WorldWideScience

Sample records for single www application

  1. www.ajol.info and www.bioline.org.br/ja Application of Recycled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    www.ajol.info and www.bioline.org.br/ja. Application of Recycled Rubber from Scrap Tyres in the Adsorption of Toluene from ... Results obtained indicate that recycled rubber from scrap tyres can be widely used as an adsorbent for the removal of toluene from ..... Asphalt Concrete Pavement. Indian Journal of. Engineering ...

  2. Single Molecule Applications of Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Elmelund; Jauffred, Liselotte; Brewer, Jonathan R.

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent nanocrystals composed of semiconductor materials were first introduced for biological applications in the late 1990s. The focus of this review is to give a brief survey of biological applications of quantum dots (QDs) at the single QD sensitivity level. These are described as follows:...... experiments held together with the prospects in localization microscopy and single molecule manipulation experiments gave QDs a promising future in single molecule research....

  3. 78 FR 38843 - Single Application Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... searchable, accessible text (not an image); Microsoft Word; WordPerfect; Rich Text Format (RTF); or ASCII... notice responding to the question of a single application, all of them positive. On March 28, 2012, the...

  4. www.nuance.com

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Upadrasta Ramamurty. Department of Materials Engineering. Indian Institute of Science. Bangalore-560012, India. Structural materials of the future the case of bulk metallic glasses. 76th annual meeting of the Indian Academy of Sciences. PDF Create! 5 Trial www.nuance.com ...

  5. www.common-metrics.org: a web application to estimate scores from different patient-reported outcome measures on a common scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, H Felix; Rose, Matthias

    2016-10-19

    Recently, a growing number of Item-Response Theory (IRT) models has been published, which allow estimation of a common latent variable from data derived by different Patient Reported Outcomes (PROs). When using data from different PROs, direct estimation of the latent variable has some advantages over the use of sum score conversion tables. It requires substantial proficiency in the field of psychometrics to fit such models using contemporary IRT software. We developed a web application ( http://www.common-metrics.org ), which allows estimation of latent variable scores more easily using IRT models calibrating different measures on instrument independent scales. Currently, the application allows estimation using six different IRT models for Depression, Anxiety, and Physical Function. Based on published item parameters, users of the application can directly estimate latent trait estimates using expected a posteriori (EAP) for sum scores as well as for specific response patterns, Bayes modal (MAP), Weighted likelihood estimation (WLE) and Maximum likelihood (ML) methods and under three different prior distributions. The obtained estimates can be downloaded and analyzed using standard statistical software. This application enhances the usability of IRT modeling for researchers by allowing comparison of the latent trait estimates over different PROs, such as the Patient Health Questionnaire Depression (PHQ-9) and Anxiety (GAD-7) scales, the Center of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), PROMIS Anxiety and Depression Short Forms and others. Advantages of this approach include comparability of data derived with different measures and tolerance against missing values. The validity of the underlying models needs to be investigated in the future.

  6. New WWW Pages

    CERN Multimedia

    Pommes, K

    New WWW pages have been created in order to provide easy access to the many activities and pertaining information of the ATLAS Technical Coordination. The main entry point is available on the ATLAS Collaboration page by clicking the Technical Coordination link which leads to the page shown in the following picture. Each button links to a page listing all tasks of the corresponding activity, the responsible task leaders, schedules, work-packages, and action lists, etc... The "ATLAS Documentation Center" button will present the pop-up window shown in the next figure: Besides linking to the Technical Coordination Activities, this page provides direct access to the tools for Project Progress Tracking (PPT) and Engineering Data Management (EDMS), as well as to the main topics being coordinated by the Technical Coordination.

  7. Single-molecule tracking in living cells using single quantum dot applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Koichi; Nishida, Kohji

    2012-01-01

    Revealing the behavior of single molecules in living cells is very useful for understanding cellular events. Quantum dot probes are particularly promising tools for revealing how biological events occur at the single molecule level both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we will introduce how single quantum dot applications are used for single molecule tracking. We will discuss how single quantum dot tracking has been used in several examples of complex biological processes, including membrane dynamics, neuronal function, selective transport mechanisms of the nuclear pore complex, and in vivo real-time observation. We also briefly discuss the prospects for single molecule tracking using advanced probes.

  8. WWW chart of the nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiaolong; Zhou Chunmei; Zhuang Youxiang; Zhao Zhixiang; Golashvili, T.V.; Chechev, V.P.

    2000-01-01

    WWW chart of the nuclides was established on the basis of the latest evaluations of nuclear structure and decay data. By viewing WWW chart of the nuclides, one can retrieve the fundamental data of nuclide such as atomic mass, abundance, spin and parity; the decay mode, branching ratio, half-life and Q-value of radioactive nuclide, energy and intensity of strong γ-ray, etc. The URL (Uniform Resource Locator) of WWW chart of the nuclides is: http://myhome.py.gd.cn/chart/index,asp

  9. Single molecule SERS: Perspectives of analytical applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlčková, B.; Pavel, I.; Sládková, M.; Šišková, K.; Šlouf, Miroslav

    834-836, - (2007), s. 42-47 ISSN 0022-2860. [European Congress on Molecular Spectroscopy /28./. Istanbul, 03.09.2006-08.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/04/0688 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) * surface-enhanced resonance Raman (SERRS) * single molecule SERS Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.486, year: 2007

  10. Adjuvants for single droplet application of glyphosate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiassen, Solvejg K.; Kudsk, Per; Lund, Ivar

    2016-01-01

    Retention and biological activity of droplets of glyphosate deposited onto plant leaves using a Drop on Demand inkjet printer application system, was examined on pot-grown Brassica napus, Solanum nigrum, Chenopodium album, Silene noctiflora and Echinocloa crus-galli plants. Retention was measured...

  11. Adjuvants for single droplet application of glyphosate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp; Kudsk, Per; Lund, Ivar

    2016-01-01

    Retention and biological activity of droplets of glyphosate deposited onto plant leaves using a Drop on Demand inkjet printer application system, was examined on pot-grown Brassica napus, Solanum nigrum, Chenopodium album, Silene noctiflora and Echinocloa crus-galli plants. Retention was measured...... but the biological activity of glyphosate was not improved....

  12. APPLICATIONS OF A SINGLE CARBON ELECTRODE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    applications: welding, spot welding, hole piercing, etc. The metal tube holding the carbon electrodes is banded with a piece of copper tubing that has been flattened into a strap and fitted with a screw for tightening. The perpendicular free end of the copper strap is inserted into the jaws of the electrode holder of an arc welder ...

  13. Single quantum dots fundamentals, applications, and new concepts

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This book reviews recent advances in the exciting and rapid growing field of semiconductor quantum dots by contributions from some of the most prominent researchers in the field. Special focus is given to the optical and electronic properties of single quantum dots due to their potential applications in devices operating with single electrons and/or single photons. This includes quantum dots in electric and magnetic fields, cavity-quantum electrodynamics, nonclassical light generation, and coherent optical control of excitons. Single Quantum Dots also addresses various growth techniques as well as potential device applications such as quantum dot lasers, and new concepts like a single-photon source, and a single quantum dot laser.

  14. Application of the single failure criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In order to present further details on the application and interpretation and on the limitations of individual concepts in the NUSS Codes and Safety Guides, a series of Safety Practice publications have been initiated. It is hoped that many Member States will be able to benefit from the experience presented in these books. The present publication will be useful not only to regulators but also to designers and could be particularly helpful in the interpretation of cases which fall on the borderline between the two areas. It should assist in clarifying, by way of examples, many of the concepts and implementation methods. It also describes some of the limitations involved. The book addresses a specialized topic and it is recommended that it be used together with the other books in the Safety Series. During the development of this publication the actual practices of all countries with major reactor programmes has been taken into account. An interpretation of the relevant text of the Design Code is given in the light of these national practices. The criterion is put into perspective with the general reliability requirements in which it is also embedded in the Design Code. Its relation to common cause and other multiple failure cases and also to the temporary disengagement of components in systems important to safety is clarified. Its use and its limitations are thus explained in the context of reliability targets for systems performance. The guidance provided applies to all reactor systems and would be applicable even to systems not in nuclear power plants. But since this publication was developed to give an interpretation of a specific requirement of the Design Code, the broader applicability is not explicitly claimed. The Design Code lists three cases for which compliance with the criterion may not be justified. The present publication assists in the more precise and practical identification of those cases. 9 figs, 1 tab

  15. Single-particle imaging for biosensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorulmaz, Mustafa; Isil, Cagatay; Seymour, Elif; Yurdakul, Celalettin; Solmaz, Berkan; Koc, Aykut; Ünlü, M. Selim

    2017-10-01

    Current state-of-the-art technology for in-vitro diagnostics employ laboratory tests such as ELISA that consists of a multi-step test procedure and give results in analog format. Results of these tests are interpreted by the color change in a set of diluted samples in a multi-well plate. However, detection of the minute changes in the color poses challenges and can lead to false interpretations. Instead, a technique that allows individual counting of specific binding events would be useful to overcome such challenges. Digital imaging has been applied recently for diagnostics applications. SPR is one of the techniques allowing quantitative measurements. However, the limit of detection in this technique is on the order of nM. The current required detection limit, which is already achieved with the analog techniques, is around pM. Optical techniques that are simple to implement and can offer better sensitivities have great potential to be used in medical diagnostics. Interference Microscopy is one of the tools that have been investigated over years in optics field. More of the studies have been performed in confocal geometry and each individual nanoparticle was observed separately. Here, we achieve wide-field imaging of individual nanoparticles in a large field-of-view ( 166 μm × 250 μm) on a micro-array based sensor chip in fraction of a second. We tested the sensitivity of our technique on dielectric nanoparticles because they exhibit optical properties similar to viruses and cells. We can detect non-resonant dielectric polystyrene nanoparticles of 100 nm. Moreover, we perform post-processing applications to further enhance visibility.

  16. Application of CHESS single-bounce capillaries at synchrotron beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, R; Szebenyi, T; Pfeifer, M; Woll, A; Smilgies, D-M; Finkelstein, K; Dale, D; Bilderback, D H; Wang, Y; J Vila-Comamala, J; Gillilan, R; Cook, M

    2014-01-01

    Single-bounce capillaries are achromatic X-ray focusing optics that can provide efficient and high demagnification focusing with large numerical apertures. Capillary fabrication at CHESS can be customized according to specific application requirements. Exemplary applications are reviewed in this paper, as well as recent progress on condensers for high-resolution transmission X-ray microscopy and small focal size capillaries.

  17. www.elearnSCI.org

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhabra, H S; Harvey, Lee; Muldoon, S

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a web-based educational resource for health professionals responsible for the management of spinal cord injury (SCI). The resource:www.elearnSCI.org is comprised of seven learning modules, each subdivided into various submodules. Six of the seven modules address the educatio...

  18. Why Generation WWW.Y?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Dennis; Conor, Jeff; Course, Amanda

    1999-01-01

    Describes Generation www.Y (Gen Y), a program that trains technology-savvy students to help teachers incorporate technology into their lessons. Discusses how Gen Y works; benefits for students and teachers; and how Gen Y is funded. One table lists differences between the traditional way of infusing technology and the Gen Y way. The two student…

  19. Advanced time-correlated single photon counting applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This book is an attempt to bridge the gap between the instrumental principles of multi-dimensional time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) and typical applications of the technique. Written by an originator of the technique and by sucessful users, it covers the basic principles of the technique, its interaction with optical imaging methods and its application to a wide range of experimental tasks in life sciences and clinical research. The book is recommended for all users of time-resolved detection techniques in biology, bio-chemistry, spectroscopy of live systems, live cell microscopy, clinical imaging, spectroscopy of single molecules, and other applications that require the detection of low-level light signals at single-photon sensitivity and picosecond time resolution.

  20. Single dose methotrexate therapy: application to interstitial ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgatta, L; Burnhill, M; Stubblefield, P

    1998-03-01

    A woman with a small (6-mm gestational sac) interstitial pregnancy had complete resolution after medical therapy alone. A single cycle of methotrexate 50 mg/m2 was used as outpatient treatment without any operative procedure either for diagnosis or intervention. The guidelines that have evolved for selection of women for single dose methotrexate treatment for both intrauterine and tubal ectopic pregnancies may be applicable to interstitial ectopic pregnancy as well. A suggested framework for treatment decisions is presented.

  1. Ultrafast Switching Superjunction MOSFETs for Single Phase PFC Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Petersen, Lars Press; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a guide on characterizing state-of-the-art silicon superjunction (SJ) devices in the 600V range for single phase power factor correction (PFC) applications. The characterization procedure is based on a minimally inductive double pulse tester (DPT) with a very low intrusive...... investigates the latest SJ devices in order to set a reference for future research on improvement over silicon (Si) attained with the introduction of wide bandgap devices in single phase PFC applications. The obtained results show that the latest generation of SJ devices set a new benchmark for its wide...

  2. Single molecule force spectroscopy: methods and applications in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yi; Hu Jun

    2012-01-01

    Single molecule measurements have transformed our view of biomolecules. Owing to the ability of monitoring the activity of individual molecules, we now see them as uniquely structured, fluctuating molecules that stochastically transition between frequently many substrates, as two molecules do not follow precisely the same trajectory. Indeed, it is this discovery of critical yet short-lived substrates that were often missed in ensemble measurements that has perhaps contributed most to the better understanding of biomolecular functioning resulting from single molecule experiments. In this paper, we give a review on the three major techniques of single molecule force spectroscopy, and their applications especially in biology. The single molecular study of biotin-streptavidin interactions is introduced as a successful example. The problems and prospects of the single molecule force spectroscopy are discussed, too. (authors)

  3. Application of GRID to Foreign Atom Localization in Single Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmann, A; Wesch, W; Weber, B; Börner, H G; Jentschel, M

    2000-01-01

    The application of GRID (Gamma Ray Induced Doppler broadening) spectroscopy to the localization of foreign atoms in single crystals is demonstrated on erbium in YAP. By the investigation of the Doppler broadened secondary γ line for two crystalline directions, the Er was determined to be localized on the Y site. Conditions for the nuclear parameters of the impurity atoms used for the application of GRID spectroscopy are discussed.

  4. Magnetic domain wall conduits for single cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donolato, Marco; Torti, A.; Kostesha, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    The ability to trap, manipulate and release single cells on a surface is important both for fundamental studies of cellular processes and for the development of novel lab-on-chip miniaturized tools for biological and medical applications. In this paper we demonstrate how magnetic domain walls...... walls technology in lab-on-chip systems devoted to accurate individual cell trapping and manipulation....

  5. Single cell analysis contemporary research and clinical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cossarizza, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the current state of the art in single cell analysis, an area that involves many fields of science – from clinical hematology, functional analysis and drug screening, to platelet and microparticle analysis, marine biology and fundamental cancer research. This book brings together an eclectic group of current applications, all of which have a significant impact on our current state of knowledge. The authors of these chapters are all pioneering researchers in the field of single cell analysis. The book will not only appeal to those readers more focused on clinical applications, but also those interested in highly technical aspects of the technologies. All of the technologies identified utilize unique applications of photon detection systems.

  6. FPGA applications for single dish activity at Medicina radio telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolin, M.; Nald, G.; Mattan, A.; Maccaferr, A.; De Biagg, M.

    FPGA technologies are gaining major attention in the recent years in the field of radio astronomy. At Medicina radio telescopes, FPGAs have been used in the last ten years for a number of purposes and in this article we will take into exam the applications developed and installed for the Medicina Single Dish 32m Antenna: these range from high performance digital signal processing to instrument control developed on top of smaller FPGAs.

  7. Applications of heavy ion microprobe for single event effects analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Robert A.; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Pellish, Jonathan A.; Sierawski, Brian; Warren, Kevin M.; Porter, Mark; Wilkinson, Jeff; Marshall, Paul W.; Niu, Guofu; Cressler, John D.; Schrimpf, Ronald D.; Tipton, Alan; Weller, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    The motion of ionizing-radiation-induced rogue charge carriers in a semiconductor can create unwanted voltage and current conditions within a microelectronic circuit. If sufficient unwanted charge or current occurs on a sensitive node, a variety of single event effects (SEEs) can occur with consequences ranging from trivial to catastrophic. This paper describes the application of heavy ion microprobes to assist with calibration and validation of SEE modeling approaches

  8. Application of Recognition Tunneling in Single Molecule Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanan

    Single molecule identification is one essential application area of nanotechnology. The application areas including DNA sequencing, peptide sequencing, early disease detection and other industrial applications such as quantitative and quantitative analysis of impurities, etc. The recognition tunneling technique we have developed shows that after functionalization of the probe and substrate of a conventional Scanning Tunneling Microscope with recognition molecules ("tethered molecule-pair" configuration), analyte molecules trapped in the gap that is formed by probe and substrate will bond with the reagent molecules. The stochastic bond formation/breakage fluctuations give insight into the nature of the intermolecular bonding at a single molecule-pair level. The distinct time domain and frequency domain features of tunneling signals were extracted from raw signals of analytes such as amino acids and their enantiomers. The Support Vector Machine (a machine-learning method) was used to do classification and predication based on the signal features generated by analytes, giving over 90% accuracy of separation of up to seven analytes. This opens up a new interface between chemistry and electronics with immediate implications for rapid Peptide/DNA sequencing and molecule identification at single molecule level.

  9. Single-Walled Carbon Nanohorns for Energy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the growth of the global economy and population, the demand for energy is increasing sharply. The development of environmentally a benign and reliable energy supply is very important and urgent. Single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs, which have a horn-shaped tip at the top of single-walled nanotube, have emerged as exceptionally promising nanomaterials due to their unique physical and chemical properties since 1999. The high purity and thermal stability, combined with microporosity and mesoporosity, high surface area, internal pore accessibility, and multiform functionalization make SWCNHs promising candidates in many applications, such as environment restoration, gas storage, catalyst support or catalyst, electrochemical biosensors, drug carrier systems, magnetic resonance analysis and so on. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of SWCNHs in energy applications, including energy conversion and storage. The commonly adopted method to access SWCNHs, their structural modifications, and their basic properties are included, and the emphasis is on their application in different devices such as fuel cells, dye-sensitized solar cells, supercapacitors, Li-ion batteries, Li-S batteries, hydrogen storage, biofuel cells and so forth. Finally, a perspective on SWCNHs’ application in energy is presented.

  10. Single Crystals of Organolead Halide Perovskites: Growth, Characterization, and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Wei

    2017-04-01

    With the soaring advancement of organolead halide perovskite solar cells rising from a power conversion efficiency of merely 3% to more than 22% shortly in five years, researchers’ interests on this big material family have been greatly spurred. So far, both in-depth studies on the fundamental properties of organolead halide perovskites and their extended applications such as photodetectors, light emitting diodes, and lasing have been intensively reported. The great successes have been ascribed to various superior properties of organolead halide hybrid perovskites such as long carrier lifetimes, high carrier mobility, and solution-processable high quality thin films, as will be discussed in Chapter 1. Notably, most of these studies have been limited to their polycrystalline thin films. Single crystals, as a counter form of polycrystals, have no grain boundaries and higher crystallinity, and thus less defects. These characteristics gift single crystals with superior optical, electrical, and mechanical properties, which will be discussed in Chapter 2. For example, organolead halide perovskite single crystals have been reported with much longer carrier lifetimes and higher carrier mobilities, which are especially intriguing for optoelectronic applications. Besides their superior optoelectronic properties, organolead halide perovskites have shown large composition versatility, especially their organic components, which can be controlled to effectively adjust their crystal structures and further fundamental properties. Single crystals are an ideal platform for such composition-structure-property study since a uniform structure with homogeneous compositions and without distraction from grain boundaries as well as excess defects can provide unambiguously information of material properties. As a major part of work of this dissertation, explorative work on the composition-structure-property study of organic-cation-alloyed organolead halide perovskites using their single

  11. Center for Applications of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resasco, Daniel E

    2008-02-21

    This report describes the activities conducted under a Congressional Direction project whose goal was to develop applications for Single-walled carbon nanotubes, under the Carbon Nanotube Technology Center (CANTEC), a multi-investigator program that capitalizes on OU’s advantageous position of having available high quality carbon nanotubes. During the first phase of CANTEC, 11 faculty members and their students from the College of Engineering developed applications for carbon nanotubes by applying their expertise in a number of areas: Catalysis, Reaction Engineering, Nanotube synthesis, Surfactants, Colloid Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry, Spectroscopy, Tissue Engineering, Biosensors, Biochemical Engineering, Cell Biology, Thermal Transport, Composite Materials, Protein synthesis and purification, Molecular Modeling, Computational Simulations. In particular, during this phase, the different research groups involved in CANTEC made advances in the tailoring of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNT) of controlled diameter and chirality by Modifying Reaction Conditions and the Nature of the catalyst; developed kinetic models that quantitatively describe the SWNT growth, created vertically oriented forests of SWNT by varying the density of metal nanoparticles catalyst particles, and developed novel nanostructured SWNT towers that exhibit superhydrophobic behavior. They also developed molecular simulations of the growth of Metal Nanoparticles on the surface of SWNT, which may have applications in the field of fuell cells. In the area of biomedical applications, CANTEC researchers fabricated SWNT Biosensors by a novel electrostatic layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition method, which may have an impact in the control of diabetes. They also functionalized SWNT with proteins that retained the protein’s biological activity and also retained the near-infrared light absorbance, which finds applications in the treatment of cancer.

  12. Application of single photon ECT for dynamic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, T.; Ishii, Y.; Tamaki, N.

    1982-01-01

    Feasibility of dynamic study in a form of ECT using a rotating gamma camera was evaluated. Since it takes longer one around time sampling, application for the dynamic study is limited under following conditions; 1) physiological gated process, 2) slow clearance process, 3) physiological steady state process. The gated study was applicated for heart pumping action synchronized with ECG. The ECG gated heart ECT either of blood pool or myocardium was useful to reveal a subtle wall motion abnormalities in a tomographic plane, even when a planar imaging failed to reveal it. As for slow dynamic process of tracer, an excretion process of hepatobiliary agent, was subjected to be analyzed in order to calculate clearance rate at each pixel. As for steady state process, an ECT of regional celebral blood flow (rCBF) was investigated during continuous infusion into intracarotid artery. All of these technique were proved to have a clinical feasibility and to potentiate usefulness of the single photon ECT (SPECT)

  13. Production strategies and applications of microbial single cell oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Ochsenreither

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs of the -3 and -6 class (e.g. -linolenic acid, linoleic acid are essential for maintaining biofunctions in mammalians like humans. Due to the fact that humans cannot synthesize these essential fatty acids, they must be taken up from different food sources. Classical sources for these fatty acids are porcine liver and fish oil. However, microbial lipids or single cell oils, produced by oleaginous microorganisms such as algae, fungi and bacteria, are a promising source as well. These single cell oils can be used for many valuable chemicals with applications not only for nutrition but also for fuels and are therefore an ideal basis for a bio-based economy. A crucial point for the establishment of microbial lipids utilization is the cost-effective production and purification of fuels or products of higher value. The fermentative production can be realized by submerged (SmF or solid state fermentation (SSF. The yield and the composition of the obtained microbial lipids depend on the type of fermentation and the particular conditions (e.g. medium, pH-value, temperature, aeration, nitrogen source. From an economical point of view, waste or by-product streams can be used as cheap and renewable carbon and nitrogen sources. In general, downstream processing costs are one of the major obstacles to be solved for full economic efficiency of microbial lipids. For the extraction of lipids from microbial biomass cell disruption is most important, because efficiency of cell disruption directly influences subsequent downstream operations and overall extraction efficiencies. A multitude of cell disruption and lipid extraction methods are available, conventional as well as newly emerging methods, which will be described and discussed in terms of large scale applicability, their potential in a modern biorefinery and their influence on product quality. Furthermore, an overview is given about applications of microbial lipids

  14. Production Strategies and Applications of Microbial Single Cell Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsenreither, Katrin; Glück, Claudia; Stressler, Timo; Fischer, Lutz; Syldatk, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of the ω-3 and ω-6 class (e.g., α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid) are essential for maintaining biofunctions in mammalians like humans. Due to the fact that humans cannot synthesize these essential fatty acids, they must be taken up from different food sources. Classical sources for these fatty acids are porcine liver and fish oil. However, microbial lipids or single cell oils, produced by oleaginous microorganisms such as algae, fungi and bacteria, are a promising source as well. These single cell oils can be used for many valuable chemicals with applications not only for nutrition but also for fuels and are therefore an ideal basis for a bio-based economy. A crucial point for the establishment of microbial lipids utilization is the cost-effective production and purification of fuels or products of higher value. The fermentative production can be realized by submerged (SmF) or solid state fermentation (SSF). The yield and the composition of the obtained microbial lipids depend on the type of fermentation and the particular conditions (e.g., medium, pH-value, temperature, aeration, nitrogen source). From an economical point of view, waste or by-product streams can be used as cheap and renewable carbon and nitrogen sources. In general, downstream processing costs are one of the major obstacles to be solved for full economic efficiency of microbial lipids. For the extraction of lipids from microbial biomass cell disruption is most important, because efficiency of cell disruption directly influences subsequent downstream operations and overall extraction efficiencies. A multitude of cell disruption and lipid extraction methods are available, conventional as well as newly emerging methods, which will be described and discussed in terms of large scale applicability, their potential in a modern biorefinery and their influence on product quality. Furthermore, an overview is given about applications of microbial lipids or derived fatty

  15. Optical Characterization and Applications of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Michael S.

    2005-03-01

    Recent advances in the dispersion and separation of single walled carbon nanotubes have led to new methods of optical characterization and some novel applications. We find that Raman spectroscopy can be used to probe the aggregation state of single-walled carbon nanotubes in solution or as solids with a range of varying morphologies. Carbon nanotubes experience an orthogonal electronic dispersion when in electrical contact that broadens (from 40 meV to roughly 80 meV) and shifts the interband transition to lower energy (by 60 meV). We show that the magnitude of this shift is dependent on the extent of bundle organization and the inter-nanotube contact area. In the Raman spectrum, aggregation shifts the effective excitation profile and causes peaks to increase or decrease, depending on where the transition lies, relative to the excitation wavelength. The findings are particularly relevant for evaluating nanotube separation processes, where relative peak changes in the Raman spectrum can be confused for selective enrichment. We have also used gel electrophoresis and column chromatography conducted on individually dispersed, ultrasonicated single-walled carbon nanotubes to yield simultaneous separation by tube length and diameter. Electroelution after electrophoresis is shown to produce highly resolved fractions of nanotubes with average lengths between 92 and 435 nm. Separation by diameter is concomitant with length fractionation, and nanotubes that have been cut shortest also possess the greatest relative enrichments of large-diameter species. The relative quantum yield decreases nonlinearly as the nanotube length becomes shorter. These findings enable new applications of nanotubes as sensors and biomarkers. Particularly, molecular detection using near infrared (n-IR) light between 0.9 and 1.3 eV has important biomedical applications because of greater tissue penetration and reduced auto-fluorescent background in thick tissue or whole blood media. Carbon nanotubes

  16. Some Physics and Applications for DNA Transport Through Single Nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasianowicz, J. J.

    2002-03-01

    In an effort to understand macromolecular transport in living systems, we are studying the ability of a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) to thread through single nanometer-scale pores. Some six years ago it was shown that an applied electrostatic potential can drive individual negatively charged molecules of ssDNA through a single Staphylococcus aureus a-hemolysin (aHL) protein ionic channel(Kasianowicz, J.J., et al. 1996. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 93, 13770). We also demonstrated that the mean rate at which polynucleotides enter this pore depends on the magnitude of the applied potential and the side through which the polymer enters. Although the flux of polynucleotides into the pore can be described by a simple Van't-Hoff rate law(Henrickson, S.E., et al. 2000. Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3057), detailed models provide more physical insight into both this process and polymer translocation(Konkoli, Z., et al. submitted)/footnoteAmbjörnsson, T., et al. submitted. We show that modified polynucleotides can be used to probe the structure of channels formed by native aHL and modified aHL mutants(Henrickson, et al., submitted). These experimental results suggest that both the location of energy barriers to polymer transport and the channel's geometric properties can be determined. We discuss several potential biotechnological applications based on these findings(Kasianowicz, J.J. et al., Anal. Chem. 73, 2268)(Stanford, V. and J.J. Kasianowicz, submitted.)

