense mutations were found equal in 46% of the detected mutations. All of the patients are alive, but one died of liver cancer. Clinical features and serum Igs levels range variedly and were not correlated with genotypes. Our results demonstrated molecular genetic characteristics of XLA in mainland China.

  6. [Preliminary analysis of mutations in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy gene(ABCD1) in Chinese patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hui; Pan, Hong; Zhang, Yue-hua; Wu, Xi-ru

    2003-10-01

    To detect the mutations in exon 6 of ABCD1 gene encoding adrenoleukodystrophy protein(ALDP) in Chinese X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD MIM 300100) patients. Genomic DNA from 14 unrelated patients and two patients' parents with X-linked ALD was extracted using standard procedures from the peripheral blood leukocytes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA direct sequencing were employed to analyze exon 6 of ABCD1 gene. Three mutations in exon 6 were identified in 3 of 14 patients. One mutation was deleted 1 base pair at splice acceptor-site (1489-6 del C). It was not clear what the effect of this mutation is on the ALD protein, maybe induce splicing error. One missense mutation: T1559A(L520Q). These two patients' mothers were heterozygous. The third patient had a mutation: G1548A (L516 L), which is a known polymorphism. It was not a disease causing mutation, so there should be another mutation in this patient. For the first time, mutations in ABCD1 are identified in Chinese ALD patients in the mainland of China. No major gene deletion or rearrangement is detected in exon 6. Despite many mutations having been identified in patients with these clinical phenotypes, the genotype-phenotype correlations have not been clarified, suggesting that other genetic or environmental factors may also be involved in determining phenotypic expression in ALD. Two carriers are also confirmed.

  7. Linkage and candidate gene analysis of X-linked familial exudative vitreoretinopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shastry, B.S.; Hartzer, M.K. [Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States); Hejtmancik, J.F. [National Eye Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-20

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a hereditary eye disorder characterized by avascularity of the peripheral retina, retinal exudates, tractional detachment, and retinal folds. The disorder is most commonly transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait, but X-linked transmission also occurs. To initiate the process of identifying the gene responsible for the X-linked disorder, linkage analysis has been performed with three previously unreported three- or four-generation families. Two-point analysis showed linkage to MAOA (Z{sub max} = 2.1, {theta}{sub max} = 0) and DXS228 (Z{sub max} = 0.5, {theta}{sub max} = 0.11), and this was further confirmed by multipoint analysis with these same markers (Z{sub max} = 2.81 at MAOA), which both lie near the gene causing Norrie disease. Molecular genetic analysis further reveals a missense mutation (R121W) in the third exon of the Norrie`s disease gene that perfectly cosegregates with the disease through three generations in one family. This mutation was not detected in the unaffected family members and six normal unrelated controls, suggesting that it is likely to be the pathogenic mutation. Additionally, a polymorphic missense mutation (H127R) was detected in a severely affected patient. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Mutations in the gene for the common gamma chain (gammac) in X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugmann, S D; Müller, S; Friedrich, W; Bartram, C R; Schwarz, K

    1998-12-01

    X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (XSCID) constitutes a disorder of the immune system caused by mutations in the gene encoding the common gamma chain (gammac), a subunit of the IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9 and IL-15 receptors, which are necessary for lymphocyte development and function. In this study the IL2RG gene of 31 patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) was examined by nonradioactive single-strand conformation polymorphism and sequence analysis. Among the 11 patients with XSCID, ten different mutations were identified in the IL2RG gene, including eight novel mutations. Ninety percent of the mothers of the XSCID patients are carriers of the mutated allele. One patient showed low numbers of B-cells, a striking deviation from the classical B-cell-positive and T-cell-negative phenotype.

  9. Gene therapy studies in a canine model of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsburg, Peter J; De Ravin, Suk See; Malech, Harry L; Sorrentino, Brian P; Burtner, Christopher; Kiem, Hans-Peter

    2015-03-01

    Since the occurrence of T cell leukemias in the original human γ-retroviral gene therapy trials for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (XSCID), considerable effort has been devoted to developing safer vectors. This review summarizes gene therapy studies performed in a canine model of XSCID to evaluate the efficacy of γ-retroviral, lentiviral, and foamy viral vectors for treating XSCID and a novel method of vector delivery. These studies demonstrate that durable T cell reconstitution and thymopoiesis with no evidence of any serious adverse events and, in contrast to the human XSCID patients, sustained marking in myeloid cells and B cells with reconstitution of normal humoral immune function can be achieved for up to 5 years without any pretreatment conditioning. The presence of sustained levels of gene-marked T cells, B cells, and more importantly myeloid cells for almost 5 years is highly suggestive of transduction of either multipotent hematopoietic stem cells or very primitive committed progenitors.

  10. A rare variant in the FHL1 gene associated with X-linked recessive hypoparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillar, Nir; Pleniceanu, Oren; Fang, Mingyan; Ziv, Limor; Lahav, Einat; Botchan, Shay; Cheng, Le; Dekel, Benjamin; Shomron, Noam

    2017-07-01

    Isolated familial hypoparathyroidism is an extremely rare disorder, which to date has been linked to several loci including mutations in CASR, GCM2, and PTH, as well as a rare condition defined as X-linked recessive hypoparathyroidism, previously associated with a 1.5 Mb region on Xq26-q27. Here, we report a patient with hypocalcemia-induced seizures leading to the diagnosis of primary hypoparathyroidism. Mutations in CASR, GCM2, and PTH were ruled out, while whole exome sequencing of the family suggested FHL1, located on chromosome Xq26, as the most likely causative gene variant (FHL1, exon 4, c.C283T, p.R95W). Since FHL1 has not been linked to calcium regulation before, we provide evidence for its functional role in hypoparathyroidism by: (i) bioinformatics analysis coupling its action to known modulators of PTH function; (ii) observing strong expression of fhl1b in Corpuscles of Stannius, gland-like aggregates in zebrafish that function in calcium regulation similar to mammalian PTH; and (iii) implicating fhl1b and FHL1 as regulators of calcium homeostasis in zebrafish and human cells, respectively. Altogether, our data suggest that FHL1 is a novel regulator of calcium homeostasis and implicate it as the causative gene for X-linked recessive hypoparathyroidism.

  11. Convergence of Human Genetics and Animal Studies: Gene Therapy for X-Linked Retinoschisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Ronald A; Wei, Lisa L; Sieving, Paul A

    2015-06-22

    Retinoschisis is an X-linked recessive genetic disease that leads to vision loss in males. X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) typically affects young males; however, progressive vision loss continues throughout life. Although discovered in 1898 by Haas in two brothers, the underlying biology leading to blindness has become apparent only in the last 15 years with the advancement of human genetic analyses, generation of XLRS animal models, and the development of ocular monitoring methods such as the electroretinogram and optical coherence tomography. It is now recognized that retinoschisis results from cyst formations within the retinal layers that interrupt normal visual neurosignaling and compromise structural integrity. Mutations in the human retinoschisin gene have been correlated with disease severity of the human XLRS phenotype. Introduction of a normal human retinoschisin cDNA into retinoschisin knockout mice restores retinal structure and improves neural function, providing proof-of-concept that gene replacement therapy is a plausible treatment for XLRS. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  12. The evolution of gene therapy in X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rans, Tonya S; England, Ronald

    2009-05-01

    To review the evolution of gene therapy in infants with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (XL-SCID) and to evaluate the current challenges facing this evolving field. The MEDLINE, OVID, CINAHL, and HealthSTAR databases were searched to identify pertinent articles using the following keywords: gene therapy, XL-SCID, bone marrow transplant, and viral vectors. Journal articles were selected for their relevance to human gene therapy in patients with XL-SCID. Gene therapy with a retrovirus-derived vector has been used to treat 20 patients with XL-SCID internationally. Although most patients derived improvements in T- and B-cell immune numbers and function, severe adverse effects have occurred. After gene therapy, 5 of the 20 patients developed leukemia. This outcome has been associated with insertion of the corrected gene near the T-cell proto-oncogene LMO2. One of the 5 patients subsequently died. Within the past decade, effective improvements in vectorology and cell culture conditions have resulted in clinical success in some infants with SCID and have revived interest after many years of setbacks. However, clinical success and significant adverse events have been reported in patients with XL-SCID who have undergone gene therapy using a retroviral vector. As extensive research into improving safety through vector development and monitoring of gene therapy continues, further progress in gene therapy development can be anticipated.

  13. A novel ABCD1 gene mutation in a Chinese patient with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yan-na; Jiang, Min-yan; Liang, Cui-li; Peng, Min-zhi; Cheng, Jing; Sheng, Hui-ying; Fan, Li-ping; Chen, Xi-qing; Liu, Li

    2015-05-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) (OMIM: 300100) is a recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by defects in the ABCD1 gene on chromosome Xq28. Childhood cerebral ALD (CCALD) is the most frequent phenotype. We describe an affected boy who developed normally until he was 8 years old then suffered progressive neurological deficits that ultimately led to death. Diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms, an abnormal very long chain fatty acid profile in plasma, typical CCALD MRI pattern, and molecular analysis. Direct sequencing of the ABCD1 gene in this patient identified a novel splicing mutation (IVS1+1G>A) in intron 1, which is considered to be the pathogenic mutation. We have identified a novel ABCD1 mutation as the likely cause of CCALD in a Chinese patient.

  14. Mutations of Bruton's tyrosine kinase gene in Brazilian patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.D. Ramalho

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK gene are responsible for X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA, which is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, profound hypogammaglobulinemia, and decreased numbers of mature B cells in peripheral blood. We evaluated 5 male Brazilian patients, ranging from 3 to 10 years of age, from unrelated families, whose diagnosis was based on recurrent infections, markedly reduced levels of IgM, IgG and IgA, and circulating B cell numbers <2%. BTK gene analysis was carried out using PCR-SSCP followed by sequencing. We detected three novel (Ala347fsX55, I355T, and Thr324fsX24 and two previously reported mutations (Q196X and E441X. Flow cytometry revealed a reduced expression of BTK protein in patients and a mosaic pattern of BTK expression was obtained from mothers, indicating that they were XLA carriers.

  15. Mutations of Bruton's tyrosine kinase gene in Brazilian patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, V D; Oliveira Júnior, E B; Tani, S M; Roxo Júnior, P; Vilela, M M S

    2010-09-01

    Mutations in Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene are responsible for X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), which is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, profound hypogammaglobulinemia, and decreased numbers of mature B cells in peripheral blood. We evaluated 5 male Brazilian patients, ranging from 3 to 10 years of age, from unrelated families, whose diagnosis was based on recurrent infections, markedly reduced levels of IgM, IgG and IgA, and circulating B cell numbers <2%. BTK gene analysis was carried out using PCR-SSCP followed by sequencing. We detected three novel (Ala347fsX55, I355T, and Thr324fsX24) and two previously reported mutations (Q196X and E441X). Flow cytometry revealed a reduced expression of BTK protein in patients and a mosaic pattern of BTK expression was obtained from mothers, indicating that they were XLA carriers.

  16. An ex vivo gene therapy approach in X-linked retinoschisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashar, Abu E; Metcalfe, Andrew L; Viringipurampeer, Ishaq A; Yanai, Anat; Gregory-Evans, Cheryl Y; Gregory-Evans, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) is juvenile-onset macular degeneration caused by haploinsufficiency of the extracellular cell adhesion protein retinoschisin (RS1). RS1 mutations can lead to either a non-functional protein or the absence of protein secretion, and it has been established that extracellular deficiency of RS1 is the underlying cause of the phenotype. Therefore, we hypothesized that an ex vivo gene therapy strategy could be used to deliver sufficient extracellular RS1 to reverse the phenotype seen in XLRS. Here, we used adipose-derived, syngeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that were genetically modified to secrete human RS1 and then delivered these cells by intravitreal injection to the retina of the Rs1h knockout mouse model of XLRS. MSCs were electroporated with two transgene expression systems (cytomegalovirus (CMV)-controlled constitutive and doxycycline-induced Tet-On controlled inducible), both driving expression of human RS1 cDNA. The stably transfected cells, using either constitutive mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) or inducible MSC cassettes, were assayed for their RS1 secretion profile. For single injection studies, 100,000 genetically modified MSCs were injected into the vitreous cavity of the Rs1h knockout mouse eye at P21, and data were recorded at 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-injection. The control groups received either unmodified MSCs or vehicle injection. For the multiple injection studies, the mice received intravitreal MSC injections at P21, P60, and P90 with data collection at P120. For the single- and multiple-injection studies, the outcomes were measured with electroretinography, optokinetic tracking responses (OKT), histology, and immunohistochemistry. Two lines of genetically modified MSCs were established and found to secrete RS1 at a rate of 8 ng/million cells/day. Following intravitreal injection, RS1-expressing MSCs were found mainly in the inner retinal layers. Two weeks after a single injection of MSCs, the area of the schisis

  17. Lentiviral hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ravin, Suk See; Wu, Xiaolin; Moir, Susan; Anaya-O'Brien, Sandra; Kwatemaa, Nana; Littel, Patricia; Theobald, Narda; Choi, Uimook; Su, Ling; Marquesen, Martha; Hilligoss, Dianne; Lee, Janet; Buckner, Clarissa M; Zarember, Kol A; O'Connor, Geraldine; McVicar, Daniel; Kuhns, Douglas; Throm, Robert E; Zhou, Sheng; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Hanson, I Celine; Cowan, Mort J; Kang, Elizabeth; Hadigan, Coleen; Meagher, Michael; Gray, John T; Sorrentino, Brian P; Malech, Harry L; Kardava, Lela

    2016-04-20

    X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) is a profound deficiency of T, B, and natural killer (NK) cell immunity caused by mutations inIL2RGencoding the common chain (γc) of several interleukin receptors. Gamma-retroviral (γRV) gene therapy of SCID-X1 infants without conditioning restores T cell immunity without B or NK cell correction, but similar treatment fails in older SCID-X1 children. We used a lentiviral gene therapy approach to treat five SCID-X1 patients with persistent immune dysfunction despite haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplant in infancy. Follow-up data from two older patients demonstrate that lentiviral vector γc transduced autologous HSC gene therapy after nonmyeloablative busulfan conditioning achieves selective expansion of gene-marked T, NK, and B cells, which is associated with sustained restoration of humoral responses to immunization and clinical improvement at 2 to 3 years after treatment. Similar gene marking levels have been achieved in three younger patients, albeit with only 6 to 9 months of follow-up. Lentiviral gene therapy with reduced-intensity conditioning appears safe and can restore humoral immune function to posthaploidentical transplant older patients with SCID-X1. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Gene therapy model of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency using a modified foamy virus vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horino, Satoshi; Uchiyama, Toru; So, Takanori; Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Sun, Shu-Lan; Sato, Miki; Asao, Atsuko; Haji, Yoichi; Sasahara, Yoji; Candotti, Fabio; Tsuchiya, Shigeru; Kure, Shigeo; Sugamura, Kazuo; Ishii, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) is an inherited genetic immunodeficiency associated with mutations in the common cytokine receptor γ chain (γc) gene, and characterized by a complete defect of T and natural killer (NK) cells. Gene therapy for SCID-X1 using conventional retroviral (RV) vectors carrying the γc gene results in the successful reconstitution of T cell immunity. However, the high incidence of vector-mediated T cell leukemia, caused by vector insertion near or within cancer-related genes has been a serious problem. In this study, we established a gene therapy model of mouse SCID-X1 using a modified foamy virus (FV) vector expressing human γc. Analysis of vector integration in a human T cell line demonstrated that the FV vector integration sites were significantly less likely to be located within or near transcriptional start sites than RV vector integration sites. To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy, bone marrow cells from γc-knockout (γc-KO) mice were infected with the FV vector and transplanted into γc-KO mice. Transplantation of the FV-treated cells resulted in the successful reconstitution of functionally active T and B cells. These data suggest that FV vectors can be effective and may be safer than conventional RV vectors for gene therapy for SCID-X1.

  19. Gene therapy model of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency using a modified foamy virus vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Horino

    Full Text Available X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1 is an inherited genetic immunodeficiency associated with mutations in the common cytokine receptor γ chain (γc gene, and characterized by a complete defect of T and natural killer (NK cells. Gene therapy for SCID-X1 using conventional retroviral (RV vectors carrying the γc gene results in the successful reconstitution of T cell immunity. However, the high incidence of vector-mediated T cell leukemia, caused by vector insertion near or within cancer-related genes has been a serious problem. In this study, we established a gene therapy model of mouse SCID-X1 using a modified foamy virus (FV vector expressing human γc. Analysis of vector integration in a human T cell line demonstrated that the FV vector integration sites were significantly less likely to be located within or near transcriptional start sites than RV vector integration sites. To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy, bone marrow cells from γc-knockout (γc-KO mice were infected with the FV vector and transplanted into γc-KO mice. Transplantation of the FV-treated cells resulted in the successful reconstitution of functionally active T and B cells. These data suggest that FV vectors can be effective and may be safer than conventional RV vectors for gene therapy for SCID-X1.

  20. [X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy ABCD1 gene mutation analysis in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hong; Xiong, Hui; Zhang, Yue-hua; Wu, Ye; Bao, Xin-hua; Jiang, Yu-wu; Wu, Xi-ru

    2004-02-01

    To investigate mutations of ABCD1 gene in X- linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) patients in China. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA direct sequencing were employed to analyze the 10 exons of ABCD1 gene in 25 ALD patients. Seventeen mutations in different exons (except exons 4, 9 and 10) were identified in 18 of 25 patients. Most of the mutations were missense mutations, including R182P, G266R, H283D, S404P, N509I, R518G, L520Q, Q556R, S606L and R617C, four (H283D, S40 4P, N509I, R518G) of 10 missense mutations were novel. Also identified were 3 nonsense mutations (W132X, W242X, W595X), 1 dinucleotides deletion mutation (1414 del AG) resulting in frameshift, and 1 base pair deletion at splice acceptor site (IVS5-6 del C). Two synonymous mutations (L516L and V349V) appeared simultaneously in 2 unrelated patients, and no other mutations could be found with them in all 10 exons screened. There were no hot spot mutations in ABCD1 gene in China. Mutations in gene were found over 70% of patients with ALD in China. The ABCD1 gene mutations identified revealed no obvious correlation between the type of mutation and phenotype.

  1. CD1 gene polymorphisms and phenotypic variability in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Barbier

    Full Text Available X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD is characterized by marked phenotypic variation ranging from adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN to childhood cerebral ALD (CCALD. X-ALD is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene, but no genotype-phenotype correlation has been established so far and modifier gene variants are suspected to modulate phenotypes. Specific classes of lipids, enriched in very long-chain fatty acids that accumulate in plasma and tissues from X-ALD patients are suspected to be involved in the neuroinflammatory process of CCALD. CD1 proteins are lipid- antigen presenting molecules encoded by five CD1 genes in human (CD1A-E. Association studies with 23 tag SNPs covering the CD1 locus was performed in 52 patients with AMN and 87 patients with CCALD. The minor allele of rs973742 located 4-kb downstream from CD1D was significantly more frequent in AMN patients (χ² = 7.6; P = 0.006. However, this association was no longer significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. The other polymorphisms of the CD1 locus did not reveal significant association. Further analysis of other CD1D polymorphisms did not detect stronger association with X-ALD phenotypes. Although the association with rs973742 warrants further investigations, these results indicate that the genetic variants of CD1 genes do not contribute markedly to the phenotypic variance of X-ALD.

  2. Adenoassociated virus serotype 9-mediated gene therapy for x-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yi; Mu, Dakai; Prabhakar, Shilpa; Moser, Ann; Musolino, Patricia; Ren, JiaQian; Breakefield, Xandra O; Maguire, Casey A; Eichler, Florian S

    2015-05-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a devastating neurological disorder caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene that encodes a peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCD1) responsible for transport of CoA-activated very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) into the peroxisome for degradation. We used recombinant adenoassociated virus serotype 9 (rAAV9) vector for delivery of the human ABCD1 gene (ABCD1) to mouse central nervous system (CNS). In vitro, efficient delivery of ABCD1 gene was achieved in primary mixed brain glial cells from Abcd1-/- mice as well as X-ALD patient fibroblasts. Importantly, human ABCD1 localized to the peroxisome, and AAV-ABCD1 transduction showed a dose-dependent effect in reducing VLCFA. In vivo, AAV9-ABCD1 was delivered to Abcd1-/- mouse CNS by either stereotactic intracerebroventricular (ICV) or intravenous (IV) injections. Astrocytes, microglia and neurons were the major target cell types following ICV injection, while IV injection also delivered to microvascular endothelial cells and oligodendrocytes. IV injection also yielded high transduction of the adrenal gland. Importantly, IV injection of AAV9-ABCD1 reduced VLCFA in mouse brain and spinal cord. We conclude that AAV9-mediated ABCD1 gene transfer is able to reach target cells in the nervous system and adrenal gland as well as reduce VLCFA in culture and a mouse model of X-ALD.

  3. Gene Therapy for X-Linked Severe Combined Immunodeficiency: Where Do We Stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazzana, Marina; Six, Emmanuelle; Lagresle-Peyrou, Chantal; André-Schmutz, Isabelle; Hacein-Bey-Abina, Salima

    2016-02-01

    More than 20 years ago, X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) appeared to be the best condition to test the feasibility of hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. The seminal SCID-X1 clinical studies, based on first-generation gammaretroviral vectors, demonstrated good long-term immune reconstitution in most treated patients despite the occurrence of vector-related leukemia in a few of them. This gene therapy has successfully enabled correction of the T cell defect. Natural killer and B cell defects were only partially restored, most likely due to the absence of a conditioning regimen. The success of these pioneering trials paved the way for the extension of gene-based treatment to many other diseases of the hematopoietic system, but the unfortunate serious adverse events led to extensive investigations to define the retrovirus integration profiles. This review puts into perspective the clinical experience of gene therapy for SCID-X1, with the development and implementation of new generations of safer vectors such as self-inactivating gammaretroviral or lentiviral vectors as well as major advances in integrome knowledge.

  4. X-linked gene transcription patterns in female and male in vivo, in vitro and cloned porcine individual blastocysts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hun Park

    Full Text Available To determine the presence of sexual dimorphic transcription and how in vitro culture environments influence X-linked gene transcription patterns in preimplantation embryos, we analyzed mRNA expression levels in in vivo-derived, in vitro-fertilized (IVF, and cloned porcine blastocysts. Our results clearly show that sex-biased expression occurred between female and male in vivo blastocysts in X-linked genes. The expression levels of XIST, G6PD, HPRT1, PGK1, and BEX1 were significantly higher in female than in male blastocysts, but ZXDA displayed higher levels in male than in female blastocysts. Although we found aberrant expression patterns for several genes in IVF and cloned blastocysts, similar sex-biased expression patterns (on average were observed between the sexes. The transcript levels of BEX1 and XIST were upregulated and PGK1 was downregulated in both IVF and cloned blastocysts compared with in vivo counterparts. Moreover, a remarkable degree of expression heterogeneity was observed among individual cloned embryos (the level of heterogeneity was similar in both sexes but only a small proportion of female IVF embryos exhibited variability, indicating that this phenomenon may be primarily caused by faulty reprogramming by the somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT process rather than in vitro conditions. Aberrant expression patterns in cloned embryos of both sexes were not ameliorated by treatment with Scriptaid as a potent HDACi, although the blastocyst rate increased remarkably after this treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that female and male porcine blastocysts produced in vivo and in vitro transcriptional sexual dimorphisms in the selected X-linked genes and compensation of X-linked gene dosage may not occur at the blastocyst stage. Moreover, altered X-linked gene expression frequently occurred in porcine IVF and cloned embryos, indicating that X-linked gene regulation is susceptible to in vitro culture and the SCNT process

  5. An X-linked homologue of the autosomal inprinted gene ZNF127 escapes X inactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longstreet, M.; Nicholls, R.D.; Willard, H.F. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The ZNF127 gene has been shown to be subject to parental imprinting in both humans and the mouse and maps to within the Prader-Willi/Angelman Syndrome critical region on chromosome 15. We have cloned two X-linked related loci, one of which, ZNFXp is a transcribed gene while the other, ZNFXq, is an untranscribed pseudogene. ZNFXp is 83.6% identical to ZNFXq and 65.4% identical to ZNF127 over 1.4 kb of open reading frame they share in common, Like ZNF127, the predicted protein sequence of ZNFXp contains a C{sub 3}HC{sub 4} zinc finger domain and C{sub 3}H zinc finger-like motifs. Whereas ZNF127 has three C{sub 3}H motifs, ZNFXp has four. A strong CpG island is located within 1 kb 5{prime} of the predicted amino terminus of ZNFXp. Expression of ZNFXp has been detected from mouse/human somatic cell hybrids containing either an active (n=2) or an inactive (n=4) chromosome, and thus escapes X inactivation. Probes made from the 3{prime} UTR of ZNFXp detect a number of related loci in both human and murine DNA, none of which is the ZNF127 locus on chromosome 15. None of the detectable murine bands shows dosage differences between males and females as would be expected for X-linked loci. This raises the possibility that ZNFXp inserted into the human X chromosome after its divergence from a common ancestor with the murine X. We have mapped ZNFXp to Xp11.4 by Southern blotting and PCR of hybrid DNAs and by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). ZNFXq maps within the X Inactivation Center (XIC) region on Xq13.2, approximately 300 kb distal to the XIST gene. We find it intriguing, and perhaps significant, that two members of this gene family are subject to epigenetic regulation -- one autosomal imprinting, and the other escape from X inactivation. These results could imply an evolutionary and mechanistic relationship between these two processes.

  6. The first de novo mutation of the connexin 32 gene associated with X linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meggouh, F.; Benomar, A.; Rouger, H.; Tardieu, S.; Birouk, N.; Tassin, J.; Barhoumi, C.; Yahyaoui, M.; Chkili, T.; Brice, A.; LeGuern, E.

    1998-01-01

    X linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX) is a hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy caused by mutations in the connexin 32 gene (Cx32). Using the SSCP technique and direct sequencing of PCR amplified genomic DNA fragments of the Cx32 gene from a Moroccan patient and her relatives, we identified

  7. Efficacy of gene therapy for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacein-Bey-Abina, Salima; Hauer, Julia; Lim, Annick; Picard, Capucine; Wang, Gary P; Berry, Charles C; Martinache, Chantal; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric; Latour, Sylvain; Belohradsky, Bernd H; Leiva, Lily; Sorensen, Ricardo; Debré, Marianne; Casanova, Jean Laurent; Blanche, Stephane; Durandy, Anne; Bushman, Frederic D; Fischer, Alain; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina

    2010-07-22

    The outcomes of gene therapy to correct congenital immunodeficiencies are unknown. We reviewed long-term outcomes after gene therapy in nine patients with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1), which is characterized by the absence of the cytokine receptor common gamma chain. The nine patients, who lacked an HLA-identical donor, underwent ex vivo retrovirus-mediated transfer of gamma chain to autologous CD34+ bone marrow cells between 1999 and 2002. We assessed clinical events and immune function on long-term follow-up. Eight patients were alive after a median follow-up period of 9 years (range, 8 to 11). Gene therapy was initially successful at correcting immune dysfunction in eight of the nine patients. However, acute leukemia developed in four patients, and one died. Transduced T cells were detected for up to 10.7 years after gene therapy. Seven patients, including the three survivors of leukemia, had sustained immune reconstitution; three patients required immunoglobulin-replacement therapy. Sustained thymopoiesis was established by the persistent presence of naive T cells, even after chemotherapy in three patients. The T-cell-receptor repertoire was diverse in all patients. Transduced B cells were not detected. Correction of the immunodeficiency improved the patients' health. After nearly 10 years of follow-up, gene therapy was shown to have corrected the immunodeficiency associated with SCID-X1. Gene therapy may be an option for patients who do not have an HLA-identical donor for hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation and for whom the risks are deemed acceptable. This treatment is associated with a risk of acute leukemia. (Funded by INSERM and others.) 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society

  8. X-linked gene expression and X-chromosome inactivation: marsupials, mouse, and man compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VandeBerg, J L; Robinson, E S; Samollow, P B; Johnston, P G

    1987-01-01

    The existence of paternal X inactivation in Australian and American marsupial species suggests that this feature of X-chromosome dosage compensation is not a recent adaptation, but probably predates the evolutionary separation of the Australian and American marsupial lineages. Although it is theoretically possible that the marsupial system is one of random X inactivation with p greater than 0.99 and q less than 0.01 and dependent on parental source, no instance of random X inactivation (p = q or p not equal to q) has ever been verified in any tissue or cell type of any marsupial species. Therefore, we conclude that the most fundamental difference in X inactivation of marsupials and eutherians is whether the inactive X is the paternal one or is determined at random (with p = q in most but not all cases). The only other unequivocal difference between eutherians and marsupials is that both X chromosomes are active in mice and human oocytes, but not in kangaroo oocytes. Apparently, the inactive X is reactivated at a later meiotic stage or during early embryogenesis in kangaroos. X-chromosome inactivation takes place early in embryogenesis of eutherians and marsupials. Extraembryonic membranes of mice exhibit paternal X inactivation, whereas those of humans seem to exhibit random X inactivation with p greater than q (i.e., preferential paternal X inactivation). In general, extraembryonic membranes of marsupial exhibit paternal X inactivation, but the Gpd locus is active on both X chromosomes in at least some cells of kangaroo yolk sac. It is difficult to draw any general conclusion because of major differences in embryogeny of mice, humans, and marsupials, and uncertainties in interpreting the data from humans. Other differences between marsupials and eutherians in patterns of X-linked gene expression and X-chromosome inactivation seem to be quantitative rather than qualitative. Partial expression of some genes on the inactive X is characteristic of marsupials, with

  9. The genetic landscape of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: inheritance, mutations, modifier genes, and diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesinger, Christoph; Eichler, Florian S; Berger, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene encoding a peroxisomal ABC transporter. In this review, we compare estimates of incidence derived from different populations in order to provide an overview of the worldwide incidence of X-ALD. X-ALD presents with heterogeneous phenotypes ranging from adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) to inflammatory demyelinating cerebral ALD (CALD). A large number of different mutations has been described, providing a unique opportunity for analysis of functional domains within ABC transporters. Yet the molecular basis for the heterogeneity of clinical symptoms is still largely unresolved, as no correlation between genotype and phenotype exists in X-ALD. Beyond ABCD1, environmental triggers and other genetic factors have been suggested as modifiers of the disease course. Here, we summarize the findings of numerous reports that aimed at identifying modifier genes in X-ALD and discuss potential problems and future approaches to address this issue. Different options for prenatal diagnosis are summarized, and potential pitfalls when applying next-generation sequencing approaches are discussed. Recently, the measurement of very long-chain fatty acids in lysophosphatidylcholine for the identification of peroxisomal disorders was included in newborn screening programs. PMID:25999754

  10. Molecular analysis of ABCD1 gene in Indian patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Pallavi; Gupta, Neerja; Gulati, Sheffali; Ghosh, Manju; Vasisht, Suman; Sharma, Raju; Gupta, Arun K; Kalra, Veena; Kabra, Madhulika

    2011-11-20

    X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), with an incidence of 1:14,000 is the most frequent monogenic demyelinating disorder worldwide. The principal biochemical abnormality in X-ALD is the increased levels of saturated, unbranched very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA). It is caused by mutations in ABCD1 gene. No molecular data on X-ALD is available in India and mutational spectrum in Indian patients is not known. We standardized conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE) method to detect mutations in ABCD1 gene in twenty Indian patients with X-ALD. The results were confirmed by sequencing. Genotype-phenotype correlation was also attempted. Prenatal diagnosis (PND) in one family was done using chorionic villi (CV) sample at 12 weeks of gestation. Out of twenty, causative mutations could be identified in twelve patients (60%). Six reported and four novel mutations were identified. Three polymorphisms were also observed. No hot spot was found. No significant genotype-phenotype correlation could be established. The study identified the mutation spectrum of Indian X-ALD patients, which enabled us to offer accurate genetic counseling, carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis where needed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mutations in the gene for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in patients with different clinical phenotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, A.; Ambach, H.; Kammerer, S.; Rolinski, B.; Roscher, A.; Rabl, W. [Univ. of Munich (Germany); Stoeckler, S. [Univ. of Graz (Germany); Gaertner, J. [Univ. of Duesseldorf (Germany); Zierz, S. [Univ. of Bonn (Germany)

    1995-04-01

    Recently, the gene for the most common peroxisomal disorder, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), has been described encoding a peroxisomal membrane transporter protein. We analyzed the entire protein-coding sequence of this gene by reverse-transcription PCR, SSCP, and DNA sequencing in five patients with different clinical expressions were cerebral childhood ALD, adrenomyecloneuropathy (AMN), and {open_quotes}Addison disease only{close_quotes} (AD) phenotype. In the three patients exhibiting the classical picture of severe childhood ALD we identified in the 5{prime} portion of the X-ALD gene a 38-bp deletion that causes a frameshift mutation, a 3-bp deletion leading to a deletion of an amino acid in the ATP-binding domain of the ALD protein, and a missense mutation. In the patient with the clinical phenotype of AMN, a nonsense mutation in codon 212, along with a second site mutation at codon 178, was observed. Analysis of the patient with the ADO phenotype revealed a further missense mutation at a highly conserved position in the ALDP/PMP70 comparison. The disruptive nature of two mutations (i.e., the frameshift and the nonsense mutation) in patients with biochemically proved childhood ALD and AMN further strongly supports the hypothesis that alterations in this gene play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of X-ALD. Since the current biochemical techniques for X-ALD carrier detection in affected families lack sufficient reliability, our procedure described for systematic mutation scanning is also capable of improving genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis. 19 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. S149R, a novel mutation in the ABCD1 gene causing X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Hui; Li, Hongyu; Chen, Jing; Xu, Chao

    2017-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is the most common peroxisomal disorder. It is a heterogeneous disorder caused by mutations in the ATP-binding cassette protein subfamily D1 (ABCD1) gene, encoding the peroxisomal membrane protein ALDP, which is involved in the transmembrane transport of very long-chain fatty acids. For the first time, we report a case of olivopontocerebellar X-ALD on the Chinese mainland. In this study, a novel mutation (c.447T>A; p.S149R) in ABCD1 was detected in a patient diagnosed with X-ALD. The mutant amino acid is well conserved among species. Bioinformatics analysis predicted the substitution to be deleterious and to cause structural changes in the adrenoleukodystrophy protein. Immunofluorescence showed an altered subcellular localization of the S149R mutant protein, which may lead to defects in the degradation of very long chain fatty acids in peroxisomes. We therefore suggest that the novel mutation, which alters ALDP structure, subcellular distribution and function, is responsible for X-ALD. PMID:29152099

  13. Self-inactivating gammaretroviral vectors for gene therapy of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, Susannah I; Schambach, Axel; Howe, Steven J; Ulaganathan, Meera; Grassman, Elke; Williams, David; Schiedlmeier, Bernhard; Sebire, Neil J; Gaspar, H Bobby; Kinnon, Christine; Baum, Christopher; Thrasher, Adrian J

    2008-03-01

    Gene therapy for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) has proven highly effective for long-term restoration of immunity in human subjects. However, the development of lymphoproliferative complications due to dysregulated proto-oncogene expression has underlined the necessity for developing safer vector systems. To reduce the potential for insertional mutagenesis, we have evaluated the efficacy of self-inactivating (SIN) gammaretroviral vectors in cellular and in vivo models of SCID-X1. Vectors incorporating an internal human elongation factor-1alpha regulatory element were capable of fully restoring the lymphoid differentiation potential of gammac-deficient lineage negative cells. Multilineage lymphoid reconstitution of a murine model was achieved at a similar level to that achieved by a conventional long-terminal repeat (LTR)-regulated vector used in previous clinical trials. Functional proliferative responses to mitogenic stimuli were also restored, and serum immunoglobulin levels were normalized. The reduced mutagenic potential conferred by SIN vector configurations and alternative non-LTR-based regulatory elements, together with proven efficacy in correction of cellular defects provides an important platform for development of the next phase of clinical trials for SCID-X1.

  14. Methylation state of the EDA gene promoter in Chinese X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia carriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yin

    Full Text Available Hypodontia, hypohidrosis, sparse hair and characteristic faces are the main characters of X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED which is caused by genetic ectodysplasin A (EDA deficiency. Heterozygous female carriers tend to have mild to moderate XLHED phenotype, even though 30% of them present no obvious symptom.A large Chinese XLHED family was reported and the entire coding region and exon-intron boundaries of EDA gene were sequenced. To elucidate the mechanism for carriers' tempered phenotype, we analyzed the methylation level on four sites of the promoter of EDA by the pyrosequencing system.A known frameshift mutation (c.573-574 insT was found in this pedigree. Combined with the pedigrees we reported before, 120 samples comprised of 23 carrier females from 11 families and 97 healthy females were analyzed for the methylation state of EDA promoter. Within 95% confidence interval (CI, 18 (78.26% carriers were hypermethylated at these 4 sites.Chinese XLHED carriers often have a hypermethylated EDA promoter.

  15. Mutation pattern in the Bruton's tyrosine kinase gene in 26 unrelated patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorechovský, I; Luo, L; Hertz, Jens Michael

    1997-01-01

    Mutation pattern was characterized in the Bruton's tyrosine kinase gene (BTK) in 26 patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia, the first described immunoglobulin deficiency, and was related to BTK expression. A total of 24 different mutations were identified. Most BTK mutations were found to result...

  16. The genetic landscape of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: inheritance, mutations, modifier genes, and diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesinger C

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Christoph Wiesinger,1 Florian S Eichler,2 Johannes Berger1 1Department of Pathobiology of the Nervous System, Center for Brain Research, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; 2Department for Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene encoding a peroxisomal ABC transporter. In this review, we compare estimates of incidence derived from different populations in order to provide an overview of the worldwide incidence of X-ALD. X-ALD presents with heterogeneous phenotypes ranging from adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN to inflammatory demyelinating cerebral ALD (CALD. A large number of different mutations has been described, providing a unique opportunity for analysis of functional domains within ABC transporters. Yet the molecular basis for the heterogeneity of clinical symptoms is still largely unresolved, as no correlation between genotype and phenotype exists in X-ALD. Beyond ABCD1, environmental triggers and other genetic factors have been suggested as modifiers of the disease course. Here, we summarize the findings of numerous reports that aimed at identifying modifier genes in X-ALD and discuss potential problems and future approaches to address this issue. Different options for prenatal diagnosis are summarized, and potential pitfalls when applying next-generation sequencing approaches are discussed. Recently, the measurement of very long-chain fatty acids in lysophosphatidylcholine for the identification of peroxisomal disorders was included in newborn screening programs. Keywords: X-ALD, AMN, mutations, incidence, prenatal diagnosis, newborn screening

  17. A novel mutation in the ABCD1 gene of a Moroccan patient with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkar, Adnane; Barakat, Abdelhamid; Bakhchane, Amina; Fettah, Houda; Slassi, Ilham; Dorboz, Imen; Boespflug-Tanguy, Odile; Nadifi, Sellama

    2015-11-25

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD; OMIM: 300100) is the most common peroxisomal disease caused by mutations in the ATP-binding cassette, sub-family D member 1 gene or ABCD1 (geneID: 215), the coding gene for the adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP), which is an ATP-binding transport protein associated to an active transport of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). Dysfunction of ALDP induces an accumulation of VLCFAs in all tissues leading to a neurodegenerative disorder that involves the nervous system white matter. In our case report, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as the high levels of VLCFAs prompted the diagnosis the X-ALD. Molecular analysis of ABCD1 gene have shown a pathogenic homozygous nonsense mutation (c.1677C > G; p.(Tyr559*)) in exon 7. Thus, we identified here a novel mutation in the ABCD1 gene in a Moroccan patient causing X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

  18. Linkage analysis and physical mapping near the gene for x-linked agammaglobulinemia at Xq22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parolini, O.; Lassiter, G.L.; Henry, M.J.; Conley, M.E. (Univ. of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis (United States) St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)); Hejtmancik, J.F. (National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)); Allen, R.C.; Belmont, J.W. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)); Barker, D.F. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States))

    1993-02-01

    The gene for x-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) has been mapped to Xq22. No recombinations have been reported between the gene and the prob p212 at DXS178; however, this probe is informative in only 30-40% of women and the reported flanking markers, DXS3 and DXS94, and 10-15 cM apart. To identify additional probes that might be useful in genetic counseling, we examined 11 polymorphisms that have been mapped to the Xq21.3-q22 region in 13 families with XLA. In addition, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) were used to further characterize the segman of DNA within which the gene for SLA must lie. The results demonstrated that DXS366 and DXS442, which share a 430-kb pulsed-field fragment, could replace DXS3 as proximal flanking markers. Probes at DXS178 and DXS265 identified the same 145-kb pulsed-field fragment, and both loci were contained within a 200-kb YAC identified with the probe p212. A highly polymorphic CA repeat (DCS178CA) was isolated from one end of this YAC and used in linkage analysis. Probes at DXS101 and DXS328 shared several pulsed-field fragments, the smallest of which was 250 kb. No recombinations were seen between XLA and the DXS178-DXS265-DXS178CA complex, DXS101, DXS328, DXS87, or the gene for proteolipid protein (PLP). Key crossovers, when combined with the linkage data from families with Alport syndrome, suggested the following order of loci: cen-DXS3-DXS366-DXS442-(PLP, DXS101, DXS328, DXS178-DXS265-DXS178CA complex, XL)-(DXS87, DXS94)-DXS327-(DXS350, DXS362)-tel. Our studies also limit the segment of DNA within which the XLA gene must lie to the 3- to 4-cM distance between DCS442 and DXS94 and they identify and orient polymorphisms that can be used in genetic counseling not only for XLA but also for Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PLP deficiency), Alport syndrome (COL4A5 deficiency), and Fabry disease ([alpha]-galactosidase A difficiency). 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. [Mutation analysis and prenatal diagnosis in families of X-linked agammaglobulinemia caused by BTK gene mutation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangdong; Mo, Guiling; Liu, Ning; Tian, Peichao; Chen, Minfang

    2014-05-13

    To evaluate the genetic diagnostic feasibility of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene in three families with X-linked agammagobulinemia (XLA) birth history, mutation analysis and prenatal genetic diagnosis of BTK gene for two families with XLA. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to amplify the regions of exon and exon-intron boundaries of BTK gene in 3 unrelated patients of XLA and their mothers from January 2011 to June 2012. The PCR products were further analyzed by direct sequencing. Prenatal genetic diagnosis was performed by chorionic villus sampling after genotyping of mothers of probands. Three novel mutations of BTK gene were identified in 3 pedigrees of XLA. A missense mutation c.1117C > A (p.L373I) were detected in pedigree 1. The mutation was possible damage by predicting in sillico. A nonsense mutation c.126T > G (p.Y42X) was found in pedigree 2. A single base deletion mutation c.1679delC (p. P560fsX10) was found in pedigree 3. The three mutations, p.L373I, p.Y42X and p. P560fsX10 were novel. The three novel mutations were absent in the 100 normal controls. The male fetus in pedigree 3 was free of mutations identical to the proband and the female fetus in pedigree 2 was a carrier. The two families continued the pregnancies and the infants showed no symptom of XLA after one year old. Three novel mutations were identified. The mutations of p.Y42X and p. P560fsX10 in BTK gene may be the major causes of pedigrees 2 and 3 with XLA. The mutation p.L373I of BTK gene is possibly the cause of pedigree 1 with XLA, but functional verification is needed. For pedigree of XLA, direct sequencing of BTK gene is available for providing genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis.

  20. A novel missense mutation (402C-->T) in exon 1 in the EDA gene in a family with X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Jens Michael; Nørgaard Hansen, K; Juncker, I

    1998-01-01

    Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA), or Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome, is clinically characterized by hypohidrosis, hypoodontia and hypotrichosis. The X-linked form of the disease has been mapped to Xq12-q13.1, and a gene from this region has recently been cloned. This gene encodes...... families with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia for mutation in exon 1 of the EDA-gene by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP). In one large kindred we identified a novel missense mutation (402C-->T), which changes a histidine to tyrosine at position 54...

  1. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: molecular and functional analysis of the ABCD1 gene in Argentinean patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyntia Anabel Amorosi

    Full Text Available X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD is an inherited metabolic disease associated with mutations in the ABCD1 gene that encodes an ATP-binding cassette transporter protein, ALDP. The disease is characterized by increased concentrations of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs in plasma and in adrenal, testicular and nervous tissues, due to a defect in peroxisomal VLCFA β-oxidation. In the present study, we analyzed 10 male patients and 17 female carriers from 10 unrelated pedigrees with X-ALD from Argentina. By sequencing the ABCD1 we detected 9 different mutations, 8 of which were novel. These new mutations were verified by a combination of methods that included both functional (western blot and peroxisomal VLCFA β-oxidation and bioinformatics analysis. The spectrum of novel mutations consists of 3 frameshift (p.Ser284fs*16, p.Glu380Argfs*21 and p.Thr254Argfs*82; a deletion (p.Ser572_Asp575del; a splicing mutation (c.1081+5G>C and 3 missense mutations (p.Ala341Asp, p.His420Pro and p.Tyr547Cys. In one patient 2 changes were found: a known missense (p.His669Arg and an unpublished amino acid substitution (p.Ala19Ser. In vitro studies suggest that p.Ala19Ser is a polymorphism. Moreover, we identified two novel intronic polymorphisms and two amino acid polymorphisms. In conclusion, this study extends the spectrum of mutation in X-ALD and facilitates the identification of heterozygous females.

  2. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: molecular and functional analysis of the ABCD1 gene in Argentinean patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorosi, Cyntia Anabel; Myskóva, Helena; Monti, Mariela Roxana; Argaraña, Carlos Enrique; Morita, Masashi; Kemp, Stephan; Dodelson de Kremer, Raquel; Dvoráková, Lenka; Oller de Ramírez, Ana María

    2012-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is an inherited metabolic disease associated with mutations in the ABCD1 gene that encodes an ATP-binding cassette transporter protein, ALDP. The disease is characterized by increased concentrations of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) in plasma and in adrenal, testicular and nervous tissues, due to a defect in peroxisomal VLCFA β-oxidation. In the present study, we analyzed 10 male patients and 17 female carriers from 10 unrelated pedigrees with X-ALD from Argentina. By sequencing the ABCD1 we detected 9 different mutations, 8 of which were novel. These new mutations were verified by a combination of methods that included both functional (western blot and peroxisomal VLCFA β-oxidation) and bioinformatics analysis. The spectrum of novel mutations consists of 3 frameshift (p.Ser284fs*16, p.Glu380Argfs*21 and p.Thr254Argfs*82); a deletion (p.Ser572_Asp575del); a splicing mutation (c.1081+5G>C) and 3 missense mutations (p.Ala341Asp, p.His420Pro and p.Tyr547Cys). In one patient 2 changes were found: a known missense (p.His669Arg) and an unpublished amino acid substitution (p.Ala19Ser). In vitro studies suggest that p.Ala19Ser is a polymorphism. Moreover, we identified two novel intronic polymorphisms and two amino acid polymorphisms. In conclusion, this study extends the spectrum of mutation in X-ALD and facilitates the identification of heterozygous females.

  3. X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy: Molecular and Functional Analysis of the ABCD1 Gene in Argentinean Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorosi, Cyntia Anabel; Myskóva, Helena; Monti, Mariela Roxana; Argaraña, Carlos Enrique; Morita, Masashi; Kemp, Stephan; de Kremer, Raquel Dodelson; Dvoráková, Lenka; de Ramírez, Ana María Oller

    2012-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is an inherited metabolic disease associated with mutations in the ABCD1 gene that encodes an ATP-binding cassette transporter protein, ALDP. The disease is characterized by increased concentrations of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) in plasma and in adrenal, testicular and nervous tissues, due to a defect in peroxisomal VLCFA β-oxidation. In the present study, we analyzed 10 male patients and 17 female carriers from 10 unrelated pedigrees with X-ALD from Argentina. By sequencing the ABCD1 we detected 9 different mutations, 8 of which were novel. These new mutations were verified by a combination of methods that included both functional (western blot and peroxisomal VLCFA β-oxidation) and bioinformatics analysis. The spectrum of novel mutations consists of 3 frameshift (p.Ser284fs*16, p.Glu380Argfs*21 and p.Thr254Argfs*82); a deletion (p.Ser572_Asp575del); a splicing mutation (c.1081+5G>C) and 3 missense mutations (p.Ala341Asp, p.His420Pro and p.Tyr547Cys). In one patient 2 changes were found: a known missense (p.His669Arg) and an unpublished amino acid substitution (p.Ala19Ser). In vitro studies suggest that p.Ala19Ser is a polymorphism. Moreover, we identified two novel intronic polymorphisms and two amino acid polymorphisms. In conclusion, this study extends the spectrum of mutation in X-ALD and facilitates the identification of heterozygous females. PMID:23300730

  4. X-linked NDUFA1 gene mutations associated with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Moreira, D.; Ugalde, C.; Smeets, R.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Lopez-Laso, E.; Ruiz-Falco, M.L.; Briones, P.; Martin, M.A.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Arenas, J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mitochondrial complex I deficiency is the commonest diagnosed respiratory chain defect, being genetically heterogeneous. The male preponderance of previous patient cohorts suggested an X-linked underlying genetic defect. We investigated mutations in the X-chromosomal complex I structural

  5. Central precocious puberty in a patient with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita and Xp21 contiguous gene deletion syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Won Koh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita is caused by the mutation of DAX-1 gene (dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia critical region, on chromosome X, gene 1, and can occur as part of a contiguous gene deletion syndrome in association with glycerol kinase (GK deficiency, Duchenne muscular dystrophy and X-linked interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein-like 1 (IL1RAPL1 gene deficiency. It is usually associated with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, although in rare cases, it has been reported to occur in normal puberty or even central precocious puberty. This study addresses a case in which central precocious puberty developed in a boy with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita who had complete deletion of the genes DAX-1, GK and IL1RAPL1 (Xp21 contiguous gene deletion syndrome. Initially he was admitted for the management of adrenal crisis at the age of 2 months, and managed with hydrocortisone and florinef. At 45 months of age, his each testicular volumes of 4 mL and a penile length of 5 cm were noted, with pubic hair of Tanner stage 2. His bone age was advanced and a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH stimulation test showed a luteinizing hormone peak of 8.26 IU/L, confirming central precocious puberty. He was then treated with a GnRH agonist, as well as steroid replacement therapy. In Korea, this is the first case of central precocious puberty developed in a male patient with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita.

  6. A Splice Defect in the EDA Gene in Dogs with an X-Linked Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia (XLHED) Phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Waluk, Dominik P.; Zur, Gila; Kaufmann, Ronnie; Welle, Monika M.; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Dr?gem?ller, Cord; M?ller, Eliane J.; Leeb, Tosso; Galichet, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) caused by variants in the EDA gene represents the most common ectodermal dysplasia in humans. We investigated three male mixed-breed dogs with an ectodermal dysplasia phenotype characterized by marked hypotrichosis and multifocal complete alopecia, almost complete absence of sweat and sebaceous glands, and altered dentition with missing and abnormally shaped teeth. Analysis of SNP chip genotypes and whole genome sequence data from the three a...

  7. Identification of Four Novel Synonymous Substitutions in the X-Linked Genes Neuroligin 3 and Neuroligin 4X in Japanese Patients with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumiko Yanagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the X-linked genes neuroligin 3 (NLGN3 and neuroligin 4X (NLGN4X were first implicated in the pathogenesis of X-linked autism in Swedish families. However, reports of mutations in these genes in autism spectrum disorder (ASD patients from various ethnic backgrounds present conflicting results regarding the etiology of ASD, possibly because of genetic heterogeneity and/or differences in their ethnic background. Additional mutation screening study on another ethnic background could help to clarify the relevance of the genes to ASD. We scanned the entire coding regions of NLGN3 and NLGN4X in 62 Japanese patients with ASD by polymerase chain reaction-high-resolution melting curve and direct sequencing analyses. Four synonymous substitutions, one in NLGN3 and three in NLGN4X, were identified in four of the 62 patients. These substitutions were not present in 278 control X-chromosomes from unrelated Japanese individuals and were not registered in the database of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms build 132 or in the Japanese Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms database, indicating that they were novel and specific to ASD. Though further analysis is necessary to determine the physiological and clinical importance of such substitutions, the possibility of the relevance of both synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions with the etiology of ASD should be considered.

  8. A novel BTK gene mutation creates a de-novo splice site in an X-linked agammaglobulinemia patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chear, Chai Teng; Ripen, Adiratna Mat; Mohamed, Sharifah Adlena Syed; Dhaliwal, Jasbir Singh

    2015-04-15

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), encoded by the BTK gene, is a cytoplasmic protein critical in B cell development. Mutations in the BTK gene cause X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), a primary immunodeficiency with characteristically low or absent B cells and antibodies. This report describes a five year-old boy who presented with otitis externa, arthritis, reduced immunoglobulins and no B cells. Flow cytometry showed undetectable monocyte BTK expression. Sequencing revealed a novel mutation at exon 13 of the BTK gene which created a de novo splice site with a proximal 5 nucleotide loss resulting in a truncated BTK protein. The patient still suffered from ear infection despite intravenous immunoglobulin replacement therapy. In this study, mosaicism was seen only in the mother's genomic DNA. These results suggest that a combination of flow cytometry and BTK gene analysis is important for XLA diagnosis and carrier screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Combating oncogene activation associated with retrovirus-mediated gene therapy of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.E. Strauss

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A successful gene therapy clinical trial that also encountered serious adverse effects has sparked extensive study and debate about the future directions for retrovirus-mediated interventions. Treatment of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency with an oncoretrovirus harboring a normal copy of the gc gene was applied in two clinical trials, essentially curing 13 of 16 infants, restoring a normal immune system without the need for additional immune-related therapies. Approximately 3 years after their gene therapy, tragically, 3 of these children, all from the same trial, developed leukemia as a result of this experimental treatment. The current understanding of the mechanism behind this leukemogenesis involves three critical and cooperating factors, i.e., viral integration, oncogene activation, and the function of the therapeutic gene. In this review, we will explore the causes of this unwanted event and some of the possibilities for reducing the risk of its reoccurrence.

  10. Missense mutation in exon 7 of the common gamma chain gene causes a moderate form of X-linked combined immunodeficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmalstieg, F C; Leonard, W J; Noguchi, M; Berg, M; Rudloff, H E; Denney, R M; Dave, S K; Brooks, E G; Goldman, A S

    1995-01-01

    Clinical and immunologic features of a recently recognized X-linked combined immunodeficiency disease (XCID) suggested that XCID and X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (XSCID) might arise from different genetic defects. The recent discovery of mutations in the common gamma chain (gamma c) gene, a constituent of several cytokine receptors, in XSCID provided an opportunity to test directly whether a previously unrecognized mutation in this same gene was responsible for XCID. The status o...

  11. A novel mutation in the ABCD1 gene of a Korean boy diagnosed with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong A; Jun, Kyung Ran; Han, Sung-Hee; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Yoo, Han-Wook; Hur, Yun Jung

    2012-04-25

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD; MIM #300100) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the ABCD1 adrenoleukodystrophy protein gene. The ABCD1 gene mutations have been reported by laboratories in China and Japan, but not in Korea. This case report describes a Korean boy diagnosed with X-ALD. Direct sequencing for the ABCD1 gene in this boy and his mother detected Tyr620His missense mutation, caused by cDNA nucleotide change 1858 T>C in exon 8 (c.1858T>C). This missense variant was novel and predicted to be possibly damaging by the PolyPhen and SIFT prediction software. Moreover, this is the first report in Korean. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A novel Bruton's tyrosine kinase gene (BTK) invariant splice site mutation in a Malaysian family with X-linked agammaglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chear, Chai Teng; Gill, Harvindar Kaur; Ramly, Nazatul Haslina; Dhaliwal, Jasbir Singh; Bujang, Noraini; Ripen, Adiratna Mat; Mohamad, Saharuddin Bin

    2013-12-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene. These mutations cause defects in early B cell development. A patient with no circulating B cells and low serum immunoglobulin isotypes was studied as were his mother and sister. Monocyte BTK protein expression was evaluated by flow cytometry. The mutation was determined using PCR and followed by sequencing. Flow cytometry showed the patient lacked BTK protein expression in his monocytes while the mother and sister had 62% and 40% of the monocytes showing BTK protein expressions respectively. The patient had a novel base substitution in the first nucleotide of intron 9 in the BTK gene, and the mutation was IVS9+1Gagammaglobulinemia and may be used for subsequent genetic counseling, carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis.

  13. Correlation between connexin 32 gene mutations and clinical phenotype in X-linked dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionasescu, V.; Ionasescu, R.; Searby, C. [Univ. of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    1996-06-14

    We studied the relationship between the genotype and clinical phenotype in 27 families with dominant X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMTX1) neuropathy. Twenty-two families showed mutations in the coding region of the connexin32 (cx32) gene. The mutations include four nonsense mutations, eight missense mutations, two medium size deletions, and one insertion. Most missense mutations showed a mild clinical phenotype (five out of eight), whereas all nonsense mutations, the larger of the two deletions, and the insertion that produced frameshifts showed severe phenotypes. Five CMTX1 families with mild clinical phenotype showed no point mutations of the cx32 gene coding region. Three of these families showed positive genetic linkage with the markers of the Xq13.1 region. The genetic linkage of the remaining two families could not be evaluated because of their small size. 25 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Clinical and genetic features of the patients with X-Linked agammaglobulinemia from Turkey: Single-centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esenboga, S; Cagdas, D; Ozgur, T T; Gur Cetinkaya, P; Turkdemir, L M; Sanal, O; VanDerBurg, M; Tezcan, I

    2018-03-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia is a primary immunodeficiency disorder resulting from BTK gene mutations. There are many studies in the literature suggesting contradictory ideas about phenotype-genotype correlation. The aim of this study was to identify the mutations and clinical findings of patients with XLA in Turkey, to determine long-term complications related to the disease and to analyse the phenotype-genotype correlation. Thirty-two patients with XLA diagnosed between 1985 and 2016 in Pediatric Immunology Department of Hacettepe University Ihsan Dogramaci Children's Hospital were investigated. A clinical survey including clinical features of the patients was completed, and thirty-two patients from 26 different families were included in the study. Getting early diagnosis and regular assessment with imaging techniques seem to be the most important issues for improving the health status of the patients with XLA. Early molecular analysis gives chance for definitive diagnosis and genetic counselling, but not for predicting the clinical severity and prognosis. © 2018 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  15. A novel RNA-splicing mutation in TRAPPC2 gene causing X-linked ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    large Chinese family with SEDT and identified a novel RNA- splicing mutation in the TRAPPC2 gene. Materials and methods. Patients. The proband of this family is 38-year-old man who sought medical attention because of chronic pain in weight-bearing joints. The proband's height is 135 cm and his arm span is 155 cm.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... particular ethnic groups? Genetic Changes Mutations in the ABCD1 gene cause X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy . The ABCD1 gene provides instructions for producing the adrenoleukodystrophy protein ( ...

  17. Dysregulation of X-Linked Gene Expression in Klinefelter’s Syndrome and Association With Verbal Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vawter, Marquis P.; Harvey, Philip D.; DeLisi, Lynn E.

    2007-01-01

    Klinefelter’s Syndrome (KS) is a chromosomal karyotype with one or more extra X chromosomes. KS individuals often show language impairment and the phenotype might be due to overexpression of genes on the extra X chromosome(s). We profiled mRNA derived from lymphoblastoid cell lines from males with documented KS and control males using the Affymetrix U133P microarray platform. There were 129 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in KS group compared with controls after Benjamini–Hochberg false discovery adjustment. The DEGs included 14 X chromosome genes which were significantly over-represented. The Y chromosome had zero DEGs. In exploratory analysis of gene expression–cognition relationships, 12 DEGs showed significant correlation of expression with measures of verbal cognition in KS. Overexpression of one pseudoautosomal gene, GTPBP6 (GTP binding protein 6, putative) was inversely correlated with verbal IQ (r = −0.86, P < 0.001) and four other measures of verbal ability. Overexpression of XIST was found in KS compared to XY controls suggesting that silencing of many genes on the X chromosome might occur in KS similar to XX females. The microarray findings for eight DEGs were validated by quantitative PCR. The 14 X chromosome DEGs were not differentially expressed in prior studies comparing female and male brains suggesting a dysregulation profile unique to KS. Examination of X-linked DEGs, such as GTPBP6, TAF9L, and CXORF21, that show verbal cognition–gene expression correlations may establish a causal link between these genes, neurodevelopment, and language function. A screen of candidate genes may serve as biomarkers of KS for early diagnosis. PMID:17347996

  18. A novel AVPR2 gene mutation of X-linked congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in an Asian pedigree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei-Hong; Li, Qiang; Wei, Hong-Yan; Lu, Hong-Yan; Qu, Hui-Qi; Zhu, Mei

    2016-10-01

    Polyuria and polydipsia are the characteristics of congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (CNDI). Approximately 90% of all patients with CNDI have X-linked hereditary disease, which is due to a mutation of the arginine vasopressin receptor 2 ( AVPR2) gene. This case report describes a 54-year-old male with polyuria and polydipsia and several male members of his pedigree who had the same symptoms. The proband was diagnosed with diabetes insipidus using a water-deprivation and arginine vasopressin stimulation test. Genomic DNA from the patient and his family members was extracted and the AVPR2 gene was sequenced. A novel missense mutation of a cytosine to guanine transition at position 972 (c.972C > G) was found, which resulted in the substitution of isoleucine for methionine at amino acid position 324 (p.I324M) in the seventh transmembrane domain of the protein. The proband's mother and daughter were heterozygous for this mutation. The novel mutation of the AVPR2 gene further broadens the phenotypic spectrum of the AVPR2 gene.

  19. Refinement of the X-linked cataract locus (CXN) and gene analysis for CXN and Nance-Horan syndrome (NHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Simon; Ebenezer, Neil; Poopalasundaram, Subathra; Maher, Eamonn; Francis, Peter; Moore, Anthony; Hardcastle, Alison

    2004-06-01

    The X-linked congenital cataract (CXN) locus has been mapped to a 3-cM (approximately 3.5 Mb) interval on chromosome Xp22.13, which is syntenic to the mouse cataract disease locus Xcat and encompasses the recently refined Nance-Horan syndrome (NHS) locus. A positional cloning strategy has been adopted to identify the causative gene. In an attempt to refine the CXN locus, seven microsatellites were analysed within 21 individuals of a CXN family. Haplotypes were reconstructed confirming disease segregation with markers on Xp22.13. In addition, a proximal cross-over was observed between markers S3 and S4, thereby refining the CXN disease interval by approximately 400 Kb to 3.2 Mb, flanked by markers DXS9902 and S4. Two known genes (RAI2 and RBBP7) and a novel gene (TL1) were screened for mutations within an affected male from the CXN family and an NHS family by direct sequencing of coding exons and intron- exon splice sites. No mutations or polymorphisms were identified, therefore excluding them as disease-causative in CXN and NHS. In conclusion, the CXN locus has been successfully refined and excludes PPEF1 as a candidate gene. A further three candidates were excluded based on sequence analysis. Future positional cloning efforts will focus on the region of overlap between CXN, Xcat, and NHS.

  20. A Splice Defect in the EDA Gene in Dogs with an X-Linked Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia (XLHED) Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waluk, Dominik P; Zur, Gila; Kaufmann, Ronnie; Welle, Monika M; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Drögemüller, Cord; Müller, Eliane J; Leeb, Tosso; Galichet, Arnaud

    2016-09-08

    X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) caused by variants in the EDA gene represents the most common ectodermal dysplasia in humans. We investigated three male mixed-breed dogs with an ectodermal dysplasia phenotype characterized by marked hypotrichosis and multifocal complete alopecia, almost complete absence of sweat and sebaceous glands, and altered dentition with missing and abnormally shaped teeth. Analysis of SNP chip genotypes and whole genome sequence data from the three affected dogs revealed that the affected dogs shared the same haplotype on a large segment of the X-chromosome, including the EDA gene. Unexpectedly, the whole genome sequence data did not reveal any nonsynonymous EDA variant in the affected dogs. We therefore performed an RNA-seq experiment on skin biopsies to search for changes in the transcriptome. This analysis revealed that the EDA transcript in the affected dogs lacked 103 nucleotides encoded by exon 2. We speculate that this exon skipping is caused by a genetic variant located in one of the large introns flanking this exon, which was missed by whole genome sequencing with the illumina short read technology. The altered EDA transcript splicing most likely causes the observed ectodermal dysplasia in the affected dogs. These dogs thus offer an excellent opportunity to gain insights into the complex splicing processes required for expression of the EDA gene, and other genes with large introns. Copyright © 2016 Waluk et al.

  1. A Splice Defect in the EDA Gene in Dogs with an X-Linked Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia (XLHED Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik P. Waluk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED caused by variants in the EDA gene represents the most common ectodermal dysplasia in humans. We investigated three male mixed-breed dogs with an ectodermal dysplasia phenotype characterized by marked hypotrichosis and multifocal complete alopecia, almost complete absence of sweat and sebaceous glands, and altered dentition with missing and abnormally shaped teeth. Analysis of SNP chip genotypes and whole genome sequence data from the three affected dogs revealed that the affected dogs shared the same haplotype on a large segment of the X-chromosome, including the EDA gene. Unexpectedly, the whole genome sequence data did not reveal any nonsynonymous EDA variant in the affected dogs. We therefore performed an RNA-seq experiment on skin biopsies to search for changes in the transcriptome. This analysis revealed that the EDA transcript in the affected dogs lacked 103 nucleotides encoded by exon 2. We speculate that this exon skipping is caused by a genetic variant located in one of the large introns flanking this exon, which was missed by whole genome sequencing with the illumina short read technology. The altered EDA transcript splicing most likely causes the observed ectodermal dysplasia in the affected dogs. These dogs thus offer an excellent opportunity to gain insights into the complex splicing processes required for expression of the EDA gene, and other genes with large introns.

  2. Identification of mutations in Iranian patients’ DAX-1 gene with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Davoodnejad

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Both mentioned mutations are located at crucial and functional region DAX1 protein. They are detected in the C-terminal region of DAX1 protein which is involved by the conserved amino acid chain as well as transcriptional silencing domain. By considering other investigation, mutations in this region probably lead to produce a misfolded protein. Consequently, the misfolded protein would not work influentially in order to inhibit some gene expression. As a result, our findings will expand the variety of DAX1 mutations. On the other hand, it is revealed that these mutations play a key role in the pathogenesis of AHC, thus, recognizing these new mutations will facilitate the patients prognosis producer as well as raising the clinical knowledge about this rare disease.