  17. Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors: physics and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, Chandra M; Tanner, Michael G; Hadfield, Robert H

    2012-01-01

    Single-photon detectors based on superconducting nanowires (SSPDs or SNSPDs) have rapidly emerged as a highly promising photon-counting technology for infrared wavelengths. These devices offer high efficiency, low dark counts and excellent timing resolution. In this review, we consider the basic SNSPD operating principle and models of device behaviour. We give an overview of the evolution of SNSPD device design and the improvements in performance which have been achieved. We also evaluate device limitations and noise mechanisms. We survey practical refrigeration technologies and optical coupling schemes for SNSPDs. Finally we summarize promising application areas, ranging from quantum cryptography to remote sensing. Our goal is to capture a detailed snapshot of an emerging superconducting detector technology on the threshold of maturity. (topical review)

  18. Super-resolution from single photon emission: toward biological application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreva, E.; Traina, P.; Forneris, J.; Ditalia Tchernij, S.; Guarina, L.; Franchino, C.; Picollo, F.; Ruo Berchera, I.; Brida, G.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Carabelli, V.; Olivero, P.; Genovese, M.

    2017-08-01

    Properties of quantum light represent a tool for overcoming limits of classical optics. Several experiments have demonstrated this advantage ranging from quantum enhanced imaging to quantum illumination. In this work, experimental demonstration of quantum-enhanced resolution in confocal fluorescence microscopy will be presented. This is achieved by exploiting the non-classical photon statistics of fluorescence emission of single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond. By developing a general model of super-resolution based on the direct sampling of the kth-order autocorrelation function of the photoluminescence signal, we show the possibility to resolve, in principle, arbitrarily close emitting centers. Finally, possible applications of NV-based fluorescent nanodiamonds in biosensing and future developments will be presented.

  19. Mitigating radiation damage of single photon detectors for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anisimova, Elena; Higgins, Brendon L.; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Cranmer, Miles [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Choi, Eric [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Magellan Aerospace, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Hudson, Danya; Piche, Louis P.; Scott, Alan [Honeywell Aerospace (formerly COM DEV Ltd.), Ottawa, ON (Canada); Makarov, Vadim [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Jennewein, Thomas [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Quantum Information Science Program, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2017-12-15

    Single-photon detectors in space must retain useful performance characteristics despite being bombarded with sub-atomic particles. Mitigating the effects of this space radiation is vital to enabling new space applications which require high-fidelity single-photon detection. To this end, we conducted proton radiation tests of various models of avalanche photodiodes (APDs) and one model of photomultiplier tube potentially suitable for satellite-based quantum communications. The samples were irradiated with 106 MeV protons at doses approximately equivalent to lifetimes of 0.6, 6, 12 and 24 months in a low-Earth polar orbit. Although most detection properties were preserved, including efficiency, timing jitter and afterpulsing probability, all APD samples demonstrated significant increases in dark count rate (DCR) due to radiation-induced damage, many orders of magnitude higher than the 200 counts per second (cps) required for ground-to-satellite quantum communications. We then successfully demonstrated the mitigation of this DCR degradation through the use of deep cooling, to as low as -86 C. This achieved DCR below the required 200 cps over the 24 months orbit duration. DCR was further reduced by thermal annealing at temperatures of +50 to +100 C. (orig.)

  20. TellTable: Collaborative Work Using Single User Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Nash

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Many work environments require collaborative writing and editing of documents in diverse formats. In simple cases, there is essentially one author who receives approvals and comments from others. In other cases, the document is genuinely collaboratively authored using asynchronous or synchronous methods. A common way to collaboratively edit a document is to exchange draft versions between authors via email. This method introduces the possibility of conflicting changes and missed contributions as well as a significant burden as all members of the team are responsible for version control. The principle difficulty is that independent changes can be made to different versions, which must later be reconciled manually. It is also difficult to determine when and why a change was made. This article introduces TellTable, an open source system designed to allow single-user software applications to be managed in a collaborative manner. We will discuss current collaboration models, the technical aspects of the TellTable software framework, security issues in its implementation, and tests of performance.

  1. Image Reference Database in Teleradiology: Migrating to WWW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqui, Valdo

    The paper presents a multimedia Image Reference Data Base (IRDB) used in Teleradiology. The application was developed at the University of Florence in the framework of the European Community TELEMED Project. TELEMED overall goals and IRDB requirements are outlined and the resulting architecture is described. IRDB is a multisite database containing radiological images, selected because their scientific interest, and their related information. The architecture consists of a set of IRDB Installations which are accessed from Viewing Stations (VS) located at different medical sites. The interaction between VS and IRDB Installations follows the client-server paradigm and uses an OSI level-7 protocol, named Telemed Communication Language. After reviewing Florence prototype implementation and experimentation, IRDB migration to World Wide Web (WWW) is discussed. A possible scenery to implement IRDB on the basis of WWW model is depicted in order to exploit WWW servers and browsers capabilities. Finally, the advantages of this conversion are outlined.

  2. Using WWW in SRRC Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. S.

    1997-05-01

    The SRRC (Synchrotron Radiation Research Center - in Taiwan) control system was originally implemented in DEC VMS and DEC OSF/1 UNIX systems. Other computer system in SRRC (e.g. SUN, SGI, and IBM PC ...) were not able to connect to the control system. On sequently a hardware and OS independent system is required. The SRRC light source WWW site (http://www-icg.srrc.gov.tw) is built for this propose. With a IBM comptable PC (Pentium-133) runing Microsoft WindowsNT 3.51 and Microsoft IIS 1.0, it supports an easy way to build a WWW server. The program connected to SRRC control system is written with JAVA language, using JAVA applets to support runtime interactive ablitity.Using WWW browser(such as Netscape Navagator 3.0 or Microsoft Explorer 3.0), it is possible to monitor and control every storage ring device. This paper will describe the detail of the hardware and softwarestructures.

  3. WWW-intensive concept mapping for metacognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, Slavi; Kommers, Piet

    2008-01-01

    Stoyanov, S., & Kommers, P. (2006). WWW-intensive concept mapping for metacognition in solving ill-structured problems. International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Lifelong Learning, 16(3/4), 297-316.

  4. PENYEBARAN INFORMASI MENGGUNAKAN WWW (WORLD WIDE WEB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Atman Satya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Media Informasi secara tradisional telah kita kenai dengan menggunakan koran, televisi, radio dan buku referensi. Media informasi tersebut untuk penyebarannya memerlukan penunjang agar informasi tersebut dapat disebarkan secara lutis. Selain penggunaan media tradisional tersebut penyebaran informasi dengan menggunakan jaringan komputer Internet juga berkembang. Salah satu cara penyebaran informasi dengan menggunakan aplikasi WWW (World Wide Web yang mempunyai kemampuan menggabungkan gambar, text dan suara secara interaktif. Pada tulisan ini akan dibahas tentang kemampuan, penggunaan dan pengembangan server WWW.

  5. Single versus multiple objective(s) decision making: an application ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Single objective approach is most widely used whereas consideration of multiple objectives is the rule rather than an exception in many real life decision-making circumstances. This paper, therefore, investigates whether or not single and multiple criteria/objective approaches necessarily lead to differing conclusions.

  6. Single-chip microcomputer application in nuclear radiation monitoring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Songshou

    1994-01-01

    The single-chip microcomputer has advantage in many respects i.e. multiple function, small size, low-power consumption,reliability etc. It is widely used now in industry, instrumentation, communication and machinery. The author introduced usage of single-chip microcomputer in nuclear radiation monitoring instruments for control, linear compensation, calculation, changeable parameter presetting and military training

  7. Synthesis, assembly, and applications of single-walled carbon nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Koungmin

    This dissertation presents the synthesis and assembly of aligned carbon nanotubes, and their applications in both nano-electronics such as transistor and integrated circuits and macro-electronics in energy conversion devices as transparent conducting electrodes. Also, the high performance chemical sensor using metal oxide nanowire has been demonstrated. Chapter 1 presents a brief introduction of carbon nanotube, followed by discussion of a new synthesis technique using nanosphere lithography to grow highly aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes atop quartz and sapphire substrates. This method offers great potential to produce carbon nanotube arrays with simultaneous control over the nanotube orientation, position, density, diameter and even chirality. Chapter 3 introduces the wafer-scale integration and assembly of aligned carbon nanotubes, including full-wafer scale synthesis and transfer of massively aligned carbon nanotube arrays, and nanotube device fabrication on 4 inch Si/SiO2 wafer to yield submicron channel transistors with high on-current density ˜ 20 muA/mum and good on/off ratio and CMOS integrated circuits. In addition, various chemical doping methods for n-type nanotube transistors are studied to fabricate CMOS integrated nanotube circuits such as inverter, NAND and NOR logic devices. Furthermore, defect-tolerant circuit design for NAND and NOR is proposed and demonstrated to guarantee the correct operation of logic circuit, regardless of the presence of mis-aligned or mis-positioned nanotubes. Carbon nanotube flexible electronics and smart textiles for ubiquitous computing and sensing are demonstrated in chapter 4. A facile transfer printing technique has been introduced to transfer massively aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes from the original sapphire/quartz substrates to virtually any other substrates, including glass, silicon, polymer sheets, and even fabrics. The characterization of transferred nanotubes reveals that the transferred

  8. Evaluation of Different Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Surface Coatings for Single-Particle Tracking Applications in Biological Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhenghong; Danné, Noémie; Godin, Antoine Guillaume; Lounis, Brahim; Cognet, Laurent

    2017-11-16

    Fluorescence imaging of biological systems down to the single-molecule level has generated many advances in cellular biology. For applications within intact tissue, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are emerging as distinctive single-molecule nanoprobes, due to their near-infrared photoluminescence properties. For this, SWCNT surfaces must be coated using adequate molecular moieties. Yet, the choice of the suspension agent is critical since it influences both the chemical and emission properties of the SWCNTs within their environment. Here, we compare the most commonly used surface coatings for encapsulating photoluminescent SWCNTs in the context of bio-imaging applications. To be applied as single-molecule nanoprobes, encapsulated nanotubes should display low cytotoxicity, and minimal unspecific interactions with cells while still being highly luminescent so as to be imaged and tracked down to the single nanotube level for long periods of time. We tested the cell proliferation and cellular viability of each surface coating and evaluated the impact of the biocompatible surface coatings on nanotube photoluminescence brightness. Our study establishes that phospholipid-polyethylene glycol-coated carbon nanotube is the best current choice for single nanotube tracking experiments in live biological samples.

  9. The New WWW: Whatever, Whenever, Wherever

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Tom

    2006-01-01

    We are entering an age of instant media gratification, in which a "multimedia aura" will "accompany us wherever we go," writes Tom March. The New WWW, says March, offers us whatever we want, whenever and wherever we want it. The effect on our children may be unrealistic expectations, premature disillusionment, and unhappiness. To counterbalance…

  10. Persuasive interface: Designing for the WWW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dormann, Claire

    1997-01-01

    The design of Web documents is approached from the perspective of visual rhetoric and important aspects of persuasive discourses (e.g. the role of emotion) are presented in connection with the World Wide Web (WWW). The origin of the rhetorical figures is first briefly outlined. Then, a few...

  11. Stable Luminescence of Single Quantum Emitters: Applications in Quantum Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naumov A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In our work, we demonstrate the advantages and drawbacks of the methods for generating nonclassical light using single luminescent molecules in solid matrices at cryogenic temperatures when excitation of zero-phonon spectral lines is possible. It is shown that for certain impurity-matrix systems it is possible to guarantee the following: single-photon generation at a rate of up to tens-hundreds MHz, allocation of an extremely narrow generation band (a few MHz, wavelength tuning over a wide range (tens of nanometers, generation of biphoton radiation, high photostability and absence of a stochastic spectral dynamics.

  12. Design of a single ion facility and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cholewa, M.; Saint, A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    The use of micro-irradiation techniques in radiobiology is not new; however, the current techniques take advantage of recent developments in particle delivery, focussing detection, image processing, cell recognition and computer control. These developments have generally come from other fields, for example microbeam elemental analysis techniques and single-event upset testing of semiconductor devices. Also in radiation biology there have been important advances in developments of individual cell assays, which allow a wide range of endpoints to be studied with good accuracy at low doses. Many of the studies that are planned involve following the responses of individual cells after a programmed exposure to charged-particle traversals. To probe the radiation sensitivity of a single cell and/or its constituents with a submicron resolution several developments are needed. The essential parameters of the proposed system can be summarised as follows: a focussed beam of ions of 300nm or less at the cell; a reliable (close to 100%) single ion detection; a fast beam switch to prevent second hits; a target holder adapted for the irradiation of wet cells and a fully automated system for cell recognition and single hits. 1 fig.

  13. Applications of a single carbon electrode | Skelskey | SINET ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A single carbon electrode used with a common arc welder has been successfully used on steel to weld, to surface harden, to spot weld sheet, to pierce holes and to do simple brazing. Key words/phrases: Arc, carbon, dry cell, plasma, welding. SINET: Ethiopian Journal of Science Vol.26(2) 2003: 173-176 ...

  14. Applications of a single carbon electrode | Skelskey | SINET ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. A single carbon electrode used with a common arc welder has been successfully used on steel to weld, to surface harden, to spot weld sheet, to pierce holes and to do simple brazing. Key words/phrases: Arc, carbon, dry cell, plasma, welding. SINET: Ethiopian Journal of Science Vol.26(2) 2003: 173-176 ...

  15. Application of mapped plots for single-owner forest surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Van Deusen; Francis Roesch

    2009-01-01

    Mapped plots are used for the nation forest inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service. Mapped plots are also useful foro single ownership inventoires. Mapped plots can handle boundary overlap and can aprovide less variable estimates for specified forest conditions. Mapping is a good fit for fixed plot inventories where the fixed area plot is used for both mapping...

  16. Using Kohonen networks for WWW document classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzinski, Filip; Gluszek, Adam; Kekez, Michal

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents flexible solutions to the clustering and classification of World Wide Web documents. The method proposed in this paper applies the self-organizing Kohonen network known also a self-organizing map (SOM) with two-layer architecture. In this architecture documents become mapped as points on the SOM, in a geometric order that describes the similarity of their contents. This network has been learned by means of unsupervised training technique. After learning process has been completed, the network visualizes semantic relationship between input documents as two-dimensional semantic map. This map is a retrieval interface for an online WWW documents classification system. In this paper, first, the main idea of solution based on SOM has been presented. Next, the operation of this method has been illustrated with the us of synthetic data set. Finally, this technique has been tested by means of real-life WWW documents set.

  17. Single-material Bragg reflectors and their applications in VCSELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee Ju; Ju, Gun Wu; Song, Yong Min; Lee, Yong Tak

    2018-01-01

    We present single-material distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) fabricated by oblique-angle deposition of amorphous silicon (a-Si). The high and low refractive indices of a-Si films were obtained at two incident vapour flux angles ( θ α) of 0° and 80° by determining the quarter-wavelength thicknesses of 67 nm at 0° and 128 nm at 80°. The fabricated single-material Bragg reflectors with only five pairs provide high reflectivity values of over 95%. The proposed DBRs were applied to intra-cavity contacted vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) to reduce fabrication costs and step. For the fabricated five pair a-Si/a-Si DBRs on VCSELs, the normalized stop bandwidth of 31.63% was measured while high reflectivity values over 95% were maintained over a wide wavelength range of 710 - 1020 nm. The fabricated VCSELs with D a = 7 μm obtained output power and threshold current, which are reasonable measured results.

  18. Properties, production and applications of camelid single-domain antibody fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, M.M.; Haard, de H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Camelids produce functional antibodies devoid of light chains of which the single N-terminal domain is fully capable of antigen binding. These single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs or Nanobodies®) have several advantages for biotechnological applications. They are well expressed in microorganisms

  19. Single water entropy: hydrophobic crossover and application to drug binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikala, Wilbee D; Mukherjee, Arnab

    2014-09-11

    Entropy of water plays an important role in both chemical and biological processes e.g. hydrophobic effect, molecular recognition etc. Here we use a new approach to calculate translational and rotational entropy of the individual water molecules around different hydrophobic and charged solutes. We show that for small hydrophobic solutes, the translational and rotational entropies of each water molecule increase as a function of its distance from the solute reaching finally to a constant bulk value. As the size of the solute increases (0.746 nm), the behavior of the translational entropy is opposite; water molecules closest to the solute have higher entropy that reduces with distance from the solute. This indicates that there is a crossover in translational entropy of water molecules around hydrophobic solutes from negative to positive values as the size of the solute is increased. Rotational entropy of water molecules around hydrophobic solutes for all sizes increases with distance from the solute, indicating the absence of crossover in rotational entropy. This makes the crossover in total entropy (translation + rotation) of water molecule happen at much larger size (>1.5 nm) for hydrophobic solutes. Translational entropy of single water molecule scales logarithmically (Str(QH) = C + kB ln V), with the volume V obtained from the ellipsoid of inertia. We further discuss the origin of higher entropy of water around water and show the possibility of recovering the entropy loss of some hypothetical solutes. The results obtained are helpful to understand water entropy behavior around various hydrophobic and charged environments within biomolecules. Finally, we show how our approach can be used to calculate the entropy of the individual water molecules in a protein cavity that may be replaced during ligand binding.

  20. Medical volume rendering over the WWW using VRML and JAVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendin, O; John, N W; Shochet, O

    1998-01-01

    The rapid growth of the World Wide Web (WWW) enables access to huge amounts of data and applications. The diversity of data-structures and applications has led to the concept of network computing where the data is encapsulated within the application. The end-user does not have to worry about tools for data manipulation as they are bundled together with the data itself. However, the user usually has to pay a price in the form of degraded performance. While JAVA is gradually taking its place as the network cross platform programming language, it is clear that it currently does not support high-performance visualization. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that high performance volume rendering, traditionally reserved for high-end visual computing, can now be made widely available in a cross-platform fashion using VRML and JAVA.

  1. Migrating Multi-page Web Applications to Single-page AJAX Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesbah, A.; Van Deursen, A.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, a new web development technique for creating interactive web applications, dubbed AJAX, has emerged. In this new model, the single-page web interface is composed of individual components which can be updated/replaced independently. With the rise of AJAX web applications classical

  2. Two-step versus Single Application of Mitomycin-C in Photorefractive Keratectomy for High Myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Fazel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the long-term outcomes of two-step versus single application of mitomycin-C (MMC during photorefractive keratectomy (PRK for high myopia. Methods: This randomized clinical trial included consecutive patients with high myopia (exceeding 7 D. Patients underwent PRK and were randomized to two methods of MMC 0.02% application as follows: in the single application group, MMC was applied for 45 seconds followed by irrigation; in the two-step group MMC was used identically followed by repeat application for another 15 seconds and corneal surface irrigation. Visual acuity, refractive error, pachymetry, topography, corneal haze and complications were compared between the two groups 18 months after surgery. Results: One hundred and forty patients (70 subjects in either study arm underwent PRK according to the study protocol. Mean spherical equivalent refractive error was significantly reduced from baseline to -1.16΁0.39 D in the single application group and to -1.07΁0.39 D in the two-step group. Sixteen (11.5% versus 8 (5.7% eyes lost one or more line(s of best corrected visual acuity in the single application group as compared to the two-step group (P=0.05. Corneal haze was observed in 18 (12.9% and 8 (5.7% eyes in the single application versus two-step group, respectively (P=0.04. Grade 3 corneal haze was not observed in the two-step group but occurred in five eyes (3.6% in the single application group (P=0.03. No eyes developed corneal ectasia during the follow-up period. Conclusion: Two-step intraoperative application of MMC 0.02% in highly myopic eyes undergoing PRK can reduce the frequency and severity of haze formation.

  3. PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF THE SINGLE-PARAMETER SUBCRITICAL MASS LIMIT FOR PLUTONIUM METAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MITCHELL, MARK VON [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-10

    According to ANS-8.1, operations with fissile materials can be performed safely by complying with any of the listed single-parameter subcritical limits. For metallic units, when interspersed moderators are present, the mass limits apply to a single piece having no concave surfaces. On a practical level, when has any operation with fissile metal involved a single piece and absolutely no moderating material, e.g., water, oil, plastic, etc.? This would be rare. This paper explores the application of the single-parameter plutonium metal mass limit for realistic operational environments.

  4. Pro single page application development using Backbone.js and ASP.NET

    CERN Document Server

    Fink, Gil

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important and exciting trends in web development in recent years is the move towards single page applications, or SPAs. Instead of clicking through hyperlinks and waiting for each page to load, the user loads a site once and all the interactivity is handled fluidly by a rich JavaScript front end. If you come from a background in ASP.NET development, you'll be used to handling most interactions on the server side. Pro Single Page Application Development will guide you through your transition to this powerful new application type.The book starts in Part I by laying the groundwork

  5. The application of single particle hydrodynamics in continuum models of multiphase flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Rand

    1988-01-01

    A review of the application of single particle hydrodynamics in models for the exchange of interphase momentum in continuum models of multiphase flow is presented. Considered are the equations of motion for a laminar, mechanical two phase flow. Inherent to this theory is a model for the interphase exchange of momentum due to drag between the dispersed particulate and continuous fluid phases. In addition, applications of two phase flow theory to de-mixing flows require the modeling of interphase momentum exchange due to lift forces. The applications of single particle analysis in deriving models for drag and lift are examined.

  6. Developing Dynamic Single Page Web Applications Using Meteor : Comparing JavaScript Frameworks: Blaze and React

    OpenAIRE

    Yetayeh, Asabeneh

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies Meteor which is a JavaScript full-stack framework to develop interactive single page web applications. Meteor allows building web applications entirely in JavaScript. Meteor uses Blaze, React or AngularJS as a view layer and Node.js and MongoDB as a back-end. The main purpose of this study is to compare the performance of Blaze and React. A multi-user Blaze and React web applications with similar HTML and CSS were developed. Both applications were deployed on Heroku’s w...

  7. SEO analýza www serveru

    OpenAIRE

    Čepelák, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Práce informuje o možných metodách a pravidlech, které lze použít k optimalizaci www serveru pro vyhledávače - SEO (Search Engine Optimization). Tato pravidla jsou teoreticky vysvětlena a demonstrována na jednoduchých ukázkových příkladech. Vysvětluje důležitost správné volby a použití klíčových slov na vhodném místě stránky, jednotlivých HTML značek a vhodného odkazování. Popisuje důležité nepovolené praktiky, které jsou ze strany vyhledávačů penalizovány a komplikují celkový výsledek optima...

  8. Numerical Analysis of Hydrodynamic Flow in Microfluidic Biochip for Single-Cell Trapping Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Ahmad Khalili

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Single-cell analysis has become the interest of a wide range of biological and biomedical engineering research. It could provide precise information on individual cells, leading to important knowledge regarding human diseases. To perform single-cell analysis, it is crucial to isolate the individual cells before further manipulation is carried out. Recently, microfluidic biochips have been widely used for cell trapping and single cell analysis, such as mechanical and electrical detection. This work focuses on developing a finite element simulation model of single-cell trapping system for any types of cells or particles based on the hydrodynamic flow resistance (Rh manipulations in the main channel and trap channel to achieve successful trapping. Analysis is carried out using finite element ABAQUS-FEA™ software. A guideline to design and optimize single-cell trapping model is proposed and the example of a thorough optimization analysis is carried out using a yeast cell model. The results show the finite element model is able to trap a single cell inside the fluidic environment. Fluid’s velocity profile and streamline plots for successful and unsuccessful single yeast cell trapping are presented according to the hydrodynamic concept. The single-cell trapping model can be a significant important guideline in designing a new chip for biomedical applications.

  9. Impact of single and repeated applications of the insecticide chlorpyrifos on tropical freshwater plankton communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daam, M.A.; Brink, van den P.J.; Nogueira, A.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of a single and a repeated application of the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos on zooplankton and phytoplankton communities in outdoor microcosms in Thailand. Treatment levels of 1 mu g L-1 were applied once or twice with a 2-week interval. Both treatments

  10. High Performance Relaxor-Based Ferroelectric Single Crystals for Ultrasonic Transducer Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT have drawn much attention in the ferroelectric field because of their excellent piezoelectric properties and high electromechanical coupling coefficients (d33~2000 pC/N, kt~60% near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB. Ternary Pb(In1/2Nb1/2O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT single crystals also possess outstanding performance comparable with PMN-PT single crystals, but have higher phase transition temperatures (rhombohedral to tetragonal Trt, and tetragonal to cubic Tc and larger coercive field Ec. Therefore, these relaxor-based single crystals have been extensively employed for ultrasonic transducer applications. In this paper, an overview of our work and perspectives on using PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT single crystals for ultrasonic transducer applications is presented. Various types of single-element ultrasonic transducers, including endoscopic transducers, intravascular transducers, high-frequency and high-temperature transducers fabricated using the PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT crystals and their 2-2 and 1-3 composites are reported. Besides, the fabrication and characterization of the array transducers, such as phased array, cylindrical shaped linear array, high-temperature linear array, radial endoscopic array, and annular array, are also addressed.

  11. Single step synthesis, characterization and applications of curcumin functionalized iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhandari, Rohit; Gupta, Prachi; Dziubla, Thomas; Hilt, J. Zach, E-mail: zach.hilt@uky.edu

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have been well known for their applications in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hyperthermia, targeted drug delivery, etc. The surface modification of these magnetic nanoparticles has been explored extensively to achieve functionalized materials with potential application in biomedical, environmental and catalysis field. Herein, we report a novel and versatile single step methodology for developing curcumin functionalized magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles without any additional linkers, using a simple coprecipitation technique. The magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The developed MNPs were employed in a cellular application for protection against an inflammatory agent, a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) molecule. - Graphical abstract: Novel single step curcumin coated magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles without any additional linkers for medical, environmental, and other applications. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A novel and versatile single step methodology for developing curcumin functionalized magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles is reported. • The magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were characterized using TEM, XRD, FTIR and TGA. • The developed MNPs were employed in a cellular application for protection against an inflammatory agent, a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB).

  12. Gradient echo single scan inversion recovery: application to proton and fluorine relaxation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuluri, KowsalyaDevi; Ramanathan, K V

    2016-02-01

    Single scan longitudinal relaxation measurement experiments enable rapid estimation of the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1 ) as the time series of spin relaxation is encoded spatially in the sample at different slices resulting in an order of magnitude saving in time. We consider here a single scan inversion recovery pulse sequence that incorporates a gradient echo sequence. The proposed pulse sequence provides spectra with significantly enhanced signal to noise ratio leading to an accurate estimation of T1 values. The method is applicable for measuring a range of T1 values, thus indicating the possibility of routine use of the method for several systems. A comparative study of different single scan methods currently available is presented, and the advantage of the proposed sequence is highlighted. The possibility of the use of the method for the study of cross-correlation effects for the case of fluorine in a single shot is also demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Essentials of single-cell analysis concepts, applications and future prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Santra, Tuhin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview of single-cell isolation, separation, injection, lysis and dynamics analysis as well as a study of their heterogeneity using different miniaturized devices. As an important part of single-cell analysis, different techniques including electroporation, microinjection, optical trapping, optoporation, rapid electrokinetic patterning and optoelectronic tweezers are described in detail. It presents different fluidic systems (e.g. continuous micro/nano-fluidic devices, microfluidic cytometry) and their integration with sensor technology, optical and hydrodynamic stretchers etc., and demonstrates the applications of single-cell analysis in systems biology, proteomics, genomics, epigenomics, cancer transcriptomics, metabolomics, biomedicine and drug delivery systems. It also discusses the future challenges for single-cell analysis, including the advantages and limitations. This book is enjoyable reading material while at the same time providing essential information to scientists in acad...

  14. Single-Stranded DNA Aptamers against Pathogens and Toxins: Identification and Biosensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ka Lok

    2015-01-01

    Molecular recognition elements (MREs) can be short sequences of single-stranded DNA, RNA, small peptides, or antibody fragments. They can bind to user-defined targets with high affinity and specificity. There has been an increasing interest in the identification and application of nucleic acid molecular recognition elements, commonly known as aptamers, since they were first described in 1990 by the Gold and Szostak laboratories. A large number of target specific nucleic acids MREs and their applications are currently in the literature. This review first describes the general methodologies used in identifying single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) aptamers. It then summarizes advancements in the identification and biosensing application of ssDNA aptamers specific for bacteria, viruses, their associated molecules, and selected chemical toxins. Lastly, an overview of the basic principles of ssDNA aptamer-based biosensors is discussed. PMID:26199940

  15. Results of the CEO Project - WWW Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazewinkel, Harrie; van Hengstum, Eric; Pras, Aiko

    1996-01-01

    This report contains the result of a ‘proof of concept’ study that was performed by the CTIT of the University of Twente, together with ESYS Limited (Guildford, UK) for the Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the EC (Ispra, Italy). The study is part of the

  16. Electrostatic melting in a single-molecule field-effect transistor with applications in genomic identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernick, Sefi; Trocchia, Scott M.; Warren, Steven B.; Young, Erik F.; Bouilly, Delphine; Gonzalez, Ruben L.; Nuckolls, Colin; Shepard, Kenneth L.

    2017-05-01

    The study of biomolecular interactions at the single-molecule level holds great potential for both basic science and biotechnology applications. Single-molecule studies often rely on fluorescence-based reporting, with signal levels limited by photon emission from single optical reporters. The point-functionalized carbon nanotube transistor, known as the single-molecule field-effect transistor, is a bioelectronics alternative based on intrinsic molecular charge that offers significantly higher signal levels for detection. Such devices are effective for characterizing DNA hybridization kinetics and thermodynamics and enabling emerging applications in genomic identification. In this work, we show that hybridization kinetics can be directly controlled by electrostatic bias applied between the device and the surrounding electrolyte. We perform the first single-molecule experiments demonstrating the use of electrostatics to control molecular binding. Using bias as a proxy for temperature, we demonstrate the feasibility of detecting various concentrations of 20-nt target sequences from the Ebolavirus nucleoprotein gene in a constant-temperature environment.

  17. The single-sink fixed-charge transportation problem: Applications and solution methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goertz, Simon; Klose, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    The single-sink fixed-charge transportation problem (SSFCTP) consists in finding a minimum cost flow from a number of supplier nodes to a single demand node. Shipping costs comprise costs proportional to the amount shipped as well as a fixed-charge. Although the SSFCTP is an important special case...... of the well-known fixed-charge transportation problem, just a few methods for solving this problem have been proposed in the literature. After summarising some applications of this problem arising in manufacturing and transportation, we give an overview on approximation algorithms and worst-case results....... Finally, we briefly compare some exact solution algorithms for this problem....

  18. An Open-Loop Grid Synchronization Approach for Single-Phase Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2018-01-01

    in the presence of frequency drifts. This is particularly true in single-phase applications, where the lack of multiple independent input signals makes the implementation of the synchronization technique difficult. The aim of this paper is to develop an effective OLS technique for single-phase power and energy...... applications. The proposed OLS method benefits from a straightforward implementation, a fast dynamic response (a response time less than two cycles of the nominal frequency), and a complete immunity against the DC component in the grid voltage. In addition, the designed OLS method totally blocks (significantly...... attenuates) all harmonics up to the aliasing point under a nominal (off-nominal) frequency. The effectiveness of the designed OLS technique is verified using comparative experimental results....

  19. Evaluation of 600V Superjunction Devices in Single Phase PFC Applications under CCM Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Petersen, Lars Press; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper pr esents a power density/efficiency evaluation in single phase power factor correction (PFC) applications operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM). The comparison is based on semiconductor dynamic characterization and a mathematical model for prediction of the conducted electroma......This paper pr esents a power density/efficiency evaluation in single phase power factor correction (PFC) applications operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM). The comparison is based on semiconductor dynamic characterization and a mathematical model for prediction of the conducted...... electromagnetic interference (EMI). The dynamic characterization is based on a low inductive double pulse tester (DPT). The measured switching energy is used in order to evaluate the devices performance in a conventional PFC. This data is used together with the mathematical model for prediction of the conducted...... electromagnetic interference. The method allows comparing different devices and evaluating the performance as a function of the PFC power density and efficiency....

  20. Direct single to two/three phase power electronic conversion for AC traction applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrucky, B.; Pavlanin, R.; Pokorny, M. [Zilina Univ. (Slovakia). Faculty of Electrical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed single to 3-phase power electronic converters. Conversion rates were evaluated using a middle frequency transformer with matrix converters. The use of a matrix converter subsystem with a 2-phase orthogonal induction motor was compared with conventional drives as a means of reducing the number of converter power switching elements. The converter was a high voltage modular multilevel converter where the transformer was fed directly by the single phase converter system operating on an AC line voltage. The converter offered sinusoidal input and output harmonics, eliminated the need for a DC link circuit, and decreased the number of switching elements for converters in AC-AC drives. A power active filter was used to improve the harmonic content of the input and output currents. Simulations of the 2-phase matrix converter orthogonal driving concept indicated that the converter can be used to provide solutions for single phase electric traction applications. 21 refs., 15 figs.

  1. Single event effects and performance predictions for space applications of RISC processors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimbrough, J.R.; Colella, N.J.; Denton, S.M.; Shaeffer, D.L.; Shih, D.; Wilburn, J.W. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Coakley, P.G. (JAYCOR, San Diego, CA (United States)); Casteneda, C. (Crocker Nuclar Lab., Davis, CA (United States)); Koga, R. (Aerospace Corp., El Segundo, CA (United States)); Clark, D.A.; Ullmann, J.L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1994-12-01

    Proton and ion Single Event Phenomena (SEP) tests were performed on 32-b processors including R3000A's from all commercial manufacturers along with the Performance PR3400 family, Integrated Device Technology Inc. 79R3081, LSI Logic Corporation LR33000HC, and Intel i80960MX parts. The microprocessors had acceptable upset rates for operation in a low earth orbit or a lunar mission such as CLEMENTINE with a wide range in proton total dose failure. Even though R3000A devices are 60% smaller in physical area than R3000 devices, there was a 340% increase in device Single Event Upset (SEU) cross section. Software tests of varying complexity demonstrate that registers and other functional blocks using register architecture dominate the cross section. The current approach of giving a single upset cross section can lead to erroneous upset rates depending on the application software.

  2. Single application on iris localization technology in excimer laser for astigmatism

    OpenAIRE

    Jun-Hua Hao; Yan-Jun Ren; Xia Liu; Jie Guo; Ji Li; Ya-Juan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To discuss the single application on iris localization technology in excimer laser for the treatment of astigmatism. METHODS:Totally 203 cases(406 eyes)of laser in situ keratomileusis(LASIK)in the treatment of compound myopic astigmatism patients were operated from November 2011 to November 2012 in our hospital. They were divided into two groups. One was observation group using iris localization and the other was control group using routine operation. Patients in the observation group of ...

  3. NONLINEAR SYSTEM MODELING USING SINGLE NEURON CASCADED NEURAL NETWORK FOR REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Himavathi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Neural Networks (NN have proved its efficacy for nonlinear system modeling. NN based controllers and estimators for nonlinear systems provide promising alternatives to the conventional counterpart. However, NN models have to meet the stringent requirements on execution time for its effective use in real time applications. This requires the NN model to be structurally compact and computationally less complex. In this paper a parametric method of analysis is adopted to determine the compact and faster NN model among various neural network architectures. This work proves through analysis and examples that the Single Neuron Cascaded (SNC architecture is distinct in providing compact and simpler models requiring lower execution time. The unique structural growth of SNC architecture enables automation in design. The SNC Network is shown to combine the advantages of both single and multilayer neural network architectures. Extensive analysis on selected architectures and their models for four benchmark nonlinear theoretical plants and a practical application are tested. A performance comparison of the NN models is presented to demonstrate the superiority of the single neuron cascaded architecture for online real time applications.

  4. CERN Building and Map Interface via WWW on the Palm

    CERN Document Server

    Dönszelmann, M

    2000-01-01

    The buildings at CERN are chrono-chaotically numbered. They are therefore sometimes hard to find without a map and index. A WWW browser can be used to retrieve the location of a building by name or number. A set of electronic maps containing the Meyrin, Prevessin, LEP and SPS sites are available in PostScript format. These maps are used to build a database of the locations of the buildings which together with the maps are accessed by some CGI scripts to provide the browser with a set of GIF bitmap images. These images show the full CERN site, the site of the building and an enlargement of the exact location of the building. A click on the image can show any location at CERN or change the enlargement factor. A Palm application can be used to access the same maps. In this application the maps are stored on the Palm and are drawn on request in real time. The user is thus able to lookup buildings and to interactively scale and translate the resulting picture. The limited memory and CPU resources which are availab...

  5. Processing of complex shapes with single-mode resonant frequency microwave applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellows, L.A.; Delgado, R.; Hawley, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    Microwave processing is an alternative to conventional composite processing techniques. Single-mode microwave applicators efficiently couple microwave energy into the composite. The application of the microwave energy is greatly affected by the geometry of the composite. In the single mode microwave applicator, two types of modes are available. These modes are best suited to processing flat planar samples or cylindrical samples with geometries that align with the electric fields. Mode-switching is alternating between different electromagnetic modes with the intelligent selection of the modes to alleviate undesirable temperature profiles. This method has improved the microwave heating profiles of materials with complex shapes that do not align with either type of electric field. Parts with two different complex geometries were fabricated from a vinyl toluene/vinyl ester resin with a continuous glass fiber reinforcement by autoclaving and by microwave techniques. The flexural properties of the microwave processed samples were compared to the flexural properties of autoclaved samples. The trends of the mechanical properties for the complex shapes were consistent with the results of experiments with flat panels. This demonstrated that mode-switching techniques are as applicable for the complex shapes as they are for the simpler flat panel geometry

  6. Activity concentrations of 137Cs in meat of broiler chicken after single and continuous application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschl, M.; Balas, J.

    1998-01-01

    Previously we examined the transfer, distribution and half-live of radiocaesium in broiler chicken after the application of artificially contaminated feed mixture or wheat wheat contaminated from the Chernobyl accident. Our results pointed to a different dynamics of radiocaesium in breast meat compared to leg meat in the chicken after short-time application (3 oral applications in 1 day). The aim of the present study was to find if the results are similar also after single and repeated (long-time) applications of an artificially contaminated feed mixture. Two experiments were carried out with broiler chickens (White Leghorn hybrid, race ISA VEDETTE). In experiment 1, one artificially contaminated oral dose of 5160 Bq of 137 Cs (activity concentration 1664 Bq/g) was administered to 18-day-old chickens. In experiment 2, artificially contaminated oral doses of 500 Bq of 137 Cs (activity concentration 161.3 Bq/g) were administered to 14-day-old chickens twice a day (at 8:00 and 20:00 h.) for 10 days. In either experiment, four chickens were slaughtered for activity determination in meat (breast and leg muscles) 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 hours and 2, 4, 8, 10 days, respectively, after the first application of 137 Cs. The uptake of the single oral 137 Cs was rapid and the maximum 137 Cs activity concentrations were found in breast meat (0.783 Bq/g) 24 hours and in leg meat (1.005 Bq/g) 6 hours after 137 Cs application. From the 24th hour of the experiment, radiocaesium activity concentrations in breast and leg meat decreased with the biological half-life (T 1/2b ) of 84 and 66 hours, respectively. During a 10-day application of continuous doses of 137 Cs, the Cs activity concentrations increased and were 3.988 Bq/g in breast meat and 5.610 Bq/g in leg meat on day 2, and 7.427 Bq/g and 7.698 Bq/g, respectively, on day 10. Immediately after the administration of radiocaesium was stopped, the 137 Cs activity concentrations decreased rapidly with T 1/2b = 4.5 and 3.8 days in

  7. Percutaneous absorption of diclofenac in healthy volunteers after single and repeated topical application of diclofenac Emulgel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioufi, A; Pommier, F; Boschet, F; Godbillon, J; Lavoignat, D; Salliere, D

    1994-08-01

    The percutaneous absorption of diclofenac was studied in ten healthy volunteers treated with Emulgel containing 1.16% diclofenac diethylammonium for 8 d as follows: a single application of 5 g Emulgel on days 1 and 8, and two applications d-1 on days 2-7. Plasma concentration profiles of unchanged diclofenac and urinary concentrations of total diclofenac and metabolites (sum of free and conjugated) were determined. High inter-individual variations in plasma and urine data were recorded, due probably to the permeability and the hydration of the skin. Steady state was reached after 2 d of twice-daily administration. Plasma concentrations were low but remained in the range 10-50 nmol L-1 over the full day for most of the subjects, indicating prolonged absorption from the application site.

  8. Environmental influence on the usage of adhesive single lap joints in nuclear industry applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, Felipe do C.; Reis, João M.L. dos; Souza, João F.B. de; Costa, Gilberto T. de P.; Moura, Jorge C. de; Universidade Federal Fluminense; Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    2017-01-01

    Despite of some polymeric compounds vulnerability to different types of radiation, high polymer, as epoxy adhesives, had prospered in the nuclear industry because their mechanical properties to high doses of ionizing radiation is maintained. Because of this, epoxy adhesives are widely used in nuclear applications: nuclear power plants, aerospace components, radioactive sealed sources to medicine, radioactive waste immobilization. In the present work, the performance of a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol ether A (DGEBA) was analyzed. Tensile tests of adhesive single lap joints bonded with epoxy were performed. The environmental effect of ultraviolet (UV) exposure was observed in the mechanical reaction of PolyAnchor 4100 HT. In particular, maximum load decreases slightly in aggressive environment. It is possible to conclude the material is proper to use in internal and external areas, mainly due to the easy application when compared to welded joints with similar strength. The easy application reduces the workers exposure time to ionizing radiation. (author)

  9. Environmental influence on the usage of adhesive single lap joints in nuclear industry applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Felipe do C.; Reis, João M.L. dos; Souza, João F.B. de; Costa, Gilberto T. de P.; Moura, Jorge C. de, E-mail: felipe.amorim@cefet-rj.br, E-mail: jreis@id.uff.br, E-mail: joaofellipe@id.uff.br, E-mail: gilberto.costa@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jcmoura@cnen.gov.br [Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET-RJ), Itaguai, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica; Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Mecania Teorica e Aplicada; Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Divisão de Controle de Rejeitos e Transporte de Materiais Radioativos

    2017-07-01

    Despite of some polymeric compounds vulnerability to different types of radiation, high polymer, as epoxy adhesives, had prospered in the nuclear industry because their mechanical properties to high doses of ionizing radiation is maintained. Because of this, epoxy adhesives are widely used in nuclear applications: nuclear power plants, aerospace components, radioactive sealed sources to medicine, radioactive waste immobilization. In the present work, the performance of a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol ether A (DGEBA) was analyzed. Tensile tests of adhesive single lap joints bonded with epoxy were performed. The environmental effect of ultraviolet (UV) exposure was observed in the mechanical reaction of PolyAnchor 4100 HT. In particular, maximum load decreases slightly in aggressive environment. It is possible to conclude the material is proper to use in internal and external areas, mainly due to the easy application when compared to welded joints with similar strength. The easy application reduces the workers exposure time to ionizing radiation. (author)

  10. Effect of a single overnight topical application of miconazole nitrate paste on acne papules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flagothier, Caroline; Vroome, Valérie; Borgers, Marcel; Wang, Xuemin; Cauwenbergh, Geert; Piérard, Gérald E

    2006-03-01

    The classical management of acne calls for prolonged oral and/or topical treatments; however, some patients request a rapid effect to make the papules disappear within a few hours or days. To test the effect of a single overnight application of a paste containing 0.25% miconazole nitrate on acne papules, and comparison with the effect of the same but unmedicated paste. Narrow-band reflectance spectroscopy was used to assess the changes in E index (erythema) after overnight application of the pastes. In the first study, a total of 117 acne papules were assessed in 15 adolescents. Measurements of the E index were performed at 24-h intervals for 4 days on acne papules and the surrounding normal-looking skin. The last two assessments were performed the mornings preceding and following, respectively, a single application of the medicated paste. The second part of the study consisted of a double-blind, split-face study on 25 adolescents with acne. They applied each of the two formulations on a randomized part of the forehead. A total of 161 acne papules received the medicated paste and 160 received the same but unmedicated paste. Measurements were performed the mornings before and after the overnight treatment. In the first part of the study, no significant daily difference was observed between the three series of pretreatment E indices, on both acne papules and normal skin. The treatment did not affect the E index of normal skin. By contrast, it decreased significantly the E index of the acne papules. The second part of the study also showed that the medicated paste significantly decreased the E index of acne papules. This effect was significantly (P < 0.05) superior to that of the unmedicated paste. A single overnight application of miconazole nitrate paste appears to reduce the erythematous aspect of acne papules.

  11. [The principle and application of the single-molecule real-time sequencing technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanhu, Liu; Lu, Wang; Li, Yu

    2015-03-01

    Last decade witnessed the explosive development of the third-generation sequencing strategy, including single-molecule real-time sequencing (SMRT), true single-molecule sequencing (tSMSTM) and the single-molecule nanopore DNA sequencing. In this review, we summarize the principle, performance and application of the SMRT sequencing technology. Compared with the traditional Sanger method and the next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, the SMRT approach has several advantages, including long read length, high speed, PCR-free and the capability of direct detection of epigenetic modifications. However, the disadvantage of its low accuracy, most of which resulted from insertions and deletions, is also notable. So, the raw sequence data need to be corrected before assembly. Up to now, the SMRT is a good fit for applications in the de novo genomic sequencing and the high-quality assemblies of small genomes. In the future, it is expected to play an important role in epigenetics, transcriptomic sequencing, and assemblies of large genomes.

  12. Large scale fabrication of nitrogen vacancy-embedded diamond nanostructures for single-photon source applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qianqing; Li, Wuxia; Tang, Chengchun; Chang, Yanchun; Hao, Tingting; Pan, Xinyu; Ye, Haitao; Li, Junjie; Gu, Changzhi

    2016-11-01

    Some color centers in diamond can serve as quantum bits which can be manipulated with microwave pulses and read out with laser, even at room temperature. However, the photon collection efficiency of bulk diamond is greatly reduced by refraction at the diamond/air interface. To address this issue, we fabricated arrays of diamond nanostructures, differing in both diameter and top end shape, with HSQ and Cr as the etching mask materials, aiming toward large scale fabrication of single-photon sources with enhanced collection efficiency made of nitrogen vacancy (NV) embedded diamond. With a mixture of O2 and CHF3 gas plasma, diamond pillars with diameters down to 45 nm were obtained. The top end shape evolution has been represented with a simple model. The tests of size dependent single-photon properties confirmed an improved single-photon collection efficiency enhancement, larger than tenfold, and a mild decrease of decoherence time with decreasing pillar diameter was observed as expected. These results provide useful information for future applications of nanostructured diamond as a single-photon source. Project supported by the National Key Research and Development Plan of China (Grant No. 2016YFA0200402), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants Nos. 11574369, 11574368, 91323304, 11174362, and 51272278), and the FP7 Marie Curie Action (project No. 295208) sponsored by the European Commission.

  13. Application of the Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE) Assay to Genotoxicity Evaluation in Plants and Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu

    2007-10-15

    Application of the Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE) Assay to Genotoxicity Evaluation in Plants and Animals. Recently, the importance of ionizing radiation and chemicals has been recognized since radio- and chemical therapy is directly related to the control of various diseases such as cancer. Radiation and the chemicals can cause biological damages while they have great applicability. It is of necessity to analyze rapidly, easily and accurately the biological effects, especially DNA damage due to those factors. Recently SCGE (single cell gel electrophoresis assay, alias comet assay) has been developed for the efficient evaluation of DNA damage. In this report, the comprehensive review will be given on the rationale, the technical applications and the advantages and shortcomings of SCGE assay. This method can be directly applied to study on toxicity, cancer, and aging in terms of the evaluation of DNA damages due to radiation and chemicals on human cellular level. It is also suggested that comet assay be used for testing genotoxicity of suspected substances, detecting irradiated foods, screening radioprotective candidates, and studying DNA repair process in various biological systems.

  14. Bend-insensitive single-mode photonic crystal fiber with ultralarge effective area for dual applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Asiful; Alam, M. Shah

    2013-05-01

    A novel photonic crystal fiber (PCF) having circular arrangement of cladding air holes has been designed and numerically optimized to obtain a bend insensitive single mode fiber with large mode area for both wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) communication and fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) application. The bending loss of the proposed bent PCF lies in the range of 10-3 to 10-4 dB/turn or lower over 1300 to 1700 nm, and 2 × 10-4 dB/turn at the wavelength of 1550 nm for a 30-mm bend radius with a higher order mode (HOM) cut-off frequency below 1200 nm for WDM application. When the whole structure of the PCF is scaled down, a bending loss of 6.78×10-4 dB/turn at 1550 nm for a 4-mm bend radius is obtained, and the loss remains in the order of 10-4 dB/turn over the same range of wavelength with an HOM cut-off frequency below 700 nm, and makes the fiber useful for FTTH applications. Furthermore, this structure is also optimized to show a splice loss near zero for fusion-splicing to a conventional single-mode fiber (SMF).

  15. Microcontroller Based SPWM Single-Phase Inverter For Wind Power Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khin Ohmar Lin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper microcontroller based sinusoidal pulse width modulation SPWM single-phase inverter is emphasized to constant frequency conversion scheme for wind power application. The wind-power generator output voltage and frequency are fluctuated due to the variation of wind velocity. Therefore the AC output voltage of wind-generator is converted into DC voltage by using rectifier circuit and this DC voltage is converted back to AC voltage by using inverter circuit. SPWM technique is used in inverter to get nearly sine wave and reduce harmonic content. The rating of inverter is 500W single-phase 220V 50 Hz. The required SPWM timing pulses for the inverter are generated from the PIC16F877A microcontroller. Circuit simulation was done by using Proteus 7 Professional and MATLABR 2008 software. The software for microcontroller is implemented by using MPASM assembler.

  16. The single-collision thermalization approximation for application to cold neutron moderation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritenour, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The single collision thermalization (SCT) approximation models the thermalization process by assuming that neutrons attain a thermalized distribution with only a single collision within the moderating material, independent of the neutron's incident energy. The physical intuition on which this approximation is based is that the salient properties of neutron thermalization are accounted for in the first collision, and the effects of subsequent collisions tend to average out statistically. The independence of the neutron incident and outscattering energy leads to variable separability in the scattering kernel and, thus, significant simplification of the neutron thermalization problem. The approximation also addresses detailed balance and neutron conservation concerns. All of the tests performed on the SCT approximation yielded excellent results. The significance of the SCT approximation is that it greatly simplifies thermalization calculations for CNS design. Preliminary investigations with cases involving strong absorbers also indicates that this approximation may have broader applicability, as in the upgrading of the thermalization codes

  17. Coilable single crystal fibers of doped-YAG for high power laser applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Gisele; Soleimani, Nazila; Ponting, Bennett; Gebremichael, Eminet

    2013-05-01

    Single crystal fibers are an intermediate between laser crystals and doped glass fibers. They can combine the advantages of both by guiding laser light and matching the efficiencies found in bulk crystals, making them ideal candidates for high-power laser and fiber laser applications. In particular, a very interesting feature of single crystal fiber is that they can generate high power in the eye-safe range (Er:YAG) with a high efficiency, opening new possibilities for portable directed energy weapons. This work focuses on the growth of a flexible fiber with a core of dopant (Er, Nd, Yb, etc…) that will exhibit good waveguiding properties. Direct growth or a combination of growth and cladding experiments are described. We have, to date, demonstrated the growth of a flexible foot long 45 microns doped YAG fiber. Scattering loss measurements at visible wavelengths along with dopant profile characterization are also presented. Laser characterization for these fibers is in progress.

  18. An efficiency improved single-phase PFC converter for electric vehicle charger applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Dexuan; Tang, Yi; Jin, Chi

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an efficiency improved single-phase power factor correction (PFC) converter with its target application to plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging systems. The proposed PFC converter features sinusoidal input current, three-level output characteristic, and wide range...... of output DC voltage. Moreover, the involved DC/DC buck conversion stage may only need to convert partial input power rather than full scale of input power, and therefore the system overall efficiency can be much improved. Through proper control of the buck converter, it is also possible to mitigate...... the double-line frequency ripple power that is inherent in a single-phase AC/DC system. Both simulation and experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of this converter....

  19. Application of magnetic resonance force microscopy cyclic adiabatic inversion for a single-spin measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, G P; Chapline, G; Gurvitz, S A; Hammel, P C; Pelekhov, D V; Suter, A; Tsifrinovich, V I

    2003-01-01

    We consider the process of a single-spin measurement using magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) with a cyclic adiabatic inversion (CAI). This technique is also important for different applications, including a measurement of a qubit state in quantum computation. The measurement takes place through the interaction of a single spin with a cantilever modelled by a quantum oscillator in a coherent state in a quasi-classical range of parameters. The entire system is treated rigorously within the framework of the Schroedinger equation. For a many-spin system our equations accurately describe conventional MRFM experiments involving CAI of the spin system. Our computer simulations of the quantum spin-cantilever dynamics show that the probability distribution for the cantilever position develops two asymmetric peaks with the total relative probabilities mainly dependent on the initial angle between the directions of the average spin and the effective magnetic field, in the rotating frame. We show that each of th...

  20. Time domain spectral phase encoding/DPSK data modulation using single phase modulator for OCDMA application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Gao, Zhensen; Kataoka, Nobuyuki; Wada, Naoya

    2010-05-10

    A novel scheme using single phase modulator for simultaneous time domain spectral phase encoding (SPE) signal generation and DPSK data modulation is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Array- Waveguide-Grating and Variable-Bandwidth-Spectrum-Shaper based devices can be used for decoding the signal directly in spectral domain. The effects of fiber dispersion, light pulse width and timing error on the coding performance have been investigated by simulation and verified in experiment. In the experiment, SPE signal with 8-chip, 20GHz/chip optical code patterns has been generated and modulated with 2.5 Gbps DPSK data using single modulator. Transmission of the 2.5 Gbps data over 34km fiber with BEROCDMA) and secure optical communication applications. (c) 2010 Optical Society of America.

  1. Application of electron energy loss spectroscopy for single wall carbon nanotubes (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, N.; Jain, S.; Mittal, J.

    2015-01-01

    Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) is among the few techniques that are available for the characterization of modified single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) having nanometer dimensions (~1-3 nm). CNTs can be modified either by surface functionalization or coating, between bundles of nanotubes by doping, intercalation and fully or partially filling the central core. EELS is an exclusive technique for the identification, composition analysis, and crystallization studies of the chemicals and materials used for the modification of SWCNTs. The present paper serves as a compendium of research work on the application of EELS for the characterization of modified SWCNTs. (authors)

  2. Dual Feed, Single Element Antenna for WiMAX MIMO Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank M. Caimi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel u-shaped single element antenna having two feed ports is compared with two equal length monopoles separated by a distance equivalent to the width. A discussion of relative performance metrics is provided for MIMO applications, and measured data is given for comparison. Good impedance match and isolation of greater than −10 dB are observed over the operating bandwidth from 2.3 to 2.39 GHz. The antenna patterns are highly uncorrelated, as illustrated by computation of the antenna pattern correlation coefficient for the two comparison monopoles.

  3. Application of magnetic resonance force microscopy cyclic adiabatic inversion for a single-spin measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, G P; Borgonovi, F; Chapline, G; Gurvitz, S A; Hammel, P C; Pelekhov, D V; Suter, A; Tsifrinovich, V I

    2003-01-01

    We consider the process of a single-spin measurement using magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) with a cyclic adiabatic inversion (CAI). This technique is also important for different applications, including a measurement of a qubit state in quantum computation. The measurement takes place through the interaction of a single spin with a cantilever modelled by a quantum oscillator in a coherent state in a quasi-classical range of parameters. The entire system is treated rigorously within the framework of the Schroedinger equation. For a many-spin system our equations accurately describe conventional MRFM experiments involving CAI of the spin system. Our computer simulations of the quantum spin-cantilever dynamics show that the probability distribution for the cantilever position develops two asymmetric peaks with the total relative probabilities mainly dependent on the initial angle between the directions of the average spin and the effective magnetic field, in the rotating frame. We show that each of the peaks is correlated with the direction of the average spin (being along or opposite to the direction of the effective magnetic field). This generates two possible outcomes of a single-spin measurement, similar to the Stern-Gerlach effect. We demonstrate that the generation of the second peak can be significantly suppressed by turning on adiabatically the amplitude of the rf magnetic field. We also show that MRFM CAI can be used both for detecting a signal from a single spin, and for measuring the single-spin state by measuring the phase of the cantilever driving oscillations

  4. Synthesis of single-crystal-like nanoporous carbon membranes and their application in overall water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hong

    2017-01-04

    Nanoporous graphitic carbon membranes with defined chemical composition and pore architecture are novel nanomaterials that are actively pursued. Compared with easy-to-make porous carbon powders that dominate the porous carbon research and applications in energy generation/conversion and environmental remediation, porous carbon membranes are synthetically more challenging though rather appealing from an application perspective due to their structural integrity, interconnectivity and purity. Here we report a simple bottom–up approach to fabricate large-size, freestanding and porous carbon membranes that feature an unusual single-crystal-like graphitic order and hierarchical pore architecture plus favourable nitrogen doping. When loaded with cobalt nanoparticles, such carbon membranes serve as high-performance carbon-based non-noble metal electrocatalyst for overall water splitting.