  3. Study on KAL1 Gene Mutations in Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism Patients with X-Linked Recessive Inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadzadeh, Atefeh; Ghods, Elahe; Mojarrad, Majid; Aboutorabi, Robab; Afkhamizadeh, Mojgan; Bonakdaran, Shokoofeh; Mosavi, Zohreh; Taghavi, Seyed Morteza; Hassanzadeh Nazarabadi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is a condition caused by low doses of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) leading to absence or incomplete sexual maturation. One of the disorders leading to IHH is Kallmann syndrome which is characterized by GnRH deficiency with anosmia or hyposmia. This disorder generally occurs as a hereditary syndrome with X-linked recessive inheritance pattern. However, autosomal dominant or recessive and sporadic cases have also been reported. KAL1 is the most common mutated gene among these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the mutation spectrum of KAL1 gene in twenty patients. KAL1 exons were amplified by PCR method and the products were assessed by high resolution melting (HRM) technique. In addition, for one of the patients, all coding exons of the KAL1 gene were sequenced. Deletion of exons 4, 5 and 6 were evident in 5%, 10%, and 10% of patients, respectively. Furthermore, HRM results showed hemizygous mutation of exon 12 with more than 95% probability in 25% of patients. Finding these mutations could be helpful in the early diagnosis and presymptomic treatment of Kallman syndrome.

  4. New mutations of DAX-1 genes in two Japanese patients with X-linked congenital adrenal hypoplasia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanase, Toshihiko; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Oba, Koichi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)] [and others

    1996-02-01

    Congenital adrenal hypoplasia, an X-linked disorder, is characterized by primary adrenal insufficiency and frequent association with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The X-chromosome gene DAX-1 has been most recently identified and shown to be responsible for this disorder. We analyzed the DAX-1 genes of two unrelated Japanese patients with congenital adrenal hypoplasia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism by using PCR amplification of genomic DNA and its complete exonic sequencing. In a family containing several affected individuals, the proband male patient had a stop codon (TGA) in place of tryptophan (TGG) at amino acid position 171. As expected, his mother was a heterozygous carrier for the mutation, whereas his father and unaffected brother did not carry this mutation. In another male patient with noncontributory family history, sequencing revealed a 1-bp (T) deletion at amino acid position 280, leading to a frame shift and, subsequently a premature stop codon at amino acid position 371. The presence of this mutation in the patients` genome was further confirmed by digestion of genomic PCR product with MspI created by this mutation. Family studies using MspI digestion of genomic PCR products revealed that neither parent of this individual carried the mutation. These results clearly indicate that congenital adrenal hypoplasia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism result from not only inherited but also de novo mutation in the DAX-1 gene. 31 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Identification of a 5' splice site mutation in the RPGR gene in a family with X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (RP3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dry, K. L.; Manson, F. D.; Lennon, A.; Bergen, A. A.; van Dorp, D. B.; Wright, A. F.

    1999-01-01

    We have identified a novel RPGR gene mutation in a large Dutch family with X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (RP3). In affected members, a G-->T transversion was found at position +1 of the 5' splice site of intron 5 of the RPGR (retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator) gene. Analysis of this mutation at

  6. Mutations in the FTSJ1 gene coding for a novel S-adenosylmethionine-binding protein cause nonsyndromic X-linked mental retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freude, Kristine; Hoffmann, Kirsten; Jensen, Lars-Riff

    2004-01-01

    Nonsyndromic X-linked mental retardation (NSXLMR) is a very heterogeneous condition, and most of the underlying gene defects are still unknown. Recently, we have shown that approximately 30% of these genes cluster on the proximal Xp, which prompted us to perform systematic mutation screening in b...

  7. Mutations in the FTSJ1 gene coding for a novel S-adenosylmethionine-binding protein cause nonsyndromic X-linked mental retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freude, Kristine; Hoffmann, Kirsten; Jensen, Lars-Riff

    2004-01-01

    Nonsyndromic X-linked mental retardation (NSXLMR) is a very heterogeneous condition, and most of the underlying gene defects are still unknown. Recently, we have shown that approximately 30% of these genes cluster on the proximal Xp, which prompted us to perform systematic mutation screening...

  8. Analysis of six candidate genes as potential modifiers of disease expression in canine XLPRA1, a model for human X-linked retinitis pigmentosa 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, Richard; Pearce-Kelling, Susan E; Zeiss, Caroline J; Acland, Gregory M; Aguirre, Gustavo D

    2007-07-11

    Canine X-linked progressive retinal atrophy (XLPRA) is caused by mutations in RPGR exon ORF15, which is also a mutation hotspot in human X-linked retinitis pigmentosa 3 (RP3). The XLPRA1 form of disease has shown extensive phenotypic variability in a colony of dogs that all inherited the same mutant X-chromosome. This variability in onset and severity makes XLPRA1 a valuable model to use to identify genes influencing photoreceptors degeneration in dog and to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying RP in its human homolog. In this study, RPGRIP1, RANBP2, NPM1, PDE6D, NPHP5, and ABCA4 genes were selected on the basis of interaction with RPGR or RPGRIP1 or their implication in related retinal diseases, and were investigated as candidate genetic modifiers of XLPRA1. A pedigree derived from an affected male dog outcrossed to unrelated normal mix bred or purebred females was used. Morphologic examination revealed phenotypic variability in the affected dogs characterized as mild, moderate, or severe. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and indel-containing markers spanning the entire genes were designed, based on the canine sequence and the Broad Institute SNP library, and genotyped on the pedigree. For each candidate gene, haplotypes were identified and their frequencies in severely and moderately affected dogs were compared to detect a putative correlation between a gene-specific haplotype(s), and severity level of the disease. Primers were derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and predicted transcripts to assess the relative retinal expression of the six genes of interest in normal and affected retinas of different ages. Four to seven haplotypes per gene were identified. None of the haplotypes of RPGRIP1, NPM1, PDE6D, NPHP5, RANBP2, and ABCA4 were found to co-segregate with the moderate or severe phenotype. No significant difference in the retinal expression levels of the candidate genes was observed between normal and affected dogs. The haplotype

  9. [Detection of Bruton's tyrosine kinase gene mutations and clinical analysis of 6 patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Li, Hong; Li, Qiang; Gao, Ju; Shi, Xiaoqing

    2014-02-01

    To explored the relationship between genotype of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene and X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). Six patients who were clinically suspected as XLA based on immunological results were studied. Peripheral blood samples were collected for DNA extraction. The 19 exons and exon-intron boundaries of the BTK gene were amplified by PCR, and the products were directly sequenced. All of the 6 patients were confirmed to have XLA due to the mutations in exons of the BTK gene. Among these, 3 mutations were located in the kinase domain (TK), 2 were located in pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, and 1 was located in Src homology (SH2) domain. The mutations have included 3 missense mutations, i.e., c.1105C to T (p.L369F), c.82C to T(p.R28C) and c.1754T to C (p.V585A), 2 nonsense mutations, i.e., c.1834C to T (p.Q612X) and c.37C to T (p.R13X). One patient was found to have complex (missense and nonsense) mutations, i.e., c.1802-1803TT to GC (p.F601C) and c.1803-1804insC (p.T602fsX603). There were 3 novel mutations (p.F601C, p.T602fsX603 and p.V585A). The mothers of 5 patients were also detected with BTK gene mutations, among whom 4 were demonstrated to be carriers and one was normal (her son had p.V585A mutation). Therefore, p.V585A was a de novo mutation. Detection of BTK gene mutation can confirm clinical diagnosis which is critical for patients to take regular immunoglobulin replacement therapy for life. Early genetic diagnosis can also identify carriers and make genetic counseling possible.

  10. A novel Bruton's tyrosine kinase gene (BTK) missense mutation in a Chinese family with X-linked agammaglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bixia; Zhang, Yayuan; Jin, Yu; Yu, Haiguo

    2014-10-15

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a rare inherited disease characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, a paucity or absence of peripheral lymphoid tissue, an absence of circulating B cells, and marked depression of serum IgG, IgA, and IgM. Germline mutation of the BTK gene has been identified as a cause of XLA. These mutations cause defects in early B cell development. In this study, we report a variant form of XLA with partial B cell function that results from a missense mutation (c.1117C > G) in exon 13 of the BTK gene. A genetic analysis of the family revealed an affected male sibling with a c.1117C > G mutation. He was observed with low level of serum immunoglobulin and CD19+ B cell and received the IVIG replacement therapy regularly in follow up. Four female carriers were found. BTK mutation analysis is necessary in the diagnosis of XLA and may be used for subsequent genetic counseling, carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis.

  11. Novel mutations in the connexin 32 gene associated with X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, C.; Ainsworth, P. [Victoria Hospital, Ontario (Canada)]|[Childrens Hospital of Western Ontario (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is a pathologically and genetically hetergenous group of disorders that cause a progressive neuropathy, defined pathologically by degeneration of the myelin (CMT 1) of the axon (CMT 2) of the peripheral nerves. An X-linked type of the demyelinating form of this disorder (CMT X) has recently been linked to mutations in the connexin 32 (Cx32) gene, which codes for a 284 amino acid gap junction protein found in myelinated peripheral nerve. To date some 7 different mutations in this gene have been identified as being responsible for CMT X. The majority of these predict nonconservative amino acid substitutions, while one is a frameshift mutation which predicts a premature stop at codon 21. We report the results of molecular studies on three further local CMT X kindreds. The Cx32 gene was amplified by PCR in three overlapping fragments 300-450 bp in length using leukocyte-derived DNA as template. These were either sequenced directly using a deaza dGTP sequencing protocol, or were cloned and sequenced using a TA vector. In two of the kindreds the affected members carried a point mutation which was predicted to effect a non-conservative amino acid change within the first transmembrane domain. Both of these mutations caused a restriction site alteration (the loss of an Nla III and the creation of a Pvu II, respectively), and the former mutation was observed to segregate with the clinicial phenotype in affected family members. Affected members of the third kindred, which was a very large multigenerational family that had been extensively studied previously, were shown to carry a point mutation predicted to cause a premature truncation of the Cx32 gene product in the intracellular carboxy terminus. This mutation obliterated an Rsa I site which allowed a rapid screen of several other family members.

  12. Splicing defects in ABCD1 gene leading to both exon skipping and partial intron retention in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy Tunisian patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallabi, Fakhri; Hadj Salem, Ikhlass; Ben Chehida, Amel; Ben Salah, Ghada; Ben Turkia, Hadhami; Tebib, Neji; Keskes, Leila; Kamoun, Hassen

    2015-08-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) affects the nervous system white matter and adrenal cortex secondary to mutations in the ABCD1 gene that encodes a peroxisomal membrane protein: the adrenoleukodystrophy protein. The disease is characterized by high concentrations of very long-chain fatty acids in plasma, adrenal, testicular and nervous tissues. Various types of mutations have been identified in the ABCD1 gene: point mutations, insertions, and deletions. To date, more than 40 point mutations have been reported at the splice junctions of the ABCD1 gene; only few functional studies have been performed to explore these types of mutations. In this study, we have identified de novo splice site mutation c.1780+2T>G in ABCD1 gene in an X-ALD Tunisian patient. Sequencing analysis of cDNA showed a minor transcript lacking exon 7 and a major transcript with a partial intron 7 retention due to activation of a new intronic cryptic splice site. Both outcomes lead to frameshifts with premature stop codon generation in exon 8 and intron 7 respectively. To the best of our knowledge, the current study demonstrates that a single splicing mutation affects the ABCD1 transcripts and the ALDP protein function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  13. S149R, a novel mutation in theABCD1gene causing X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Wang, Wenbo; Ying, Hui; Li, Hongyu; Chen, Jing; Xu, Chao

    2017-10-20

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is the most common peroxisomal disorder. It is a heterogeneous disorder caused by mutations in the ATP-binding cassette protein subfamily D1 ( ABCD1 ) gene, encoding the peroxisomal membrane protein ALDP, which is involved in the transmembrane transport of very long-chain fatty acids. For the first time, we report a case of olivopontocerebellar X-ALD on the Chinese mainland. In this study, a novel mutation (c.447T>A; p.S149R) in ABCD1 was detected in a patient diagnosed with X-ALD. The mutant amino acid is well conserved among species. Bioinformatics analysis predicted the substitution to be deleterious and to cause structural changes in the adrenoleukodystrophy protein. Immunofluorescence showed an altered subcellular localization of the S149R mutant protein, which may lead to defects in the degradation of very long chain fatty acids in peroxisomes. We therefore suggest that the novel mutation, which alters ALDP structure, subcellular distribution and function, is responsible for X-ALD.

  14. Targeted gene addition in human CD34(+) hematopoietic cells for correction of X-linked chronic granulomatous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ravin, Suk See; Reik, Andreas; Liu, Pei-Qi; Li, Linhong; Wu, Xiaolin; Su, Ling; Raley, Castle; Theobald, Narda; Choi, Uimook; Song, Alexander H; Chan, Andy; Pearl, Jocelynn R; Paschon, David E; Lee, Janet; Newcombe, Hannah; Koontz, Sherry; Sweeney, Colin; Shivak, David A; Zarember, Kol A; Peshwa, Madhusudan V; Gregory, Philip D; Urnov, Fyodor D; Malech, Harry L

    2016-04-01

    Gene therapy with genetically modified human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) may be safer using targeted integration (TI) of transgenes into a genomic 'safe harbor' site rather than random viral integration. We demonstrate that temporally optimized delivery of zinc finger nuclease mRNA via electroporation and adeno-associated virus (AAV) 6 delivery of donor constructs in human HSPCs approaches clinically relevant levels of TI into the AAVS1 safe harbor locus. Up to 58% Venus(+) HSPCs with 6-16% human cell marking were observed following engraftment into mice. In HSPCs from patients with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X-CGD), caused by mutations in the gp91phox subunit of the NADPH oxidase, TI of a gp91phox transgene into AAVS1 resulted in ∼15% gp91phox expression and increased NADPH oxidase activity in ex vivo-derived neutrophils. In mice transplanted with corrected HSPCs, 4-11% of human cells in the bone marrow expressed gp91phox. This method for TI into AAVS1 may be broadly applicable to correction of other monogenic diseases.

  15. Eight novel mutations in the ABCD1 gene and clinical characteristics of 25 Chinese patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shan-Shan; Ye, Jun; Zhang, Hui-Wen; Han, Lian-Shu; Qiu, Wen-Juan; Gao, Xiao-Lan; Gu, Xue-Fan

    2015-11-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette D1 (ABCD1) gene. This study aimed to retrospectively investigate the clinical characteristics of 25 patients with X-ALD including members of large pedigrees, to analyze ABCD1 gene mutations, the effect of gene novel variants on ALD protein (ALDP) structure and function, and to expand gene mutation spectrum of Chinese patients. Twenty-five male patients diagnosed with X-ALD were enrolled in this study. The clinical characteristics of the patients were retrospectively summarized by reviewing medical records or telephone consultation. ABCD1 gene mutations were analyzed. The pathogenicity of novel missense variants was analyzed using cobalt constraint-based multiple protein alignment tool, polymorphism phenotyping, sorting intolerant from tolerant, Align-Grantham variation and Grantham deviation, and Swiss-Program Database Viewer 4.04 software, respectively. Childhood cerebral form ALD (CCALD) is the most common phenotype (64%) in the 25 patients with X-ALD. The progressive deterioration of neurological and cognitive functions is the main clinical feature. The demyelination of the brain white matter and elevated plasma very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) were found in all patients. Different phenotypes were also presented within family members of the patients. Twenty-two different mutations including 8 novel mutations in the ABCD1 gene were identified in the 25 patients. Of the mutations, 63.6% were missense mutations and 34.8% located in exon 1. The amino acid residues of three novel missense mutations in eight species were highly conserved, and were predicted to be "probably" damaging to ALDP function. The other five novel mutations were splice, nonsense, deletion or duplication mutations. CCALD is the most common phenotype (64%) in our patients with X-ALD. Eight novel mutations in the ABCD1 gene identified are disease

  16. A mutation in the IL-2 receptor gamma chain gene associated with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency accompanying opisthotonus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Yasuyo; Kawashima, Hisashi; Kato, Naoki; Takekuma, Kouji; Hoshika, Akinori; Kumaki, Satoru

    2009-05-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is an inherited disease with profoundly defective T cells, B cells, and NK cells. X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) is its most common form. In this report, we describe a 4-month old male with X-SCID who also showed opisthotonic posturing. Opisthotonus represents abnormal motor posturing and is defined as the posturing, in which the neck and back are arched posteriorly. The patient was referred to our hospital with liver dysfunction, respiratory distress, anal abscess, poor feeding and wasting; the patient appeared to suffer from severe and persistent infections. In fact, circulating T cells were not detectable, despite that the number of B cells was maintained in the normal ranges. Diagnosis of X-SCID was established by DNA analysis of the interleukin (IL)-2 receptor gamma chain gene; namely, we detected the novel mutation within exon 2 (221 C-->A), which leads to the substitution of tyrosine codon for stop codon (Y69stop). Computed tomography of the brain revealed mild atrophy, but no hemorrhage and no malformation. There were no pathological findings in the cerebrospinal fluid. Thus, the cause of opisthotonic posturing remains unknown. The patient died due to severe infection at the age of 7 months. It remains to be investigated to clarify the relationship between the mutation and clinical manifestations. In conclusion, we have identified the novel mutation in the IL-2 receptor gamma chain gene, which is associated with X-SCID. Furthermore, this is the first report that describes the patient with X-SCID accompanying opisthotonus.

  17. Long-term persistence of a polyclonal T cell repertoire after gene therapy for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, H Bobby; Cooray, Samantha; Gilmour, Kimberly C; Parsley, Kathryn L; Adams, Stuart; Howe, Steven J; Al Ghonaium, Abdulaziz; Bayford, Jinhua; Brown, Lucinda; Davies, E Graham; Kinnon, Christine; Thrasher, Adrian J

    2011-08-24

    X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) is caused by mutations in the common cytokine receptor γ chain. These mutations classically lead to complete absence of functional T and natural killer cell lineages as well as to intrinsically compromised B cell function. Although human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is highly successful in SCID-X1 patients, HLA-mismatched procedures can be associated with prolonged immunodeficiency, graft-versus-host disease, and increased overall mortality. Here, 10 children were treated with autologous CD34(+) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells transduced with a conventional gammaretroviral vector. The patients did not receive myelosuppressive conditioning and were monitored for immunological recovery after cell infusion. All patients were alive after a median follow-up of 80 months (range, 54 to 107 months), and a functional polyclonal T cell repertoire was restored in all patients. Humoral immunity only partially recovered but was sufficient in some patients to allow for withdrawal of immunoglobulin replacement; however, three patients developed antibiotic-responsive acute pulmonary infection after discontinuation of antibiotic prophylaxis and/or immunoglobulin replacement. One patient developed acute T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia because of up-regulated expression of the proto-oncogene LMO-2 from insertional mutagenesis, but maintained a polyclonal T cell repertoire through chemotherapy and entered remission. Therefore, gene therapy for SCID-X1 without myelosuppressive conditioning effectively restored T cell immunity and was associated with high survival rates for up to 9 years. Further studies using vectors designed to limit mutagenesis and strategies to enhance B cell reconstitution are warranted to define the role of this treatment modality alongside conventional HSCT for SCID-X1.

  18. A new resource for characterizing X-linked genes in Drosophila melanogaster: systematic coverage and subdivision of the X chromosome with nested, Y-linked duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R Kimberley; Deal, Megan E; Deal, Jennifer A; Garton, Russell D; Brown, C Adam; Ward, Megan E; Andrade, Rachel S; Spana, Eric P; Kaufman, Thomas C; Cook, Kevin R

    2010-12-01

    Interchromosomal duplications are especially important for the study of X-linked genes. Males inheriting a mutation in a vital X-linked gene cannot survive unless there is a wild-type copy of the gene duplicated elsewhere in the genome. Rescuing the lethality of an X-linked mutation with a duplication allows the mutation to be used experimentally in complementation tests and other genetic crosses and it maps the mutated gene to a defined chromosomal region. Duplications can also be used to screen for dosage-dependent enhancers and suppressors of mutant phenotypes as a way to identify genes involved in the same biological process. We describe an ongoing project in Drosophila melanogaster to generate comprehensive coverage and extensive breakpoint subdivision of the X chromosome with megabase-scale X segments borne on Y chromosomes. The in vivo method involves the creation of X inversions on attached-XY chromosomes by FLP-FRT site-specific recombination technology followed by irradiation to induce large internal X deletions. The resulting chromosomes consist of the X tip, a medial X segment placed near the tip by an inversion, and a full Y. A nested set of medial duplicated segments is derived from each inversion precursor. We have constructed a set of inversions on attached-XY chromosomes that enable us to isolate nested duplicated segments from all X regions. To date, our screens have provided a minimum of 78% X coverage with duplication breakpoints spaced a median of nine genes apart. These duplication chromosomes will be valuable resources for rescuing and mapping X-linked mutations and identifying dosage-dependent modifiers of mutant phenotypes.

  19. X-linked mental retardation with neonatal hypotonia in a French family (MRX15): Gene assignment to Xp11.22-Xp21.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynaud, M.; Dessay, B.; Ayrault, A.D. [INSERM, Marseille (France)] [and others

    1996-07-12

    Linkage analysis was performed in a family with non-specific X-linked mental retardation (MRX 15). Hypotonia in infancy was the most remarkable physical manifestation. The severity of mental deficiency was variable among the patients, but all of them had poor or absent speech. Significant lod scores at a recombination fraction of zero were detected with the marker loci DXS1126, DXS255, and DXS573 (Zmax = 2.01) and recombination was observed with the two flanking loci DXS164 (Xp21.1) and DXS988 (Xp11.22), identifying a 17 cM interval. This result suggests a new gene localization in the proximal Xp region. In numerous families with non-specific X-linked mental retardation (MRX), the corresponding gene has been localized to the paracentromeric region in which a low recombination rate impairs the precision of mapping. 58 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in Spain. Identification of 26 novel mutations in the ABCD1 gene in 80 patients. Improvement of genetic counseling in 162 relative females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, M J; Palau, N; Camps, C; Ruiz, M; Pàmpols, T; Girós, M

    2005-05-01

    In this study, we analyzed the ABCD1 gene in 80 X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) patients from 62 unrelated families. We identified 53 different mutations, of which 26 are novel and two are non-pathogenic sequence variants (L516L and 3'UTR, 2246C/G) that have been previously described. The Spanish population had significant allelic heterogeneity, in which most of the mutations were exclusive to a single family 47/53 (88.7%). Only six mutations (Y174S, G277R, FsE471, R518Q, P543L, and R554H) were found in more than one family. Mutations G277R, P543L, and R554H were the most frequent, each of them being found in three patients (5%). Intra-familiar phenotype variability was observed in most of the families, but in one, with the novel mutation R120P, only the adult mild phenotype was present (five hemizygous family members). We detected 80 heterozygous women by mutation analysis, but only 78 of them showed increased very-long-chain fatty acid levels. In conclusion, this study extends the spectrum of mutations in X-ALD and facilitates the identification of heterozygous females. Our results are also consistent with previous studies reporting the difficulty of predicting genotype-phenotype correlation.

  1. Clinical and molecular analysis of 49 patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia from a single center in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Natalia; Danielian, Silvia; Oleastro, Matias; Rosenzweig, Sergio; Prieto, Emma; Rossi, Jorge; Roy, Adriana; Zelazko, Marta

    2009-01-01

    Argentina has a large number of patients with definite diagnosis of X-linked agammaglobulinemia reported in the Latin-American registry. Forty-nine of them were seen in our referral pediatric hospital, between 1987 and 2005. A retrospective study of clinical, laboratory, and molecular data showed that respiratory tract infections were the most frequent initial clinical presentation and the most common among all manifestations prior to diagnosis (69%). Up to diagnosis, we found a high frequency of severe infections (sepsis, 14% and meningitis, 16%) and a high proportion of patients with chronic lung disease. During follow-up, the development of chronic lung disease was significantly related with age at diagnosis and inappropriate treatment. Although molecular diagnosis has been available in our center for the past 10 years, there is no doubt that awareness for early recognition of immunodeficiency should be improved through broader and more comprehensive education programs emphasizing characteristics of patients with immunodeficiencies.

  2. Mutational analyses on X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy reveal a novel cryptic splicing and three missense mutations in the ABCD1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Kun-Long; Wang, Jinn-Shyan; Keng, Wee Teik; Chen, Hui-Ju; Liang, Jao-Shwann; Ngu, Lock Hock; Lu, Jyh-Feng

    2013-09-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is caused by a defective peroxisomal membrane transporter, ABCD1, responsible for transporting very-long-chain fatty acid substrate into peroxisomes for degradation. The main biochemical defect, which is also one of the major diagnostic hallmarks, of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is the accumulation of saturated very-long-chain fatty acids in all tissues and body fluids. Direct and reverse-transcribed polymerase chain reactions followed by DNA sequencing-based mutational analyses were performed on one Taiwanese and three Malaysian X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy families. A novel splicing donor site mutation (c.1272+1g>a) was identified in a Taiwanese X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy patient, resulting in a deletion of 121 bp and a premature stop codon (p.Val425fs*92) in messenger-RNA transcript. This deletion is caused by the activation of a cryptic splicing donor site in exon 4 of the ABCD1 gene, which is consistent with the prediction by several online algorithms. In addition, three previously described missense mutations (c.965T>C, c.1978C>T, and c.2006A>G), leading to aberrant ABCD1 of p.Leu322Pro, p.Arg660Trp, and p.His669Arg, were also identified in Malaysian probands. This is the first report to unveil unequivocally that cryptic splicing-induced aberrant messenger-RNA carrying an internal frameshift deletion results from an intronic mutation in the ABCD1 gene. Furthermore, a polymorphism in intron 9 (c.1992-32c/t; refSNP: rs4898368) of the ABCD1 gene was commonly observed in both Taiwanese and Malaysian populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. X-linked Agammaglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Deepti; Rawat, Amit; Singh, Surjit

    2016-04-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is one of the commonest primary immune deficiencies encountered in pediatric clinical practice. In adults, common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common primary immunodeficiency disease (PID). It is an X-linked disorder characterized by increased susceptibility to encapsulated bacteria, severe hypergammaglobulinemia and absent circulating B cells in the peripheral blood. Replacement immunoglobulin therapy is the main cornerstone of treatment. Aggressive management of intercurrent infections and prophylactic antimicrobials are needed. This review attempts to highlight varied clinical manifestations and management of XLA, especially in the context of developing country.

  4. Gene targeting study reveals unexpected expression of brain-expressed X-linked 2 in endocrine and tissue stem/progenitor cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Keiichi; Yamazaki, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Ryo; Tajima, Yoko; Yanagida, Ayaka; Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Kato-Itoh, Megumi; Kakuta, Shigeru; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Kamiya, Akihide

    2014-10-24

    Identification of genes specifically expressed in stem/progenitor cells is an important issue in developmental and stem cell biology. Genome-wide gene expression analyses in liver cells performed in this study have revealed a strong expression of X-linked genes that include members of the brain-expressed X-linked (Bex) gene family in stem/progenitor cells. Bex family genes are expressed abundantly in the neural cells and have been suggested to play important roles in the development of nervous tissues. However, the physiological role of its individual members and the precise expression pattern outside the nervous system remain largely unknown. Here, we focused on Bex2 and examined its role and expression pattern by generating knock-in mice; the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) was inserted into the Bex2 locus. Bex2-deficient mice were viable and fertile under laboratory growth conditions showing no obvious phenotypic abnormalities. Through an immunohistochemical analysis and flow cytometry-based approach, we observed unique EGFP reporter expression patterns in endocrine and stem/progenitor cells of the liver, pyloric stomach, and hematopoietic system. Although Bex2 seems to play redundant roles in vivo, these results suggest the significance and potential applications of Bex2 in studies of endocrine and stem/progenitor cells. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Ocular and systemic safety of a recombinant AAV8 vector for X-linked retinoschisis gene therapy: GLP studies in rabbits and Rs1-KO mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Marangoni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS is a retinal disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding the protein retinoschisin (RS1 and is one of the most common causes of macular degeneration in young men. Our therapeutic approach for XLRS is based on the administration of AAV8-scRS/IRBPhRS, an adeno-associated viral vector coding the human RS1 protein, via the intravitreal (IVT route. Two Good Laboratory Practice studies, a 9-month study in New Zealand White rabbits (n = 124 injected with AAV8-scRS/IRBPhRS at doses of 2E9, 2E10, 2E11, and 1.5E12 vector genomes/eye (vg/eye, and a 6-month study in Rs1-KO mice (n = 162 dosed with 2E9 and 2E10 vg/eye of the same vector were conducted to assess ocular and systemic safety. A self-resolving, dose-dependent vitreal inflammation was the main ocular finding, and except for a single rabbit dosed with 1.5E12 vg/eye, which showed a retinal detachment, no other ocular adverse event was reported. Systemic toxicity was not identified in either species. Biodistribution analysis in Rs1-KO mice detected spread of vector genome in extraocular tissues, but no evidence of organ or tissues damage was found. These studies indicate that IVT administration of AAV8-scRS/IRBPhRS is safe and well tolerated and support its advancement into a phase 1/2a clinical trial for XLRS.

  6. Ocular and systemic safety of a recombinant AAV8 vector for X-linked retinoschisis gene therapy: GLP studies in rabbits and Rs1-KO mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangoni, Dario; Bush, Ronald A; Zeng, Yong; Wei, Lisa L; Ziccardi, Lucia; Vijayasarathy, Camasamudram; Bartoe, Joshua T; Palyada, Kiran; Santos, Maria; Hiriyanna, Suja; Wu, Zhijian; Colosi, Peter; Sieving, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) is a retinal disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding the protein retinoschisin (RS1) and is one of the most common causes of macular degeneration in young men. Our therapeutic approach for XLRS is based on the administration of AAV8-scRS/IRBPhRS, an adeno-associated viral vector coding the human RS1 protein, via the intravitreal (IVT) route. Two Good Laboratory Practice studies, a 9-month study in New Zealand White rabbits (n = 124) injected with AAV8-scRS/IRBPhRS at doses of 2E9, 2E10, 2E11, and 1.5E12 vector genomes/eye (vg/eye), and a 6-month study in Rs1-KO mice (n = 162) dosed with 2E9 and 2E10 vg/eye of the same vector were conducted to assess ocular and systemic safety. A self-resolving, dose-dependent vitreal inflammation was the main ocular finding, and except for a single rabbit dosed with 1.5E12 vg/eye, which showed a retinal detachment, no other ocular adverse event was reported. Systemic toxicity was not identified in either species. Biodistribution analysis in Rs1-KO mice detected spread of vector genome in extraocular tissues, but no evidence of organ or tissues damage was found. These studies indicate that IVT administration of AAV8-scRS/IRBPhRS is safe and well tolerated and support its advancement into a phase 1/2a clinical trial for XLRS.

  7. X-linked Alport syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jais, Jean Philippe; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Giatras, Iannis

    2003-01-01

    Alport syndrome (AS) is a type IV collagen hereditary disease characterized by progressive hematuric nephritis, hearing loss, and ocular changes. Mutations in the COL4A5 collagen gene are responsible for the more common X-linked dominant form of the disease characterized by much less severe disease...... in girls and women. A "European Community Alport Syndrome Concerted Action" (ECASCA) group was established to delineate the Alport syndrome phenotype in each gender and to determine genotype-phenotype correlations in a large number of families. Data concerning 329 families, 250 of them with an X...... to increase after the age of 60 yr in women. Because of the absence of genotype-phenotype correlation and the large intrafamilial phenotypic heterogeneity, early prognosis of the disease in X-linked Alport syndrome carriers remains moot. Risk factors for developing renal failure have been identified...

  8. X-linked mental deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    des Portes, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Ten percent of cases of intellectual deficiency in boys are caused by genes located on the X chromosome. X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) includes more than 200 syndromes and 80 genes identified to date. The fragile X syndrome is the most frequent syndrome, due to a dynamic mutation with a CGG triplet amplification. Mental retardation is virtually always present. Phonological and syntactic impairments are often combined with pragmatic language impairment and visuospatial reasoning difficulties. A minority fulfill the criteria for autism. In girls, the clinical expression of the complete mutation varies according to the X chromosome inactivation profile. Several XLMR occur as severe early onset encephalopathies: Lowe oculocerebrorenal syndrome, ATR-X syndrome (alpha thalassemia/mental retardation X-linked), Allan-Herdon-Dudley syndrome (MCT8 gene). Two genes, ARX (X-LAG; Partington syndrome) and MECP2 (Rett syndrome in females; mild MR with spastic diplegia/psychotic problems in males) are associated with various phenotypes, according to the mutation involved. Oligophrenine 1 (OPHN-1) gene mutations lead to vermal dysplasia. PQBP1 gene mutations (Renpenning syndrome) are responsible for moderate to severe mental deficiency, microcephaly, and small stature. Although some forms of XLMR are not very specific and the phenotype for each given gene is somewhat heterogeneous, a clinical diagnostic strategy is emerging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A nonsense mutation in the COL4A5 collagen gene in a family with X-linked juvenile Alport syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Jens Michael; Heiskari, N; Zhou, J

    1995-01-01

    The X-linked form of Alport syndrome is associated with mutations in the COL4A5 gene encoding the alpha 5-chain of type IV collagen. By using PCR-amplification and direct sequencing we identified a novel mutation involving a deletion of the last two bases in the codon GGA for Glycine-1479 in exon...... 47 of the COL4A5 gene in a patient with a juvenile form of X-linked Alport syndrome with deafness. This two base deletion caused a shift in the reading frame and introduced a premature stop codon which resulted in an alpha 5(IV)-chain shortened by 202 residues and lacking almost the entire NC1 domain....... The mutation was found to co-segregate with the disease in the family. The information of the sequence variation in this family was used to perform carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis by allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization analysis and direct sequencing of PCR amplified exon 47. Prenatal...

  10. X-linked Alport syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jais, J P; Knebelmann, B; Giatras, I

    2000-01-01

    Alport syndrome (AS) is a type IV collagen hereditary disease characterized by the association of progressive hematuric nephritis, hearing loss, and, frequently, ocular changes. Mutations in the COL4A5 collagen gene are responsible for the more common X-linked dominant form of the disease....... Considerable allelic heterogeneity has been observed. A "European Community Alport Syndrome Concerted Action" has been established to delineate accurately the AS phenotype and to determine genotype-phenotype correlations in a large number of families. Data concerning 329 families, 250 of them with an X...

  11. A novel deletion mutation and structural abnormality in the Bruton's tyrosine kinase gene identified in a Chinese patient with X-linked agammaglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shifu; Lu, Yanqin; Li, Hu; Wang, Zhaoxia; Mo, Xinkai; Chai, Zhengbin; Han, Jinxiang

    2014-01-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a heritable primary immune deficiency disorder caused by mutation of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene. The main clinical characteristics of XLA are recurrent respiratory tract infections and profoundly low serum immunoglobulin levels and B cells. The clinical characteristics of a five-year-old Chinese boy with XLA were described. Mutations of BTK genes were identified by traditional DNA sequencing based on PCR. A three-dimensional model of the truncated BTK protein was constructed. Molecular analysis showed a point deletion of an adenine nucleotide at position 1427 (p.Tyr476Ser), which would cause a frameshift and premature termination at codon 484. Three-dimensional analysis showed that the truncated protein had lost the functional region for both ATP and substrate binding such that tyrosine kinase activity would be affected. The study identified a novel BTK mutation of one Chinese XLA patient. The truncated BTK model identified the loss of a functional domain.

  12. Genetic localisation of MRX27 to Xq24-26 defines another discrete gene for non-specific X-linked mental retardation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gedeon, A.K.; Connor, J.M.; Mulley, J.C. [Univ. of Adelaide (Australia); Connor, J.M. [Duncan Guthrie Inst. of Medical Genetics, Yorkhill (United Kingdom); Glass, I.A. [Univ. of California, San Franciso, CA (United States)

    1996-07-12

    A large family with non-specific X-linked mental retardation (MRX) was first described in 1991, with a suggestion of linkage to Xq26-27. The maximum lod score was 1.60 ({theta} = 0.10) with the F9 locus. The localization of this MRX gene has now been established by linkage to microsatellite markers. Peak pairwise lod scores of 4.02 and 4.01 ({theta} = 0.00) were attained at the DXS1114 and DXS994 loci respectively. This MRX gene is now designated MRX27 and is localized to Xq24-26 by recombination events detected by DXS424 and DXS102. This regional localization spans 26.2 cM on the genetic background map and defines another distinct MRX interval by linkage to a specific region of the X chromosome. 25 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. A novel mutation in the nerve-specific 5'UTR of the GJB1 gene causes X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Sinéad M

    2011-03-01

    X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT1X) is the second most common cause of CMT, and is usually caused by mutations in the gap junction protein beta 1 (GJB1) gene which codes for connexin 32 (CX32). CX32 has three tissue-specific promoters, P1 which is specific for liver and pancreas, P1a specific for liver, oocytes and embryonic stem cells, and P2 which is nerve-specific. Over 300 mutations have been described in GJB1, spread throughout the coding region. We describe two families with X-linked inheritance and a phenotype consistent with CMT1X who did not have mutations in the GJB1 coding region. The non-coding region of GJB1 was sequenced and an upstream exon-splicing variant found at approximately - 373G>A which segregated with the disease in both families and was not present in controls. This substitution is located at the last base of the nerve-specific 5\\'UTR and thus may disrupt splicing of the nerve-specific transcript. Online consensus splice-site programs predict a reduced score for the mutant sequence vs. the normal sequence. It is likely that other mutations within the GJB1 non-coding regions account for the CMT1X families who do not have coding region mutations.

  14. Accounting for eXentricities: analysis of the X chromosome in GWAS reveals X-linked genes implicated in autoimmune diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Chang

    Full Text Available Many complex human diseases are highly sexually dimorphic, suggesting a potential contribution of the X chromosome to disease risk. However, the X chromosome has been neglected or incorrectly analyzed in most genome-wide association studies (GWAS. We present tailored analytical methods and software that facilitate X-wide association studies (XWAS, which we further applied to reanalyze data from 16 GWAS of different autoimmune and related diseases (AID. We associated several X-linked genes with disease risk, among which (1 ARHGEF6 is associated with Crohn's disease and replicated in a study of ulcerative colitis, another inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Indeed, ARHGEF6 interacts with a gastric bacterium that has been implicated in IBD. (2 CENPI is associated with three different AID, which is compelling in light of known associations with AID of autosomal genes encoding centromere proteins, as well as established autosomal evidence of pleiotropy between autoimmune diseases. (3 We replicated a previous association of FOXP3, a transcription factor that regulates T-cell development and function, with vitiligo; and (4 we discovered that C1GALT1C1 exhibits sex-specific effect on disease risk in both IBDs. These and other X-linked genes that we associated with AID tend to be highly expressed in tissues related to immune response, participate in major immune pathways, and display differential gene expression between males and females. Combined, the results demonstrate the importance of the X chromosome in autoimmunity, reveal the potential of extensive XWAS, even based on existing data, and provide the tools and incentive to properly include the X chromosome in future studies.

  15. Ex vivo γ-retroviral gene therapy of dogs with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency and the development of a thymic T cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Douglas R; Hartnett, Brian J; Kennedy, Jeffrey S; Vernau, William; Moore, Peter F; O'Malley, Thomas; Burkly, Linda C; Henthorn, Paula S; Felsburg, Peter J

    2011-07-15

    We have previously shown that in vivo γ-retroviral gene therapy of dogs with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (XSCID) results in sustained T cell reconstitution and sustained marking in myeloid and B cells for up to 4 years with no evidence of any serious adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ex vivo γ-retroviral gene therapy of XSCID dogs results in a similar outcome. Eight of 12 XSCID dogs treated with an average of dose of 5.8 × 10(6) transduced CD34(+) cells/kg successfully engrafted producing normal numbers of gene-corrected CD45RA(+) (naïve) T cells. However, this was followed by a steady decrease in CD45RA(+) T cells, T cell diversity, and thymic output as measured by T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) resulting in a T cell lymphopenia. None of the dogs survived past 11 months post treatment. At necropsy, few gene-corrected thymocytes were observed correlating with the TREC levels and one of the dogs was diagnosed with a thymic T cell lymphoma that was attributed to the gene therapy. This study highlights the outcome differences between the ex vivo and in vivo approach to γ-retroviral gene therapy and is the first to document a serious adverse event following gene therapy in a canine model of a human genetic disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel X-Linked Genes Revealed by Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction in the Green Anole, Anolis carolinensis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rovatsos, M.; Altmanová, M.; Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Kratochvíl, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 11 (2014), s. 2107-2113 ISSN 2160-1836 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/0718 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : gene dosage * lizard * qPCR Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.198, year: 2014

  17. Mutation analyses and prenatal diagnosis in families of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency caused by IL2Rγ gene novel mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Q L; Liu, N; Kong, X D; Xu, X J; Zhao, Z H

    2015-06-11

    We investigated the feasibility of interleukin-2 receptor gamma (IL2Rγ) gene based on gene mutation analysis and pre-natal diagnosis of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID). Blood samples of patients and their parents of X-SCID (family 1) and X-SCID (family 2) were collected. IL2Rγ gene sequences of the 2 families were analyzed using bi-directional direct sequencing by polymerase chain reaction. DNA sequence changes in the IL2Rγ gene exon region and shear zone were also analyzed. We also sequenced the IL2Rγ gene in 100 healthy individuals. Prenatal genetic diagnoses for a high-risk fetus in family 1 were performed by chorionic villus sampling after determining each family's genotypes. The suspect fe-male in family 1 underwent carrier detection. Two novel mutations of IL2Rγ gene were identified, including c.361-363delGAG (p.E121del) in the patient and his mother in family 1, and c.510-511insGAACT (p.W173X) heterozygous mutation in the proband's mother in family 2. These mutations were absent in the 100 controls. Prenatal diagnosis of early pregnancy in the female fetus of family 1 was performed; the fetus was heterozygous, which was confirmed at postnatal follow-up. The suspect female in family 1 showed no mutation in carrier detection. The novel p.E121del and p.W173X mutations in IL2Rγ may have been the primary causes of disease in 2 families with X-SCID. In couples with an X-SCID reproductive history, prenatal gene mutation analysis of IL2Rγ can effectively prevent the birth of children with X-SCID and carrier detection for suspected females.

  18. Functional Restoration of gp91phox-Oxidase Activity by BAC Transgenesis and Gene Targeting in X-linked Chronic Granulomatous Disease iPSCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugsch, Magdalena; Rostovskaya, Maria; Velychko, Sergiy; Richter, Cornelia; Zimmer, Ariane; Klink, Barbara; Schröck, Evelin; Haase, Michael; Neumann, Katrin; Thieme, Sebastian; Roesler, Joachim; Brenner, Sebastian; Anastassiadis, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited immunodeficiency, caused by the inability of neutrophils to produce functional NADPH oxidase required for fighting microbial infections. The X-linked form of CGD (X-CGD), which is due to mutations in the CYBB (gp91phox) gene, a component of NADPH oxidase, accounts for about two-thirds of CGD cases. We derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from X-CGD patient keratinocytes using a Flp recombinase excisable lentiviral reprogramming vector. For restoring gp91phox function, we applied two strategies: transposon-mediated bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenesis and gene targeting using vectors with a fixed 5' homology arm (HA) of 8 kb and 3'HA varying in size from 30 to 80 kb. High efficiency of homologous recombination (up to 22%) was observed with increased size of the 3'HA. Both, BAC transgenesis and gene targeting resulted in functional restoration of the gp91phox measured by an oxidase activity assay in X-CGD iPSCs differentiated into the myeloid lineage. In conclusion, we delivered an important milestone towards the use of genetically corrected autologous cells for the treatment of X-CGD and monogenic diseases in general.

  19. Molecular characterization of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in a Tunisian family: identification of a novel missense mutation in the ABCD1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallabi, Fakhri; Hadj Salem, Ikhlass; Ben Salah, Ghada; Ben Turkia, Hadhami; Ben Chehida, Amel; Tebib, Neji; Fakhfakh, Faiza; Kamoun, Hassen

    2013-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a recessive neurodegenerative disorder that affects the brain's white matter and is associated with adrenal insufficiency. It is characterized by an abnormal function of the peroxisomes, which leads to an accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) in plasma and tissues, especially in the cortex of the adrenal glands and the white matter of the central nervous system, causing demyelinating disease and adrenocortical insufficiency (Addison's disease). X-ALD is caused by a mutation in the ABCD1 gene (ATP-binding cassette, subfamily D, member 1), which encodes the adrenoleukodystrophy protein involved in the transport of fatty acids into the peroxisome for degradation. We report here a disease-related variant in the ABCD1 gene in a 19-year-old Tunisian boy with childhood cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy. The diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms, high levels of VLCFA in plasma, typical MRI pattern and molecular analysis. Molecular analysis by direct sequencing of the ABCD1 gene showed the presence of a novel missense mutation c.284C>A (p.Ala95Asp) occurring in the transmembrane domain in the proband, his mother and his sister. Using bioinformatic tools we suggest that this novel variant may have deleterious effects on adrenoleukodystrophy protein structure and function. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Differing clinical presentations of two unrelated cases of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy with identical mutation Y296C in the ABCD1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutovský, Stanislav; Kolníková, Miriam; Petrovic, Róbert; Kollár, Branislav; Siarnik, Pavel; Chandoga, Ján; Fischerová, Mária; Turcáni, Peter

    2014-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a genetically determined disorder that causes varying degrees of malfunction of the adrenal cortex and central nervous system. Our aim was to investigate the occurrence of known, or new, mutations in the ABCD1 gene in two unrelated patients with clinical suspicion of the adrenoleukodystrophy. Two unrelated patients - the first with behavioral changes, the second with progressive cognitive deficit - underwent a clinical and genetic examination in order to establish a diagnosis and discover a possible mutation. In the first patient, a 47 year old man, the clinical examination showed dementia of the frontal type and spastic quadriparesis. The patient also suffered from adrenal insufficiency for 6 years. An MRI showed confluent hyperintensive lesions in FLAIR images in the frontal lobe of both hemispheres. The second patient, a 16 year old boy, suffered also from Addison's disease since the age of 9, and developed cognitive deficit in the course of one year. The MRI showed posterior atrophy and hyperintensive lesions in parietal and occipital lobes in T2WI. In both cases, genetic analyses showed a missense mutation at the codon 887 (A>G) in exon 1 of the ABCD1 gene, predicting the substitution Y296C in the ALD protein. We detected the same mutation of the ABCD1 gene in two unrelated patients with ALD. In the first case there was frontal lobe involvement, in the second case parieto-occipital involvement. Both pathologic involvement and clinical presentation differed in two cases of the same mutation.

  1. Mutation analysis of the gene encoding Bruton`s tyrosine kinase in a family with a sporadic case of X-linked agammaglobulinemia reveals three female carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagemann, T.L.; Kwan, Sau-Ping [Rush Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States); Assa`ad, A.H. [Children`s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-11-06

    Bruton`s tyrosine kinase (Btk) has been identified as the protein responsible for the primary immunodeficiency X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). We and others have cloned the gene for Btk and recently reported the genomic organization. Nineteen exons were positioned within the 37 kb gene. With the sequence data derived from our genomic map, we have designed a PCR based assay to directly identify mutations of the Btk gene in germline DNA of patients with XLA. In this report, the assay was used to analyze a family with a sporadic case of XLA to determine if other female relatives carry the disease. A four base-pair deletion was found in the DNA of the affected boy and was further traced through three generations. With the direct identification of the mutations responsible for XLA, we can now diagnose conclusively the disease and identify the immunologically normal female carriers. This same technique can easily be applied to prenatal diagnosis in families where the mutation can be identified. 34 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1, a gene involved in X-linked intellectual disability, undergoes RNA editing and alternative splicing during human brain development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Barresi

    Full Text Available Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1 encodes for a Rho-GTPase-activating protein, important for dendritic morphogenesis and synaptic function. Mutations in this gene have been identified in patients with X-linked intellectual disability associated with cerebellar hypoplasia. ADAR enzymes are responsible for A-to-I RNA editing, an essential post-transcriptional RNA modification contributing to transcriptome and proteome diversification. Specifically, ADAR2 activity is essential for brain development and function. Herein, we show that the OPHN1 transcript undergoes post-transcriptional modifications such as A-to-I RNA editing and alternative splicing in human brain and other tissues. We found that OPHN1 editing is detectable already at the 18th week of gestation in human brain with a boost of editing at weeks 20 to 33, concomitantly with OPHN1 expression increase and the appearance of a novel OPHN1 splicing isoform. Our results demonstrate that multiple post-transcriptional events occur on OPHN1, a gene playing an important role in brain function and development.

  3. Contiguous deletion of the X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy gene (ABCD1) and DXS1357E: a novel neonatal phenotype similar to peroxisomal biogenesis disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzo, Deyanira; Gibson, William; Johnson, Kisha; Mitchell, Grant; LePage, Guy; Cox, Gerald F; Casey, Robin; Zeiss, Carolyn; Tyson, Heidi; Cutting, Garry R; Raymond, Gerald V; Smith, Kirby D; Watkins, Paul A; Moser, Ann B; Moser, Hugo W; Steinberg, Steven J

    2002-06-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) results from mutations in ABCD1. ABCD1 resides on Xq28 and encodes an integral peroxisomal membrane protein (ALD protein [ALDP]) that is of unknown function and that belongs to the ATP-binding cassette-transporter superfamily. Individuals with ABCD1 mutations accumulate very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) (carbon length >22). Childhood cerebral X-ALD is the most devastating form of the disease. These children have the earliest onset (age 7.2 +/- 1.7 years) among the clinical phenotypes for ABCD1 mutations, but onset does not occur at ABCD1 mutations, on the basis of the clinical presentation and measurement of other biochemical markers. We have identified three newborn boys who had clinical symptoms and initial biochemical results consistent with PBD or SED. In further study, however, we showed that they lacked ALDP, and we identified deletions that extended into the promoter region of ABCD1 and the neighboring gene, DXS1357E. Mutations in DXS1357E and the ABCD1 promoter region have not been described previously. We propose that the term "contiguous ABCD1 DXS1357E deletion syndrome" (CADDS) be used to identify this new contiguous-gene syndrome. The three patients with CADDS who are described here have important implications for genetic counseling, because individuals with CADDS may previously have been misdiagnosed as having an autosomal recessive PBD or SED

  4. Sxl-Dependent, tra/tra2-Independent Alternative Splicing of the Drosophila melanogaster X-Linked Gene found in neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xia; Yang, Haiwang; Sturgill, David; Oliver, Brian; Rabinow, Leonard; Samson, Marie-Laure

    2015-01-01

    Somatic sexual determination and behavior in Drosophila melanogaster are under the control of a genetic cascade initiated by Sex lethal (Sxl). In the female soma, SXL RNA-binding protein regulates the splicing of transformer (tra) transcripts into a female-specific form. The RNA-binding protein TRA and its cofactor TRA2 function in concert in females, whereas SXL, TRA, and TRA2 are thought to not function in males. To better understand sex-specific regulation of gene expression, we analyzed male and female head transcriptome datasets for expression levels and splicing, quantifying sex-biased gene expression via RNA-Seq and qPCR. Our data uncouple the effects of Sxl and tra/tra2 in females in the-sex-biased alternative splicing of head transcripts from the X-linked locus found in neurons (fne), encoding a pan-neuronal RNA-binding protein of the ELAV family. We show that FNE protein levels are downregulated by Sxl in female heads, also independently of tra/tra2. We argue that this regulation may have important sexually dimorphic consequences for the regulation of nervous system development or function. PMID:26511498

  5. Contiguous Deletion of the X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy Gene (ABCD1) and DXS1357E: A Novel Neonatal Phenotype Similar to Peroxisomal Biogenesis Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzo, Deyanira; Gibson, William; Johnson, Kisha; Mitchell, Grant; LePage, Guy; Cox, Gerald F.; Casey, Robin; Zeiss, Carolyn; Tyson, Heidi; Cutting, Garry R.; Raymond, Gerald V.; Smith, Kirby D.; Watkins, Paul A.; Moser, Ann B.; Moser, Hugo W.; Steinberg, Steven J.

    2002-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) results from mutations in ABCD1. ABCD1 resides on Xq28 and encodes an integral peroxisomal membrane protein (ALD protein [ALDP]) that is of unknown function and that belongs to the ATP-binding cassette–transporter superfamily. Individuals with ABCD1 mutations accumulate very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) (carbon length >22). Childhood cerebral X-ALD is the most devastating form of the disease. These children have the earliest onset (age 7.2 ± 1.7 years) among the clinical phenotypes for ABCD1 mutations, but onset does not occur at syndromes and individuals with ABCD1 mutations, on the basis of the clinical presentation and measurement of other biochemical markers. We have identified three newborn boys who had clinical symptoms and initial biochemical results consistent with PBD or SED. In further study, however, we showed that they lacked ALDP, and we identified deletions that extended into the promoter region of ABCD1 and the neighboring gene, DXS1357E. Mutations in DXS1357E and the ABCD1 promoter region have not been described previously. We propose that the term “contiguous ABCD1 DXS1357E deletion syndrome” (CADDS) be used to identify this new contiguous-gene syndrome. The three patients with CADDS who are described here have important implications for genetic counseling, because individuals with CADDS may previously have been misdiagnosed as having an autosomal recessive PBD or SED PMID:11992258

  6. Bladder and Bowel Dysfunction Is Common in Both Men and Women with Mutation of the ABCD1 Gene for X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofereiter, Johann; Smith, Matthew D; Seth, Jai; Tudor, Katarina Ivana; Fox, Zoe; Emmanuel, Anton; Murphy, Elaine; Lachmann, Robin H; Panicker, Jalesh

    2015-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a disorder caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene. The commonest phenotype of X-ALD is adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN), which is characterised by involvement of the spinal cord and peripheral nerves. The aim of this study was to evaluate bladder and bowel symptoms in men with AMN and female X-ALD carriers. In this cross-sectional study, patients with confirmed mutation of the ABCD1 gene attending a tertiary care service were approached about bladder and bowel complaints and completed the Urinary Symptom Profile (USP), Qualiveen Short Form (SF-Qualiveen), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction (NBD) questionnaires. Neurological disability was assessed using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Forty-eight patients participated, 19 males (mean EDSS score (n = 16) 5.0 (95% CI ± 1.03)) and 29 females (mean EDSS score (n = 25) 3.2 (95% CI ± 0.98)). Overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms were reported in both males (100%, n = 19) and females (86.2%, n = 25). There was no significant gender difference in severity of OAB symptoms (P = 0.35) and impact on quality of life (P = 0.13). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in OAB severity when symptoms were compared between female carriers and a cohort of women (n = 17) with spinal cord damage due to multiple sclerosis (P = 0.27). Twenty-one percent (n = 4) of males and 10% (n = 3) of females had moderate to severe bowel dysfunction. Bladder and bowel complaints are common in both men with AMN and female carriers. They have a significant impact on the quality of life yet are under-reported and under-treated. Though having an X-linked pattern of inheritance, female carriers may experience overactive bladder symptoms which are as severe as in male patients and are likely to be neurological in origin.

  7. [Mutation analyses and prenatal diagnosis in two families of X linked severe combined immunodeficiency caused by IL2RG gene novel mutation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangdong; Liu, Ning; Xu, Xueju; Wu, Qinghua; Zhao, Zhenhua; Bai, Qiaoling; Meng, Jingjing

    2014-04-29

    To evaluate the diagnostic feasibility of mutation analysis and prenatal genetic diagnosis genetic analysis of IL2RG gene in two families with a birth history of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID). Blood samples of a male infant patient of X-SCID and his mother in family 1 and the parents of another deceased child with X-SCID in family 2 from January 2012 to February 2013 were collected.Eight exons comprising IL2RG open reading frame and their exon/intron boundaries were analyzed by bi-directional direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products. Prenatal genetic diagnoses were performed by chorionic villus sampling after the genotypes of maternal probands were identified in family 1. Two mutations of IL2RG gene were identified in these two families. The c.361-363delGAG (p.E121del) mutation was identified in family 1. The c.510-511insGAACT (p.W173X) mutation appeared in family 2. The two mutations of c.361-363delGAG (p.E121del) and c.510-511insGAACT (p.W173X) were novel. The two novel mutations were absent in 100 normal controls. The pregnancy in family 1 continued and the infant showed no symptom of X-SCID at 1 year after birth. The aunt (II-3) of proband in family 1 was not a carrier. The female fetus in family 1 had no mutation. Two novel mutations of c.361-363delGAG (p.E121del) and c.510-511insGAACT (p.W173X) in IL2RG gene may be a major cause of disease in two families with X-SCID. And direct sequencing of IL2RG gene provides genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis and carrier screening for families with X-SCID.

  8. Rapid evolution and copy number variation of primate RHOXF2, an X-linked homeobox gene involved in male reproduction and possibly brain function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Rui

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homeobox genes are the key regulators during development, and they are in general highly conserved with only a few reported cases of rapid evolution. RHOXF2 is an X-linked homeobox gene in primates. It is highly expressed in the testicle and may play an important role in spermatogenesis. As male reproductive system is often the target of natural and/or sexual selection during evolution, in this study, we aim to dissect the pattern of molecular evolution of RHOXF2 in primates and its potential functional consequence. Results We studied sequences and copy number variation of RHOXF2 in humans and 16 nonhuman primate species as well as the expression patterns in human, chimpanzee, white-browed gibbon and rhesus macaque. The gene copy number analysis showed that there had been parallel gene duplications/losses in multiple primate lineages. Our evidence suggests that 11 nonhuman primate species have one RHOXF2 copy, and two copies are present in humans and four Old World monkey species, and at least 6 copies in chimpanzees. Further analysis indicated that the gene duplications in primates had likely been mediated by endogenous retrovirus (ERV sequences flanking the gene regions. In striking contrast to non-human primates, humans appear to have homogenized their two RHOXF2 copies by the ERV-mediated non-allelic recombination mechanism. Coding sequence and phylogenetic analysis suggested multi-lineage strong positive selection on RHOXF2 during primate evolution, especially during the origins of humans and chimpanzees. All the 8 coding region polymorphic sites in human populations are non-synonymous, implying on-going selection. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that besides the preferential expression in the reproductive system, RHOXF2 is also expressed in the brain. The quantitative data suggests expression pattern divergence among primate species. Conclusions RHOXF2 is a fast-evolving homeobox gene in primates. The rapid

  9. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: pathogenesis and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, Marc; Kemp, Stephan; Poll-The, Bwee-Tien

    2014-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a puzzling inborn error of metabolism with a strikingly heterogeneous clinical spectrum. All patients have mutations in the ABCD1 gene and accumulate very long chain fatty acids in all tissues. Virtually all male X-ALD patients develop adrenocortical

  10. Epilepsy in adult X-linked adrenoleucodystrophy due to the deletion c.1415-1416delAG in exon 5 of the ABCD1-gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstone, Eva; Voigtländer, Till; Baumhackl, Ulf; Finsterer, Josef

    2013-01-15

    Seizures in cerebral X-linked adrenoleucodystrophy (X-ALD) more frequently occur in the early-onset compared to the late-onset form. Here we describe an adult in whom X-ALD deteriorated after head trauma and who developed epilepsy with progression of X-ALD. In a 50 year-old Caucasian male, cerebral X-ALD was diagnosed upon progressive gait disturbance, intellectual decline, elevated very-long chain fatty acids in the serum or leucocytes, cerebral MRI, showing extensive, symmetric, homogenous demyelination in the parieto-occipital areas, the splenium corporis callosum, the thalamus, the crura cerebri, the brain stem, and the pedunculi cerebelli, and the deletion c.1415-1416delAG in the ABCD1-gene. After a head trauma the phenotype deteriorated to mutism, dysphagia, and severe spastic quadruparesis. At an age of 50 years the patient experienced his first, self-limiting, tonic-clonic seizure during an infection, which is why valproic acid was started. Recurrence of seizures after discharge required repeated adaptation of the valproic acid-dosage. Adult X-ALD may be associated with late-onset seizures, which respond favourably to valproic acid. Since any type of seizure episode in adult-onset cerebral X-ALD is usually followed by neurological decline, prophylactic treatment with antiepileptic drugs should be considered not only in early-onset but also in adult-onset epilepsy in X-ALD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Adult onset cerebral form of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy with dementia of frontal lobe type with new L160P mutation in ABCD1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutovský, Stanislav; Petrovic, Robert; Chandoga, Jan; Turcáni, Peter

    2007-12-15

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a genetically determined disorder that causes varying degrees of malfunction of the adrenal cortex and central nervous system and is characterized by abnormally high levels of very long chain fatty acid in tissues and body fluids. The gene ABCD1, responsible for X-ALD, has been mapped on chromosome Xq28. More than 500 different mutations have been reported but no correlation between genotype and phenotype has been found. To investigate the occurrence of known or new mutations in the ABCD1 gene in patients with clinically and biochemical proven adrenoleukodystrophy. A 37-year-old patient with history of one-year progression of personality and behavioral changes such as, fluctuation of apathy and euphoria, perseveration, bizarre affect, and general disengagement, preliminarily assessed as adrenoleukodystrophy has undergone a clinical, biochemical and genetic examination in order to confirm the diagnosis and discover a possible mutation. The clinical examination has shown signs of the severe prefrontal syndrome, and a neurological examination disclosed deliberation signs and a spastic quadruparesis predominantly on the lower extremities. MRIs showed confluent hyperintensive lesions in T2 and FLAIR images in both hemispheres with severe progression over 6 to 12 months. Clinical findings referred to adrenoleukodystrophy, consecutively performed genetic analyses showed missense mutation at the codon 479 (T>C) in exon 1 of ABCD 1 gene, predicting the substitution L160P in ALD protein. The same mutation has also been found in patient's mother. We examined a patient with progressive development of early onset frontal lobe type dementia and upper motor neuron signs in which neuroimaging methods and biochemical tests refer to adrenoleukodystrophy. Genetic tests revealed a new mutation at position L160P in ALD protein.

  12. Insights into the evolutionary history of the X-linked sex reversal mutation in mus minutoides: clues from sequence analyses of the Y-linked Sry gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyrunes, F; Perez, J; Paintsil, S N C; Fichet-Calvet, E; Britton-Davidian, J

    2013-01-01

    The African pygmy mouse, Mus minutoides, is one of the very few mammal species that deviates from the classical mammalian XX/XY sex chromosome system by presenting a high proportion of fully fertile sex-reversed females. Since the still unknown sex reversal mutation is X-linked (X*), they are designated as X*Y females. Until now, X*Y females had only been identified in Southern Africa, but data were lacking for the rest of the vast sub-Saharan distribution range of this species. In this study, the PCR genotyping of the Y-linked Sry gene on 72 females from Western Africa (Guinea, Ivory Coast and Ghana) uncovered 10 sex-reversed females distributed in the 3 countries. This expands our understanding of the geographical distribution and temporal origin (dated at 0.9 mya) of the sex reversal mutation. In addition, we sequenced and analyzed a fragment of the Sry gene (including the complete high-mobility group, i.e. HMG box, and the partial C-terminal region). The results demonstrate the presence of multiple polymorphic copies of the gene as reported in other rodent species and reveal, more unexpectedly, an extremely high proportion of amino acid replacement within the HMG box. In effect, the predicted HMG box protein sequence similarity between some populations of M. minutoides is as low as 94.9%, and at the interspecific level (within genus), it drops to only 91.1% between M. minutoides and M. musculus. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Construction of a YAC contig and STS map spanning 2.5 Mbp in Xq25, the critical region for the X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanyi, A.; Li, B.F.; Li, S. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is characterized by a marked vulnerability in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Infection of XLP patients with EBV invariably results in fatal mononucleosis, agammaglobulinemia or B-cell lymphoma. The XLP gene lies within a 10 cM region in Xq25 between DXS42 and DXS10. Initial chromosome studies revealed an interstitial, cytogenetically visible deletion in Xq25 in one XLP family (43-004). We estimated the size of the Xq25 deletion by dual laser flow karyotyping to involve 2% of the X chromosome, or approximately 3 Mbp of DNA sequences. To further delineate the deletion we performed a series of pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analyses which showed that DXS6 and DXS100, two Xq25-specific markers, are missing from 45-004 DNA. Five yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) from a chromosome X specific YAC library containing sequences deleted in patient`s 43-004 DNA were isolated. These five YACs did not overlap, and their end fragments were used to screen the CEPH MegaYAC library. Seven YACs were isolated from the CEPH MegaYAC library. They could be arranged into a contig which spans between DXS6 and DXS100. The contig contains a minimum of 2.5 Mbp of human DNA. A total of 12 YAC end clone, lambda subclones and STS probes have been used to order clones within the contig. These reagents were also used in Southern blot and patients showed interstitial deletions in Xq25. The size of these deletions range between 0.5 and 2.5 Mbp. The shortest deletion probably represents the critical region for the XLP gene.

  14. Mutations in the small GTPase gene RAB39B are responsible for X-linked mental retardation associated with autism, epilepsy, and macrocephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannandrea, Maila; Bianchi, Veronica; Mignogna, Maria Lidia; Sirri, Alessandra; Carrabino, Salvatore; D'Elia, Errico; Vecellio, Matteo; Russo, Silvia; Cogliati, Francesca; Larizza, Lidia; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Tzschach, Andreas; Kalscheuer, Vera; Oehl-Jaschkowitz, Barbara; Skinner, Cindy; Schwartz, Charles E; Gecz, Jozef; Van Esch, Hilde; Raynaud, Martine; Chelly, Jamel; de Brouwer, Arjan P M; Toniolo, Daniela; D'Adamo, Patrizia

    2010-02-12

    Human Mental Retardation (MR) is a common and highly heterogeneous pediatric disorder affecting around 3% of the general population; at least 215 X-linked MR (XLMR) conditions have been described, and mutations have been identified in 83 different genes, encoding proteins with a variety of function, such as chromatin remodeling, synaptic function, and intracellular trafficking. The small GTPases of the RAB family, which play an essential role in intracellular vesicular trafficking, have been shown to be involved in MR. We report here the identification of mutations in the small GTPase RAB39B gene in two male patients. One mutation in family X (D-23) introduced a stop codon seven amino acids after the start codon (c.21C > A; p.Y7X). A second mutation, in the MRX72 family, altered the 5' splice site (c.215+1G > A) and normal splicing. Neither instance produced a protein. Mutations segregate with the disease in the families, and in some family members intellectual disabilities were associated with autism spectrum disorder, epileptic seizures, and macrocephaly. We show that RAB39B, a novel RAB GTPase of unknown function, is a neuronal-specific protein that is localized to the Golgi compartment. Its downregulation leads to an alteration in the number and morphology of neurite growth cones and a significant reduction in presynaptic buttons, suggesting that RAB39B is required for synapse formation and maintenance. Our results demonstrate developmental and functional neuronal alteration as a consequence of downregulation of RAB39B and emphasize the critical role of vesicular trafficking in the development of neurons and human intellectual abilities. Copyright (c) 2010 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of novel SNPs of ABCD1, ABCD2, ABCD3, and ABCD4 genes in patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) based on comprehensive resequencing and association studies with ALD phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Takashi; Asheuer, Muriel; Takahashi, Yuji; Goto, Jun; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Shimozawa, Nobuyuki; Takano, Hiroki; Onodera, Osamu; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Aubourg, Patrick; Tsuji, Shoji

    2011-02-01

    Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is an X-linked disorder affecting primarily the white matter of the central nervous system occasionally accompanied by adrenal insufficiency. Despite the discovery of the causative gene, ABCD1, no clear genotype-phenotype correlations have been established. Association studies based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified by comprehensive resequencing of genes related to ABCD1 may reveal genes modifying ALD phenotypes. We analyzed 40 Japanese patients with ALD. ABCD1 and ABCD2 were analyzed using a newly developed microarray-based resequencing system. ABCD3 and ABCD4 were analyzed by direct nucleotide sequence analysis. Replication studies were conducted on an independent French ALD cohort with extreme phenotypes. All the mutations of ABCD1 were identified, and there was no correlation between the genotypes and phenotypes of ALD. SNPs identified by the comprehensive resequencing of ABCD2, ABCD3, and ABCD4 were used for association studies. There were no significant associations between these SNPs and ALD phenotypes, except for the five SNPs of ABCD4, which are in complete disequilibrium in the Japanese population. These five SNPs were significantly less frequently represented in patients with adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) than in controls in the Japanese population (p=0.0468), whereas there were no significant differences in patients with childhood cerebral ALD (CCALD). The replication study employing these five SNPs on an independent French ALD cohort, however, showed no significant associations with CCALD or pure AMN. This study showed that ABCD2, ABCD3, and ABCD4 are less likely the disease-modifying genes, necessitating further studies to identify genes modifying ALD phenotypes.

  16. Identification of novel SNPs of ABCD1, ABCD2, ABCD3, and ABCD4 genes in patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) based on comprehensive resequencing and association studies with ALD phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Takashi; Asheuer, Muriel; Takahashi, Yuji; Goto, Jun; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Shimozawa, Nobuyuki; Takano, Hiroki; Onodera, Osamu; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Aubourg, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is an X-linked disorder affecting primarily the white matter of the central nervous system occasionally accompanied by adrenal insufficiency. Despite the discovery of the causative gene, ABCD1, no clear genotype–phenotype correlations have been established. Association studies based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified by comprehensive resequencing of genes related to ABCD1 may reveal genes modifying ALD phenotypes. We analyzed 40 Japanese patients with ALD. ABCD1 and ABCD2 were analyzed using a newly developed microarray-based resequencing system. ABCD3 and ABCD4 were analyzed by direct nucleotide sequence analysis. Replication studies were conducted on an independent French ALD cohort with extreme phenotypes. All the mutations of ABCD1 were identified, and there was no correlation between the genotypes and phenotypes of ALD. SNPs identified by the comprehensive resequencing of ABCD2, ABCD3, and ABCD4 were used for association studies. There were no significant associations between these SNPs and ALD phenotypes, except for the five SNPs of ABCD4, which are in complete disequilibrium in the Japanese population. These five SNPs were significantly less frequently represented in patients with adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) than in controls in the Japanese population (p = 0.0468), whereas there were no significant differences in patients with childhood cerebral ALD (CCALD). The replication study employing these five SNPs on an independent French ALD cohort, however, showed no significant associations with CCALD or pure AMN. This study showed that ABCD2, ABCD3, and ABCD4 are less likely the disease-modifying genes, necessitating further studies to identify genes modifying ALD phenotypes. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10048-010-0253-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20661612

  17. ZNF674: A New Kruppel-Associated Box-Containing Zinc-Finger Gene Involved in Nonsyndromic X-Linked Mental Retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtenberg, D.; Yntema, H.G.; Banning, M.J.G.; Oudakker, A.R.; Firth, H.; Willatt, L.; Raynaud, M.; Kleefstra, T.; Fryns, J.P.; Ropers, H.H.; Chelly, J.; Moraine, C.; Gecz, J.; Reeuwijk, J. van; Nabuurs, S.B.; Vries, L.B.A. de; Hamel, B.C.J.; Brouwer, A.P.M. de; Bokhoven, J.H.L.M. van

    2006-01-01

    Array-based comparative genomic hybridization has proven to be successful in the identification of genetic defects in disorders involving mental retardation. Here, we studied a patient with learning disabilities, retinal dystrophy, and short stature. The family history was suggestive of an X-linked

  18. An unusual phenotype of X-linked developmental delay and extreme behavioral difficulties associated with a mutation in the EBP gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartill, Verity L.; Tysoe, Carolyn; Manning, Nigel; Dobbie, Angus; Santra, Saikat; Walter, John; Caswell, Richard; Koster, Janet; Waterham, Hans; Hobson, Emma

    2014-01-01

    We report on a family in which four males over three generations are affected with X-linked recessive developmental delay, learning difficulties, severe behavioral difficulties and mild dysmorphic features. Plasma sterol analysis in three of the four affected males demonstrated increased

  19. Localization of the X-linked ocular albinism gene (OA1) between DXS278/DXS237 and DXS143/DXS16 by linkage analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergen, A. A.; Samanns, C.; van Dorp, D. B.; Ferguson-Smith, M. A.; Gal, A.; Bleeker-Wagemakers, E. M.

    1990-01-01

    Linkage analysis was performed in six families segregating for X-linked ocular albinism of the Nettleship-Falls type using four polymorphic DNA markers from the distal Xp. Linkage was found between the disease locus (OA1) and the loci DXS237 (theta max = 0.06, Zmax = 2.82), DXS278 (theta max = 0.03,

  20. The gene for X-linked myotubular myopathy is located in an 8 Mb region at the border of Xq27.3 and Xq28

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E. A.; Hensels, G. W.; van Oost, B. A.; Hamel, B. C.; Kemp, S.; Baas, F.; Weber, J. W.; Barth, P. G.; Bolhuis, P. A.

    1994-01-01

    X-linked recessive myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) is a rare and severe neonatal neuromuscular disease characterized by muscle weakness, hypotonia, and respiratory problems. Here we report an extensive linkage analysis in two families with XLMTM. Using 18 markers in the Xq27-Xqter region we found a

  1. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked agammaglobulinemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions X-linked agammaglobulinemia X-linked agammaglobulinemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a condition that affects the immune ...

  2. Evaluation of retinoids for induction of the redundant gene ABCD2 as an alternative treatment option in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska D Weber

    Full Text Available X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD, the most common peroxisomal disorder, is a clinically heterogeneous disease that can manifest as devastating inflammatory cerebral demyelination (CALD leading to death of affected males. Currently, the only curative treatment is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. However, HSCT is only effective when performed at an early stage because the inflammation may progress for eighteen months after HSCT. Thus, alternative treatment options able to immediately halt the progression are urgently needed. X-ALD is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene, encoding the peroxisomal membrane protein ABCD1, resulting in impaired very long-chain fatty acid metabolism. The related ABCD2 protein is able to functionally compensate for ABCD1-deficiency both in vitro and in vivo. Recently, we demonstrated that of the cell types derived from CD34+ stem cells, predominantly monocytes but not lymphocytes are metabolically impaired in X-ALD. As ABCD2 is virtually not expressed in these cells, we hypothesize that a pharmacological up-regulation of ABCD2 should compensate metabolically and halt the inflammation in CALD. Retinoids are anti-inflammatory compounds known to act on ABCD2. Here, we investigated the capacity of selected retinoids for ABCD2 induction in human monocytes/macrophages. In THP-1 cells, 13-cis-retinoic acid reached the highest, fivefold, increase in ABCD2 expression. To test the efficacy of retinoids in vivo, we analyzed ABCD2 mRNA levels in blood cells isolated from acne patients receiving 13-cis-retinoic acid therapy. In treated acne patients, ABCD2 mRNA levels were comparable to pre-treatment levels in monocytes and lymphocytes. Nevertheless, when primary monocytes were in vitro differentiated into macrophages and treated with 13-cis-retinoic acid, we observed a fourfold induction of ABCD2. However, the level of ABCD2 induction obtained by retinoids alone is probably not of therapeutic relevance

  3. Evaluation of retinoids for induction of the redundant gene ABCD2 as an alternative treatment option in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Franziska D; Weinhofer, Isabelle; Einwich, Angelika; Forss-Petter, Sonja; Muneer, Zahid; Maier, Harald; Weber, Willi H A; Berger, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), the most common peroxisomal disorder, is a clinically heterogeneous disease that can manifest as devastating inflammatory cerebral demyelination (CALD) leading to death of affected males. Currently, the only curative treatment is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, HSCT is only effective when performed at an early stage because the inflammation may progress for eighteen months after HSCT. Thus, alternative treatment options able to immediately halt the progression are urgently needed. X-ALD is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene, encoding the peroxisomal membrane protein ABCD1, resulting in impaired very long-chain fatty acid metabolism. The related ABCD2 protein is able to functionally compensate for ABCD1-deficiency both in vitro and in vivo. Recently, we demonstrated that of the cell types derived from CD34+ stem cells, predominantly monocytes but not lymphocytes are metabolically impaired in X-ALD. As ABCD2 is virtually not expressed in these cells, we hypothesize that a pharmacological up-regulation of ABCD2 should compensate metabolically and halt the inflammation in CALD. Retinoids are anti-inflammatory compounds known to act on ABCD2. Here, we investigated the capacity of selected retinoids for ABCD2 induction in human monocytes/macrophages. In THP-1 cells, 13-cis-retinoic acid reached the highest, fivefold, increase in ABCD2 expression. To test the efficacy of retinoids in vivo, we analyzed ABCD2 mRNA levels in blood cells isolated from acne patients receiving 13-cis-retinoic acid therapy. In treated acne patients, ABCD2 mRNA levels were comparable to pre-treatment levels in monocytes and lymphocytes. Nevertheless, when primary monocytes were in vitro differentiated into macrophages and treated with 13-cis-retinoic acid, we observed a fourfold induction of ABCD2. However, the level of ABCD2 induction obtained by retinoids alone is probably not of therapeutic relevance for X-ALD. In

  4. Transient, recurrent, white matter lesions in x-linked Charcot-Marie-tooth disease with novel mutation of gap junction protein beta 1 gene in China: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuan; Xie, Yanchen; Zhu, Xiaoquan; Wang, Huigang; Li, Yao; Li, Jimei

    2014-08-03

    Transient white matter lesions have been rarely reported in X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1. We describe a 15-year-old boy who presented transient and recurrent weakness of the limbs for 5 days. His mother, his mother's mother and his mother's sister presented pes cavus. MRI and electrophysiology were performed in the proband. Gap junction protein beta l gene was analyzed by PCR-sequencing in the proband and his parents. The electrophysiological studies showed a mixed demyelinating and axonal sensorimotor neuropathy. MRI showed white matter lesions in the internal capsule, corpus callosum and periventricular areas, which showed almost complete resolution after two months. T278G mutation in Gap junction protein beta l gene was detected in the proband and his mother. This case report highlights that the novel T278G mutation of Gap junction protein beta l maybe could result in X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1 with predominant leucoencephalopathy. The white matter changes in MRI of X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1 patient are reversible.

  5. Contiguous Deletion of the X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy Gene (ABCD1) and DXS1357E: A Novel Neonatal Phenotype Similar to Peroxisomal Biogenesis Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Corzo, Deyanira; Gibson, William; Johnson, Kisha; Mitchell, Grant; LePage, Guy; Cox, Gerald F.; Casey, Robin; Zeiss, Carolyn; Tyson, Heidi; Cutting, Garry R.; Raymond, Gerald V.; Smith, Kirby D.; Watkins, Paul A.; Moser, Ann B.; Moser, Hugo W.

    2002-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) results from mutations in ABCD1. ABCD1 resides on Xq28 and encodes an integral peroxisomal membrane protein (ALD protein [ALDP]) that is of unknown function and that belongs to the ATP-binding cassette–transporter superfamily. Individuals with ABCD1 mutations accumulate very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) (carbon length >22). Childhood cerebral X-ALD is the most devastating form of the disease. These children have the earliest onset (age 7.2 ± 1.7 years) ...

  6. Eight novel ABCD1 gene mutations and three polymorphisms in patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: The first polymorphism causing an amino acid exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoráková, L; Storkánová, G; Unterrainer, G; Hujová, J; Kmoch, S; Zeman, J; Hrebícek, M; Berger, J

    2001-01-01

    X-ALD is a neurological disorder associated with inherited defects in the ABCD1 (ALD) gene located on Xq28 and with impaired peroxisomal very long-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation. We examined the ABCD1 gene in probands from 11 unrelated X-ALD Czech and Slovak families by the direct sequencing of cDNA or genomic PCR products. In 10 families there were 10 different mutations, eight of which were novel. The spectrum of mutations consists of six point mutations, three microdeletions (1bp, 2bp, 4 bp), and one large deletion (229bp). In the 11th family we detected two novel single-base pair substitutions in exon 1 (c.38 A>C and c.649 A>G), both causing amino acid exchanges (N13T and K217E). Expression studies revealed that only K217E is a deleterious mutation, because a plasmid encoding ALDP with K217E was ineffective in the restoration of defective beta-oxidation in X-ALD fibroblasts. The N13T amino acid exchange, on the other hand, did not affect ALDP function. Thus, N13T represents the first polymorphism causing an amino acid exchange in the ABCD1 gene. As this polymorphism was observed neither in 100 control alleles nor in 300 X-ALD patients who have been sequenced so far world-wide, it seems to be very rare or unique. Two additional novel polymorphisms were found by the sequencing of the ABCD1 gene from our patients: c.-59 C/T in the 5'untranslated region and c.2019 C/T (F673F) in exon 10. The frequencies of these two polymorphisms, were 11/150 and 2/150 control alleles, respectively. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for X-linked disease by maternal plasma sequencing in a family of Hemophilia B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Hu

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: This study is the first report of a haplotype-based approach in NIPD of Hemophilia B. With further evaluation, this method might be useful for NIPD of Hemophilia B and for other X-linked single-gene disorders.

  8. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: pathogenesis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, Marc; Kemp, Stephan; Poll-The, Bwee-Tien

    2014-10-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a puzzling inborn error of metabolism with a strikingly heterogeneous clinical spectrum. All patients have mutations in the ABCD1 gene and accumulate very long chain fatty acids in all tissues. Virtually all male X-ALD patients develop adrenocortical insufficiency in childhood and progressive myelopathy and peripheral neuropathy in adulthood. A subset of male patients, however, develops a fatal cerebral demyelinating disease, cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy. Female patients also develop progressive myelopathy and peripheral neuropathy, but generally at a later age than males. They only very rarely develop adrenocortical insufficiency or cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy. This review proposes to simplify the classification of the clinical spectrum of X-ALD and reviews the largely unresolved pathophysiological mechanisms and the current treatment options.

  9. X-linked cardiomyopathy is heterogeneous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.J.; Sillence, D.O.; Mulley, J.C. [and others

    1994-09-01

    Two major loci of X-linked cardiomyopathy have been mapped by linkage analysis. The gene for X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy (XLCM) is mapped to the dystrophin locus at Xp21, while Barth syndrome has been localised to distal Xq28. XLCM usually presents in juvenile males with no skeletal disease but decreased dystrophin in cardiac muscle. Barth syndrome most often presents in infants and is characterized by skeletal myopathy, short stature and neutropenia in association with cardiomyopathy of variable severity. Prior to carrier or prenatal diagnosis in a family, delineation of the cardiomyopathy locus involved is essential. We report the linkage mapping of a large kindred in which several male infants have died with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. There is a family history of unexplained death of infant males less than 6 months old over 4 generations. Features of Barth syndrome such as short stature, skeletal myopathy and neutropenia have not been observed. Genotyping at 10 marker loci in Xq28 has revealed significant pairwise lod scores with the cardiomyopathy phenotype at DXS52 (Z=2.21 at {theta}=0.0), at markers p26 and p39 near DXS15 (Z=2.30 at {theta}=0.0) and at F8C (Z=2.24 at {theta}=0.0). A recombinant detected with DXS296 defines the proximal limit to the localization. No recombinants were detected at any of the loci distal to DXS296. The most distal marker in Xq28, DXS1108, is within 500 kb of the telomere. As the gene in this family is localized to Xq28, it is possible that this disorder is an allelic variant at the Barth syndrome locus.

  10. Skin Barrier Function Is Not Impaired and Kallikrein 7 Gene Polymorphism Is Frequently Observed in Korean X-linked Ichthyosis Patients Diagnosed by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization and Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Noo Ri; Yoon, Na Young; Jung, Minyoung; Kim, Ji-Yun; Seo, Seong Jun; Wang, Hye-Young; Lee, Hyeyoung; Sohn, Young Bae; Choi, Eung Ho

    2016-08-01

    X-linked ichthyosis (XLI) is a recessively inherited ichthyosis. Skin barrier function of XLI patients reported in Western countries presented minimally abnormal or normal. Here, we evaluated the skin barrier properties and a skin barrier-related gene mutation in 16 Korean XLI patients who were diagnosed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and array comparative genomic hybridization analysis. Skin barrier properties were measured, cytokine expression levels in the stratum corneum (SC) were evaluated with the tape stripped specimen from skin surface, and a genetic test was done on blood. XLI patients showed significantly lower SC hydration, but normal basal trans-epidermal water loss and skin surface pH as compared to a healthy control group. Histopathology of ichthyosis epidermis showed no acanthosis, and levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines in the corneal layer did not differ between control and lesional/non-lesional skin of XLI patients. Among the mutations in filaggrin (FLG), kallikrein 7 (KLK7), and SPINK5 genes, the prevalence of KLK7 gene mutations was significantly higher in XLI patients (50%) than in controls (0%), whereas FLG and SPINK5 prevalence was comparable. Korean XLI patients exhibited unimpaired skin barrier function and frequent association with the KLK7 gene polymorphism, which may differentiate them from Western XLI patients.

  11. Multiple colorectal neoplasms in X-linked agammaglobulinemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brosens, Lodewijk A. A.; Tytgat, Kristien M. A. J.; Morsink, Folkert H. M.; Sinke, Richard J.; ten Berge, Ineke J. M.; Giardiello, Francis M.; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.; Keller, Josbert J.

    2008-01-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a primary immunodeficiency disorder caused by germline mutation of the Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene. It is characterized by disturbed B-cell development, decreased immunoglobulin levels, and increased patient susceptibility to infection. An increased risk of

  12. Multiple colorectal neoplasms in X-linked agammaglobulinemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brosens, Lodewijk A. A.; Tytgat, Kristien M. A. J.; Viorsink, Folkert H. M.; Sinke, Richard J.; Ten Berge, Ineke J. N.; Giardiello, Francis M.; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.; Keller, Josbert J.

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a primary immunodeficiency disorder caused by germline mutation of the Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene. It is characterized by disturbed B-cell development, decreased immunoglobulin levels, and increased patient susceptibility to infection. An increased risk of

  13. A novel deletion mutation in IL2RG gene results in X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency with an atypical phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Wenjun; He, Jianxin; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Hui; Ren, Xiaoya; Wu, Xunyao; Ni, Xin; Xu, Baoping; Gui, Jingang

    2017-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is the most serious disorder among primary immunodeficiency diseases threatening children's life. Atypical SCID variant, presenting with mild reduced T cells subsets, is often associated with infection susceptibility but poor clinical diagnosis. The atypical X-SCID patient in the present study showed a mild clinical presentation with a T low NK + B + immunophenotype. The patient has reduced T- cell subpopulations with a subdued thymic output measured by sjTRECs. Further analysis showed that T cells maintained a normal proliferation and a broad Vβ repertoire. NK cells, however, exhibited a skewed development toward immature CD3 - CD16 + CD56 - cells. Genetic analysis revealed a novel deletion at nucleotide 52 in exon 1 of IL2RG gene. Sequence alignment predicted a truncated IL2RG protein missing signal peptide derived from a possible alternative reading frame. The novel mutation in IL2RG gene identified in our study may help the early diagnosis of atypical X-SCID.

  14. Mapping the x-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skare, J.C.; Milunsky, A.; Byron, K.S.; Sullivan, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome is triggered by Epstein-Barr virus infection and results in fatal mononucleosis, immunodeficiency, and lymphoproliferative disorders. This study shows that the mutation responsible for X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome is genetically linked to a restriction fragment length polymorphism detected with the DXS42 probe (from Xq24-q27). The most likely recombination frequency between the loci is 4%, and the associated logarithm of the odds is 5.26. Haplotype analysis using flanking restriction fragment length polymorphism markers indicates that the locus for X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome is distal to probe DXS42 but proximal to probe DXS99 (from Xq26-q27). It is now possible to predict which members of a family with X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome are carrier females and to diagnose the syndrome prenatally

  15. X-linked Alport syndrome associated with a synonymous p.Gly292Gly mutation alters the splicing donor site of the type IV collagen alpha chain 5 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xue Jun; Nozu, Kandai; Eguchi, Aya; Nozu, Yoshimi; Morisada, Naoya; Shono, Akemi; Taniguchi-Ikeda, Mariko; Shima, Yuko; Nakanishi, Koichi; Vorechovsky, Igor; Iijima, Kazumoto

    2016-10-01

    X-linked Alport syndrome (XLAS) is a progressive hereditary nephropathy caused by mutations in the type IV collagen alpha chain 5 gene (COL4A5). Although many COL4A5 mutations have previously been identified, pathogenic synonymous mutations have not yet been described. A family with XLAS underwent mutational analyses of COL4A5 by PCR and direct sequencing, as well as transcript analysis of potential splice site mutations. In silico analysis was also conducted to predict the disruption of splicing factor binding sites. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of kidney biopsies was used to detect α2 and α5 chain expression. We identified a hemizygous point mutation, c.876A>T, in exon 15 of COL4A5 in the proband and his brother, which is predicted to result in a synonymous amino acid change, p.(Gly292Gly). Transcript analysis showed that this mutation potentially altered splicing because it disrupted the splicing factor binding site. The kidney biopsy of the proband showed lamellation of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), while IHC revealed negative α5(IV) staining in the GBM and Bowman's capsule, which is typical of XLAS. This is the first report of a synonymous COL4A5 substitution being responsible for XLAS. Our findings suggest that transcript analysis should be conducted for the future correct assessment of silent mutations.

  16. Pathophysiology of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, J; Forss-Petter, S; Eichler, F S

    2014-03-01

    Currently the molecular basis for the clinical heterogeneity of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is poorly understood. The genetic bases for all different phenotypic variants of X-ALD are mutations in the gene encoding the peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, ABCD1 (formerly adrenoleukodystrophy protein, ALDP). ABCD1 transports CoA-activated very long-chain fatty acids from the cytosol into the peroxisome for degradation. The phenotypic variability is remarkable ranging from cerebral inflammatory demyelination of childhood onset, leading to death within a few years, to adults remaining pre-symptomatic through more than five decades. There is no general genotype-phenotype correlation in X-ALD. The default manifestation of mutations in ABCD1 is adrenomyeloneuropathy, a slowly progressive dying-back axonopathy affecting both ascending and descending spinal cord tracts as well as in some cases, a peripheral neuropathy. In about 60% of male X-ALD patients, either in childhood (35-40%) or in adulthood (20%), an initial, clinically silent, myelin destabilization results in conversion to a devastating, rapidly progressive form of cerebral inflammatory demyelination. Here, ABCD1 remains a susceptibility gene, necessary but not sufficient for inflammatory demyelination to occur. Although the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids appears to be essential for the pathomechanism of all phenotypes, the molecular mechanisms underlying these phenotypes are fundamentally different. Cell autonomous processes such as oxidative stress and energy shortage in axons as well as non-cell autonomous processes involving axon-glial interactions seem pertinent to the dying-back axonopathy. Various dynamic mechanisms may underlie the initiation of inflammation, the altered immune reactivity, the propagation of inflammation, as well as the mechanisms leading to the arrest of inflammation after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. An improved understanding of the

  17. Pathophysiology of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, J.; Forss-Petter, S.; Eichler, F.S.

    2014-01-01

    Currently the molecular basis for the clinical heterogeneity of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is poorly understood. The genetic bases for all different phenotypic variants of X-ALD are mutations in the gene encoding the peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, ABCD1 (formerly adrenoleukodystrophy protein, ALDP). ABCD1 transports CoA-activated very long-chain fatty acids from the cytosol into the peroxisome for degradation. The phenotypic variability is remarkable ranging from cerebral inflammatory demyelination of childhood onset, leading to death within a few years, to adults remaining pre-symptomatic through more than five decades. There is no general genotype–phenotype correlation in X-ALD. The default manifestation of mutations in ABCD1 is adrenomyeloneuropathy, a slowly progressive dying-back axonopathy affecting both ascending and descending spinal cord tracts as well as in some cases, a peripheral neuropathy. In about 60% of male X-ALD patients, either in childhood (35–40%) or in adulthood (20%), an initial, clinically silent, myelin destabilization results in conversion to a devastating, rapidly progressive form of cerebral inflammatory demyelination. Here, ABCD1 remains a susceptibility gene, necessary but not sufficient for inflammatory demyelination to occur. Although the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids appears to be essential for the pathomechanism of all phenotypes, the molecular mechanisms underlying these phenotypes are fundamentally different. Cell autonomous processes such as oxidative stress and energy shortage in axons as well as non-cell autonomous processes involving axon–glial interactions seem pertinent to the dying-back axonopathy. Various dynamic mechanisms may underlie the initiation of inflammation, the altered immune reactivity, the propagation of inflammation, as well as the mechanisms leading to the arrest of inflammation after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. An improved understanding of

  18. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked intellectual disability, Siderius type

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... X-linked intellectual disability, Siderius type X-linked intellectual disability, Siderius type Printable PDF Open All Close All ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description X-linked intellectual disability, Siderius type is a condition characterized by mild ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked sideroblastic anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions X-linked sideroblastic anemia X-linked sideroblastic anemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... the expand/collapse boxes. Description X-linked sideroblastic anemia is an inherited disorder that prevents developing red ...

  20. Bezafibrate for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Engelen

    Full Text Available X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene and is characterized by impaired beta-oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA and subsequent VLCFA accumulation in tissues. In adulthood X-ALD most commonly manifests as a gradually progressive myelopathy, (adrenomyeloneuropathy; AMN without any curative or disease modifying treatments. We recently showed that bezafibrate (BF, a drug used for the treatment of hyperlipidaemia, reduces VLCFA accumulation in X-ALD fibroblasts by inhibiting ELOVL1, an enzyme involved in the VLCFA synthesis. We therefore designed a proof-of-principal clinical trial to determine whether BF reduces VLCFA levels in plasma and lymphocytes of X-ALD patients. Ten males with AMN were treated with BF for 12 weeks at a dose of 400 mg daily, followed by 12 weeks of 800 mg daily. Every 4 weeks patients were evaluated for side effects and blood samples were taken for analysis. Adherence was good as indicated by a clear reduction in triglycerides. There was no reduction in VLCFA in either plasma or lymphocytes. Plasma levels of BF did not exceed 25 µmol/L. We concluded that BF, at least in the dose given, is unable to lower VLCFA levels in plasma or lymphocytes in X-ALD patients. It is unclear whether this is due to the low levels of BF reached in plasma. Our future work is aimed at the identification of highly-specific inhibitors of ELOVL1 that act at much lower concentrations than BF and are well tolerated. BF appears to have no therapeutic utility in X-ALD.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01165060.

  1. Preclinical Dose-Escalation Study of Intravitreal AAV-RS1 Gene Therapy in a Mouse Model of X-linked Retinoschisis: Dose-Dependent Expression and Improved Retinal Structure and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Ronald A; Zeng, Yong; Colosi, Peter; Kjellstrom, Sten; Hiriyanna, Suja; Vijayasarathy, Camasamudram; Santos, Maria; Li, Jinbo; Wu, Zhijian; Sieving, Paul A

    2016-05-01

    Gene therapy for inherited retinal diseases has been shown to ameliorate functional and structural defects in both animal models and in human clinical trials. X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) is an early-age onset macular dystrophy resulting from loss of an extracellular matrix protein (RS1). In preparation for a human clinical gene therapy trial, we conducted a dose-range efficacy study of the clinical vector, a self-complementary AAV delivering a human retinoschisin (RS1) gene under control of the RS1 promoter and an interphotoreceptor binding protein enhancer (AAV8-scRS/IRBPhRS), in the retinoschisin knockout (Rs1-KO) mouse. The therapeutic vector at 1 × 10(6) to 2.5 × 10(9) (1E6-2.5E9) vector genomes (vg)/eye or vehicle was administered to one eye of 229 male Rs1-KO mice by intravitreal injection at 22 ± 3 days postnatal age (PN). Analysis of retinal function (dark-adapted electroretinogram, ERG), structure (cavities and outer nuclear layer thickness) by in vivo retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography, and retinal immunohistochemistry (IHC) for RS1 was done 3-4 months and/or 6-9 months postinjection (PI). RS1 IHC staining was dose dependent across doses ≥1E7 vg/eye, and the threshold for significant improvement in all measures of retinal structure and function was 1E8 vg/eye. Higher doses, however, did not produce additional improvement. At all doses showing efficacy, RS1 staining in Rs1-KO mouse was less than that in wild-type mice. Improvement in the ERG and RS1 staining was unchanged or greater at 6-9 months than at 3-4 months PI. This study demonstrates that vitreal administration of AAV8 scRS/IRBPhRS produces significant improvement in retinal structure and function in the mouse model of XLRS over a vector dose range that can be extended to a human trial. It indicates that a fully normal level of RS1 expression is not necessary for a therapeutic effect.

  2. Prognosis of X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural history of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD was determined by questionnaire survey in a nation-wide retrospective study of 145 patients at Gifu University School of Medicine, and the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, Japan.

  3. X-Linked and Autosomal Recessive Alport Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savige, Judith; Storey, Helen; Il Cheong, Hae

    2016-01-01

    Alport syndrome results from mutations in the COL4A5 (X-linked) or COL4A3/COL4A4 (recessive) genes. This study examined 754 previously- unpublished variants in these genes from individuals referred for genetic testing in 12 accredited diagnostic laboratories worldwide, in addition to all published...... COL4A5, COL4A3 and COL4A4 variants in the LOVD databases. It also determined genotype-phenotype correlations for variants where clinical data were available. Individuals were referred for genetic testing where Alport syndrome was suspected clinically or on biopsy (renal failure, hearing loss...

  4. Molecular genetic analysis of X-linked hypogammaglobulinemia and isolated growth hormone deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, D.M.; Kurman, C.C.; Staudt, L.M. [Univ. of Brescia (Italy)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    In 1980 the clinical syndrome of X-linked hypogammaglobulinemia and isolated growth hormone deficiency (XLA/GHD) was described. XLA/GHD patients have reduced serum levels of Ig and normal cell-mediated immunity, and thus resemble patients with Bruton`s X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). However, XLA/GHD patients also have isolated GHD. Mutations and deletions in the Bruton`s tyrosine kinase gene (BTK) are responsible for Bruton`s XLA. We investigated BTK gene expression in an XLA/GHD patient from the family originally described by Northern analysis, cDNA sequencing, and Western analysis of protein production using mAb to BTK. BTK mRNA was normal in size and abundance, and the mRNA sequence was normal over the coding region, except for a single silent mutation. BTK protein was present in normal amounts in PBMC of this patient. Thus, at the molecular level, XLA/GHD is a different disease entity from Bruton`s XLA. These results suggest that undescribed genes critical for B cell development and growth hormone production exist on the X chromosome. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  5. [Disseminated BCG infection revealing X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, I; Mahé, E; Clérici, T; Saiag, P; Chevallier, B

    2008-01-01

    Live attenuated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is rarely responsible for disseminated infection. We report a case of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) revealed by a disseminated skin infection. A 4-month-old baby was hospitalized for prolonged gastroenteritis. He was in poor general condition, with prolonged fever, oral and gluteal candidiasis and purple nodules associated with ulceration of the BCG scar. The absence of a thymus, T-cells and NK-cells, and the presence of nonfunctional B-lymphocytes led to a diagnosis of SCID. Biopsies of nodules revealed a dermal infiltrate without necrosis. A Ziehl-Neelson stain was highly positive and the culture grew Mycobacterium bovis. Treatment consisted of a four-drug antibiotic regimen directed against M. bovis combined with gamma interferon, immunoglobulins and antibiotic prophylaxis by cotrimoxazole and was followed by a haploid-identical bone marrow transplant without rejection at six months. The early death of the child's maternal uncle from sepsis suggested X-linked transmission, which was subsequently confirmed by genetic analysis. BCG vaccination can cause serious infections in immunocompromised subjects. Skin involvement is extremely rare but may be the first sign of SCID, of which the X-linked form is the most common and corresponds to a variety of mutations in the gene coding for the gamma chain common to several interleukin receptors. Genetic counselling is essential to identify female carriers and allow early antenatal diagnosis. Bone marrow transplantation is the only treatment.

  6. Arthritis and X-linked agammaglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Pedro; Santos, Alexandra; Faria, Emília; Silva, Jorge; Malcata, Armando; Chieira, Celso

    2008-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies are defined as genetically determined functional and/or quantitative abnormalities in one or more of the components of the immune system. Immunodeficiency and arthritis can be related, although the mechanisms are not always clear. Different causes for immunodeficiency can secondarily be found in patients with arthritis; on the other hand, arthritis can be a manifestation of primary immunodeficiency. Arthritis occurs chiefly in humoral primary immunodeficiencies, namely in X-linked agammaglobulinemia and common variable immunodeficiency, and may be one of the warning signs for primary immunodeficiency. We report a case of arthritis as the presenting feature of X-linked agammaglobulinemia. In X-linked agammaglobulinemia, arthritis may be a consequence of infection, most notably by Mycoplasma, or of immune dysfunction itself. In children, and occasionally in young adults, a combination of arthritis and hypogammaglobulinemia should suggest primary immunodeficiency, although other causes of hypogammaglobulinemia must be excluded. Physicians evaluating patients with arthritis should be aware of this fact so that an early diagnosis can be pursued as it is of extreme importance in the optimal management and prognosis of these patients.

  7. X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy, The Tunisian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrallah, Fahmi; Kraoua, Ichraf; Zidi, Wiem; Omar, Souheil; Sanhaji, Haifa; Feki, Moncef; Ben Youssef, Ilhem Turki; Kaabachi, Naziha

    2015-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a genetic disease affecting the degradation of very long chain fatty acids. This study aims to describe the clinical phenotype and biochemical feature of Tunisian patients; it also seeks to describe recognition of pattern analysis on the level of very long chain fatty acids in plasma for the visual discrimination of X-linked patients from a healthy group. During the last 21 years, 19 patients were diagnosed with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy based on the clinical features combined with the area percentage of hexacosanoic acid (C26:0) as well as the ratio of C26:0 and lignoceric acid (C24:0) relative to behenic acid (C22:0) by gas chromatography. For the biochemical diagnosis of X-ALD with better accuracy, it has been desired to transform the numerical values of these biochemical markers into visually discriminating patterns. The clinical features of 19 patients aged between 4 to 47 years were classified into cerebral form (57.8%), adrenomyeloneuropathic (26.3%), and a few patients were asymptomatic. The ratio C24:0/C22:0 ranged from 1.12 to 2.41 (normal value: 0.46 - 0.9) and C26:0/C22:0 ratio ranged from 0.03 to 0.36 (normal value: 0.003 - 0.009). The concentration of fatty acids with 22 or more carbons in body fluid did not change with age in control subjects and patients. For the visual diagnostic of patients, the Scatter plot was a reliable method for the diagnostic patterns of very long chain fatty acids of patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy disorders. The incidence of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy disorders is under diagnosed in Tunisia. The diagnosis was confirmed by enzymatic activity study and molecular analysis but the analysis of very long chain fatty acids by gas chromatography remains a reliable tool for the diagnosis and early initiation of the treatment.

  8. A Novel Double Mutation in the ABCD1 Gene in a Patient with X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy: Analysis of the Stability and Function of the Mutant ABCD1 Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Morita, Masashi; Kobayashi, Junpei; Yamazaki, Kozue; Kawaguchi, Kosuke; Honda, Ayako; Sugai, Kenji; Shimozawa, Nobuyuki; Koide, Reiji; Imanaka, Tsuneo

    2013-01-01

    We diagnosed an adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) patient with a double novel missense mutation, c.284C>A (p.A95D) and c.290A>T (p.H97L) in a single ABCD1 allele. In skin fibroblasts from the patient, no ABCD1 protein was detected by immunoblot analysis, and the C24:0 β-oxidation activity was decreased to a level at which the ABCD1 protein was absent. To determine the responsible gene mutation in the patient, we constructed three kinds of mutated ABCD1 gene expression vectors (c.284C>A, c.290A>T or...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia Printable PDF Open All Close All ... the expand/collapse boxes. Description X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia is a rare condition characterized by ...

  10. Gastrointestinal Manifestations in X-linked Agammaglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmettler, Sara; Otani, Iris M; Minhas, Jasmit; Abraham, Roshini S; Chang, Yenhui; Dorsey, Morna J; Ballas, Zuhair K; Bonilla, Francisco A; Ochs, Hans D; Walter, Jolan E

    2017-04-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia is a primary humoral immunodeficiency characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia and increased susceptibility to infection. Although there is increased awareness of autoimmune and inflammatory complications in X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), the spectrum of gastrointestinal manifestations has not previously been fully explored. We present a case report of a family with two affected patients with XLA. Given the gastrointestinal involvement of the grandfather in this family, we performed a retrospective descriptive analysis of XLA patients with reported diagnoses of GI manifestations and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or enteritis registered at the United States Immunodeficiency Network, a national registry of primary immunodeficiencies. In this cohort of patients with XLA, we found that up to 35% had concurrent gastrointestinal manifestations, and 10% had reported diagnoses of IBD or enteritis. The most commonly reported mutations were missense, which have been associated with a less severe XLA phenotype in the literature. The severity of symptoms were wide ranging, and management strategies were diverse and mainly experimental. Patients with XLA may require close monitoring with particular attention for GI manifestations including IBD and infectious enteritis. Further studies are needed to improve diagnosis and management of GI conditions in XLA patients.

  11. Molecular and genetic basis of X-linked immunodeficiency disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puck, J.M. (National Center for Human Genome Research, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Within a short time interval the specific gene defects causing three X-linked human immunodeficiencies, agammaglobulinemia (XLA), hyper-IgM syndrome (HIGM), and severe combined immunodeficiency (XSCID), have been identified. These represent the first human disease phenotypes associated with each of three gene families already recognized to be important in lymphocyte development and signaling: XLA is caused by mutations of a B cell-specific intracellular tyrosine kinase; HIGM, by mutations in the TNF-related CD40 ligand, through which T cells deliver helper signals by direct contact with B cell CD40; and XSCID, by mutations in the [gamma] chain of the lymphocyte receptor for IL-2. Each patient mutation analyzed to date has been unique, representing both a challenge for genetic diagnosis and management and an important resource for dissecting molecular domains and understanding the physiologic function of the gene products.

  12. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in women: a cross-sectional cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, Marc; Barbier, Mathieu; Dijkstra, Inge M E; Schür, Remmelt; de Bie, Rob M A; Verhamme, Camiel; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; Aubourg, Patrick A; Wanders, Ronald J A; van Geel, Bjorn M; de Visser, Marianne; Poll-The, Bwee T; Kemp, Stephan

    2014-03-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is the most common peroxisomal disorder. The disease is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene that encodes the peroxisomal transporter of very long-chain fatty acids. A defect in the ABCD1 protein results in elevated levels of very long-chain fatty acids in plasma and tissues. The clinical spectrum in males with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy has been well described and ranges from isolated adrenocortical insufficiency and slowly progressive myelopathy to devastating cerebral demyelination. As in many X-linked diseases, it was assumed that female carriers remain asymptomatic and only a few studies addressed the phenotype of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy carriers. These studies, however, provided no information on the prevalence of neurological symptoms in the entire population of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy carriers, since data were acquired in small groups and may be biased towards women with symptoms. Our primary goal was to investigate the symptoms and their frequency in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy carriers. The secondary goal was to determine if the X-inactivation pattern of the ABCD1 gene was associated with symptomatic status. We included 46 X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy carriers in a prospective cross-sectional cohort study. Our data show that X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy carriers develop signs and symptoms of myelopathy (29/46, 63%) and/or peripheral neuropathy (26/46, 57%). Especially striking was the occurrence of faecal incontinence (13/46, 28%). The frequency of symptomatic women increased sharply with age (from 18% in women 60 years of age). Virtually all (44/45, 98%) X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy carriers had increased very long-chain fatty acids in plasma and/or fibroblasts, and/or decreased very long-chain fatty acids beta-oxidation in fibroblasts. We did not find an association between the X-inactivation pattern and symptomatic status. We conclude that X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy carriers develop an

  13. [Peroxisomal ABC transporters and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geillon, Flore; Trompier, Doriane; Gondcaille, Catherine; Lizard, Gérard; Savary, Stéphane

    2012-12-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease associated with mutations in the ABCD1 gene, which encodes for a peroxisomal ABC transporter. Thanks to the efforts of the ELA foundation and to the recent successes of gene therapy published in Science in 2009, X-ALD is better known but still remains poorly understood. The exact role of ABCD1 and its homologs, as well as the exact link between the biochemical and metabolic peroxisomal defects and the clinical symptoms of the disease remain to be elucidated. This review summarizes the knowledge concerning the subfamily D of the ABC transporter family and concerning X-ALD, the most frequent peroxisomal disorder. © 2012 médecine/sciences – Inserm / SRMS.

  14. Optical coherence tomography in x-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Jannelle J; Sotirchos, Elias S; Saidha, Shiv; Raymond, Gerald V; Calabresi, Peter A

    2013-09-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a metabolic disease caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene, which codes for a peroxisomal membrane protein, leading to the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids. Thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer and macula has been described in adult-onset adrenomyeloneuropathy; however, assessment of these structures in the presymptomatic stage remains largely unexplored. Optical coherence tomography is a high-resolution medical imaging technology that has been widely used to assess ophthalmological diseases and more recently in neurological disease states to quantify the axonal and neuronal injury in the retina that results from demyelination of the optic nerve. Fourteen boys with presymptomatic X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy and 14 age-matched healthy controls underwent retinal imaging with optical coherence tomography. Optical coherence tomography-derived retinal thickness measures did not differ between adrenoleukodystrophy subjects and healthy controls. Our results suggest that structural retinal abnormalities are not detectable before the development of neurological manifestations in adrenoleukodystrophy. Further investigation of the utility of optical coherence tomography scanning in individuals with symptomatic disease should be considered to determine if its measures could be used as a biomarker of disease progression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. X-linked ichthyosis associated with psychosis and behavioral abnormalities: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Amna; Amer, Ahmed Bait; Salama, Mohammed; Haddad, Bander; Alrifai, Muhammad T; Balwi, Mohammed Al; Davies, William; Eyaid, Wafaa

    2017-09-22

    X-linked ichthyosis is a dermatological condition caused by deficiency for the enzyme steroid sulfatase. Previously, X-linked ichthyosis/steroid sulfatase deficiency has been associated with developmental and neurological phenotypes. Here, we show for the first time, that X-linked ichthyosis may be comorbid with an additional psychiatric phenotype (psychosis). We report the case of an 11-year-old Saudi Arabian boy with X-linked ichthyosis associated with psychosis, mental retardation, autism spectrum disorder, inattentive attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and epilepsy. Genetic analysis revealed a 1.68 Mb deletion encompassing STS in 95% of cells while biochemical analysis revealed correspondingly low steroid sulfatase activity consistent with a diagnosis of X-linked ichthyosis. The psychotic symptoms could be reasonably well controlled by administration of an atypical antipsychotic. This report describes a case of comorbid X-linked ichthyosis and psychosis (most closely corresponding to early-onset schizophrenia) for the first time, and suggests that deficiency for steroid sulfatase and contiguous genes may increase vulnerability to psychosis as well as other psychological disorders.

  16. A Novel Double Mutation in the ABCD1 Gene in a Patient with X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy: Analysis of the Stability and Function of the Mutant ABCD1 Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Masashi; Kobayashi, Junpei; Yamazaki, Kozue; Kawaguchi, Kosuke; Honda, Ayako; Sugai, Kenji; Shimozawa, Nobuyuki; Koide, Reiji; Imanaka, Tsuneo

    2013-01-01

    We diagnosed an adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) patient with a double novel missense mutation, c.284C>A (p.A95D) and c.290A>T (p.H97L) in a single ABCD1 allele. In skin fibroblasts from the patient, no ABCD1 protein was detected by immunoblot analysis, and the C24:0 β-oxidation activity was decreased to a level at which the ABCD1 protein was absent. To determine the responsible gene mutation in the patient, we constructed three kinds of mutated ABCD1 gene expression vectors (c.284C>A, c.290A>T or c.284C>A/c.290A>T) and transfected them into CHO cells stably expressing GFP-SKL (CHO/GFP-SKL cells) or CADDS fibroblasts lacking the ABCD1 gene. ABCD1 (p.H97L) displayed the correct peroxisomal localization in CHO/GFP-SKL cells, but ABCD1 (p.A95D) and ABCD1 (p.A95D/p.H97L) were diffuse in the cytosol. Furthermore, ABCD1 (p.H97L) was detected by immunoblot analysis and restored the C24:0 β-oxidation activity in the CADDS fibroblasts, as the wild type ABCD1 did. On the other hand, ABCD1 (p.A95D) and ABCD1 (p.A95D/p.H97L) were not detected and the C24:0 β-oxidation activity was not restored. These results clearly show that c.284C>A is the responsible gene mutation, whereas c.290A>T is a novel polymorphism.

  17. Newborn Screening for X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann B. Moser

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of males with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD is essential for preventing loss of life due to adrenal insufficiency and for timely therapy of the childhood cerebral form of X-ALD with hematopoietic cell transplantation. This article describes X-ALD, the current therapies, the history of the development of the newborn screening test, the approval by the Secretary of Health and Human Services for the addition of X-ALD newborn screening to the recommended uniform panel of disorders screened as newborns (RUSP and the successful implementation of X-ALD newborn screening in the state of New York beginning on 30 December 2013. Follow-up guidelines that have been established in New York are outlined. Based on the success of newborn screening in New York, and early results in Connecticut, where X-ALD newborn screening started in December 2015, and in California, where X-ALD newborn screening began in September 2016, we are confident and hopeful that X-ALD newborn screening will expand to include all US states and to countries that have established neonatal screening programs. The Minster of Health in the Netherlands has approved the addition of X-ALD to the newborn screening program with a start date expected in 2017. The states, such as Massachusetts, Illinois, Minnesota, New Jersey, Florida and Washington, that have legislative approval will commence screening as soon as budgetary resources, testing and follow-up procedures are in place.

  18. Signalling through FOXP3 as an X-linked Tumor Suppressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Hiroto; Zheng, Pan; Liu, Yang

    2010-01-01

    The FOXP3 (forkhead box P3) gene is a member of forkhead winged helix family transcription factors and functions as both a transcriptional activator and a repressor. FOXP3 dysfunction is responsible for an X-linked autoimmune syndrome: immune dysregulation, polyendopathy, enterophathy, X-linked syndrome. In addition to its role as an essential transcription factor in regulatory T cells, the FOXP3 gene is an epithelial cell-intrinsic tumor suppressor for breast and prostate cancers. We will focus on the FOXP3 signalling pathway in epithelial cells and discuss how genetic and/or epigenetic inactivation of the FOXP3 contributes to the malignant transformation of cells. PMID:20678582

  19. Glutathione imbalance in patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, Sara; Piemonte, Fiorella; Pastore, Anna; Tozzi, Giulia; Aiello, Chiara; Pujol, Aurora; Cappa, Marco; Bertini, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Background X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a genetic disorder of X-linked inheritance caused by a mutation in the ABCD1 gene which determines an accumulation of long-chain fatty acids in plasma and tissues. Recent evidence shows that oxidative stress may be a hallmark in the pathogenesis of X-ALD and glutathione plays an important role in the defense against free radicals. In this study we have analyzed glutathione homeostasis in lymphocytes of 14 patients with X-ALD and evaluated the balance between oxidized and reduced forms of glutathione, in order to define the role of this crucial redox marker in this condition. Methods Lymphocytes, plasma and erythrocytes were obtained from the whole blood of 14 subjects with X-ALD and in 30 healthy subjects. Total, reduced and protein-bound glutathione levels were measured in lymphocytes by HPLC analysis. Erythrocyte free glutathione and antioxidant enzyme activities, plasma thiols and carbonyl content were determined by spectrophotometric assays. Results A significant decrease of total and reduced glutathione was found in lymphocytes of patients, associated to high levels of all oxidized glutathione forms. A decline of free glutathione was particularly significant in erythrocytes. The increased oxidative stress in X-ALD was additionally confirmed by the decrease of plasma thiols and the high level of carbonyls. Conclusion Our results strongly support a role for oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of X-ALD and strengthen the importance of the balance among glutathione forms as a hallmark and a potential biomarker of the disease. PMID:23768953

  20. Glutathione imbalance in patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, Sara; Piemonte, Fiorella; Pastore, Anna; Tozzi, Giulia; Aiello, Chiara; Pujol, Aurora; Cappa, Marco; Bertini, Enrico

    2013-08-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a genetic disorder of X-linked inheritance caused by a mutation in the ABCD1 gene which determines an accumulation of long-chain fatty acids in plasma and tissues. Recent evidence shows that oxidative stress may be a hallmark in the pathogenesis of X-ALD and glutathione plays an important role in the defense against free radicals. In this study we have analyzed glutathione homeostasis in lymphocytes of 14 patients with X-ALD and evaluated the balance between oxidized and reduced forms of glutathione, in order to define the role of this crucial redox marker in this condition. Lymphocytes, plasma and erythrocytes were obtained from the whole blood of 14 subjects with X-ALD and in 30 healthy subjects. Total, reduced and protein-bound glutathione levels were measured in lymphocytes by HPLC analysis. Erythrocyte free glutathione and antioxidant enzyme activities, plasma thiols and carbonyl content were determined by spectrophotometric assays. A significant decrease of total and reduced glutathione was found in lymphocytes of patients, associated to high levels of all oxidized glutathione forms. A decline of free glutathione was particularly significant in erythrocytes. The increased oxidative stress in X-ALD was additionally confirmed by the decrease of plasma thiols and the high level of carbonyls. Our results strongly support a role for oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of X-ALD and strengthen the importance of the balance among glutathione forms as a hallmark and a potential biomarker of the disease. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Whole saliva in X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lexner, Michala Oron; Bardow, Allan; Hertz, Jens Michael

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is the most common type of ectodermal dysplasia. Identification of female carriers of X-linked HED can be difficult because of varying degrees of clinical symptoms due to the X-chromosome inactivation. This is the first study about whol...

  2. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speckmann, C.; Lehmberg, K.; Albert, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) deficiency caused by mutations in BIRC4 was initially described in patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP) who had no mutations in SH2D1A. In the initial reports, EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) was the predominant...

  3. X-linked Agammaglobulinemia With Normal Immunoglobulin and Near-Normal Vaccine Seroconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Kahn; Lear, Graeme

    2015-12-01

    We present a 22-month-old boy with X-linked agammaglobulinemia masked by normal immunoglobulin levels and vaccine seroconversion. Diagnosis was made after strong clinical suspicion of immune deficiency led to identification of markedly reduced B-cell numbers and confirmation with identification of a novel Bruton tyrosine kinase gene mutation. He was commenced on replacement immunoglobulin therapy with excellent clinical improvement. This case highlights the variability of phenotypic presentation and apparent disunity between routine immunologic investigations and severe disease in X-linked agammaglobulinemia, necessitating clinical acumen to make the diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. XLPRA: A canine retinal degeneration inherited as an X-linked trait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acland, G.M.; Blanton, S.H.; Hershfield, B.; Aguirre, G.D.

    1994-08-01

    Breeding studies are reported of a previously undescribed hereditary retinal degeneration identified in the Siberian Husky breed of dog. This disorder clinically resembles the previously reported autosomal recessive canine hereditary retinal degenerations collectively termed progressive retinal atrophy (PRA). However, the pedigree of the propositus, a male Siberian Husky, exhibited an X-linked pattern of transmission. This dog was outcrossed to three phenotypically normal female laboratory Beagles and two of their F1 daughters were bred to a phenotypically normal male Beagle, producing affected males in the F2 generation. Subsequent inbreedings produced further affected males and affected females as well. X-linked transmission was established by exclusion of alternative modes of inheritance and, consequently, the disease has been termed X-linked progressive retinal atrophy (XLPRA). This is the first reported X-linked retinal degeneration in an animal. Because of the many similarities of PRA in dogs to retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in humans, this new disease may not only represent the first animal model of X-linked RP (XLRP) but may well be a true homolog of one of the XLRP loci (RP2, RP3, RP6). It is the first retinal degeneration in dogs that can be assigned to an identified canine chromosome, and the first for which linkage mapping offers a realistic approach to proceed by positional cloning towards identifying the responsible gene. 58 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  5. Mutations in X-linked PORCN, a putative regulator of Wnt signaling, cause focal dermal hypoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focal dermal hypoplasia is an X-linked dominant disorder characterized by patchy hypoplastic skin and digital, ocular, and dental malformations. We used array comparative genomic hybridization to identify a 219-kb deletion in Xp11.23 in two affected females. We sequenced genes in this region and fou...

  6. Exonization of a LINE1 fragment implicated in X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg

    2011-01-01

    A case of X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XHED) was identified in a family of Danish Red Holstein cattle. The ectodysplasin-signalling protein (EDA) is known to be central in the normal development of ectodermal structures, and mutations in the ectodysplasin A (EDA) gene have been rep...

  7. High prevalence of SLC6A8 deficiency in X-linked mental retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenberg, EH; Almeida, LS; Kleefstra, T; deGrauw, RS; Yntema, HG; Bahi, N; Moraine, C; Ropers, HH; Fryns, JP; deGrauw, TJ; Jakobs, C; Salomons, GS

    A novel X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) syndrome was recently identified, resulting from creatine deficiency in the brain caused by mutations in the creatine transporter gene, SLC6A8. We have studied the prevalence of SLC6A8 mutations in a panel of 290 patients with nonsyndromic XLMR archived by

  8. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in women: a cross-sectional cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, Marc; Barbier, Mathieu; Dijkstra, Inge M. E.; Schür, Remmelt; de Bie, Rob M. A.; Verhamme, Camiel; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Aubourg, Patrick A.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; van Geel, Bjorn M.; de Visser, Marianne; Poll-The, Bwee T.; Kemp, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is the most common peroxisomal disorder. The disease is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene that encodes the peroxisomal transporter of very long-chain fatty acids. A defect in the ABCD1 protein results in elevated levels of very long-chain fatty acids in plasma and

  9. Splice-correcting oligonucleotides restore BTK function in X-linked agammaglobulinemia model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bestas, Burcu; Moreno, Pedro M D; Blomberg, K Emelie M

    2014-01-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is an inherited immunodeficiency that results from mutations within the gene encoding Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK). Many XLA-associated mutations affect splicing of BTK pre-mRNA and severely impair B cell development. Here, we assessed the potential of antisense...

  10. Frequency of fragile-x in x-linked mental retardation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    introduction: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inher‑ ited mental retardation and accounts for about one third of all cases of X linked mental retardation (XLMR). It is inherited as an X‑linked dominant trait with a fragile site at Xq27.3 locus named fragile X mental retardation gene (FMR‑1). The FMR‑1 ...

  11. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: clinical, metabolic, genetic and pathophysiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Stephan; Berger, Johannes; Aubourg, Patrick

    2012-09-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is the most frequent peroxisomal disease. The two main clinical phenotypes of X-ALD are adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) and inflammatory cerebral ALD that manifests either in children or more rarely in adults. About 65% of heterozygote females develop symptoms by the age of 60years. Mutations in the ABCD1 gene affect the function of the encoded protein ALDP, an ATP-binding-cassette (ABC) transporter located in the peroxisomal membrane protein. ALDP deficiency impairs the peroxisomal beta-oxidation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) and facilitates their further chain elongation by ELOVL1 resulting in accumulation of VLCFA in plasma and tissues. While all patients have mutations in the ABCD1 gene, there is no general genotype-phenotype correlation. Environmental factors and a multitude of modifying genes appear to determine the clinical manifestation in this monogenetic but multifactorial disease. This review focuses on the clinical, biochemical, genetic and pathophysiological aspects of X-ALD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Late-onset Zellweger spectrum disorder caused by PEX6 mutations mimicking X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Christel; Hewson, Stacy; Steinberg, Steven J; Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, Saadet

    2014-08-01

    Zellweger spectrum disorder is an autosomal recessively inherited multisystem disorder caused by one of the 13 different PEX gene defects resulting in defective peroxisomal assembly and multiple peroxisomal enzyme deficiencies. We report a new patient with late-onset Zellweger spectrum disorder mimicking X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. This 8.5-year-old boy with normal development until 6.5 years of age presented with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss during a school hearing test. He then developed acute-onset diplopia, clumsiness, and cognitive dysfunction at age 7 years. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed symmetric leukodystrophy, although without gadolinium enhancement. Elevated plasma very long chain fatty acid levels were suggestive of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, but his ABCD1 gene had normal coding sequence and dosage. Additional studies of cultured skin fibroblasts were consistent with Zellweger spectrum disorder. Molecular testing identified disease-causing compound heterozygous mutations in the PEX6 gene supporting the Zellweger spectrum disorder diagnosis in this patient. We describe a new patient with late-onset Zellweger spectrum disorder caused by PEX6 mutations who presented with an acute neurodegenerative disease course mimicking X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. This finding provides an additional reason that molecular confirmation is important for the genetic counseling and management of patients with a clinical and biochemical diagnosis of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. X-linked dominant protoporphyria: The first reported Japanese case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Yukiko; Kokunai, Yasuhito; Tanizaki, Hideaki; Akasaka, Eijiro; Nakano, Hajime; Moriwaki, Shinichi

    2016-04-01

    A 12-year-old boy with photosensitivity since 3 years of age presented with small concavities on both cheeks, the nasal root and the dorsal surface of both hands. According to the clinical features, erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) was suspected. Urine and blood samples were tested for porphyrin derivatives, which revealed a markedly elevated level of erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) and a diagnosis of EPP was made. The patient's mother had no photosensitivity, however, lesions appearing slightly as small scars were found on the dorsum of her right hand; his elder sister and father showed no rash. The EP levels were elevated in samples from his mother and mildly elevated in those from his elder sister and father. To obtain a definitive diagnosis, genetic analyses were performed using samples from all family members, which revealed no mutations in the ferrochelatase-encoding gene (FECH), which is responsible for EPP. Instead, a pathological mutation of the 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase-encoding gene (ALAS2) was identified in samples from the patient, his mother and his elder sister, confirming a definitive diagnosis of X-linked dominant protoporphyria (XLDPP). This is the first Japanese family reported to have XLDPP, demonstrating evidence of the condition in Japan. In addition, because XLDPP is very similar to EPP in its clinical aspects and laboratory findings, a genetic analysis is required for the differential diagnosis. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  14. X-Linked Dystonia Parkinsonism: Clinical Phenotype, Genetics and Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond L. Rosales

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The clinical phenotype of X-Linked Dystonia Parkinsonism (XDP is typically one that involves a Filipino adult male whose ancestry is mostly traced in the Philippine island of Panay. Dystonia usually starts focally in the lower limbs or oromandibular regions, then spreads to become generalized eventually. Parkinsonism sets in later into the disease and usually in combination with dystonia. /DYT3/ and /TAF1/ are the two genes associated with XDP. An SVA retrotransposon insertion in an intron of /TAF1/ may reduce neuron-specific expression of the /TAF1/ isoform in the caudate nucleus, and subsequently interfere with the transcription of many neuronal genes. Polypharmacy with oral benzodiazepines, anticholinergic agents and muscle relaxants leaves much to be desired in terms of efficacy. The medications to date that may appear beneficial, especially in disabling dystonias, are zolpidem, muscle afferent block with lidocaine-ethanol and botulinum toxin type A. Despite the few cases undergoing deep brain stimulation, this functional surgery has shown the greatest promise in XDP. An illustrative case of XDP in a family depicts the variable course of illness, including a bout of “status dystonicus,” challenges in therapy, reckoning with the social impact of the disease, and eventual patient demise. Indeed, there remains some gaps in understanding some phenomenological, genetic and treatment aspects of XDP, the areas upon which future research directions may be worthwhile.

  15. Discordant phenotype in siblings with X-linked agammaglobulinemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykowsky, M.J.; Veksler, K.S.; Sullivan, K.E. [Children`s Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a congenital humoral immunodeficiency caused by a defect in a B-cell-specific signaling molecule, Btk. There has been little concordance of phenotype with genotype in this disorder, and defects in Btk cause immunodeficiencies that range from mild impairment to complete inability to produce antibodies. The factors modifying the phenotype of XLA are not understood. The current study is the first description of two male siblings with identical T{sup 134}{yields}C mutations in the translation initiation ATG of Btk who have different clinical phenotypes as well as different laboratory phenotypes. The proband lacks immunoglobulins and B cells and has recurrent infections, while the elder, affected brother has normal levels of IgG and IgM and very few infections. Both have undetectable levels of Btk kinase activity in circulating mononuclear cells. Complete sequencing of Btk gene transcripts in both brothers revealed no additional mutations to account for the discordant phenotypes. This description provides unequivocal evidence that the phenotype of XLA is influenced by factors additional to the Btk gene. 39 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Germline but macrophage-tropic CYBB mutations in kindreds with X-linked predisposition to tuberculous mycobacterial diseases

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Germline mutations in the human CYBB gene, encoding the gp91phox subunit of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase, impair the respiratory burst of phagocytes and result in X-linked chronic granulomatous disease. We report two kindreds in which otherwise healthy male adults show X-linked recessive Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases. These patients harbor mutations in CYBB that profoundly reduce the respiratory burst in monocyte-derived macrophages, but not in monocyte...

  17. Clinical, biochemical, neuroimaging and molecular findings of X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy patients in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Min-yan; Cai, Yan-na; Liang, Cui-li; Peng, Min-zhi; Sheng, Hui-ying; Fan, Li-ping; Lin, Rui-zhu; Jiang, Hua; Huang, Yonglan; Liu, Li

    2015-12-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a common X-linked recessive peroxisomal disorder caused by the mutations in the ABCD1 gene. In this study, we analyzed 19 male patients and 9 female carriers with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in South China. By sequencing the ABCD1 gene, 13 different mutations were identified, including 7 novel mutations, and 6 known mutations, and 1 reported polymorphism. Mutation c.1180delG was demonstrated to be de novo mutation. 26.3 % (5/19) patients carried the deletion c.1415_16delAG, which may be the mutational hot spot in South China population. In addition, 73.7 % (14/19) patients were type of childhood cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy, 26.3 %(5/19) were in Addison only. Half of the childhood cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy patients had the adrenocortical insufficiency preceded the onset of neurological symptoms. Furthermore, 5 of 19 cases underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Our data showed that hematopoietic stem cell transplantation performed at an advanced stage of the cerebral X- linked adrenoleukodystrophy would accelerate the progression of the disease. Good clinical outcome achieved when hematopoietic stem cell transplantation performed at the very early stage of the disease.

  18. X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets without 'rickets'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Econs, M.J.; Feussner, J.R.; Quarles, L.D. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA). Dept. of Medicine Veterans Administration Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA). Health Services Research Field Program); Samsa, G.P. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA). Dept. of Biometry Veterans Administration Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA). Health Services Research Field Program); Effman, E.L.; Vogler, J.B.; Martinez, S. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA). Dept. of Radiology Veterans Administration Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA). Health Services Research Field Program); Friedman, N.E. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA). Dept. of Pediatrics Veterans Administration Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA). Health Services Research Field Program); Drezner, M.K. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA). Dept. of Medicine Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA). Dept. of Cell Biology Veterans Administration Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA). Health Services Research F

    1991-02-01

    Wrist and knee radiographs from children with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets were analyzed and compared with those from normal children and children with established rickets to assess whether radiographically apparent rickets is a consistent abnormality in X-linked hypophosphatemia. The absence or presence of rickets was correctly identified in 94.8% of wrist and knee films from normal and positive controls. In contrast, patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia exhibited rachitic abnormalities in only 5 of 11 wrist and 13 of 15 knee radiographs. Our data indicate that radiographically detectable rickets is a variable abnormality of X-linked hypophosphatemia and does not provide an unambiguous index for the diagnosis of this disease. (orig./GDG).

  19. X-linked creatine transporter deficiency: clinical aspects and pathophysiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kamp, J.M.; Mancini, G.M.; Salomons, G.S.

    2014-01-01

    Creatine transporter deficiency was discovered in 2001 as an X-linked cause of intellectual disability characterized by cerebral creatine deficiency. This review describes the current knowledge regarding creatine metabolism, the creatine transporter and the clinical aspects of creatine transporter

  20. Characterization of point mutations in patients with X-linked ichtyosis (XLI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alperin, E.S.; Shaprio, L.J. [UCSF, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    X-linked icthyosis is the result of steroid sulfatase (STS) deficiency and is one of the most prevalent inborn errors of metabolism. The gene for STS contains ten exons which encode a 561 aa membrane bound protein. Although the majority of patients with XLI have complete deletions of the STS gene, 10% show normal DNA hybridization patterns. The STS mutations in these patients are of interest since they may help to recognize domains important for post-translational processing, protein stability and enzyme activity. Basler et al. have identified point mutations in three patients with XLI. We have characterized an additional three mutations. All six patients have unique single base pair substitutions. The mutations in all six patients are located within 105 residues in the C-terminal half of the polypeptide. Site-directed mutagenesis has been used to replicate four of the six mutations in an expression vector containing the coding region of STS. These vectors are being used to study the effects of the mutations in vitro as well as in vivo. When transfected into A9 cells, none of these vectors produces STS activity. When the vectors are transcribed and translated in a rabbit reticulyte system, three of the four result in a polypeptide with the same mobility on SDS-PAGE as normal STS. As expected, the product from the vector encoding the splice junction mutation was smaller than normal. Current experiments are examining the processing and localization of these mutant polypeptides.