  5. A Rotor Flux and Speed Observer for Sensorless Single-Phase Induction Motor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Caruso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is usual to find single-phase induction motor (SPIM in several house, office, shopping, farm, and industry applications, which are become each time more sophisticated and requiring the development of efficient alternatives to improve the operational performance of this machine. Although the rotor flux and rotational speed are essential variables in order to optimize the operation of a SPIM, the use of conventional sensors to measure them is not a viable option. Thus, the adoption of sensorless strategies is the more reasonable proposal for these cases. This paper presents a rotor flux and rotational speed observer for sensorless applications involving SPIMs. Computer simulations and the experimental results are used to verify the performance of the proposed observer.

  6. Single Event Effect cross section calibration and application to quasi-monoenergetic and spallation facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alía Rubén García

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an approach to calibrate Single Event Effect (SEE-based detectors in monoenergetic fields and apply the resulting semi-empiric responses to more general mixed-field cases in which a broad variety of particle species and energy spectra are present. The calibration of the response functions is based both on experimental proton (30–200 MeV and neutron (5–300 MeV data and considerations derived from Monte Carlo simulations using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The application environments include the quasi-monoenergetic neutrons at RCNP, the atmospheric-like VESUVIO spallation spectrum and the CHARM high-energy accelerator test facility. The agreement between the mixed-field response and that predicted through the mono-energetic calibration is within ±30% for the broad variety of cases considered and thus regarded as highly successful for mixed-field monitoring applications.

  7. Application of laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy techniques to the monitoring of single cell response to stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, James W.; Liu, Rui; Matthews, Dennis L.

    2012-06-01

    Laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) combines optical trapping with micro-Raman spectroscopy to enable label-free biochemical analysis of individual cells and small biological particles in suspension. The integration of the two technologies greatly simplifies the sample preparation and handling of suspension cells for spectroscopic analysis in physiologically meaningful conditions. In our group, LTRS has been used to study the effects of external perturbations, both chemical and mechanical, on the biochemistry of the cell. Single cell dynamics can be studied by performing longitudinal studies to continuously monitor the response of the cell as it interacts with its environment. The ability to carry out these measurements in-vitro makes LTRS an attractive tool for many biomedical applications. Here, we discuss the use of LTRS to study the response of cancer cells to chemotherapeutics and bacteria cells to antibiotics and show that the life cycle and apoptosis of the cells can be detected. These results show the promise of LTRS for drug discovery/screening, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and chemotherapy response monitoring applications. In separate experiments, we study the response of red blood cells to the mechanical forces imposed on the cell by the optical tweezers. A laser power dependent deoxygenation of the red blood cell in the single beam trap is reported. Normal, sickle cell, and fetal red blood cells have a different behavior that enables the discrimination of the cell types based on this mechanochemical response. These results show the potential utility of LTRS for diagnosing and studying red blood cell diseases.

  8. A Nonadaptive Window-Based PLL for Single-Phase Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2018-01-01

    The rectangular window filter, typically known as the moving average filter (MAF), is a quasi-ideal low-pass filter that has found wide application in designing advanced single-phase phase-locked loops (PLLs). Most often, the MAF is employed as an in-loop filter within the control loop of the sin......The rectangular window filter, typically known as the moving average filter (MAF), is a quasi-ideal low-pass filter that has found wide application in designing advanced single-phase phase-locked loops (PLLs). Most often, the MAF is employed as an in-loop filter within the control loop...... response is avoided. Nevertheless, the PLL implementation complexity considerably increases as MAFs are frequency-adaptive and, therefore, they require an additional frequency detector for estimating the grid frequency. To reduce the implementation complexity while maintaining a good performance, using...... a nonadaptive MAF-based QSG with some error compensators is suggested in this letter. The effectiveness of the resultant PLL, which is briefly called the nonadaptive MAF-based PLL, is verified using experimental results....

  9. Application of Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT) on Single V-Butt Weld Integrity Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amry Amin Abas; Mohd Kamal Shah Shamsudin; Norhazleena Azaman

    2015-01-01

    Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT) utilizes arrays of piezoelectric elements that are embedded in an epoxy base. The benefit of having such kind of array is that beam forming such as steering and focusing the beam front possible. This enables scanning patterns such as linear scan, sectorial scan and depth focusing scan to be performed. Ultrasonic phased array systems can potentially be employed in almost any test where conventional ultrasonic flaw detectors have traditionally been used. Weld inspection and crack detection are the most important applications, and these tests are done across a wide range of industries including aerospace, power generation, petrochemical, metal billet and tubular goods suppliers, pipeline construction and maintenance, structural metals, and general manufacturing. Phased arrays can also be effectively used to profile remaining wall thickness in corrosion survey applications. The benefits of PAUT are simplifying inspection of components of complex geometry, inspection of components with limited access, testing of welds with multiple angles from a single probe and increasing the probability of detection while improving signal-to-noise ratio. This paper compares the result of inspection on several specimens using PAUT as to digital radiography. The specimens are welded plates with single V-butt weld made of carbon steel. Digital radiography is done using blue imaging plate with x-ray source. PAUT is done using Olympus MX2 with 5 MHz probe consisting of 64 elements. The location, size and length of defect is compared. (author)

  10. New Method Developed To Purify Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebron, Marisabel; Meador, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    Single wall carbon nanotubes have attracted considerable attention because of their remarkable mechanical properties and electrical and thermal conductivities. Use of these materials as primary or secondary reinforcements in polymers or ceramics could lead to new materials with significantly enhanced mechanical strength and electrical and thermal conductivity. Use of carbon-nanotube-reinforced materials in aerospace components will enable substantial reductions in component weight and improvements in durability and safety. Potential applications for single wall carbon nanotubes include lightweight components for vehicle structures and propulsion systems, fuel cell components (bipolar plates and electrodes) and battery electrodes, and ultra-lightweight materials for use in solar sails. A major barrier to the successful use of carbon nanotubes in these components is the need for methods to economically produce pure carbon nanotubes in large enough quantities to not only evaluate their suitability for certain applications but also produce actual components. Most carbon nanotube synthesis methods, including the HiPCO (high pressure carbon monoxide) method developed by Smalley and others, employ metal catalysts that remain trapped in the final product. These catalyst impurities can affect nanotube properties and accelerate their decomposition. The development of techniques to remove most, if not all, of these impurities is essential to their successful use in practical applications. A new method has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to purify gram-scale quantities of single wall carbon nanotubes. This method, a modification of a gas phase purification technique previously reported by Smalley and others, uses a combination of high-temperature oxidations and repeated extractions with nitric and hydrochloric acid. This improved procedure significantly reduces the amount of impurities (catalyst and nonnanotube forms of carbon) within the nanotubes, increasing

  11. Single application on iris localization technology in excimer laser for astigmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hua Hao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To discuss the single application on iris localization technology in excimer laser for the treatment of astigmatism. METHODS:Totally 203 cases(406 eyesof laser in situ keratomileusis(LASIKin the treatment of compound myopic astigmatism patients were operated from November 2011 to November 2012 in our hospital. They were divided into two groups. One was observation group using iris localization and the other was control group using routine operation. Patients in the observation group of 100 cases(200 eyes, aged 18-43 years old, spherical diopter was -1.25 to -8.75D, astigmatism was -1.0 to -3.25D. In control group, 103 patients(206 eyes, aged 19-44 years old, spherical diopter was -1.75-9.50D, astigmatism was -1.0 to -3.25D. The patients in the observation group before the application of WaveScan aberrometer check for iris image, spherical lens, cylindrical lens and astigmatism axis data operation, only single application of iris location, without using wavefront aberration guided technology, laser cutting patterns for conventional LASIK model, spherical, cylindrical mirror and astigmatism axis data source to preoperative wavefront aberration results. The control group received routine LASIK. It was applicated comprehensive optometry optometry respectively to examine astigmatism and axial, based on the computer analysis during the preoperative, 1wk after the operation, and 6mo. Analysis of using SPSS 17 statistical software, it was independent-sample t test between the two groups of residual astigmatism and astigmatism axis. RESULTS:Postoperative residual astigmatism, the observation group was significantly better than the control group. Astigmatism axial measurement after operation, the observation group was significantly less than that of the control group. Postoperative visual acuity at 6mo, the observation group was better than that of the control group. The difference was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: For patients who cannot

  12. Initial experience with application of single layer modified Kugel mesh for inguinal hernia repair: Case series of 72 consecutive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Hwa Chen

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The postoperative complication and recurrence rates of single-layer MK mesh herniorrhaphy was comparable with previously reported tension-free repair. Single-layer application is safe and feasible. A longer follow-up period and larger study group with a control group are needed to verify our method.

  13. Single-molecule techniques in biophysics: a review of the progress in methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Helen; Zhou, Zhaokun; Shepherd, Jack; Wollman, Adam J M; Leake, Mark C

    2018-02-01

    Single-molecule biophysics has transformed our understanding of biology, but also of the physics of life. More exotic than simple soft matter, biomatter lives far from thermal equilibrium, covering multiple lengths from the nanoscale of single molecules to up to several orders of magnitude higher in cells, tissues and organisms. Biomolecules are often characterized by underlying instability: multiple metastable free energy states exist, separated by levels of just a few multiples of the thermal energy scale k B T, where k B is the Boltzmann constant and T absolute temperature, implying complex inter-conversion kinetics in the relatively hot, wet environment of active biological matter. A key benefit of single-molecule biophysics techniques is their ability to probe heterogeneity of free energy states across a molecular population, too challenging in general for conventional ensemble average approaches. Parallel developments in experimental and computational techniques have catalysed the birth of multiplexed, correlative techniques to tackle previously intractable biological questions. Experimentally, progress has been driven by improvements in sensitivity and speed of detectors, and the stability and efficiency of light sources, probes and microfluidics. We discuss the motivation and requirements for these recent experiments, including the underpinning mathematics. These methods are broadly divided into tools which detect molecules and those which manipulate them. For the former we discuss the progress of super-resolution microscopy, transformative for addressing many longstanding questions in the life sciences, and for the latter we include progress in 'force spectroscopy' techniques that mechanically perturb molecules. We also consider in silico progress of single-molecule computational physics, and how simulation and experimentation may be drawn together to give a more complete understanding. Increasingly, combinatorial techniques are now used, including

  14. Single-molecule techniques in biophysics: a review of the progress in methods and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Helen; Zhou, Zhaokun; Shepherd, Jack; Wollman, Adam J. M.; Leake, Mark C.

    2018-02-01

    Single-molecule biophysics has transformed our understanding of biology, but also of the physics of life. More exotic than simple soft matter, biomatter lives far from thermal equilibrium, covering multiple lengths from the nanoscale of single molecules to up to several orders of magnitude higher in cells, tissues and organisms. Biomolecules are often characterized by underlying instability: multiple metastable free energy states exist, separated by levels of just a few multiples of the thermal energy scale k B T, where k B is the Boltzmann constant and T absolute temperature, implying complex inter-conversion kinetics in the relatively hot, wet environment of active biological matter. A key benefit of single-molecule biophysics techniques is their ability to probe heterogeneity of free energy states across a molecular population, too challenging in general for conventional ensemble average approaches. Parallel developments in experimental and computational techniques have catalysed the birth of multiplexed, correlative techniques to tackle previously intractable biological questions. Experimentally, progress has been driven by improvements in sensitivity and speed of detectors, and the stability and efficiency of light sources, probes and microfluidics. We discuss the motivation and requirements for these recent experiments, including the underpinning mathematics. These methods are broadly divided into tools which detect molecules and those which manipulate them. For the former we discuss the progress of super-resolution microscopy, transformative for addressing many longstanding questions in the life sciences, and for the latter we include progress in ‘force spectroscopy’ techniques that mechanically perturb molecules. We also consider in silico progress of single-molecule computational physics, and how simulation and experimentation may be drawn together to give a more complete understanding. Increasingly, combinatorial techniques are now used, including

  15. Urease inhibitor (NBPT and efficiency of single or split application of urea in wheat crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Curitiba Espindula

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available NBPT (N-(n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide, a urease inhibitor, has been reported as one of the most promising compounds to maximize urea nitrogen use in agricultural systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of irrigated wheat fertilized with urea or urea + NBPT as single or split application. The experiment was conducted from June to October 2006 in Viçosa, MG, Brazil. The experimental design followed a 2×2 factorial scheme, in which urea or urea + NBPT were combined with two modes of application: full dose at sowing (60kg ha-1 or split (20kg ha-1 at sowing + 40kg ha-1 as topdressing at tillering, in randomized blocks with ten replications. The split application of nitrogen fertilization does not improve the yield wheat under used conditions. The use of urease inhibitor improves the grain yield of wheat crop when urea is applied in topdressing at tillering, but its use does not promote difference when urea is applied in the furrow at planting.

  16. Application of real-time single camera SLAM technology for image-guided targeting in neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yau-Zen; Hou, Jung-Fu; Tsao, Yi Hsiang; Lee, Shih-Tseng

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we propose an application of augmented reality technology for targeting tumors or anatomical structures inside the skull. The application is a combination of the technologies of MonoSLAM (Single Camera Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) and computer graphics. A stereo vision system is developed to construct geometric data of human face for registration with CT images. Reliability and accuracy of the application is enhanced by the use of fiduciary markers fixed to the skull. The MonoSLAM keeps track of the current location of the camera with respect to an augmented reality (AR) marker using the extended Kalman filter. The fiduciary markers provide reference when the AR marker is invisible to the camera. Relationship between the markers on the face and the augmented reality marker is obtained by a registration procedure by the stereo vision system and is updated on-line. A commercially available Android based tablet PC equipped with a 320×240 front-facing camera was used for implementation. The system is able to provide a live view of the patient overlaid by the solid models of tumors or anatomical structures, as well as the missing part of the tool inside the skull.

  17. Relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals: growth, domain engineering, characterization and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Enwei; Cao, Wenwu

    2014-01-01

    techniques, domain engineering concept, and full-matrix property characterization all the way to device innovations. It outlines a truly encouraging story in materials science in the modern era. All key references are provided and 30 complete sets of material parameters for different types of relaxor-PT single crystals are listed in the Appendix. It is the intension of this review article to serve as a resource for those who are interested in basic research and practical applications of these relaxor-PT single crystals. In addition, possible mechanisms of giant piezoelectric properties in these domain-engineered relaxor-PT systems will be discussed based on contributions from polarization rotation and charged domain walls. PMID:25061239

  18. Development of Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamonds for Detector Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, Harris; Gan, K.K.; Kass, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Diamond was studied as a possible radiation hard technology for use in future high radiation environments. With the commissioning of the LHC expected in 2009, and the LHC upgrades expected in 2013, all LHC experiments are planning for detector upgrades which require radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has now been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle and CDF and is installed in all LHC experiments. As a result, this material is now being discussed as an alternative sensor material for tracking very close to the interaction region of the super-LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Our work addressed the further development of the new material, single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, towards reliable industrial production of large pieces and new geometries needed for detector applications.

  19. Growth of L-Valinium Aluminium Chloride single crystal for OLED and super-capacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaivani, D.; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Theras, J. Elberin Mary; Jayaraman, D.; Joseph, V.

    2015-12-01

    L-Valinium Aluminium Chloride (LVAC), a novel semi-organic material, was grown using slow evaporation under isothermal condition. The single crystal data reveal that the grown crystal belongs to monoclinic system. The SEM micrographs give clear picture about the surface morphology. Further, they confirm the inclusion of aluminium chloride into atomic sites of L-Valine. The compositional elements present in the crystal were identified through EDAX analysis. The mass spectral analysis was carried out to determine the molecular weight of the grown crystal. The optical transparency of the grown crystal was investigated by UV-vis-NIR spectrum. FTIR spectral study was used to identify the functional groups present in the grown material. The luminescence characteristics of grown material were analysed to confirm the effect of metal ion on the ligand. This property makes the material suitable for OLED application. The supercapacitive performance of the grown crystal was finally studied using cyclic voltammetry.

  20. Penerapan Single Page Application pada Proses Pengisian Online Data Rencana Studi Mahasiswa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryani Ristyabudi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta (UMS telah membangun aplikasi berbasis web untuk pengisian data rencana studi mahasiswa dan menerapkannya selama belasan tahun. Paper ini mendeskripsikan sebuah studi untuk mempertimbangkan penerapan konsep Single Page Application (SPA ke dalam aplikasi tersebut. SPA adalah merupakan teknik baru yang menggunakan satu halaman web saja untuk beberapa tahap dalam satu kesatuan aktivitas. Penerapan SPA dalam proses pengisian data rencana studi dilakukan menggunakan teknologi web termutakhir yaitu HTML5 dan AngularJS. Kinerja aplikasi yang baru diukur dengan mencermati jumlah data yang ditransfer dan waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk melakukan pengisian data rencana studi seorang mahasiswa. Penggukuran dilakukan menggunakan Wireshark. Hasil pengujian membuktikan bahwa pengisian data rencana studi menggunakan aplikasi dengan SPA membutuhkan transfer data kurang dari sepersepuluh dari proses menggunakan aplikasi tanpa SPA. Aplikasi dengan SPA menghemat total waktu yang dibutuhkan selama proses pengisian data menjadi sepertiga dari waktu yang diperlukan jika proses dilakukan menggunakan aplikasi tanpa SPA.

  1. S4 Grid-Connected Single-Phase Transformerless Inverter for PV Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardashir, Jaber Fallah; Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; Sabahi, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a new single-phase transformerless inverter for grid-connected photovoltaic systems with low leakage current. It consists of four power switches, two diodes, two capacitors and a filter at the output stage. The neutral of the grid is directly connected to the negative terminal...... of the PV source. This results in a constant common-mode voltage and almost zero leakage current. A unipolar Sinusoidal Pulse-Width Modulation (SPWM) technique is used to modulate the inverter to reduce the output current ripple and the filter requirements. The main advantages of this inverter are compact...... clearly verify the performance of the proposed inverter and its practical application for grid-connected PV systems....

  2. Solar fed DC-DC single ended primary inductance converter for low power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendranath, K. V.; Viswanath, Y.; Babu, K. Suresh; Arunkumar, G.; Elangovan, D.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents 34 to 36 volts. SEPIC converter for solar fed applications. Now days, there has been tremendous increase in the usage of solar energy and this solar energy is most valuable energy source available all around the world. The solar energy system require a Dc-Dc converter in order to modulate and govern the changing output of the panel. In this paper, a system comprising of Single Ended Primary Inductance Converter [SEPIC] integrated with solar panel is proposed. This paper proposes SEPIC power converter design that will secure high performance and cost efficiency while powering up a LAMP load. This power converter designed with low output ripple voltage, higher efficiency and less electrical pressure on the power switching elements. The simulation and prototype hardware results are presented in this paper.

  3. Growth and characterization of single-crystal CVD diamond for radiation detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranchant, N.

    2008-01-01

    This work aimed at the study of the synthesis of single crystal diamond using the Microwave enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition technique (MPCVD). The work enabled the development and optimisation of the growth conditions, from the study of the crystalline quality, of the material purity, and of its electronic properties. The assessment of the transport properties was the most determinant: the use of the time of flight (TOF) technique has enabled the measurement of the carrier mobilities and of their kinetic properties as a function of the temperature. When coupled with collected charge efficiency measurements, the work led to remarkable carrier mobility values obtained in the synthesised crystals (3000 cm 2 .V-1.s -1 ). Prepared samples were mounted as detection devices and used successfully in real conditions for the monitoring of ultra-fast pulses, as well as for neutron fluency monitoring, and for medical dosimeters for radiotherapy applications. (author)

  4. A feasibility study of in vivo applications of single beam acoustic tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Lee, Changyang; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk

    2014-10-01

    Tools that are capable of manipulating micro-sized objects have been widely used in such fields as physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine. Several devices, including optical tweezers, atomic force microscope, micro-pipette aspirator, and standing surface wave type acoustic tweezers have been studied to satisfy this need. However, none of them has been demonstrated to be suitable for in vivo and clinical studies. Single beam acoustic tweezers (SBAT) is a technology that uses highly focused acoustic beam to trap particles toward the beam focus. Its feasibility was first theoretically and experimentally demonstrated by Lee and Shung several years ago. Since then, much effort has been devoted to improving this technology. At present, the tool is capable of trapping a microparticle as small as 1 μm, as well as a single red blood cell. Although in comparing to other microparticles manipulating technologies, SBAT has advantages of providing stronger trapping force and deeper penetration depth in tissues, and producing less tissue damage, its potential for in vivo applications has yet been explored. It is worth noting that ultrasound has been used as a diagnostic tool for over 50 years and no known major adverse effects have been observed at the diagnostic energy level. This paper reports the results of an initial attempt to assess the feasibility of single beam acoustic tweezers to trap microparticles in vivo inside of a blood vessel. The acoustic intensity of SBAT under the trapping conditions that were utilized was measured. The mechanical index and thermal index at the focus of acoustic beam were found to be 0.48 and 0.044, respectively, which meet the standard of commercial diagnostic ultrasound system.

  5. Exploring single-layered SnSe honeycomb polymorphs for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul Haq, Bakhtiar; AlFaify, S.; Ahmed, R.; Butt, Faheem K.; Laref, A.; Shkir, Mohd.

    2018-02-01

    Single-layered tin selenide that shares the same structure with phosphorene and possesses intriguing optoelectronic properties has received great interest as a two-dimensional material beyond graphene and phosphorene. Herein, we explore the optoelectronic response of the newly discovered stable honeycomb derivatives (such as α , β , γ , δ , and ɛ ) of single-layered SnSe in the framework of density functional theory. The α , β , γ , and δ derivatives of a SnSe monolayer have been found to exhibit an indirect band gap, however, the dispersion of their band-gap edges demonstrates multiple direct band gaps at a relatively high energy. The ɛ -SnSe, however, features an intrinsic direct band gap at the high-symmetry Γ point. Their energy band gaps (0.53, 2.32, 1.52, 1.56, and 1.76 eV for α -, β -, γ -, δ -, and ɛ -SnSe, respectively), calculated at the level of the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson approach, mostly fall right in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum and are in good agreement with the available literature. The optical spectra of these two-dimensional (2D) SnSe polymorphs (besides β -SnSe) are highly anisotropic and possess strictly different optical band gaps along independent diagonal components. They show high absorption in the visible and UV ranges. Similarly, the reflectivity, refraction, and optical conductivities inherit strong anisotropy from the dielectric functions as well and are highly visible-UV polarized along the cartesian coordinates, showing them to be suitable for optical filters, polarizers, and shields against UV radiation. Our investigations suggest these single-layered SnSe allotropes as a promising 2D material for next-generation nanoscale optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications beyond graphene and phosphorene.

  6. A Single-Chip Solar Energy Harvesting IC Using Integrated Photodiodes for Biomedical Implant Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Law, Man-Kay; Mak, Pui-In; Martins, Rui P

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, an ultra-compact single-chip solar energy harvesting IC using on-chip solar cell for biomedical implant applications is presented. By employing an on-chip charge pump with parallel connected photodiodes, a 3.5 × efficiency improvement can be achieved when compared with the conventional stacked photodiode approach to boost the harvested voltage while preserving a single-chip solution. A photodiode-assisted dual startup circuit (PDSC) is also proposed to improve the area efficiency and increase the startup speed by 77%. By employing an auxiliary charge pump (AQP) using zero threshold voltage (ZVT) devices in parallel with the main charge pump, a low startup voltage of 0.25 V is obtained while minimizing the reversion loss. A 4 V in gate drive voltage is utilized to reduce the conduction loss. Systematic charge pump and solar cell area optimization is also introduced to improve the energy harvesting efficiency. The proposed system is implemented in a standard 0.18- [Formula: see text] CMOS technology and occupies an active area of 1.54 [Formula: see text]. Measurement results show that the on-chip charge pump can achieve a maximum efficiency of 67%. With an incident power of 1.22 [Formula: see text] from a halogen light source, the proposed energy harvesting IC can deliver an output power of 1.65 [Formula: see text] at 64% charge pump efficiency. The chip prototype is also verified using in-vitro experiment.

  7. Label-free screening of single biomolecules through resistive pulse sensing technology for precision medicine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrer, S.; Kim, S. C.; Schieber, C.; Kannam, S.; Gunn, N.; Moore, S.; Scott, D.; Bathgate, R.; Skafidas, S.; Wagner, J. M.

    2015-05-01

    Employing integrated nano- and microfluidic circuits for detecting and characterizing biological compounds through resistive pulse sensing technology is a vibrant area of research at the interface of biotechnology and nanotechnology. Resistive pulse sensing platforms can be customized to study virtually any particle of choice which can be threaded through a fluidic channel and enable label-free single-particle interrogation with the primary read-out signal being an electric current fingerprint. The ability to perform label-free molecular screening with single-molecule and even single binding site resolution makes resistive pulse sensing technology a powerful tool for analyzing the smallest units of biological systems and how they interact with each other on a molecular level. This task is at the core of experimental systems biology and in particular ‘omics research which in combination with next-generation DNA-sequencing and next-generation drug discovery and design forms the foundation of a novel disruptive medical paradigm commonly referred to as personalized medicine or precision medicine. DNA-sequencing has approached the 1000-Dollar-Genome milestone allowing for decoding a complete human genome with unmatched speed and at low cost. Increased sequencing efficiency yields massive amounts of genomic data. Analyzing this data in combination with medical and biometric health data eventually enables understanding the pathways from individual genes to physiological functions. Access to this information triggers fundamental questions for doctors and patients alike: what are the chances of an outbreak for a specific disease? Can individual risks be managed and if so how? Which drugs are available and how should they be applied? Could a new drug be tailored to an individual’s genetic predisposition fast and in an affordable way? In order to provide answers and real-life value to patients, the rapid evolvement of novel computing approaches for analyzing big data in

  8. Development of a search system of NRDF on WWW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masui, Hiroshi; Ohbayashi, Yoshihide [Meme Media Laboratory, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Aoyama, Shigeyoshi [Information Processing Center, Kitami Institute of Technology, Kitami, Hokkaido (Japan); Ohnishi, Akira; Kato, Kiyoshi [Hokkaido University, Graduate School of Science, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Chiba, Masaki [Faculty of Social Information, Sapporo Gakuin Univ., Ebetsu, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    We develop a data search system and a data entry system for the Nuclear Reaction Data File (NRDF), which is one of the charged-particle reaction database compiled by Japan Charged Particle Reaction Group (JCPRG). Using a WWW browser, we can easily search, retrieve and utilize the data of NRDF. (author)

  9. Regional information portal - www.peipsi.org / Piret Uus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uus, Piret

    2004-01-01

    Piirkondlik infoportaal - www.peipsi.org - pakub mitmekülgset teavet Peipsi Koostöö Keskuse tegevuse, projektide, teadusuuringute tulemuste, aruannete kohta, samuti on kättesaadav info Peipsi järve keskkonnaseisundist, ajaloost, kultuurist, geograafiast jne

  10. Assessing the Impact of Information Technology (WWW) on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerians are getting wiser politically and it may not be business as usual in the forth coming political dispensation. The WWW was seen as a crucial tool to drive positive image and election campaigns. Therefore, aspiring political office holders should hire IT consultants to build formidable web presence if they are to make ...