  1. X-linked cataract and Nance-Horan syndrome are allelic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccia, Margherita; Brooks, Simon P; Webb, Tom R; Christodoulou, Katja; Wozniak, Izabella O; Murday, Victoria; Balicki, Martha; Yee, Harris A; Wangensteen, Teresia; Riise, Ruth; Saggar, Anand K; Park, Soo-Mi; Kanuga, Naheed; Francis, Peter J; Maher, Eamonn R; Moore, Anthony T; Russell-Eggitt, Isabelle M; Hardcastle, Alison J

    2009-07-15

    Nance-Horan syndrome (NHS) is an X-linked developmental disorder characterized by congenital cataract, dental anomalies, facial dysmorphism and, in some cases, mental retardation. Protein truncation mutations in a novel gene (NHS) have been identified in patients with this syndrome. We previously mapped X-linked congenital cataract (CXN) in one family to an interval on chromosome Xp22.13 which encompasses the NHS locus; however, no mutations were identified in the NHS gene. In this study, we show that NHS and X-linked cataract are allelic diseases. Two CXN families, which were negative for mutations in the NHS gene, were further analysed using array comparative genomic hybridization. CXN was found to be caused by novel copy number variations: a complex duplication-triplication re-arrangement and an intragenic deletion, predicted to result in altered transcriptional regulation of the NHS gene. Furthermore, we also describe the clinical and molecular analysis of seven families diagnosed with NHS, identifying four novel protein truncation mutations and a novel large deletion encompassing the majority of the NHS gene, all leading to no functional protein. We therefore show that different mechanisms, aberrant transcription of the NHS gene or no functional NHS protein, lead to different diseases. Our data highlight the importance of copy number variation and non-recurrent re-arrangements leading to different severity of disease and describe the potential mechanisms involved.

  2. Clinical Manifest X-Linked Recessive Adrenoleukodystrophy in a Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyda Hlin Skuladottir Jack

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD is a rare X-linked inherited leukodystrophy with a reduced capacity for degradation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs. The intracellular accumulation of VLCFA leads to demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS and cell destruction in the adrenal glands. ALD primarily affects males; however, females may develop milder symptoms that may be difficult to recognize. The present report describes a 35-year-old female who experienced a feeling of heaviness in the upper and lower limbs, pain in both knees, and difficulty climbing stairs, running, and jumping. Clinical examination revealed decreased sensitivity in the feet, particularly to touch. Deep tendon reflexes in the lower limbs were brisk, and Babinski's sign was present bilaterally. Multiple sclerosis (MS was excluded, and all clinical and biochemical tests were normal. After two years of progressing symptoms, the patient was reevaluated and plasma levels of VLCFA were found to be elevated. Seven years prior to this finding, the patient had been found to be heterozygous for the missense mutation c.1679C> T, p.Pro560Leu on the ABCD1 gene (ATP-Binding Cassette subfamily D1. In conclusion, the patient's symptoms could be attributed to ALD. The present case underlines the importance of reevaluating family history in women presenting with vague neurological symptoms.

  3. Ocular manifestations in the X-linked intellectual disability syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couser, Natario L; Masood, Maheer M; Aylsworth, Arthur S; Stevenson, Roger E

    2017-01-01

    Intellectual disability (ID), a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by limitations of both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, affects an estimated 1-2% of children. Genetic causes of ID are often accompanied by recognizable syndromal patterns. The vision apparatus is a sensory extension of the brain, and individuals with intellectual disabilities frequently have coexisting abnormalities of ocular structures and the visual pathway system. About one-third of the X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) syndromes have significant eye or ocular adnexa abnormalities that provide important diagnostic clues. Some XLID syndromes (e.g. Aicardi, cerebrooculogenital, Graham anophthalmia, Lenz, Lowe, MIDAS) are widely known for their characteristic ocular manifestations. Nystagmus, optic atrophy, and strabismus are among the more common, nonspecific, ocular manifestations that contribute to neuro-ophthalmological morbidity. Common dysmorphic oculofacial findings include anophthalmia, microphthalmia, hypertelorism, and abnormalities in the configuration or orientation of the palpebral fissures. Four XLID syndromes with major ocular manifestations (incontinentia pigmenti, Goltz, MIDAS, and Aicardi syndromes) are notable because of male lethality and expression occurring predominantly in females. The majority of the genes associated with XLID and ocular manifestations have now been identified.

  4. Unusual late presentation of X-linked chronic granulomatous disease in an adult female with a somatic mosaic for a novel mutation in CYBB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolach, Baruch; Scharf, Yitshak; Gavrieli, Ronit; de Boer, Martin; Roos, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    Most patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) have mutations in the X-linked CYBB gene that encodes gp91(phox), a component of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase. The resulting X-linked form of CGD is usually manifested in boys. Rarely, X-CGD is encountered in female carriers with extreme

  5. Altered expression of ALDP in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, P.A.; Smith, M.A.; Moser, H.W. [John Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with variable phenotypic expression that is characterized by elevated plasma and tissue levels of very long-chain fatty acids. However, the product of the gene defective in ALD (ALDP) is a membrane transporter of the ATP-binding cassette family of proteins and is not related to enzymes known to activate or oxidize fatty acids. We generated an antibody that specifically recognizes the C-terminal 18 amino acids of ALDP and can detect ALDP by indirect immunofluorecence. To better understand the mechanism by which mutations in ALDP lead to disease, we used this antibody to examine the subcellular distribution and relative abundance of ALDP in skin fibroblasts from normal individuals and ALD patients. Punctate immunoreactive material typical of fibroblast peroxisomes was observed in cells from seven normal controls and eight non-ALD patients. Of 35 ALD patients tested, 17 had the childhood-onset cerebral form of the disease, 13 had the milder adult phenotype adrenomyeloneuropathy, 3 had adrenal insufficiency only, and 2 were affected fetuses. More than two-thirds (69%) of all patients studied showed no punctate immunoreactive material. There was no correlation between the immunofluorescence pattern and clinical phenotype. We determined the mutation in the ALD gene in 15 of these patients. Patients with either a deletion or frameshift mutation lacked ALDP immunoreactivity, as expected. Four of 11 patients with misense mutations were also immunonegative, indicating that these mutations affected the stability or localization of ALDP. In the seven immunopositive patients with missense mutations, correlation of the location and nature of the amino acid substitution may provide new insights into the function of this peroxisomal membrane protein. Furthermore, the study of female relatives of immunonegative ALD probands may aid in the assessment of heterozygote status. 32 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. X-linked lymphocyte regulated gene 5c-like (Xlr5c-like) is a novel target of progesterone action in granulosa cells of periovulatory rat ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Birendra; Park, Ji Yeon; Wilson, Kalin; Jo, Misung

    2015-09-05

    Progesterone (P4), acting through its nuclear receptor (PGR), plays an essential role in ovulation by mediating the expression of genes involved in ovulation and/or luteal formation. To identify ovulatory specific PGR-regulated genes, a preliminary microarray analysis was performed using rat granulosa cells treated with hCG ± RU486 (PGR antagonist). The transcript most highly down-regulated by RU486 was an EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence (gb: BI289578.1) that matches with predicted sequence for Xlr5c-like mRNA. Since nothing is known about Xlr5c-like, we first characterized the expression pattern of Xlr5c-like mRNA in the rat ovary. The level of mRNA for Xlr5c-like is transiently up-regulated in granulosa cells of periovulatory follicles after hCG stimulation in PMSG-primed rat ovaries. The transient induction of Xlr5c-like mRNA was mimicked by hCG treatment in cultured granulosa cells from preovulatory ovaries. We further demonstrated that the LH-activated PKA, MEK, PI3K, and p38 signaling is involved in the increase in Xlr5c-like mRNA. The increase in Xlr5c-like mRNA was abolished by RU486. The inhibitory effect of RU486 was reversed by MPA (synthetic progestin), but not by dexamethasone (synthetic glucocorticoid). Furthermore, mutation of SP1/SP3 and PGR response element sites in the promoter region of Xlr5c-like decreased Xlr5c-like reporter activity. RU486 also inhibited Xlr5c-like reporter activity. ChIP assay verified the binding of PGR and SP3 to the Xlr5c-like promoter in periovulatory granulosa cells. Functionally, siRNA-mediated Xlr5c-like knockdown in granulosa cell cultures resulted in reduced levels of mRNA for Snap25, Cxcr4, and Adamts1. Recombinant Xlr5c-like protein expressed using an adenoviral approach was localized predominantly to the nucleus and to a lesser extent to the cytoplasm of rat granulosa cells. In conclusion, this is the first report showing the spatiotemporally regulated expression of Xlr5c-like mRNA by hCG in rat

  7. Retinal Ganglion Cell Loss in X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy with anABCD1Mutation (Gly266Arg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkuma, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Takaaki; Yoshimine, Syouyou; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi; Terao, Yoko; Akiyama, Masaharu; Ida, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Toya; Okumura, Akihisa; Ebihara, Nobuyuki; Murakami, Akira; Shimozawa, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    The authors here report a single case of a 10-year-old male patient who presented with severe vision loss associated with progressive demyelination. The patient was diagnosed with X-linked childhood cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD). Genetic analysis demonstrated a missense mutation (Gly266Arg) in exon 1 of the ABCD1 gene. His corrected visual acuity confirmed the absolute lack of light perception in both eyes. Funduscopy revealed severe pallor of the optic disc in both eyes. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography showed thinning of the retinal ganglion cell and inner plexiform layers (GCL and IPL). Thinning of the GCL and IPL may be due to transneuronal retrograde degeneration of ganglion cells secondary to optic tract demyelination.

  8. Fine mapping of dominant X-linked incompatibility alleles in Drosophila hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matute, Daniel R; Gavin-Smyth, Jackie

    2014-04-01

    Sex chromosomes have a large effect on reproductive isolation and play an important role in hybrid inviability. In Drosophila hybrids, X-linked genes have pronounced deleterious effects on fitness in male hybrids, which have only one X chromosome. Several studies have succeeded at locating and identifying recessive X-linked alleles involved in hybrid inviability. Nonetheless, the density of dominant X-linked alleles involved in interspecific hybrid viability remains largely unknown. In this report, we study the effects of a panel of small fragments of the D. melanogaster X-chromosome carried on the D. melanogaster Y-chromosome in three kinds of hybrid males: D. melanogaster/D. santomea, D. melanogaster/D. simulans and D. melanogaster/D. mauritiana. D. santomea and D. melanogaster diverged over 10 million years ago, while D. simulans (and D. mauritiana) diverged from D. melanogaster over 3 million years ago. We find that the X-chromosome from D. melanogaster carries dominant alleles that are lethal in mel/san, mel/sim, and mel/mau hybrids, and more of these alleles are revealed in the most divergent cross. We then compare these effects on hybrid viability with two D. melanogaster intraspecific crosses. Unlike the interspecific crosses, we found no X-linked alleles that cause lethality in intraspecific crosses. Our results reveal the existence of dominant alleles on the X-chromosome of D. melanogaster which cause lethality in three different interspecific hybrids. These alleles only cause inviability in hybrid males, yet have little effect in hybrid females. This suggests that X-linked elements that cause hybrid inviability in males might not do so in hybrid females due to differing sex chromosome interactions.

  9. Mutation identification in a canine model of X-linked ectodermal dysplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Casal, Margret L.; Scheidt, Jennifer L.; Rhodes, James L.; Henthorn, Paula S.; Werner, Petra

    2005-01-01

    X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XHED), an inherited disease recognized in humans, mice, and cattle, is characterized by hypotrichosis, a reduced number or absence of sweat glands, and missing or malformed teeth. In a subset of affected individuals and animals, mutations in the EDA gene (formerly EDI), coding for ectodysplasin, have been found to cause this phenotype. Ectodysplasin is a homotrimeric transmembrane protein with an extracellular TNF-like domain, which has been shown t...

  10. Case Report: Whole exome sequencing identifies a novel frameshift insertion c.1325dupT (p.F442fsX2 in the tyrosine kinase domain of BTK gene in a young Indian individual with X-linked agammaglobulinemia [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Rawat

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA is an extremely rare inherited primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, decrease in number of mature B cells and low serum immunoglobulins. XLA is caused by mutations in the gene encoding Bruton's tyrosine kinase. We report a case of a young Indian boy suspected to have XLA. Immunophenotyping was performed for the affected child using CD20, CD19 and CD3 antibodies. Whole exome sequencing was performed using trio-based approach. The variants were further analyzed using capillary sequencing in the trio as well as maternal grandmother. Initial immunophenotyping in the affected child showed decreased count of CD19+ B cells. To strengthen the clinical findings and confirm the diagnosis of XLA, we performed whole exome sequencing. Our analysis identified a novel frameshift insertion (c.1325dupT in the BTK gene, which was further validated by Sanger sequencing. Our approach shows the potential in using whole exome sequencing to pinpoint the molecular lesion, enabling timely diagnosis and genetic counseling, and potentially offering prenatal genetic testing for the family.

  11. X-linked sideroblastic anaemia due to ALAS(2) mutations in the Netherlands: a disease in disguise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, A.E.; Raymakers, R.A.P.; Nieuwenhuis, H.K.; Coenen, M.J.H.; Janssen, M.C.H.; MacKenzie, M.A.; Brons, P.P.T.; Swinkels, D.W.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: X-linked sideroblastic anaemia (XLSA; OMIM#300751) is the most common inherited form of sideroblastic anaemia and is associated with several mutations in the erythroid specific 5-aminolevulinate synthase gene (ALAS(2)). This gene encodes for aminolevulinic acid synthase 2 (ALAS(2)), the

  12. Cone photoreceptor structure in patients with x-linked cone dysfunction and red-green color vision deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patterson, Emily J.; Wilk, Melissa; Langlo, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE. Mutations in the coding sequence of the L and M opsin genes are often associated with X-linked cone dysfunction (such as Bornholm Eye Disease, BED), though the exact color vision phenotype associated with these disorders is variable. We examined individuals with L/ M opsin gene mutations...

  13. [DIAGNOSTIC VARIATIONS OF X-LINKED MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY WITH CONTRACTURES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvirkvelia, N; Shakarishvili, R; Gugutsidze, D; Khizanishvili, N

    2015-01-01

    Case report with review describes X-linked muscular dystrophy with contractures in 28 years old man and his cousin. The disease revealed itself in an early stage (age 5-10), the process was progressing with apparent tendons retraction and contraction, limited movement in the areas of the neck and back of spine, atrophy of shoulder and pelvic yard and back muscles. Intellect was intact. Cardyomyopathy was exhibited. CK was normal. EMG showed classic myopathic features. Muscle biopsy showed different caliber groups of muscle fibers, growth of endo-perimesial connective tissue. Clinical manifestations together with electrophysiological and histological data suggest consistency with Rotthauwe-Mortier-Bayer X-linked muscular dystrophy.

  14. Nonspecific X-linked mental retardation with macrocephaly and obesity: A further family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baraitser, M.; Reardon, W. [Hospital for Sick Children, London (United Kingdom); Vijeratnam, S. [Highlands Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-07-03

    The phenotypic nonspecificity of many forms of X-linked mental retardation has hampered attempts to classify them into clinically homogeneous groups. One such condition, described by Clark and Baraitser, has been the subject of a single pedigree report to date. We now describe a further pedigree whose affected members share many manifestations with those reported by Clark and Baraitser, and we consider the possible distinction between this condition and Atkin-Flaitz syndrome. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. X-linked anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (ED1 in men, mice, and cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drögemüller Cord

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ectodermal dysplasias are a large group of rare genetic disorders characterized by impaired development of hair, teeth, and eccrine glands in humans, mice, and cattle. Here, we review the cloning, mutation analyses, and functional studies of the known causative genes for the X-chromosomal anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (ED1 in these species. Mutations in the ectodysplasin 1 (ED1 gene are responsible for X-linked anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. The ED1 gene encodes a signaling molecule of the tumor necrosis factor family that is involved in development of ectodermal appendages. The bovine disorder may serve as an animal model for human ED1.

  16. Genetic localization and phenotypic expression of X-linked cataract (Xcat) in Mus musculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favor, J; Pretsch, W

    1990-01-01

    Linkage data relative to the markers tabby and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase are presented to locate X-linked cataract (Xcat) in the distal portion of the mouse X-chromosome between jimpy and hypophosphatemia. The human X-linked cataract-dental syndrome, Nance-Horan Syndrome, also maps closely to human hypophosphatemia and would suggest homology between mouse Xcat and human Nance-Horan Syndrome genes. In hemizygous males and homozygous females penetrance is complete with only slight variation in the degree of expression. Phenotypic expression in Xcat heterozygous females ranges from totally clear to totally opaque lenses. The phenotypic expression between the two lenses of a heterozygous individual could also vary between totally clear and totally opaque lenses. However, a correlation in the degree of expression between the eyes of an individual was observed. A variegated pattern of lens opacity was evident in female heterozygotes. Based on these observations, the site of gene action for the Xcat locus is suggested to be endogenous to the lens cells and the precursor cell population of the lens is concluded to be small. The identification of an X-linked cataract locus is an important contribution to the estimate of the number of mutable loci resulting in cataract, an estimate required so that dominant cataract mutagenesis results may be expressed on a per locus basis. The Xcat mutation may be a useful marker for a distal region of the mouse X-chromosome which is relatively sparsely marked and the X-linked cataract mutation may be employed in gene expression and lens development studies.

  17. A family with severe X-linked arthrogryposis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekam, R. C.; Barth, P. G.; van Lookeren Campagne, W.; de Visser, M.; Dingemans, K. P.

    1991-01-01

    Five males are reported with severe X-linked arthrogryposis. Main findings are marked respiratory insufficiency and feeding problems, multiple contractures, deformities of chest and vertebral column, and typical facies. Most of these findings can be explained by a pronounced prenatal and postnatal

  18. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: Clinical, metabolic, genetic and pathophysiological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemp, Stephan; Berger, Johannes; Aubourg, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is the most frequent peroxisomal disease. The two main clinical phenotypes of X-ALD are adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) and inflammatory cerebral ALD that manifests either in children or more rarely in adults. About 65% of heterozygote females develop symptoms by

  19. Biochemical and cell biological aspects of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schackmann, M.J.A.

    2017-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a devastating peroxisomal disorder with only limited options for treatment. Recent findings however have pointed towards fatty acid elongation as a possible target for therapeutic intervention of X-ALD. Chapter 2 describes how bezafibrate reduces VLCFA levels in

  20. Methionine metabolism and phenotypic variability in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnebank, M.; Kemp, S.; Wanders, R. J. A.; Kleijer, W. J.; van der Sterre, M. L. T.; Gärtner, J.; Fliessbach, K.; Semmler, A.; Sokolowski, P.; Köhler, W.; Schlegel, U.; Schmidt, S.; Klockgether, T.; Wüllner, U.

    2006-01-01

    A combined genotype of polymorphisms of methionine metabolism has been associated with CNS demyelination in methotrexate-treated patients. Within a sample of 86 patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, this genotype was overrepresented in a subgroup of 15 patients with adrenomyeloneuropathy

  1. X-Linked agammaglobulinemia in a child with Klinefelter's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochino, Alexis-Virgil; Janda, Ales; Ravcukova, Barbora; Plaiasu, Vasilica; Ochiana, Diana; Gherghina, Ioan; Freiberger, Tomas

    2014-02-01

    Bruton's agammaglobulinemia is a rare X-linked humoral immunodeficiency manifesting with recurrent bacterial infections early in life. Klinefelter's syndrome caused by an additional X chromosome is the most common sex chromosome disorder. A previously unreported association of these two conditions is described here.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked juvenile retinoschisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Juvenile Retinoschisis ClinicalTrials.gov (1 link) ClinicalTrials.gov Scientific Articles on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM (1 link) ... 42(6):e35. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed ... Capone A Jr, Ciaccia S, Takada Y, Sieving PA, Trese MT. Congenital X-linked retinoschisis classification ...

  3. X-linked ichthyosis without STS deficiency: Clinical, genetical, and molecular studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robledo, R.; Melis, P.; Schillinger, E.; Siniscalco, M. [Istituto di Genetica Molecolare del, Trieste (Italy)] [and others

    1995-11-06

    We report on a Sardinian pedigree with congenital ichthyosis associated with normal levels of steroid sulfatase and a normal molecular pattern, as detectable with a cDNA probe for the steroid sulfatase (STS) gene. Though the pattern of transmission of the disease is consistent with X-linked recessive inheritance, this form of ichthyosis was found to segregate independently of genetic polymorphisms detected by probes of the region Xp22.3, where the STS locus has been mapped. The search for close genetic linkages with other polymorphic markers scattered along the entire X chromosome has so far been fruitless. For the time being, the main conclusion derived from these data is that STS deficiency is not a sine qua non for X-linked ichthyosis which may also result from a mutational event at an X-chromosomal site genetically unlinked to the STS locus. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  4. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in a 6-year-old boy initially presenting with psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İncecik, Faruk; Hergüner, M Özlem; Mert, Gülen; Önenli-Mungan, Neslihan; Ceylaner, Serdar; Kör, Deniz; Altunbaşak, Şakir

    2014-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) leads to demyelination of the nervous system, adrenal insufficiency and accumulation of long-chain fatty acids. Most young patients with X-linked ALD develop seizures and progressive neurologic deficits, and die within the first two decades of life. We present the case of a 6-year-old with childhood-onset ALD, first presenting with psychiatric symptoms and progressive gait difficulties, slurred speech and cognitive impairment. Genetic testing was performed and a p.R401Q (c.1202G>A) mutation detected in the ABCD1 gene. ALD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with behavior changes and white matter disease in neuroimaging.

  5. A single gene defect causing claustrophobia

    OpenAIRE

    El-Kordi, Ahmed; Kästner, Anne; Grube, Sabrina; Klugmann, M.; Begemann, Martin; Sperling, Swetlana; Hammerschmidt, K.; Hammer, Christian; Stepniak, Beata; Patzig, J.; Monasterio-Schrader, Patricia; Strenzke, N.; Flügge, G.; Werner, Hauke B.; Pawlak, R.

    2013-01-01

    Claustrophobia, the well-known fear of being trapped in narrow/closed spaces, is often considered a conditioned response to traumatic experience. Surprisingly, we found that mutations affecting a single gene, encoding a stress-regulated neuronal protein, can cause claustrophobia. Gpm6a-deficient mice develop normally and lack obvious behavioral abnormalities. However, when mildly stressed by single-housing, these mice develop a striking claustrophobia-like phenotype, which is not inducible in...

  6. Accuracy of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) of single gene and chromosomal disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verlinsky, Y.; Strom, C.; Rechitsky, S. [Reproductive Genetics Institute, Chicage, IL (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    We have developed a polar body inferred approach for preconception diagnosis of single gene and chromosomal disorders. Preconception PCR or FISH analysis was performed in a total of 310 first polar bodies for the following genetic conditions: cystic fibrosis, hemophilia A, alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, Tay Sachs disease, retinitis pigmentosa and common chromosomal trisomies. An important advantage of this approach is the avoidance of sperm (DNA) contamination, which is the major problem of PGD. We are currently applying FISH analysis of biopsied blastomeres, in combination with PCR or separately, and have demonstrated a significant improvement of the accuracy of PGD of X-linked disorders at this stage. Our data have also demonstrated feasibility of the application of FISH technique for PGD of chromosomal disorders. It was possible to detect chromosomal non-disjunctions and chromatid malsegregations in the first meiotic division, as well as to evaluate chromosomal mutations originating from the second meiotic nondisjunction.

  7. Single gene retrieval from thermally degraded DNA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To simulate single gene retrieval from ancient DNA, several related factors have been investigated. By monitoring a 889 bp polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product and genomic DNA degradation, we find that heat and oxygen (especially heat) are both crucial factors influencing DNA degradation. The heat influence ...

  8. Single gene retrieval from thermally degraded DNA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    So, based on known geothermal gra- dients and the depth of ancient remains, one can try to estimate the chances of retrieval of single genes. Acknowledgements. We thank Prof. Gerard Peter Latawiec (University of Read- ing, UK) for his critical reading of the manuscript. This work was supported by the NSFC key project ...

  9. Frequency of CNKSR2 mutation in the X-linked epilepsy-aphasia spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, John A; Burgess, Rosemary; Kivity, Sara; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Afawi, Zaid; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Berkovic, Samuel F; Hildebrand, Michael S

    2017-03-01

    Synaptic proteins are critical to neuronal function in the brain, and their deficiency can lead to seizures and cognitive impairments. CNKSR2 (connector enhancer of KSR2) is a synaptic protein involved in Ras signaling-mediated neuronal proliferation, migration and differentiation. Mutations in the X-linked gene CNKSR2 have been described in patients with seizures and neurodevelopmental deficits, especially those affecting language. In this study, we sequenced 112 patients with phenotypes within the epilepsy-aphasia spectrum (EAS) to determine the frequency of CNKSR2 mutation within this complex set of disorders. We detected a novel nonsense mutation (c.2314 C>T; p.Arg712*) in one Ashkenazi Jewish family, the male proband of which had a severe epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spike-waves in sleep (ECSWS). His affected brother also had ECSWS with better outcome, whereas the sister had childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes. This mutation segregated in the three affected siblings in an X-linked manner, inherited from their mother who had febrile seizures. Although the frequency of point mutation is low, CNKSR2 sequencing should be considered in families with suspected X-linked EAS because of the specific genetic counseling implications. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  10. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis of X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease by indirect linkage analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgulová, Irena; Putzová, Martina; Soldatova, Inna; Stejskal, David

    2018-03-23

    To present methodical approach of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) as an option for an unaffected pregnancy in reproductive-age couples who have a genetic risk of the X-linked dominant peripheral neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 disease. We performed PGD of X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 disease using haplotyping/indirect linkage analysis, when during analysis we reach to exclude embryos that carry a high-risk haplotype linked to the causal mutation p.Leu9Phe in the GJB1 gene. Within the PGD cycle, we examined 4 blastomeres biopsied from cleavage-stage embryos and recommended 3 embryos for transfer. Two embryos were implanted into the uterus; however, it resulted in a singleton pregnancy with a male descendant. Three years later, the couple returned again with spontaneous gravidity. A chorionic biopsy examination of this gravidity ascertained the female sex and a pericentric inversion of chromosome 5 in 70% of the cultivated foetal cells. Using indirect linkage analysis, PGD may help to identify genetic X-linked defects within embryos during screening, thereby circumventing the potential problems with abortion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Mutational studies in X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherryson, A.K.; Yeung, L.; Kennerson, M.L.; Nicholson, G.A. [Univ. of Syndey, Concord (Australia)

    1994-09-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, also known as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN), is a heterogeneous group of slowly progressive disorders of the peripheral nerve. X-linked CMT (CMTX) is characterized by slow motor nerve conduction velocities in affected males and the presence of mildly affected or normal carrier females with intermediate or normal nerve conduction velocities. CMTX, which has an incidence of 3.1 per 100,000 and accounts for approximately 10% of CMT cases, has been mapped to Xq13. One of the genes lying in this region, connexin 32, has been found to contain alterations in individuals affected with X-linked CMT. We have identified our X-linked families from dominant type 1 CMT families using the clinical criteria given above. These families were screened for point mutations in connexin 32. We have identified three missense mutations, a G{r_arrow}A transition at amino acid 35 (valine to methionine), a C{r_arrow}G transition at amino acid 158 (proline to alanine) and a T{r_arrow}A transition at amino acid 182 (serine to threonine). Another family showed a 18 bp deletion, which removed the amino acid 111 to 116 inclusive (histidine, glycine, aspartic acid, proline, leucine, histidine).

  12. Gastric adenocarcinoma in a patient with X-linked agammaglobulinemia and HIV: Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joud Hajjar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA is an X-linked inherited disease usually caused by a germline mutation in the BTK gene leading to Bruton’s tyrosine kinase deficiency, which results in the impaired development of B-lymphocytes and a subsequent lack of immunoglobulin production. Patients with XLA have an increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections, and multiple case reports have been published regarding an association between XLA and gastrointestinal (GI malignancy. Here, we describe a case of a 25-year-old man with XLA and HIV, who developed gastric adenocarcinoma. Previously reported cases of XLA and GI malignancy are also reviewed and summarized.

  13. ABCD1 mutations and the X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy mutation database: role in diagnosis and clinical correlations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemp, S.; Pujol, A.; Waterham, H. R.; van Geel, B. M.; Boehm, C. D.; Raymond, G. V.; Cutting, G. R.; Wanders, R. J.; Moser, H. W.

    2001-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene, which encodes a peroxisomal ABC half-transporter (ALDP) involved in the import of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) into the peroxisome. The disease is characterized by a striking and unpredictable variation in

  14. Carrier detection in X-linked ocular albinism of the Nettleship-Falls type by DNA analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergen, A. A.; Schuurman, E. J.; van den Born, L. I.; Samanns, C.; van Dorp, D. B.; Pinckers, A. J.; Bakker, E.; van Ommen, G. J.; Gal, A.; Bleeker-Wagemakers, E. M.

    1992-01-01

    X-linked ocular albinism (XOA) is characterized by anomalies of the eyes and hypopigmentation or absence of pigment in skin, hair and eyes due to a hereditary inborn error of metabolism affecting the pigment cells. The gene of XOA of the Nettleship-Falls type (OA1) has been mapped to Xp22.3, and

  15. FACL4, encoding fatty acid-CoA ligase 4, is mutated in nonspecific X-linked mental retardation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meloni, I.; Muscettola, M.; Raynaud, M.; Longo, I.; Bruttini, M.; Moizard, M.P.; Gomot, M.; Chelly, J.; Portes, V. des; Fryns, J.P.; Ropers, H.H.; Magi, B.; Bellan, C.; Volpi, N.; Yntema, H.G.; Lewis, S.E.; Schaffer, J.E.; Renieri, A.

    2002-01-01

    X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) is an inherited condition that causes failure to develop cognitive abilities, owing to mutations in a gene on the X chromosome. The latest XLMR update lists up to 136 conditions leading to 'syndromic', or 'specific', mental retardation (MRXS) and 66 entries leading

  16. Clinical characteristics and mutation analysis of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cui; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Jun-Feng; Tang, Xue-Mei; Yang, Xi-Qiang; Jiang, Li-Ping; Zhao, Xiao-Dong

    2013-02-01

    X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) is a rare, life-threatening immune disorder, caused by mutations of the gene for the γ-chain (γc) of the interleukin-2 receptor, IL2RG. We analyzed the clinical, immunologic, and molecular characteristics of children with X-SCID, attempting to improve the diagnosis and treatment of X-SCID in China. X-SCID was suspected in male infants with recurrent or persistent infections. Eleven male infants from ten unrelated Chinese families were included. The IL2RG gene was amplified and sequenced, followed by mutation analysis in these children and their female relatives. X-linked short tandem repeat (X-STR) typing was done to define the maternal lymphocyte engraftment. The 11 children exhibited recurrent infections and 10 of them had lymphopenia. B cells were present in all patients, T cells were markedly reduced in 10, and NK cells were markedly reduced in 9. Nine IL2RG gene mutations were identified in the 11 children, with 5 novel mutations. One patient was found to have the maternal lymphocyte engraftment. The clinical presentations and immunologic characteristics of the X-SCID patients were accordingly quite uniform despite the heterogeneity of mutations locating almost in the entire γc gene.

  17. The genetically modified polysialylated form of neural cell adhesion molecule-positive cells for potential treatment of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jiho; Kim, Han-Soo; Kang, Joon Won; Kang, Hoon-Chul

    2013-01-01

    Cell transplantation of myelin-producing exogenous cells is being extensively explored as a means of remyelinating axons in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. We determined whether 3,3',5-Triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) overexpresses the ABCD2 gene in the polysialylated (PSA) form of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-positive cells and promotes cell proliferation and favors oligodendrocyte lineage differentiation. PSA-NCAM+ cells from newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were grown for five days on uncoated dishes in defined medium with or without supplementation of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and/or T3. Then, PSA-NCAM+ spheres were prepared in single cells and transferred to polyornithine/fibronectin-coated glass coverslips for five days to determine the fate of the cells according to the supplementation of these molecules. T3 responsiveness of ABCD2 was analyzed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, the growth and fate of cells were determined using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine incorporation and immunocytochemistry, respectively. Results demonstrated that T3 induces overexpression of the ABCD2 gene in PSA-NCAM+ cells, and can enhance PSA-NCAM+ cell growth in the presence of bFGF, favoring an oligodendrocyte fate. These results may provide new insights into investigation of PSA-NCAM+ cells for therapeutic application to X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

  18. A new nonsyndromic X-linked sensorineural hearing impairment linked to Xp21.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalwani, A.K.; Brister, J.R.; Fex, J.; Grundfast, K.M.; Pikus, A.T.; Ploplis, B.; San Agustin, T.; Skarka, H.; Wilcox, E.R. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1994-10-01

    X-linked deafness is a rare cause of hereditary hearing impairment. We have identified a family with X-linked dominant sensorineural hearing impairment, characterized by incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity in carrier females, that is linked to the Xp21.2, which contains the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) locus. The auditory impairment in affected males was congenital, bilateral, profound, sensorineural, affecting all frequencies, and without evidence of radiographic abnormality of the temporal bone. Adult carrier females manifested bilateral, mild-to-moderate high-frequency sensorineural hearing impairment of delayed onset during adulthood. Eighteen commercially available polymorphic markers from the X chromosome, generating a 10-15-cM map, were initially used for identification of a candidate region. DXS997, located within the DMD gene, generated a two-point LOD score of 2.91 at {theta} = 0, with every carrier mother heterozygous at this locus. Recombination events at DXS992 (located within the DMD locus, 3{prime} to exon 50 of the dystrophin gene) and at DXS1068 (5{prime} to the brain promoter of the dystrophin gene) were observed. No recombination events were noted with the following markers within the DMD locus: 5{prime}DYS II, intron 44, DXS997, and intron 50. There was no clinical evidence of Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy in any family member. It is likely that this family represents a new locus on the X chromosome, which when mutated results in nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss and is distinct from the heterogeneous group of X-linked hearing losses that have been previously described. 57 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. A single gene defect causing claustrophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kordi, A; Kästner, A; Grube, S; Klugmann, M; Begemann, M; Sperling, S; Hammerschmidt, K; Hammer, C; Stepniak, B; Patzig, J; de Monasterio-Schrader, P; Strenzke, N; Flügge, G; Werner, H B; Pawlak, R; Nave, K-A; Ehrenreich, H

    2013-04-30

    Claustrophobia, the well-known fear of being trapped in narrow/closed spaces, is often considered a conditioned response to traumatic experience. Surprisingly, we found that mutations affecting a single gene, encoding a stress-regulated neuronal protein, can cause claustrophobia. Gpm6a-deficient mice develop normally and lack obvious behavioral abnormalities. However, when mildly stressed by single-housing, these mice develop a striking claustrophobia-like phenotype, which is not inducible in wild-type controls, even by severe stress. The human GPM6A gene is located on chromosome 4q32-q34, a region linked to panic disorder. Sequence analysis of 115 claustrophobic and non-claustrophobic subjects identified nine variants in the noncoding region of the gene that are more frequent in affected individuals (P=0.028). One variant in the 3'untranslated region was linked to claustrophobia in two small pedigrees. This mutant mRNA is functional but cannot be silenced by neuronal miR124 derived itself from a stress-regulated transcript. We suggest that loosing dynamic regulation of neuronal GPM6A expression poses a genetic risk for claustrophobia.

  20. X-linked ichthyosis along with epidermolysis bullosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shambulingappa Pallagatti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ichthyoses are a heterogenous group of hereditary keratinization disorders that share in common the accumulation & shedding of large amounts of hyperkeratotic epidermis.Early reports of ichthyosis in the Indian and Chinese literature date back to several hundred years. X-linked recessive ichthyosis (XLI is a common disorder of keratinization and affects males who inherit an X-chromosome having a steroid sulphatase genetic mutation.In the present communication we report a case of XLI and dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa in the same patient. To the best of our knowledge it has been reported only once before.

  1. Asymmetric Cerebral Lesion Pattern in X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Wang

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD is an inherited disease caused by peroxisomal dysfunction. X-ALD usually involves the cerebral white matter in an approximately symmetric way. We report a 10-year-old boy with the cerebral form of X-ALD who presented with cognitive impairment and left spastic hemiparesis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed asymmetric lesions, and the lesions in the right hemisphere were predominant. In the late stage of the disease, bilateral limbs were involved. The cerebral lesions enlarged and appeared approximately symmetric on MRI. The purpose of our report is to highlight asymmetric demyelination in initial presentation of X-ALD.

  2. Evolving practice: X-linked agammaglobulinemia and lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, S; Kotecha, S; Douglass, J A; Paul, E; Hore-Lacy, F; Hore-Lacey, F; Stirling, R; Snell, G I; Westall, G P

    2015-04-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a rare primary humoral immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by agammaglobulinemia, recurrent infections and bronchiectasis. Despite the association with end-stage bronchiectasis, the literature on XLA and lung transplantation is extremely limited. We report a series of 6 XLA patients with bronchiectasis who underwent lung transplantation. Short-term outcomes were excellent however long-term outcomes were disappointing with a high incidence of pulmonary sepsis and chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  3. JOINT DISEASE IN CHILDREN WITH X-LINKED AGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Kareva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA are prone to recurrent bacterial infections due to low levels of immunoglobulins. Clinical symptoms include recurrent bacterial otitis media, bronchitis, pneumonia, meningitis, skin infection and arthritis.In the majority of cases arthritis can be shown to be caused by infection, but also aseptic arthritis and autoimmune diseases may be present. Monoarthritis and oligoarthritis is usual pattern, although polyarthritis may occur. This paper presents diagnostic and therapeutic problems in our patients with agammaglobulinemia and arthritis.

  4. Complex single gene disorders and epilepsy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Merwick, Aine

    2012-09-01

    Epilepsy is a heterogeneous group of disorders, often associated with significant comorbidity, such as intellectual disability and skin disorder. The genetic underpinnings of many epilepsies are still being elucidated, and we expect further advances over the coming 5 years, as genetic technology improves and prices fall for whole exome and whole genome sequencing. At present, there are several well-characterized complex epilepsies associated with single gene disorders; we review some of these here. They include well-recognized syndromes such as tuberous sclerosis complex, epilepsy associated with Rett syndrome, some of the progressive myoclonic epilepsies, and novel disorders such as epilepsy associated with mutations in the PCDH 19 gene. These disorders are important in informing genetic testing to confirm a diagnosis and to permit better understanding of the variability in phenotype-genotype correlation.

  5. X-linked glycogen storage disease IXa manifested in a female carrier due to skewed X chromosome inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sun Young; Lam, Ching-wan; Tong, Sui-Fan; Siu, Wai-Kwan

    2013-11-15

    Glycogen storage disease (GSD) is a group of inherited metabolic disorders due to enzymatic deficiency involved in glycogen breakdown. In various subtypes of GSD, GSD IXa is an X-linked recessive disorder, which only manifested in males. Here, we report a case of X-linked GSD IXa manifested in a female Chinese patient accompanying a skewed X-chromosome inactivation (XCI). A 29-y-old Chinese female was admitted to evaluate mild hepatomegaly, which was repeatedly observed in serial abdominal ultrasonographic examinations. GSDIXa was suspected. To identify the mutation and the disease mechanism, we performed sequencing analysis of the PHKA2 gene, XCI assay and cDNA expression analysis. Sequencing analysis revealed a heterozygous mutation in the PHKA2 gene (c.3614C>T; p.P1205L) of the patient. In XCI assay, the proband showed a skewed XCI pattern cDNA expression analysis showed a preferential expression of the mutant allele in leukocytes of the patient. This is a rare report of X-linked GSD IXa manifested in a female carrier with skewed XCI. Skewed XCI can play a key role in the manifestation of X-linked recessive disorders in female carriers. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Refractory Chronic Pleurisy Caused by Helicobacter equorum-Like Bacterium in a Patient with X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funato, Michinori; Kaneko, Hideo; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Sasai, Hideo; Kubota, Kazuo; Ohnishi, Hidenori; Kato, Zenichiro; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    We describe a 35-year-old man with X-linked agammaglobulinemia who had refractory chronic pleurisy caused by a Helicobacter equorum-like bacterium. Broad-range bacterial PCR targeting the 16S and 23S rRNA genes and in situ hybridization targeting the 16S rRNA gene of H. equorum confirmed the presence of this pathogen in a human for the first time. PMID:21677071

  7. Genetics Home Reference: alpha thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... linked intellectual disability syndrome Alpha thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Alpha thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability syndrome is an inherited disorder that affects many ...

  8. Connexin mutations in X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergoffen, J. (Univ. of Pennsylvania Medical School, Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Scherer, S.S.; Wang, S.; Scott, M.; Bone, L.J.; Chen, K.; Lensch, M.W.; Fischbeck, K.H. (Univ. of Pennsylvania Medical School, PA (United States)); Paul, D.L. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)); Change, P.F. (Univ. of Pennsylvania Medical School and Neurology Division, Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1993-12-24

    X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX) is a form of hereditary neuropathy with demyelination. Recently, this disorder was mapped to chromosome Xq13.1. The gene for the gap junction protein connexin32 is located in the same chromosomal segment, which led to its consideration as a candidate gene for CMTX. With the use of Northern (RNA) blot and immunohistochemistry techniques, it was found that connexin32 is normally expressed in myelinated peripheral nerve. Direct sequencing of the connexin32 gene showed seven different mutations in affected persons from eight CMTX families. These findings, a demonstration of inherited defects in a gap junction protein, suggest that connexin32 plays an important role in peripheral nerve.

  9. Whole Genome Sequencing Reveals Novel Non-Synonymous Mutation in Ectodysplasin A (EDA) Associated with Non-Syndromic X-Linked Dominant Congenital Tooth Agenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Tanmoy; Bansal, Rajesh; Das, Parimal

    2014-01-01

    Congenital tooth agenesis in human is characterized by failure of tooth development during tooth organogenesis. 300 genes in mouse and 30 genes in human so far have been known to regulate tooth development. However, candidature of only 5 genes viz. PAX9, MSX1, AXIN2, WNT10A and EDA have been experimentally established for congenitally missing teeth like hypodontia and oligodontia. In this study an Indian family with multiple congenital tooth agenesis was identified. Pattern of inheritance was apparently autosomal dominant type with a rare possibility to be X-linked. Whole genome sequencing of two affected individuals was carried out which revealed 119 novel non-synonymous single nucleotide variations (SNVs) distributed among 117 genes. Out of these only one variation (c.956G>T) located at exon 9 of X-linked EDA gene was considered as pathogenic and validated among all the affected and unaffected family members and unrelated controls. This variation leads to p.Ser319Ile change in the TNF homology domain of EDA (transcript variant 1) protein. In silico analysis predicts that this Ser319 is well conserved across different vertebrate species and a part of putative receptor binding site. Structure based homology modeling predicts that this amino acid residue along with four other amino acid residues nearby, those when mutated known to cause selective tooth agenesis, form a cluster that may have functional significance. Taken together these results suggest that c.956G>T (p.Ser319Ile) mutation plausibly reduces the receptor binding activity of EDA leading to distinct tooth agenesis in this family. PMID:25203534

  10. Genetic analysis of a kindred with X-linked mental handicap and retinitis pigmentosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldred, M.A.; Dry, K.L.; Hardwick, L.J.; Teague, P.W.; Lester, D.H.; Brown, J.; Spowart, G.; Carothers, A.D.; Wright, A.F. [Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom); Knight-Jones, E.B. [Univ. of Nottingham (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-11-01

    A kindred is described in which X-linked nonspecific mental handicap segregates together with retinitis pigmentosa. Carrier females are mentally normal but may show signs of the X-linked retinitis pigmentosa carrier state and become symptomatic in their later years. Analysis of polymorphic DNA markers at nine loci on the short arm of the X chromosome shows that no crossing-over occurs between the disease and Xp11 markers DXS255, TIMP, DXS426, MAOA, and DXS228. The 90% confidence limits show that the locus is in the Xp21-q21 region. Haplotype analysis is consistent with the causal gene being located proximal to the Xp21 loci DXS538 and 5{prime}-dystrophin on the short arm of the X chromosome. The posterior probability of linkage to the RP2 region of the X chromosome short arm (Xp11.4-p11.23) is .727, suggesting the possibility of a contiguous-gene-deletion syndrome. No cytogenetic abnormality has been identified. 33 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked hyper IgM syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions X-linked hyper IgM syndrome X-linked hyper IgM syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description X-linked hyper IgM syndrome is a condition that affects the ...

  12. Modeling the Activity of Single Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjolsness, Eric; Gibson, Michael

    1999-01-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology states that information is stored in DNA, transcribed to messenger RNA (mRNA) and then translated into proteins. This picture is significantly augmentated when we consider the action of certain proteins in regulating transcription. These transcription factors provide a feedback pathway by which genes can regulate one another's expression as mRNA and then as protein. To review: DNA, RNA and proteins have different functions. DNA is the molecular storehouse of genetic information. When cells divide, the DNA is replicated, so that each daughter cell maintains the same genetic information as the mother cell. RNA acts as a go-between from DNA to proteins. Only a single copy of DNA is present, but multiple copies of the same piece of RNA may be present, allowing cells to make huge amounts of protein. In eukaryotes (organisms with a nucleus), DNA is found in the nucleus only. RNA is copied in the nucleus then translocates(moves) outside the nucleus, where it is transcribed into proteins. Along the way, the RNA may be spliced, i.e., may have pieces cut out. RNA then attaches to ribosomes and is translated to proteins. Proteins are the machinery of the cell other than DNA and RNA, all the complex molecules of the cell are proteins. Proteins are specialized machines, each of which fulfills its own task, which may be transporting oxygen, catalyzing reactions, or responding to extracellular signals, just to name a few. One of the more interesting functions a protein may have is binding directly or indirectly to DNA to perform transcriptional regulation, thus forming a closed feedback loop of gene regulation. The structure of DNA and the central dogma were understood in the 50s; in the early 80s it became possible to make arbitrary modifications to DNA and use cellular machinery to transcribe and translate the resulting genes; more recently, genomes (i.e., the complete DNA sequence) of many organisms have been sequenced. This large

  13. Genetic analysis and clinical phenotype of two Indian families with X-linked choroideremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Battu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aims to describe the phenotype and genotype of two Indian families affected with X-linked choroideremia (CHM. Materials and Methods: In these two families, the affected individuals and unaffected family members underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination including an optical coherence tomography (OCT and electroretinogram. Blood samples were collected from the families for genetic analysis. Next generation sequencing (NGS was done using a panel of 184 genes, which covered previously associated genes with retinal dystrophies. Sequencing data were analyzed for the CHM, RPGR, and RP2 genes that have been implicated in CHM and X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP, respectively. The identified variants were confirmed by Sanger sequencing in available individuals and unrelated controls. Results: In two unrelated male patients, NGS analysis revealed a previously reported 3'-splice site change c.820-1G>C in the CHM gene in the first family and hemizygous mutation c.653G>C (p.Ser218X in the second family. The asymptomatic family members were carriers for these mutations. Spectral domain-OCT showed loss of outer retina, preservation of the inner retina, and choroidal thinning in the affected males and retinal pigment epithelial changes in the asymptomatic carriers. The identified mutations were not present in 100 controls of Indian origin. There were no potential mutations found in XLRP-associated (RPGR and RP2 genes. Conclusion: This report describes the genotype and phenotype findings in patients with CHM from India. The identified genetic mutation leads to lack of Rab escort protein-1 (REP-1 or affects the production of a REP-1 protein that is likely to cause retinal abnormalities in patients.

  14. X-linked deafness with stapes gusher in females

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadaki, E. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital of Heraklion, Medical School of Crete, 71110 Stavrakia, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Prassopoulos, P. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital of Heraklion, Medical School of Crete, 71110 Stavrakia, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Bizakis, J. [Department of Otolaryngology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Medical School of Crete, 71110 Stavrakia, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Karampekios, S. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital of Heraklion, Medical School of Crete, 71110 Stavrakia, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Papadakis, H. [Department of Otolaryngology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Medical School of Crete, 71110 Stavrakia, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Gourtsoyiannis, N. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital of Heraklion, Medical School of Crete, 71110 Stavrakia, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    1998-11-01

    A 22-year-old woman presented with severe mixed hearing loss and a flow of cerebrospinal fluid in the middle ear during stapes surgery (stapes gusher). HRCT of the temporal bones showed characteristic abnormalities of the inner ear (bulbous dilatation of the lateral portion of the internal acoustic meatus with incomplete separation from the cochlea, and widening of the first part of the facial nerve canal) described in X-linked progressive mixed deafness with stapes gusher. The evaluation of the patient's family revealed a sister with the same clinical history and identical HRCT findings, and 11 normal male relatives. This is the first report with typical findings of this entity that affects only female members of a family, suggesting another type of inheritance.

  15. Localised proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Confort-Gouny, S. [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale (CRMBM), URA, CNRS, Faculte de Medicine, 13 - Marseille (France); Vion-Dury, J. [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale (CRMBM), URA, CNRS, Faculte de Medicine, 13 - Marseille (France); Cozzone, P.J. [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale (CRMBM), URA, CNRS, Faculte de Medicine, 13 - Marseille (France); Chabrol, B. [Service de Neuropediatrie, Hospital d`Enfants, Centre Hospitalo Universitaire, 13 - Marseille (France); Nicoli, F. [Service de Neurologie, Hopital Ste Margeurite, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1995-10-01

    We have performed localised proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the brain on four patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD). The spectrum is characterised at the beginning of the disease by a decrease in N-acetylaspartate and phosphocreatine-creatine content. Choline is strongly increased, and lactate can be detected in some cases. A proton signal from the CH{sub 2} groups borne by free intracellular very long chain fatty acids can also be observed. Later in the disease, the levels of all metabolites, in particular NAA, decrease significantly. The progression of neurometabolism documented by MRS correlates well with MRI and clinical progression on follow-up study. In one case, the metabolic profile recorded by proton MRS was abnormal before any change occurred on MRI. Proton MRS of the brain might be the method of choice for monitoring patients with X-ALD, to screen presumed cases and to study the effects of treatment. (orig.)

  16. X-linked deafness with stapes gusher in females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadaki, E.; Prassopoulos, P.; Bizakis, J.; Karampekios, S.; Papadakis, H.; Gourtsoyiannis, N.

    1998-01-01

    A 22-year-old woman presented with severe mixed hearing loss and a flow of cerebrospinal fluid in the middle ear during stapes surgery (stapes gusher). HRCT of the temporal bones showed characteristic abnormalities of the inner ear (bulbous dilatation of the lateral portion of the internal acoustic meatus with incomplete separation from the cochlea, and widening of the first part of the facial nerve canal) described in X-linked progressive mixed deafness with stapes gusher. The evaluation of the patient's family revealed a sister with the same clinical history and identical HRCT findings, and 11 normal male relatives. This is the first report with typical findings of this entity that affects only female members of a family, suggesting another type of inheritance

  17. Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis and X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia: An Uncommon Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Lavrador

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by agammaglobulinemia requiring replacement treatment with immunoglobulin. The association of XLA and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN is unexpected and, to our knowledge, only one case was previously published. Case Report. The authors report the case of a 10-year-old boy with family history and prenatal diagnosis of XLA, treated from birth with intravenous immunoglobulin replacement therapy. He presented with pneumonia, macroscopic hematuria, nephrotic proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and hypercholesterolemia with normal renal function and serum complement levels. Renal histology showed immune complex mediated MPGN. He was started on high dose prednisolone and ramipril and switched to weekly subcutaneous immunoglobulin. After a 4-month treatment, hematuria and proteinuria significantly improved and prednisolone was gradually tapered without relapse. Conclusion. The pathogenic process underlying MPGN development in this patient is unknown but residual humoral immunity might play an important role. Thus, this case highlights the risk of autoimmune disorders among patients with XLA.

  18. [Dermatomyositis-like syndrome in x-linked agammaglobulinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, P D; Costa, C; Rodrigues, M; Salvador, M J; Pereira da Silva, J A; Malcata, A

    2016-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) encompass more than 250 different pathological conditions. X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) has been occasionally associated with cutaneous and muscular manifestations resembling dermatomyositis, often termed dermatomyositis-like syndrome (DLS). This syndrome has been associated with cutaneous, muscular and central nervous system manifestations, accompanying a persistent infection by an Echovirus. According to sixteen previously reported cases, this syndrome has a poor prognosis. We report the case of a 27-years old male, with XLA and DLS, successfully treated with 6 cycles of human immunoglobulin and methotrexate. Clinical symptoms improved dramatically with a complete resolution of the musculoskeletal manifestations. Despite this clinical response, prognosis should remain reserved. The evolution of this syndrome remains unpredictable and therapeutic options are limited. To the best of our knowledge, there are only a few reports of similar cases which have survived so many months after the diagnosis.

  19. Dermatomyositis-like syndrome in x-linked agammaglobulinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro David Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs encompass more than 250 different pathological conditions. X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA has been occasionally associated with cutaneous and muscular manifestations resembling dermatomyositis, often termed dermatomyositis-like syndrome (DLS. This syndrome has been associated with cutaneous, muscular and central nervous system manifestations, accompanying a persistent infection by an Echovirus. According to sixteen previously reported cases, this syndrome has a poor prognosis. We report the case of a 27-years old male, with XLA and DLS, successfully treated with 6 cycles of human immunoglobulin and methotrexate. Clinical symptoms improved dramatically with a complete resolution of the musculoskeletal manifestations. Despite this clinical response, prognosis should remain reserved. The evolution of this syndrome remains unpredictable and therapeutic options are limited. To the best of our knowledge, there are only a few reports of similar cases which have survived so many months after the diagnosis.

  20. The expanding spectrum of PRPS1-associated phenotypes: three novel mutations segregating with X-linked hearing loss and mild peripheral neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robusto, Michela; Fang, Mingyan; Asselta, Rosanna; Castorina, Pierangela; Previtali, Stefano C; Caccia, Sonia; Benzoni, Elena; De Cristofaro, Raimondo; Yu, Cong; Cesarani, Antonio; Liu, Xuanzhu; Li, Wangsheng; Primignani, Paola; Ambrosetti, Umberto; Xu, Xun; Duga, Stefano; Soldà, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing is currently the technology of choice for gene/mutation discovery in genetically-heterogeneous disorders, such as inherited sensorineural hearing loss (HL). Whole-exome sequencing of a single Italian proband affected by non-syndromic HL identified a novel missense variant within the PRPS1 gene (NM_002764.3:c.337G>T (p.A113S)) segregating with post-lingual, bilateral, progressive deafness in the proband's family. Defects in this gene, encoding the phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase 1 (PRS-I) enzyme, determine either X-linked syndromic conditions associated with hearing impairment (eg, Arts syndrome and Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type X-5) or non-syndromic HL (DFNX1). A subsequent screening of the entire PRPS1 gene in 16 unrelated probands from X-linked deaf families led to the discovery of two additional missense variants (c.343A>G (p.M115V) and c.925G>T (p.V309F)) segregating with hearing impairment, and associated with mildly-symptomatic peripheral neuropathy. All three variants result in a marked reduction (>60%) of the PRS-I activity in the patients' erythrocytes, with c.343A>G (p.M115V) and c.925G>T (p.V309F) affecting more severely the enzyme function. Our data significantly expand the current spectrum of pathogenic variants in PRPS1, confirming that they are associated with a continuum disease spectrum, thus stressing the importance of functional studies and detailed clinical investigations for genotype–phenotype correlation. PMID:25182139

  1. [Identification of a novel GPR143 mutation in a Chinese family affected with X-linked ocular albinism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Guan, Menglong; Wang, Ling; Liao, Yong; Li-Ling, Jesse; Wan, Huajing

    2017-04-10

    To detect mutation of GPR143 gene in a Chinese patient affected with ocular albinism. Peripheral blood samples were collected from the proband and his parents. The coding regions of the GPR143 gene were subjected to PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing. A previously unreported mutation (c.758T>A) was found in exon 6 of the GPR143 gene in the proband and his mother. The same mutation was not found in his father. As predicted, the mutation has resulted in a stop codon, causing premature termination of protein translation. A novel mutation of the GPR143 gene related to X-linked ocular albinism has been identified.

  2. Role of cholesterol sulfate in epidermal structure and function: Lessons from X-linked ichthyosis☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Peter M.; Williams, Mary L.; Choi, Eung-Ho; Feingold, Kenneth R.

    2014-01-01

    X-linked ichthyosis is a relatively common syndromic form of ichthyosis most often due to deletions in the gene encoding the microsomal enzyme, steroid sulfatase, located on the short area of the X chromosome. Syndromic features are mild or unapparent unless contiguous genes are affected. In normal epidermis, cholesterol sulfate is generated by cholesterol sulfotransferase (SULT2B1b), but desulfated in the outer epidermis, together forming a ‘cholesterol sulfate cycle’ that potently regulates epidermal differentiation, barrier function and desquamation. In XLI, cholesterol sulfate levels my exceed 10% of total lipid mass (≈1% of total weight). Multiple cellular and biochemical processes contribute to the pathogenesis of the barrier abnormality and scaling phenotype in XLI. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Important Role of Lipids in the Epidermis and their Role in the Formation and Maintenance of the Cutaneous Barrier. Guest Editors: Kenneth R. Feingold and Peter Elias. PMID:24291327

  3. X-linked Myotubular Myopathy with a Novel MTM1 Mutation in a Taiwanese Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ying Chang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a male, preterm newborn infant with X-linked myotubular myopathy, the most severe type of the disease. He presented at birth with generalized hypotonia, difficulty in swallowing, and respiratory distress with frequent episodes of atelectasis. The infant had a long thin face, generalized hypotonia, and arachnodactyly. Diagnosis was based on fetal history, muscle histopathology, electron microscopy and a genetic study. A base pair change was detected in exon 11 of the MTM1 gene: c.1160C > A, which caused an amino acid change, p.S387Y. The father's gene was normal but the mother had the same mutation as her son and was thus a carrier.

  4. X-linked agammaglobulinemia combined with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and invasive Klebsiella pneumoniae polyarticular septic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zaihua; Kang, Yuli; Lin, Zhenlang; Huang, Yanjing; Lv, Huoyang; Li, Yasong

    2015-02-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a primary immunodeficiency disease caused by mutations in the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene. XLA can also present in combination with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), the major chronic rheumatologic disease in children. We report herein the first known case of a juvenile patient diagnosed with XLA combined with JIA that later developed into invasive Klebsiella pneumoniae polyarticular septic polyarthritis. An additional comprehensive review of XLA combined with JIA and invasive K. pneumoniae septic arthritis is also presented. XLA was identified by the detection of BTK mutations while the diagnosis of JIA was established by clinical and laboratory assessments. Septic arthritis caused by invasive K. pneumoniae was confirmed by culturing of the synovia and gene detection of the isolates. Invasive K. pneumoniae infections can not only result in liver abscesses but also septic arthritis, although this is rare. XLA combined with JIA may contribute to invasive K. pneumoniae infection.

  5. X-linked agammaglobulinemia associated with B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Akihiro; Okuno, Yusuke; Migita, Masahiro; Ban, Hideki; Yang, Xi; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka; Adachi, Yuichi; Kojima, Seiji; Ohara, Osamu; Kanegane, Hirokazu

    2015-02-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is clinically characterized by reduced number of peripheral B cells and diminished levels of serum immunoglobulins, and caused by a mutation in the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene, which play a pivotal role in signal transduction of pre-B-cell receptor (BCR) and BCR. B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) is the most common malignancy in children, and it may be associated with gene alterations that regulate B-cell development. Here we described a first case of XLA associated BCP-ALL. The whole-exome sequencing revealed a somatic mutation in MLL2 in the sample from the onset of BCP-ALL. This study suggests that the alterations of BTK and MLL2 synergistically function as leukemogenesis.

  6. ABCD1 mutations and phenotype distribution in Chinese patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yan-Fang; Ni, Wang; Wu, Zhi-Ying

    2013-06-10

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a neurodegenerative disorder resulting from mutations within the ABCD1 gene. Adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) and childhood cerebral ALD (CCALD) are most common phenotypes in the Western ALD patients. Here we performed mutation analysis of ABCD1 in 10 Chinese ALD families and identified 8 mutations, including one novel deletion (c.1477_1488+11del23) and 7 known mutations. Mutations c.1772G>A and c.1816T>C were first reported in the Chinese patients. Mutations c.1661G>A and c.1679C>T were demonstrated to be de novo mutations. The dinucleotide deletion 1415_16delAG, described as a mutational hotspot in different ethnic groups, was identified in two families. In addition, we performed a retrospective nation-wide mutation study of X-linked ALD in China based on a literature review. The retrospective study further confirmed the hypothesis that exon 6 is a potential mutation cluster region in the Asian populations. Furthermore, it suggested that CCALD is the most common phenotype in China. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Test-Retest Intervisit Variability of Functional and Structural Parameters in X-Linked Retinoschisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Brett G; Cukras, Catherine A; Vitale, Susan; Turriff, Amy; Bowles, Kristin; Sieving, Paul A

    2014-09-01

    To examine the variability of four outcome measures that could be used to address safety and efficacy in therapeutic trials with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis. Seven men with confirmed mutations in the RS1 gene were evaluated over four visits spanning 6 months. Assessments included visual acuity, full-field electroretinograms (ERG), microperimetric macular sensitivity, and retinal thickness measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Eyes were separated into Better or Worse Eye groups based on acuity at baseline. Repeatability coefficients were calculated for each parameter and jackknife resampling used to derive 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The threshold for statistically significant change in visual acuity ranged from three to eight letters. For ERG a-wave, an amplitude reduction greater than 56% would be considered significant. For other parameters, variabilities were lower in the Worse Eye group, likely a result of floor effects due to collapse of the schisis pockets and/or retinal atrophy. The criteria for significant change (Better/Worse Eye) for three important parameters were: ERG b/a-wave ratio (0.44/0.23), point wise sensitivity (10.4/7.0 dB), and central retinal thickness (31%/18%). The 95% CI range for visual acuity, ERG, retinal sensitivity, and central retinal thickness relative to baseline are described for this cohort of participants with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS). A quantitative understanding of the variability of outcome measures is vital to establishing the safety and efficacy limits for therapeutic trials of XLRS patients.

  8. Linkage localization of X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergoffen, J. (Children' s Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States) Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States)); Trofatter, J.; Haines, J.L. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (United States)); Pericak-Vance, M.A. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)); Chance, P.F. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States)); Fischbeck, K.H. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States))

    1993-02-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), also known as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, is a heterogeneous group of slowly progressive, degenerative disorders of peripheral nerve. X-linked CMT (CMTX) (McKusick 302800), a subdivision of type I, or demyelinating, CMT is an X-linked dominant condition with variable penetrance. Previous linkage analysis using RFLPs demonstrated linkage to markers on the proximal long and short arms of the X chromosome, with the more likely localization on the proximal long arm of the X chromosome. Available variable simple-sequence repeats (VSSRs) broaden the possibilities for linkage analysis. This paper presents new linkage data and recombination analysis derived from work with four VSSR markers - AR, PGKP1, DXS453, and DXYS1X - in addition to analysis using RFLP markers described elsewhere. These studies localize the CMTX gene to the proximal Xq segment between PGKP1 (Xq11.2-12) and DXS72 (Xq21.1), with a combined maximum multipoint lod score of 15.3 at DXS453 ([theta] = 0). 32 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. X-linked congenital adrenal hypoplasia associated with hypospadias in an Egyptian baby: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metwalley Kotb

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction X-linked congenital adrenal hypoplasia is a rare developmental disorder of the human adrenal cortex and is caused by deletion or mutation of the dosage-sensitive sex reversal adrenal hypoplasia congenita critical region of the X chromosome, gene 1 (DAX-1 gene. Most affected children present with failure to thrive, salt wasting and hypoglycemic convulsions in the first months of life. Hypospadias affects approximately one in 250 live male births. Mutations in the mastermind-like domain-containing 1 (MAMLD1 gene have been implicated as one of the causes of hypospadias in children. To the best of our knowledge, an association between congenital adrenal hypoplasia due to a DAX-1 mutation and hypospadias due to mutation of the MAMLD1 gene has not previously been reported in the literature. Case presentation A 35-day-old male Egyptian baby was referred to our institution for the evaluation of a two-week history of recurrent vomiting associated with electrolyte imbalance. On examination, our patient was found to have hypotension and dehydration. A genital examination showed distal penile hypospadias with chordee and normal testes. He had hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, hypoglycemia and metabolic acidosis. Endocrinological investigations revealed low levels of cortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone and aldosterone, with a high level of adrenocorticotrophic hormone. A provisional diagnosis of congenital adrenal hypoplasia associated with hypospadias was made. A molecular genetics study confirmed the diagnosis of X-linked congenital adrenal hypoplasia due to DAX-1 mutations and hypospadias due to MAMLD1 mutation. He was started on hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone treatment. After three weeks of treatment, his symptoms improved and his blood sugar, sodium, potassium and cortisol levels normalized. Conclusions We report the case of an Egyptian baby with an association of congenital adrenal hypoplasia due to DAX-1 mutation and hypospadias due

  10. In vivo confocal microscopy of pre-Descemet corneal dystrophy associated with X-linked ichthyosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hui; Qi, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Tao-Tao; Hao, Qian; Li, Xiao-Hong; Liang, Ling-Ling; Wang, Yi-Miao; Cui, Zhi-Hua

    2017-03-16

    Pre-Descemet corneal dystrophy (PDCD) is characterized by the presence of numerous, tiny, polymorphic opacities immediately anterior to Descemet membrane, which is a rare form of corneal stromal dystrophy and hard to be diagnosed. In vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) is a useful tool to examine the minimal lesions of the cornea at the cellular level. In this article, we report a rare case of PDCD associated with X-linked ichthyosis and evaluate IVCM findings. We present a 34-year-old male Chinese patient with PDCD associated with X-linked ichthyosis. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy showed the presence of tiny and pleomorphic opacities in the posterior stroma immediately anterior to Descemet membrane bilaterally. IVCM revealed regular distributed hyperreflective particles inside the enlarged and activated keratocytes in the posterior stroma. Hyperreflective particles were also observed dispersedly outside the keratocytes in the anterior stroma. Dermatological examination revealed that the skin over the patient's entire body was dry and coarse, with thickening and scaling of the skin in the extensor side of the extremities. PCR results demonstrated that all ten exons and part flanking sequences of STS gene failed to produce any amplicons in the patient. IVCM is useful for analyzing the living corneal structural changes in rare corneal dystrophies. We first reported the IVCM characteristics of PDCD associated with X-linked ichthyosis, which was caused by a deletion of the steroid sulfatase (STS) gene, confirmed by gene analysis.

  11. Analysis of mutations in Menkes and X-linked cutis laxa patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.; Levinson, B.; Gitschier, J. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Menkes disease is an X-linked disorder of copper metabolism. The complex clinical phenotype is attribute to a deficiency of copper-containing enzymes resulting from a defect in copper transport. X-linked cutis laxa (XLCL), a mild, connective tissues disease may also be an allele of Menkes disease. A gene for the Menkes disease locus (MNK) has been isolated and found to code for a copper-transportion ATPase. Deletions in this gene have been observed in only 15-20% of patients by Southern blot analysis. We have analysed the MNK gene for mutations by RT-PCR and chemical cleavage mismatch detection in a group of 12 patients with severe Menkes phenotype and who were normal by Southern analysis. Mutations were observed in ten patients, and in each case, a different, debilitating mutation was present. Mutations that resulted in splicing abnormalities, detected by RT-PCR alone, were observed in six patients and included two splice site changes, a nonsense mutation, a missense mutation, a small duplication and a small deletion. Chemical cleavage analysis of the remaining six patients revealed the presence of one nonsense mutation, two adjacent 5 bp deletions and one missense mutation. A valine/leucine polymorphism was also observed. These findings, combined with the prior observation of large deletions in {approx}15% of patients, suggest that Southern blot hybridization and RT-PCR will identify mutations in the majority of patients. To date, no mutations have been found in 4 XLCL patients in the MNK coding region by chemical cleavage. However in 2 patients Southern blot changes have been detected with a 5{prime} UTR probe, suggesting mutations affecting regulatory elements.

  12. Identification of rare X-linked neuroligin variants by massively parallel sequencing in males with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinberg Karyn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is highly heritable, but the genetic risk factors for it remain largely unknown. Although structural variants with large effect sizes may explain up to 15% ASD, genome-wide association studies have failed to uncover common single nucleotide variants with large effects on phenotype. The focus within ASD genetics is now shifting to the examination of rare sequence variants of modest effect, which is most often achieved via exome selection and sequencing. This strategy has indeed identified some rare candidate variants; however, the approach does not capture the full spectrum of genetic variation that might contribute to the phenotype. Methods We surveyed two loci with known rare variants that contribute to ASD, the X-linked neuroligin genes by performing massively parallel Illumina sequencing of the coding and noncoding regions from these genes in males from families with multiplex autism. We annotated all variant sites and functionally tested a subset to identify other rare mutations contributing to ASD susceptibility. Results We found seven rare variants at evolutionary conserved sites in our study population. Functional analyses of the three 3’ UTR variants did not show statistically significant effects on the expression of NLGN3 and NLGN4X. In addition, we identified two NLGN3 intronic variants located within conserved transcription factor binding sites that could potentially affect gene regulation. Conclusions These data demonstrate the power of massively parallel, targeted sequencing studies of affected individuals for identifying rare, potentially disease-contributing variation. However, they also point out the challenges and limitations of current methods of direct functional testing of rare variants and the difficulties of identifying alleles with modest effects.

  13. Dental management of patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-Na Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH is a hereditary metabolic disease caused by the loss of phosphate through the renal tubules into the urine, and an associated decrease in serum calcium and potassium phosphate. Its dental features include spontaneous dental abscesses that occur in the absence of trauma or dental caries. The aim of this case report was to describe the dental problems of XLH patients and to evaluate limitations in their treatment. A 14 year old male and a 38 year old female with XLH were referred to the Department of Conservative Dentistry for endodontic treatment. The dental findings were periapical abscesses without obvious trauma or caries. Conservative endodontic treatment was performed in teeth with pulp necrosis and abscess. In case 1, the treated teeth showed improvements in bone healing, without clinical symptoms. However, in case 2, the implants and the treated tooth showed hypermobility, and the final restoration was therefore postponed. Early diagnosis, periodic examinations, and communication with the patient's pediatrician are important in the dental management of patients with XLH

  14. Progression rate of myelopathy in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy heterozygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habekost, Clarissa Troller; Pereira, Fernanda Santos; Vargas, Carmen Regla; Coelho, Daniella Moura; Torrez, Vitor; Oses, Jean Pierre; Portela, Luis Valmor; Schestatsky, Pedro; Felix, Vitor Torres; Matte, Ursula; Torman, Vanessa Leotti; Jardim, Laura Bannach

    2015-10-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy heterozygote women can present adult onset myeloneuropathy and little is known about its natural history. We aimed to describe the progression rate of the neurological impairment in the prospective follow-up of our cohort and to look for prognostic factors. The neurological scales Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) and Severity Score System for Progressive Myelopathy (SSPROM) were applied at baseline in 29 symptomatic carriers and in follow-up visits. Age at onset, disease duration, X inactivation pattern, determination of the allele expressed, plasma levels of the very long chain fatty acids and of the neuron-specific enolase, and somato-sensory evoked potentials, were taken at baseline. The slope of the linear regression of both JOA and SSPROM versus disease duration since the first symptom was estimated using mixed modeling. JOA and SSPROM decreased 0.42 and 1.87 points per year, respectively (p < 0.001). None of the parameters under study influenced these rates. We estimated that the number of carriers per arm needed in a future 12 month trial with 80% power and a 50% reduction in disease progression would be 225 women for JOA and 750 for SSPROM. The progression rates of the studied neurological scales were small, did not depend on any modifier factor known, and reflected the characteristically slow worsening of symptoms in X-ALD heterozygotes. Better biomarkers are still necessary for future studies.

  15. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy presenting as Addison’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morell, Bernhard Kaspar; Teichler, Jens; Budak, Kemal; Vollenweider, Jörg; Pavlicek, Vojtech

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a young man with a history of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and mild cognitive impairment who presented with chronic fatigue, anorexia and progressive darkening of the skin. On laboratory testing, severely depressed concentrations of morning cortisol, along with highly elevated values of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) revealed primary adrenal insufficiency as the primary cause of the patient’s symptomatology. Imaging of the brain showed altered signal intensities in the parieto-occipital regions of the brain. The demonstration of increased very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) established the diagnosis of adolescent X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD). Presenting at an advanced yet slowly progressive stage the patient was not a suitable candidate for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and treatment focused on hormone replacement therapy, family counselling and supportive care. On follow-up visits within the following year, fatigue had diminished and there was no evidence of progressive neurological deficits. However, exacerbation of the psychiatric symptomatology resulted in admittance to a psychiatric ward. PMID:22753300

  16. Hypoperfusion predicts lesion progression in cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musolino, Patricia Leonor; Rapalino, Otto; Caruso, Paul; Caviness, Verne Strudwick; Eichler, Florian Sebald

    2012-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging sequences such as diffusion and spectroscopy have been well studied in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, but no data exist on magnetic resonance perfusion imaging. Since inflammation is known to modulate the microcirculation, we investigated the hypothesis that changes in the local perfusion might be one of the earliest signs of lesion development. Twenty patients with different phenotypes of adrenoleukodystrophy and seven age-matched controls were evaluated between 2006 and 2011. Fluid attenuated inversion recovery, post-contrast T(1)-weighted and normalized dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance perfusion cerebral blood volume maps were co-registered, segmented when cerebral lesion was present, and normalized cerebral blood volume values were analysed using a Food and Drug Association approved magnetic resonance perfusion software (NordicICE). Clinical and imaging data were reviewed to determine phenotype and status of progression. All eight patients with cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy had an average 80% decrease in normalized cerebral blood volume at the core of the lesion (P adrenoleukodystrophy lesions and follow-up imaging (2-24 month interval period), we found progression of contrast enhancement into the formerly hypoperfused perilesional zone. Asymptomatic, adrenomyeloneuropathy and female heterozygote patients had no significant changes in cerebral perfusion. Our data indicate that decreased brain magnetic resonance perfusion precedes leakage of the blood-brain barrier as demonstrated by contrast enhancement in cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy and is an early sign of lesion progression.

  17. Oxidative Stress in Patients with X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deon, Marion; Marchetti, Desirèe P; Donida, Bruna; Wajner, Moacir; Vargas, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is the most frequent peroxisomal disorder that is characterized by progressive demyelination of the white matter, adrenal insufficiency, and accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids in body fluid and tissues. This disorder is clinically heterogeneous with seven different phenotypes in male patients and five phenotypes in female carriers. An ultimate treatment for X-ALD is not available. Depending on the rate of the disease progression and the degree of an individual handicap, special needs and challenges vary greatly. The exact mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of this multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder remains obscure. Previous studies has been related oxidative stress with the pathogenesis of several disease that affecting the central nervous system, such as neurodegenerative disease, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer, and Parkinson diseases. In addition, oxidative damage has been observed in various in vivo and in vitro studies with inborn errors of metabolism, including X-ALD. In this context, this review is focused on oxidative stress in X-ALD, with emphasis on studies using biological samples from patients affected by this disease.

  18. Modeling X-linked ancestral origins in multiparental populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaozhi

    2015-03-04

    The models for the mosaic structure of an individual's genome from multiparental populations have been developed primarily for autosomes, whereas X chromosomes receive very little attention. In this paper, we extend our previous approach to model ancestral origin processes along two X chromosomes in a mapping population, which is necessary for developing hidden Markov models in the reconstruction of ancestry blocks for X-linked quantitative trait locus mapping. The model accounts for the joint recombination pattern, the asymmetry between maternally and paternally derived X chromosomes, and the finiteness of population size. The model can be applied to various mapping populations such as the advanced intercross lines (AIL), the Collaborative Cross (CC), the heterogeneous stock (HS), the Diversity Outcross (DO), and the Drosophila synthetic population resource (DSPR). We further derive the map expansion, density (per Morgan) of recombination breakpoints, in advanced intercross populations with L inbred founders under the limit of an infinitely large population size. The analytic results show that for X chromosomes the genetic map expands linearly at a rate (per generation) of two-thirds times 1 - 10/(9L) for the AIL, and at a rate of two-thirds times 1 - 1/L for the DO and the HS, whereas for autosomes the map expands at a rate of 1 - 1/L for the AIL, the DO, and the HS. Copyright © 2015 Zheng.

  19. Shulman disease (eosinophilic fasciitis) in X-linked agammaglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pituch-Noworolska, A; Mach-Tomalska, H; Szaflarska, A; Adamek, D

    2016-06-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) diagnosed in the first year of life is an immunodeficiency with a life-long indication for substitution of immunoglobulins, due to lack of B lymphocytes in the periphery. The decrease of bacterial infection frequency and severity is an effect of immunoglobulin replacement. However, in the majority of patients bronchiectasis and chronic sinusitis with an overgrown mucous membrane develop despite regular substitution. Autoimmune diseases as co-existing diseases in XLA are noted in a few patients presenting symptoms associated with arthritis, scleroderma and myositis. Our patient was diagnosed with XLA in the first year of life, followed by regular substitution of immunoglobulins. The symptoms of pain, edema of muscles of the right shank with skin edema and discoloration after mild injury were noted in a 13-year-old boy. Shulman disease was diagnosed after 6 months of symptoms, based on histopathology of muscle and skin biopsy. Before the diagnosis, non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) were used with a transient effect. After the diagnosis, therapy included steroids, immunoglobulins in a high dose and immunosuppression, with improvement of clinical symptoms. During methotrexate (MTX) therapy the patient developed two episodes of pneumonia, so mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) was used, with a similar effect. Now, with this therapy, the symptoms are mild and stable without progression.

  20. Tubulointerstitial nephritis complicating IVIG therapy for X-linked agammaglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Keisuke; Nishi, Hitomi; Miyazawa, Tomoki; Wada, Norihisa; Izu, Akane; Enya, Takuji; Okada, Mitsuru; Takemura, Tsukasa

    2014-07-08

    Patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) develop immune-complex induced diseases such as nephropathy only rarely, presumably because their immunoglobulin (Ig) G concentration is low. We encountered a patient with XLA who developed tubulointerstitial nephritis during treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). A 20-year-old man was diagnosed with XLA 3 months after birth and subsequently received periodic γ-globulin replacement therapy. Renal dysfunction developed at 19 years of age in association with high urinary β2-microglobulin (MG) concentrations. A renal biopsy specimen showed dense CD3-positive lymphocytic infiltration in the tubulointerstitium and tubular atrophy, while no IgG4-bearing cell infiltration was found. Fibrosclerosis and crescent formation were evident in some glomeruli. Fluorescent antibody staining demonstrated deposition of IgG and complement component C3 in tubular basement membranes. After pulse steroid therapy was initiated, urinary β2-MG and serum creatinine concentrations improved. Neither drug reactions nor collagen disease were likely causes of tubular interstitial disorder in this patient. Although BK virus was ruled out, IgG in the γ-globulin preparation might have reacted with a pathogen present in the patient to form low-molecular-weight immune complexes that were deposited in the tubular basement membrane.

  1. [X-linked agammaglobulinemia in adults. Clinical evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgetti, Orlando B; Paolini, María V; Oleastro, Matías M; Fernández Romero, Diego S

    2016-01-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is characterized by absent or severely reduced B cells, low or undetectable immunoglobulin levels and clinically by extracellular bacterial infections which mainly compromise the respiratory tract as well as recurrent diarrheas. The mainstay of treatment is gammaglobulin replacement therapy, which allows most patients to reach adulthood with high quality of life. We analyzed the clinical features of 14 patients over 18 years of age with XLA diagnosis that received treatment in our unit from the year 2003, the date the first patient was derived, until 2015. The average age at which patients were referred was 20.4 years old; age at the last consult was 25.5. The average follow-up time was 59.8 months. Previously to being diagnosed all patients had suffered infections, most frequently respiratory. After diagnosis all were started on intravenous gammaglobulin replacement treatment and in spite of infections being reduced in severity and frequency, there were cases of severe disease with long term sequelae. At the beginning of our follow-up 35.7% presented impaired respiratory function with only one case being severe. In no cases during this period did the respiratory function worsen, nor were there severe clinical complications. Three patients were switched to subcutaneous immunoglobulin treatment with good tolerance. The number of XLA cases is increasing, as most reach the second decade of life without serious complications and remain free of severe infectious disease and further impairment of their respiratory functions with the treatment.

  2. Tremor in X-linked recessive spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A. Dias

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study tremor in patients with X-linked recessive spinobulbar muscular atrophy or Kennedy's disease. METHODS: Ten patients (from 7 families with a genetic diagnosis of Kennedy's disease were screened for the presence of tremor using a standardized clinical protocol and followed up at a neurology outpatient clinic. All index patients were genotyped and showed an expanded allele in the androgen receptor gene. RESULTS: Mean patient age was 37.6 years and mean number of CAG repeats 47 (44-53. Tremor was present in 8 (80% patients and was predominantly postural hand tremor. Alcohol responsiveness was detected in 7 (88% patients with tremor, who all responded well to treatment with a β-blocker (propranolol. CONCLUSION: Tremor is a common feature in patients with Kennedy's disease and has characteristics similar to those of essential tremor.

  3. Membranous glomerulopathy in an adult patient with X-linked agammaglobulinemia receiving intravenous gammaglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, L M; Giannobile, J V; Dobbs, A K; Foote, J B; Szymanska, E; Warnock, D G; Cook, W J; Conley, M E; Schroeder, H W

    2011-01-01

    Immune complex deposition in the subepithelial zone of glomerular capillaries can lead to membranous glomerulopathy. To present the case of a 23-year-old man with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) who developed idiopathic membranous glomerulopathy while receiving intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). We performed an immunological workup, genetic testing, and a renal biopsy. XLA was confirmed with less than 0.02% CD19+ cells in the blood after sequence analysis revealed a nonfunctional BTK gene. The patient presented with microhematuria, which persisted for 3 years and spanned treatment with 5 different preparations of intravenous gammaglobulin. Immunohistochemistry revealed membranous glomerulopathy. Although endogenous serum immunoglobulin (Ig) production is severely impaired in XLA, rare B lymphocytes that have managed to mature can produce functional IgG antibodies. The pathogenic immune complexes could reflect IVIG reacting with polymorphic autoantigens, an endogenous IgG-producing clone reacting with a common idiotype present in the IVIG, or both.

  4. X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia Presenting with Secondary Hemophagocytic Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Ozturk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Coincidence of X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA and secondary hemophagocytic syndrome (sHS is atypical. Both diseases are rare and pathogenesis of the latter one is not clearly known. Case Presentation. A 5-year-old boy was diagnosed both with XLA and sHS. However, in his history, he did not have severe and recurrent infections. Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK gene mutation was present (c.1581_1584delTTTG. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, coincidence of XLA and sHS had not been reported in the literature before. Conclusion. Patients with XLA are extremely vulnerable to recurrent bacterial infections. The diagnosis of XLA with sHS at any time of life is both an interesting and challenging situation without history of recurrent bacterial infections.

  5. New domains of neural cell-adhesion molecule L1 implicated in X-linked hydrocephalus and MASA syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouet, M.; Kenwick, S. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Moncla, A. [Hopital d`Enfants de la Timone, Marseillas (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    The neural cell-adhesion molecule L1 is involved in intercellular recognition and neuronal migration in the CNS. Recently, we have shown that mutations in the gene encoding L1 are responsible for three related disorders; X-linked hydrocephalus, MASA (mental retardation, aphasia, shuffling gait, and adducted thumbs) syndrome, and spastic paraplegia type I (SPG1). These three disorders represent a clinical spectrum that varies not only between families but sometimes also within families. To date, 14 independent L1 mutations have been reported and shown to be disease causing. Here we report nine novel L1 mutations in X-linked hydrocephalus and MASA-syndrome families, including the first examples of mutations affecting the fibronectin type III domains of the molecule. They are discussed in relation both to phenotypes and to the insights that they provide into L1 function. 39 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Guillain Barré Syndrome in a Child With X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Jacob MD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available X-Linked adrenoleukodystrophy is the most common peroxisomal disorder with different phenotypes among patients carrying the same ABCD1 mutation. There were previously reported associations of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy with autoimmune disorders. The authors describe Guillain Barré syndrome in a child with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. The available evidence does not permit conclusion concerning etiological linkage between the 2 diseases, but it warrants further study.

  7. Guillain Barr? Syndrome in a Child With X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Ron; Mandel, Hanna; Shehadeh, Naim

    2015-01-01

    X-Linked adrenoleukodystrophy is the most common peroxisomal disorder with different phenotypes among patients carrying the same ABCD1 mutation. There were previously reported associations of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy with autoimmune disorders. The authors describe Guillain Barré syndrome in a child with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. The available evidence does not permit conclusion concerning etiological linkage between the 2 diseases, but it warrants further study.

  8. [X-linked agammaglobulinemia: experience in a Portuguese hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, A; Guedes, M; Vasconcelos, J; Neves, E; Fernandes, S; Marques, L

    2015-03-01

    X-Linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is characterized by an arrest of B cell differentiation, leading to recurrent bacterial infections. Lifelong immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IRT) is indicated to prevent infections and their complications. A retrospective study of patients with XLA followed in a level three hospital was performed; data was collected retrospectively by review of clinical files. XLA was diagnosed in 9 children. One (11%) had a positive family history with a prenatal diagnosis. Infection was the clinical presentation in all the others (89%), at an average age of 13 months; diagnosis was established at a mean age of 3.4 years. Acute otitis media (7/9) and pneumonia (5/9) were the most frequently observed. Seven (78%) presented serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels below 200mg/dL and all of them had CD19(+) B cells below 2%. Neutropenia was present at diagnosis in three patients (33%). Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) mutations were identified in all cases. Intravenous IRT was initiated, switched later to subcutaneous administration, in all. The mean time of follow-up was 10.7 years with cumulative time of 97 years. Eight children (89%) achieved IgG serum levels above 800 mg/dL. One presented lower values due to renal loss. No deaths occurred. After diagnosis the most frequent infections were acute otitis media (6/9). In spite of stable adequate IgG levels on IRT, two patients developed bronchiectasis. XLA overall prognosis is good, as long as patients have an early and adequate treatment. However, bronchiectasis can occur even on adequate immunoglobulin replacement therapy. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. X-linked Hyper IgM Syndrome Presenting as Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Joel; Adams, Juan; Hintermeyer, Mary; Torgerson, Troy R; Lopez-Guisa, Jesus; Ochs, Hans D; Szabo, Sara; Salib, Mina; Verbsky, James; Routes, John

    2016-08-01

    X-linked hyper IgM syndrome (XHIGM) is a combined immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the CD40 ligand (CD40L) gene that typically results in decreased or absent CD40L expression on activated T cells, leading to defective class switching and somatic hypermutation. We describe an infant who presented with respiratory failure due to pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) with a novel damaging missense mutation in the CD40L gene. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was used to identify a mutation in the CD40L gene. CD40L expression and function were determined by flow cytometry. A 5-month-old previously-healthy male presented with respiratory failure and diffuse pulmonary ground glass opacities on CT scan of the chest. Laboratory evaluation revealed an undetectable IgG, normal IgA, and elevated IgM. A bronchoalveolar lavage demonstrated pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. WES demonstrated a c.608G > C mutation in the CD40L gene resulting in p.R203T. Flow cytometry demonstrated normal CD40L expression on activated T cells but absent binding of CD40-Ig to CD40L on activated patient T cells. The clinical manifestations of XHIGM in our patient had several unique features, including the presentation with PAP, normal serum IgA, and expression of non-functional CD40L on activated T cells. To our knowledge, this is the first published case of PAP in a patient with XHIGM.

  10. Novel variants of RPGR in X-linked retinitis pigmentosa families and genotype-phenotype correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmeggiani, Francesco; Barbaro, Vanessa; Migliorati, Angelo; Raffa, Paolo; Nespeca, Patrizia; De Nadai, Katia; Del Vecchio, Claudia; Palù, Giorgio; Parolin, Cristina; Di Iorio, Enzo

    2017-03-10

    To identify novel mutations in the retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR) gene and retinitis pigmentosa 2 (RP2) gene underlying X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) and assess genotype-phenotype correlations. The patient cohort, consisting of 13 individuals from 3 unrelated XLRP families, underwent comprehensive ophthalmologic examination. The open reading frames of RPGR and RP2 were analyzed with Sanger sequencing in each patient. The identified genetic variants were defined as mutations or polymorphisms on the basis of their pathological effect. We found 3 genetic variants: a novel mutation c.1591G>T in exon 14 and a novel polymorphism c.1105C>T in exon 10, resulting in p.Glu531* and p.Arg369Cys of RPGR gene, respectively, and one already known mutation c.413A>G in exon 2, resulting in a p.Glu138Gly of RP2 gene. Considering our XLRP probands, RPGR-related phenotypic damages were similar and less severe than those of the patient with the RP2 mutation. On the other hand, the female carriers of XLRP variants showed different RPGR-related consequences, ranging from rods hypofunctionality in c.1591G>T nonsense heterozygosity to no retinal changes in c.1105C>T polymorphic heterozygosity. These findings broaden the spectrum of RPGR mutations and phenotypic variability of the disease, which will be useful for genetic consultation and diagnosis in the future.

  11. Mutations in PHKA2 are responsible for X-linked liver glycogen storage disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickx, J.; Coucke, P.; Dams, E. [Univ. of Antwerp (Belgium)

    1994-09-01

    X-linked liver glycogenosis type I (XLG I) is due to a deficiency of phosphorylase kinase (PHK), a key enzyme in the control of glycogen breakdown. XLG I is the most common glycogen storage disease. Patients show hepatomegaly, growth retardation and elevation of liver enzymes as their main clinical symptoms. We assigned the XLG I gene to the chromosomal region Xp22 by linkage analysis in six XLG I families. As the liver {alpha}-subunit of PHK (PHKA2) was also localized to Xp22, PHKA2 was considered a candidate gene for XLG I. In this study, we searched for mutations in 6 exons of the PHDA2 gene of 9 unrelated XLG I patients by SSCP analysis. This revealed three point mutations present in three different patients. Two of these mutations introduce a premature stop codon leading to a truncated protein. The third mutation abolishes a 5{prime} splice site consensus sequence leading to exon skipping. All three mutations therefore result in a PHKA2 protein that lacks several amino acids, what most probably affects enzyme function or stability. These findings indicate that PHKA2 is the XLG I gene.

  12. Clinical characteristics and genetic profiles of 174 patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xia-Fang; Wang, Wei-Fan; Zhang, Yi-Dan; Zhao, Wei; Wu, Jing; Chen, Tong-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a humoral primary immunodeficiency. XLA patients typically present with very low numbers of peripheral B cells and a profound deficiency of all immunoglobulin isotypes. Most XLA patients carry mutations in Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene. The genetic background and clinical features of 174 Chinese patients with XLA were investigated. The relationship between specific BTK gene mutations and severity of clinical manifestations was also examined. Mutations were graded from mild to severe based on structural and functional prediction through bioinformatics analysis. One hundred twenty-seven mutations were identified in 142 patients from 124 families, including 45 novel mutations and 82 recurrent mutations that were distributed over the entire BTK gene sequence. Variation in phenotypes was observed, and there was a tendency of association between genotype and age of disease onset. This report constitutes the largest group of patients with BTK mutations in China. A genotype–phenotype correlation was observed in this study. Early diagnosis of congenital agammaglobulinemia should be based on clinical symptoms, family history, and molecular analysis of the BTK gene. PMID:27512878

  13. Epilepsy and mental retardation restricted to females: X-linked epileptic infantile encephalopathy of unusual inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duszyc, Kinga; Terczynska, Iwona; Hoffman-Zacharska, Dorota

    2015-02-01

    Epilepsy in females with mental retardation (EFMR) is a rare early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE), phenotypically resembling Dravet syndrome (DS). It is characterised by a variable degree of intellectual deficits and epilepsy. EFMR is caused by heterozygous mutations in the PCDH19 gene (locus Xq22.1) encoding protocadherin-19, a protein that is highly expressed during brain development. The protein is involved in cell adhesion and probably plays an important role in neuronal migration and formation of synaptic connections. EFMR is considered X-linked of variable mutations' penetrance. Mutations in the PCDH19 gene mainly arise de novo, but if inherited, they show a unique pattern of transmission. Females with heterozygous mutations are affected, while hemizygous males are not, regardless of mutation carriage. This singular mode might be explained by cell interference as a pathogenic molecular mechanism leading to neuronal dysfunction. Recently, PCDH19-related EIEE turned out to be more frequent than initially thought, contributing to around 16% of cases (25% in female groups) in the SCN1A-negative DS-like patients. Therefore, the PCDH19 gene is now estimated to be the second, after SCN1A, most clinically relevant gene in epilepsy.

  14. Loss-of-Function CNKSR2 Mutation Is a Likely Cause of Non-Syndromic X-Linked Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houge, G; Rasmussen, I H; Hovland, R

    2012-01-01

    In a non-dysmorphic 5-year-old boy with developmental delay, well-controlled epilepsy, and microcephaly, a 234-kb deletion of Xp22.12 was detected by copy number analysis. The maternally inherited deletion removed the initial 15 of the 21 exons of the connector enhancer of KSR-2 gene called CNKSR2 or CNK2. Our finding suggests that loss of CNKSR2 is a novel cause of non-syndromic X-linked mental retardation, an assumption supported by high gene expression in the brain, localization to the post-synaptic density, and a role in RAS/MAPK-dependent signal transduction.

  15. Loss-of-Function CNKSR2 Mutation Is a Likely Cause of Non-Syndromic X-Linked Intellectual Disability

    OpenAIRE

    Houge, G.; Rasmussen, I.H.; Hovland, R.

    2011-01-01

    In a non-dysmorphic 5-year-old boy with developmental delay, well-controlled epilepsy, and microcephaly, a 234-kb deletion of Xp22.12 was detected by copy number analysis. The maternally inherited deletion removed the initial 15 of the 21 exons of the connector enhancer of KSR-2 gene called CNKSR2 or CNK2. Our finding suggests that loss of CNKSR2 is a novel cause of non-syndromic X-linked mental retardation, an assumption supported by high gene expression in the brain, localization to the pos...

  16. Test–Retest Intervisit Variability of Functional and Structural Parameters in X-Linked Retinoschisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Brett G.; Cukras, Catherine A.; Vitale, Susan; Turriff, Amy; Bowles, Kristin; Sieving, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the variability of four outcome measures that could be used to address safety and efficacy in therapeutic trials with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis. Methods Seven men with confirmed mutations in the RS1 gene were evaluated over four visits spanning 6 months. Assessments included visual acuity, full-field electroretinograms (ERG), microperimetric macular sensitivity, and retinal thickness measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Eyes were separated into Better or Worse Eye groups based on acuity at baseline. Repeatability coefficients were calculated for each parameter and jackknife resampling used to derive 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The threshold for statistically significant change in visual acuity ranged from three to eight letters. For ERG a-wave, an amplitude reduction greater than 56% would be considered significant. For other parameters, variabilities were lower in the Worse Eye group, likely a result of floor effects due to collapse of the schisis pockets and/or retinal atrophy. The criteria for significant change (Better/Worse Eye) for three important parameters were: ERG b/a-wave ratio (0.44/0.23), point wise sensitivity (10.4/7.0 dB), and central retinal thickness (31%/18%). Conclusions The 95% CI range for visual acuity, ERG, retinal sensitivity, and central retinal thickness relative to baseline are described for this cohort of participants with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS). Translational Relevance A quantitative understanding of the variability of outcome measures is vital to establishing the safety and efficacy limits for therapeutic trials of XLRS patients. PMID:25346871

  17. Woman with x-linked recessive dystonia-parkinsonism: clue to the epidemiology of parkinsonism in Filipino women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Aloysius; Lee, Lillian V; Brüggemann, Norbert; Freimann, Karen; Kaiser, Frank J; Jamora, Roland D G; Rosales, Raymond L; Klein, Christine; Westenberger, Ana

    2014-09-01

    Despite recessive inheritance, X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism (Lubag disease) has also been described in women presenting with a late-onset isolated parkinsonian syndrome. Interestingly, unlike in other populations, there is a slight female predominance in the prevalence of parkinsonism in the Philippines. In a Filipino woman with suspected Parkinson disease, we confirmed the presence of all changes specific for X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism in genomic DNA. Subsequently, we analyzed complementary DNA and evaluated the methylation status of the androgen receptor gene. Owing to extremely skewed (98%:2%) X-chromosome inactivation, the patient expressed almost solely the mutated allele in a disease-specific change, rendering her molecularly comparable with a hemizygously affected man. Skewed X-chromosome inactivation is the likely cause of parkinsonism in this heterozygous mutation carrier. Because women carriers of the genetic changes specific for X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism are common in the Philippines, the epigenetic factor of nonrandom X-chromosome inactivation may contribute to the skewing of the sex prevalence of parkinsonism toward women in this country, warranting further investigation.

  18. A novel AVPR2 splice site mutation leads to partial X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in two brothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schernthaner-Reiter, Marie Helene; Adams, David; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Ramnitz, Mary Scott; Raygada, Margarita; Golas, Gretchen; Faucz, Fabio R; Nilsson, Ola; Nella, Aikaterini A; Dileepan, Kavitha; Lodish, Maya; Lee, Paul; Tifft, Cynthia; Markello, Thomas; Gahl, William; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2016-05-01

    X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI, OMIM#304800) is caused by mutations in the arginine vasopressin (AVP, OMIM*192340) receptor type 2 (AVPR2, OMIM*300538) gene. A 20-month-old boy and his 8-year-old brother presented with polyuria, polydipsia, and failure to thrive. Both boys demonstrated partial DDAVP (1-desamino-8-D AVP or desmopressin) responses; thus, NDI diagnosis was delayed. While routine sequencing of AVPR2 showed a potential splice site variant, it was not until exome sequencing confirmed the AVPR2 splice site variant and did not reveal any more likely candidates that the patients' diagnosis was made and proper treatment was instituted. Both patients were hemizygous for two AVPR2 variants predicted in silico to affect AVPR2 messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing. A minigene assay revealed that the novel AVPR2 c.276A>G mutation creates a novel splice acceptor site leading to 5' truncation of AVPR2 exon 2 in HEK293 human kidney cells. Both patients have been treated with high-dose DDAVP with a remarkable improvement of their symptoms and accelerated linear growth and weight gain. We present here a unique case of partial X-linked NDI due to an AVPR2 splice site mutation; patients with diabetes insipidus of unknown etiology may harbor splice site mutations that are initially underestimated in their pathogenicity on sequence analysis. • X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by AVPR2 mutations, and disease severity can vary depending on the functional effect of the mutation. What is New: • We demonstrate here that a splice site mutation in AVPR2 leads to partial X-linked NDI in two brothers. • Treatment with high-dose DDAVP led to improvement of polyuria and polydipsia, weight gain, and growth.

  19. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: very long-chain fatty acid metabolism, ABC half-transporters and the complicated route to treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemp, Stephan; Wanders, Ronald J. A.

    2007-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene that encodes a peroxisomal membrane located ABC half-transporter named ALDP. Mutations in ALDP result in elevated levels of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) and reduced VLCFA beta-oxidation in peroxisomes. The

  20. [Mutation analysis and prenatal diagnosis of a Chinese family with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing-hua; Shi, Hui-rong; Liu, Ning; Jiang, Miao; Lu, Ning; Zhao, Zhen-hua; Kong, Xiang-dong

    2012-11-01

    To analyze the mutation of IL2RG gene in a Chinese family with a birth history of a dead child suspected of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID), and to perform prenatal diagnosis with DNA sequencing. Blood samples of the parents of the dead child and chorionic villi at gestational age 11 weeks were collected. Eight exons comprising the open reading frame as well as their exon/intron boundaries of IL2RG gene were analyzed by PCR and bi-directional sequencing. A heterozygous nucleotide substitution c.690C > T (R226C) in exon 5 was detected in the mother, but not in the father. In the second pregnancy of the mother, the mutation of R226C was not detected in the male fetus by prenatal diagnosis, and the heterozygous mutation was detected in the female fetus of the third pregnancy. The reliability of the prenatal genetic diagnosis was confirmed by the one-year follow-up after the neonates were born. The mutation of c.690C>T in IL2RG gene may be the pathologic cause of the proband with X-SCID. DNA sequencing combining sex determination is a valid strategy for prenatal diagnosis of X-SCID.

  1. High-throughput sequencing reveals an altered T cell repertoire in X-linked agammaglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Manish; Simchoni, Noa; Hamm, David; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2015-12-01

    To examine the T cell receptor structure in the absence of B cells, the TCR β CDR3 was sequenced from DNA of 15 X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) subjects and 18 male controls, using the Illumina HiSeq platform and the ImmunoSEQ analyzer. V gene usage and the V-J combinations, derived from both productive and non-productive sequences, were significantly different between XLA samples and controls. Although the CDR3 length was similar for XLA and control samples, the CDR3 region of the XLA T cell receptor contained significantly fewer deletions and insertions in V, D, and J gene segments, differences intrinsic to the V(D)J recombination process and not due to peripheral T cell selection. XLA CDR3s demonstrated fewer charged amino acid residues, more sharing of CDR3 sequences, and almost completely lacked a population of highly modified Vβ gene segments found in control DNA, suggesting both a skewed and contracted T cell repertoire in XLA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked lymphoproliferative disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PubMed Central Woon ST, Ameratunga R, Croxson M, Taylor G, Neas K, Edkins E, Browett P, Gane ... RJH, Stephens K, editors. GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-2017. Available from http:// ...

  3. FOXP3 as X-linked Tumor Suppressor

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lizhong; Liu, Runhua; Ribick, Mark; Zheng, Pan; Liu, Yang

    2010-01-01

    The FOXP3 gene was initially identified because its mutation caused lethal autoimmune diseases in mouse and human. Mice with heterozygous mutation of Foxp3 succumb to mammary tumor spontaneously, while those with prostate-specific deletion develop prostate intraepithelial neoplasia. Somatic mutations, deletion and epigenetic inactivation of FOXP3 are widespread among human breast and prostate cancers. Unlike autosomal tumor suppressor genes that were usually inactivated by mutations in both a...

  4. A previously unidentified deletion in G protein-coupled receptor 143 causing X-linked congenital nystagmus in a Chinese family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital nystagmus (CN is characterized by conjugated, spontaneous, and involuntary ocular oscillations. It is an inherited disease and the most common inheritance pattern is X-linked CN. In this study, our aim is to identify the disease-causing mutation in a large sixth-generation Chinese family with X-linked CN. Methods: It has been reported that mutations in four-point-one, ezrin, radixin, moesin domain-containing 7 gene (FRMD7 and G protein-coupled receptor 143 gene (GPR143 account for the majority patients of X-linked nystagmus. We collected 8 ml blood samples from members of a large sixth-generation pedigree with X-linked CN and 100 normal controls. FRMD7 and GPR143 were scanned by polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based DNA sequencing assays, and multiplex PCR assays were applied to detect deletions. Results: We identified a previously unreported deletion covering 7 exons in GPR143 in a Chinese family. The heterozygous deletion from exon 3 to exon 9 of GPR143 was detected in all affected males in the family, while it was not detected in other unaffected relatives or 100 normal controls. Conclusions: This is the first report of molecular characterization in GPR143 gene in the CN family. Our results expand the spectrum of GPR143 mutations causing CN and further confirm the role of GPR143 in the pathogenesis of CN.

  5. Single gene retrieval from thermally degraded DNA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Nuclear gene sequences from a late pleistoncene sloth copro- lite; Curr. Biol. 13 1150–1152. Poinar H N, HÖss M, Bada J L and Pääbo S 1996 Amino acid racemization and the preservation of ancient DNA; Science. 272 864–867. Reiners P W, Brady R, Farley K A, Fryxell J E, Wernicke B and Lux D 2000 Helium and argon ...

  6. Very Early-Onset Inflammatory Manifestations of X-Linked Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxane Labrosse

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD is a rare primary immune deficiency caused by mutations in genes coding for components of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, characterized by severe and recurrent bacterial and fungal infections, together with inflammatory complications. Dysregulation of inflammatory responses are often present in this disease and may lead to granulomatous lesions, most often affecting the gastrointestinal (GI and urinary tracts. Treatment of inflammatory complications usually includes corticosteroids, whereas antimicrobial prophylaxis is used for infection prevention. Curative treatment of both infectious susceptibility and inflammatory disease can be achieved by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We report herein three patients with the same mutation of the CYBB gene who presented with very early-onset and severe GI manifestations of X-linked CGD. The most severely affected patient had evidence of antenatal inflammatory involvement of the GI and urinary tracts. Extreme hyperleukocytosis with eosinophilia and high inflammatory markers were observed in all three patients. A Mycobacterium avium lung infection and an unidentified fungal lung infection occurred in two patients both during their first year of life, which is indicative of the severity of the disease. All three patients underwent bone marrow transplantation and recovered fully from their initial symptoms. To our knowledge, these are the first reports of patients with such an early-onset and severe inflammatory manifestations of CGD.

  7. A Thyroid Hormone-Based Strategy for Correcting the Biochemical Abnormality in X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Meredith D; Kirkemo, Lisa L; Banerji, Tapasree; Scanlan, Thomas S

    2017-05-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a rare, genetic disorder characterized by adrenal insufficiency and central nervous system (CNS) demyelination. All patients with X-ALD have the biochemical abnormality of elevated blood and tissue levels of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), saturated fatty acids with 24 to 26 carbons. X-ALD results from loss of function mutations in the gene encoding the peroxisomal transporter ABCD1, which is responsible for uptake of VLCFAs into peroxisomes for degradation by oxidation. One proposed therapeutic strategy for genetic complementation of ABCD1 is pharmacologic upregulation of ABCD2, a gene encoding a homologous peroxisomal transporter. Here, we show that thyroid hormone or sobetirome, a clinical-stage selective thyroid hormone receptor agonist, increases cerebral Abcd2 and lowers VLCFAs in blood, peripheral organs, and brains of mice with defective Abcd1. These results support an approach to treating X-ALD that involves a thyromimetic agent that reactivates VLCFA disposal both in the periphery and the CNS. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  8. Clinical and mutational features of Vietnamese children with X-linked agammaglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Quang Van; Wada, Taizo; Le, Huong Thi Minh; Le, Hai Thanh; Van Nguyen, Anh Thi; Osamu, Ohara; Yachie, Akihiro; Nguyen, Sang Ngoc

    2014-05-28

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a primary immune deficiency characterized by recurrent bacterial infections and profoundly depressed serum immunoglobulin levels and circulating mature B cells. It is caused by mutations of the Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene and is the most common form of inherited antibody deficiency. To our knowledge, this is the first report of XLA from Vietnam. We investigated the BTK gene mutations and clinical features of four unrelated Vietnamese children. The mean ages at onset and at diagnosis were 2.5 and 8 years, respectively. All patients had a medical history of otitis media, pneumonia, and septicemia at the time of diagnosis. Other infections reported included sinusitis, bronchiectasis, arthritis, skin infections, meningitis, and recurrent diarrhea. We identified one previously reported mutation (c.441G >A) and three novel mutations: two frameshifts (c.1770delG and c.1742 delG), and one nonsense (c.1249A >T). The delayed diagnosis may be attributable to insufficient awareness of this rare disease on the background of frequent infections even in the immunocompetent pediatric population in Vietnam. Our results further support the importance of molecular genetic testing in diagnosis of XLA.

  9. Recurrent pneumonia with mild hypogammaglobulinemia diagnosed as X-linked agammaglobulinemia in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Kazuhiro; Sasahara, Yoji; Tazawa, Ryushi; Hagiwara, Koichi; Tsukada, Satoshi; Miyawaki, Toshio; Tsuchiya, Shigeru; Nukiwa, Toshihiro

    2001-01-01

    Background X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a humoral immunodeficiency caused by disruption of the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene. Typical XLA patients suffer recurrent and severe bacterial infections in childhood. Methods Flow cytometric analysis of the peripheral monocytes using the anti-BTK antibody was used to characterize a 27 year old male patient with mild hypogammaglobulinemia (IgG, 635 mg/dl; IgM, 11 mg/dl; IgA, <5 mg/dl). He had suffered from frequent pneumonia since age 25 but had no history of frequent infections in his childhood or in adolescence. Sequencing of the BTK cDNA obtained from an Epstein–Barr virus-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell line derived from the bone marrow of the patient was performed to confirm a genetic defect. Results Flow cytometric analysis of cytoplasmic BTK protein in peripheral monocytes indicated that the patient presents a rare case of adult-onset XLA and that his mother is an XLA carrier. Sequencing of the BTK gene revealed a deletion of AG in the codon for Glu605 (AGT), resulting in an aberrant stop codon that truncates the BTK protein in its kinase domain. Conclusions This case suggests that some XLA cases may remain undiagnosed because they only show mild hypogammaglobulinemia and they lack repeated infections in childhood. Flow cytometric analysis is a powerful method to screen these patients. PMID:11686883

  10. Splice-correcting oligonucleotides restore BTK function in X-linked agammaglobulinemia model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestas, Burcu; Moreno, Pedro M D; Blomberg, K Emelie M; Mohammad, Dara K; Saleh, Amer F; Sutlu, Tolga; Nordin, Joel Z; Guterstam, Peter; Gustafsson, Manuela O; Kharazi, Shabnam; Piątosa, Barbara; Roberts, Thomas C; Behlke, Mark A; Wood, Matthew J A; Gait, Michael J; Lundin, Karin E; El Andaloussi, Samir; Månsson, Robert; Berglöf, Anna; Wengel, Jesper; Smith, C I Edvard

    2014-09-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is an inherited immunodeficiency that results from mutations within the gene encoding Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK). Many XLA-associated mutations affect splicing of BTK pre-mRNA and severely impair B cell development. Here, we assessed the potential of antisense, splice-correcting oligonucleotides (SCOs) targeting mutated BTK transcripts for treating XLA. Both the SCO structural design and chemical properties were optimized using 2'-O-methyl, locked nucleic acid, or phosphorodiamidate morpholino backbones. In order to have access to an animal model of XLA, we engineered a transgenic mouse that harbors a BAC with an authentic, mutated, splice-defective human BTK gene. BTK transgenic mice were bred onto a Btk knockout background to avoid interference of the orthologous mouse protein. Using this model, we determined that BTK-specific SCOs are able to correct aberrantly spliced BTK in B lymphocytes, including pro-B cells. Correction of BTK mRNA restored expression of functional protein, as shown both by enhanced lymphocyte survival and reestablished BTK activation upon B cell receptor stimulation. Furthermore, SCO treatment corrected splicing and restored BTK expression in primary cells from patients with XLA. Together, our data demonstrate that SCOs can restore BTK function and that BTK-targeting SCOs have potential as personalized medicine in patients with XLA.

  11. Splice-correction strategies for treatment of X-linked agammaglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestas, Burcu; Turunen, Janne J; Blomberg, K Emelie M; Wang, Qing; Månsson, Robert; El Andaloussi, Samir; Berglöf, Anna; Smith, C I Edvard

    2015-03-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a primary immunodeficiency disease caused by mutations in the gene coding for Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK). Deficiency of BTK leads to a developmental block in B cell differentiation; hence, the patients essentially lack antibody-producing plasma cells and are susceptible to various infections. A substantial portion of the mutations in BTK results in splicing defects, consequently preventing the formation of protein-coding mRNA. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are therapeutic compounds that have the ability to modulate pre-mRNA splicing and alter gene expression. The potential of ASOs has been exploited for a few severe diseases, both in pre-clinical and clinical studies. Recently, advances have also been made in using ASOs as a personalized therapy for XLA. Splice-correction of BTK has been shown to be feasible for different mutations in vitro, and a recent proof-of-concept study demonstrated the feasibility of correcting splicing and restoring BTK both ex vivo and in vivo in a humanized bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-transgenic mouse model. This review summarizes the advances in splice correction, as a personalized medicine for XLA, and outlines the promises and challenges of using this technology as a curative long-term treatment option.

  12. Recurrent pneumonia with mild hypogammaglobulinemia diagnosed as X-linked agammaglobulinemia in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuchiya Shigeru

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA is a humoral immunodeficiency caused by disruption of the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK gene. Typical XLA patients suffer recurrent and severe bacterial infections in childhood. Methods Flow cytometric analysis of the peripheral monocytes using the anti-BTK antibody was used to characterize a 27 year old male patient with mild hypogammaglobulinemia (IgG, 635 mg/dl; IgM, 11 mg/dl; IgA, Results Flow cytometric analysis of cytoplasmic BTK protein in peripheral monocytes indicated that the patient presents a rare case of adult-onset XLA and that his mother is an XLA carrier. Sequencing of the BTK gene revealed a deletion of AG in the codon for Glu605 (AGT, resulting in an aberrant stop codon that truncates the BTK protein in its kinase domain. Conclusions This case suggests that some XLA cases may remain undiagnosed because they only show mild hypogammaglobulinemia and they lack repeated infections in childhood. Flow cytometric analysis is a powerful method to screen these patients.

  13. EIF2S3 Mutations Associated with Severe X-Linked Intellectual Disability Syndrome MEHMO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopkova, Martina; Hennig, Friederike; Shin, Byung-Sik; Turner, Clesson E; Stanikova, Daniela; Brennerova, Katarina; Stanik, Juraj; Fischer, Ute; Henden, Lyndal; Müller, Ulrich; Steinberger, Daniela; Leshinsky-Silver, Esther; Bottani, Armand; Kurdiova, Timea; Ukropec, Jozef; Nyitrayova, Olga; Kolnikova, Miriam; Klimes, Iwar; Borck, Guntram; Bahlo, Melanie; Haas, Stefan A; Kim, Joo-Ran; Lotspeich-Cole, Leda E; Gasperikova, Daniela; Dever, Thomas E; Kalscheuer, Vera M

    2017-04-01

    Impairment of translation initiation and its regulation within the integrated stress response (ISR) and related unfolded-protein response has been identified as a cause of several multisystemic syndromes. Here, we link MEHMO syndrome, whose genetic etiology was unknown, to this group of disorders. MEHMO is a rare X-linked syndrome characterized by profound intellectual disability, epilepsy, hypogonadism and hypogenitalism, microcephaly, and obesity. We have identified a C-terminal frameshift mutation (Ile465Serfs) in the EIF2S3 gene in three families with MEHMO syndrome and a novel maternally inherited missense EIF2S3 variant (c.324T>A; p.Ser108Arg) in another male patient with less severe clinical symptoms. The EIF2S3 gene encodes the γ subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2), crucial for initiation of protein synthesis and regulation of the ISR. Studies in patient fibroblasts confirm increased ISR activation due to the Ile465Serfs mutation and functional assays in yeast demonstrate that the Ile465Serfs mutation impairs eIF2γ function to a greater extent than tested missense mutations, consistent with the more severe clinical phenotype of the Ile465Serfs male mutation carriers. Thus, we propose that more severe EIF2S3 mutations cause the full MEHMO phenotype, while less deleterious mutations cause a milder form of the syndrome with only a subset of the symptoms. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  14. The Nance-Horan syndrome: a rare X-linked ocular-dental trait with expression in heterozygous females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixler, D; Higgins, M; Hartsfield, J

    1984-07-01

    This report describes two families with the Nance-Horan syndrome, an X-linked trait featuring lenticular cataracts and anomalies of tooth shape and number. Previous reports have described blindness in affected males but posterior sutural cataracts with normal vision as the primary ocular expression in heterozygous females. In one of these two families, the affected female is not only blind in one eye but reportedly had supernumerary central incisors (mesiodens) removed. This constitutes the most severe ocular and dental expression of this gene in heterozygous females yet reported.

  15. Leptin gene polymorphism in Indian Sahiwal cattle by single strand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These leptin gene variants can be sequenced and screened in the entire population to develop single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for association studies with different productive and reproductive performances and marker assisted selection. Keywords: Leptin gene, PCR-SSCP, genetic variability, dairy cattle

  16. Diagnosis of X-Linked Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia by Meibography and Infrared Thermography of the Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaercher, Thomas; Dietz, Jasna; Jacobi, Christina; Berz, Reinhold; Schneider, Holm

    2015-09-01

    X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) is the most common form of ectodermal dysplasia. Clinical characteristics include meibomian gland disorder and the resulting hyperevaporative dry eye. In this study, we evaluated meibography and ocular infrared thermography as novel methods to diagnose XLHED. Eight infants, 12 boys and 14 male adults with XLHED and 12 healthy control subjects were subjected to a panel of tests including the ocular surface disease index (OSDI), meibography and infrared thermography, non-invasive measurement of tear film break-up time (NIBUT) and osmolarity, Schirmer's test, lissamine green staining and fluorescein staining. Sensitivity and specificity were determined for single tests and selected test combinations. Meibography had 100% sensitivity and specificity for identifying XLHED. Infrared thermography, a completely non-invasive procedure, revealed a typical pattern for male subjects with XLHED. It was, however, less sensitive (86% for adults and 67% for children) than meibography or a combination of established routine tests. In adults, OSDI and NIBUT were the best single routine tests (sensitivity of 86% and 71%, respectively), whereas increased tear osmolarity appeared as a rather unspecific ophthalmic symptom. In children, NIBUT was the most convincing routine test (sensitivity of 91%). Meibography is the most reliable ophthalmic examination to establish a clinical diagnosis in individuals with suspected hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, even before genetic test results are available. Tear film tests and ocular surface staining are less sensitive in children, but very helpful for estimating the severity of ocular surface disease in individuals with known XLHED.

  17. X-linked inheritance of Fanconi anemia complementation group B.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meetei, AR; Levitus, M.; Xue, Y; Medhurst, A.L. dr.; Zwaan, M.; Ling, C; Rooimans, M.A.; Bier, P; Hoatlin, M.; Pals, G.; Winter, de J.P.; Joenje, H.

    2004-01-01

    Fanconi anemia is an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by diverse clinical symptoms, hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents, chromosomal instability and susceptibility to cancer. Fanconi anemia has at least 11 complementation groups (A, B, C, D1, D2, E, F, G, I, J, L); the genes

  18. X-Linked Agammagobulinemia in a Large Series of North African Patients: Frequency, Clinical Features and Novel BTK Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadam, Zahra; Kechout, Nadia; Barakat, Abdelhamid; Chan, Koon-Wing; Ben-Ali, Meriem; Ben-Mustapha, Imen; Zidi, Fethi; Ailal, Fatima; Attal, Nabila; Doudou, Fatouma; Abbadi, Mohamed-Cherif; Kaddache, Chawki; Smati, Leila; Touri, Nabila; Chemli, Jalel; Gargah, Tahar; Brini, Ines; Bakhchane, Amina; Charoute, Hicham; Jeddane, Leila; El Atiqi, Sara; El Hafidi, Naïma; Hida, Mustapha; Saile, Rachid; Alj, Hanane Salih; Boukari, Rachida; Bejaoui, Mohamed; Najib, Jilali; Barbouche, Mohamed-Ridha; Lau, Yu-Lung; Mellouli, Fethi; Bousfiha, Ahmed Aziz

    2016-04-01

    X-linked agammagobulinemia (XLA) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene defect. XLA patients have absent or reduced number of peripheral B cells and a profound deficiency in all immunoglobulin isotypes. This multicenter study reports the clinical, immunological and molecular features of Bruton's disease in 40 North African male patients. Fifty male out of 63 (male and female) patients diagnosed with serum agammaglobulinemia and non detectable to less than 2% peripheral B cells were enrolled. The search for BTK gene mutations was performed for all of them by genomic DNA amplification and Sanger sequencing. We identified 33 different mutations in the BTK gene in 40 patients including 12 missense mutations, 6 nonsense mutations, 6 splice-site mutations, 5 frameshift, 2 large deletions, one complex mutation and one in-frame deletion. Seventeen of these mutations are novel. This large series shows a lower frequency of XLA among male patients from North Africa with agammaglobulinemia and absent to low B cells compared with other international studies (63.5% vs. 85%). No strong evidence for genotype-phenotype correlation was observed. This study adds to other reports from highly consanguineous North African populations, showing lower frequency of X-linked forms as compared to AR forms of the same primary immunodeficiency. Furthermore, a large number of novel BTK mutations were identified and could further help identify carriers for genetic counseling.

  19. A hybrid approach of gene sets and single genes for the prediction of survival risks with gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Junhee; Davis, Ronald W; Xiao, Wenzhong

    2015-01-01

    Accumulated biological knowledge is often encoded as gene sets, collections of genes associated with similar biological functions or pathways. The use of gene sets in the analyses of high-throughput gene expression data has been intensively studied and applied in clinical research. However, the main interest remains in finding modules of biological knowledge, or corresponding gene sets, significantly associated with disease conditions. Risk prediction from censored survival times using gene sets hasn't been well studied. In this work, we propose a hybrid method that uses both single gene and gene set information together to predict patient survival risks from gene expression profiles. In the proposed method, gene sets provide context-level information that is poorly reflected by single genes. Complementarily, single genes help to supplement incomplete information of gene sets due to our imperfect biomedical knowledge. Through the tests over multiple data sets of cancer and trauma injury, the proposed method showed robust and improved performance compared with the conventional approaches with only single genes or gene sets solely. Additionally, we examined the prediction result in the trauma injury data, and showed that the modules of biological knowledge used in the prediction by the proposed method were highly interpretable in biology. A wide range of survival prediction problems in clinical genomics is expected to benefit from the use of biological knowledge.

  20. Bilateral macular holes in X-linked retinoschisis: Now the spectrum is wider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Gautam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral occurrence of macular hole in X-linked retinoschisis is an extremely rare event. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT findings revealed that formation of a macular hole is secondary to the retinoschisis process alone. Bilateral macular holes should be added to the spectrum of X-linked retinoschisis variations and the retinoschisis process alone should be accounted for their formation.

  1. Early respiratory and ocular involvement in X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Jasna; Kaercher, Thomas; Schneider, Anne-Theres; Zimmermann, Theodor; Huttner, Kenneth; Johnson, Ramsey; Schneider, Holm

    2013-08-01

    X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED; ectodysplasin deficiency) has been classically described as affecting hair, sweat glands, and dentition. What may be underappreciated is the effect ectodysplasin deficiency has on glands surrounding the airways and eyes and the resulting chronic health issues. In this study, 12 male children (age range 6-13 years) and 14 male adults with XLHED (18-58 years of age) were investigated by pulmonary function tests, measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide, and by ophthalmologic assessments. Twelve healthy individuals (six children, six adults) served as controls. Signs of airway constriction and inflammation were detected in eight children with XLHED, including the youngest subject, and in ten adult XLHED patients. Increased tear osmolarity, reduced tear film break-up time, and other ocular abnormalities were also present at an early age. Five of 12 XLHED subjects not reporting a history of asthma and 7 of the 12 patients not reporting a history of dry eye issues showed at least two abnormal test results in the respective organ system. The presence of residual sweat ducts, suggestive of partial ectodysplasin gene expression, correlated with milder disease in two XLHED subjects with mutations affecting the collagen-like domain of ectodysplasin. The high prevalence of asthma-like symptoms in XLHED patients as young as 6 years and a similar prevalence of dry eye problems indicate that screening evaluation, regular monitoring, and consideration of therapeutic intervention should begin in early childhood.

  2. Childhood cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy with atypical neuroimaging abnormalities and a novel mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Muranjan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (XALD typically manifests with symptoms of adrenocortical insufficiency and a variety of neurocognitive and behavioral abnormalities. A major diagnostic clue is the characteristic neuroinflammatory parieto-occipital white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging. This study reports a 5-year 10-month old boy presenting with generalized skin hyperpigmentation since 3 years of age. Over the past 9 months, he had developed right-sided hemiparesis and speech and behavioral abnormalities, which had progressed over 5 months to bilateral hemiparesis. Retrospective analyses of serial brain magnetic resonance images revealed an unusual pattern of lesions involving the internal capsules, corticospinal tracts in the midbrain and brainstem, and cerebellar white matter. The clinical diagnosis of childhood cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy was confirmed by elevated basal levels of adrenocorticotropin hormone and plasma very long chain fatty acid levels. Additionally, sequencing of the ABCD1 gene revealed a novel mutation. The only specific palliative therapy that could be offered after diagnosis was dietary intervention. The patient died within 16 months of onset of neurological symptoms. Awareness that childhood cerebral XALD can present with atypical neuroimaging patterns early in its course may aid diagnosis at a stage when definitive treatment can be attempted and timely genetic counseling be offered to the family.

  3. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: are signs of hypogonadism always due to testicular failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapanou, Olga; Vlassopoulou, Barbara; Tzanela, Marinella; Papadopoulos, Dimitrios; Angelidakis, Panagiotis; Michelakakis, Helen; Ioannidis, George; Mihalatos, Markos; Kamakari, Smaragda; Tsagarakis, Stylianos

    2014-01-01

    We present the clinical and hormonal findings of a young male with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), with special emphasis on the biochemical and clinical pattern of hypogonadism. A patient, with primary adrenal insufficiency since the age of 5 years, developed progressive neurological symptoms at the age of 29. Diagnosis of X-ALD was established by elevated serum very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) and genetic testing. His sexual body hair was sparse. Hormonal investigations revealed normal testosterone and inappropriately elevated LH levels. Androgen receptor gene analysis was negative for mutations or polymorphic variants associated with decreased receptor activity. Signs of hypogonadism in patients with confirmed X-ALD are not exclusively due to primary testicular failure. Tissue specific androgen resistance represents an alternative possibility. Since no loss-of-function mutations were detected in the androgen receptor, it is speculated that the patient's androgen resistance could be part of a functional defect mediated through VLCFA accumulation at the testosterone receptor and/or post-receptor levels.

  4. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage cooperatively fuel axonal degeneration in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourcade, Stéphane; López-Erauskin, Jone; Ruiz, Montserrat; Ferrer, Isidre; Pujol, Aurora

    2014-03-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is the most frequent inherited monogenic demyelinating disease (minimal incidence 1:17,000). It is often lethal and currently lacks a satisfactory therapy. The disease is caused by loss of function of the ABCD1 gene, a peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporter, resulting in the accumulation of VLCFA (very long-chain fatty acids) in organs and plasma. Understanding of the aetiopathogenesis is a prerequisite for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Functional genomics analysis of an ABCD1 null mouse, a mouse model for adrenomyeloneuropathy, has revealed presymptomatic alterations in several metabolic pathways converging on redox and bioenergetic homeostasis, with failure of mitochondrial OXPHOS disruption and mitochondrial depletion. These defects could be major contributors to the neurodegenerative cascade, as has been reported in several neurodegenerative disorders. Drugs targeting the redox imbalance/mitochondria dysfunction interplay have shown efficacy at halting axonal degeneration and associated disability in the mouse, and thus offer therapeutic hope. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Abnormal osteopontin and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein localization, and odontoblast differentiation, in X-linked hypophosphatemic teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, B; Bardet, C; Coyac, B R; Baroukh, B; Naji, J; Rowe, P S; Opsahl Vital, S; Linglart, A; Mckee, M D; Chaussain, C

    2014-08-01

    Mutations in phosphate-regulating gene (PHEX) lead to X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH), a genetic disease characterized by impaired mineralization in bones and teeth. In human XLH tooth dentin, calcospherites that would normally merge as part of the mineralization process are separated by unmineralized interglobular spaces where fragments of matrix proteins accumulate. Here, we immunolocalized osteopontin (OPN) in human XLH teeth, in a three-dimensional XLH human dental pulp stem cell-collagen scaffold culture model and in a rat tooth injury repair model treated with acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif peptides (ASARM). In parallel, matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) immunolocalization and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were assessed in XLH teeth. OPN was expressed by odontoblasts in the XLH models, and localized to the abnormal calcospherites of XLH tooth dentin. In addition, ALP activity and MEPE localization were abnormal in human XLH teeth, with MEPE showing an accumulation in the unmineralized interglobular spaces in dentin. Furthermore, XLH odontoblasts failed to form a well-polarized odontoblast layer. These data suggest that both MEPE and OPN are involved in impaired tooth mineralization associated with XLH, possibly through different effects on the mineralization process.

  6. X-linked Liver Glycogenosis in a Taiwanese Family: Transmission From Undiagnosed Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Ta Chen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available X-linked liver glycogenosis (XLG, also known as glycogen storage disease type-IXa, is characterized by hepatomegaly, abnormal liver functions and growth retardation. It is caused by mutations in the PHKA2 gene that encodes the α-subunit of phosphorylase kinase (PHK. XLG can be divided into two subtypes: XLG-I, with a deficiency in PHK activity in peripheral blood cells and the liver; and XLG-II, with normal PHK activity in vitro. This report describes two boys who presented with hepatomegaly and abnormal liver function. Pedigree analysis revealed them to be fifth-degree relatives, with the disease transmitted through undiagnosed grandfathers. Liver histology confirmed GSD diagnosis, and both cases had a deficiency in PHK activity in red blood cells and liver tissues. This is the first report of XLG-I in the ethnic-Chinese population in Taiwan. This report indicates that XLG may be undiagnosed or underestimated. A correct diagnosis is necessary for proper management and genetic counseling.

  7. Relapsing Campylobacter jejuni Systemic Infections in a Child with X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Ariganello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA is a primary immunodeficiency of the humoral compartment, due to a mutation in the Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK gene, characterized by a severe defect of circulating B cells and serum immunoglobulins. Recurrent infections are the main clinical manifestations; although they are especially due to encapsulated bacteria, a specific association with Campylobacter species has been reported. Here, we report the case of a boy with XLA who presented with relapsing Campylobacter jejuni systemic infections. His clinical history supports the hypothesis of the persistence of C. jejuni in his intestinal tract. Indeed, as previously reported, XLA patients may become chronic intestinal carriers of Campylobacter, even in absence of symptoms, with an increased risk of relapsing bacteraemia. The humoral defect is considered to be crucial for this phenomenon, as well as the difficulties to eradicate the pathogen with an appropriate antibiotic therapy; drug resistance is raising in Campylobacter species, and the appropriate duration of treatment has not been established. C. jejuni should always be suspected in XLA patients with signs and symptoms of systemic infection, and treatment should be based on antibiogram to assure the eradication of the pathogen.

  8. How do Mutations in GJB1 Cause X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleopa, Kleopas A.; Abrams, Charles K.; Scherer, Steven S.

    2012-01-01

    The X-linked form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT1X) is the second most common form of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy. The clinical phenotype is characterized by progressive weakness, atrophy, and sensory abnormalities that are most pronounced in the distal extremities. Some patients have CNS manifestations. Affected males have moderate to severe symptoms, whereas heterozygous females are usually less affected. Neurophysiology shows intermediate slowing of conduction and length-dependent axonal loss. Nerve biopsies show more prominent axonal degeneration than de/remyelination. Mutations in GJB1, the gene that encodes the gap junction (GJ) protein connexin32 (Cx32) cause CMT1X; more than 400 different mutations have been described. Many Cx32 mutants fail to form functional GJs, or form GJs with abnormal biophysical properties. Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes express Cx32, and the GJs formed by Cx32 play an important role in the homeostasis of myelinated axons. Animal models of CMT1X demonstrate that loss of Cx32 in myelinating Schwann cells causes a demyelinating neuropathy. Effective therapies remain to be developed. PMID:22771394

  9. X-linked lethal infantile spinal muscular atrophy: From clinical description to molecular mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumbach, L.; Schiavi, A. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The proximal spinal muscular atrophies (PSMA), one of the most common forms of lower motor neuron disease in children, are characterized by progressive muscle weakness due to loss of anterior horn cells. All three autosomal recessive forms have been mapped to chromosome 5q11.2-11.3, implying an allelic association between these disorders. Recent evidence from our laboratories, as well as others, suggests that a distinct form of lethal neonatal spinal muscular atrophy, associated with early onset contractures, is determined by a gene on the X chromosome. We report our efforts in mapping this disease locus. Our original studies have focused on two unrelated multigenerational families with similar clinical presentations of severe hypotonia, muscle weakness, and a disease course similar to Werdnig Hoffman except for the additional finding of congenital or early onset contractures. Muscle biopsy and/or autopsy were indicative of anterior horn cell loss in affected males. Disease occurrence in each of the families was consistent with an X-linked recessive mode of inheritance. Subsequently, two additional families have been identified, as well as several sporadic male cases. Linkage analysis has been completed in one of these families using highly polymorphic repeats dispersed 10 cM on the X chromosome. Interpretation of results was achieved using an automated data acquisition program. Analysis of over 300 haplotypes generated using PCR-based DNA markers have identified two 16 cM regions on Xp with complete concordance to the disease phenotype. Our currents efforts are focused on the region surrounding the Kallman gene, in attempts to better define a candidate region, as well as analyze possible candidate genes within this region.