  11. WWW-based environments for collaborative group work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty

    1998-01-01

    Since 1994, we have been involved in the design and use of a series of WWW-based environments to support collaborative group work for students in a technical university in The Netherlands. These environments, and the course re-design that accompanies each new environment, began in April 1994 and

  12. Development of a search system of NRDF on WWW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masui, Hiroshi; Ohbayashi, Yoshihide; Aoyama, Shigeyoshi; Ohnishi, Akira; Kato, Kiyoshi; Chiba, Masaki

    2000-01-01

    We develop a data search system and a data entry system for the Nuclear Reaction Data File (NRDF), which is one of the charged-particle reaction database compiled by Japan Charged Particle Reaction Group (JCPRG). Using a WWW browser, we can easily search, retrieve and utilize the data of NRDF. (author)

  13. The WWW Cabinet of Curiosities: A Serendipitous Research Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Josie

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes that the WWW is able to be fruitfully understood as a research tool when we utilise the metaphor of the cabinet of curiosities, the wunderkammer. It unpeels some of the research attributes of the metaphor as it reveals the multiplicity of connectivity on the web that provides serendipitous interactions between unexpected…

  14. A WWW-Based Archive and Retrieval System for Multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyon, J.; Sorensen, S.; Martin, M.; Kawasaki, K.; Takacs, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the Data Distribution Laboratory (DDL) and discusses issues involved in building multimedia CD-ROMs. It describes the modeling philosophy for cataloging multimedia products and the worldwide-web (WWW)-based multimedia archive and retrieval system (Webcat) built on that model.

  15. Studies of single walled carbon nanotubes for biomedical, mechanical and electrical applications using atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiji, Roya Roientan

    The promise of carbon nanotubes to provide high-strength composites implies that carbon nanotubes might find widespread use throughout the world, implying that humans everywhere will be exposed to carbon nanotube-containing materials. In order to study what effects if any carbon nanotubes might have on the function of living cells, we have studied the association of single stranded DNA (ssDNA) with single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as a first step toward understanding the interaction of SWCNTs with living matter. Studies have been performed on both as-received and chemically oxidized SWCNTs to better understand the preferential association of ssDNA with SWCNTs. Samples of T30 ssDNA:SWCNT were examined under ambient conditions using non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)) techniques. AFM images of well-dispersed, as-received SWCNTs revealed isolated features on the SWCNT that are 1.4 to 2.8 nm higher than the bare SWCNT itself. X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed these features to be T30 ssDNA in nature. Chemically oxidizing SWCNTs before dispersion by sonication is found to be an effective way to increase the number of T30 ssDNA features. A series of experiments showed that free radical scavengers such as ascorbic acid and trolox can effectively prevent the conjugation of ssDNA to SWCNTs, suggesting a significant role of free radicals in this association. Also hybridization of the complimentary ssDNA sequences showed the covalent nature of this association. These results are important to understanding the precise mechanism of ssDNA:SWCNT association and provide valuable information for future use in electronics, biosensors and as a possible drug carrier into individual cells. If SWCNTs are used in biosensor or circuit design applications then it is important to note how much energy can be stored in a SWCNT based on its shape and configuration before a permanent damage is introduced to it. Therefore a study has been done on bending SWCNTs into

  16. Custom single-photon avalanche diode with integrated front-end for parallel photon timing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammi, C.; Panzeri, F.; Gulinatti, A.; Rech, I.; Ghioni, M.

    2012-03-01

    Emerged as a solid state alternative to photo multiplier tubes (PMTs), single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) are nowadays widely used in the field of single-photon timing applications. Custom technology SPADs assure remarkable performance, in particular a 10 counts/s dark count rate (DCR) at low temperature, a high photon detection efficiency (PDE) with a 50% peak at 550 nm and a 30 ps (full width at half maximum, FWHM) temporal resolution, even with large area devices, have been obtained. Over the past few years, the birth of novel techniques of analysis has led to the parallelization of the measurement systems and to a consequent increasing demand for the development of monolithic arrays of detectors. Unfortunately, the implementation of a multidimensional system is a challenging task from the electrical point of view; in particular, the avalanche current pick-up circuit, used to obtain the previously reported performance, has to be modified in order to enable high parallel temporal resolution, while minimizing the electrical crosstalk probability between channels. In the past, the problem has been solved by integrating the front-end electronics next to the photodetector, in order to reduce the parasitic capacitances and consequently the filtering action on the current signal of the SPAD, leading to an improvement of the timing jitter at higher threshold. This solution has been implemented by using standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technologies, which, however, do not allow a complete control on the SPAD structure; for this reason the intrinsic performance of CMOS SPADs, such as DCR, PDE, and afterpulsing probability, are worse than those attainable with custom detectors. In this paper, we propose a pixel architecture, which enables the development of custom SPAD arrays in which every channel maintains the performance of the best single photodetector. The system relies on the integration of the timing signal pick-up circuit next to the

  17. Design of single phase inverter using microcontroller assisted by data processing applications software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, K.; Muharam, A.; Amin; Widodo Budi, S.

    2015-12-01

    Inverter is widely used for industrial, office, and residential purposes. Inverter supports the development of alternative energy such as solar cells, wind turbines and fuel cells by converting dc voltage to ac voltage. Inverter has been made with a variety of hardware and software combinations, such as the use of pure analog circuit and various types of microcontroller as controller. When using pure analog circuit, modification would be difficult because it will change the entire hardware components. In inverter with microcontroller based design (with software), calculations to generate AC modulation is done in the microcontroller. This increases programming complexity and amount of coding downloaded to the microcontroller chip (capacity flash memory in the microcontroller is limited). This paper discusses the design of a single phase inverter using unipolar modulation of sine wave and triangular wave, which is done outside the microcontroller using data processing software application (Microsoft Excel), result shows that complexity programming was reduce and resolution sampling data is very influence to THD. Resolution sampling must taking ½ A degree to get best THD (15.8%).

  18. Neutron activation analysis of single human hairs and possible applications for forensic purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.; Boboli, K.

    1975-01-01

    A new analytical procedure that enables to determine more than 10 trace elements in single, 3 cm human hair segments by neutron activation analysis (NAA) was elaborated. Application of a special washing procedure of hair (before irradiation) made possible to lower sodium content by two orders of magnitude without affecting trace element content. After irradiation in the thermal neutron flux of about 10 14 n.cm -2 .sec -1 the activity of hair was measured with 70 cm 3 Ge(Li) detector coupled to 4000 channel pulse height analyser. As an alternative method, a destructive version of NAA with ion exchange group separation of radionuclides was applied. It was found that sometimes high gradients of element concentration along the hair length exist and that there is without any doubt a distinct influence of environmental factor on the content of some trace elements in hair. The criminalistic aspects of hair analysis were also studied using new statistical criterion for elimination (identification). Both possibilities and limitations of the method are discussed. (author)

  19. Dedicated multichannel readout ASIC coupled with single crystal diamond for dosimeter application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, A; Notaristefani, F De; Galasso, M; Cencelli, V Orsolini; Falco, M D; Marinelli, M; Tortora, L; Verona, C; Rinati, G Verona

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the tests of a low-noise, multi-channel readout integrated circuit used as a readout electronic front-end for a diamond multi-pixel dosimeter. The system is developed for dose distribution measurement in radiotherapy applications. The first 10-channel prototype chip was designed and fabricated in a 0.18 um CMOS process. Every channel includes a charge integrator with a 10 pF capacitor and a double slope A/D converter. The diamond multi-pixel detector, based on CVD synthetic single crystal diamond Schottky diodes, is made by a 3 × 3 sensor matrix. The overall device has been tested under irradiation with 6 MeV radio therapeutic photon beams at the Policlinico ''Tor Vergata'' (PTV) hospital. Measurements show a 20 fA RMS leakage current from the front-end input stage and a negligible dark current from the diamond detector, a stable temporal response and a good linear behaviour as a function of both dose and dose rate. These characteristics were common to each tested channel.

  20. On the Mechanical Behavior of a New Single-Crystal Superalloy for Industrial Gas Turbine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Atsushi; Moverare, Johan J.; Hasselqvist, Magnus; Reed, Roger C.

    2012-07-01

    The mechanical behavior of a new single-crystal nickel-based superalloy for industrial gas turbine (IGT) applications is studied under creep and out-of-phase (OP) thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) conditions. Neutron diffraction methods and thermodynamic modeling are used to quantify the variation of the gamma prime ( γ') strengthening phase around the γ' solvus temperature; these aid the design of primary aging heat treatments to develop either uniform or bimodal microstructures of the γ' phase. Under creep conditions in the temperature range 1023 K to 1123 K (750 °C to 850 °C), with stresses between 235 to 520 MPa, the creep performance is best with a finer and uniform γ' microstructure. On the other hand, the OP TMF performance improves when the γ' precipitate size is larger. Thus, the micromechanical degradation mechanisms occurring during creep and TMF are distinct. During TMF, localized shear banding occurs with the γ' phase penetrated by dislocations; however, during creep, the dislocation activity is restricted to the matrix phase. The factors controlling TMF resistance are rationalized.

  1. Financial methods applicable to energy-conserving retrofits for single-family residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-06-01

    The National Savings and Loan League (NSLL) has been researching techniques that may be used to finance energy-conservation measures in the residential sector. Twelve techniques developed and tested by NSLL are: future-advances clause under open-end mortgages; borrowing against existing savings accounts; home-improvement loans; variable-rate mortgages; second trusts or second mortgages; variable-payment mortgages; balloon-payment mortgages; deferred monthly payments for periods of excessive energy use; renegotiation of terms at set intervals; lower interest rates offered on mortgages in return for lender sharing in equity appreciation of the property; graduated payments; and deferred-interest loans. The testing took place in Pittsburgh, PA. The program consisted of 8 specific tasks, including several directed at different financial innovations for the financing of retrofits. Details are presented on findings; legal research; relationship of utilities to installation of retrofits; financing techniques applicable to retrofits; and national energy program for single-family residences. Some extensive attachments include information on: legal aspects, energy loan advertisements, and potential savings to be realized from various residential retrofit energy-conservation measures.

  2. High energy, single frequency, tunable laser source operating in burst mode for space based lidar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Alberto; Mondello, Alessia; Sapia, Adalberto; D'Ottavi, Alessandro; Brotini, Mauro; Gironi, Gianna; Suetta, Enrico

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes energetic, spatial, temporal and spectral characterization measurements of the Engineering Qualification Model (EQM) of the Laser Transmitter Assembly (TXA) used in the ALADIN instrument currently under development for the ESA ADM-AEOLUS mission (EADS Astrium as prime contractor for the satellite and the instrument). The EQM is equivalent to the Flight Model, with the exception of some engineering grade components. The Laser Transmitter Assembly, based on a diode pumped tripled Nd:YAG laser, is used to generate laser pulses at a nominal wavelength of 355 nm. This laser is operated in burst mode, with a pulse repetition cycle of 100 Hz during bursts. It is capable to operate in Single Longitudinal Mode and to be tuned over 25 GHz range. An internal "network" of sensors has been implemented inside the laser architecture to allow "in flight" monitoring of transmitter. Energy in excess of 100 mJ, with a spatial beam quality factor (M2) lower than 3, a spectral linewidth less than 50 MHz with a frequency stability better than 4 MHz on short term period have been measured on the EQM. Most of the obtained results are well within the expected values and match the Instrument requirements. They constitute an important achievement, showing the absence of major critical areas in terms of performance and the capability to obtain them in a rugged and compact structure suitable for space applications. The EQM will be submitted in the near future to an Environmental test campaign.

  3. Lightweight UAV with on-board photogrammetry and single-frequency GPS positioning for metrology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daakir, M.; Pierrot-Deseilligny, M.; Bosser, P.; Pichard, F.; Thom, C.; Rabot, Y.; Martin, O.

    2017-05-01

    This article presents a coupled system consisting of a single-frequency GPS receiver and a light photogrammetric quality camera embedded in an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The aim is to produce high quality data that can be used in metrology applications. The issue of Integrated Sensor Orientation (ISO) of camera poses using only GPS measurements is presented and discussed. The accuracy reached by our system based on sensors developed at the French Mapping Agency (IGN) Opto-Electronics, Instrumentation and Metrology Laboratory (LOEMI) is qualified. These sensors are specially designed for close-range aerial image acquisition with a UAV. Lever-arm calibration and time synchronization are explained and performed to reach maximum accuracy. All processing steps are detailed from data acquisition to quality control of final products. We show that an accuracy of a few centimeters can be reached with this system which uses low-cost UAV and GPS module coupled with the IGN-LOEMI home-made camera.

  4. An introduction to modeling longitudinal data with generalized additive models: applications to single-case designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kristynn J; Shadish, William R; Steiner, Peter M

    2015-03-01

    Single-case designs (SCDs) are short time series that assess intervention effects by measuring units repeatedly over time in both the presence and absence of treatment. This article introduces a statistical technique for analyzing SCD data that has not been much used in psychological and educational research: generalized additive models (GAMs). In parametric regression, the researcher must choose a functional form to impose on the data, for example, that trend over time is linear. GAMs reverse this process by letting the data inform the choice of functional form. In this article we review the problem that trend poses in SCDs, discuss how current SCD analytic methods approach trend, describe GAMs as a possible solution, suggest a GAM model testing procedure for examining the presence of trend in SCDs, present a small simulation to show the statistical properties of GAMs, and illustrate the procedure on 3 examples of different lengths. Results suggest that GAMs may be very useful both as a form of sensitivity analysis for checking the plausibility of assumptions about trend and as a primary data analysis strategy for testing treatment effects. We conclude with a discussion of some problems with GAMs and some future directions for research on the application of GAMs to SCDs. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Application of maximum entropy to statistical inference for inversion of data from a single track segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotts, Steven A; Koch, Robert A

    2017-08-01

    In this paper an approach is presented to estimate the constraint required to apply maximum entropy (ME) for statistical inference with underwater acoustic data from a single track segment. Previous algorithms for estimating the ME constraint require multiple source track segments to determine the constraint. The approach is relevant for addressing model mismatch effects, i.e., inaccuracies in parameter values determined from inversions because the propagation model does not account for all acoustic processes that contribute to the measured data. One effect of model mismatch is that the lowest cost inversion solution may be well outside a relatively well-known parameter value's uncertainty interval (prior), e.g., source speed from track reconstruction or towed source levels. The approach requires, for some particular parameter value, the ME constraint to produce an inferred uncertainty interval that encompasses the prior. Motivating this approach is the hypothesis that the proposed constraint determination procedure would produce a posterior probability density that accounts for the effect of model mismatch on inferred values of other inversion parameters for which the priors might be quite broad. Applications to both measured and simulated data are presented for model mismatch that produces minimum cost solutions either inside or outside some priors.

  6. Single Photon Detection with Semiconductor Pixel Arrays for Medical Imaging Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mikulec, B

    2000-01-01

    This thesis explores the functioning of a single photon counting pixel detector for X-ray imaging. It considers different applications for such a device, but focuses mainly on the field of medical imaging. The new detector comprises a CMOS read-out chip called PCC containing 4096 identical channels each of which counts X-ray hits. The conversion of the X-rays to electric charge takes place in a semiconductor sensor which is segmented into 4096 matching square diodes of side length 170 um, the 'pixels'. The photon counting concept is based on setting a threshold in energy above which a hit is registered. The immediate advantages are the elimination of background and the in principle unlimited dynamic range. Moreover, this approach allows the use of an electronic shutter for arbitrary measurement periods. As the device was intended for operation in the energy range of ~10-70 keV, gallium arsenide was selected as the preferred sensor material. The development of this detector followed on from about 10 years of r...

  7. Accessing HEP Collaboration documents using WWW and WAIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Ritchie, D.J.

    1995-09-01

    WAIS stands for Wide Area Information Server. It is a distributed information retrieval system. A WAIS system has a client-server architecture which consists of clients talking to a server via a TCP/IP network using the ANSI standard Z39-50 VI protocol. A freely available version (FreeWAIS) is supported by the Clearinghouse for Networked Information Discovery and Retrieval, also known as CNIDR. FreeWAIS-sf, which is the software the authors are using at Fermilab, is an extension of FreeWAIS. FreeWAIS-sf supports all the functionalities which FreeWAIS offers as well as additional indexing and searching capabilities for structured fields. World Wide Web (WWW) was originally developed by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN and is now the backbone for serving information on Internet. Here, the authors describe a system for accessing HEP collaboration documents using WWW and WAIS

  8. Congreso www.derechotics.com 2010 Ana Aba, Mesa 3

    OpenAIRE

    Cotino Hueso, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    Garantías de la privacidad en las redes sociales, por Ana Aba Catoira, Profesora titular de Derecho constitucional, U. de A Coruña.Mesa 3: Privacidad y la propiedad intelectual frente a la libertad de expresión e información en la redCongreso www.derechotics.com Valencia, 14-15 octubre 2010 Libertades informativas en internet: ejercicio, amenazas y garantías, Lorenzo Cotino (org.)

  9. Towards Understanding the Evolution of the WWW Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Savov, Pavel; Jatowt, Adam; Nielek, Radoslaw

    2017-01-01

    The World Wide Web conference is a well-established and mature venue with an already long history. Over the years it has been attracting papers reporting many important research achievements centered around the Web. In this work we aim at understanding the evolution of WWW conference series by detecting crucial years and important topics. We propose a simple yet novel approach based on tracking the classification errors of the conference papers according to their predicted publication years.

  10. Single-Mode, High Repetition Rate, Compact Ho:YLF Laser for Space-Borne Lidar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong; Wong, Teh-Hwa; Chen, Songsheng; Petros, Mulugeta; Singh, Upendra N.

    2014-01-01

    A single transverse/longitudinal mode, compact Q-switched Ho:YLF laser has been designed and demonstrated for space-borne lidar applications. The pulse energy is between 34-40 mJ for 100-200 Hz operation. The corresponding peak power is >1 MW.

  11. Application of single background quality control chart in monitoring the long-term stability of RIA counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jianwen; Zhang Qin; Wang Xufu; Wang Guoming; Zuo Shuyao; Li Yusheng

    2004-01-01

    The method of making a single background quality control charge and its application in the long-term stability of RIA counter are studied. The results show that the method can be regarded as an index of the long-term stability checking and quantification

  12. Kramers-Moyal expansion for stochastic differential equations with single and multiple delays: Applications to financial physics and neurophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, T.D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a generalized Kramers-Moyal expansion for stochastic differential equations with single and multiple delays. In particular, we show that the delay Fokker-Planck equation derived earlier in the literature is a special case of the proposed Kramers-Moyal expansion. Applications for bond pricing and a self-inhibitory neuron model are discussed

  13. Age-Related Parenting Education: Model Development and Application to an Emerging Family Constellation - Single-by-Choice Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holle, Kimberly Ann

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to describe an adaptation of the Schaefer Circumplex Model to age-related parenting theory and techniques, and (2) to illustrate its application in relation to the emerging numbers of single-by-choice mothers. The method described superimposes both a child's and a parent's cognitive and psychosocial…

  14. Development of a Charged Particle Microbeam for Single-Particle Subcellular Irradiations at the MIT Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    2004-01-01

    The development of a charged particle microbeam for single particle, subcellular irradiations at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications (MIT LABA) was initiated under this NEER aeard. The Microbeam apparatus makes use of a pre-existing electrostatic accelerator with a horizontal beam tube

  15. WWW--an effective way of teaching radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangel, M; Niemitukia, L; Katila, T; Soimakallio, S

    2001-07-01

    The Internet and especially the World Wide Web (WWW) have given new opportunities and challenges in teaching radiology. In Kuopio University and Kuopio University Hospital, we started to develop a new WWW-based radiology teaching file in 1996. Our file was made as a result of weaknesses in other files and as an answer to our local needs. The file consists of 1245 separate radiographs in 14 different categories. The language is Finnish, because the target use primarily is basic medical education in Finland. A small part has been translated into English. The quality of images was improved using a separate viewer (Osiris, Digital Imaging Unit, University Hospital of Geneva, Switzerland), which also allowed image manipulation needed with radiological images. We have monitored the utilisation of pages (Analog 1.92 beta-3.0/UNIX) and found the results encouraging. The follow-up time was 814 days (10 February 1997-27 September 1999), the total number of requests was 762797 and that for HTML pages is 288664. Monthly means are 27243 and 10309, respectively. The total number for visited domains is 61. The URL for these pages is http://www.uku.fi/laitokset/klrad/opetuskuvasto/.

  16. Improvement of WWW chart of the nuclides interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Tsutomu; Minato, Futoshi; Iwamoto, Osamu; Koura, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-01

    The booklet 'chart of the nuclides' is issued every 4 years since 1976 from Nuclear Data Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The chart of the nuclides for WWW (World Wide Web) was developed in 1999 in order to be available from the Internet browser. The Internet connection speeds, browser functions and JavaScript libraries has, however, progressed at present compared with the Internet technology in those days. In connection with the release of the 2014 edition of the chart of the nuclides, the interface of the WWW chart of the nuclides has been improved by introducing new Internet technologies aiming at enhancing convenience on accessibilities via browsers. We introduced a scrolling screen that would make capabilities of easy screen movement on a map with the addition of the drag scrolling function. Considering smart phone access, the light-weight edition which introduced automatic switch was prepared. The new system results in reduction in access time and usefulness in mobile environment. The method of making figures of the chart was reconsidered due to addition of new decay schemes to the 2014 edition. SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics) was adopted so as to make figures easily. It is concluded that the accessibilities of WWW chart of the nuclides are substantially improved from the previous version by introducing the new technologies. (author)

  17. Clinical applications of single photon emission tomography in neuromedicine. Part 1. Neuro-oncology, epilepsy, movement disorders, cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartenstein, P.; Gruenwald, F.; Kuwert, T.; Tatsch, K.; Sabri, O.; Benkert, O.; Fahlbusch, R.; Gruender, G.; Herzholz, K.; Weiller, C.

    2000-01-01

    Single photon emission tomography is, because of its availability and the relatively low costs, the functional imaging modality currently most widely used for clinical applications in the brain. Beside the application of radiopharmaceuticals for the assessment of regional cerebral blood flow there is an increasing clinical use of more selective SPECT-radiopharmaceuticals, like amino acid analogs or receptor ligands. This article gives in its first part a critical review of the clinical applications of SPECT in neuro-oncology, epilepsy, basal ganglia disorders and cerebrovascular disease. (orig.) [de

  18. Performance characteristics of an excimer laser (XeCl) with single ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/pram/088/02/0033. Keywords. XeCl excimer laser; magnetic pulse compressor; saturable inductor; micro-machining. Abstract. Performance characteristics of an excimer laser (XeCl) with single-stage magnetic pulse compression suitable for material processing applications are presented ...

  19. Detection, Validation, and Application of Genotyping-by-Sequencing Based Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Upland Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sariful Islam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of two closely related subgenomes in the allotetraploid Upland cotton, combined with a narrow genetic base of the cultivated varieties, has hindered the identification of polymorphic genetic markers and their use in improving this important crop. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS is a rapid way to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers; however, these SNPs may be specific to the sequenced cotton lines. Our objective was to obtain a large set of polymorphic SNPs with broad applicability to the cultivated cotton germplasm. We selected 11 diverse cultivars and their random-mated recombinant inbred progeny for SNP marker development via GBS. Two different GBS methodologies were used by Data2Bio (D2B and the Institute for Genome Diversity (IGD to identify 4441 and 1176 polymorphic SNPs with minor allele frequency of ≥0.1, respectively. We further filtered the SNPs and aligned their sequences to the diploid reference genome. We were able to use homeologous SNPs to assign 1071 SNP loci to the At subgenome and 1223 to the Dt subgenome. These filtered SNPs were located in genic regions about twice as frequently as expected by chance. We tested 111 of the SNPs in 154 diverse Upland cotton lines, which confirmed the utility of the SNP markers developed in such approach. Not only were the SNPs identified in the 11 cultivars present in the 154 cotton lines, no two cultivars had identical SNP genotypes. We conclude that GBS can be easily used to discover SNPs in Upland cotton, which can be converted to functional genotypic assays for use in breeding and genetic studies.

  20. Plasma-synthesized single-walled carbon nanotubes and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatakeyama, R; Kaneko, T; Kato, T; Li, Y F

    2011-01-01

    Plasma-based nanotechnology is a rapidly developing area of research ranging from physics of gaseous and liquid plasmas to material science, surface science and nanofabrication. In our case, nanoscopic plasma processing is performed to grow single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with controlled chirality distribution and to further develop SWNT-based materials with new functions corresponding to electronic and biomedical applications. Since SWNTs are furnished with hollow inner spaces, it is very interesting to inject various kinds of atoms and molecules into their nanospaces based on plasma nanotechnology. The encapsulation of alkali-metal atoms, halogen atoms, fullerene or azafullerene molecules inside the carbon nanotubes is realized using ionic plasmas of positive and negative ions such as alkali-fullerene, alkali-halogen, and pair or quasipair ion plasmas. Furthermore, an electrolyte solution plasma with DNA negative ions is prepared in order to encapsulate DNA molecules into the nanotubes. It is found that the electronic and optical properties of various encapsulated SWNTs are significantly changed compared with those of pristine ones. As a result, a number of interesting transport phenomena such as air-stable n- and p-type behaviour, p-n junction characteristic, and photoinduced electron transfer are observed. Finally, the creation of an emerging SWNTs-based nanobioelectronics system is challenged. Specifically, the bottom-up electric-field-assisted reactive ion etching is proposed to control the chirality of SWNTs, unexplored SWNT properties of magnetism and superconductivity are aimed at being pioneered, and innovative biomedical-nanoengineering with encapsulated SWNTs of higher-order structure are expected to be developed by applying advanced gas-liquid interfacial plasmas.

  1. Learner support in a distributed learning environment:the use of WWW-based teachware packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Langenbach

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Various forms of education and training, based on the classical Computer Based Training (CBT, have become well established within companies and in higher education. With regard to the flexibility in terms of time and location, as well as in terms of incurred cost, they are far superior to traditional forms of instruction. A relatively recent development which has not yet gained widespread acceptance is the use of the World Wide Web (WWW as a basis and platform for distributed computer assisted teaching and learning. In addition to the advantages outlined with regard to classical CBT, the WWW offers the two advantages of world wide availablity as well as ease of promptly updating courses, but also adds many possibilities of collaborative learning. Using the Java programming language and the ever improving means of online presentation it has become possible to realize sophisticated WWW-based teachware packages which are comparable in terms of appearance and functionality to classical CBT applications created with dedicated authoring systems.

  2. Ninth international conference on hole burning, single molecule and related spectroscopies: science and applications (HBSM 2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This conference was organized around 9 sessions: -) single molecule, -) quantum optics, -) hole-burning materials and mechanisms, -) single nano-particle spectroscopy, -) dephasing and spectral diffusion, -) microwave photonics, -) biological systems, -) rare earth doped materials, -) novel laser sources. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations.

  3. Ninth international conference on hole burning, single molecule and related spectroscopies: science and applications (HBSM 2006)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This conference was organized around 9 sessions: -) single molecule, -) quantum optics, -) hole-burning materials and mechanisms, -) single nano-particle spectroscopy, -) dephasing and spectral diffusion, -) microwave photonics, -) biological systems, -) rare earth doped materials, -) novel laser sources. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations

  4. Sharing electronic medical record on the WWW using InterCare architecture and smart cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotonen, M; Ruotsalainen, P; Kaskihalme, A; Aarnio, M

    1999-01-01

    Southern-Finland is a partner of the European Commission funded telematics project, InterCare, which is developing and demonstrating the WWW--based regional architecture and application integrated with smart cards. The InterCare project will combine the results from the most important EC funded healthcare telematics projects in their respective areas--Cardlink 2, Hector, Star, Synapses and TrustHealth. The primary objective is to achieve a convergence of results and to demonstrate & promote the synergy between projects from different areas of the healthcare telematics programme.

  5. Sharing Electronic Medical Record on the WWW Using Regional Services and Smart Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotonen, Mikko

    2001-01-01

    Southern Finland was a partner of the European Commission funded telematics project, InterCare, which developed and demonstrated a www-based regional architecture, services and application integrated with smart cards. The InterCare project combined the results from smart cards, mobile emergency services, seamless care, common objects and security projects. The developed services are available as ASP-services for the healthcare organisation in different levels and sectors (primary, secondary and private healthcare providers). The services can also be used in migration to EPR.