  10. Mutational and protein analysis of patients and heterozygous women with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feigenbaum, V.; Guidoux, S.; Aubourg, P. [Hospital Saint-Vincent de Paul, Paris (France)] [and others

    1996-06-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), a neurodegenerative disorder associated with impaired {beta}-oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA), is due to mutations in a gene encoding a peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter (ALD protein [ALDP]). We analyzed the open reading frame of the ALD gene in 44 French ALD kindred by using SSCP or denaturing gradient-gel electrophoresis and studied the effect of mutations on ALDP by immunocytofluorescence and western blotting of fibroblasts and/or white blood cells. Mutations were detected in 37 of 44 kindreds and were distributed over the whole protein-coding region, with the exception of the C terminus encoded in exon 10. Except for two mutations (delAG1801 and P560L) observed four times each, nearly every ALD family has a different mutation. Twenty-four of 37 mutations were missense mutations leading to amino acid changes located in or close to putative transmembrane segments (TMS 2, 3, 4, and 5), in the EAA-like motif and in the nucleotide fold of the ATP-binding domain of ALDP. Of 38 ALD patients tested, 27 (71%) lacked ALDP immunoreactivity in their fibroblasts and/or white blood cells. More than half of missense mutations studied (11 of 21) resulted in a complete lack of ALDP immunoreactivity, and six missense mutations resulted in decreased ALDP expression. The fibroblasts and/or white blood cells of 15 of 15 heterozygous carrier from ALD kindred with no ALDP showed a mixture of positive- and negative-ALDP immunoreactivity due to X-inactivation. Since 5%-15% of heterozygous women have normal VLCFA levels, the immunodetection of ALDP in white blood cells can be applicable in a majority of ALD kindred, to identify heterozygous women, particularly when the ALD gene mutation has not yet been identified. 35 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Mutation identification in a canine model of X-linked ectodermal dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Margret L; Scheidt, Jennifer L; Rhodes, James L; Henthorn, Paula S; Werner, Petra

    2005-07-01

    X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XHED), an inherited disease recognized in humans, mice, and cattle, is characterized by hypotrichosis, a reduced number or absence of sweat glands, and missing or malformed teeth. In a subset of affected individuals and animals, mutations in the EDA gene (formerly EDI), coding for ectodysplasin, have been found to cause this phenotype. Ectodysplasin is a homotrimeric transmembrane protein with an extracellular TNF-like domain, which has been shown to be involved in the morphogenesis of hair follicles and tooth buds during fetal development. Some human XHED patients also have concurrent immunodeficiency, due to mutations in the NF-kappaB essential modulator protein (IKBKG; formerly NEMO), which is also encoded on the X chromosome. In a breeding colony of dogs with XHED, immune system defects had been suspected because of frequent pulmonary infections and unexpected deaths resulting from pneumonia. To determine if defects in EDA or IKBKG cause XHED in the dogs, linkage analysis and sequencing experiments were performed. A polymorphic marker near the canine EDA gene showed significant linkage to XHED. The canine EDA gene was sequenced and a nucleotide substitution (G to A) in the splice acceptor site of intron 8 was detected in affected dogs. In the presence of the A residue, a cryptic acceptor site within exon 9 is used, leading to a frame shift and use of a premature stop codon that truncates the translation of both isoforms, EDA-A1 and EDA-A2, resulting in the absence of the TNF-like homology domain, the receptor-binding site of ectodysplasin.

  12. Two novel connexin32 mutations cause early onset X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sand Jette C

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background X-linked Charcot-Marie Tooth (CMT is caused by mutations in the connexin32 gene that encodes a polypeptide which is arranged in hexameric array and form gap junctions. Methods We describe two novel mutations in the connexin32 gene in two Norwegian families. Results Family 1 had a c.225delG (R75fsX83 which causes a frameshift and premature stop codon at position 247. This probably results in a shorter non-functional protein structure. Affected individuals had an early age at onset usually in the first decade. The symptoms were more severe in men than women. All had severe muscle weakness in the legs. Several abortions were observed in this family. Family 2 had a c.536 G>A (C179Y transition which causes a change of the highly conserved cysteine residue, i.e. disruption of at least one of three disulfide bridges. The mean age at onset was in the first decade. Muscle wasting was severe and correlated with muscle weakness in legs. The men and one woman also had symptom from their hands. The neuropathy is demyelinating and the nerve conduction velocities were in the intermediate range (25–49 m/s. Affected individuals had symmetrical clinical findings, while the neurophysiology revealed minor asymmetrical findings in nerve conduction velocity in 6 of 10 affected individuals. Conclusion The two novel mutations in the connexin32 gene are more severe than the majority of previously described mutations possibly due to the severe structural change of the gap junction they encode.

  13. Clinical features and mutation analysis of X-linked agammaglobulinemia in 20 Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xian; Jiang, Li-Ping; Tang, Xue-Mei; Wang, Mo; Liu, En-Mei; Zhao, Xiao-Dong

    2013-08-01

    X-linked agammagobulinemia (XLA) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene mutation. XLA patients have an extremely small amount of peripheral B cells and profound deficiency in all immunoglobulin isotypes. We analyzed the clinical, immunologic, and molecular characteristics of children with XLA in an attempt to improve the diagnosis and treatment of XLA in China. Twenty children with XLA-compatible phenotypes from 18 unrelated families were enrolled in this study. The BTK gene was amplified and sequenced, followed by mutation analysis in these children and their female relatives. Eighteen different mutations of the BTK gene were identified in the 20 patients. Eleven mutations had been reported previously including eight missense mutations (c.994C>T, c.1987C>A, c.1885G>T, c.502T>C, c.1085C>T, c.1816C>T, c.214C>T, c.1912G>A) and three nonsense mutations (c.1267T>A, c.1793C>G, c.1618C>T). Seven novel mutations of the BTK gene were also presented and included five missense mutations (c.134T>A, c.1646T>A, c.1829C>G, c.711G>T, c.1235G>A), one splice-site mutation (c.523+1G>A) and one insertion mutation (c.1024-1025in sTTGCTAAAGCAACTGCTAAAGCAAG). Eight out of 18 mutations of the BTK gene were located in the TK domain, 4 in the PH domain, 4 in the SH2 domain and 2 in the TH domain. Genetic study for carrier status was carried out in 18 families with definite BTK gene mutations. Nine carriers with BTK gene mutations were identified. Six families without carriers were detected, and 3 patients were not tested in this study. Our results support that molecular genetic testing represents an important tool for early confirmed diagnosis of congenital agammaglobulinemia and may allow accurate carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis.

  14. Extensive X-linked adaptive evolution in central chimpanzees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Christina; Qian, Yu; Bataillon, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Surveying genome-wide coding variation within and among species gives unprecedented power to study the genetics of adaptation, in particular the proportion of amino acid substitutions fixed by positive selection. Additionally, contrasting the autosomes and the X chromosome holds information...... on the dominance of beneficial (adaptive) and deleterious mutations. Here we capture and sequence the complete exomes of 12 chimpanzees and present the largest set of protein-coding polymorphism to date. We report extensive adaptive evolution specifically targeting the X chromosome of chimpanzees with as much...... as 30% of all amino acid replacements being adaptive. Adaptive evolution is barely detectable on the autosomes except for a few striking cases of recent selective sweeps associated with immunity gene clusters. We also find much stronger purifying selection than observed in humans, and in contrast...

  15. Spontaneous shaker rat mutant - a new model for X-linked tremor/ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Karla P; Paul, Sharan; Calì, Tito; Lopreiato, Raffaele; Karan, Sukanya; Frizzarin, Martina; Ames, Darren; Zanni, Ginevra; Brini, Marisa; Dansithong, Warunee; Milash, Brett; Scoles, Daniel R; Carafoli, Ernesto; Pulst, Stefan M

    2016-05-01

    The shaker rat is an X-linked recessive spontaneous model of progressive Purkinje cell (PC) degeneration exhibiting a shaking ataxia and wide stance. Generation of Wistar Furth (WF)/Brown Norwegian (BN) F1 hybrids and genetic mapping of F2 sib-sib offspring using polymorphic markers narrowed the candidate gene region to 26 Mbp denoted by the last recombinant genetic marker DXRat21 at 133 Mbp to qter (the end of the long arm). In the WF background, the shaker mutation has complete penetrance, results in a stereotypic phenotype and there is a narrow window for age of disease onset; by contrast, the F2 hybrid phenotype was more varied, with a later age of onset and likely non-penetrance of the mutation. By deep RNA-sequencing, five variants were found in the candidate region; four were novel without known annotation. One of the variants caused an arginine (R) to cysteine (C) change at codon 35 of the ATPase, Ca(2+) transporting, plasma membrane 3 (Atp2b3) gene encoding PMCA3 that has high expression in the cerebellum. The variant was well supported by hundreds of overlapping reads, and was found in 100% of all affected replicas and 0% of the wild-type (WT) replicas. The mutation segregated with disease in all affected animals and the amino acid change was found in an evolutionarily conserved region of PMCA3. Despite strong genetic evidence for pathogenicity, in vitro analyses of PMCA3(R35C) function did not show any differences to WT PMCA3. Because Atp2b3 mutation leads to congenital ataxia in humans, the identified Atp2b3 missense change in the shaker rat presents a good candidate for the shaker rat phenotype based on genetic criteria, but cannot yet be considered a definite pathogenic variant owing to lack of functional changes. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Spontaneous shaker rat mutant – a new model for X-linked tremor/ataxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla P. Figueroa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The shaker rat is an X-linked recessive spontaneous model of progressive Purkinje cell (PC degeneration exhibiting a shaking ataxia and wide stance. Generation of Wistar Furth (WF/Brown Norwegian (BN F1 hybrids and genetic mapping of F2 sib-sib offspring using polymorphic markers narrowed the candidate gene region to 26 Mbp denoted by the last recombinant genetic marker DXRat21 at 133 Mbp to qter (the end of the long arm. In the WF background, the shaker mutation has complete penetrance, results in a stereotypic phenotype and there is a narrow window for age of disease onset; by contrast, the F2 hybrid phenotype was more varied, with a later age of onset and likely non-penetrance of the mutation. By deep RNA-sequencing, five variants were found in the candidate region; four were novel without known annotation. One of the variants caused an arginine (R to cysteine (C change at codon 35 of the ATPase, Ca2+ transporting, plasma membrane 3 (Atp2b3 gene encoding PMCA3 that has high expression in the cerebellum. The variant was well supported by hundreds of overlapping reads, and was found in 100% of all affected replicas and 0% of the wild-type (WT replicas. The mutation segregated with disease in all affected animals and the amino acid change was found in an evolutionarily conserved region of PMCA3. Despite strong genetic evidence for pathogenicity, in vitro analyses of PMCA3R35C function did not show any differences to WT PMCA3. Because Atp2b3 mutation leads to congenital ataxia in humans, the identified Atp2b3 missense change in the shaker rat presents a good candidate for the shaker rat phenotype based on genetic criteria, but cannot yet be considered a definite pathogenic variant owing to lack of functional changes.

  17. Spontaneous shaker rat mutant – a new model for X-linked tremor/ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Karla P.; Paul, Sharan; Calì, Tito; Lopreiato, Raffaele; Karan, Sukanya; Frizzarin, Martina; Ames, Darren; Zanni, Ginevra; Brini, Marisa; Dansithong, Warunee; Milash, Brett; Scoles, Daniel R.; Carafoli, Ernesto; Pulst, Stefan M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The shaker rat is an X-linked recessive spontaneous model of progressive Purkinje cell (PC) degeneration exhibiting a shaking ataxia and wide stance. Generation of Wistar Furth (WF)/Brown Norwegian (BN) F1 hybrids and genetic mapping of F2 sib-sib offspring using polymorphic markers narrowed the candidate gene region to 26 Mbp denoted by the last recombinant genetic marker DXRat21 at 133 Mbp to qter (the end of the long arm). In the WF background, the shaker mutation has complete penetrance, results in a stereotypic phenotype and there is a narrow window for age of disease onset; by contrast, the F2 hybrid phenotype was more varied, with a later age of onset and likely non-penetrance of the mutation. By deep RNA-sequencing, five variants were found in the candidate region; four were novel without known annotation. One of the variants caused an arginine (R) to cysteine (C) change at codon 35 of the ATPase, Ca2+ transporting, plasma membrane 3 (Atp2b3) gene encoding PMCA3 that has high expression in the cerebellum. The variant was well supported by hundreds of overlapping reads, and was found in 100% of all affected replicas and 0% of the wild-type (WT) replicas. The mutation segregated with disease in all affected animals and the amino acid change was found in an evolutionarily conserved region of PMCA3. Despite strong genetic evidence for pathogenicity, in vitro analyses of PMCA3R35C function did not show any differences to WT PMCA3. Because Atp2b3 mutation leads to congenital ataxia in humans, the identified Atp2b3 missense change in the shaker rat presents a good candidate for the shaker rat phenotype based on genetic criteria, but cannot yet be considered a definite pathogenic variant owing to lack of functional changes. PMID:27013529

  18. X-linked sideroblastic anaemia due to ALAS₂ mutations in the Netherlands: a disease in disguise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donker, A E; Raymakers, R A; Nieuwenhuis, H K; Coenen, M J H; Janssen, M C; MacKenzie, M A; Brons, P P T; Swinkels, D W

    2014-05-01

    X-linked sideroblastic anaemia (XLSA; OMIM#300751) is the most common inherited form of sideroblastic anaemia and is associated with several mutations in the erythroid specific 5-aminolevulinate synthase gene (ALAS₂). This gene encodes for aminolevulinic acid synthase 2 (ALAS₂), the catalytic enzyme involved in the first en rate-limiting step of haem biosynthesis.1-3 The disorder is characterised by mostly mild hypochromic microcytic anaemia with bone marrow ring sideroblasts. Even untransfused patients with mild or no anaemia are at risk for severe systemic iron overload due to ineffective erythropoiesis. To date, 61 different ALAS₂ mutations have been reported in 120 families with XLSA. Descriptions of molecularly confirmed case series from the Netherlands, however, are lacking. We reviewed age of presentation, clinical and biochemical features, ALAS₋₂ defects and treatment characteristics of 15 Dutch patients from 11 unrelated families diagnosed with XLSA. In one family a novel pathogenic c.1412G>A (p.Cys471Tyr) mutation was found. All other families shared the previously described c.1355G>A (p.Arg452His) mutation. Haplotype analysis in seven probands with the p.Arg452His mutation strongly suggests that six of them were ancestrally related. Nevertheless, their phenotype was very different. Our patients illustrate the phenotypical heterogeneity in the presentation of XLSA patients, the effectiveness of treatment regimens and the various pitfalls associated with the diagnosis, follow-up and treatment of the disease. A timely diagnosis avoids unnecessary investigations and allows adequate treatment that can prevent systemic iron load with subsequent severe life-threatening complications. Therefore, we suggest considering XLSA in both male and female patients with unexplained iron overload and÷or (mild) microcytic anaemia, also at older age.

  19. Mutations in noncoding regions of GJB1 are a major cause of X-linked CMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaselli, Pedro J.; Rossor, Alexander M.; Horga, Alejandro; Jaunmuktane, Zane; Carr, Aisling; Saveri, Paola; Piscosquito, Giuseppe; Pareyson, Davide; Laura, Matilde; Blake, Julian C.; Poh, Roy; Polke, James; Houlden, Henry

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and clinical and genetic characteristics of patients with X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) due to mutations in noncoding regions of the gap junction β-1 gene (GJB1). Methods: Mutations were identified by bidirectional Sanger sequence analysis of the 595 bases of the upstream promoter region, and 25 bases of the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) sequence in patients in whom mutations in the coding region had been excluded. Clinical and neurophysiologic data were retrospectively collected. Results: Five mutations were detected in 25 individuals from 10 kindreds representing 11.4% of all cases of CMTX1 diagnosed in our neurogenetics laboratory between 1996 and 2016. Four pathogenic mutations, c.-17G>A, c.-17+1G>T, c.-103C>T, and c.-146-90_146-89insT were detected in the 5′UTR. A novel mutation, c.*15C>T, was detected in the 3′ UTR of GJB1 in 2 unrelated families with CMTX1 and is the first pathogenic mutation in the 3′UTR of any myelin-associated CMT gene. Mutations segregated with the phenotype, were at sites predicted to be pathogenic, and were not present in the normal population. Conclusions: Mutations in noncoding DNA are a major cause of CMTX1 and highlight the importance of mutations in noncoding DNA in human disease. Next-generation sequencing platforms for use in inherited neuropathy should therefore include coverage of these regions. PMID:28283593

  20. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: ABCD1 de novo mutations and mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Busin, Rachel; Reeves, Catherine; Bezman, Lena; Raymond, Gerald; Toomer, Cicely J; Watkins, Paul A; Snowden, Ann; Moser, Ann; Naidu, Sakkubai; Bibat, Genila; Hewson, Stacy; Tam, Karen; Clarke, Joe T R; Charnas, Lawrence; Stetten, Gail; Karczeski, Barbara; Cutting, Garry; Steinberg, Steven

    2011-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a progressive peroxisomal disorder affecting adrenal glands, testes and myelin stability that is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 (NM_000033) gene. Males with X-ALD may be diagnosed by the demonstration of elevated very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) levels in plasma. In contrast, only 80% of female carriers have elevated plasma VLCFA; therefore targeted mutation analysis is the most effective means for carrier detection. Amongst 489 X-ALD families tested at Kennedy Krieger Institute, we identified 20 cases in which the ABCD1 mutation was de novo in the index case, indicating that the mutation arose in the maternal germ line and supporting a new mutation rate of at least 4.1% for this group. In addition, we identified 10 cases in which a de novo mutation arose in the mother or the grandmother of the index case. In two of these cases studies indicated that the mothers were low level gonosomal mosaics. In a third case biochemical, molecular and pedigree analysis indicated the mother was a gonadal mosaic. To the best of our knowledge mosaicism has not been previously reported in X-ALD. In addition, we identified one pedigree in which the maternal grandfather was mosaic for the familial ABCD1 mutation. Less than 1% of our patient population had evidence of gonadal or gonosomal mosaicism, suggesting it is a rare occurrence for this gene and its associated disorders. However, the residual maternal risk for having additional ovum carrying the mutant allele identified in an index case that appears to have a de novo mutation is at least 13%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mutations in btk in patients with presumed X-linked agammaglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, M E; Mathias, D; Treadaway, J; Minegishi, Y; Rohrer, J

    1998-01-01

    In 1993, two groups showed that X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) was due to mutations in a tyrosine kinase now called Btk. Most laboratories have been able to detect mutations in Btk in 80%-90% of males with presumed XLA. The remaining patients may have mutations in Btk that are difficult to identify, or they may have defects that are phenotypically similar to XLA but genotypically different. We analyzed 101 families in which affected males were diagnosed as having XLA. Mutations in Btk were identified in 38 of 40 families with more than one affected family member and in 56 of 61 families with sporadic disease. Excluding the patients in whom the marked decrease in B cell numbers characteristic of XLA could not be confirmed by immunofluorescence studies, mutations in Btk were identified in 43 of 46 patients with presumed sporadic XLA. Two of the three remaining patients had defects in other genes required for normal B cell development, and the third patient was unlikely to have XLA, on the basis of results of extensive Btk analysis. Our techniques were unable to identify a mutation in Btk in one male with both a family history and laboratory findings suggestive of XLA. DNA samples from 41 of 49 of the mothers of males with sporadic disease and proven mutations in Btk were positive for the mutation found in their son. In the other 8 families, the mutation appeared to arise in the maternal germ line. In 20 families, haplotype analysis showed that the new mutation originated in the maternal grandfather or great-grandfather. These studies indicate that 90%-95% of males with presumed XLA have mutations in Btk. The other patients are likely to have defects in other genes. PMID:9545398

  2. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in ghrelin gene and the resulting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghrelin is a growth hormone releasing peptide which also affects feed intake in chickens. Ghrelin is encoded by chicken ghrelin gene (cGHRL) found in chromosome 7. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported in cGHRL in Chinese native chickens, but such studies have not been carried out in chickens ...

  3. Preliminary Evidence for Aortopathy and an X-Linked Parent-of-Origin Effect on Aortic Valve Malformation in a Mouse Model of Turner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Hinton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Turner syndrome (TS, most frequently caused by X-monosomy (45,X, is characterized in part by cardiovascular abnormalities, including aortopathy and bicuspid aortic valve (BAV. There is a need for animal models that recapitulate the cardiovascular manifestations of TS. Extracellular matrix (ECM organization and morphometrics of the aortic valve and proximal aorta were examined in adult 39,XO mice (where the parental origin of the single X was paternal (39,XPO or maternal (39,XMO and 40,XX controls. Aortic valve morphology was normal (tricuspid in all of the 39,XPO and 40,XX mice studied, but abnormal (bicuspid or quadricuspid in 15% of 39,XMO mice. Smooth muscle cell orientation in the ascending aorta was abnormal in all 39,XPO and 39,XMO mice examined, but smooth muscle actin was decreased in 39,XMO mice only. Aortic dilation was present with reduced penetrance in 39,XO mice. The 39,XO mouse demonstrates aortopathy and an X-linked parent-of-origin effect on aortic valve malformation, and the candidate gene FAM9B is polymorphically expressed in control and diseased human aortic valves. The 39,XO mouse model may be valuable for examining the mechanisms underlying the cardiovascular findings in TS, and suggest there are important genetic modifiers on the X chromosome that modulate risk for nonsyndromic BAV and aortopathy.

  4. Clinical and Genetic Features of Chinese X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth Type 1 Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuan-Yuan; Lyu, He; Jin, Su-Qin; Zuo, Yue-Huan; Liu, Jing; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Zhang, Wei; Yuan, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Background: X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 (CMT1X) disease is one of the most common forms of inherited neuropathy caused by mutations in the gap junction beta-1 protein (GJB1) gene (also known as connexin 32). This study presented the clinical and genetic features of a series of Chinese patients with GJB1 gene mutations. Methods: A total of 22 patients from unrelated families, who were referred to Department of Neurology, Peking University First Hospital from January 2005 to January 2016, were identified with GJB1 mutations. Their clinical records and laboratory findings were retrospectively collected and reviewed. Mutations in the GJB1 gene were analyzed by targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS). Nucleotide alternations were confirmed with Sanger sequencing. Results: The CMT1X patients predominantly showed distal muscle weakness of lower limbs with mild sensory disturbance. The mean age of onset was 15.6 ± 8.7 years (ranging from 1 year to 42 years). The sudden onset of cerebral symptoms appeared in four patients (18.2%); two were initial symptoms. One case had constant central nervous system (CNS) signs. There were 19 different heterozygous mutations, including 15 known mutations and four novel mutations (c.115G>T, c.380T>A, c.263C>A, and c.818_819insGGGCT). Among the 22 Chinese patients with CMT1X, the frequency of the GJB1 mutation was 4.5% in transmembrane domain 1 (TM1), 4.5% in TM2, 22.7% in TM3, 9.1% in TM4, 4.5% in extracellular 1 (EC1), 27.3% in EC2, 9.1% in intracellular loop, 13.6% in the N-terminal domain, and 4.5% in the C-terminal domain. CMT1X with CNS impairment appeared in five (22.7%) of these patients. Conclusions: This study indicated that CNS impairment was not rare in Chinese CMT1X patients. Mutations in the EC2 domain of the GJB1 gene were hotspot in Chinese CMT1X patients. PMID:28469099

  5. Cog-Wheel Octameric Structure of RS1, the Discoidin Domain Containing Retinal Protein Associated with X-Linked Retinoschisis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Bush

    Full Text Available RS1, also known as retinoschisin, is a disulphide-linked, discoidin domain containing homo-oligomeric protein that plays a crucial role in maintaining the cellular and synaptic organization of the retina. This is highlighted by the finding that over 130 mutations in RS1 cause X-linked retinoschisis, a retinal degenerative disease characterized by the splitting of the retinal cell layers, disruption of the photoreceptor-bipolar synapses, degeneration of photoreceptors, and severe loss in central vision. In this study, we investigated the arrangement of the RS1 subunits within the oligomer complex using single particle electron microscopy. RS1 was seen as two stacked rings with each ring displaying a symmetrical cog wheel-like structure with eight teeth or projections corresponding to the RS1 subunits. Three dimensional reconstruction and molecular modelling indicated that the discoidin domain, the principal functional unit of RS1, projects outward, and the Rs1 domain and C-terminal segment containing intermolecular disulphide bonds are present in the inner ring to form the core octameric structure. These studies provide a basis for further understanding the role of the novel core RS1 octameric complex in retinal cell biology and X-linked retinoschisis.

  6. Mutations, clinical findings and survival estimates in South American patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda dos Santos Pereira

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: In this study, we analyzed the ABCD1 gene in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD patients and relatives from 38 unrelated families from South America, as well as phenotypic proportions, survival estimates, and the potential effect of geographical origin in clinical characteristics. METHODS: X- ALD patients from Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay were invited to participate in molecular studies to determine their genetic status, characterize the mutations and improve the genetic counseling of their families. All samples were screened by SSCP analysis of PCR fragments, followed by automated DNA sequencing to establish the specific mutation in each family. Age at onset and at death, male phenotypes, genetic status of women, and the effect of family and of latitude of origin were also studied. RESULTS: We identified thirty-six different mutations (twelve novel. This population had an important allelic heterogeneity, as only p.Arg518Gln was repeatedly found (three families. Four cases carried de novo mutations. Intra-familiar phenotype variability was observed in all families. Out of 87 affected males identified, 65% had the cerebral phenotype (CALD. The mean (95% CI ages at onset and at death of the CALD were 10.9 (9.1-12.7 and 24.7 (19.8-29.6 years. No association was found between phenotypic manifestations and latitude of origin. One index-case was a girl with CALD who carried an ABCD1 mutation, and had completely skewed X inactivation. CONCLUSIONS: This study extends the spectrum of mutations in X-ALD, confirms the high rates of de novo mutations and the absence of common mutations, and suggests a possible high frequency of cerebral forms in our population.

  7. Localization of a new type of X-linked liver glycogenosis to the chromosomal region Xp22 containing the liver {alpha}-subunit of phosphorylase kinase (PHKA2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickx, J.; Coucke, P.; Willems, P.J. [Univ. of Antwerp (Belgium)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    The authors describe here a new type of X-linked liver glycogen storage disease. The main symptoms include liver enlargement and growth retardation. The clinical and biochemical abnormalities of this glycogenosis are similar to those of classical X-linked liver glycogenosis due to phosphorylase kinase deficiency (XLG). However, in constrast to patients with XLG, the patients described here have no reduced phosphorylase kinase activity in erythrocytes and leukocytes, and no enzyme deficiency could be found. Linkage analysis of four families with this X-linked type of liver glycogenosis assigned the disease gene to Xp22. Lod scores obtained with the markers DXS987, DXS207, and DXS999 were 3.97, 2.71, and 2.40, respectively, all at 0% recombination. Multipoint linkage analysis localized the disease gene between DXS143 and DXS989 with a maximum lod score of 4.70 at {theta}=0, relative to DXS987. As both the classical XLG gene and the liver {alpha}-subunit of PHK (PHKA2) are also located in Xp22, this variant type of XLG may be allelic to classical XLG, and both diseases may be caused by mutations in PHKA2. Therefore, they propose to classify XLG as XLG type I (the classical type of XLG) and XLG type II (the variant type of XLG). 28 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Screening for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy among adult men with Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Morten A; Erichsen, Martina M; Wolff, Anette S B; Månsson, Jan-Eric; Husebye, Eystein S; Tallaksen, Chantal M E; Skjeldal, Ola H

    2013-09-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is an important cause of Addison's disease in boys, but less is known about its contribution to Addison's disease in adult men. After surveying all known cases of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in Norway in a separate study, we aimed to look for any missed cases among the population of adult men with nonautoimmune Addison's disease. Among 153 adult men identified in a National Registry for Addison's Disease (75% of identified male cases of Addison's disease in Norway), those with negative indices for 21-hydroxylase autoantibodies were selected. Additionally, cases with low autoantibody indices (48-200) were selected. Sera from subjects included were analysed for levels of very long-chain fatty acids, which are diagnostic for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in men. Eighteen subjects had negative indices and 17 had low indices for 21-hydroxylase autoantibodies. None of those with low indices and only one of those with negative indices were found to have X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy; this subject had already been diagnosed because of the neurological symptoms. Cases of Addison's disease proved to be caused by X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy constitute 1·5% of all adult male cases in Norway; the proportion among nonautoimmune cases was 15%. We found X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy to be an uncommon cause of Addison's disease in adult men. However, this aetiological diagnosis has far-reaching consequences both for the patient and for his extended family. We therefore recommend that all adult men with nonautoimmune Addison's disease be analysed for levels of very long-chain fatty acids. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Oxidative stress modulates mitochondrial failure and cyclophilin D function in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Erauskin, Jone; Galino, Jorge; Bianchi, Patrizia; Fourcade, Stéphane; Andreu, Antoni L; Ferrer, Isidre; Muñoz-Pinedo, Cristina; Pujol, Aurora

    2012-12-01

    A common process associated with oxidative stress and severe mitochondrial impairment is the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, as described in many neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening represents a potential target for inhibiting mitochondrial-driven cell death. Among the mitochondrial permeability transition pore components, cyclophilin D is the most studied and has been found increased under pathological conditions. Here, we have used in vitro and in vivo models of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy to investigate the relationship between the mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening and redox homeostasis. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a neurodegenerative condition caused by loss of function of the peroxisomal ABCD1 transporter, in which oxidative stress plays a pivotal role. In this study, we provide evidence of impaired mitochondrial metabolism in a peroxisomal disease, as fibroblasts in patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy cannot survive when forced to rely on mitochondrial energy production, i.e. on incubation in galactose. Oxidative stress induced under galactose conditions leads to mitochondrial damage in the form of mitochondrial inner membrane potential dissipation, ATP drop and necrotic cell death, together with increased levels of oxidative modifications in cyclophilin D protein. Moreover, we show increased expression levels of cyclophilin D in the affected zones of brains in patients with adrenomyeloneuropathy, in spinal cord of a mouse model of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (Abcd1-null mice) and in fibroblasts from patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. Notably, treatment with antioxidants rescues mitochondrial damage markers in fibroblasts from patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, including cyclophilin D oxidative modifications, and reverses cyclophilin D induction in vitro and in vivo. These findings provide mechanistic insight into the

  10. Management of Red Teeth in an International Patient with X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Elena; Miller, Weston P; Myers, Sandra L; Karp, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    Childhood cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a progressive, central nervous system, and endocrine disorder that typically leads to total neurologic disability and, eventually, death without appropriate, timely medical therapy. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been found effective in slowing cerebral deterioration and improving long-term survival. The purpose of this case report was to describe the multidisciplinary management of red, discolored, pulpally treated primary molars identified in a nine-year-old Russian boy with childhood cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy preparing for myeloablative conditioning chemotherapy followed by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

  11. Striatal dysfunction in X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism is associated with disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, N; Rosales, R L; Waugh, J L; Blood, A J; Domingo, A; Heldmann, M; Jamora, R D; Münchau, A; Münte, T F; Lee, L V; Buchmann, I; Klein, C

    2017-05-01

    X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism (XDP) is an inherited neurodegenerative adult-onset movement disorder associated with striatal atrophy. As the dopaminergic system has not yet been systemically studied in this basal ganglia model disease, it is unclear whether nigrostriatal dysfunction contributes to parkinsonism in XDP. Pre- and post-synaptic dopaminergic function was assessed in XDP. A total of 10 123 jod-benzamide (IBZM) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images were obtained for nine patients aged 42.3 ± 9.5 years (SD; range 30-52) and one asymptomatic mutation carrier (38 years), and four ioflupane (FP-CIT) SPECT images were obtained for four patients, aged 41.5 ± 11.6 years (range 30-52 years). Structural magnetic resonance imaging was also performed for all mutation carriers and 10 matched healthy controls. All patients were men who suffered from severe, disabling segmental or generalized dystonia and had varying degrees of parkinsonism. IBZM SPECT images were pathological in 8/9 symptomatic patients with distinct reduced post-synaptic tracer uptake in the caudate nucleus and putamen, and unremarkable in the asymptomatic mutation carrier. Longer disease duration was correlated with lower IBZM binding ratios. All subjects exhibited slightly reduced FP-CIT uptake values compared to controls for each analyzed region (-37% to -41%) which may be linked to basal ganglia volume loss. Visual inspection revealed physiological FP-CIT uptake in 1/4 patients. This nuclear imaging study provides evidence that the functional decline of post-synaptic dopaminergic neurotransmission is related to disease duration and ongoing neurodegeneration. Given the severe striatal cell loss which could be verified with post-synaptic nuclear imaging, both parkinsonism and dystonia in XDP are probably mainly due to striatal dysfunction. © 2017 EAN.

  12. Generation of knockout rats with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) using zinc-finger nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashimo, Tomoji; Takizawa, Akiko; Voigt, Birger; Yoshimi, Kazuto; Hiai, Hiroshi; Kuramoto, Takashi; Serikawa, Tadao

    2010-01-25

    Although the rat is extensively used as a laboratory model, the inability to utilize germ line-competent rat embryonic stem (ES) cells has been a major drawback for studies that aim to elucidate gene functions. Recently, zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) were successfully used to create genome-specific double-stranded breaks and thereby induce targeted gene mutations in a wide variety of organisms including plants, drosophila, zebrafish, etc. We report here on ZFN-induced gene targeting of the rat interleukin 2 receptor gamma (Il2rg) locus, where orthologous human and mouse mutations cause X-linked severe combined immune deficiency (X-SCID). Co-injection of mRNAs encoding custom-designed ZFNs into the pronucleus of fertilized oocytes yielded genetically modified offspring at rates greater than 20%, which possessed a wide variety of deletion/insertion mutations. ZFN-modified founders faithfully transmitted their genetic changes to the next generation along with the severe combined immune deficiency phenotype. The efficient and rapid generation of gene knockout rats shows that using ZFN technology is a new strategy for creating gene-targeted rat models of human diseases. In addition, the X-SCID rats that were established in this study will be valuable in vivo tools for evaluating drug treatment or gene therapy as well as model systems for examining the treatment of xenotransplanted malignancies.

  13. Generation of knockout rats with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID using zinc-finger nucleases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoji Mashimo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the rat is extensively used as a laboratory model, the inability to utilize germ line-competent rat embryonic stem (ES cells has been a major drawback for studies that aim to elucidate gene functions. Recently, zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs were successfully used to create genome-specific double-stranded breaks and thereby induce targeted gene mutations in a wide variety of organisms including plants, drosophila, zebrafish, etc. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report here on ZFN-induced gene targeting of the rat interleukin 2 receptor gamma (Il2rg locus, where orthologous human and mouse mutations cause X-linked severe combined immune deficiency (X-SCID. Co-injection of mRNAs encoding custom-designed ZFNs into the pronucleus of fertilized oocytes yielded genetically modified offspring at rates greater than 20%, which possessed a wide variety of deletion/insertion mutations. ZFN-modified founders faithfully transmitted their genetic changes to the next generation along with the severe combined immune deficiency phenotype. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The efficient and rapid generation of gene knockout rats shows that using ZFN technology is a new strategy for creating gene-targeted rat models of human diseases. In addition, the X-SCID rats that were established in this study will be valuable in vivo tools for evaluating drug treatment or gene therapy as well as model systems for examining the treatment of xenotransplanted malignancies.

  14. Sequencing genes in silico using single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xinyi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of high throughput sequencing technology has enabled the 1000 Genomes Project Pilot 3 to generate complete sequence data for more than 906 genes and 8,140 exons representing 697 subjects. The 1000 Genomes database provides a critical opportunity for further interpreting disease associations with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs discovered from genetic association studies. Currently, direct sequencing of candidate genes or regions on a large number of subjects remains both cost- and time-prohibitive. Results To accelerate the translation from discovery to functional studies, we propose an in silico gene sequencing method (ISS, which predicts phased sequences of intragenic regions, using SNPs. The key underlying idea of our method is to infer diploid sequences (a pair of phased sequences/alleles at every functional locus utilizing the deep sequencing data from the 1000 Genomes Project and SNP data from the HapMap Project, and to build prediction models using flanking SNPs. Using this method, we have developed a database of prediction models for 611 known genes. Sequence prediction accuracy for these genes is 96.26% on average (ranges 79%-100%. This database of prediction models can be enhanced and scaled up to include new genes as the 1000 Genomes Project sequences additional genes on additional individuals. Applying our predictive model for the KCNJ11 gene to the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC Type 2 diabetes cohort, we demonstrate how the prediction of phased sequences inferred from GWAS SNP genotype data can be used to facilitate interpretation and identify a probable functional mechanism such as protein changes. Conclusions Prior to the general availability of routine sequencing of all subjects, the ISS method proposed here provides a time- and cost-effective approach to broadening the characterization of disease associated SNPs and regions, and facilitating the prioritization of candidate

  15. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD: clinical presentation and guidelines for diagnosis, follow-up and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelen Marc

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD is the most common peroxisomal disorder. The disease is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene that encodes the peroxisomal membrane protein ALDP which is involved in the transmembrane transport of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA; ≥C22. A defect in ALDP results in elevated levels of VLCFA in plasma and tissues. The clinical spectrum in males with X-ALD ranges from isolated adrenocortical insufficiency and slowly progressive myelopathy to devastating cerebral demyelination. The majority of heterozygous females will develop symptoms by the age of 60 years. In individual patients the disease course remains unpredictable. This review focuses on the diagnosis and management of patients with X-ALD and provides a guideline for clinicians that encounter patients with this highly complex disorder.

  16. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD): clinical presentation and guidelines for diagnosis, follow-up and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, Marc; Kemp, Stephan; de Visser, Marianne; van Geel, Björn M; Wanders, Ronald J A; Aubourg, Patrick; Poll-The, Bwee Tien

    2012-08-13

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is the most common peroxisomal disorder. The disease is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene that encodes the peroxisomal membrane protein ALDP which is involved in the transmembrane transport of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA; ≥ C22). A defect in ALDP results in elevated levels of VLCFA in plasma and tissues. The clinical spectrum in males with X-ALD ranges from isolated adrenocortical insufficiency and slowly progressive myelopathy to devastating cerebral demyelination. The majority of heterozygous females will develop symptoms by the age of 60 years. In individual patients the disease course remains unpredictable. This review focuses on the diagnosis and management of patients with X-ALD and provides a guideline for clinicians that encounter patients with this highly complex disorder.

  17. X-Linked Deafness in a South African Kindred | Thorpe | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The X-linked deafness of Nance is present in a South African kindred. Recognition of the familial pattern of the disorder, together with the characteristic clinical and audiometric features, permits diagnostic precision, thereby facilitating accurate genetic counselling and rational management. Linkage studies indicated that the ...

  18. X-Linked Lymphoproliferative Disease Presenting as Pancytopenia in a 10-Month-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nicole Chadha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available X-linked lymphoproliferative disease, also known as Duncan's syndrome, is a rare genetic disorder that causes exaggerated immune responses to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection and often leads to death. Patient presentation varies but can include signs and symptoms typical of EBV, pancytopenia, and fulminant hepatitis.

  19. X-linked hypomyelination with spondylometaphyseal dysplasia (H-SMD) associated with mutations in AIFM1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miyake, Noriko; Wolf, Nicole I.; Cayami, Ferdy K.; Crawford, Joanna; Bley, Annette; Bulas, Dorothy; Conant, Alex; Bent, Stephen J.; Gripp, Karen W.; Hahn, Andreas; Humphray, Sean; Kimura-Ohba, Shihoko; Kingsbury, Zoya; Lajoie, Bryan R.; Lal, Dennis; Micha, Dimitra; Pizzino, Amy; Sinke, Richard J.; Sival, Deborah; Stolte-Dijkstra, Irene; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Ulrick, Nicole; Taft, Ryan J.; Ogata, Tsutomu; Ozono, Keiichi; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Neubauer, Bernd A.; Simons, Cas; Vanderver, Adeline

    2017-01-01

    An X-linked condition characterized by the combination of hypomyelinating leukodystrophy and spondylometaphyseal dysplasia (H-SMD) has been observed in only four families, with linkage to Xq25-27, and recent genetic characterization in two families with a common AIFM1 mutation. In our study, 12

  20. Skin barrier properties in patients with recessive X-linked ichthyosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Ramsing, D; Vejlsgaard, G

    1995-01-01

    Patients with X-linked recessive ichthyosis (RXLI) were studied as a model of the effect of disturbed epidermal lipid composition on skin barrier function. Thirteen patients with RXLI and 15 age- and sex-matched controls were patch-tested with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) 0.5% for 24 h. Basal skin...

  1. Non-syndromic posterior lenticonus a cause of childhood cataract: evidence for X-linked inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell-Eggitt, I M

    2000-12-01

    When an X-linked pedigree of posterior lenticonus with cataract was identified further evidence for X-linked inheritance of this condition was sought. Forty-three cases of posterior lenticonus were identified from a database of 354 children with cataract. Two children with the X-linked syndromes of Lowe and Nance-Horan and 3 children with Fanconi syndrome have been excluded from further analysis. None of the children was deaf. None of the non-syndromic cases had microcornea. There were 38 cases of non-syndromic posterior lenticonus (approximately 11%). There were 15 children from 13 pedigrees and 23 apparently sporadic cases. Of the 106 cases on the database with unilateral cataract 15 had posterior lenticonus (approximately 14%). Eleven of 13 pedigrees were compatible with X-linked inheritance or autosomal dominant inheritance with variable expression. However, in 2 pedigrees there was father to son transmission. Posterior lenticonus is a common cause of unilateral infantile cataract, but is thought to be a rare cause of bilateral cataracts. This study suggests that posterior lenticonus is responsible for a significant proportion of childhood cataracts (approximately 14% of unilateral and approximately 9% of bilateral cases). Posterior lenticonus is generally thought to occur as a sporadic condition. This study demonstrates that there is a family history of early-onset cataract in a significant number of bilateral cases (approximately 58%).

  2. Pioglitazone halts axonal degeneration in a mouse model of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morató, Laia; Galino, Jorge; Ruiz, Montserrat; Calingasan, Noel Ylagan; Starkov, Anatoly A.; Dumont, Magali; Naudí, Alba; Martínez, Juan José; Aubourg, Patrick; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Pamplona, Reinald; Galea, Elena; Beal, M. Flint; Ferrer, Isidre; Fourcade, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a neurometabolic disorder caused by inactivation of the peroxisomal ABCD1 transporter of very long-chain fatty acids. In mice, ABCD1 loss causes late onset axonal degeneration in the spinal cord in association with locomotor disability resembling the most common phenotype in patients, adrenomyeloneuropathy. Increasing evidence indicates that oxidative stress and bioenergetic failure play major roles in the pathogenesis of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether mitochondrial biogenesis is affected in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. We demonstrated that Abcd1 null mice show reduced mitochondrial DNA concomitant with downregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis pathway driven by PGC-1α/PPARγ and reduced expression of mitochondrial proteins cytochrome c, NDUFB8 and VDAC. Moreover, we show that the oral administration of pioglitazone, an agonist of PPARγ, restored mitochondrial content and expression of master regulators of biogenesis, neutralized oxidative damage to proteins and DNA, and reversed bioenergetic failure in terms of ATP levels, NAD+/NADH ratios, pyruvate kinase and glutathione reductase activities. Most importantly, the treatment halted locomotor disability and axonal damage in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy mice. These results lend support to the use of pioglitazone in clinical trials with patients with adrenomyeloneuropathy and reveal novel molecular mechanisms of action of pioglitazone in neurodegeneration. Future studies should address the effects of this anti-diabetic drug on other axonopathies in which oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are contributing factors. PMID:23794606

  3. X-Linked Creatine Transporter Deficiency Presenting as a Mitochondrial Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hathaway, S.C.; Friez, M.; Limbo, K.; Parker, C.; Salomons, G.S.; Vockley, J.; Wood, T.; Abdul-Rahman, O.A.

    2010-01-01

    X-linked creatine transporter defect is caused by mutations in SLC6A8 at Xq28, which encodes the sodium-dependent creatine transporter. Reduction in creatine uptake results in elevated urine creatine and CSF creatine deficiency, which can be detected on magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We report a

  4. Somatic mosaicism underlies X-linked acrogigantism syndrome in sporadic male subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. Daly (Adrian); B. Yuan (Bo); Fina, F. (Frederic); J.-H. Caberg (Jean-Hubert); G. Trivellin (Giampaolo); L. Rostomyan (Liliya); W.W. de Herder (Wouter); L.A. Naves (Lucianna); D. Metzger (Daniel); T. Cuny (Thomas); Rabl, W. (Wolfgang); N.S. Shah (Nalini Samir); M-L. Jaffrain-Rea (Marie-Lise); Chiara Zatelli, M. (Maria); F.R. Faucz (Fabio R.); E. Castermans (Emilie); Nanni-Metellus, I. (Isabelle); Lodish, M. (Maya); A. Muhammad (Ammar); Palmeira, L. (Leonor); Potorac, I. (Iulia); G. Mantovani (Giovanna); S.J.C.M.M. Neggers (Bas); Klein, M. (Marc); A. Barlier (Anne); P. Liu (Pengfei); Ouafik, L. (L'houcine); V. Bours (Vincent); Lupski, J.R. (James R.); C.A. Stratakis (Constantine); A. Beckers (Albert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractSomatic mosaicism has been implicated as a causative mechanism in a number of genetic and genomic disorders. X-linked acrogigantism (XLAG)syndrome is a recently characterized genomic form of pediatric gigantism due to aggressive pituitary tumors that is caused by submicroscopic

  5. Pioglitazone halts axonal degeneration in a mouse model of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morató, Laia; Galino, Jorge; Ruiz, Montserrat; Calingasan, Noel Ylagan; Starkov, Anatoly A; Dumont, Magali; Naudí, Alba; Martínez, Juan José; Aubourg, Patrick; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Pamplona, Reinald; Galea, Elena; Beal, M Flint; Ferrer, Isidre; Fourcade, Stéphane; Pujol, Aurora

    2013-08-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a neurometabolic disorder caused by inactivation of the peroxisomal ABCD1 transporter of very long-chain fatty acids. In mice, ABCD1 loss causes late onset axonal degeneration in the spinal cord in association with locomotor disability resembling the most common phenotype in patients, adrenomyeloneuropathy. Increasing evidence indicates that oxidative stress and bioenergetic failure play major roles in the pathogenesis of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether mitochondrial biogenesis is affected in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. We demonstrated that Abcd1 null mice show reduced mitochondrial DNA concomitant with downregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis pathway driven by PGC-1α/PPARγ and reduced expression of mitochondrial proteins cytochrome c, NDUFB8 and VDAC. Moreover, we show that the oral administration of pioglitazone, an agonist of PPARγ, restored mitochondrial content and expression of master regulators of biogenesis, neutralized oxidative damage to proteins and DNA, and reversed bioenergetic failure in terms of ATP levels, NAD+/NADH ratios, pyruvate kinase and glutathione reductase activities. Most importantly, the treatment halted locomotor disability and axonal damage in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy mice. These results lend support to the use of pioglitazone in clinical trials with patients with adrenomyeloneuropathy and reveal novel molecular mechanisms of action of pioglitazone in neurodegeneration. Future studies should address the effects of this anti-diabetic drug on other axonopathies in which oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are contributing factors.

  6. MRI findings in an asymptomatic boy with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy and his symptomatic mother

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Central Railway Hospital, Warsaw (Poland); Tylki-Szymanska, A.; Stradomska, T.J. [Dept. of Metabolic Diseases, Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw (Poland); Walecki, J. [Dept. of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Medical Centre for Postgraduate Education, Warsaw (Poland)

    2001-11-01

    We report an asymptomatic 15-year-old boy with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy and his symptomatic 38-year-old mother. MRI revealed similar, subtle high-signal lesions in the periventricular white matter of the parieto-occipital regions, without involvement of the corpus callosum, more pronounced in the mother. (orig.)

  7. Multipoint linkage analysis in X-linked ocular albinism of the Nettleship-Falls type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergen, A. A.; Samanns, C.; Schuurman, E. J.; van Osch, L.; van Dorp, D. B.; Pinckers, A. J.; Bakker, E.; Gal, A.; van Ommen, G. J.; Bleeker-Wagemakers, E. M.

    1991-01-01

    An extensive linkage analysis was performed by studying ten Xp22 loci in ten families segregating for X-linked ocular albinism of the Nettleship-Falls type (XOA). Linkage was confirmed between the XOA locus (OA1) and both DXS16 (theta max = 0.10, zeta max = 4.09) and DXS237 (theta max = 0.12, zeta

  8. Successful approach to treatment of Helicobacter bilis infection in X-linked agammaglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turvey, Stuart E; Leo, Sara H; Boos, Annette; Deans, Gregory D; Prendiville, Julie; Crawford, Richard I; Senger, Christof; Conley, Mary Ellen; Tilley, Peter; Junker, Anne; Janz, Loretta; Azana, Robert; Hoang, Linda; Morton, Tracy L

    2012-12-01

    Helicobacter bilis, an unusual cause of chronic infections in patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), is notoriously difficult to diagnose and eradicate. Based on the limited number of cases reported worldwide, we highlight the typical features of H. bilis infection in XLA and provide a rational and successful approach to diagnosis and treatment of this challenging infection.

  9. High-resolution genomic microarrays for X-linked mental retardation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtenberg, D.; Veltman, J.A.; Bokhoven, J.H.L.M. van

    2007-01-01

    Developments in genomic microarray technology have revolutionized the study of human genomic copy number variation. This has significantly affected many areas in human genetics, including the field of X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). Chromosome X-specific bacterial artificial chromosomes

  10. Self-induced vomiting in X-linked {alpha}-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosawa, Kenji; Akatsuka, Akira; Ochiai, Yukikatsu [Jikei Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    1996-06-14

    This report poses the question of whether the vomiting observed in X-linked {alpha}-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome could be self-induced. The authors present a case history which seems to support this hypothesis. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Severe tracheobronchial stenosis and cervical vertebral subluxation in X-linked recessive chondrodysplasia punctata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundinger, Gerhard S. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Maxillofacial Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States); Weiss, Clifford; Fishman, Elliot K. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Radiologic manifestations of X-linked chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX1) typically include chondrodysplasia, epiphyseal stippling, punctate calcification of cartilage, distal phalangeal hypoplasia, and nasal/midface hypoplasia. We present an infant with CDPX1 demonstrating calcification and stenosis of the entire trachea and mainstem bronchi, as well as possible anterior C1 subluxation due to progression of congenital vertebral dysplasia. (orig.)

  12. Single Gene and Syndromic Causes of Obesity: Illustrative Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Merlin G

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a significant health problem in westernized societies, particularly in the United States where it has reached epidemic proportions in both adults and children. The prevalence of childhood obesity has doubled in the past 30 years. The causation is complex with multiple sources, including an obesity promoting environment with plentiful highly dense food sources and overall decreased physical activity noted for much of the general population, but genetic factors clearly play a role. Advances in genetic technology using candidate gene approaches, genome-wide association studies, structural and expression microarrays, and next generation sequencing have led to the discovery of hundreds of genes recognized as contributing to obesity. Polygenic and monogenic causes of obesity are now recognized including dozens of examples of syndromic obesity with Prader-Willi syndrome, as a classical example and recognized as the most common known cause of life-threatening obesity. Genetic factors playing a role in the causation of obesity will be discussed along with the growing evidence of single genes and the continuum between monogenic and polygenic obesity. The clinical and genetic aspects of four classical but rare obesity-related syndromes (ie, Prader-Willi, Alström, fragile X, and Albright hereditary osteodystrophy) will be described and illustrated in this review of single gene and syndromic causes of obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Two families of X-linked lymphoproliferative disease type 1 characterized by agammaglobulinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W Y; Chen, J S; Zhao, Q; Dai, R X; Wang, Y P; Zhao, H Y; Chen, X M; Xue, X H; Sun, X Y; Tang, X M; Zhang, Y; Ding, Y; Zhao, X D; Zhang, Z Y

    2017-05-04

    Objective: To investigate the clinical and immunological laboratory features, mutations in SH2D1A gene and SAP protein expression in four children of two families with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease type 1(XLP-1). Method: Four patients (Family A including Patient 1 and Patient 2, Family B including Patient 3 and Patient 4) and their maternal relatives were enrolled in this study. The clinical manifestation, EBV infection status and chest CT scan were analyzed. The absolute and relative numbers of lymphocyte subsets, T lymphocyte proliferative response, SAP protein expression were assessed by flow cytometry. Quantification of signal joint TCR rearrangementexcision circle (sjTRECs), CDR3 spectratyping of TCRvβ and gene mutation of SH2D1A were detected by PCR based on genomic DNA or cDNA. Result: Four male patients from two families were diagnosed with XLP-1. The ages of disease onset were more than 1 year, more than 1 year, more than 1 month and 6 months. The ages at diagnosis were nine years and ten months, sixteen years and eight months, fourteen years and ten months, four years and nine months. All patients had recurrent infections and EBV infection. Patients 1, 2, and 3 had agammaglobulinemia and Patient 4 had hypogammaglobulinemia. Chest CT scan showed all patients had atelectasis and pneumonia, and Patient 3 had bronchiectasis. Patient 3 was diagnosised as Burkitt lymphoma. For immunological function, all patients exhibited reduced CD4/CD8 ratios, increased numbers of exhausted T lymphocyte, decreased number of NK cell. The numbers of total B lymphocyte and naïve B lymphocyte were normal, but the number of memory B lymphocyte declined in all cases. Four patients' copy numbers of sjTRECs were low and CDR3 spectratypings of TCRvβ showed mildly skewed. But their T lymphocyte proliferative response was normal. SAP protein expression in four cases were measured by flow cytometry. Two patients from Family A were absent and two patients from Family B showed

  14. Clinical characteristics and genetic profiles of 174 patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia: Report from Shanghai, China (2000-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xia-Fang; Wang, Wei-Fan; Zhang, Yi-Dan; Zhao, Wei; Wu, Jing; Chen, Tong-Xin

    2016-08-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a humoral primary immunodeficiency. XLA patients typically present with very low numbers of peripheral B cells and a profound deficiency of all immunoglobulin isotypes. Most XLA patients carry mutations in Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene.The genetic background and clinical features of 174 Chinese patients with XLA were investigated. The relationship between specific BTK gene mutations and severity of clinical manifestations was also examined. Mutations were graded from mild to severe based on structural and functional prediction through bioinformatics analysis.One hundred twenty-seven mutations were identified in 142 patients from 124 families, including 45 novel mutations and 82 recurrent mutations that were distributed over the entire BTK gene sequence. Variation in phenotypes was observed, and there was a tendency of association between genotype and age of disease onset.This report constitutes the largest group of patients with BTK mutations in China. A genotype-phenotype correlation was observed in this study. Early diagnosis of congenital agammaglobulinemia should be based on clinical symptoms, family history, and molecular analysis of the BTK gene.

  15. Countering criticisms of single mitochondrial DNA gene barcoding in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Allan J; Tavares, Erika Sendra; Elbourne, Rebecca F

    2009-05-01

    General criticisms of a single mtDNA gene barcodes include failure to identify newly evolved species, use of species-delimitation thresholds, effects of selective sweeps and chance occurrence of reciprocal monophyly within species, inability to deal with hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting, and superiority of multiple genes in species identification. We address these criticisms in birds because most species are known and thus provide an ideal test data set, and we argue with selected examples that with the exception of thresholds these criticisms are not problematic for avian taxonomy. Even closely related sister species of birds have distinctive COI barcodes, but it is not possible to universally apply distance thresholds based on ratios of within-species and among-species variation. Instead, more rigorous methods of species delimitation should be favoured using coalescent-based techniques that include tests of chance reciprocal monophyly, and times of lineage separation and sequence divergence. Incomplete lineage sorting is also easily detected with DNA barcodes, and usually at a younger time frame than a more slowly evolving nuclear gene. Where DNA barcodes detect divergent reciprocally monophyletic lineages, the COI sequences can be combined with multiple nuclear genes to distinguish between speciation or population subdivision arising from high female philopatry or regional selective sweeps. Although selective sweeps are increasingly invoked to explain patterns of shallow within-species coalescences in COI gene trees, caution is warranted in this conjecture because of limited sampling of individuals and the reduced power to detect additional mtDNA haplotypes with one gene. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Extracellular matrix mineralization in periodontal tissues: Noncollagenous matrix proteins, enzymes, and relationship to hypophosphatasia and X-linked hypophosphatemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Marc D; Hoac, Betty; Addison, William N; Barros, Nilana M T; Millán, José L; Chaussain, Catherine

    2013-10-01

    As broadly demonstrated for the formation of a functional skeleton, proper mineralization of periodontal alveolar bone and teeth - where calcium phosphate crystals are deposited and grow within an extracellular matrix - is essential for dental function. Mineralization defects in tooth dentin and cementum of the periodontium invariably lead to a weak (soft or brittle) dentition in which teeth become loose and prone to infection and are lost prematurely. Mineralization of the extremities of periodontal ligament fibers (Sharpey's fibers) where they insert into tooth cementum and alveolar bone is also essential for the function of the tooth-suspensory apparatus in occlusion and mastication. Molecular determinants of mineralization in these tissues include mineral ion concentrations (phosphate and calcium), pyrophosphate, small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins and matrix vesicles. Amongst the enzymes important in regulating these mineralization determinants, two are discussed at length here, with clinical examples given, namely tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase and phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome. Inactivating mutations in these enzymes in humans and in mouse models lead to the soft bones and teeth characteristic of hypophosphatasia and X-linked hypophosphatemia, respectively, where the levels of local and systemic circulating mineralization determinants are perturbed. In X-linked hypophosphatemia, in addition to renal phosphate wasting causing low circulating phosphate levels, phosphorylated mineralization-regulating small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins, such as matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein and osteopontin, and the phosphorylated peptides proteolytically released from them, such as the acidic serine- and aspartate-rich-motif peptide, may accumulate locally to impair mineralization in this disease. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Prognostic value of glomerular collagen IV immunofluorescence studies in male patients with X-linked Alport syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massella, Laura; Gangemi, Concetta; Giannakakis, Kostas; Crisafi, Antonella; Faraggiana, Tullio; Fallerini, Chiara; Renieri, Alessandra; Muda, Andrea Onetti; Emma, Francesco

    2013-05-01

    X-linked Alport syndrome (X-AS) is caused by mutations of the COL4A5 gene, which encodes for the collagen IV α5 chain (α5[COLIV]), resulting in structural and functional abnormalities of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and leading to CKD. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value of residual collagen IV chain expression in the GBM of patients with X-AS. The medical records of 22 patients with X-AS from 21 unrelated families collected between 1987 and 2009 were reviewed (median age at last follow-up, 19.9 years; range, 5.4-35.1 years); GBM expression of α1, α3, and α5(COLIV) chains was assessed by immunofluorescence microscopy. GBM distribution of the α5(COLIV) chain was diffuse in 1 and segmental or absent in 21 of the 22 patients; the expression of the α3(COLIV) chain was diffuse in 5 of 22 patients and segmental or absent in 17 of 22 patients. Patients with diffuse staining for the α3(COLIV) chain presented with proteinuria significantly later (median age, 16.9 versus 6.1 years; P=0.02) and reached an estimated GFR < 90 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) at an older age (median age, 27.0 versus 14.9 years; P=0.01) compared with patients with segmental or absent staining. Two thirds of patients with abnormal α3(COLIV) expression by immunofluorescence studies had null or truncating COL4A5 mutations, as opposed to none of the 4 tested patients with diffuse α3(COLIV) chain glomerular distribution. These results indicate that maintained expression of the α3(COLIV) chain is an early positive prognostic marker in patients with X-linked Alport symdrome.

  18. Expanding phenotype of p.Ala140Val mutation in MECP2 in a 4 generation family with X-linked intellectual disability and spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Sophie; Maystadt, Isabelle; Boulanger, Sébastien; Vrielynck, Pascal; Destrée, Anne; Lederer, Damien; Moortgat, Stéphanie

    2016-10-01

    Mutations in MECP2 (MIM #312750), located on Xq28 and encoding a methyl CpG binding protein, are classically associated with Rett syndrome in female patients, with a lethal effect in hemizygous males. However, MECP2 mutations have already been reported in surviving males with severe neonatal-onset encephalopathy, or with X-linked intellectual disability associated with psychosis, pyramidal signs, parkinsonian features and macro-orchidism (PPM-X syndrome; MIM3 #300055). Here we report on the identification of the p.Ala140Val mutation in the MECP2 gene in 4 males and 3 females of a large Caucasian family affected with X-linked intellectual disability. Females present with mild cognitive impairment and speech difficulties. Males have moderate intellectual disability, impaired language development, friendly behavior, slowly progressive spastic paraparesis and dystonic movements of the hands. Two of them show microcephaly. The p.Ala140Val mutation is recurrent, as it was already described in 4 families with X-linked mental retardation and in three sporadic male patients with intellectual disability. We further delineate the phenotype associated with the p.Ala140Val mutation, illustrating a variable expressivity even within a given family, and we compare our patients with previous reported cases in the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. High male: Female ratio of germ-line mutations: An alternative explanation for postulated gestational lethality in males in X-linked dominant disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, G.H. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1996-06-01

    In this paper I suggest that a vastly higher rate of de novo mutations in males than in females would explain some, if not most, X-linked dominant disorders associated with a low incidence of affected males. It is the inclusion of the impact of a high ratio of male:female de novo germ-line mutations that makes this model new and unique. Specifically, it is concluded that, if an X-linked disorder results in a dominant phenotype with a significant reproductive disadvantage (genetic lethality), affected females will, in virtually all cases, arise from de novo germ-line mutations inherited from their fathers rather than from their mothers. Under this hypothesis, the absence of affected males is explained by the simple fact that sons do not inherit their X chromosome (normal or abnormal) from their fathers. Because females who are heterozygous for a dominant disorder will be clinically affected and will, in most cases, either be infertile or lack reproductive opportunities, the mutant gene will not be transmitted by them to the next generation (i.e., it will be a genetic lethal). This, not gestational lethality in males, may explain the absence of affected males in most, if not all, of the 13 known X-linked dominant diseases characterized by high ratios of affected female to male individuals. Evidence suggesting that this mechanism could explain the findings in the Rett syndrome is reviewed in detail. 34 refs., 1 tab.

  20. A heterozygous mutation in RPGR associated with X-linked retinitis pigmentosa in a patient with Turner syndrome mosaicism (45,X/46,XX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi; Yao, Fengxia; Wang, Feng; Li, Hui; Chen, Rui; Sui, Ruifang

    2018-01-01

    Turner syndrome with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is rare, with only three cases reported based on clinical examination alone. We summarized the 4-year follow-up and molecular findings in a 28-year-old patient with Turner syndrome and the typical features of short stature and neck webbing, who also had X-linked RP. Her main complaints were night blindness and progressive loss of vision since the age of 9 years. Ophthalmologic examination, optical coherent tomographic imaging, and visual electrophysiology tests showed classic manifestations of RP. The karyotype of peripheral blood showed mosaicism (45,X [72%]/46,XX[28%]). A novel heterozygous frameshift mutation (c.2403_2406delAGAG, p.T801fsX812) in the RP GTPase regulator (RPGR) gene was detected using next generation sequencing and validated by Sanger sequencing. We believe that this is the first report of X-linked RP in a patient with Turner syndrome associated with mosaicism, and an RPGR heterozygous mutation. We hypothesize that X-linked RP in this woman is not related to Turner syndrome, but may be a manifestation of the lack of a normal paternal X chromosome with intact but mutated RPGR. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The BDGP gene disruption project: Single transposon insertions associated with 40 percent of Drosophila genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellen, Hugo J.; Levis, Robert W.; Liao, Guochun; He, Yuchun; Carlson, Joseph W.; Tsang, Garson; Evans-Holm, Martha; Hiesinger, P. Robin; Schulze, Karen L.; Rubin, Gerald M.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Spradling, Allan C.

    2004-01-13

    The Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP) strives to disrupt each Drosophila gene by the insertion of a single transposable element. As part of this effort, transposons in more than 30,000 fly strains were localized and analyzed relative to predicted Drosophila gene structures. Approximately 6,300 lines that maximize genomic coverage were selected to be sent to the Bloomington Stock Center for public distribution, bringing the size of the BDGP gene disruption collection to 7,140 lines. It now includes individual lines predicted to disrupt 5,362 of the 13,666 currently annotated Drosophila genes (39 percent). Other lines contain an insertion at least 2 kb from others in the collection and likely mutate additional incompletely annotated or uncharacterized genes and chromosomal regulatory elements. The remaining strains contain insertions likely to disrupt alternative gene promoters or to allow gene mis-expression. The expanded BDGP gene disruption collection provides a public resource that will facilitate the application of Drosophila genetics to diverse biological problems. Finally, the project reveals new insight into how transposons interact with a eukaryotic genome and helps define optimal strategies for using insertional mutagenesis as a genomic tool.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions XMEN X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and neoplasia Printable PDF Open All Close ... boxes. Description X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and neoplasia (typically known by the acronym ...

  3. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in heterozygous female patients: women are not just carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Marques Lourenço

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD is a recessive X-linked disorder associated with marked phenotypic variability. Female carriers are commonly thought to be normal or only mildly affected, but their disease still needs to be better described and systematized. OBJECTIVES: To review and systematize the clinical features of heterozygous women followed in a Neurogenetics Clinic. METHODS: We reviewed the clinical, biochemical, and neuroradiological data of all women known to have X-ADL. RESULTS: The nine women identified were classified into three groups: with severe and aggressive diseases; with slowly progressive, spastic paraplegia; and with mildly decreased vibratory sensation, brisk reflexes, and no complaints. Many of these women did not have a known family history of X-ALD. CONCLUSIONS: Heterozygous women with X-ADL have a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from mild to severe phenotypes.

  4. Genetic analysis of X-linked hybrid sterility in the house mouse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Storchová, Radka; Gregorová, Soňa; Buckiová, Daniela; Kyselová, Vendula; Divina, Petr; Forejt, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2004), s. 515-524 ISSN 0938-8990 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A079; GA ČR GA204/02/1373 Grant - others:EU(XE) QLRI-2000-00233; HHMI(US) 555000306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : X-linked hybrid sterility * genetic analysis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.658, year: 2004

  5. Genetic study of a new X-linked recessive immunodeficiency syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    de Saint-Basile, G; Le Deist, F; Caniglia, M; Lebranchu, Y; Griscelli, C; Fischer, A

    1992-01-01

    Seven forms of X-linked (XL) immunodeficiency have been described (XL agammaglobulinemia, XL severe combined immunodeficiency [SCID], Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, XL chronic granulomatous disease, XL hyper-IgM syndrome with low IgG and IgA, and XL lymphoproliferative syndrome), and properdine deficiency. Although there are (some) phenotypic variants, diagnosis is relatively simple on the basis of clinical, immunological, and genetic characteristics. We studied a family in which several males wer...