  6. Pulsed, Single-Frequency, 2-um Seed Source for Coherent LIDAR Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary objective of the proposed Phase I effort is to develop and demonstrate a low-average power, pulsed, single-frequency, 2-um Ho-laser source for...

  7. Pulsed, Single-Frequency, 2-um Seed Source for Coherent LIDAR Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary objective of the proposed Phase II effort is to develop and deliver a ruggedized, single-frequency, mJ-level, 2050-nm master oscillator power amplifier...

  8. Effects of Single and Combined Application of Organic and Biological Fertilizers on Quantitative and Qualitative Yield of Anisum (Pimpinella anisum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Kamayestani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of single and combined applications of biofertilazer and organic fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of anisum (Pimpinella anisum, an experiment was conducted based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications and fifteen treatments at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2011 year. Treatments were: (1 mycorrhiza (Glomus intraradices, (2 mycorrhiza + cow manure, (3 mycorrhiza + vermicompost, (4 mycorrhiza+ compost, (5 mycorrhiza + chemical fertilizer, (6 biosulfur (Thiobacillus sp. + Bentonite, (7 biosulfur + chemical fertilizer, (8 biosulfur + cow manure, (9 biosulfur + vermicompost, (10 biosulfur+compost,11 (cow manure, (12 vermicompost, (13 chemical fertilizer (NPK, (14compost and (15 control. The results showed that application of fertilizer treatments had significant effect on most characteristics of anisum. The highest number of seed per umbelet (7.24, economic yield (1263.4kg/ha were obtained fram biosulfur treatment. The highest dry matter yield (4504.1 kg/ha resulted from combined application of biosulfur + chemical fertilizer and the highest harvest index (25.97% observed in biosulfur+cow manure. The combined application of mycorrhiza affected some qualification traits, as the highest number of umbel per plant (65.7, 1000 seed-weight (3.24 g and essential oil percentage (5.3% resulted from combined application of mycorrhiza+chemical fertilizer. In general, it can be concluded that application of organic and biological fertilizer particularly mycorrhiza and biosulfur had a significant effect on improving of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of anisum. Furthermore, the combined application of organic and biological fertilizer had higher positive effects than their single application.

  9. Charge integration successive approximation analog-to-digital converter for focal plane applications using a single amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhimin (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An analog-to-digital converter for on-chip focal-plane image sensor applications. The analog-to-digital converter utilizes a single charge integrating amplifier in a charge balancing architecture to implement successive approximation analog-to-digital conversion. This design requires minimal chip area and has high speed and low power dissipation for operation in the 2-10 bit range. The invention is particularly well suited to CMOS on-chip applications requiring many analog-to-digital converters, such as column-parallel focal-plane architectures.

  10. Materials process and applications of single grain (RE)-Ba-Cu-O bulk high-temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Beizhan; Zhou Difan; Xu Kun; Hara, Shogo; Tsuzuki, Keita; Miki, Motohiro; Felder, Brice; Deng Zigang [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology (TUMSAT), 2-1-6, Etchu-jima, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Izumi, Mitsuru, E-mail: izumi@kaiyodai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology (TUMSAT), 2-1-6, Etchu-jima, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan)

    2012-11-20

    This paper reviews recent advances in the melt process of (RE)-Ba-Cu-O [(RE)BCO, where RE represents a rare earth element] single grain high-temperature superconductors (HTSs), bulks and its applications. The efforts on the improvement of the magnetic flux pinning with employing the top-seeded melt-growth process technique and using a seeded infiltration and growth process are discussed. Which including various chemical doping strategies and controlled pushing effect based on the peritectic reaction of (RE)BCO. The typical experiment results, such as the largest single domain bulk, the clear TEM observations and the significant critical current density, are summarized together with the magnetization techniques. Finally, we highlight the recent prominent progress of HTS bulk applications, including Maglev, flywheel, power device, magnetic drug delivery system and magnetic resonance devices.

  11. Materials process and applications of single grain (RE)-Ba-Cu-O bulk high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Beizhan; Zhou, Difan; Xu, Kun; Hara, Shogo; Tsuzuki, Keita; Miki, Motohiro; Felder, Brice; Deng, Zigang; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2012-11-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in the melt process of (RE)-Ba-Cu-O [(RE)BCO, where RE represents a rare earth element] single grain high-temperature superconductors (HTSs), bulks and its applications. The efforts on the improvement of the magnetic flux pinning with employing the top-seeded melt-growth process technique and using a seeded infiltration and growth process are discussed. Which including various chemical doping strategies and controlled pushing effect based on the peritectic reaction of (RE)BCO. The typical experiment results, such as the largest single domain bulk, the clear TEM observations and the significant critical current density, are summarized together with the magnetization techniques. Finally, we highlight the recent prominent progress of HTS bulk applications, including Maglev, flywheel, power device, magnetic drug delivery system and magnetic resonance devices.

  12. In-situ stress measurement of single and multilayer thin-films used in x-ray astronomy optics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadway, David M.; Ramsey, Brian D.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Gurgew, Danielle

    2017-09-01

    We present in-situ stress measurement results for single and multilayer thin-films deposited by magnetron sputtering. In particular, we report on the influence of the material interfaces on the ensuing stress in both the transient and steady-state regimes of film growth. This behavior is used to determine the appropriate thicknesses of the constituent layers that will result in a net tensile stress in multilayers composed of various material combinations. These multilayers can then be used to compensate the compressive integrated stress in single and multilayer EUV and x-ray optical coatings. The use of multilayers to compensate the integrated stress might be advantageous because, unlike single layers of chromium, the roughness is not expected to increase with the total thickness of the multilayer. In this paper, we demonstrate the technique for W/Si and Mo/Si multilayers and discuss its application to other material combinations.

  13. Application of single step genomic BLUP under different uncertain paternity scenarios using simulated data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Lara Tonussi

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the application of BLUP and single step genomic BLUP (ssGBLUP models in different scenarios of paternity uncertainty with different strategies of scaling the G matrix to match the A22 matrix, using simulated data for beef cattle. Genotypes, pedigree, and phenotypes for age at first calving (AFC and weight at 550 days (W550 were simulated using heritabilities based on real data (0.12 for AFC and 0.34 for W550. Paternity uncertainty scenarios using 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of multiple sires (MS were studied. The simulated genome had a total length of 2,333 cM, containing 735,293 biallelic markers and 7,000 QTLs randomly distributed over the 29 BTA. It was assumed that QTLs explained 100% of the genetic variance. For QTL, the amount of alleles per loci randomly ranged from two to four. The BLUP model that considers phenotypic and pedigree data, and the ssGBLUP model that combines phenotypic, pedigree and genomic information were used for genetic evaluations. Four ways of scaling the mean of the genomic matrix (G to match to the mean of the pedigree relationship matrix among genotyped animals (A22 were tested. Accuracy, bias, and inflation were investigated for five groups of animals: ALL = all animals; BULL = only bulls; GEN = genotyped animals; FEM = females; and YOUNG = young males. With the BLUP model, the accuracies of genetic evaluations decreased for both traits as the proportion of unknown sires in the population increased. The EBV accuracy reduction was higher for GEN and YOUNG groups. By analyzing the scenarios for YOUNG (from 0 to 100% of MS, the decrease was 87.8 and 86% for AFC and W550, respectively. When applying the ssGBLUP model, the accuracies of genetic evaluation also decreased as the MS in the pedigree for both traits increased. However, the accuracy reduction was less than those observed for BLUP model. Using the same comparison (scenario 0 to 100% of MS, the accuracies reductions

  14. Clinical applications of single photon emission tomography in neuromedicine. Pt. 2. Dementia, psychotic disorders, inflammation, trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartenstein, P.; Gruenwald, F.; Kuwert, T.; Tatsch, K.; Sabri, O.; Benkert, O.; Fahlbusch, R.; Gruender, G.; Herholz, K.; Weiller, C.

    2000-01-01

    This article gives in his second part a critical review of the clinical applications of SPECT with perfusion markers and receptor ligands in dementing disorders and psychosis. In addition this review discusses clinical applications of SPECT investigations with perfusion markers in inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system and in brain trauma. (orig.) [de

  15. Evaluation of undoped ZnS single crystal materials for x-ray imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Muad; Lynn, Kelvin G.; McCloy, John S.

    2017-05-01

    ZnS-based materials have a long history of use as x-ray luminescent materials. ZnS was one of the first discovered scintillators and is reported to have one of the highest scintillator efficiencies. The use of ZnS for high energy luminescence has been thus far limited to thin powder screens, such as ZnS:Ag which is used for detecting alpha radiation, due to opacity to its scintillation light, primarily due to scattering. ZnS in bulk form (chemical vapor deposited, powder processed, and single crystal) has high transmission and low scattering compared to powder screens. In this paper, the performance of single crystalline ZnS is evaluated for low energy x-ray (PLE) of several undoped ZnS single crystals is compared to their Radioluminescence (RL) spectra. It was found that the ZnS emission wavelength varies on the excitation source energy.

  16. Centroids of effective interactions from measured single-particle energies: An application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, B.J.

    1990-01-01

    Centroids of the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction for the mass region A=28--64 are extracted directly from experimental single-particle spectra, by comparing single-particle energies relative to different cores. Uncertainties in the centroids are estimated at approximately 100 keV, except in cases of exceptional fragmentation of the single-particle strength. The use of a large number of inert cores allows the dependence of the interaction on mass or model space to be investigated. The method permits accurate empirical modifications to be made to realistic interactions calculated from bare nucleon-nucleon potentials, which are known to possess defective centroids in many cases. In addition, the centroids can be used as input to the more sophisticated fitting procedures that are employed to produce matrix elements of the effective interaction

  17. Automatic Mirroring of the IRAF FTP and WWW Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Mike; Tody, Doug; Terrett, David L.

    Large FTP archives have long used mirrors (copies of the network archive maintained on remote hosts) to decrease the load on a particular server or shorten the network path to provide faster download times. Little has been done however to simplify mirroring of WWW (World Wide Web) pages, although many projects and users now rely on Web pages at least as heavily as anonymous FTP services. With the dramatically increasing use of the global Internet in the past year, the network has become overloaded, and network access, especially overseas, is often very slow during peak hours. We present a strategy based on host-independent URLs which allows Web pages to be automatically mirrored to both remote Web hosts and CD-ROMs. Issues affecting a site wishing to mirror a remote archive are discussed.

  18. Virtual dermatohistopathology at http://www.pathowiki.org.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roßner, Mathias; Roßner, Florian; Zwönitzer, Ralf; Hofmann, Harald; Sterry, Wolfram; Kalinski, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    PATHOWIKI (http://www.pathowiki.org) is a new specialized information system in the form of a web-based wiki with content from all sub-disciplines of human pathology. Essential components are articles and specimens which are located thematically in dermatopathology. The project is presented on the basis of impressive examples and possibilities. The ability to link all kinds of content and integrate pattern analysis theories creates an effective tool for teaching and training in dermatopathology. Collaborative work ensures the effective usage of available resources and a continually growing amount of content, the quality of which depends on the number of users and should be as high as possible. Therefore, all interested colleagues are invited to support the project. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  19. Factors influencing clicking of banner ads on the WWW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chang-Hoan

    2003-04-01

    This paper explores various factors influencing the clicking of banner ads on the WWW. The study indicates that several important variables affect the clicking of banner ads: (1) level of product involvement, (2) congruency between the content of a vehicle and the product category of a banner ad, (3) attitude toward the vehicle, and (4) overall attitude toward web advertising. For methodology, this study employed a between-group experimental design and measured real click-through rates with the aid of an online data collection technology called FileMaker Pro. Results of logistic regressions show that people are more likely to click banner ads if they are highly involved with products, perceive high synergy between web pages and ads, have a favorable attitude toward a vehicle, or have a favorable attitude toward web advertising in general. A total of 756 subjects participated in this research.

  20. Iron-based composition for magnetocaloric effect (MCE) applications and method of making a single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, III, Boyd Mccutchen; Kisner, Roger A.; Ludtka, Gail Mackiewicz; Ludtka, Gerard Michael; Melin, Alexander M.; Nicholson, Donald M.; Parish; , Chad M.; Rios, Orlando; Sefat, Athena S.; West, David L.; Wilgen, John B.

    2016-02-09

    A method of making a single crystal comprises heating a material comprising magnetic anisotropy to a temperature T sufficient to form a melt of the material. A magnetic field of at least about 1 Tesla is applied to the melt at the temperature T, where a magnetic free energy difference .DELTA.G.sub.m between different crystallographic axes is greater than a thermal energy kT. While applying the magnetic field, the melt is cooled at a rate of about 30.degree. C./min or higher, and the melt solidifies to form a single crystal of the material.

  1. A COTS-based single board radiation-hardened computer for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, S.; Hillman, R.; Layton, P.; Krawzsenek, D.

    1999-01-01

    There is great community interest in the ability to use COTS (Commercial-Off-The-Shelf) technology in radiation environments. Space Electronics, Inc. has developed a high performance COTS-based radiation hardened computer. COTS approaches were selected for both hardware and software. Through parts testing, selection and packaging, all requirements have been met without parts or process development. Reliability, total ionizing dose and single event performance are attractive. The characteristics, performance and radiation resistance of the single board computer will be presented. (authors)

  2. Application of a single-objective, hybrid genetic algorithm approach to pharmacokinetic model building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherer, Eric A; Sale, Mark E; Pollock, Bruce G; Belani, Chandra P; Egorin, Merrill J; Ivy, Percy S; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Manuck, Stephen B; Marder, Stephen R; Muldoon, Matthew F; Scher, Howard I; Solit, David B; Bies, Robert R

    2012-08-01

    A limitation in traditional stepwise population pharmacokinetic model building is the difficulty in handling interactions between model components. To address this issue, a method was previously introduced which couples NONMEM parameter estimation and model fitness evaluation to a single-objective, hybrid genetic algorithm for global optimization of the model structure. In this study, the generalizability of this approach for pharmacokinetic model building is evaluated by comparing (1) correct and spurious covariate relationships in a simulated dataset resulting from automated stepwise covariate modeling, Lasso methods, and single-objective hybrid genetic algorithm approaches to covariate identification and (2) information criteria values, model structures, convergence, and model parameter values resulting from manual stepwise versus single-objective, hybrid genetic algorithm approaches to model building for seven compounds. Both manual stepwise and single-objective, hybrid genetic algorithm approaches to model building were applied, blinded to the results of the other approach, for selection of the compartment structure as well as inclusion and model form of inter-individual and inter-occasion variability, residual error, and covariates from a common set of model options. For the simulated dataset, stepwise covariate modeling identified three of four true covariates and two spurious covariates; Lasso identified two of four true and 0 spurious covariates; and the single-objective, hybrid genetic algorithm identified three of four true covariates and one spurious covariate. For the clinical datasets, the Akaike information criterion was a median of 22.3 points lower (range of 470.5 point decrease to 0.1 point decrease) for the best single-objective hybrid genetic-algorithm candidate model versus the final manual stepwise model: the Akaike information criterion was lower by greater than 10 points for four compounds and differed by less than 10 points for three

  3. Application of Economic MPC to Frequency Control in a Single-Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Edlund, Kristian; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel model predictive control scheme for frequency control in a single-area power system. The proposed controller provides set-point corrections to the system power generators, based on the solution to an optimal control problem. The optimal control problem directly incorpo...

  4. Application of dead-reckoning in the single-base station location and tracking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruyun; Fan, Dandan; Xu, Mingyan; Chen, Ming

    2007-11-01

    A location and tracking method utilizing Dead-Reckoning using single base station in cellular networks is proposed in this paper. Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and the location method utilizing the AOA and the variance ratio of AOA are introduced to smooth the measurement error. The simulation result is illustrated to explain the location and tracking efficiency of the proposed method.

  5. A Bistable View of Single Constructs Measured Using Balanced Questionnaires: Application to Trait Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vautier, Stephane; Callahan, Stacey; Moncany, Delphine; Sztulman, Henri

    2004-01-01

    Single constructs measured using positively and negatively worded items are often incompatible with a congeneric model, but require 2 correlated factors. Imperfect correlation entails that 2 independent dimensions are required for representing the true variance. If 2 dimensions are sought, how can they be interpreted? This study shows how to…

  6. Analysis and Testing of Ajax-based Single-page Web Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesbah, A.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation has focused on better understanding the shifting web paradigm and the consequences of moving from the classical multi-page model to an Ajax-based single-page style. Specifically to that end, this work has examined this new class of software from three main software engineering

  7. Single-mode waveguides with SU-8 polymer core and cladding for MOEMS applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Maria; Zauner, Dan; Boisen, Anja

    2007-01-01

    Fabrication and optical characterization of singlemode polymeric embedded waveguides are performed. A specific material combination (SU-8 2005 as core and the modified SU-8 mr-L 6050XP as cladding) is chosen in order to obtain a small refractive index difference for single-mode propagation combin...

  8. Comparative Study of Single- and Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes with Application in Cerebral Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica-Mariana Ion

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Helping improve humanity is one of the promises of nanotech-
    nology and nanomedicine. This paper will highlight some of the research findings in the nanomedicine area by testing some single- and multi-walls carbon nanotubues in rats cerebral aneurisms.

  9. Single-event burnout of power MOSFET devices for satellite application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Yuxiong; Tian Kai; Cao Zhou; Yang Shiyu; Liu Gang; Cai Xiaowu; Lu Jiang

    2008-01-01

    Single-event burnout (SEB) sensitivity was tested for power MOSFET devices, JTMCS081 and JTMCS062, which were made in Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, using californium-252 simulation source. SEB voltage threshold was found for devices under test (DUT). It is helpful for engineers to choose devices used in satellites. (authors)

  10. Observation and applications of single-electron charge signals in the XENON100 experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aprile, E.; et al., [Unknown; Alfonsi, M.; Colijn, A.P.; Decowski, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    The XENON100 dark matter experiment uses liquid xenon in a time projection chamber (TPC) to measure xenon nuclear recoils resulting from the scattering of dark matter weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). In this paper, we report the observation of single-electron charge signals which are

  11. An Assessment of New Applications for Single-Crystal Piezoelectric Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Veitch, Lisa

    1998-01-01

    Piezoelectricity was first discovered by the Curie brothers in 1880. During the 1940s, piezoelectric ceramic materials were first used in commercial devices, and new materials and other applications have continued to develop over the years...

  12. Fluorescence spectroscopy of single molecules at room temperature and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Taekjip [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    We performed fluorescence spectroscopy of single and pairs of dye molecules on a surface at room temperature. Near field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and far field scanning optical microscope with multi-color excitation/detection capability were built. The instrument is capable of optical imaging with 100nm resolution and has the sensitivity necessary for single molecule detection. A variety of dynamic events which cannot be observed from an ensemble of molecules is revealed when the molecules are probed one at a time. They include (1) spectral jumps correlated with dark states, (2) individually resolved quantum jumps to and from the meta-stable triplet state, (3) rotational jumps due to desorption/readsorption events of single molecules on the surface. For these studies, a computer controlled optical system which automatically and rapidly locates and performs spectroscopic measurements on single molecules was developed. We also studied the interaction between closely spaced pairs of molecules. In particular, fluorescence resonance energy transfer between a single resonant pair of donor and acceptor molecules was measured. Photodestruction dynamics of the donor or acceptor were used to determine the presence and efficiency of energy transfer Dual molecule spectroscopy was extended to a non-resonant pair of molecules to obtain high resolution differential distance information. By combining NSOM and dual color scheme, we studied the co-localization of parasite proteins and host proteins on a human red blood cell membrane infected with malaria. These dual-molecule techniques can be used to measure distances, relative orientations, and changes in distances/orientations of biological macromolecules with very good spatial, angular and temporal resolutions, hence opening new capabilities in the study of such systems.

  13. Systems and methods to control multiple peripherals with a single-peripheral application code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Ray M.

    2013-06-11

    Methods and apparatus are provided for enhancing the BIOS of a hardware peripheral device to manage multiple peripheral devices simultaneously without modifying the application software of the peripheral device. The apparatus comprises a logic control unit and a memory in communication with the logic control unit. The memory is partitioned into a plurality of ranges, each range comprising one or more blocks of memory, one range being associated with each instance of the peripheral application and one range being reserved for storage of a data pointer related to each peripheral application of the plurality. The logic control unit is configured to operate multiple instances of the control application by duplicating one instance of the peripheral application for each peripheral device of the plurality and partitioning a memory device into partitions comprising one or more blocks of memory, one partition being associated with each instance of the peripheral application. The method then reserves a range of memory addresses for storage of a data pointer related to each peripheral device of the plurality, and initializes each of the plurality of peripheral devices.

  14. A single-pixel X-ray imager concept and its application to secure radiographic inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Andrew J.; Miller, Brian W.; Robinson, Sean M.; White, Timothy A.; Pitts, William Karl; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Seifert, Allen

    2017-07-01

    Imaging technology is generally considered too invasive for arms control inspections due to the concern that it cannot properly secure sensitive features of the inspected item. However, this same sensitive information, which could include direct information on the form and function of the items under inspection, could be used for robust arms control inspections. The single-pixel X-ray imager (SPXI) is introduced as a method to make such inspections, capturing the salient spatial information of an object in a secure manner while never forming an actual image. The method is built on the theory of compressive sensing and the single pixel optical camera. The performance of the system is quantified using simulated inspections of simple objects. Measures of the robustness and security of the method are introduced and used to determine how robust and secure such an inspection would be. In particular, it is found that an inspection with low noise ( 256 ×) exhibits high robustness and security.

  15. Single-Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor for Low-Power Low-Cost Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Jakobsen, Uffe

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new single-phase, Hybrid Switched Reluctance (HSR) motor for low-cost, low-power, pump or fan drive systems. Its single-phase configuration allows use of a simple converter to reduce the system cost. Cheap ferrite magnets are used and arranged in a special flux concentration...... manner to increase effectively the torque density and efficiency of this machine. The efficiency of this machine is comparable to the efficiency of a traditional permanent magnet machine in the similar power range. The cogging torque, due to the existence of the permanent magnetic field, is beneficially...... used to reduce the torque ripple and enable self-starting of the machine. The starting torque of this machine is significantly improved by a slight extension of the stator pole-arc. A prototype machine and a complete drive system has been manufactured and tested. Results are given in this paper....

  16. Highly efficient photonic nanowire single-photon sources for quantum information applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Claudon, J.; Munsch, M.

    2013-01-01

    must feature near-unity efficiency, where the efficiency is defined as the number of detected photons per trigger, the probability g(2)(τ=0) of multi-photon emission events should be 0 and the emitted photons are required to be indistinguishable. An optically or electrically triggered quantum light......Within the emerging field of optical quantum information processing, the current challenge is to construct the basic building blocks for the quantum computing and communication systems. A key component is the singlephoton source (SPS) capable of emitting single photons on demand. Ideally, the SPS...... emitter, e.g. a nitrogen-vacancy center or a semiconductor quantum dot (QD), embedded in a solid-state semiconductor host material appears as an attractive platform for generating such single photons. However, for a QD in bulk material, the large index contrast at the semiconductor-air interface leads...

  17. Application of Computer Program Carsim for Modelling Single and Double Lane Change Manoeuvres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artūras Žukas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the possibilities of using computer aided modelling programs for developing new cars to achieve better dynamical properties of control over vehicles. The article shortly reviews the behaviour of young and experienced drivers and models describing it. The paper covers the process of turning car steering wheel, considers acceptable values of lateral acceleration comfortable for a car driver and all car passengers and presents computer aided modelling program CarSim used for displaying single and double lane change manoeuvres at various speeds on dry asphalt. The given charts, including data about steering wheel angle and lateral acceleration values indicate single and double lane change manoeuvres performed by a car. Also, the values of longitudinal and lateral forces of each wheel during the double lane change manoeuvre are provided.

  18. A finite-strain homogenization model for viscoplastic porous single crystals: II - Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dawei; Ponte Castañeda, P.

    2017-10-01

    In part I of this work (Song and Ponte Castañeda, 2017a), a new homogenization-based constitutive model was developed for the finite-strain, macroscopic response of porous viscoplastic single crystals. In this second part, the new model is first used to investigate the instantaneous response and the evolution of the microstructure for porous FCC single crystals for a wide range of loading conditions. The loading orientation, Lode angle and stress triaxiality are found to have significant effects on the evolution of porosity and average void shape, which play crucial roles in determining the overall hardening/softening behavior of porous single crystals. The predictions of the model are found to be in fairly good agreement with numerical simulations available from the literature for all loadings considered, especially for low triaxiality conditions. The model is then used to investigate the strong effect of crystal anisotropy on the instantaneous response and the evolution of the microstructure for porous HCP single crystals. For uniaxial tension and compression, the overall hardening/softening behavior of porous HCP crystals is found to be controlled mostly by the evolution of void shape, and not so much by the evolution of porosity. In particular, porous HCP crystals exhibit overall hardening behavior with increasing porosity, while they exhibit overall softening behavior with decreasing porosity. This interesting behavior is consistent with corresponding results for porous FCC crystals, but is found to be more significant for porous HCP crystals with large anisotropy, such as porous ice, where the non-basal slip systems are much harder than the basal systems.

  19. Single and nested tungsten-wire-array dynamics and applications to inertial confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuneo, Michael

    2005-10-01

    Wire array z-pinches show great promise as x-ray sources for indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The double z-pinch hohlraum, for example, has produced capsule radiation drive symmetric to within 3%. This ICF concept will require that each of two 20-mm-diam arrays scale to x-ray powers ˜1 PW, to drive high-yield (>0.2 GJ) capsules to ignition. High-yield fusion will also require a temporally shaped radiation pulse to drive a low-entropy capsule implosion. Recently, improved understanding of high current (11-19 MA) single and nested wire-array dynamics has enabled significant progress towards these goals. As at lower currents, a single wire array (and both the outer and inner arrays of a nested system) shows a wire ablation phase, axial modulation of the ablation rate, a larger ablation rate for larger diameter wires, trailing mass and trailing current. These processes and others produce a broad mass profile that may impact the optimization of x-ray output for single and nested arrays. Our new insights into wire array physics have led to 20-mm-diam single and nested arrays with peak powers of 150-190 TW at implosion times of 55-90 ns, increased from 60-120 TW at 95-110 ns, improving power scaling. Radiation pulse shapes required for 3-shock isentropic compression of high-yield ICF capsules have also been demonstrated with nested wire arrays operating in current-transfer mode. In collaboration with: D.B. Sinars, R.A. Vesey, E.M. Waisman, W.A. Stygar, D.E. Bliss, S.V. Lebedev, J.P. Chittenden, P.V. Sasorov, R.W. Lemke, E.P. Yu, B.B. Afeyan, G.R. Bennett, M.G. Mazarakis, M.R. Lopez, M.E. Savage, J.L. Porter, T.A. Mehlhorn.

  20. A Study of Impulsive Multiterm Fractional Differential Equations with Single and Multiple Base Points and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the existence and uniqueness of solutions for initial value problems of nonlinear singular multiterm impulsive Caputo type fractional differential equations on the half line. Our study includes the cases for a single base point fractional differential equation as well as multiple base points fractional differential equation. The asymptotic behavior of solutions for the problems is also investigated. We demonstrate the utility of our work by applying the main results to fractional-order logistic models.

  1. Diagnostic merits of current and potential applications of single photon and positron imaging: a perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, P. V.

    1978-01-01

    A brief review of the limitations of medical radionuclide imaging techniques in competition with x-ray CAT scanning and ultrasound suggest that the emphasis in this are should be on measurement of the physiologic uptake of tracer materials. Tomography greatly improves the possibilities of quantitation of this uptake - examples using positron and single photon techniques are presented for /sup 13/NH/sub 3/ and /sup 201/Tl in the heart.

  2. Growth and characterisation of single crystals of ternary chalcogenides for laser applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isaenko, L.; Yelisseyev, A.; Zondy, J. J.; Knippels, G.; Thenot, I.; Lobanov, S.

    2001-01-01

    Bulk single crystals up to 20 mm in diameter and 40 mm long for LiInS2 and up to 10 mm, 20 mm, respectively, for LiInSe2 have been grown. Their colour changed from colourless to rose for the first one and from yellow to dark red for the other All crystals have wurtzite-type lattice (Pna2(1) space

  3. Prediction Methodology for Proton Single Event Burnout: Application to a STRIPFET Device

    CERN Document Server

    Siconolfi, Sara; Oser, Pascal; Spiezia, Giovanni; Hubert, Guillaume; David, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a single event burnout (SEB) sensitivity characterization for power MOSFETs, independent from tests, through a prediction model issued from TCAD analysis and the knowledge of device topology. The methodology is applied to a STRIPFET device and compared to proton data obtained at PSI, showing a good agreement in the order of magnitude of proton SEB cross section, and thus validating the prediction model as an alternative device characterization with respect to SEB.

  4. Investigation of applicability of extrapolation method for sample field determination in single-yoke measuring setup

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stupakov, Oleksandr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 307, - (2006), s. 279-287 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS100100508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetic measurement * open magnetic sample * surface field determination * single-yoke setup * magnetic non-destructive testing Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.212, year: 2006

  5. Single-cell gene-expression profiling and its potential diagnostic applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stahlberg, A.; Kubista, Mikael; Aman, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 7 (2011), s. 735-740 ISSN 1473-7159 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/10/1338; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/09/1752 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : gene-expression profiling * RT-qPCR * single-cell gene-expression profiling Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.859, year: 2011

  6. Clinical application of single-tooth replacement with ankylos implant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xu; Liu Xue; Zhang Heng; Deng Yan; Guo Zhaozhong; Zhang Yufeng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effects of Ankylos implant system to restore the loss of single-tooth. Methods: 90 cases with loss of single-tooth were selected and treated with routinely two-stage surgery. When the patients presented with deficient alveolar ridge, guided bone regeneration (GBR), osteotome sinus floor elevation, lateral antrostomy surgery with simultaneous placement of implant were applied. They were restored with platinum ceramic crown. All the implants were followed up, and the records were kept about stability of the implant and abutment, the status of surrounding soft tissue, sealability of implant abutment junction and the marginal bone lossing through X-ray checking,and satisfaction of the patients to mastication and aspect of the restorations. The follow-up time was 1-2.5 years. Results: Among the cases,one case had peri-implant inflammation, and one case had porcelain dropped. No loosening occurred in the other implants and abuments. Implant abutment junction was sealed well. The marginal bone loss 1 year after final restoration was less than 1 mm. Soft tissue surrounding implants was healthy. The satisfaction rate was 98.9% (89/90). According to standard of implant success, 88 cases were successful, the 2.5-year cumulative success rate was 97.8%, 2 cases failed, and the failure rate was 2.2 %. Conclusion: A satisfactory treatment effects could be gotten by using Ankylos implant system to restore the loss of single-tooth. (authors)

  7. Single-Trial Linear Correlation Analysis: Application to characterization of stimulus modality effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoforos eChristoforou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A key objective in systems and cognitive neuroscience is to establish associations between behavioral measures and concurrent neuronal activity. Single-trial analysis has been proposed as a novel method for characterizing such correlates by first extracting neural components that maximally discriminate trials on a categorical variable, (e.g., hard vs. easy, correct vs. incorrect etc., and then correlate those components to a continues dependent variable of interest , e.g. reaction time, difficulty Index, etc. However, often times in experiment design it is difficult to either define meaningful categorical variables, or to record enough trials for the method to extract the discriminant components. Experiments designed for the study of the effects of stimulus presentation modality in working memory provide such a scenario, as will be exemplified. In this paper, we proposed a new approach to single-trial analysis in which we directly extract neural activity that maximally correlates to single-trial manual response times; eliminating the need to define an arbitrary categorical variable. We demonstrate our method on real EEG data recordings from the study of stimulus presentation modality effect.

  8. Conductive Polymer Synthesis with Single-Crystallinity via a Novel Plasma Polymerization Technique for Gas Sensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon-Sang Park

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new nanostructured conductive polymer synthesis method that can grow the single-crystalline high-density plasma-polymerized nanoparticle structures by enhancing the sufficient nucleation and fragmentation of the pyrrole monomer using a novel atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ technique. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM results show that the plasma-polymerized pyrrole (pPPy nanoparticles have a fast deposition rate of 0.93 µm·min−1 under a room-temperature process and have single-crystalline characteristics with porous properties. In addition, the single-crystalline high-density pPPy nanoparticle structures were successfully synthesized on the glass, plastic, and interdigitated gas sensor electrode substrates using a novel plasma polymerization technique at room temperature. To check the suitability of the active layer for the fabrication of electrochemical toxic gas sensors, the resistance variations of the pPPy nanoparticles grown on the interdigitated gas sensor electrodes were examined by doping with iodine. As a result, the proposed APPJ device could obtain the high-density and ultra-fast single-crystalline pPPy thin films for various gas sensor applications. This work will contribute to the design of highly sensitive gas sensors adopting the novel plasma-polymerized conductive polymer as new active layer.

  9. Single basal application of thiacloprid for the integrated management of Meloidogyne incognita and Bemisia tabaci in tomato crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Sa; Ren, Xiaofen; Zhang, Dianli; Ji, Xiaoxue; Wang, Kaiyun; Qiao, Kang

    2017-01-01

    Tomato growers commonly face heavy nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and whitefly (B-biotype Bemisia tabaci) infestations, and previous studies demonstrated that thiacloprid could be used to control M. incognita and B. tabaci in cucumber. However, the efficacy of a single basal application of thiacloprid to control both pests and its effect on yield in tomato remains unknown. In this study, the potential of thiacloprid application to the soil for the integrated control of M. incognita and B. tabaci in tomato was evaluated in the laboratory and the field. Laboratory tests showed that thiacloprid was highly toxic to whitefly adults and eggs with an average lethal concentration 50 (LC50) of 14.7 and 62.2 mg ai L-1, respectively, and the LC50 of thiacloprid for nematode J2s and eggs averaged 36.2 and 70.4 mg ai L-1, respectively. In field trials, when thiacloprid was applied to the soil at 7.5, 15 and 30 kg ha-1 in two consecutive years, whitefly adults decreased by 37.8-75.4% within 60 days of treatment, and the root-galling index was reduced by 31.8-85.2%. Optimum tomato plant growth and maximum yields were observed in the 15 kg ha-1 treatment. The results indicated that a single basal application of thiacloprid could control M. incognita and B. tabaci and enhance tomato growth and yield.

  10. Indirect Matrix Converter for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Application with Three-Phase and Single-Phase Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeongsu Bak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an indirect matrix converter (IMC topology for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV application with three-phase and single-phase outputs. The HEV includes mechanical, electrical, control, and electrochemical systems among others. In the mechanical system, a traction motor and a compressor motor are used to drive the HEV. The traction motor and the compressor motor are usually operated as three-phase and single-phase motors, respectively. In this respect, a dual AC-drive system can operate the traction and the compressor motor simultaneously. Furthermore, compared to a conventional dual matrix converter system, the proposed topology can reduce the number of switches that the dual outputs share with a DC-link. The application of this system for HEV has advantages, like long lifetime and reduced volume due to the lack of a DC-link. The proposed control strategy and modulation schemes ensure the sinusoidal input and output waveforms and bidirectional power transmission. The proposed system for the HEV application is verified by simulation and experiments.

  11. Applications of a single-molecule detection in early disease diagnosis and enzymatic reaction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jiangwei [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Various single-molecule techniques were utilized for ultra-sensitive early diagnosis of viral DNA and antigen and basic mechanism study of enzymatic reactions. DNA of human papilloma virus (HPV) served as the screening target in a flow system. Alexa Fluor 532 (AF532) labeled single-stranded DNA probes were hybridized to the target HPV-16 DNA in solution. The individual hybridized molecules were imaged with an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) in two ways. In the single-color mode, target molecules were detected via fluorescence from hybridized probes only. This system could detect HPV-16 DNA in the presence of human genomic DNA down to 0.7 copy/cell and had a linear dynamic range of over 6 orders of magnitude. In the dual-color mode, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was employed to achieve zero false-positive count. We also showed that DNA extracts from Pap test specimens did not interfere with the system. A surface-based method was used to improve the throughput of the flow system. HPV-16 DNA was hybridized to probes on a glass surface and detected with a total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscope. In the single-probe mode, the whole genome and target DNA were fluorescently labeled before hybridization, and the detection limit is similar to the flow system. In the dual-probe mode, a second probe was introduced. The linear dynamic range covers 1.44-7000 copies/cell, which is typical of early infection to near-cancer stages. The dual-probe method was tested with a crudely prepared sample. Even with reduced hybridization efficiency caused by the interference of cellular materials, we were still able to differentiate infected cells from healthy cells. Detection and quantification of viral antigen with a novel single-molecule immunosorbent assay (SMISA) was achieved. Antigen from human immunodeficiency virus type 1(HIV-1) was chosen to be the target in this study. The target was sandwiched between a monoclonal capture antibody and a

  12. Completeness and accuracy of WWW-based catalogues of medical E-learning modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stausberg, Jürgen; Bludssat, Kevin; Geueke, Martin

    2005-09-01

    Catalogues of medical E-learning modules offer easy access to learning material that is available on the World Wide Web (WWW) free of charge. Therefore, a study was conducted on the retrieval performance of four WWW-based catalogues: CAL reviews, KELDAmed, LMU, and LRSMed. LRSMed is run by the authors. Completeness was calculated pairwise. Two reviewers checked the availability of 80 modules independently. Five criteria were chosen to calculate accuracy: gynaecology and microbiology as medical fields; case study as type of learning resource; diabetes mellitus and AIDS as free-text diagnoses. Also, two reviewers evaluated independently whether the module is really an appropriate resource for that criterion or not. The analysis is based on a consensual decision about the correct votes. From the URLs, 93% were available at the evaluation of completeness, 92% at the evaluation of accuracy. The kappa values for inter-rater reliability were 0.83 and 0.36. The best service offers 60.8% of the pooled E-learning resources. The resources retrieved by the five criteria were rated as correct in 69.3% (LRSMed), 76.6% (KELDAmed), and 82.7% (CAL reviews). The overall accuracy was 76.7%. Medical students and other potential users of E-learning modules should be aware that the completeness of WWW-based catalogues in this area is not satisfying. The retrieval accuracy is better; four of five resources offered correspond with the search criterion. Up to now, most of the services miss an application-programming interface that could be used for a meta-search to improve completeness.

  13. Dual rotor single- stator axial air gap PMSM motor/generator drive for high torque vehicles applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutelea, L. N.; Deaconu, S. I.; Boldea, I.; Popa, G. N.

    2014-03-01

    The actual e - continuously variable transmission (e-CVT) solution for the parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) requires two electric machines, two inverters, and a planetary gear. A distinct electric generator and a propulsion electric motor, both with full power converters, are typical for a series HEV. In an effort to simplify the planetary-geared e-CVT for the parallel HEV or the series HEV we hereby propose to replace the basically two electric machines and their two power converters by a single, axial-air-gap, electric machine central stator, fed from a single PWM converter with dual frequency voltage output and two independent PM rotors, destined for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and military vehicles applications. The proposed topologies and the magneto-motive force analysis are the core of the paper.

  14. PENGEMBANGAN APLIKASI JUAL DAN CARI PROPERTI PADA WEBSITE WWW.IDAMAN.COM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Gunadi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, many property's sellers and buyers are still using newspaper as an advertisement for sellers, and as an information for buyers. Actually they find that newspapers are not reliable enough, because when they lost their newspaper, they will lose any information related to them. Furthermore, searching properties newspapers are not efficient enough and it takes much time to find any information they want. An application to sell and find property based on the web using database to save information related to them, will make easier for buyers and sellers to find the information, compared ti newspaper. They can find it directly and quickly thru the Internet using find and search facilities. This application, uses database server MySQL as a database making, PHP4 as a programming language, and Linux as the operating system. The facilities in www.idaman.com are find and search properties, member registration, and member area. The result in this application's testing shows that the application runs normally and it can be accessed in different places in the world using the Internet. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Pada umumnya para penjual maupun calon pembeli properti masih menggunakan cara yang lama, dimana para penjual dan calon pembeli masih menggunakan koran sebagai alat perantara. Apabila koran tersebut sudah hilang maka penjual maupun pencari tidak dapat mencari informasi diperlukan. Selain itu pencarian properti menggunakan koran kurang praktis. Pengembangan suatu aplikasi jual dan cari properti berbasis web dengan menggunakan database untuk menyimpan data-data properti yang akan dijual, dapat memudahkan pencari informasi properti untuk menjual dan membeli properti dibandingkan menggunakan koran, karena dengan adanya fasilitas cari atau search sangat membantu dalam pencarian properti. Pada aplikasi ini dilakukan pembuatan database dengan menggunakan database server MySQL dan perancangan bahasa pemrograman dengan menggunakan bahasa pemrograman

  15. Single-mode interband cascade laser sources for mid-infrared spectroscopic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, J.; von Edlinger, M.; Weih, R.; Becker, S.; Nähle, L.; Fischer, M.; Koeth, J.; Kamp, M.; Höfling, S.

    2016-05-01

    Compared to the near infrared, many technologically and industrially relevant gas species have more than an order of magnitude higher absorption features in the mid-infrared (MIR) wavelength range. These species include for example important hydrocarbons (methane, acetylene), nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. Tunable laser absorption spectroscopy (TLAS) has proven to be a versatile tool for gas sensing applications with significant advantages compared to other techniques. These advantages include real time measurement, standoff detection and ruggedness of the sensor. We present interband cascade lasers (ICLs), which have evolved into important laser sources for the MIR spectral range from 3 to 7 μm. ICLs achieve high efficiency by cascading optically active zones whilst using interband transitions, so they combine common diode laser as well as quantum cascade laser based technologies. Our application grade singlemode distributed feedback devices operate continuous wave at room temperature and are offering several features especially useful for high performance TLAS applications like: side mode suppression ratio of > 30 dB, continuous tuning ranges up to 30 nm, low threshold power densities and low overall power consumption. The devices are typically integrated in a thermoelectrically cooled TO-style package, hermetically sealed using a cap with anti-reflection coated window. This low power consumption as well as the compact size and ruggedness of the fabricated laser sources makes them perfectly suited for battery powered portable solutions for in field spectroscopy applications.

  16. Automated high-dose rate brachytherapy treatment planning for a single-channel vaginal cylinder applicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuhong; Klages, Peter; Tan, Jun; Chi, Yujie; Stojadinovic, Strahinja; Yang, Ming; Hrycushko, Brian; Medin, Paul; Pompos, Arnold; Jiang, Steve; Albuquerque, Kevin; Jia, Xun

    2017-06-01

    High dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy treatment planning is conventionally performed manually and/or with aids of preplanned templates. In general, the standard of care would be elevated by conducting an automated process to improve treatment planning efficiency, eliminate human error, and reduce plan quality variations. Thus, our group is developing AutoBrachy, an automated HDR brachytherapy planning suite of modules used to augment a clinical treatment planning system. This paper describes our proof-of-concept module for vaginal cylinder HDR planning that has been fully developed. After a patient CT scan is acquired, the cylinder applicator is automatically segmented using image-processing techniques. The target CTV is generated based on physician-specified treatment depth and length. Locations of the dose calculation point, apex point and vaginal surface point, as well as the central applicator channel coordinates, and the corresponding dwell positions are determined according to their geometric relationship with the applicator and written to a structure file. Dwell times are computed through iterative quadratic optimization techniques. The planning information is then transferred to the treatment planning system through a DICOM-RT interface. The entire process was tested for nine patients. The AutoBrachy cylindrical applicator module was able to generate treatment plans for these cases with clinical grade quality. Computation times varied between 1 and 3 min on an Intel Xeon CPU E3-1226 v3 processor. All geometric components in the automated treatment plans were generated accurately. The applicator channel tip positions agreed with the manually identified positions with submillimeter deviations and the channel orientations between the plans agreed within less than 1 degree. The automatically generated plans obtained clinically acceptable quality.

  17. Single dose intratympanic mesna application inhibits propylene glycol induced cholesteatoma formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismi, O; Karabulut, Y Y; Bal, K K; Vayisoglu, Y; Unal, M

    2017-03-01

    Mesna (i.e. sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate; C2H5NaO3S2) has been used in otological surgery such as cholesteatoma dissection and tympanic membrane lateralisation in atelectatic ears. However, this study aimed to investigate its effect on cholesteatoma formation. A total of 20 Wistar rats were divided into two groups of 10 animals. The right and left ears of control animals were treated with saline (saline control group; n = 10 ears) and propylene glycol plus saline (propylene glycol control group; n = 10 ears), respectively. In the mesna group, both ears were treated with propylene glycol plus mesna (n = 20 ears). On days 1, 8 and 15, the saline control group had intratympanic injections of 0.2 ml saline and the propylene glycol control and mesna groups had intratympanic injections of 0.2 ml 100 per cent propylene glycol. On day 22, the propylene glycol control group had a single intratympanic injection of 0.2 ml saline and the mesna group had a single intratympanic injection of 10 per cent mesna. Animals were killed 12 weeks after the last injection and the temporal bones were sent for histopathological evaluation. The cholesteatoma formation rate was 88 per cent in the propylene glycol control group, but was significantly lower in the mesna group (p = 0.01). There were no significant differences in granulation tissue formation (p = 0.498), cyst formation in the bulla (p = 0.381), fibrosis (p = 0.072) and epithelial hyperplasia (p = 0.081) among experimental groups. Intratympanic propylene glycol administration is an effective method of promoting experimental cholesteatoma formation. Administration of a single dose of intratympanic mesna inhibited cholesteatoma formation in an animal model.

  18. Application of Viral Systems for Single-Machine Total Weighted Tardiness Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santosa, Budi; Affandi, Umar

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a relatively new algorithm inspired by the viral replication system called Viral Systems is used to solve the Single-Machine Total Weighted Tardiness (SMTWTP). SMTWTP is a job scheduling problem which is one of classical combinatorial problems known as np-hard problems. This algorithm makes the process of finding solutions through neighborhood and mutation mechanism. The experiment was conducted to evaluate its performance. There are seven parameters which are required to tune in to find best solution. The experiment was implemented on data sets of 40 jobs, 50 jobs, and 100 jobs. The results show that the algorithm can solve 235 optimally out of 275 problems.

  19. EIGER: Next generation single photon counting detector for X-ray applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinapoli, Roberto; Bergamaschi, Anna; Henrich, Beat; Horisberger, Roland; Johnson, Ian; Mozzanica, Aldo; Schmid, Elmar; Schmitt, Bernd; Schreiber, Akos; Shi, Xintian; Theidel, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    EIGER is an advanced family of single photon counting hybrid pixel detectors, primarily aimed at diffraction experiments at synchrotrons. Optimization of maximal functionality and minimal pixel size (using a 0.25μm process and conserving the radiation tolerant design) has resulted in 75x75μm 2 pixels. Every pixel comprises a preamplifier, shaper, discriminator (with a 6 bit DAC for threshold trimming), a configurable 4/8/12 bit counter with double buffering, as well as readout, control and test circuitry. A novel feature of this chip is its double buffered counter, meaning a next frame can be acquired while the previous one is being readout. An array of 256x256 pixels fits on a ∼2x2cm 2 chip and a sensor of ∼8x4cm 2 will be equipped with eight readout chips to form a module containing 0.5 Mpixel. Several modules can then be tiled to form larger area detectors. Detectors up to 4x8 modules (16 Mpixel) are planned. To achieve frame rates of up to 24 kHz the readout architecture is highly parallel, and the chip readout happens in parallel on 32 readout lines with a 100 MHz Double Data Rate clock. Several chips and singles (i.e. a single chip bump-bonded to a single chip silicon sensor) were tested both with a lab X-ray source and at Swiss Light Source (SLS) beamlines. These tests demonstrate the full functionality of the chip and provide a first assessment of its performance. High resolution X-ray images and 'high speed movies' were produced, even without threshold trimming, at the target system frame rates (up to ∼24kHz in 4 bit mode). In parallel, dedicated hardware, firmware and software had to be developed to comply with the enormous data rate the chip is capable of delivering. Details of the chip design and tests will be given, as well as highlights of both test and final readout systems.

  20. Application of optical single-sideband laser in Raman atom interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lingxiao; Lien, Yu-Hung; Hinton, Andrew; Niggebaum, Alexander; Rammeloo, Clemens; Bongs, Kai; Holynski, Michael

    2018-03-01

    A frequency doubled I/Q modulator based optical single-sideband (OSSB) laser system is demonstrated for atomic physics research, specifically for atom interferometry where the presence of additional sidebands causes parasitic transitions. The performance of the OSSB technique and the spectrum after second harmonic generation are measured and analyzed. The additional sidebands are removed with better than 20 dB suppression, and the influence of parasitic transitions upon stimulated Raman transitions at varying spatial positions is shown to be removed beneath experimental noise. This technique will facilitate the development of compact atom interferometry based sensors with improved accuracy and reduced complexity.

  1. Dice Similarity Measure between Single Valued Neutrosophic Multisets and Its Application in Medical Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Ye

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the concept of a single valued neutrosophic multiset (SVNM as a generalization of an intuitionistic fuzzy multiset (IFM and some basic operational relations of SVNMs, and then proposes the Dice similarity measure and the weighted Dice similarity measure for SVNMs and investigates their properties. Fi nally, the Dice similarity measure is applied to a medical diagnosis problem with SVNM information. This diagnosis method can deal with the medical diagnosis problem with indeterminate and inconsistent information which cannot be handled by the diagnosis method based on IFMs.

  2. Mass Spectrometry of Single Particles Levitated in an Electrodynamic Balance: Applications to Laboratory Atmospheric Chemistry Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsall, A.; Krieger, U. K.; Keutsch, F. N.

    2017-12-01

    Dynamic changes to atmospheric aerosol particle composition (e.g., originating from evaporation/condensation, oxidative aging, or aqueous-phase chemical reactions) impact particle properties with importance for understanding particle effects on climate and human health. These changes can take place over the entire lifetime of an atmospheric particle, which can extend over multiple days. Previous laboratory studies of such processes have included analyzing single particles suspended in a levitation device, such as an electrodynamic balance (EDB), an optical levitator, or an acoustic trap, using optical detection techniques. However, studying chemically complex systems can require an analytical method, such as mass spectrometry, that provides more molecular specificity. Existing work coupling particle levitation with mass spectrometry is more limited and largely has consisted of acoustic levitation of millimeter-sized droplets.In this work an EDB has been coupled with a custom-built ionization source and commercial time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MS) as a platform for laboratory atmospheric chemistry research. Single charged particles (radius 10 μm) have been injected into an EDB, levitated for an arbitrarily long period of time, and then transferred to a vaporization-corona discharge ionization region for MS analysis. By analyzing a series of particles of identical composition, residing in the controlled environment of the EDB for varying times, we can trace the chemical evolution of a particle over hours or days, appropriate timescales for understanding transformations of atmospheric particles.To prove the concept of our EDB-MS system, we have studied the evaporation of particles consisting of polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules of mixed chain lengths, used as a benchmark system. Our system can quantify the composition of single particles (see Figure for sample spectrum of a single PEG-200 particle: PEG parent ions labeled with m/z, known PEG fragment ions

  3. Study of zinc electrodes for single flow zinc/nickel battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Cheng, Jie; Yang, Yu-sheng; Wen, Yue-hua; Wang, Xin-dong; Cao, Gao-ping

    Zinc deposition from alkaline zincate solution in single flow zinc/nickel battery has been investigated. The effect of different substrates such as copper, cadmium and lead were examined by using cyclic voltammetry and cathodic polarization technique. It was found that the cadmium substrate is better than the others. Zinc deposition was carried out by using galvanostatic technique, and the deposits were examined by SEM. The results demonstrated that there is no zinc dendrite on the cadmium substrate in flowing electrolyte. Coulombic and voltage efficiencies of 98 and 88%, respectively, are obtained in a small laboratory cell.

  4. Application of the Single Hardening Model in the Finite Element Program ABAQUS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    or in combined deformation and flow problems. Today, many of these problems are solved using various finite element computer softwares, capable of handling both geometric and material non-linearities. The latter is especially important in soil mechanics and soil-structure interaction problems. Despite the feat...... model, developed by Lade and Kim (Kim & Lade 1988, Lade & Kim 1988a, Lade & Kim 1988b) is implemented as a user defined material module, UMAT, in the commercial finite element program, ABAQUS. The advantages of the Single Hardening Model Iie in its ability to predict elastic and plastic displacements...

  5. Extending the performance of single-degree-of-freedom rate integrating gyros in strapdown applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, G. N.

    This paper examines the constraints upon a typical manufacturer of gyros and strapdown systems. It describes that while being responsive to exchange and keeping abreast of 'state of the art' technology, there are many reasons why the manufacturer must satisfy the market using existing technology and production equipment. The Single-Degree-of-Freedom Rate Integrating Gyro is a well established product, yet is capable of achieving far higher performances than originally envisaged due to modelling and characterization within digital strapdown systems. The parameters involved are discussed, and a description given of the calibration process undertaken on a strapdown system being manufactured in a production environment in batch quantities.

  6. Shape-engineerable and highly densely packed single-walled carbon nanotubes and their application as super-capacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futaba, Don N; Hata, Kenji; Yamada, Takeo; Hiraoka, Tatsuki; Hayamizu, Yuhei; Kakudate, Yozo; Tanaike, Osamu; Hatori, Hiroaki; Yumura, Motoo; Iijima, Sumio

    2006-12-01

    We present a rational and general method to fabricate a high-densely packed and aligned single-walled carbon-nanotube (SWNT) material by using the zipping effect of liquids to draw tubes together. This bulk carbon-nanotube material retains the intrinsic properties of individual SWNTs, such as high surface area, flexibility and electrical conductivity. By controlling the fabrication process, it is possible to fabricate a wide range of solids in numerous shapes and structures. This dense SWNT material is advantageous for numerous applications, and here we demonstrate its use as flexible heaters as well as supercapacitor electrodes for compact energy-storage devices.

  7. Social validity in single-case research: A systematic literature review of prevalence and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Melinda R; Chung, Moon Y; Meadan, Hedda; Halle, James W

    2018-03-01

    Single-case research (SCR) has been a valuable methodology in special education research. Montrose Wolf (1978), an early pioneer in single-case methodology, coined the term "social validity" to refer to the social importance of the goals selected, the acceptability of procedures employed, and the effectiveness of the outcomes produced in applied investigations. Since 1978, many contributors to SCR have included social validity as a feature of their articles and several authors have examined the prevalence and role of social validity in SCR. We systematically reviewed all SCR published in six highly-ranked special education journals from 2005 to 2016 to establish the prevalence of social validity assessments and to evaluate their scientific rigor. We found relatively low, but stable prevalence with only 28 publications addressing all three factors of the social validity construct (i.e., goals, procedures, outcomes). We conducted an in-depth analysis of the scientific rigor of these 28 publications. Social validity remains an understudied construct in SCR, and the scientific rigor of social validity assessments is often lacking. Implications and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Single photon emission tomography in neurological studies: Instrumentation and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikkinen, P.

    1999-01-01

    One triple head and two single head gamma camera systems were used for single photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging of both patients and brain phantoms. Studies with an anatomical brain phantom were performed for evaluation of reconstruction and correction methods in brain perfusion SPET studies. The use of the triple head gamma camera system resulted in a significant increase in image contrast and resolution. This was mainly due to better imaging geometry and the use of a high resolution collimator. The conventional Chang attenuation correction was found suitable for the brain perfusion studies. In the brain perfusion studies region of interest (ROI) based semiquantitation methods were used. A ROI map based on anatomical areas was used in 70 elderly persons (age range 55-85 years) without neurological diseases and in patients suffering from encephalitis or having had a cardiac arrest. Semiquantitative reference values are presented. For the 14 patients with encephalitis the right-to-left side differences were calculated. Defect volume indexes were calculated for 64 patients with brain infarcts. For the 30 cardiac arrest patients the defect percentages and the anteroposterior ratios were used for semiquantitation. It is concluded that different semiquantitation methods are needed for the various patient groups. Age-related reference values will improve the interpretation of SPET data. For validation of the basal ganglia receptor studies measurements were performed using a cylindrical and an anatomical striatal phantom. In these measurements conventional and transmission imaging based non-uniform attenuation corrections were compared. A calibration curve was calculated for the determination of the specific receptor uptake ratio. In the phantom studies using the triple head camera the uptake ratio obtained from simultaneous transmission-emission protocol (STEP) acquisition and iterative reconstruction was closest to the true activity ratio. Conventional

  9. Application of Gauss-Seidel multilevel control to a single axis torsional model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichester, F. D.