  6. Cochlear implantation in X-linked deafness - How to manage the surgical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Haroon; Powell, Harry R F; Saeed, Shakeel R

    2016-07-01

    In children with X-linked deafness, cochlear malformations challenge the implant surgeon to avoid electrode insertion into the internal auditory meatus and prevent a continuous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak. We describe our experience of cochlear implantation (CI) in two children with profound hearing loss secondary to X-linked deafness, highlighting safer operative techniques to avoid potential complications. Descriptive cases of two children with X-linked deafness (patient 1 and patient 2) undergoing CI. Peri-operative imaging and work-up to surgery are discussed. Specific operative considerations, post-operative complications and subsequent audiological performance are highlighted. In each case, intra-operative fluoroscopic imaging ensured intra-cochlear insertion of electrodes. Expected CSF gusher was seen in each case which was initially controlled by packing around the cochleostomy and array with temporalis muscle and fascia. Patient 1 developed post-operative meningitis secondary to continuous CSF leak. We avoided further significant CSF leak by planning staged procedures for patient 2, with obliteration of the middle ear cleft and external ear canal (EAC) at the time of implantation. In both patients, bilateral implantation successfully provided hearing thresholds of less than 35 dB in both ears at routine follow up. When planning for CI in children with radiological features of X-linked deafness, intra-operative imaging should be utilized to ensure correct electrode positioning. Traditional methods of stopping a CSF gusher may not suffice. We therefore encourage additional surgical obliteration of the middle ear space and EAC to avoid persistent CSF leak and its associated complications.

  7. Acute monocytic leukemia in a dog with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Felsburg, P J; Somberg, R L; Krakowka, G S

    1994-01-01

    We describe the occurrence of acute monocytic leukemia in a dog with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (XSCID) that had been raised in a gnotobiotic environment for 20 months. This case represents the first reported instance of malignancy in canine XSCID, the first case of acute monocytic leukemia in any species with severe combined immunodeficiency, and the first documented malignancy in any species with XSCID that was not associated with immunotherapy.

  8. Neonatal Treatment with Recombinant Ectodysplasin Prevents Respiratory Disease in Dogs with X-Linked Ectodermal Dysplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Mauldin, Elizabeth A.; Gaide, Olivier; Schneider, Pascal; Casal, Margret L.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with defective ectodysplasin A (EDA) have X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED; OMIM#305100), a condition comprising hypotrichosis, inability to sweat, abnormal teeth, and frequent pulmonary infections. The XLHED dogs show the same clinical signs as humans with the disorder, including frequent respiratory infections that can be fatal. The respiratory disease in humans and dogs is thought to be due to the absence of tracheal and bronchial glands which are a vital part of ...

  9. Autoimmunity in X-linked agammaglobulinemia: Kawasaki disease and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behniafard, Nasrin; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Abolhassani, Hassan; Pourjabbar, Sarvenaz; Sabouni, Farah; Rezaei, Nima

    2012-02-01

    Although autoimmunity phenotype is surprisingly common in patients with different types of primary antibody deficiency, it is much less frequent in X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). Herein, we report on a 15-month-old boy with XLA who also suffered from Kawasaki disease. The current case presentation is the first report of an association between Kawasaki disease and XLA. XLA could be considered as a special opportunity to understand autoimmunity in the near absence of immunoglobulins.

  10. Successful hematopoietic cell transplantation in a patient with X-linked agammaglobulinemia and acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Arja, Rolla F; Chernin, Leah R; Abusin, Ghada; Auletta, Jeffery; Cabral, Linda; Egler, Rachel; Ochs, Hans D; Torgerson, Troy R; Lopez-Guisa, Jesus; Hostoffer, Robert W; Tcheurekdjian, Haig; Cooke, Kenneth R

    2015-09-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by marked reduction in all classes of serum immunoglobulins and the near absence of mature CD19(+) B-cells. Although malignancy has been observed in patients with XLA, we present the first reported case of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in a patient with XLA. We also demonstrate the complete correction of the XLA phenotype following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for treatment of the patient's leukemia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Papilledema in the Setting of X-Linked Hypophosphatemic Rickets with Craniosynostosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lora R. Dagi Glass

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Introduction to the ophthalmic literature of an unusual cause of papilledema and subsequent optic atrophy: X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH. Methods: Case report of a 3-year-old female presenting with papilledema resulting from craniosynostosis secondary to XLH. Results: Early intervention with craniofacial surgery prevented the development of optic atrophy. Conclusion: Children with XLH should be screened for ophthalmic evidence of elevated intracranial pressure to aid early intervention and prevention of permanent loss of vision.

  12. Refined genetic mapping of X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fain, P.R.; Barker, D.F.; Chance, P.F. (Univ. of Utah, School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

    1994-02-01

    Genetic linkage studies were conducted in four multigenerational families with X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX), using 12 highly polymorphic short-tandem-repeat markers for the pericentromeric region of the X Chromosome. Pairwise linkage analysis with individual markers confirmed tight linkage of CMTX to the pericentromeric region in each family. Multipoint analyses strongly support the order DXS337-CMTX-DXS441-(DXS56, PGK1). 38 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Analysis of somatic hypermutation in X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome shows specific deficiencies in mutational targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Nancy S.; Lugar, Patricia L.; Yavuz, Sule; Zhang, Wen; Krijger, Peter H. L.; Russ, Daniel E.; Jima, Dereje D.; Dave, Sandeep S.; Grammer, Amrie C.

    2009-01-01

    Subjects with X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (X-HIgM) have a markedly reduced frequency of CD27+ memory B cells, and their Ig genes have a low level of somatic hypermutation (SHM). To analyze the nature of SHM in X-HIgM, we sequenced 209 nonproductive and 926 productive Ig heavy chain genes. In nonproductive rearrangements that were not subjected to selection, as well as productive rearrangements, most of the mutations were within targeted RGYW, WRCY, WA, or TW motifs (R = purine, Y = pyrimidine, and W = A or T). However, there was significantly decreased targeting of the hypermutable G in RGYW motifs. Moreover, the ratio of transitions to transversions was markedly increased compared with normal. Microarray analysis documented that specific genes involved in SHM, including activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AICDA) and uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG2), were up-regulated in normal germinal center (GC) B cells, but not induced by CD40 ligation. Similar results were obtained from light chain rearrangements. These results indicate that in the absence of CD40-CD154 interactions, there is a marked reduction in SHM and, specifically, mutations of AICDA-targeted G residues in RGYW motifs along with a decrease in transversions normally related to UNG2 activity. PMID:19023113

  14. Recapitulating X-Linked Juvenile Retinoschisis in Mouse Model by Knock-In Patient-Specific Novel Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS is a retinal disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding retinoschisin (RS1, which leads to a significant proportion of visual impairment and blindness. To develop personalized genome editing based gene therapy, knock-in animal disease models that have the exact mutation identified in the patients is extremely crucial, and that the way which genome editing in knock-in animals could be easily transferred to the patients. Here we recruited a family diagnosed with XLRS and identified the causative mutation (RS1, p.Y65X, then a knock-in mouse model harboring this disease-causative mutation was generated via TALEN (transcription activator-like effector nucleases. We found that the b-wave amplitude of the ERG of the RS1-KI mice was significantly decreased. Moreover, we observed that the structure of retina in RS1-KI mice has become disordered, including the disarray of inner nuclear layer and outer nuclear layer, chaos of outer plexiform layer, decreased inner segments of photoreceptor and the loss of outer segments. The novel knock-in mice (RS1-KI harboring patient-specific mutation will be valuable for development of treatment via genome editing mediated gene correction.

  15. An algorithm for the diagnosis of X-linked intellectual disability in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Voinova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available X-linked intellectual disability (XLID is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of hereditary diseases caused by mutations on the X chromosome, which lead to impaired intellectual development. The paper determines for the first time the proportion of X-linked diseases (6.54% in the pattern of intellectual disability in children. A system has been developed to quantify the clinical severity of fragile X mental retardation syndrome and Rett syndrome. A system has been scientifically justified to predict the clinical severity, which is based on an analysis of the impact of genetic and epigenetic factors (mutation type and location, X chromosome inactivation. The authors have determined the contribution of nonrandom X inactivation to the clinical polymorphism of various forms of XLID and established its role as an important diagnostic marker for pathology. It is shown that the study of X chromosome inactivation can identify asymptomatic female carriers of X-linked mutations to provide medical genetic counseling to families. An algorithm has been elaborated to diagnose XLID among the undifferentiated forms of mental developmental abnormalities in children. 

  16. Peroxisomal. beta. -oxidation enzyme proteins in adrenoleukodystrophy: distinction between x-linked adrenoleukodystrophy and neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.W.; Watkins, P.A.; Osumi, T.; Hashimoto, T.; Moser, H.W.

    1987-03-01

    Very long chain fatty acids, which accumulate in plasma and tissues in x-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), neonatal ALD, and the Zellweger cerebrohepatorenal syndrome, are degraded by the peroxisomal ..beta..-oxidation pathway, consisting of acyl-CoA oxidase, the bifunctional enoyl-CoA hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and ..beta..-ketothiolase. A marked deficiency of all three enzyme proteins was reported in livers from patients with the Zellweger syndrome, a disorder in which peroxisomes are decreased or absent. Peroxisomes are not as markedly decreased in neonatal ALD and appear normal in x-linked ALD. Immunoblot analysis of the peroxisomal ..beta..-oxidation enzymes revealed an almost complete lack of the bifunctional enzymes in neonatal ALD liver, similar to the finding in Zellweger tissues. In contrast, acyl-CoA oxidase and ..beta..-ketothiolase were present in neonatal ALD liver, although the thiolase appeared to be in precursor form (2-3 kDa larger than the mature enzyme) in neonatal ALD. Unlike either neonatal ALD or Zellweger syndrome, all three peroxisomal ..beta..-oxidation enzymes were present in x-linked ALD liver. Despite the absence in neonatal ALD liver of bifunctional enzyme protein, its mRNA was detected by RNA blot analysis in fibroblasts from these patients. These observations suggest that lack of bifunctional enzyme protein in neonatal ALD results from either abnormal translation of the mRNA or degradation of the enzyme prior to its entry into peroxisomes.

  17. Small nerve fiber involvement is frequent in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Morten A; Nilsen, Kristian B; Jørum, Ellen; Mellgren, Svein I; Tallaksen, Chantal M E

    2014-05-13

    To investigate the presence of small nerve fiber dysfunction in subjects with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. Cross-sectional study in which 11 Norwegian subjects (3 males, 8 females) with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, phenotypes ranging from asymptomatic to wheelchair-bound with adrenomyeloneuropathy, were investigated with neurophysiologic studies including EMG, nerve conduction velocities, quantitative sensory testing, tests of autonomic function, and skin biopsy for intraepidermal nerve fiber density measurements. We found small nerve fiber dysfunction in 10 of 11 subjects, increasing with age and more pronounced in males. Low intraepidermal nerve fiber densities were found in 5 of 11 subjects, indicating a loss of thin unmyelinated nerve fibers peripherally. Five of 11 subjects showed small nerve fiber dysfunction despite normal nerve fiber densities, suggesting possible involvement of the spinothalamic tracts. Two subjects showed moderate abnormalities in autonomic function tests. Evidence of small nerve fiber dysfunction was widespread in this cohort of subjects with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, with findings indicating loss of peripheral small nerve fibers and possibly also fibers of the spinothalamic tracts. The results support the theory of primary axonal degeneration in adrenomyeloneuropathy. Evidence of nervous system involvement was found in all heterozygotes, with severity increasing with age. Clinicians caring for these patients should be alert to signs of small nerve fiber involvement.

  18. Detection of a novel mutation in the SRC homology domain 2 (SH2) of Bruton`s tyrosine kinase and direct female carrier evaluation in a family with x-linked agammaglobulinemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, V.; Seidenspinner, S.; Wolfgang Kreth, H. [Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany)

    1996-05-03

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is an inherited immunodeficiency disease with a block in differentiation from pre-B to B cells resulting in a selective defect in the humoral immune response. Affected males have very low concentrations of serum immunoglobulins leading predominantly to recurrent bacterial infections beginning at age 6 to 18 months. The gene responsible for XLA was identified recently to encode a cytoplasmatic tyrosine kinase (Bruton`s tyrosine kinase, BTK). We have analyzed the BTK gene in a large family in which two brothers presented with the severe phenotype of XLA. Genomic DNA of affected boys and from healthy relatives was amplified by PCR with primers specific for the putative promoter region and for all 19 exons, including flanking intron boundaries, and subsequently screened for mutations using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Altered single strand band patterns were found using primers specific for exon 10, 15, and 18. Direct cycle-sequencing of these BTK segments detected two known polymorphisms in intron 14 and in exon 18. Sequencing of exon 10 from two boys with XLA demonstrated a novel point mutation in the SH2 domain of BTK. Direct identification of healthy female carriers in three generations was performed by amplification mutagenesis using PCR with a modified first primer. This method can easily be applied also to prenatal diagnosis. 25 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Rare novel variants in the ZIC3 gene cause X-linked heterotaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulussen, Aimee D C; Steyls, Anja; Vanoevelen, Jo

    2016-01-01

    male deaths due to heterotaxy in the family (n=1). All variants were located within the zinc-finger domains or leading to a truncation before these domains. Truncating variants showed abnormal trafficking of mutated ZIC3 proteins, whereas the missense variant showed normal trafficking. Overexpression...

  20. A novel gene mutation in a family with X-linked retinoschisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hung Lai

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: We identified a novel RS1 (97delT mutation in a Taiwanese family with XLRS. This finding expands the RS1 mutation spectrum and may help to further understand the molecular pathogenesis of XLRS.

  1. ABCD2 is a direct target of β-catenin and TCF-4: implications for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul-Yong Park

    Full Text Available X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD is a peroxisomal disorder caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene that encodes the peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter subfamily D member 1 protein (ABCD1, which is referred to as the adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP. Induction of the ABCD2 gene, the closest homolog of ABCD1, has been mentioned as a possible therapeutic option for the defective ABCD1 protein in X-ALD. However, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of ABCD2 gene expression. Here, through in silico analysis, we found two putative TCF-4 binding elements between nucleotide positions -360 and -260 of the promoter region of the ABCD2 gene. The transcriptional activity of the ABCD2 promoter was strongly increased by ectopic expression of β-catenin and TCF-4. In addition, mutation of either or both TCF-4 binding elements by site-directed mutagenesis decreased promoter activity. This was further validated by the finding that β-catenin and the promoter of the ABCD2 gene were pulled down with a β-catenin antibody in a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Moreover, real-time PCR analysis revealed that β-catenin and TCF-4 increased mRNA levels of ABCD2 in both a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line and primary fibroblasts from an X-ALD patient. Interestingly, we found that the levels of very long chain fatty acids were decreased by ectopic expression of ABCD2-GFP as well as β-catenin and TCF-4. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time the direct regulation of ABCD2 by β-catenin and TCF-4.

  2. ABCD2 is a direct target of β-catenin and TCF-4: implications for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul-Yong; Kim, Han-Soo; Jang, Jiho; Lee, Hyunji; Lee, Jae Souk; Yoo, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Dongjin R; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2013-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a peroxisomal disorder caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene that encodes the peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter subfamily D member 1 protein (ABCD1), which is referred to as the adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP). Induction of the ABCD2 gene, the closest homolog of ABCD1, has been mentioned as a possible therapeutic option for the defective ABCD1 protein in X-ALD. However, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of ABCD2 gene expression. Here, through in silico analysis, we found two putative TCF-4 binding elements between nucleotide positions -360 and -260 of the promoter region of the ABCD2 gene. The transcriptional activity of the ABCD2 promoter was strongly increased by ectopic expression of β-catenin and TCF-4. In addition, mutation of either or both TCF-4 binding elements by site-directed mutagenesis decreased promoter activity. This was further validated by the finding that β-catenin and the promoter of the ABCD2 gene were pulled down with a β-catenin antibody in a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Moreover, real-time PCR analysis revealed that β-catenin and TCF-4 increased mRNA levels of ABCD2 in both a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line and primary fibroblasts from an X-ALD patient. Interestingly, we found that the levels of very long chain fatty acids were decreased by ectopic expression of ABCD2-GFP as well as β-catenin and TCF-4. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time the direct regulation of ABCD2 by β-catenin and TCF-4.

  3. Genetic forms of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI): Vasopressin receptor defect (X-linked) and aquaporin defect (autosomal recessive and dominant).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichet, Daniel G; Bockenhauer, Detlef

    2016-03-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), which can be inherited or acquired, is characterized by an inability to concentrate urine despite normal or elevated plasma concentrations of the antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP). Polyuria with hyposthenuria and polydipsia are the cardinal clinical manifestations of the disease. About 90% of patients with congenital NDI are males with X-linked NDI who have mutations in the vasopressin V2 receptor (AVPR2) gene encoding the vasopressin V2 receptor. In less than 10% of the families studied, congenital NDI has an autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant mode of inheritance with mutations in the aquaporin-2 (AQP2) gene. When studied in vitro, most AVPR2 and AQP2 mutations lead to proteins trapped in the endoplasmic reticulum and are unable to reach the plasma membrane. Prior knowledge of AVPR2 or AQP2 mutations in NDI families and perinatal mutation testing is of direct clinical value and can avert the physical and mental retardation associated with repeated episodes of dehydration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. ABCD1 mutations and the X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy mutation database: role in diagnosis and clinical correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, S; Pujol, A; Waterham, H R; van Geel, B M; Boehm, C D; Raymond, G V; Cutting, G R; Wanders, R J; Moser, H W

    2001-12-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene, which encodes a peroxisomal ABC half-transporter (ALDP) involved in the import of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) into the peroxisome. The disease is characterized by a striking and unpredictable variation in phenotypic expression. Phenotypes include the rapidly progressive childhood cerebral form (CCALD), the milder adult form, adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN), and variants without neurologic involvement. There is no apparent correlation between genotype and phenotype. In males, unambiguous diagnosis can be achieved by demonstration of elevated levels of VLCFA in plasma. In 15 to 20% of obligate heterozygotes, however, test results are false-negative. Therefore, mutation analysis is the only reliable method for the identification of heterozygotes. Since most X-ALD kindreds have a unique mutation, a great number of mutations have been identified in the ABCD1 gene in the last seven years. In order to catalog and facilitate the analysis of these mutations, we have established a mutation database for X-ALD ( http://www.x-ald.nl). In this review we report a detailed analysis of all 406 X-ALD mutations currently included in the database. Also, we present 47 novel mutations. In addition, we review the various X-ALD phenotypes, the different diagnostic tools, and the need for extended family screening for the identification of new patients. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in a chimpanzee due to an ABCD1 mutation reported in multiple unrelated humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiel, Julian; Steinberg, Steven Jeffrey; Bright, Sarah; Snowden, Ann; Moser, Ann B; Eichler, Florian; Dubbs, Holly A; Hacia, Joseph G; Ely, John J; Bezner, Jocelyn; Gean, Alisa; Vanderver, Adeline

    2017-11-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a genetic disorder leading to the accumulation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) due to a mutation in the ABCD1 gene. ABCD1 mutations lead to a variety of phenotypes, including cerebral X-ALD and adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) in affected males and 80% of carrier females. There is no definite genotype-phenotype correlation with intrafamilial variability. Cerebral X-ALD typically presents in childhood, but can also present in juveniles and adults. The most affected tissues are the white matter of the brain and adrenal cortex. MRI demonstrates a characteristic imaging appearance in cerebral X-ALD that is used as a diagnostic tool. We aim to correlate a mutation in the ABCD1 gene in a chimpanzee to the human disease X-ALD based on MRI features, neurologic symptoms, and plasma levels of VLCFA. Diagnosis of X-ALD made using MRI, blood lipid profiling, and DNA sequencing. An 11-year-old chimpanzee showed remarkably similar features to juvenile onset cerebral X-ALD in humans including demyelination of frontal lobes and corpus callosum on MRI, elevated plasma levels of C24:0 and C26:0, and identification of the c.1661G>A ABCD1 variant. This case study presents the first reported case of a leukodystrophy in a great ape, and underscores the fidelity of MRI pattern recognition in this disorder across species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical and immunologic consequences of a somatic reversion in a patient with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speckmann, Carsten; Pannicke, Ulrich; Wiech, Elisabeth; Schwarz, Klaus; Fisch, Paul; Friedrich, Wilhelm; Niehues, Tim; Gilmour, Kimberly; Buiting, Karin; Schlesier, Michael; Eibel, Hermann; Rohr, Jan; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Gross-Wieltsch, Ute; Ehl, Stephan

    2008-11-15

    X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency is a life-threatening disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain (IL2RG). Hypomorphic mutations and reversion of mutations in subpopulations of cells can result in variant clinical phenotypes, making diagnosis and treatment difficult. We describe a 5-year-old boy with mild susceptibility to infection who was investigated for a mutation in IL2RG due to persistent natural killer (NK)- and T-cell lymphopenia. A functionally relevant novel T466C point mutation was found in B, NK, and epithelial cells, whereas alpha/beta and gamma/delta T cells showed the normal gene sequence, suggesting reversion of the mutation in a common T-cell precursor. This genetic correction in T cells resulted in a diverse T-cell repertoire and significant immunity despite failure to produce specific antibodies linked to an intrinsic defect of mutant B cells. These observations confirm the potential of revertant T-cell precursors to reconstitute immune function, but questions remain on the longevity of revertant cells implicating the need for careful follow up and early consideration of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).

  7. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC line from a 21-year-old X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Rang You

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD is a genetic disease that caused by mutations in adenosine triphosphate [ATP]-binding-cassette transporter superfamily D member 1 (ABCD1 gene. We generated an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC line from a 21-year-old male X-ALD patient-derived fibroblasts by Sendai virus mediated reprogramming. Established iPSCs stably expanded while maintaining immunoreactivity for various pluripotency markers and alkaline phosphatase, as well as normal 44 + XY karyotype. Under the differentiation condition, the cells gave rise to cells of three germ layers.

  8. Generation of two induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC lines from X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD patients with adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryeon Son

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD is an inherited disorder caused by a mutation in the ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily D member 1 (ABCD1 gene. We generated two induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC lines from X-ALD patients with adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN by Sendai virus containing OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC. Established iPSC lines expressed various pluripotency markers, had differentiation potential of three germ layers in vitro, had normal karyotype and retained ABCD1 mutation.

  9. Is X-linked methyl-CpG binding protein 2 a new target for the treatment of Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Teng; Zhang, Jie; Yuan, Xianhou; Yang, Jing; Ding, Wei; Huang, Xin; Wu, Yong

    2013-01-01

    X-linked methyl-CpG binding protein 2 mutations can induce symptoms similar to those of Parkinson's disease and dopamine metabolism disorders, but the specific role of X-linked methyl-CpG binding protein 2 in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease remains unknown. In the present study, we used 6-hydroxydopamine-induced human neuroblastoma cell (SH-SY5Y cells) injury as a cell model of Parkinson's disease. The 6-hydroxydopamine (50 μmol/L) treatment decreased protein levels for both X-linked ...

  10. X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita: a case report and ethical dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Heba M; Rincon, Marielisa

    2014-07-01

    Our objective is to present the first case report of X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita in a child conceived by a donated egg and which also presented atypically, with initial mineralocorticoid deficiency. Case report with literature review. A late preterm fraternal twin male, conceived by in vitro fertilization of donated eggs, presented shortly after birth with feeding intolerance, hyponatremia, and hyperkalemia. Testing revealed a low aldosterone level, high plasma renin activity, normal cortisol level, and normal 17-hydroxyprogesterone level. He was diagnosed with 18-hydroxylase deficiency based on low 18-hydroxycorticosterone levels and was treated with mineralocorticoid successfully for 17 months. At age 18 months, he presented with dehydration secondary to herpetic gingivostomatitis and was found to be hypoglycemic, hyponatremic, hyperkalemic, and acidotic, with a low serum cortisol level. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test revealed low levels of all adrenal cortex products, with an elevated ACTH level. He was started on glucocorticoids. Genetic testing confirmed X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC). His asymptomatic fraternal twin underwent genetic testing and the results were negative. The fertility center records indicated that the mother had donated eggs to other families, but none of the children were known to have this disorder. The egg donor was informed but did not pursue genetic testing. We report a case of X-linked AHC presenting in the context of extraordinary ethical considerations. Our case raises a question unique to the era of assisted reproduction: should routine genetic screening of gamete donors be done for rare but potentially life-threatening conditions?

  11. X-linked hyper-immunoglobulin M syndrome: molecular genetic study and long-time follow-up of three generations of a Chinese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sheng-Chieh; Shyur, Shyh-Dar; Lee, Wen-I; Ma, Yi-Chun; Huang, Li-Hsin

    2006-01-01

    X-linked hyper-immunoglobulin M (IgM) syndrome (XHIGM) is a rare immunodeficiency disease caused by mutations of the CD40 ligand gene. Patients are subject to recurrent infections and have normal or elevated levels of IgM but markedly decreased serum IgG. We describe molecular genetic studies and clinical manifestations in three generations of one family, as well as results of long-term treatment of 2 young men with the disorder. Of 37 living family members, mutational analysis of the CD40 ligand gene was performed in 36 members. Laboratory data for patients and carriers were reviewed. Four male family members had died of unexplained causes. The 3 patients with XHIGM syndrome and the 5 carriers all had a novel mutation located at Tyr 169 Asn (T526A) in exon 5, the tumor necrosis factor domain of the CD40 ligand gene. In the 3 patients, CD40 ligand expression in activated CD4+ T cells was below 1%. In the carriers, about half of activated CD4+ cells expressed CD40 ligand. One carrier had malignant lymphoma. Long-term (>20 years) intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in 2 patients improved IgG levels but did not fully suppress the high levels of IgM, nor did it prevent late complications (bronchiectasis and sclerosing cholangitis). Diagnosis of a genetic immunodeficiency, especially an X-linked disease such as XHIGM syndrome, should prompt a survey of the entire family. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Identification of novel X-linked gain-of-function RPGR-ORF15 mutation in Italian family with retinitis pigmentosa and pathologic myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmeggiani, Francesco; Barbaro, Vanessa; De Nadai, Katia; Lavezzo, Enrico; Toppo, Stefano; Chizzolini, Marzio; Palù, Giorgio; Parolin, Cristina; Di Iorio, Enzo

    2016-12-20

    The aim of this study was to describe a new pathogenic variant in the mutational hot spot exon ORF15 of retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR) gene within an Italian family with X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (RP), detailing its distinctive genotype-phenotype correlation with pathologic myopia (PM). All members of this RP-PM family underwent a complete ophthalmic examination. The entire open reading frames of RPGR and retinitis pigmentosa 2 genes were analyzed by Sanger sequencing. A novel frame-shift mutation in exon ORF15 of RPGR gene (c.2091_2092insA; p.A697fs) was identified as hemizygous variant in the male proband with RP, and as heterozygous variant in the females of this pedigree who invariably exhibited symmetrical PM in both eyes. The c.2091_2092insA mutation coherently co-segregated with the observed phenotypes. These findings expand the spectrum of X-linked RP variants. Interestingly, focusing on Caucasian ethnicity, just three RPGR mutations are hitherto reported in RP-PM families: one of these is located in exon ORF15, but none appears to be characterized by a high penetrance of PM trait as observed in the present, relatively small, pedigree. The geno-phenotypic attributes of this heterozygosity suggest that gain-of-function mechanism could give rise to PM via a degenerative cell-cell remodeling of the retinal structures.

  13. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis regulates T cell effector function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zehntner, Simone P; Bourbonnière, Lyne; Moore, Craig S

    2007-01-01

    To understand how the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic signals influences effector function in the immune system, we studied the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), an endogenous regulator of cellular apoptosis. Real-time PCR showed increased XIAP expression in blood of mice...... and oligodendrocytes were not affected; neither did apoptosis increase in liver, where XIAP knockdown also occurred. ASO-XIAP increased susceptibility of T cells to activation-induced apoptosis in vitro. Our results identify XIAP as a critical controller of apoptotic susceptibility of effector T cell function...

  14. Phenotypic Conservation in Patients With X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa Caused by RPGR Mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Sarwar; Khan, Naheed; Branham, Kari; Othman, Mohammad; Karoukis, Athanasios J.; Sharma, Nisha; Moncrief, Ashley; Mahmood, Mahdi N.; Sieving, Paul A.; Swaroop, Anand; Heckenlively, John R.; Jayasundera, Thiran

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE For patients with X-linked retinitis pigmentosa and clinicians alike, phenotypic variability can be challenging because it complicates counseling regarding patients’ likely visual prognosis. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the clinical findings from patients with X-linked retinitis pigmentosa with 13 distinct RPGR mutations and assess for phenotypic concordance or variability. DESIGN Retrospective medical record review of data collected from 1985 to 2011. SETTING Kellogg Eye Center, University of Michigan. PATIENTS A total of 42 patients with X-linked retinitis pigmentosa with mutations in RPGR. Age at first visit ranged from 4 to 53 years, with follow-up ranging from 1 to 11 visits (median follow-up time, 5.5 years; range, 1.4-32.7 years, for 23 patients with >1 visit). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Clinical data assessed for concordance included visual acuity (VA), Goldmann visual fields (GVFs), and full-field electroretinography (ERG). Electroretinography phenotype (cone-rod vs rod-cone dysfunction) was defined by the extent of photopic vs scotopic abnormality. Qualitative GVF phenotype was determined by the GVF pattern, where central or peripheral loss suggested cone or rod dysfunction, respectively. Goldmann visual fields were also quantified and compared among patients. RESULTS Each mutation was detected in 2 or more related or unrelated patients. Five mutations in 11 patients displayed strong concordance of VA, while 4 mutations in 16 patients revealed moderate concordance of VA. A definitive cone-rod or rod-cone ERG pattern consistent among patients was found in 6 of 13 mutations (46.2%); the remaining mutations were characterized by patients demonstrating both phenotypes or who had limited data or nonrecordable ERG values. Concordant GVF phenotypes (7 rod-cone pattern vs 4 cone-rod pattern) were seen in 11 of 13 mutations (84.6%). All 6 mutations displaying a constant ERG pattern within the mutation group revealed a GVF phenotype consistent with the ERG

  15. Newborn screening for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: further evidence high throughput screening is feasible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theda, Christiane; Gibbons, Katy; Defor, Todd E; Donohue, Pamela K; Golden, W Christopher; Kline, Antonie D; Gulamali-Majid, Fizza; Panny, Susan R; Hubbard, Walter C; Jones, Richard O; Liu, Anita K; Moser, Ann B; Raymond, Gerald V

    2014-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is characterized by adrenal insufficiency and neurologic involvement with onset at variable ages. Plasma very long chain fatty acids are elevated in ALD; even in asymptomatic patients. We demonstrated previously that liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry measuring C26:0 lysophosphatidylcholine reliably identifies affected males. We prospectively applied this method to 4689 newborn blood spot samples; no false positives were observed. We show that high throughput neonatal screening for ALD is methodologically feasible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. X-linked albinism-deafness syndrome and Waardenburg syndrome type II: A hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlotogora, J. [Hadassah Univ. Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel)

    1995-11-20

    Margolis reported on a large pedigree with a {open_quotes}new{close_quotes} X-linked syndrome of profound deafness and albinism (MIM 300700, albinism-deafness syndrome). The affected males presented with profound deafness and severe pigmentary abnormalities of the skin. At birth the skin appeared as almost albinotic except for areas of light pigmentation over the gluteal and scrotal areas, and thereafter pigmentation gradually increased over the body. Skin changes ultimately included areas of hypopigmentation and spots of hyperpigmentation. Some of the affected males also had blue irides, heterochromia, or segmental color iris changes. In carrier females, variable hearing impairment was documented without any pigmentary changes. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  17. A Child with X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia and Enthesitis-Related Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukesh Sukumaran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA is a primary immune deficiency characterized by recurrent bacterial infections and profoundly depressed serum immunoglobulin levels and circulating mature B cells. We describe a 12-year-old boy with XLA and enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA. To date, there has been a paucity of reports of noninfectious inflammatory arthritis in children with XLA. This case illustrates that functional B cells and/or immunoglobulin are not required for ERA pathogenesis. In addition, this case suggests a possible link between immune deficiency, immune dysregulation, and rheumatic illness.

  18. Helicobacter cinaedi bacteremia resulting from antimicrobial resistance acquired during treatment for X-linked agammaglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyofuku, Meiwa; Tomida, Junko; Kawamura, Yoshiaki; Miyata, Ippei; Yuza, Yuki; Horikoshi, Yuho

    2016-10-01

    This is the first report of penicillin/cephalosporin-resistant Helicobacter cinaedi arising from prolonged treatment. H. cinaedi, common among immunocompromised patients, caused recurrent bacteremia and cellulitis in a 19-year-old Japanese man with X-linked agammaglobulinemia. The minimal inhibitory concentration of these drugs was raised, which subsequently resulted in clinical failure. Prolonged suboptimal treatment may cause bacterial resistance to β-lactam antibiotics in H. cinaedi. It is possible that this resistance may have contributed to the treatment failure. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Lampreys have a single gene cluster for the fast skeletal myosin heavy chain gene family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Ikeda

    Full Text Available Muscle tissues contain the most classic sarcomeric myosin, called myosin II, which consists of 2 heavy chains (MYHs and 4 light chains. In the case of humans (tetrapod, a total of 6 fast skeletal-type MYH genes (MYHs are clustered on a single chromosome. In contrast, torafugu (teleost contains at least 13 fast skeletal MYHs, which are distributed in 5 genomic regions; the MYHs are clustered in 3 of these regions. In the present study, the evolutionary relationship among fast skeletal MYHs is elucidated by comparing the MYHs of teleosts and tetrapods with those of cyclostome lampreys, one of two groups of extant jawless vertebrates (agnathans. We found that lampreys contain at least 3 fast skeletal MYHs, which are clustered in a head-to-tail manner in a single genomic region. Although there was apparent synteny in the corresponding MYH cluster regions between lampreys and tetrapods, phylogenetic analysis indicated that lamprey and tetrapod MYHs have independently duplicated and diversified. Subsequent transgenic approaches showed that the 5'-flanking sequences of Japanese lamprey fast skeletal MYHs function as a regulatory sequence to drive specific reporter gene expression in the fast skeletal muscle of zebrafish embryos. Although zebrafish MYH promoters showed apparent activity to direct reporter gene expression in myogenic cells derived from mice, promoters from Japanese lamprey MYHs had no activity. These results suggest that the muscle-specific regulatory mechanisms are partially conserved between teleosts and tetrapods but not between cyclostomes and tetrapods, despite the conserved synteny.

  20. Refined mapping and YAC contig construction of the X-linked cleft palate and ankyloglossia locus (CPX) including the proximal X-Y homology breakpoint within Xq21.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, S.A.; Brennan, L.; Richardson, M. [Queen Charlotte`s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1996-01-01

    The gene for X-linked cleft palate (CPX) has previously been mapped in an Icelandic kindred between the unordered proximal markers DXS1002/DXS349/DXS95 and the distal marker DXYS1X, which maps to the proximal end of the X-Y homology region in Xq21.3. Using six sequence-tagged sites (STSs) within the region, a total of 91 yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones were isolated and overlapped in a single contig that spans approximately 3.1 Mb between DXS1002 and DXYS1X. The order of microsatellite and STS markers in this was established as DXS1002-DXS1168-DXS349-DXS95-DXS364-DXS1196-DXS472-DXS1217-DXYS1X. A long-range restriction map of this region was created using eight nonchimeric, overlapping YAC clones. Analysis of newly positioned polymorphic markers in recombinant individuals from the Icelandic family has enabled us to identify DXS1196 and DXS1217 as the flanking markers for CPX. The maximum physical distance containing the CPX gene has been estimated to be 2.0 Mb, which is spanned by a minimum set of five nonchimeric YAC clones. In addition, YAC end clone and STS analyses have pinpointed the location of the proximal boundary of the X-Y homology region within the map. 40 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. X-linked hypomyelination with spondylometaphyseal dysplasia (H-SMD) associated with mutations in AIFM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Noriko; Wolf, Nicole I; Cayami, Ferdy K; Crawford, Joanna; Bley, Annette; Bulas, Dorothy; Conant, Alex; Bent, Stephen J; Gripp, Karen W; Hahn, Andreas; Humphray, Sean; Kimura-Ohba, Shihoko; Kingsbury, Zoya; Lajoie, Bryan R; Lal, Dennis; Micha, Dimitra; Pizzino, Amy; Sinke, Richard J; Sival, Deborah; Stolte-Dijkstra, Irene; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Ulrick, Nicole; Taft, Ryan J; Ogata, Tsutomu; Ozono, Keiichi; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Neubauer, Bernd A; Simons, Cas; Vanderver, Adeline

    2017-12-01

    An X-linked condition characterized by the combination of hypomyelinating leukodystrophy and spondylometaphyseal dysplasia (H-SMD) has been observed in only four families, with linkage to Xq25-27, and recent genetic characterization in two families with a common AIFM1 mutation. In our study, 12 patients (6 families) with H-SMD were identified and underwent comprehensive assessment accompanied by whole-exome sequencing (WES). Pedigree analysis in all families was consistent with X-linked recessive inheritance. Presentation typically occurred between 12 and 36 months. In addition to the two disease-defining features of spondylometaphyseal dysplasia and hypomyelination on MRI, common clinical signs and symptoms included motor deterioration, spasticity, tremor, ataxia, dysarthria, cognitive defects, pulmonary hypertension, nystagmus, and vision loss due to retinopathy. The course of the disease was slowly progressive. All patients had maternally inherited or de novo mutations in or near exon 7 of AIFM1, within a region of 70 bp, including synonymous and intronic changes. AIFM1 mutations have previously been associated with neurologic presentations as varied as intellectual disability, hearing loss, neuropathy, and striatal necrosis, while AIFM1 mutations in this small region present with a distinct phenotype implicating bone. Analysis of cell lines derived from four patients identified significant reductions in AIFM1 mRNA and protein levels in osteoblasts. We hypothesize that AIFM1 functions in bone metabolism and myelination and is responsible for the unique phenotype in this condition.

  2. Treatment of Chronic Enterovirus Encephalitis With Fluoxetine in a Patient With X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofshteyn, Jacqueline; Cárdenas, Ana María; Bearden, David

    2016-11-01

    Enterovirus may result in a devastating chronic encephalitis in immunocompromised patients, particularly in patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Prognosis for patients with chronic enterovirus encephalitis is poor, almost invariably resulting in mortality without specific treatment. There are currently no approved antiviral agents for enterovirus, but the antidepressant drug fluoxetine has been identified through library-based compound screening as a potential anti-enteroviral agent in vitro. However, use of fluoxetine has not previously been studied in humans with enteroviral disease. A five year old boy with X-linked agammaglobulinemia presented with progressive neurological deterioration and was found to have chronic enterovirus encephalitis by brain biopsy. He failed to respond to standard treatment with high dose intravenous immunoglobulin, but showed stabilization and improvement following treatment with fluoxetine. This is the first report to describe the use of fluoxetine as a potential therapy for chronic enterovirus infection. Further investigation of fluoxetine as a treatment option for chronic enterovirus encephalitis is necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-term follow-up of a family with dominant X-linked retinitis pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, DM; Khanna, H; Atmaca-Sonmez, P; Sieving, PA; Branham, K; Othman, M; Swaroop, A; Daiger, SP; Heckenlively, JR

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To document the progression of disease in male and female members of a previously described family with X-linked dominant retinitis pigmentosa (RP) caused by a de novo insertion after nucleotide 173 in exon ORF15 of RPGR. Methods The clinical records of 19 members of family UTAD054 were reviewed. Their evaluations consisted of confirmation of family history, standardised electroretinograms (ERGs), Goldmann visual fields, and periodic ophthalmological examinations over a 23-year period. Results Male members of family UTAD054 had non-recordable to barely recordable ERGs from early childhood. The males showed contracted central fields and developed more severe retinopathy than the females. The female members showed a disease onset delayed to teenage years, recordable but diminishing photopic and scotopic ERG amplitudes in a cone-rod pattern, progressive loss and often asymmetric visual fields, and diffuse atrophic retinopathy with fewer pigment deposits compared with males. Conclusions This insertion mutation in the RPGR exon ORF15 is associated with a RP phenotype that severely affects males early and females by 30 years of age, and is highly penetrant in female members. Families with dominant-acting RPGR mutations may be mistaken to have an autosomal mode of inheritance resulting in an incorrect prediction of recurrence risk and prognosis. Broader recognition of X-linked RP forms with dominant inheritance is necessary to facilitate appropriate counselling of these patients. PMID:19893586

  4. X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease predominates in a cohort of multiethnic Malaysian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrizaila, Nortina; Samulong, Sarimah; Tey, Shelisa; Suan, Liaw Chiew; Meng, Lao Kah; Goh, Khean Jin; Ahmad-Annuar, Azlina

    2014-02-01

    Data regarding Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is lacking in Southeast Asian populations. We investigated the frequency of the common genetic mutations in a multiethnic Malaysian cohort. Patients with features of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease or hereditary liability to pressure palsies were investigated for PMP22 duplication, deletion, and point mutations and GJB1, MPZ, and MFN2 point mutations. Over a period of 3 years, we identified 25 index patients. A genetic diagnosis was reached in 60%. The most common were point mutations in GJB1, accounting for X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (24% of the total patient population), followed by PMP22 duplication causing Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (20%). We also discovered 2 novel GJB1 mutations, c.521C>T (Proline174Leucine) and c.220G>A (Valine74Methionine). X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease was found to predominate in our patient cohort. We also found a better phenotype/genotype correlation when applying a more recently recommended genetic approach to Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Single muscle fiber gene expression with run taper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Murach

    Full Text Available This study evaluated gene expression changes in gastrocnemius slow-twitch myosin heavy chain I (MHC I and fast-twitch (MHC IIa muscle fibers of collegiate cross-country runners (n = 6, 20±1 y, VO₂max = 70±1 ml•kg-1•min-1 during two distinct training phases. In a controlled environment, runners performed identical 8 kilometer runs (30:18±0:30 min:s, 89±1% HRmax while in heavy training (∼72 km/wk and following a 3 wk taper. Training volume during the taper leading into peak competition was reduced ∼50% which resulted in improved race times and greater cross-section and improved function of MHC IIa fibers. Single muscle fibers were isolated from pre and 4 hour post run biopsies in heavily trained and tapered states to examine the dynamic acute exercise response of the growth-related genes Fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (FN14, Myostatin (MSTN, Heat shock protein 72 (HSP72, Muscle ring-finger protein-1 (MURF1, Myogenic factor 6 (MRF4, and Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1 via qPCR. FN14 increased 4.3-fold in MHC IIa fibers with exercise in the tapered state (P<0.05. MSTN was suppressed with exercise in both fiber types and training states (P<0.05 while MURF1 and HSP72 responded to running in MHC IIa and I fibers, respectively, regardless of training state (P<0.05. Robust induction of FN14 (previously shown to strongly correlate with hypertrophy and greater overall transcriptional flexibility with exercise in the tapered state provides an initial molecular basis for fast-twitch muscle fiber performance gains previously observed after taper in competitive endurance athletes.

  6. Atypical X-linked agammaglobulinaemia caused by a novel BTK mutation in a selective immunoglobulin M deficiency patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lee-Moay; Chang, Jer-Ming; Wang, I-Fang; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Hwang, Daw-Yang; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2013-09-27

    X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (XLA) is the most common inherited humoural immunodeficiency disorder. Mutations in the gene coding for Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) have been identified as the cause of XLA. Most affected patients exhibit a marked reduction of serum immunoglobulins, mature B cells, and an increased susceptibility to recurrent bacterial infections. However, the diagnosis of XLA can be a challenge in certain patients who have near-normal levels of serum immunoglobulin. Furthermore, reports on XLA with renal involvement are scant. We report an atypical XLA patient who presented with selective immunoglobulin M (IgM) immunodeficiency and nephropathy. He was diagnosed with selective IgM immunodeficiency, based on his normal serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels but undetectable serum IgM level. Intravenous immunoglobulin was initiated due to increased infections and persistent proteinuria but no improvement in proteinuria was found. A lupus-like nephritis was detected in his kidney biopsy and the proteinuria subsided after receiving a mycophenolate mofetil regimen. Although he had a history of recurrent bacterial infections since childhood, XLA was not diagnosed until B-lymphocyte surface antigen studies and a genetic analysis were conducted. We suggest that B-lymphocyte surface antigen studies and a BTK mutation analysis should be performed in familial patients with selective IgM deficiency to rule out atypical XLA.

  7. X-Linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a frequent cause of idiopathic Addison`s disease in young adult male patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laureti, S.; Casucci, G.; Santeusanio, F. [Univ. of Perugia (Italy)] [and others

    1996-02-01

    X-Linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a genetic disease associated with demyelination of the central nervous system, adrenal insufficiency, and accumulation of very long chain fatty acids in tissue and body fluids. ALD is due to mutation of a gene located in Xq28 that encodes a peroxisomal transporter protein of unknown function. The most common phenotype of ALD is the cerebral form (45%) that develops in boys between 5-12 yr. Adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) involves the spinal cord and peripheral nerves in young adults (35%). Adrenal insufficiency (Addison`s disease) is frequently associated with AMN or cerebral ALD and may remain the only clinical expression of ALD (8% of cases). The prevalence of ALD among adults with Addison`s disease remains unknown. To evaluate this prevalence, we performed biochemical analysis of very long chain fatty acids in 14 male patients (age ranging from 12-45 yr at diagnosis) previously diagnosed as having primary idiopathic adrenocortical insufficiency. In 5 of 14 patients (35%), elevated plasma concentrations of very long chain fatty acids were detected. None of these patients had adrenocortical antibodies. By electrophysiological tests and magnetic resonance imaging it was determined that two patients had cerebral ALD, one had adrenomyeloneuropathy with cerebral involvement, and two had preclinical AMN. Our data support the hypothesis that ALD is a frequent cause of idiopathic Addison`s disease in children and adults. 30 refs., 5 tabs.

  8. A Korean boy with atypical X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy confirmed by an unpublished mutation of ABCD1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jwa, Hye Jeong; Lee, Keon Su; Kim, Gu Hwan; Yoo, Han Wook; Lim, Han Hyuk

    2014-09-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a rare peroxisomal disorder, that is rapidly progressive, neurodegenerative, and recessive, and characteristically primary affects the central nervous system white matter and the adrenal cortex. X-ALD is diagnosed basaed on clinical, radiological, and serological parameters, including elevated plasma levels of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA), such as C24:0 and C26:0, and high C24:0/C22:0 and C26:0/C22:0 ratios. These tests are complemented with genetic analyses. A 7.5-year-old boy was admitted to Department of Pediatrics, Chungnam National University Hospital with progressive weakness of the bilateral lower extremities. Brain magnetic resonance imaging confirmed clinically suspected ALD. A low dose adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test revealed parital adrenal insufficiency. His fasting plasma levels of VLCFA showed that his C24:0/C22:0 and C26:0/C22:0 ratios were significantly elevated to 1.609 (normal, 0-1.390) and 0.075 (normal, 0-0.023), respectively. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral whole blood samples collected from the patient and his family. All exons of ABCD1 gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers. Amplified PCR products were sequenced using the same primer pairs according to the manufacturer's instructions. We identified a missense mutation (p.Arg163Leu) in the ABCD1 gene of the proband caused by the nucleotide change 488G>T in exon 1. His asymptomatic mother carried the same mutation. We have reported an unpublished mutation in the ABCD1 gene in a patient with X-ALD, who showed increased ratio of C24:0/C22:0 and C26:0/C22:0, despite a normal VLCFA concentrations.

  9. Proteomics plus genomics approaches in primary immunodeficiency: the case of immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zennaro, D; Scala, E; Pomponi, D; Caprini, E; Arcelli, D; Gambineri, E; Russo, G; Mari, A

    2012-01-01

    Immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) is a rare syndrome due to a mutation in the forkhead box protein 3 gene (FOXP3) leading to an impaired regulatory T cell (T(reg) ) activity associated both with skewed T helper type 2 (Th2) response and autoreactive phenomena. The purpose of this study was to describe a combined proteomics and genomics approach to comprehensively evaluate clinical and immunological phenotypes of patients affected by IPEX. T cell receptor (TCR)-Vβ repertoire and peripheral blood lymphocytes phenotype from three brothers affected by IPEX were studied by flow cytometry. Specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E were evaluated by means of an allergenic molecules microarray [immuno solid-phase allergen chip (ISAC)]. Total RNA was extracted and hybridized to Affymetrix oligonucleotide arrays to obtain quantitative gene-expression levels. No FOXP3 protein was detectable within CD127(-) CD25(high) CD4(+) T cells from peripheral blood. A T cell-naive phenotype (CD62L(+) CD45R0(-)) associated with a reduction of both CD26 and CD7 expression and a TCR-Vβ 8 and 22 family expansions were found. B lymphocytes were mainly CD5(+) (B1) cells expressing a naive phenotype (tcl1(+) CD27(-)). The three IPEX patients had severe food allergy and specific IgE reactivity to cow's milk allergens, a hen's egg allergen and a wheat allergen. Gene expression profile analysis revealed a dysregulation associated mainly with Th1/Th2 pathways. The multiplexing evaluation reported in this study represents a comprehensive approach in the assessment of genetic conditions affecting the immune system such as the IPEX syndrome, paving the way for the development of diagnostic tools to improve the standard clinical and immunological profiling of the disease. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2011 British Society for Immunology.

  10. A three-year-old boy with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy and congenital pulmonary adenomatoid malformation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cakan Nedim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy leads to demyelination of the nervous system, adrenal insufficiency, and accumulation of long-chain fatty acids. Most young patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy develop seizures and progressive neurologic deficits, and die within the first two decades of life. Congenital or acquired disorders of the respiratory system have not been previously described in patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. Case presentation A 3-year-old Arabic boy from Yemen presented with discoloration of the mucous membranes and nail beds, which were considered cyanoses due to methemoglobinemia. He also had shortness of breath, fatigue, emesis and dehydration episodes for which he was admitted to our hospital. Chest radiograph and chest computed tomography scans showed congenital pulmonary adenomatoid malformation. A few weeks before the removal of the malformation, he had a significant episode of hypotension and hypoglycemia. This development required further in-hospital evaluation that led to the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency and the initiation of treatment with corticosteroids. One year later, he developed seizures and loss of consciousness. Magnetic resonance imaging of his head showed diffuse demyelination secondary to X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. He was treated with anti-seizure and anti-oxidants, and was referred for bone marrow transplant evaluation. Conclusion The presence of adrenal insufficiency, neurologic deficits and seizures are common manifestations of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. The association of congenital lung disease with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy or Addison's disease has not been described previously.

  11. The Challenge of Prenatal Diagnostic Work-Up of Maternally Inherited X-Linked Opitz G/BBB: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialuigia Spinelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prenatal diagnosis of Optiz G/BBB syndrome (OS is challenging because the characteristic clinical features, such as facial and genitourinary anomalies, may be subtle at sonography and rather unspecific. Furthermore, molecular testing of the disease gene is not routinely performed, unless a specific diagnosis is suggested. Method. Both familial and ultrasound data were used to achieve the diagnosis of X-linked OS (XLOS, which was confirmed by molecular testing of MID1 gene (Xp22.3 at birth. Results. Sequencing of MID1 gene disclosed the nucleotide change c.1285 +1 G>T, previously associated with XLOS. Conclusions. This case illustrates current challenges of the prenatal diagnostic work-up of XLOS and exemplifies how clinical investigation, including family history, and accurate US foetal investigations can lead to the correct diagnosis.

  12. Enzyme replacement therapy rescues weakness and improves muscle pathology in mice with X-linked myotubular myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Michael W; Armstrong, Dustin; Viola, Marissa G; Widrick, Jeffrey J; Meng, Hui; Grange, Robert W; Childers, Martin K; Hsu, Cynthia P; O'Callaghan, Michael; Pierson, Christopher R; Buj-Bello, Anna; Beggs, Alan H

    2013-04-15

    No effective treatment exists for patients with X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM), a fatal congenital muscle disease caused by deficiency of the lipid phosphatase, myotubularin. The Mtm1δ4 and Mtm1 p.R69C mice model severely and moderately symptomatic XLMTM, respectively, due to differences in the degree of myotubularin deficiency. Contractile function of intact extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles from Mtm1δ4 mice, which produce no myotubularin, is markedly impaired. Contractile forces generated by chemically skinned single fiber preparations from Mtm1δ4 muscle were largely preserved, indicating that weakness was largely due to impaired excitation contraction coupling. Mtm1 p.R69C mice, which produce small amounts of myotubularin, showed impaired contractile function only in EDL muscles. Short-term replacement of myotubularin with a prototypical targeted protein replacement agent (3E10Fv-MTM1) in Mtm1δ4 mice improved contractile function and muscle pathology. These promising findings suggest that even low levels of myotubularin protein replacement can improve the muscle weakness and reverse the pathology that characterizes XLMTM.

  13. Reconstructing Cell Lineages from Single-Cell Gene Expression Data: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-30

    Reconstructing cell lineages from single -cell gene expression data: a pilot study The goal of this pilot study is to develop novel mathematical...methods, by leveraging tools developed in the bifurcation theory, to infer the underlying cell-state dynamics from single -cell gene expression data. Our...from single -cell gene expression data. The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not contrued

  14. Single base resolution analysis of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in 188 human genes: implications for hepatic gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Maxim; Kals, Mart; Lauschke, Volker; Barragan, Isabel; Ewels, Philip; Käller, Max; Axelsson, Tomas; Lehtiö, Janne; Milani, Lili; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    To improve the epigenomic analysis of tissues rich in 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (hmC), we developed a novel protocol called TAB-Methyl-SEQ, which allows for single base resolution profiling of both hmC and 5-methylcytosine by targeted next-generation sequencing. TAB-Methyl-SEQ data were extensively validated by a set of five methodologically different protocols. Importantly, these extensive cross-comparisons revealed that protocols based on Tet1-assisted bisulfite conversion provided more precise hmC values than TrueMethyl-based methods. A total of 109 454 CpG sites were analyzed by TAB-Methyl-SEQ for mC and hmC in 188 genes from 20 different adult human livers. We describe three types of variability of hepatic hmC profiles: (i) sample-specific variability at 40.8% of CpG sites analyzed, where the local hmC values correlate to the global hmC content of livers (measured by LC-MS), (ii) gene-specific variability, where hmC levels in the coding regions positively correlate to expression of the respective gene and (iii) site-specific variability, where prominent hmC peaks span only 1 to 3 neighboring CpG sites. Our data suggest that both the gene- and site-specific components of hmC variability might contribute to the epigenetic control of hepatic genes. The protocol described here should be useful for targeted DNA analysis in a variety of applications. PMID:27131363

  15. X-linked spinal muscular atrophy in mice caused by autonomous loss of ATP7A in the motor neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkinson, Victoria L; Dale, Jeffery M; Garcia, Michael L; Weisman, Gary A; Lee, Jaekwon; Gitlin, Jonathan D; Petris, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    ATP7A is a copper-transporting P-type ATPase that is essential for cellular copper homeostasis. Loss-of-function mutations in the ATP7A gene result in Menkes disease, a fatal neurodegenerative disorder resulting in seizures, hypotonia and failure to thrive, due to systemic copper deficiency. Most recently, rare missense mutations in ATP7A that do not impact systemic copper homeostasis have been shown to cause X-linked spinal muscular atrophy type 3 (SMAX3), a distal hereditary motor neuropathy. An understanding of the mechanistic and pathophysiological basis of SMAX3 is currently lacking, in part because the disease-causing mutations have been shown to confer both loss- and gain-of-function properties to ATP7A, and because there is currently no animal model of the disease. In this study, the Atp7a gene was specifically deleted in the motor neurons of mice, resulting in a degenerative phenotype consistent with the clinical features in affected patients with SMAX3, including the progressive deterioration of gait, age-dependent muscle atrophy, denervation of neuromuscular junctions and a loss of motor neuron cell bodies. Taken together, these data reveal autonomous requirements for ATP7A that reveal essential roles for copper in the maintenance and function of the motor neuron, and suggest that SMAX3 is caused by a loss of ATP7A function that specifically impacts the spinal motor neuron. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Mutations in USP9X Are Associated with X-Linked Intellectual Disability and Disrupt Neuronal Cell Migration and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Claire C.; Kumar, Raman; Nguyen, Lam Son; Haan, Eric; Raymond, F. Lucy; Abidi, Fatima; Raynaud, Martine; Schwartz, Charles E.; Wood, Stephen A.; Gecz, Jozef; Jolly, Lachlan A.

    2014-01-01

    With a wealth of disease-associated DNA variants being recently reported, the challenges of providing their functional characterization are mounting. Previously, as part of a large systematic resequencing of the X chromosome in 208 unrelated families with nonsyndromic X-linked intellectual disability, we identified three unique variants (two missense and one protein truncating) in USP9X. To assess the functional significance of these variants, we took advantage of the Usp9x knockout mouse we generated. Loss of Usp9x causes reduction in both axonal growth and neuronal cell migration. Although overexpression of wild-type human USP9X rescued these defects, all three USP9X variants failed to rescue axonal growth, caused reduced USP9X protein localization in axonal growth cones, and (in 2/3 variants) failed to rescue neuronal cell migration. Interestingly, in one of these families, the proband was subsequently identified to have a microdeletion encompassing ARID1B, a known ID gene. Given our findings it is plausible that loss of function of both genes contributes to the individual's phenotype. This case highlights the complexity of the interpretations of genetic findings from genome-wide investigations. We also performed proteomics analysis of neurons from both the wild-type and Usp9x knockout embryos and identified disruption of the cytoskeleton as the main underlying consequence of the loss of Usp9x. Detailed clinical assessment of all three families with USP9X variants identified hypotonia and behavioral and morphological defects as common features in addition to ID. Together our data support involvement of all three USP9X variants in ID in these families and provide likely cellular and molecular mechanisms involved. PMID:24607389

  17. A recombination outside the BB deletion refines the location of the X-linked retinitis pigmentosa locus RP3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, R.; Bingham, E.; Forsythe, P.; McHenry, C. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others

    1996-07-01

    Genetic loci for X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) have been mapped between Xp11.22 and Xp22.13 (RP2, RP3, RP6, and RP15). The RP3 gene, which is responsible for the predominant form of XLRP in most Caucasian populations, has been localized to Xp21.1 by linkage analysis and the map positions of chromosomal deletions associated with the disease. Previous linkage studies have suggested that RP3 is flanked by the markers DXS1110 (distal) and OTC (proximal). Patient BB was though to have RP because of a lesion at the RP3 locus, in addition to chronic granulomatous disease, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), mild mental retardation, and the McLeod phenotype. This patient carried a deletion extending {approximately}3 Mb from DMD in Xp21.3 to Xp21.1, with the proximal breakpoint located {approximately}40 kb centromeric to DXS1110. The RP3 gene, therefore, is believed to reside between DXS1110 and the proximal breakpoint of the BB deletion. In order to refine the location of RP3 and to ascertain patients with RP3, we have been analyzing several XLRP families for linkage to Xp markers. Linkage analysis in an American family of 27 individuals demonstrates segregation of XLRP with markers in Xp21.1, consistent with the RP3 subtype. One affected male shows a recombination event proximal to DXS1110. Additional markers within the DXS1110-OTC interval show that the crossover is between two novel polymorphic markers, DXS8349 and M6, both of which are present in BB DNA and lie centromeric to the proximal breakpoint. This recombination places the XLRP mutation in this family outside the BB deletion and redefines the location of RP3. 22 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. MBTPS2 mutations cause defective regulated intramembrane proteolysis in X-linked osteogenesis imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindert, Uschi; Cabral, Wayne A.; Ausavarat, Surasawadee; Tongkobpetch, Siraprapa; Ludin, Katja; Barnes, Aileen M.; Yeetong, Patra; Weis, Maryann; Krabichler, Birgit; Srichomthong, Chalurmpon; Makareeva, Elena N.; Janecke, Andreas R.; Leikin, Sergey; Röthlisberger, Benno; Rohrbach, Marianne; Kennerknecht, Ingo; Eyre, David R.; Suphapeetiporn, Kanya; Giunta, Cecilia; Marini, Joan C.; Shotelersuk, Vorasuk

    2016-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a collagen-related bone dysplasia. We identified an X-linked recessive form of OI caused by defects in MBTPS2, which encodes site-2 metalloprotease (S2P). MBTPS2 missense mutations in two independent kindreds with moderate/severe OI cause substitutions at highly conserved S2P residues. Mutant S2P has normal stability, but impaired functioning in regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) of OASIS, ATF6 and SREBP transcription factors, consistent with decreased proband secretion of type I collagen. Further, hydroxylation of the collagen lysine residue (K87) critical for crosslinking is reduced in proband bone tissue, consistent with decreased lysyl hydroxylase 1 in proband osteoblasts. Reduced collagen crosslinks presumptively undermine bone strength. Also, proband osteoblasts have broadly defective differentiation. These mutations provide evidence that RIP plays a fundamental role in normal bone development. PMID:27380894

  19. High bone mineral apparent density in children with X-linked hypophosphatemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Brixen, K; Gram, J

    2013-01-01

    Bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) in children with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) was evaluated, as they are unlikely to have extra-skeletal ossifications contributing to the elevated bone mineral density of the spine in adult patients. Children with XLH also had significantly higher BMAD...... of the spine compared to femoral neck. INTRODUCTION: BMAD obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans in children with XLH was evaluated, as they are unlikely to have the extra-skeletal ossifications contributing to the elevated bone mineral density of the spine in adult patients. METHODS: A total of 15...... children with biochemically and genetically verified XLH were recruited. Anthropometric measurements were performed, and to correct for the short stature (small bones), the BMAD of the spine and the femoral neck was evaluated. RESULTS: Z-scores of BMAD of the spine (mean (95 % CI); 2.0 (1.3-2.7); p ...

  20. Sustained virologic response following HCV eradication in two brothers with X-linked agammaglobulinaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Houlihan, Diarmaid D

    2009-08-21

    X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (XLA) is a humoral immunodeficiency syndrome characterized from childhood by the absence of circulating B lymphocytes, absent or reduced levels of serum immunoglobulin and recurrent bacterial infections. For many affected patients, regular treatment with immunoglobulin is life saving. Hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection acquired through contaminated blood products is widely described in this patient cohort. The natural history of HCV infection in patients with XLA tends to follow a more rapid and aggressive course compared to immunocompetent individuals. Furthermore, standard anti-viral therapy appears to be less efficacious in this patient cohort. Here we report the cases of two brothers with XLA who contracted HCV through contaminated blood products. They were treated with a six month course of Interferon alpha-2b and Ribavirin. We report a sustained virologic response five years after completing treatment.

  1. Acute Myeloid Leukemia in a Patient With X-linked Severe Combined Immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemura, Tomonari; Motobayashi, Mitsuo; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Shimodaira, Takahiro; Kurata, Takashi; Kobayashi, Norimoto; Agematsu, Kazunaga; Nakazawa, Yozo

    2017-11-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a defect in the differentiation and function of T cells. An increased malignancy risk, mainly lymphatic malignancy, has been described in patients with SCID. We report a patient with X-linked SCID who developed acute myeloid leukemia, derived from the recipient with somatic NRAS mutation 4 months after cord blood transplantation (CBT). Loss of heterozygosity phenomenon of the recipient at 6q14 locus was observed at 2 months post-CBT and progressed to 6q deletion (6q-) chromosome abnormality. Somatic NRAS mutation was detected at 3 months post-CBT. Thus, 6q- and NRAS mutation were strongly associated with the leukemic transformation in our patient.

  2. Hematopoietic cell transplantation does not prevent myelopathy in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geel, Björn M; Poll-The, Bwee Tien; Verrips, Aad; Boelens, Jaap-Jan; Kemp, Stephan; Engelen, Marc

    2015-03-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a peroxisomal metabolic disorder. Male patients develop adrenocortical insufficiency (80 % before 18 years), a chronic myelopathy (adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN); all in adulthood), or progressive cerebral demyelination (cerebral ALD; 40 % before 18 years). Cerebral ALD is treated with haematopoetic cell transplantation (HCT). It is unknown if AMN still develops in patients with X-ALD that underwent HCT for cerebral ALD in childhood. A retrospective observational study was performed by selecting all adult patients with X-ALD in our cohort that underwent HCT in childhood. This retrospective study found that three out of five patients in our cohort who underwent HCT in childhood developed signs of myelopathy in adulthood. These data suggest that HCT for cerebral ALD in childhood does not prevent the onset of AMN in X-ALD in adulthood.

  3. X-linked deafness, stapes gushers and a distinctive defect of the inner ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, P.D.; Reardon, W.; Pembrey, M.; Bellman, S.; Luxom, L.

    1991-01-01

    We have made genetic linkage studies in 7 pedigrees in whom deafness was inherited in an X-linked manner. All patients had a full range of audiometric and vestibular function tests. Thin section high resolution CT in two planes was used to assess the state of the middle and inner ears. We found a distinctive inner ear deformity in some of the deaf males. Moreover, some of the obligate feamle carriers seem to have a milder form of the same anomaly associated with slight hearing loss. Genetic studies on some of the deaf males with apparently normal inner ear anatomy suggest a different locus on the X chromosome and hence a different pathogenesis for the deafness. (orig./GDG)

  4. Bruton's tyrosine kinase: from X-linked agammaglobulinemia toward targeted therapy for B-cell malignancies.

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    Ponader, Sabine; Burger, Jan A

    2014-06-10

    Discovery of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) mutations as the cause for X-linked agammaglobulinemia was a milestone in understanding the genetic basis of primary immunodeficiencies. Since then, studies have highlighted the critical role of this enzyme in B-cell development and function, and particularly in B-cell receptor signaling. Because its deletion affects mostly B cells, BTK has become an attractive therapeutic target in autoimmune disorders and B-cell malignancies. Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) is the most advanced BTK inhibitor in clinical testing, with ongoing phase III clinical trials in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and mantle-cell lymphoma. In this article, we discuss key discoveries related to BTK and clinically relevant aspects of BTK inhibitors, and we provide an outlook into clinical development and open questions regarding BTK inhibitor therapy. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  5. Application of carrier testing to genetic counseling for X-linked agammaglobulinemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.C.; Nachtman, R.G.; Belmont, J.W.; Rosenblatt, H.M.

    1994-01-01

    Bruton X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a phenotypically recessive genetic disorder of B lymphocyte development. Female carriers of XLA, although asymptomatic, have a characteristic B cell lineage-specific skewing of the pattern of X inactivation. Skewing apparently results from defective growth and maturation of B cell precursors bearing a mutant active X chromosome. In this study, carrier status was tested in 58 women from 22 families referred with a history of agammaglobulinemia. Primary carrier analysis to examine patterns of X inactivation in CD19[sup +] peripheral blood cells (B lymphocytes) was conducted using quantitative PCR at the androgen-receptor locus. Obligate carriers of XLA demonstrated >95% skewing of X inactivation in peripheral blood CD19[sup +] cells but not in CD19[sup [minus

  6. Helicobacter bilis-Associated Suppurative Cholangitis in a Patient with X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degand, Nicolas; Dautremer, Justine; Pilmis, Benoît; Ferroni, Agnès; Lanternier, Fanny; Bruneau, Julie; Hermine, Olivier; Blanche, Stéphane; Nassif, Xavier; Lortholary, Olivier; Lecuit, Marc

    2017-10-01

    ᅟ: Helicobacter bilis is a commensal bacterium causing chronic hepatitis and colitis in mice. In humans, enterohepatic Helicobacter spp. are associated with chronic hepatobiliary diseases. We aimed at understanding the microbial etiology in a patient with X-linked agammaglobulinemia presenting with suppurative cholangitis. 16S rDNA PCR directly performed on a liver biopsy retrieved DNA of H. bilis. Clinical outcome resulted in the normalization of clinical and biological parameters under antibiotic treatment by a combination of ceftriaxone, metronidazole, and doxycyclin followed by a 2-week treatment with moxifloxacin and a 2-month treatment with azithromycin. In conclusion, these data suggest a specific clinical and microbiological approach in patients with humoral deficiency in order to detect H. bilis hepatobiliary diseases.

  7. Urokinase mediates endothelial cell survival via induction of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prager, Gerald W; Mihaly, Judit; Brunner, Patrick M

    2008-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) additionally elicits a whole array of pro-angiogenic responses, such as differentiation, proliferation, and migration. In this study, we demonstrate that in endothelial cells uPA also protects against apoptosis by transcriptional up-regulation and partia......Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) additionally elicits a whole array of pro-angiogenic responses, such as differentiation, proliferation, and migration. In this study, we demonstrate that in endothelial cells uPA also protects against apoptosis by transcriptional up......-regulation and partially by mRNA stabilization of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, most prominently the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). The antiapoptotic activity of uPA was dependent on its protease activity, the presence of uPA receptor (uPAR) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP...

  8. Neonatal estradiol stimulation prevents epilepsy in Arx model of X-linked infantile spasms syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivetti, Pedro R; Maheshwari, Atul; Noebels, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-22

    Infantile spasms are a catastrophic form of pediatric epilepsy with inadequate treatment. In patients, mutation of ARX, a transcription factor selectively expressed in neuronal precursors and adult inhibitory interneurons, impairs cell migration and causes a major inherited subtype of the disease X-linked infantile spasms syndrome. Using an animal model, the Arx((GCG)10+7) mouse, we determined that brief estradiol (E2) administration during early postnatal development prevented spasms in infancy and seizures in adult mutants. E2 was ineffective when delivered after puberty or 30 days after birth. Early E2 treatment altered mRNA levels of three downstream targets of Arx (Shox2, Ebf3, and Lgi1) and restored depleted interneuron populations without increasing GABAergic synaptic density. Postnatal E2 treatment may induce lasting transcriptional changes that lead to enduring disease modification and could potentially serve as a therapy for inherited interneuronopathies.

  9. A Review of X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yin, Fei

    2016-05-01

    X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX) is the second common genetic variant of CMT. CMTX type 1 causes 90% of CMTX. The most important clinical features of CMTX are similar with other types of CMT; however, a few patients get the central nervous system involved with or without white matter lesions; males are more severely and earlier affected than females. In this review, the authors focus on the origin and classification of CMTX, the central nervous system manifestations of CMTX1, the possible mechanism by which GJB1 mutations cause CMT1X, and the emerging therapeutic strategies for CMTX. Moreover, several cases are presented to illustrate the central nervous system manifestations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Sagittal synostosis in X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets and related diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currarino, Guido [Texas Scottish Rite Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2007-08-15

    The recent observations of two new cases of X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets associated with premature closure of the sagittal suture prompted a review of similar cases seen in this institution. To review the clinical records and skull radiographs of 28 children with hypophosphatemic rickets in order to investigate the frequency and type of craniosynostosis and other cranial vault changes seen in these conditions and to review the literature for relevant findings. Clinical and imaging records were reviewed on 28 patients with hypophosphatemic rickets, all younger than 18 years. Most patients had X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets and a few had autosomal-dominant hypophosphatemic rickets or were non-familial cases. Of the 28 patients, 13 had sagittal synostosis. Dolichocephaly was present in ten patients. The configuration of the cranial vault in some of these ten patients with dolichocephaly varied somewhat from that seen in nonsyndromic sagittal synostosis. In one patient, a Chiari I malformation was demonstrated by MRI. In another patient with increased intracranial pressure the sagittal suture closure was associated with lambdoidal synostosis. Dolichocephaly was not present in three patients, suggesting that the synostosis started later than in the other patients, probably in the second year of life, a period of slower brain growth than in the first year. The two patients in this group of three showed thickening and sclerosis of the cranial vault of uncertain etiology. There is an increased risk of sagittal synostosis in hypophosphatemic rickets and related diseases in children. The appearance of the cranial vault in this type of synostosis can vary from that seen in nonsyndromic synostosis. In this setting, careful clinical and imaging follow-up is warranted. (orig.)

  11. Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) brain imaging patterns in patients with suspected X-linked dystonia parkinsonism (study in progress)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, J.F.Y.; Fugoso, L.; Evidente, V.G.H.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism (XDP or Lubag) is an adult-onset dystonia syndrome that afflicts mostly Filipino men from the island of Panay, Philippines.It starts focally and becomes generalized or multifocal after the first five years. Parkinsonism is commonly encountered as the initial symptom before the onset of dystonia. Patients may manifest a wide spectrum of movement disorders, including myoclonus, chorea, akathisia, ballism and myorhythmia. Diagnosis is based on the clinical presentation, and the establishment of an x-linked recessive pattern of inheritance and maternal roots from the Panay Islands. Neuroimaging in advanced cases have demonstrated caudate and putaminal atrophy. Previous studies using PET have shown selective reduction in normalized striatal glucose metabolism. The purpose of this study is to describe the FDG distribution using PET imaging in Filipino patients with suspected or confirmed Lubag in various stages of their disease in order to determine if FDG-PET can be used in the initial diagnosis and staging of the disease. Methods and results: All patients presenting to the Movement Disorders Center of St. Lukes Medical Center with dystonia and Parkinsonism symptoms with X-linked recessive inheritance pattern and maternal roots traceable to the Panay Islands were sent for a Brain FDG PET Scan. Seven male patients with various movement disorders (dysarthria, face dystonia, Parkinsonism, hemibalismus, involuntary movements and rest tremors) with duration of symptoms from 1 to 5 years underwent a PET scan. All patients had non visualized bilateral putamen, four had hypometabolic caudate nuclei, one had intense (hypermetabolic) caudate nuclei. CT scan and MRI did not show any findings which may explain the movement disorder symptoms. More patients are being collected and gene typing is planned for some patients. Conclusions: This small series of patients demonstrate that patients with the phenotypic characteristics of X-linked

  12. Monitoring of very long-chain fatty acids levels in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, treated with haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and Lorenzo's Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stradomska, Teresa J; Drabko, Katarzyna; Moszczyńska, Elżbieta; Tylki-Szymańska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a rare, neurodegenerative peroxisomal disorder connected with mutation in the ABCD1 gene, causing impairment of the peroxisomal β-oxidation process and in consequence, accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) in blood and tissues. In this study we present serum very long-chain fatty acids levels during clinical course in an X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy patient after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and on Lorenzo's Oil in a 11 years' period. The patient was diagnosed at the age of 8 months by family screening. The administration of LO was started at 2 years of age. HSCT from a family donor was performed twice. VLCFA serum levels were detected by the GC method. Chimaerism subsequent to HSCT was also analyzed. Increasing very long-chain fatty acids levels correlate with a decreasing chimaerism level after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The sequential monitoring of very long-chain fatty acids serum levels is important and useful for assessment of engraftment, graft failure or rejection.

  13. A novel frameshift mutation of SMPX causes a rare form of X-linked nonsyndromic hearing loss in a Chinese family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Niu

    Full Text Available X-linked hearing impairment is the rarest form of genetic hearing loss (HL and represents only a minor fraction of all cases. The aim of this study was to investigate the cause of X-linked inherited sensorineural HL in a four-generation Chinese family. A novel duplication variant (c.217dupA, p.Ile73Asnfs*5 in SMPX was identified by whole-exome sequencing. The frameshift mutation predicted to result in the premature truncation of the SMPX protein was co-segregated with the HL phenotype and was absent in 295 normal controls. Subpopulation screening of the coding exons and flanking introns of SMPX was further performed for 338 Chinese patients with nonsydromic HL by Sanger sequencing, and another two potential causative substitutions (c.238C>A and c.55A>G in SMPX were identified in additional sporadic cases of congenital deafness. Collectively, this study is the first to report the role of SMPX in Chinese population and identify a novel frameshift mutation in SMPX that causes not only nonsyndromic late-onset progressive HL, but also congenital hearing impairment. Our findings extend the mutation and phenotypic spectrum of the SMPX gene.

  14. X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease with GJB1 mutation presenting as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis-like illness: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Han, Seung-A; Kim, Sun Jun

    2017-12-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is typically an autosomal dominant, inherited neuropathy, although there is a rare male X-linked CMT. Such patients show central nervous system (CNS) involvement in addition to peripheral neuropathy. Recently, we encountered a patient who presented with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)-like symptoms, but was later diagnosed as having X-linked CMT (CMTX) due to a mutation. A previously healthy 11-year-old boy was admitted for a sudden transient weakness of his left side extremities. The patient was diagnosed with left side hemiparesis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed ADEM-like demyelinating lesions on both centrum semiovale. A diagnosis of probable ADEM was made, and the patient soon recovered. After 4 months, a second MRI showed complete resolution of the brain lesions. However, the symptoms recurred 2 years later. A third MRI revealed white matter abnormalities, and a physical examination demonstrated pes cavus deformities and peripheral muscle wasting of both lower extremities. On the basis of the brain MRI lesions and physical findings, we suspected CMTX. Genotyping confirmed a mutation in the GJB1 gene. When the symptoms recurred 2 years later, dysarthria and demyelinating MRI lesions were present. We could not identify any triggering factors. Differential diagnosis of recurrent ADEM-like lesions in the cerebral white matter and peripheral neuropathy should include the possibility of CMTX disease.

  15. Association of CHRDL1 mutations and variants with X-linked megalocornea, Neuhäuser syndrome and central corneal thickness.

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    Alice E Davidson

    Full Text Available We describe novel CHRDL1 mutations in ten families with X-linked megalocornea (MGC1. Our mutation-positive cohort enabled us to establish ultrasonography as a reliable clinical diagnostic tool to distinguish between MGC1 and primary congenital glaucoma (PCG. Megalocornea is also a feature of Neuhäuser or megalocornea-mental retardation (MMR syndrome, a rare condition of unknown etiology. In a male patient diagnosed with MMR, we performed targeted and whole exome sequencing (WES and identified a novel missense mutation in CHRDL1 that accounts for his MGC1 phenotype but not his non-ocular features. This finding suggests that MMR syndrome, in some cases, may be di- or multigenic. MGC1 patients have reduced central corneal thickness (CCT; however no X-linked loci have been associated with CCT, possibly because the majority of genome-wide association studies (GWAS overlook the X-chromosome. We therefore explored whether variants on the X-chromosome are associated with CCT. We found rs149956316, in intron 6 of CHRDL1, to be the most significantly associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP (p = 6.81×10(-6 on the X-chromosome. However, this association was not replicated in a smaller subset of whole genome sequenced samples. This study highlights the importance of including X-chromosome SNP data in GWAS to identify potential loci associated with quantitative traits or disease risk.

  16. Rebound macular edema following oral acetazolamide therapy for juvenile X-linked retinoschisis in an Italian family

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    Galantuomo MS

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Maria Silvana Galantuomo,1,* Maurizio Fossarello,1 Alberto Cuccu,1 Roberta Farci,1 Markus N Preising,2 Birgit Lorenz,2 Pietro Emanuele Napoli1,* 1Department of Surgical Sciences, Eye Clinic, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Juvenile X-linked retinoschisis (RS1, OMIM: 312700 is a hereditary vitreoretinal dystrophy characterized by bilateral foveal schisis and, in half of the patients, splitting through the nerve fiber layer in the peripheral retina. In the first decade of life, patients usually develop a decrease in visual acuity. Long-term visual outcomes can be poor due to the limited number of known successful treatments. Purpose: The purposes of this study were to present, for the first time, a p.Arg197Cys missense mutation in the RS1 gene (OMIM: 300839 in a four-generation Italian family with RS1 and to examine the clinical response to the treatment with acetazolamide tablets alone or in combination with dorzolamide eye drops as assessed by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. Methods: Eleven individuals, including two brothers with RS1 (patients 1 and 2, underwent a full medical history examination and a comprehensive ocular assessment that involved SD-OCT, fluorescein angiography, electroretinography and DNA analysis. Each RS1 patient received oral acetazolamide (375 mg daily during the first three months. Thereafter, patient 1 continued only with dorzolamide eyedrops three times a day for a period of three months, while patient 2 spontaneously stopped both medications. Results: Sequence analysis of the RS1 gene identified a hemizygous c.589C>T (p.Arg197Cys missense mutation in exon 6, which has not been previously reported in an Italian family. A different response to the medical therapy was observed in the four eyes of the two affected brothers hemizygous for

  17. Phenotype-genotype correlation in potential female carriers of X-linked developmental cataract (Nance-Horan syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arif O; Aldahmesh, Mohammed A; Mohamed, Jawahir Y; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2012-06-01

    To correlate clinical examination with underlying genotype in asymptomatic females who are potential carriers of X-linked developmental cataract (Nance-Horan syndrome). An ophthalmologist blind to the pedigree performed comprehensive ophthalmic examination for 16 available family members (two affected and six asymptomatic females, five affected and three asymptomatic males). Facial features were also noted. Venous blood was collected for sequencing of the gene NHS. All seven affected family members had congenital or infantile cataract and facial dysmorphism (long face, bulbous nose, abnormal dentition). The six asymptomatic females ranged in age from 4-35 years old. Four had posterior Y-suture centered lens opacities; these four also exhibited the facial dysmorphism of the seven affected family members. The fifth asymptomatic girl had scattered fine punctate lens opacities (not centered on the Y-suture) while the sixth had clear lenses, and neither exhibited the facial dysmorphism. A novel NHS mutation (p.Lys744AsnfsX15 [c.2232delG]) was found in the seven patients with congenital or infantile cataract. This mutation was also present in the four asymptomatic girls with Y-centered lens opacities but not in the other two asymptomatic girls or in the three asymptomatic males (who had clear lenses). Lens opacities centered around the posterior Y-suture in the context of certain facial features were sensitive and specific clinical signs of carrier status for NHS mutation in asymptomatic females. Lens opacities that did not have this characteristic morphology in a suspected female carrier were not a carrier sign, even in the context of her affected family members.

  18. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: very long-chain fatty acid metabolism is severely impaired in monocytes but not in lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Franziska D.; Wiesinger, Christoph; Forss-Petter, Sonja; Regelsberger, Günther; Einwich, Angelika; Weber, Willi H.A.; Köhler, Wolfgang; Stockinger, Hannes; Berger, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene, encoding a member of the peroxisomal ABC transporter family. The ABCD1 protein transports CoA-activated very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) into peroxisomes for degradation via β-oxidation. In the severest form, X-ALD patients suffer from inflammatory demyelination of the brain. As the extent of the metabolic defect in the main immune cells is unknown, we explored their phenotypes concerning mRNA expression pattern of the three peroxisomal ABC transporters, VLCFA accumulation and peroxisomal β-oxidation. In controls, ABCD1 expression was high in monocytes, intermediate in B cells and low in T cells; ABCD2 expression was extremely low in monocytes, intermediate in B cells and highest in T cells; ABCD3 mRNA was equally distributed. In X-ALD patients, the expression patterns remained unaltered; accordingly, monocytes, which lack compensatory VLCFA transport by ABCD2, displayed the severest biochemical phenotype with a 6-fold accumulation of C26:0 and a striking 70% reduction in peroxisomal β-oxidation activity. In contrast, VLCFA metabolism was close to control values in B cells and T cells, supporting the hypothesis that sufficient ABCD2 is present to compensate for ABCD1 deficiency. Thus, the vulnerability of the main immune cell types is highly variable in X-ALD. Based on these results, we propose that in X-ALD the halt of inflammation after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation relies particularly on the replacement of the monocyte lineage. Additionally, these findings support the concept that ABCD2 is a target for pharmacological induction as an alternative therapeutic strategy. PMID:24363066

  19. Recurrent Anion Gap Acidosis: An Unusual Presentation of X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy in a Five-year-old Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Joel; Pena, Loren; Sigman, Laura; Waggoner, Darrel

    2010-01-01

    We are presenting a five-year-old male with recurrent anion gap acidosis. During his last admission, it was detected that he had elevated VLCFA and the evaluation discovered that he had X-linked Adrenooleukodystrophy. He had the Addisonian only phenotype without any clinical or radiographic CNS findings. We were unable to find any other reports of this presentation of ALD. If the work-up of recurrent anion gap acidosis does not uncover an etiology, X-linked ALD should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  20. Missense variant in CCDC22 causes X-linked recessive intellectual disability with features of Ritscher-Schinzel/3C syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolanczyk, Mateusz; Krawitz, Peter; Hecht, Jochen; Hupalowska, Anna; Miaczynska, Marta; Marschner, Katrin; Schlack, Claire; Emmerich, Denise; Kobus, Karolina; Kornak, Uwe; Robinson, Peter N; Plecko, Barbara; Grangl, Gernot; Uhrig, Sabine; Mundlos, Stefan; Horn, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome (RSS)/3C (cranio-cerebro-cardiac) syndrome (OMIM#220210) is a rare and clinically heterogeneous developmental disorder characterized by intellectual disability, cerebellar brain malformations, congenital heart defects, and craniofacial abnormalities. A recent study of a Canadian cohort identified homozygous sequence variants in the KIAA0196 gene, which encodes the WASH complex subunit strumpellin, as a cause for a form of RSS/3C syndrome. We have searched for genetic causes of a phenotype similar to RSS/3C syndrome in an Austrian family with two affected sons. To search for disease-causing variants, whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on samples from two affected male children and their parents. Before WES, CGH array comparative genomic hybridization was applied. Validation of WES and segregation studies was done using routine Sanger sequencing. Exome sequencing detected a missense variant (c.1670A>G; p.(Tyr557Cys)) in exon 15 of the CCDC22 gene, which maps to chromosome Xp11.23. Western blots of immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from the affected individual showed decreased expression of CCDC22 and an increased expression of WASH1 but a normal expression of strumpellin and FAM21 in the patients cells. We identified a variant in CCDC22 gene as the cause of an X-linked phenotype similar to RSS/3C syndrome in the family described here. A hypomorphic variant in CCDC22 was previously reported in association with a familial case of syndromic X-linked intellectual disability, which shows phenotypic overlap with RSS/3C syndrome. Thus, different inactivating variants affecting CCDC22 are associated with a phenotype similar to RSS/3C syndrome. PMID:24916641

  1. Preclinical safety evaluation of a recombinant AAV8 vector for X-linked retinoschisis after intravitreal administration in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangoni, Dario; Wu, Zhijian; Wiley, Henry E; Zeiss, Caroline J; Vijayasarathy, Camasamudram; Zeng, Yong; Hiriyanna, Suja; Bush, Ronald A; Wei, Lisa L; Colosi, Peter; Sieving, Paul A

    2014-12-01

    X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) is a retinal disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding the protein retinoschisin (RS1) and one of the most common causes of macular degeneration in young men. Currently, no FDA-approved treatments are available for XLRS and a replacement gene therapy could provide a promising strategy. We have developed a novel gene therapy approach for XLRS, based on the administration of AAV8-scRS/IRBPhRS, an adeno-associated viral vector coding the human RS1 protein, via the intravitreal route. On the basis of our prior study in an Rs1-KO mouse, this construct transduces efficiently all the retinal layers, resulting in an RS1 expression similar to that observed in the wild-type and improving retinal structure and function. In support of a clinical trial, we carried out a study to evaluate the ocular safety of intravitreal administration of AAV8-scRS/IRBPhRS into 39 New Zealand White rabbits. Two dose levels of vector, 2e(10) and 2e(11) vector genomes per eye (vg/eye), were tested and ocular inflammation was monitored over a 12-week period by serial ophthalmological and histopathological analysis. A mild ocular inflammatory reaction, consisting mainly of vitreous infiltrates, was observed within 4 weeks from injection, in both 2e(10) and 2e(11) vg/eye groups and was likely driven by the AAV8 capsid. At 12-week follow-up, ophthalmological examination revealed no clinical signs of vitreitis in either of the dose groups. However, while vitreous inflammatory infiltrate was significantly reduced in the 2e(10) vg/eye group at 12 weeks, some rabbits in the higher dose group still showed persistence of inflammatory cells, histologically. In conclusion, intravitreal administration of AAV8-scRS/IRBPhRS into the rabbit eye produces a mild and transient intraocular inflammation that resolves, at a 2e(10) vg/eye dose, within 3 months, and does not cause irreversible tissue damages. These data support the initiation of a clinical trial of intravitreal

  2. A Functional Link between the Histone Demethylase PHF8 and the Transcription Factor ZNF711 in X-Linked Mental Retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleine-Kohlbrecher, Daniela; Christensen, Jesper; Vandamme, Julien

    2010-01-01

    X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) is an inherited disorder that mostly affects males and is caused by mutations in genes located on the X chromosome. Here, we show that the XLMR protein PHF8 and a C. elegans homolog F29B9.2 catalyze demethylation of di- and monomethylated lysine 9 of histone H3 (H......3K9me2/me1). The PHD domain of PHF8 binds to H3K4me3 and colocalizes with H3K4me3 at transcription initiation sites. Furthermore, PHF8 interacts with another XMLR protein, ZNF711, which binds to a subset of PHF8 target genes, including the XLMR gene JARID1C. Of interest, the C. elegans PHF8 homolog...... is highly expressed in neurons, and mutant animals show impaired locomotion. Taken together, our results functionally link the XLMR gene PHF8 to two other XLMR genes, ZNF711 and JARID1C, indicating that MR genes may be functionally linked in pathways, causing the complex phenotypes observed in patients...

  3. 7 Tesla proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in adult X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratai, Eva; Kok, Trina; Wiggins, Christopher; Wiggins, Graham; Grant, Ellen; Gagoski, Borjan; O'Neill, Gilmore; Adalsteinsson, Elfar; Eichler, Florian

    2010-01-01

    Background Adult patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) remain at risk for progressive neurological deterioration. Phenotypes vary in their pathology, ranging from axonal degeneration to inflammatory demyelination. The severity of symptoms is poorly explained by conventional imaging. Objective To test the hypothesis that neurochemistry in normal appearing brain differs among adult phenotypes of X-ALD, and that neurochemical changes correlate with the severity of symptoms. Patients and Methods Using a 7 Tesla scanner we performed structural and proton MRSI in 13 adult patients with X-ALD, including 4 patients with adult cerebral ALD (ACALD), 5 with adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) and 4 female heterozygotes. Studies were also performed in nine healthy controls. Results Among adult X-ALD phenotypes, MI/Cr was 46% higher and Cho/Cr 21% higher in normal appearing white matter of ACALD compared to AMN (p Tesla proton MRSI reveals differences in the neurochemistry of ACALD but is unable to distinguish AMN from female heterozygotes. MI/Cr correlates with the severity of the symptoms and may be a meaningful biomarker in adult X-ALD. PMID:19001168

  4. Dental abnormalities associated with X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, JR; Reiter, AM; Mauldin, EA; Casal, ML

    2009-01-01

    Objectives X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) occurs in several species, including humans, mice, cattle and dogs. The orofacial manifestations of ectodermal dysplasia in humans and mice have been extensively studied, but documentation of dental abnormalities in dogs is lacking. The current study describes the results of clinical and radiographic examinations of XLHED-affected dogs and demonstrates profound similarities to findings of XLHED-affected humans. Setting and sample population Section of Medical Genetics at the University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary Medicine. Clinical and radiographic oral examinations were performed on 17 dogs with XLHED, 3 normal dogs, and 2 dogs heterozygous for XLHED. Materials and methods The prevalence and severity of orofacial and dental abnormalities were evaluated by means of a sedated examination, photographs, and full-mouth intraoral radiographs. Results Crown and root abnormalities were common in dogs affected by XLHED, including hypodontia, oligodontia, conical crown shape, decreased number of cusps, decreased number of roots, and dilacerated roots. Persistent deciduous teeth were frequently encountered. Malocclusion was common, with Angle Class I mesioversion of the maxillary and/or mandibular canine teeth noted in 15 of 17 dogs. Angle Class III malocclusion (maxillary brachygnathism) was seen in one affected dog. Conclusion Dental abnormalities are common and severe in dogs with XLHED. Dental manifestations of canine XLHED share characteristics of brachyodont tooth type and diphyodont dentition, confirming this species to be an orthologous animal model for study of human disease. PMID:20078794

  5. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: correlation between Loes score and diffusion tensor imaging parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Sergio Eiji; de Carvalho Neto, Arnolfo; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Coelho, Luiz Otávio de Mattos; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Bonfim, Carmem Maria Sales; Ribeiro, Lisandro Lima

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating the correlation between diffusion tensor imaging parameters and Loes score as well as whether those parameters could indicate early structural alterations. Diffusion tensor imaging measurements were obtained in 30 studies of 14 patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy and were correlated with Loes scores. A control group including 28 male patients was created to establish agematched diffusion tensor imaging measurements. Inter- and intraobserver statistical analyses were undertaken. Diffusion tensor imaging measurements presented strong Pearson correlation coefficients (r) of -0.86, 0.89, 0.89 and 0.84 for fractional anisotropy and mean, radial and axial diffusivities (p tensor measurements at early stage of the disease indicates that mean and radial diffusivities might be useful to predict the disease progression. Measurements of diffusion tensor parameters can be used as an adjunct to the Loes score, aiding in the monitoring of the disease and alerting for possible Loes score progression in the range of interest for therapeutic decisions.

  6. Clinical and biochemical findings in 7 patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy treated with Lorenzo's Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas Carmen R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available X-Linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD is a hereditary disorder of the peroxisomal metabolism biochemically characterized by the accumulation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA in tissues and biological fluids. The major accumulated acids are hexacosanoic acid (C26:0 and tetracosanoic acid (C24:0. The disorder is characterized clinically by central and peripheral demyelination and adrenal insufficiency closely related to the accumulation of fatty acids. The incidence of X-ALD is estimated to be 1:25,000 males. At least six phenotypes can be distinguished. The most common phenotypes are childhood cerebral ALD and adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN. The recommended therapy consists of the use of the glyceroltrioleate/glyceroltrierucate (GTO/GTE mixture, known as Lorenzo's Oil, combined with a VLCFA-poor diet. There are alternative treatments such as bone marrow transplantation and immunosuppression, as well as the use of lovastatin and sodium phenylacetate. In the present study we report the clinical and biochemical course of 7 male patients with X-ALD treated with Lorenzo's Oil and a VLCFA-restricted diet. Treatment produced 50% reduction in C26:0 and 42.8% reduction in the C26:0/C22:0 ratio. Most patients remained clinically well, although approximately 30% of them presented a rapid clinical deterioration. The results showed a poor biochemical-clinical correlation for treatment, indicating that new therapies for X-ALD are needed in order to obtain a better prognosis for patients.

  7. Increased insula-putamen connectivity in X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne J. Blood

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary evidence from postmortem studies of X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism (XDP suggests tissue loss may occur first and/or most severely in the striatal striosome compartment, followed later by cell loss in the matrix compartment. However, little is known about how this relates to pathogenesis and pathophysiology. While MRI cannot visualize these striatal compartments directly in humans, differences in relative gradients of afferent cortical connectivity across compartments (weighted toward paralimbic versus sensorimotor cortex, respectively can be used to infer potential selective loss in vivo. In the current study we evaluated relative connectivity of paralimbic versus sensorimotor cortex with the caudate and putamen in 17 individuals with XDP and 17 matched controls. Although caudate and putamen volumes were reduced in XDP, there were no significant reductions in either “matrix-weighted”, or “striosome-weighted” connectivity. In fact, paralimbic connectivity with the putamen was elevated, rather than reduced, in XDP. This was driven most strongly by elevated putamen connectivity with the anterior insula. There was no relationship of these findings to disease duration or striatal volume, suggesting insula and/or paralimbic connectivity in XDP may develop abnormally and/or increase in the years before symptom onset.

  8. Role of ALDP (ABCD1) and mitochondria in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, M C; Lu, J-F; Zhang, H-P; Dong, G-X; Heinzer, A K; Watkins, P A; Powers, J; Smith, K D

    2003-01-01

    Peroxisomal disorders have been associated with malfunction of peroxisomal metabolic pathways, but the pathogenesis of these disorders is largely unknown. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is associated with elevated levels of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA; C(>22:0)) that have been attributed to reduced peroxisomal VLCFA beta-oxidation activity. Previously, our laboratory and others have reported elevated VLCFA levels and reduced peroxisomal VLCFA beta-oxidation in human and mouse X-ALD fibroblasts. In this study, we found normal levels of peroxisomal VLCFA beta-oxidation in tissues from ALD mice with elevated VLCFA levels. Treatment of ALD mice with pharmacological agents resulted in decreased VLCFA levels without a change in VLCFA beta-oxidation activity. These data indicate that ALDP does not determine the rate of VLCFA beta-oxidation and that VLCFA levels are not determined by the rate of VLCFA beta-oxidation. The rate of peroxisomal VLCFA beta-oxidation in human and mouse fibroblasts in vitro is affected by the rate of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation. We hypothesize that ALDP facilitates the interaction between peroxisomes and mitochondria, resulting, when ALDP is deficient in X-ALD, in increased VLCFA accumulation despite normal peroxisomal VLCFA beta-oxidation in ALD mouse tissues. In support of this hypothesis, mitochondrial structural abnormalities were observed in adrenal cortical cells of ALD mice.

  9. Biochemical mechanisms of pallidal deep brain stimulation in X-linked dystonia parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronnier, V M; Domingo, A; Moll, C K; Rasche, D; Mohr, C; Rosales, R; Capetian, P; Jamora, R D; Lee, L V; Münchau, A; Diesta, C C; Tadic, V; Klein, C; Brüggemann, N; Moser, A

    2015-08-01

    Invasive techniques such as in-vivo microdialysis provide the opportunity to directly assess neurotransmitter levels in subcortical brain areas. Five male Filipino patients (mean age 42.4, range 34-52 years) with severe X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism underwent bilateral implantation of deep brain leads into the internal part of the globus pallidus (GPi). Intraoperative microdialysis and measurement of gamma aminobutyric acid and glutamate was performed in the GPi in three patients and globus pallidus externus (GPe) in two patients at baseline for 25/30 min and during 25/30 min of high-frequency GPi stimulation. While the gamma-aminobutyric acid concentration increased in the GPi during high frequency stimulation (231 ± 102% in comparison to baseline values), a decrease was observed in the GPe (22 ± 10%). Extracellular glutamate levels largely remained unchanged. Pallidal microdialysis is a promising intraoperative monitoring tool to better understand pathophysiological implications in movement disorders and therapeutic mechanisms of high frequency stimulation. The increased inhibitory tone of GPi neurons and the subsequent thalamic inhibition could be one of the key mechanisms of GPi deep brain stimulation in dystonia. Such a mechanism may explain how competing (dystonic) movements can be suppressed in GPi/thalamic circuits in favour of desired motor programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Newborn screening for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: evidence summary and advisory committee recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Alex R; Brosco, Jeffrey; Comeau, Anne Marie; Green, Nancy S; Grosse, Scott D; Jones, Elizabeth; Kwon, Jennifer M; Lam, Wendy K K; Ojodu, Jelili; Prosser, Lisa A; Tanksley, Susan

    2017-01-01

    The secretary of the US Department of Health and Human Services in February 2016 recommended that X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) be added to the recommended uniform screening panel for state newborn screening programs. This decision was informed by data presented on the accuracy of screening from New York, the only state that currently offers X-ALD newborn screening, and published and unpublished data showing health benefits of earlier treatment (hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and adrenal hormone replacement therapy) for the childhood cerebral form of X-ALD. X-ALD newborn screening also identifies individuals with later-onset disease, but poor genotype-phenotype correlation makes predicting health outcomes difficult and might increase the risk of unnecessary treatment. Few data are available regarding the harms of screening and presymptomatic identification. Significant challenges exist for implementing comprehensive X-ALD newborn screening, including incorporation of the test, coordinating follow-up diagnostic and treatment care, and coordination of extended family testing after case identification.Genet Med 19 1, 121-126.

  11. Decremental responses to repetitive nerve stimulation in x-linked bulbospinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee Young; Park, Kee Duk; Kim, Seung-Min; Sunwoo, Il Nam

    2013-01-01

    X-linked bulbospinal muscular atrophy (X-BSMA) is characterized by bulbar and spinal muscular weakness and fasciculations. Although X-BSMA is a motor neuronopathy, there are several reports of myasthenic symptoms or decremental responses to repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS). We report the results of applying the RNS test to 15 patients among 41 with genetically confirmed X-BSMA; these 15 patients complained of fatigue, ease of becoming tired, or early muscular exhaustion. The 3-Hz RNS test was performed on the trapezius, nasalis, orbicularis oculi, flexor carpi ulnaris, and abductor digiti quinti muscles. A decrement greater than 10% was considered abnormal. Additionally, a pharmacologic response to neostigmine was identified in three patients. A significant decrement was observed in 67% of patients, and was most common in the trapezius muscle (nine cases). The decrement of the trapezius muscle response ranged from 15.9% to 36.9%. The decrement was inversely correlated with the amplitude of compound muscle action potentials at rest. Neostigmine injection markedly improved the decrement in three patients, who showed noticeable decremental responses to 3-Hz RNS. This study shows that myasthenic symptoms and abnormal decremental responses to low-rate RNS are common in X-BSMA.

  12. Neonatal treatment with recombinant ectodysplasin prevents respiratory disease in dogs with X-linked ectodermal dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, Elizabeth A; Gaide, Olivier; Schneider, Pascal; Casal, Margret L

    2009-09-01

    Patients with defective ectodysplasin A (EDA) have X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED; OMIM#305100), a condition comprising hypotrichosis, inability to sweat, abnormal teeth, and frequent pulmonary infections. The XLHED dogs show the same clinical signs as humans with the disorder, including frequent respiratory infections that can be fatal. The respiratory disease in humans and dogs is thought to be due to the absence of tracheal and bronchial glands which are a vital part of the mucociliary clearance mechanism. In our XLHED model, the genetically missing EDA was replaced by postnatal intravenous administration of recombinant EDA resulting in long-term, durable corrective effect on adult, permanent dentition. After treatment with EDA, significant correction of the missing tracheal and bronchial glands was achieved in those dogs that received higher doses of EDA. Moreover, successful treatment resulted in the presence of esophageal glands, improved mucociliary clearance, and the absence of respiratory infection. These results demonstrate that a short-term treatment at a neonatal age with a recombinant protein can reverse a developmental disease and result in vastly improved quality of life. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Enteroviruses in X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia: Update on Epidemiology and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, David; Collett, Marc; Quan, P Lan; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz T; Sullivan, Kathleen E

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) has been associated with a broad range of infections, but enteroviral disease represents one of the most damaging infections. The risk of enteroviral infection in XLA is lower now than in the setting of intramuscular immunoglobulin or in patients without immunoglobulin replacement, but the rate of infection has not declined significantly in the era of intravenous immunoglobulin replacement. Enteroviruses can cause inflammation of nearly every organ, but in XLA, infections often manifest as dermatomyositis or chronic meningoencephalitis. Difficulty and delay in recognizing symptoms and lack of specific therapy contribute to the poor outcomes. Furthermore, cerebrospinal fluid detection of enteroviruses is not very sensitive. Reluctance to perform brain biopsies can lead to significant delays. The other feature compromising outcomes is the lack of specific therapy. High-dose peripheral and intraventricular immunoglobulin have been used, but failure is still common. New antienteroviral drugs are in development and show promise for immunodeficient patients with life-threatening infections with enterovirus. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Females with a disorder phenotypically identical to X-linked agammaglobulinemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conley, M.E. (Univ. of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis (United States)); Sweinberg, S.K. (Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1992-03-01

    Clinical and laboratory findings in two girls with a disorder phenotypically indistinguishable from typical X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) are described. To examine the possibility that subtle defects in the X chromosome might explain the findings, detailed genetic studies were performed on one of these patients. Cytogenetic studies showed a normal 46XX karyotype. Southern blot analysis of her DNA showed that she had inherited a maternal and a paternal allele at sites flanking the locus for typical XLA at Xq22, making a microdeletion or uniparental disomy unlikely. To determine whether both of her X chromosomes could function as the active X, somatic-cell hybrids that selectively retained the active X were produced from her activated T cells. A normal random pattern of X inactivation was seen. Of 21 T-cell hybrids, 3 retained both X chromosomes, 7 had one X as the active X, and 11 had the other X as the active X. The authors have interpreted these studies as indicating that there is an autosomal recessive disorder that is phenotypically identical to XLA.

  15. Clinical and mutational features of X-linked agammaglobulinemia in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, E; Staines-Boone, A T; Vargas-Hernández, A; González-Serrano, M E; Carrillo-Tapia, E; Mogica-Martínez, D; Berrón-Ruíz, L; Segura-Mendez, N H; Espinosa-Rosales, F J; Yamazaki-Nakashimada, M A; Santos-Argumedo, L; López-Herrera, G

    2016-04-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is caused by BTK mutations, patients typically show <2% of peripheral B cells and reduced levels of all immunoglobulins; they suffer from recurrent infections of bacterial origin; however, viral infections, autoimmune-like diseases, and an increased risk of developing gastric cancer are also reported. In this work, we report the BTK mutations and clinical features of 12 patients diagnosed with XLA. Furthermore, a clinical revision is also presented for an additional cohort of previously reported patients with XLA. Four novel mutations were identified, one of these located in the previously reported mutation refractory SH3 domain. Clinical data support previous reports accounting for frequent respiratory, gastrointestinal tract infections and other symptoms such as the occurrence of reactive arthritis in 19.2% of the patients. An equal proportion of patients developed septic arthritis; missense mutations and mutations in SH1, SH2 and PH domains predominated in patients who developed arthritis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. X inactivation in females with X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Sinéad M

    2012-07-01

    X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT1X) is the second most common inherited neuropathy, caused by mutations in gap junction beta-1 (GJB1). Males have a uniformly moderately severe phenotype while females have a variable phenotype, suggested to be due to X inactivation. We aimed to assess X inactivation pattern in females with CMT1X and correlate this with phenotype using the CMT examination score to determine whether the X inactivation pattern accounted for the variable phenotype in females with CMT1X. We determined X inactivation pattern in 67 females with CMT1X and 24 controls using the androgen receptor assay. We were able to determine which X chromosome carried the GJB1 mutation in 30 females. There was no difference in X inactivation pattern between patients and controls. In addition, there was no correlation between X inactivation pattern in blood and phenotype. A possible explanation for these findings is that the X inactivation pattern in Schwann cells rather than in blood may explain the variable phenotype in females with CMT1X.

  17. Galactosemia, a single gene disorder with epigenetic consequences.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coman, David J

    2010-03-01

    Long-term outcomes of classic galactosemia (GAL) remain disappointing. It is unclear if the complications result mainly from prenatal-neonatal toxicity or persistent glycoprotein and glycolipid synthesis abnormalities. We performed gene expression profiling (T transcriptome) to characterize key-altered genes and gene clusters of four patients with GAL with variable outcomes maintained on a galactose-restricted diet, compared with controls. Significant perturbations of multiple cell signaling pathways were observed including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, and ubiquitin mediated proteolysis. A number of genes significantly altered were further investigated in the GAL cohort including SPARC (osteonectin) and S100A8 (S100 calcium-binding protein). The whole serum N-glycan profile and IgG glycosylation status of 10 treated patients with GAL were compared with healthy control serum and IgG using a quantitative high-throughput analytical HPLC platform. Increased levels of agalactosylated and monogalactosylated structures and decreases in certain digalactosylated structures were identified in the patients. The persistent abnormal glycosylation of serum glycoproteins seen with the microarray data indicates persisting metabolic dyshomeostasis and gene dysregulation in "treated" GAL. Strict restriction of dietary galactose is clearly life saving in the neonatal period; long-term severe galactose restriction may contribute to ongoing systemic abnormalities.

  18. Maternal T-cell engraftment associated with severe hemophagocytosis of the bone marrow in untreated X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Christopher C; Sandford, Amanda; Fong, Abraham; Cowan, Morton J; George, Tracy I; Lewis, David B

    2008-05-01

    Maternal engraftment of T cells in severe combined immunodeficiency can lead to graft-versus-host disease of the skin and liver. We report the case of an infant with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency, confirmed by DNA sequencing of the common gamma chain gene locus, in which this disorder's characteristic peripheral lymphocyte phenotype [T(-)B(+)NK(-)] was obscured by the postnatal onset of hemophagocytic syndrome that included severe B-cell lymphopenia, neutropenia, and anemia. Hemophagocytosis was most likely owing to maternal graft-versus-host disease, as perforin-expressing CD8 T cells, presumably of maternal origin, were prominent in the bone marrow and there was no concurrent severe infection.

  19. C26:0-Carnitine Is a New Biomarker for X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy in Mice and Man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Malu-Clair; Dijkstra, Inge M. E.; van Lenthe, Henk; Ofman, Rob; Goldhaber-Pasillas, Dalia; Schauer, Nicolas; Schackmann, Martin; Engelen-Lee, Joo-Yeon; Vaz, Frédéric M.; Kulik, Wim; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Engelen, Marc; Kemp, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), a progressive neurodegenerative disease, is caused by mutations in ABCD1 and characterized by very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) accumulation. Virtually all males develop progressive myelopathy (AMN). A subset of patients, however, develops a fatal cerebral

  20. Treatment of the X-linked lymphoproliferative, Griscelli and Chédiak-Higashi syndromes by HLH directed therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trottestam, Helena; Beutel, Karin; Meeths, Marie

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Griscelli syndrome type 2 (GS2), the X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) and the Chédiak-Higashi (CHS) syndromes are diseases that all may develop hemophagocytic syndromes. We wanted to investigate whether the treatment protocols for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) can also...

  1. PROTECTIVE LEVELS OF VARICELLA-ZOSTER ANTIBODY DID NOT EFFECTIVELY PREVENT CHICKENPOX IN AN X-LINKED AGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA PATIENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Fernanda Aimée; Gonzalez, Isabela Garrido da Silva; de Moraes-Pinto, Maria Isabel; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz Tavares

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of an eight-year-old boy with X-linked agammaglobulinemia who developed mild varicella despite regular intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy. He maintained protective antibody levels against varicella and the previous batches of IVIG that he received had adequate varicella-specific IgG levels. The case illustrates that IVIG may not prevent VZV infection.

  2. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms of PRNP gene in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    12, 389–394. Del Bo R., Comi G. P., Giorda R., Crimi M., Locatelli F., Martinelli-. Boneschi F. et al. 2003 The 129 codon polymorphism of the prion protein gene influences earlier cognitive performance in. Down syndrome subjects. J. Neurol. 250, 688–692. Indian Genome Variation Consortium 2005 The Indian Genome.

  3. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes coding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The insulin-like growth factor 1 system plays a central role in the growth and development of the mammary gland. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) have been proposed as candidate genes for milk production traits. This study involved a population of 163 Montbeliarde cows.

  4. Reinitiation of mRNA translation in a patient with X-linked infantile spasms with a protein-truncating variant in ARX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moey, Ching; Topper, Scott; Karn, Mary; Johnson, Amy Knight; Das, Soma; Vidaurre, Jorge; Shoubridge, Cheryl

    2016-05-01

    Mutations in the Aristaless-related homeobox gene (ARX) lead to a range of X-linked intellectual disability phenotypes, with truncating variants generally resulting in severe X-linked lissencephaly with ambiguous genitalia (XLAG), and polyalanine expansions and missense variants resulting in infantile spasms. We report two male patients with early-onset infantile spasms in whom a novel c.34G>T (p.(E12*)) variant was identified in the ARX gene. A similar variant c.81C>G (p.(Y27*)), has previously been described in two affected cousins with early-onset infantile spasms, leading to reinitiation of ARX mRNA translation resulting in an N-terminal truncated protein. We show that the novel c.34G>T (p.(E12*)) variant also reinitiated mRNA translation at the next AUG codon (c.121-123 (p.M41)), producing the same N-terminally truncated protein. The production of both of these truncated proteins was demonstrated to be at markedly reduced levels using in vitro cell assays. Using luciferase reporter assays, we demonstrate that transcriptional repression capacity of ARX was diminished by both the loss of the N-terminal corepressor octapeptide domain, as a consequence of truncation, and the marked reduction in mutant protein expression. Our study indicates that premature termination mutations very early in ARX lead to reinitiation of translation to produce N-terminally truncated protein at markedly reduced levels of expression. We conclude that even low levels of N-terminally truncated ARX is sufficient to improve the patient's phenotype compared with the severe phenotype of XLAG that includes malformations of the brain and genitalia normally seen in complete loss-of-function mutations in ARX.

  5. SINCERITIES: Inferring gene regulatory networks from time-stamped single cell transcriptional expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papili Gao, Nan; Ud-Dean, S M Minhaz; Gandrillon, Olivier; Gunawan, Rudiyanto

    2017-09-14

    Single cell transcriptional profiling opens up a new avenue in studying the functional role of cell-to-cell variability in physiological processes. The analysis of single cell expression profiles creates new challenges due to the distributive nature of the data and the stochastic dynamics of gene transcription process. The reconstruction of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) using single cell transcriptional profiles is particularly challenging, especially when directed gene-gene relationships are desired. We developed SINCERITIES (SINgle CEll Regularized Inference using TIme-stamped Expression profileS) for the inference of GRNs from single cell transcriptional profiles. We focused on time-stamped cross-sectional expression data, commonly generated from transcriptional profiling of single cells collected at multiple time points after cell stimulation. SINCERITIES recovers directed regulatory relationships among genes by employing regularized linear regression (ridge regression), using temporal changes in the distributions of gene expressions. Meanwhile, the modes of the gene regulations (activation and repression) come from partial correlation analyses between pairs of genes. We demonstrated the efficacy of SINCERITIES in inferring GRNs using in silico time-stamped single cell expression data and single cell transcriptional profiles of THP-1 monocytic human leukemia cells. The case studies showed that SINCERITIES could provide accurate GRN predictions, significantly better than other GRN inference algorithms such as TSNI, GENIE3 and JUMP3. Moreover, SINCERITIES has a low computational complexity and is amenable to problems of extremely large dimensionality. Finally, an application of SINCERITIES to single cell expression data of T2EC chicken erythrocytes pointed to BATF as a candidate novel regulator of erythroid development. The MATLAB and R version of SINCERITIES is freely available from the following websites: http://www.cabsel.ethz.ch/tools/sincerities.html and

  6. Risk assessment for Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance on dual-gene versus single-gene corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Kristine T; Caprio, Michael A; Allen, K Clint; Musser, Fred R

    2013-02-01

    Recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) decisions regarding resistance management in Bt-cropping systems have prompted concern in some experts that dual-gene Bt-corn (CrylA.105 and Cry2Ab2 toxins) may result in more rapid selection for resistance in Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) than single-gene Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-corn (CrylAb toxin). The concern is that Bt-toxin longevity could be significantly reduced with recent adoption of a natural refuge for dual-gene Bt-cotton (CrylAc and Cry2Ab2 toxins) and concurrent reduction in dual-gene corn refuge from 50 to 20%. A population genetics framework that simulates complex landscapes was applied to risk assessment. Expert opinions on effectiveness of several transgenic corn and cotton varieties were captured and used to assign probabilities to different scenarios in the assessment. At least 350 replicate simulations with randomly drawn parameters were completed for each of four risk assessments. Resistance evolved within 30 yr in 22.5% of simulations with single-gene corn and cotton with no volunteer corn. When volunteer corn was added to this assessment, risk of resistance evolving within 30 yr declined to 13.8%. When dual-gene Bt-cotton planted with a natural refuge and single-gene corn planted with a 50% structured refuge was simulated, simultaneous resistance to both toxins never occurred within 30 yr, but in 38.5% of simulations, resistance evolved to toxin present in single-gene Bt-corn (CrylAb). When both corn and cotton were simulated as dual-gene products, cotton with a natural refuge and corn with a 20% refuge, 3% of simulations evolved resistance to both toxins simultaneously within 30 yr, while 10.4% of simulations evolved resistance to CrylAb/c toxin.

  7. Detection of polymorphisms in leptin gene using single strand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    student

    Sachs B1 variant. Nucleic Acids Res. 19, 405-406. Barroso, A., Dunner, S. & Cañon, J., 1998. Technical note: detection of bovine kappa-casein variants A, B,. C and E by means of Polymerase Chain Reaction-Single Strand Conformation ...

  8. Monitoring single-cell gene regulation under dynamically controllable conditions with integrated microfluidics and software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Matthias; Jug, Florian; Julou, Thomas; Deshpande, Siddharth; Pfohl, Thomas; Silander, Olin K; Myers, Gene; van Nimwegen, Erik

    2018-01-15

    Much is still not understood about how gene regulatory interactions control cell fate decisions in single cells, in part due to the difficulty of directly observing gene regulatory processes in vivo. We introduce here a novel integrated setup consisting of a microfluidic chip and accompanying analysis software that enable long-term quantitative tracking of growth and gene expression in single cells. The dual-input Mother Machine (DIMM) chip enables controlled and continuous variation of external conditions, allowing direct observation of gene regulatory responses to changing conditions in single cells. The Mother Machine Analyzer (MoMA) software achieves unprecedented accuracy in segmenting and tracking cells, and streamlines high-throughput curation with a novel leveraged editing procedure. We demonstrate the power of the method by uncovering several novel features of an iconic gene regulatory program: the induction of Escherichia coli's lac operon in response to a switch from glucose to lactose.

  9. Efficacy of vitreoretinal surgery in the treatment of X-linked retinoschisis with serious complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of vitreoretinal surgery in the treatment of X-linked retinoschisis(XLRSand its complications. METHODS: A retrospective study was made on all the XLRS patients with severe complications after operation in this hospital. All the 25 patients(31 eyespresent with macular abnormalities with/without peripheral retina split bypreoperative OCT examination. Among the 31 eyes, there were 7 eyes with vitreous hemorrhage, 8 eyes with retinal detachment and vitreous hemorrhage, and 16 eyes with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. All the 31 eyes were divided into 2 groups: group A included 15 eyes which underwent photocoagulation before the surgery, while the other 16 eyes in group B didn't perform photocoagulation before the surgery. All the patients underwent a pars plana vitrectomy without lensectomy associated with internal limiting membrane peeling. Photocoagulation was done to the retinal holes and degeneration areas in group A. Gas or silicone oil was filled in group B after retinal photocoagulation treatment. Three years later, analysis was made on the results of the visual acuity, postoperative anatomical and functional outcome in these 2 groups. Statistical analysis was made on the results of average visual acuity before and after operation by SPSS software method, the difference was statistically significant(PRESULTS: Postoperative anatomical and functional outcome were satisfied at the last visit. A total of 23 eyes'(74.2%visual acuity were improved with the mean visual acuity increasing from 0.13±0.08 to 0.24±0.16, the difference was statistically significant(t=-5.354,P=0.000. The average visual acuity in group A was improved from 0.11±0.08 to 0.22±0.15 after operation(t=-4.391, P=0.000. While the average visual acuity in group B increased from 0.14±0.08 to 0.26±0.15(t=-4.488, P=0.000. The visual changes in two groups were statistical significance. But when compared the average changes of visual acuity before

  10. Long-term outcome of patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Christel; Patel, Jaina; Stacy, Hewson; Mamak, Eva G; Faghfoury, Hanna; Raiman, Julian; Clarke, Joe T R; Blaser, Susan; Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, Saadet

    2017-07-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a peroxisomal disorder associated with leukodystrophy, myeloneuropathy and adrenocortical insufficiency. We performed a retrospective cohort study to evaluate long-term outcome of patients with X-ALD. All patients with X-ALD diagnosed between 1989 and 2012 were included. Electronic patient charts were reviewed for clinical features, biochemical investigations, molecular genetic testing, neuroimaging, long-term outcome and treatment. Forty-eight patients from 18 unrelated families were included (15 females; 33 males). Seventeen patients were symptomatic at the time of the biochemical diagnosis including 14 with neurocognitive dysfunction and 3 with Addison disease only. Thirty-one asymptomatic individuals were identified by positive family history of X-ALD. During follow-up, eight individuals developed childhood cerebral X-ALD (CCALD), one individual developed adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN), six individuals developed Addison disease only, and five individuals remained asymptomatic. Direct sequencing of ABCD1 confirmed the genetic diagnosis in 29 individuals. Seven patients with CCALD underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Nine patients lost the follow-up. There was no correlation between clinical severity score, Loes score and elevated degree of elevated very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) levels in CCALD. Our study reports forty-eight new patients with X-ALD and their long-term outcome. Only 35% of the patients presented with neurological features or Addison disease. The remaining individuals were identified due to positive family history. Close monitoring of asymptomatic males resulted in early HSCT to prevent progressive lethal neurodegenerative disease. Identification of patients with X-ALD is important to improve neurodevelopmental outcome of asymptomatic males. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A modified γ-retrovirus vector for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacein-Bey-Abina, Salima; Pai, Sung-Yun; Gaspar, H Bobby; Armant, Myriam; Berry, Charles C; Blanche, Stephane; Bleesing, Jack; Blondeau, Johanna; de Boer, Helen; Buckland, Karen F; Caccavelli, Laure; Cros, Guilhem; De Oliveira, Satiro; Fernández, Karen S; Guo, Dongjing; Harris, Chad E; Hopkins, Gregory; Lehmann, Leslie E; Lim, Annick; London, Wendy B; van der Loo, Johannes C M; Malani, Nirav; Male, Frances; Malik, Punam; Marinovic, M Angélica; McNicol, Anne-Marie; Moshous, Despina; Neven, Benedicte; Oleastro, Matías; Picard, Capucine; Ritz, Jerome; Rivat, Christine; Schambach, Axel; Shaw, Kit L; Sherman, Eric A; Silberstein, Leslie E; Six, Emmanuelle; Touzot, Fabien; Tsytsykova, Alla; Xu-Bayford, Jinhua; Baum, Christopher; Bushman, Frederic D; Fischer, Alain; Kohn, Donald B; Filipovich, Alexandra H; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Cavazzana, Marina; Williams, David A; Thrasher, Adrian J

    2014-10-09

    In previous clinical trials involving children with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1), a Moloney murine leukemia virus-based γ-retrovirus vector expressing interleukin-2 receptor γ-chain (γc) complementary DNA successfully restored immunity in most patients but resulted in vector-induced leukemia through enhancer-mediated mutagenesis in 25% of patients. We assessed the efficacy and safety of a self-inactivating retrovirus for the treatment of SCID-X1. We enrolled nine boys with SCID-X1 in parallel trials in Europe and the United States to evaluate treatment with a self-inactivating (SIN) γ-retrovirus vector containing deletions in viral enhancer sequences expressing γc (SIN-γc). All patients received bone marrow-derived CD34+ cells transduced with the SIN-γc vector, without preparative conditioning. After 12.1 to 38.7 months of follow-up, eight of the nine children were still alive. One patient died from an overwhelming adenoviral infection before reconstitution with genetically modified T cells. Of the remaining eight patients, seven had recovery of peripheral-blood T cells that were functional and led to resolution of infections. The patients remained healthy thereafter. The kinetics of CD3+ T-cell recovery was not significantly different from that observed in previous trials. Assessment of insertion sites in peripheral blood from patients in the current trial as compared with those in previous trials revealed significantly less clustering of insertion sites within LMO2, MECOM, and other lymphoid proto-oncogenes in our patients. This modified γ-retrovirus vector was found to retain efficacy in the treatment of SCID-X1. The long-term effect of this therapy on leukemogenesis remains unknown. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01410019, NCT01175239, and NCT01129544.).

  12. Protective effect of antioxidants on DNA damage in leukocytes from X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Desirèe P; Donida, Bruna; da Rosa, Helen T; Manini, Paula R; Moura, Dinara J; Saffi, Jenifer; Deon, Marion; Mescka, Caroline P; Coelho, Daniella M; Jardim, Laura B; Vargas, Carmen R

    2015-06-01

    Toxic metabolites accumulation and oxidative stress have been associated to the pathophysiology of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), an inborn error of peroxisome metabolism. Parameters of oxidative damage to proteins and lipids in X-ALD patients were already described in literature; however, DNA injuries were not studied yet. Considering that, the aims were to investigate DNA damage by comet assay in heterozygotes and symptomatic X-ALD patients, to look for associations between DNA damage and lipid peroxidation as measured by urinary 15-F2t-isoprostane; and to evaluate the in vitro effect of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), trolox (TRO) and rosuvastatin (RSV) on DNA damage in leukocytes from symptomatic patients. Symptomatic patients presented higher DNA damage levels than those found in heterozygotes and controls; heterozygotes and controls showed similar results. In order to investigate the in vitro antioxidant effect on DNA damage, whole blood cells from symptomatic patients were incubated with NAC (1 and 2.5mM), TRO (25 and 75 μM) and RSV (0.5, 2 and 5 μM) before DNA damage analysis. NAC, TRO and RSV, at all tested concentrations, were all capable to reduce DNA damage in symptomatic X-ALD patients until control levels. Finally, DNA damage correlated with urinary isoprostanes and plasmatic levels of TBA-RS and DCFH-DA, allowing to hypothesize that DNA damage might be induced by lipid peroxidation in symptomatic patients. The present work yields experimental evidence that NAC, TRO and RSV reduce the in vitro DNA injury in symptomatic X-ALD patients, what may suggest that the administration of these antioxidants might be considered as an adjuvant therapy for X-ALD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Abnormal 8-Hz flicker electroretinograms in carriers of X-linked retinoschisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnany, J Jason; Park, Jason C; Collison, Frederick T; Fishman, Gerald A; Stone, Edwin M

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate rod-isolated, cone-isolated, and combined rod and cone flicker electroretinograms (ERGs) as a possible means to identify electrophysiological abnormalities in carriers of X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS). Full-field ERGs were recorded from six carriers of XLRS (aged 34-66 years) and eight normally sighted subjects (aged 27-59 years) under rod-isolated (ERGR), cone-isolated (ERGC), and combined rod and cone (ERGR+C) conditions. ERGs were obtained using a four-primary LED-based ganzfeld photostimulator and standard recording techniques. The four primaries were modulated sinusoidally in phase to achieve combined rod and cone activation (ERGR+C) or in different phases to achieve ERGR and ERGC by means of triple silent substitution. After 30 min of dark adaptation, 8- and 15-Hz ERGR, ERGC, and ERGR+C responses were obtained at a mean luminance level of 24 scot. cd/m(2). Standard ISCEV ERGs were also obtained from each subject. The ISCEV and 15-Hz flicker ERGs were generally within the normal range for the carriers. The 8-Hz ERGR, ERGC, and ERGR+C amplitudes were also generally normal. In contrast, the carriers had ERGR, ERGC, and ERGR+C timing abnormalities, with phase advances beyond the range of normal for the ERGR (four carriers), ERGC (four carriers), and ERGR+C (three carriers). Only one carrier had normal 8-Hz responses under all conditions. The 8-Hz ERG timing abnormalities in five of six carriers indicate that retinal function is not necessarily normal in carriers of XLRS. The 8-Hz flicker ERG may be useful for studying retinal function in these individuals.

  14. X-linked agammaglobulinemia diagnosed late in life: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaswamy Guha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common variable immune deficiency (CVID, one of the most common primary immunodeficiency diseases presents in adults, whereas X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA, an inherited humoral immunodeficiency, is usually diagnosed early in life after maternal Igs have waned. However, there have been several reports in the world literature in which individuals have either had a delay in onset of symptoms or have been misdiagnosed with CVID and then later found to have mutations in Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK yielding a reclassification as adult-onset variants of XLA. The typical finding of absent B cells should suggest XLA rather than CVID and may be a sensitive test to detect this condition, leading to the more specific test (Btk mutational analysis. Further confirmation may be by mutational analyses. Methods The records of 2 patients were reviewed and appropriate clinical data collected. BTK mutational analysis was carried out to investigate the suspicion of adult-presentation of XLA. A review of the world literature on delayed diagnosis of XLA and mild or "leaky" phenotype was performed. Results 2 patients previously diagnosed with CVID associated with virtual absence of CD19+ B cells were reclassified as having a delayed diagnosis and adult-presentation of XLA. Patient 1, a 64 yr old male with recurrent sinobronchial infections had a low level of serum IgG of 360 mg/dl (normal 736–1900, IgA Patient 2, a 46 yr old male with recurrent sinopulmonary infections had low IgG of 260 mg/dl, low IgA Conclusion These two cases represent an unusual adult-presentation of XLA, a humoral immunodeficiency usually diagnosed in childhood and the need to further investigate a suspicion of XLA in adult males with CVID particularly those associated with low to absent CD19+ B cells. A diagnosis of XLA can have significant implications including family counseling, detecting female carriers, and early intervention and treatment of affected male

  15. Immune dysregulation, Polyendocrinopathy, Enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX syndrome: a paradigm of immunodeficiency with autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica eBarzaghi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Immune dysregulation, Polyendocrinopathy, Enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX syndrome is a rare monogenic primary immunodeficiency (PID due to mutations of FOXP3, a key transcription factor for naturally occurring (n regulatory T (Treg cells. The dysfunction of Treg cells is the main pathogenic event leading to the multi-organ autoimmunity that characterizes IPEX syndrome, a paradigm of genetically determined PID with autoimmunity. IPEX has a severe early onset and can become rapidly fatal within the first year of life regardless of the type and site of the mutation. The initial presenting symptoms are severe enteritis and/or type 1 diabetes mellitus, alone or in combination with eczema and elevated serum IgE. Other autoimmune symptoms, such as hypothyroidism, cytopenia, hepatitis, nephropathy, arthritis, and alopecia, can develop in patients who survive the initial acute phase.The current therapeutic options for IPEX patients are limited. Supportive and replacement therapies combined with pharmacological immunosuppression are required to control symptoms at onset. However, these procedures can allow only a reduction of the clinical manifestations without a permanent control of the disease. The only known effective cure for IPEX syndrome is haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, but it is always limited by the availability of a suitable donor and the lack of specific guidelines for bone marrow transplant in the context of this disease.This review aims to summarize the clinical histories and genomic mutations of the IPEX patients described in the literature to date. We will focus on the clinical and immunological features that allow differential diagnosis of IPEX syndrome and distinguish it from other PID with autoimmunity. The efficacy of the current therapies will be reviewed, and possible innovative approaches, based on the latest highlights of the pathogenesis to treat this severe primary autoimmune disease of childhood, will be discussed.

  16. Metformin-induced mitochondrial function and ABCD2 up-regulation in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy involves AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaspreet; Olle, Brittany; Suhail, Hamid; Felicella, Michelle M; Giri, Shailendra

    2016-07-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a progressive neurometabolic disease caused by mutations/deletions in the Abcd1 gene. Similar mutations/deletions in the Abcd1 gene often result in diagonally opposing phenotypes of mild adrenomyeloneuropathy and severe neuroinflammatory cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), which suggests involvement of downstream modifier genes. We recently documented the first evidence of loss of AMP-activated protein kinase α1 (AMPKα1) in ALD patient-derived cells. Here, we report the novel loss of AMPKα1 in postmortem brain white matter of patients with ALD phenotype. Pharmacological activation of AMPK can rescue the mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibit the pro-inflammatory response. The FDA approved anti-diabetic drug Metformin, a well-known AMPK activator, induces mitochondrial biogenesis and is documented for its anti-inflammatory role. We observed a dose-dependent activation of AMPKα1 in metformin-treated X-ALD patient-derived fibroblasts. Metformin also induced mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and ATP levels in X-ALD patient-derived fibroblasts. Metformin treatment decreased very long chain fatty acid levels and pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expressions in X-ALD patient-derived cells. Abcd2 [adrenoleukodystrophy protein-related protein] levels were increased in metformin-treated X-ALD patient-derived fibroblasts and Abcd1-KO mice primary mixed glial cells. Abcd2 induction was AMPKα1-dependent since metformin failed to induce Abcd2 levels in AMPKα1-KO mice-derived primary mixed glial cells. In vivo metformin (100 mg/Kg) in drinking water for 60 days induced Abcd2 levels and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation protein levels in the brain and spinal cord of Abcd1-KO mice. Taken together, these results provide proof-of-principle for therapeutic potential of metformin as a useful strategy for correcting the metabolic and inflammatory derangements in X-ALD by targeting AMPK. There is no effective therapy for inherited

  17. Obesity modulates inflammation and lipid metabolism oocyte gene expression: A single cell transcriptome perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to compare oocyte gene expression profiles and follicular fluid (FF) content from overweight/obese (OW) women and normal weight (NW) women who were undergoing fertility treatments. Using single cell transcriptomic analyses, we investigated oocyte gene expression using RNA-seq. Serum...

  18. Understanding gene expression variability in its biological context using theoretical and experimental analyses of single cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempe, H.

    2017-01-01

    Traditional gene expression studies have largely ignored cell-to-cell variability in transcription. Current methods allow for single cell analyses and have shown considerable variability in gene expression, even in populations of isogenic cells exposed to the same growth environment. In this thesis,

  19. Analysis of Single-cell Gene Transcription by RNA Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronander, Elena; Bengtsson, Dominique C; Joergensen, Louise

    2012-01-01

    fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of var gene transcription by the parasite in individual nuclei of P. falciparum IE(1). Here, we present a detailed protocol for carrying out the RNA-FISH methodology for analysis of var gene transcription in single-nuclei of P. falciparum infected human...

  20. Rapid approach for cloning bacterial single-genes directly from soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obtaining functional genes of bacteria from environmental samples usually depends on library-based approach which is not favored as its large amount of work with small possibility of positive clones. A kind of bacterial single-gene encoding glutamine synthetase (GS) was selected as example to detect the efficiency of ...