    1981-01-01

    An approach to the application of multilevel control techniques for large space structures is presented. Gauss-Seidel second level controls and an extension of standard linear quadratic regulator techniques are applied to a model consisting of a flexible space vehicle comprising three rigid bodies rotating about a common axis. The method incorporates second order derivatives with respect to time, entailing the use of a two level hierarchy of subsystems. Gauss-Seidel second level control formulations were chosen to avoid the necessity of having as many controls as constraints or using gradient techniques in the choice of the Hamiltonian. The modular nature of the resulting control system allows applications for spacecraft with larger numbers of modules.

  10. Simulasi Saham Berbasis Web dengan Teknologi Virtual Private Network di Portal Www.Kontan.Co.Id

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Verasius Dian Sano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to develop a web-based-online-stock-simulation application applying Virtual Private Network (VPN technology. The web-based application is prefered for user’s convenience and comfort since it does not require any software to be installed on the client side and is also accessable anywhere and anytime with internet connection availability. The application is developed by means of analysis and design towards the technology needed to establish the connectivity between servers through internet as well as database analysis and design. The data are real time derived from the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX and forwarded through an official data vendor PT XYZ. Data from the IDX will be captured by a middleware application at PT XYZ and forwarded to www.kontan.co.id. This application has been tested and succesfully run by around 700 users. This tool is expected to provide a kind of education and motivation to beginner-level investors who want to be engaged with the stock-trading activities. 

  11. Preparation and applications of mechanically exfoliated single-layer and multilayer MoS₂ and WSe₂ nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai; Wu, Jumiati; Yin, Zongyou; Zhang, Hua

    2014-04-15

    Although great progress has been achieved in the study of graphene, the small current ON/OFF ratio in graphene-based field-effect transistors (FETs) limits its application in the fields of conventional transistors or logic circuits for low-power electronic switching. Recently, layered transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) materials, especially MoS2, have attracted increasing attention. In contrast to its bulk material with an indirect band gap, a single-layer (1L) MoS2 nanosheet is a semiconductor with a direct band gap of ~1.8 eV, which makes it a promising candidate for optoelectronic applications due to the enhancement of photoluminescence and high current ON/OFF ratio. Compared with TMD nanosheets prepared by chemical vapor deposition and liquid exfoliation, mechanically exfoliated ones possess pristine, clean, and high-quality structures, which are suitable for the fundamental study and potential applications based on their intrinsic thickness-dependent properties. In this Account, we summarize our recent research on the preparation, characterization, and applications of 1L and multilayer MoS2 and WSe2 nanosheets produced by mechanical exfoliation. During the preparation of nanosheets, we proposed a simple optical identification method to distinguish 1L and multilayer MoS2 and WSe2 nanosheets on a Si substrate coated with 90 and 300 nm SiO2. In addition, we used Raman spectroscopy to characterize mechanically exfoliated 1L and multilayer WSe2 nanosheets. For the first time, a new Raman peak at 308 cm(-1) was observed in the spectra of WSe2 nanosheets except for the 1L WSe2 nanosheet. Importantly, we found that the 1L WSe2 nanosheet is very sensitive to the laser power during characterization. The high power laser-induced local oxidation of WSe2 nanosheets and single crystals was monitored by Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Hexagonal and monoclinic structured WO3 thin films were obtained from the local oxidization of single- to triple

  12. The single photon diagnosis and the therapy applications in nuclear oncology: past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giammarile, F.

    2005-01-01

    The principal applications of the nuclear medicine concern the diagnosis. It can be added the information in the evaluation of the therapy response and in the evaluation of a future risk. The potential of development in nuclear medicine is in new radiopharmaceuticals, especially new pathophysiologic information can be gotten every time a new molecule is discovered and one of the principal aims of diagnostic imaging is the in vivo tissue characterization. (N.C.)

  13. NASA Parts Selection List (NPSL) WWW Site http://nepp.nasa.gov/npsl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusse, Jay

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Parts Selection List (NPSL) is an on-line resource for electronic parts selection tailored for use by spaceflight projects. The NPSL provides a list of commonly used electronic parts that have a history of satisfactory use in spaceflight applications. The objective of this www site is to provide NASA projects, contractors, university experimenters, et al with an easy to use resource that provides a baseline of electronic parts from which designers are encouraged to select. The NPSL is an ongoing resource produced by Code 562 in support of the NASA HQ funded NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program. The NPSL is produced as an electronic format deliverable made available via the referenced www site administered by Code 562. The NPSL does not provide information pertaining to patented or proprietary information. All of the information contained in the NPSL is available through various other public domain resources such as US Military procurement specifications for electronic parts, NASA GSFC's Preferred Parts List (PPL-21), and NASA's Standard Parts List (MIL-STD975).

  14. www.elearnSCI.org: a global educational initiative of ISCoS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, H S; Harvey, L A; Muldoon, S; Chaudhary, S; Arora, M; Brown, D J; Biering-Sorensen, F; Wyndaele, J J; Charlifue, S; Horsewell, J; Ducharme, S; Green, D; Simpson, D; Glinsky, J; Weerts, E; Upadhyay, N; Aito, S; Wing, P; Katoh, S; Kovindha, A; Krassioukov, A; Weeks, C; Srikumar, V; Reeves, R; Siriwardane, C; Hasnan, N; Kalke, Y B; Lanig, I

    2013-03-01

    To develop a web-based educational resource for health professionals responsible for the management of spinal cord injury (SCI). The resource:www.elearnSCI.org is comprised of seven learning modules, each subdivided into various submodules. Six of the seven modules address the educational needs of all disciplines involved in comprehensive SCI management. The seventh module addresses prevention of SCI. Each submodule includes an overview, activities, self-assessment questions and references. Three hundred and thirty-two experts from The International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) and various affiliated societies from 36 countries were involved in developing the resource through 28 subcommittees. The content of each submodule was reviewed and approved by the Education and Scientific Committees of ISCoS and finally by an Editorial Committee of 23 experts. The content of the learning modules is relevant to students and to new as well as experienced SCI healthcare professionals. The content is applicable globally, has received consumer input and is available at no cost. The material is presented on a website underpinned by a sophisticated content-management system, which allows easy maintenance and ready update of all the content. The resource conforms to key principles of e-learning, including appropriateness of curriculum, engagement of learners, innovative approaches, effective learning, ease of use, inclusion, assessment, coherence, consistency, transparency, cost effectiveness and feedback. www.elearnSCI.org provides a cost effective way of training healthcare professionals that goes beyond the textbook and traditional face-to-face teaching.

  15. Photonic-crystal membranes for optical detection of single nano-particles, designed for biosensor application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grepstad, Jon Olav; Kaspar, Peter; Solgaard, Olav; Johansen, Ib-Rune; Sudbø, Aasmund S

    2012-03-26

    A sensor designed to detect bio-molecules is presented. The sensor exploits a planar 2D photonic crystal (PC) membrane with sub-micron thickness and through holes, to induce high optical fields that allow detection of nano-particles smaller than the diffraction limit of an optical microscope. We report on our design and fabrication of a PC membrane with a nano-particle trapped inside. We have also designed and built an imaging system where an optical microscope and a CCD camera are used to take images of the PC membrane. Results show how the trapped nano-particle appears as a bright spot in the image. In a first experimental realization of the imaging system, single particles with a radius of 75 nm can be detected.

  16. An ultrafast NbN hot-electron single-photon detector for electronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipatov, A; Okunev, O; Smirnov, K; Chulkova, G; Korneev, A; Kouminov, P; Gol'tsman, G; Zhang, J; Slysz, W; Verevkin, A; Sobolewski, R

    2002-01-01

    We present the latest generation of our superconducting single-photon detector (SPD), which can work from ultraviolet to mid-infrared optical radiation wavelengths. The detector combines a high speed of operation and low jitter with high quantum efficiency (QE) and very low dark count level. The technology enhancement allows us to produce ultrathin (3.5 nm thick) structures that demonstrate QE hundreds of times better, at 1.55 μm, than previous 10 nm thick SPDs. The best, 10x10 μm 2 , SPDs demonstrate QE up to 5% at 1.55 μm and up to 11% at 0.86 μm. The intrinsic detector QE, normalized to the film absorption coefficient, reaches 100% at bias currents above 0.9 I c for photons with wavelengths shorter than 1.3 μm

  17. Potential new approaches for the development of brain imaging agents for single-photon applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Srivastava, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes new strategies for the brain-specific delivery of radionuclides that can be used to evaluate regional cerebral perfusion by single photon imaging techniques. A description of several examples of interesting new strategies that have recently been reported is presented. A new approach at this institution for the brain-specific delivery of radioiodinated iodophenylalkyl-substituted dihyronicotinamide systems is described which shows good brain uptake and retention in preliminary studies in rats. Following transport into the brain these agents appear to undergo facile intracerebral oxidation to the quaternized analogues which do not recross the intact blood-brain barrier and so are effectively trapped in the brain. 49 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  18. A single of MR sponge tactile sensor design for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seung-Woo; Kang, Seok-Rae; Hwang, Yong-Hoon; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2017-04-01

    Recently, it is very popular in medical field to adopt robot surgery such as robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RMIS). However, there are some problems in the robot surgery. It is very hard to get the touch feeling of the organs during the surgical operation because the surgeons cannot touch and feel repulsive force from the organs directly. So, this work proposes a squeeze mode of single magneto-rheological (MR) sponge to realize viscoelastic property of human organs or skins and undertake a theoretical analysis of MR sponge. In addition, its effectiveness is verified through experimental tests. The similarity between MR sponge and real organs is identified and desired repulsive force of each organs can be achieved by proper selection of MR sponge cell associated with controlled input current.

  19. Acoustically segmented photonic crystal fiber for single-frequency high-power laser applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Craig; Dajani, Iyad

    2011-07-15

    The Brillouin gain characteristics of a Yb-doped polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber possessing a segmented acoustic profile are investigated using a pump-probe technique. The concentrations of fluorine, aluminum, and germanium in two regions of the core were selected, such that the corresponding Brillouin shifts were sufficiently separated to allow for the introduction of a temperature profile along the fiber for further stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression. By using a cutback technique to measure loss, we estimated the Brillouin gain coefficient to be 1.2×10(-11) m/W. Despite differences in the concentration levels of dopants between the two segments, there was no evidence of a development of an optical interface. When this fiber was utilized in a counterpumped amplifier configuration, close to 500 W of near-diffraction-limited single-frequency output was obtained. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  20. Application of single cell gel electrophoresis in post-evaluation of organism radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Lin; Mu Wanjun; Liu Guoping; Xu Yunshu; Luo Shunzhong; Gao Qingxiang

    2009-01-01

    The transient irradiation-caused DNA damage in the human peripheral blood lymphocytes,mouse peripheral blood lymphocytes and alive mouse irradiated by α-ray and γ-ray was investigated, and the single cell gel electrophoresis(SCGE, Comet Assay) was used to detect the extent of DNA damage. On this basis, the dose-effect curve and the evaluating method for radiant after-effect were established, the absorbed dose of alive mouse A irradiated by γ-rays was computed. The results indicate that not only the dose-effect can be described by using SCGE, but also the dose-computed after organism irradiated by radiant rays is achieved with it, and SCGE may be used as a new biological dosimeter. (authors)

  1. Application of single cell gel electrophoresis in post-evaluation of organism radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Lin; Mu Wanjun; Liu Guoping; Xu Yunshu; Gao Qingxiang

    2007-01-01

    The immediate irradiation-caused DNA damage in the human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes, mouse Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes and alive mouse irradiated by α-Rays and γ-rays was investigated, and the single cell gel electrophoresis(SCGE, Comet Assay) was used to detect the extent of DNA damage. On this base, the dose-effect curve and the evaluating method for radiant aftereffect were established, the absorbed does of alive mouse A irradiated by γ-rays was computed. The results indicated that not only the does-effect could be described by using SCGE, but also the does-computed after organism irradiated by radiant rays was achieved with it, and SCGE might be used as a new biological dosimeter. (authors)

  2. Putting prions into focus: application of single molecule detection to the diagnosis of prion diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, A; Bieschke, J; Eigen, M; Kretzschmar, H A

    2000-01-01

    Prion diseases are characterized by the cerebral deposition of an aggregated pathological isoform of the prion protein (PrP(Sc)) which constitutes the principal component of the transmissible agent termed prion. In order to develop a highly sensitive method for the detection of PrP(Sc) aggregates in biological samples such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), we used a method based on Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS), a technique which allows detection of single fluorescently labeled molecules in solution. Within the FCS setup, fluorescent photons emitted by molecules passing an open volume element defined by the beam of an excitation laser focussed into a diffraction-limited spot are imaged confocally onto a single photon counting detector. Aggregates of PrP(Sc) could be labeled by co-aggregation of probe molecules such as monomeric recombinant PrP or PrP-specific antibodies tagged with a fluorescent dye. In addition to slow diffusion, labeled aggregates are characterized by high fluorescence intensity, which allows detection and quantification by analysis of fluorescence intensity distribution. To improve detection of rare target particles, the accessible volume element was increased by scanning for intensely fluorescent targets (SIFT). To further improve sensitivity and specificity, two different probes were used simultaneously in a two-color setup. In a diagnostic model system of CSF spiked with purified prion rods, dual-color SIFT was more sensitive than Western blot analysis. In addition, a PrP(Sc)-specific signal was also detected in a number of CSF samples derived from CJD patients but not in controls.

  3. An improved filtering algorithm for big read datasets and its application to single-cell assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedemeyer, Axel; Kliemann, Lasse; Srivastav, Anand; Schielke, Christian; Reusch, Thorsten B; Rosenstiel, Philip

    2017-07-03

    For single-cell or metagenomic sequencing projects, it is necessary to sequence with a very high mean coverage in order to make sure that all parts of the sample DNA get covered by the reads produced. This leads to huge datasets with lots of redundant data. A filtering of this data prior to assembly is advisable. Brown et al. (2012) presented the algorithm Diginorm for this purpose, which filters reads based on the abundance of their k-mers. We present Bignorm, a faster and quality-conscious read filtering algorithm. An important new algorithmic feature is the use of phred quality scores together with a detailed analysis of the k-mer counts to decide which reads to keep. We qualify and recommend parameters for our new read filtering algorithm. Guided by these parameters, we remove in terms of median 97.15% of the reads while keeping the mean phred score of the filtered dataset high. Using the SDAdes assembler, we produce assemblies of high quality from these filtered datasets in a fraction of the time needed for an assembly from the datasets filtered with Diginorm. We conclude that read filtering is a practical and efficient method for reducing read data and for speeding up the assembly process. This applies not only for single cell assembly, as shown in this paper, but also to other projects with high mean coverage datasets like metagenomic sequencing projects. Our Bignorm algorithm allows assemblies of competitive quality in comparison to Diginorm, while being much faster. Bignorm is available for download at https://git.informatik.uni-kiel.de/axw/Bignorm .

  4. In vivo heating pattern of an implantable single loop applicator measured at S-band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, A.; Roelofs, T.; Weaver, P.; Maturan, A.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have measured the temperatures achieved by an implantable applicator buried in both normal and tumor tissue. The temperature distribution correlated with that measured in phantom material; high temperatures were achieved at the center of the coil, lower temperatures near the edges but within the coil, and much lower temperatures outside the coil. Sheathed in PTFE teflon the coil is compatible with tissue for long-term implantation. This device appeared well-suited for long-term invasive hyperthermia since it delivered a heat dose to a specific tumor volume while sparing the surrounding normal tissue and was found to be biocompatible with normal tissue

  5. Safely prolonging single breath-holds to >5 min in patients with cancer; feasibility and applications for radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Stuart; Stevens, Andrea M; Parveen, Sophia; Stephens, Rebecca; Clutton-Brock, Thomas H

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Multiple, short and deep inspiratory breath-holds with air of approximately 20 s are now used in radiotherapy to reduce the influence of ventilatory motion and damage to healthy tissue. There may be further clinical advantages in delivering each treatment session in only one single, prolonged breath-hold. We have previously developed techniques enabling healthy subjects to breath-hold for 7 min. Here, we demonstrate their successful application in patients with cancer. Methods: 15 patients aged 37–74 years undergoing radiotherapy for breast cancer were trained to breath-hold safely with pre-oxygenation and mechanically induced hypocapnia under simulated radiotherapy treatment conditions. Results: The mean breath-hold duration was 5.3 ± 0.2 min. At breakpoint, all patients were normocapnic and normoxic [mean end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide was 36 ± 1 standard error millimetre of mercury, (mmHg) and mean oxygen saturation was 100 ± 0 standard error %]. None were distressed, nor had gasping, dizziness or disturbed breathing in the post-breath-hold period. Mean blood pressure had risen significantly from 125 ± 3 to 166 ± 4 mmHg at breakpoint (without heart rate falling), but normalized within approximately 20 s of the breakpoint. During breath-holding, the mean linear anteroposterior displacement slope of the L breast marker was radiotherapy treatment conditions for longer than the typical beam-on time of a single fraction. We discuss the important applications of this technique for radiotherapy. Advances in knowledge: We demonstrate for the first time a technique enabling patients with cancer to deliver safely a single prolonged breath-hold of >5 min (10 times longer than currently used in radiotherapy practice), under simulated radiotherapy treatment conditions. PMID:27168468

  6. Single Interdigital Transducer Approach for Gravimetrical SAW Sensor Applications in Liquid Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Hoa Nguyen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface acoustic wave (SAW devices are well known for mass-sensitive sensor applications. In biosensing applications, chemical and biochemically evoked binding processes on surfaces are detected in liquid environments using delay line or resonator sensor configurations, preferably in combination with the appropriate microfluidic devices. All configurations share the common feature of analyzing the transmission characteristic of the propagating SAW. In this paper, a novel SAW-based impedance sensor type is introduced which uses only one interdigital transducer (IDT, simultaneously as the SAW generator and the sensor element. Here, the input port reflection coefficient S11 is measured at the IDT instead of the commonly used S21 transmission forward gain parameter. Thus, a sharp and distinct peak of the S11 spectrum is obtained, enabling a comfortable direct readout of the sensor signal. Proof of the concept was gained by analyzing the specific binding of the 4-mercaptophenylacetic acid gold nanoparticles (MPA–AuNP directly to the IDT surface. The corresponding binding kinetic of the MPA–AuNP on the functionalized gold surface has been analyzed and a sensitivity of 7.4 mΩ nM−1 has been determined.

  7. Application of PI Current Controller in Single Phase Inverter System Connected to Non Linear Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai Anak Ajot, Tracy; Salimin, Suriana; Aziz, Roziah

    2017-08-01

    This study is concerned with the problem of network power quality when inverter systems are connected to a nonlinear load. Nonlinear loads are well known as one of the biggest source of harmonics in the power system. Besides that, inverter systems also have their nonlinearity characteristic because of the electronic components. As the inverter system is connected to nonlinear load, it resulting in harmonic distortion-related problem and draw non-sinusoidal currents in the system, thus reducing the power quality in the system. The application of Proportional Integral controller in this system is the main interest of this study. This current controller capable of reducing total harmonic distortion and improve the state of current waveform. This paper focuses on application of simple manual trial and error tuning technique to produce the optimum value for the gains. The result of study verifies the trial and error manual tuning of PI current controller in compensating harmonic distortions. Simulation and modelling of the system are successfully developed using Matlab/Simulink.

  8. Principles and biophysical applications of single particle super-localization and rotational tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Yan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    While conventional Single Particle Tracking (SPT) techniques acquire 2D or 3D trajectories of particle probes, we have developed Single Particle Orientation and Rotational Tracking (SPORT) techniques to extract orientation and rotational information. Combined with DIC microscopy, the SPORT technique has been applied in biophysical studies, including membrane diffusion and intracellular transport. The rotational dynamics of nanoparticle vectors on live cell membranes was recorded and its influence on the fate of these nanoparticle vectors was elucidated. The rotational motions of gold nanorods with various surface modifiers were tracked continuously at a temporal resolution of 5 ms under a DIC microscope. We found that the rotational behaviors of gold nanorod vectors are strongly related to their surface charge, specific surface functional groups, and the availability of receptors on cell membranes. The study of rotational Brownian motion of nanoparticles on cell membranes will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of drug delivery and provide guidance in designing surface modification strategies for drug delivery vectors under various circumstances. To characterize the rotation mode of surface functionalized gold nanorods on cell membranes, the SPORT technique is combined with the correlation analysis of the bright and dark DIC intensities. The unique capabilities of visualizing and understanding rotational motions of functionalized nanoparticles on live cell membranes allow us to correlate rotational and translational dynamics in unprecedented detail and provide new insights for complex membrane processes, including electrostatic interactions, ligand-receptor binding, and lateral (confined and hopping) diffusion of membrane receptors. Surface-functionalized nanoparticles interact with the membrane in fundamentally different ways and exhibit distinct rotational modes. The early events of particle-membrane approach and attachment are directly visualized

  9. Design of flapping wings for application to single active degree of freedom micro air vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kelvin Thomas

    This dissertation covers an experimental program to understand how wing compliance influences the performance of flapping micro air vehicle wings. The focus is the design of a membraned flapping wing for a single active degree of freedom mechanism, looking to maximize thrust performance in hover conditions. The optimization approach is unique in that experiments were the chosen engine as opposed to a computation model; this is because of the complexity involved in hover-mode flapping aerodynamics. The flapping mechanism and manufacturing process for fabricating the wings were carefully developed. The uncertainty in the thrust measurement was identified and reduced by implementing precision machining and repeatable techniques for fabrication. This resulted in a reduction of the manufacturing coefficient of variation from 16.8% to 2.6%. Optimization was then conducted for a single objective (Maximize thrust), using a three parameter design space, finding the highest thrust performance in wings with high aspect ratio; then, a multi-objective optimization was conducted with two objectives (Thrust and Power) and a four parameter space. The research then shifted focus to identifying the stiffness and deformation characteristics of high performance wing designs. Static stiffness measurements with a simple line load suggested that high chordwise stiffness or lower spanwise stiffness would be favorable for aerodynamic performance. To explore more components of the deformation, a full-field imaging technique was used and a uniform load was substituted to engage with the membrane. It was found that there is a range of torsional compliance where the wing is most efficient especially at higher flapping frequencies. The final component of the study was the dynamic deformation measurement. The two system, four camera digital image correlation setup uses stroboscopic measurement to capture the wing deformation. The phase shift between the twist and stroke, and the tip deflection

  10. New topology of multiple-input single-output PV system for DC load applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen M. ELhagry

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving PV system structure and maximizing the output power of a PV system has drawn many researchers attention nowadays. A proposed multi-input single-output PV system is proposed in this paper. The system consists of multiple PV modules; each module feeds a DC–DC converter. The outputs of the converters are tied together to form a DC voltage source. In order to minimize the output ripples of the converters, the control signal of each converter is time shifted from each other by a certain time interval depending on the number of converters used in the topology. In this study a battery is used as the main load, the load current used as the control variable. A fuzzy logic controller designed to modulate the operating point of the system to get the maximum power. The results show that the proposed system has very good response for various operating conditions of the PV system. In addition the output filter is minimized with excellent quality of the DC output voltage.

  11. An application of eddy current damping effect on single point diamond turning of titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, W. S.; To, S.

    2017-11-01

    Titanium alloys Ti6Al4V (TC4) have been popularly applied in many industries. They have superior material properties including an excellent strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. However, they are regarded as difficult to cut materials; serious tool wear, a high level of cutting vibration and low surface integrity are always involved in machining processes especially in ultra-precision machining (UPM). In this paper, a novel hybrid machining technology using an eddy current damping effect is firstly introduced in UPM to suppress machining vibration and improve the machining performance of titanium alloys. A magnetic field was superimposed on samples during single point diamond turning (SPDT) by exposing the samples in between two permanent magnets. When the titanium alloys were rotated within a magnetic field in the SPDT, an eddy current was generated through a stationary magnetic field inside the titanium alloys. An eddy current generated its own magnetic field with the opposite direction of the external magnetic field leading a repulsive force, compensating for the machining vibration induced by the turning process. The experimental results showed a remarkable improvement in cutting force variation, a significant reduction in adhesive tool wear and an extreme long chip formation in comparison to normal SPDT of titanium alloys, suggesting the enhancement of the machinability of titanium alloys using an eddy current damping effect. An eddy current damping effect was firstly introduced in the area of UPM to deliver the results of outstanding machining performance.

  12. Characterizations of Pr-doped Yb3Al5O12 single crystals for scintillator applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yasuki; Shinozaki, Kenji; Igashira, Takuya; Kawano, Naoki; Okada, Go; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Yanagida, Takayuki

    2018-04-01

    Yb3Al5O12 (YbAG) single crystals doped with different concentrations of Pr were synthesized by the Floating Zone (FZ) method. Then, we evaluated their basic optical and scintillation properties. All the samples showed photoluminescence (PL) with two emission bands appeared approximately 300-500 nm and 550-600 nm due to the charge transfer luminescence of Yb3+ and intrinsic luminescence of the garnet structure, respectively. A PL decay profile of each sample was approximated by a sum of two exponential decay functions, and the obtained decay times were 1 ns and 3-4 ns. In the scintillation spectra, we observed emission peaks in the ranges from 300 to 400 nm and from 450 to 550 nm for all the samples. The origins of these emissions were attributed to charge transfer luminescence of Yb3+ and intrinsic luminescence of the garnet structure, respectively. The scintillation decay times became longer with increasing the Pr concentrations. Among the present samples, the 0.1% Pr-doped sample showed the lowest scintillation afterglow level. In addition, pulse height spectrum of 5.5 MeV α-rays was demonstrated using the Pr-doped YbAG, and we confirmed that all the samples showed a full energy deposited peak. Above all, the 0.1% Pr-doped sample showed the highest light yield with a value of 14 ph/MeV under α-rays excitation.

  13. An application of eddy current damping effect on single point diamond turning of titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yip, W S; To, S

    2017-01-01

    Titanium alloys Ti6Al4V (TC4) have been popularly applied in many industries. They have superior material properties including an excellent strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. However, they are regarded as difficult to cut materials; serious tool wear, a high level of cutting vibration and low surface integrity are always involved in machining processes especially in ultra-precision machining (UPM). In this paper, a novel hybrid machining technology using an eddy current damping effect is firstly introduced in UPM to suppress machining vibration and improve the machining performance of titanium alloys. A magnetic field was superimposed on samples during single point diamond turning (SPDT) by exposing the samples in between two permanent magnets. When the titanium alloys were rotated within a magnetic field in the SPDT, an eddy current was generated through a stationary magnetic field inside the titanium alloys. An eddy current generated its own magnetic field with the opposite direction of the external magnetic field leading a repulsive force, compensating for the machining vibration induced by the turning process. The experimental results showed a remarkable improvement in cutting force variation, a significant reduction in adhesive tool wear and an extreme long chip formation in comparison to normal SPDT of titanium alloys, suggesting the enhancement of the machinability of titanium alloys using an eddy current damping effect. An eddy current damping effect was firstly introduced in the area of UPM to deliver the results of outstanding machining performance. (paper)

  14. Spin-curvature interaction from curved Dirac equation: Application to single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Erhu; Chen, Huawei; Zhang, Shengli

    2017-06-01

    The spin-curvature interaction (SCI) and its effects are investigated based on curved Dirac equation. Through the low-energy approximation of curved Dirac equation, the Hamiltonian of SCI is obtained and depends on the geometry and spinor structure of manifold. We find that the curvature can be considered as field strength and couples with spin through Zeeman-like term. Then, we use dimension reduction to derive the local Hamiltonian of SCI for cylinder surface, which implies that the effective Hamiltonian of single-wall carbon nanotubes results from the geometry and spinor structure of lattice and includes two types of interactions: one does not break any symmetries of the lattice and only shifts the Dirac points for all nanotubes, while the other one does and opens the gaps except for armchair nanotubes. At last, analytical expressions of the band gaps and the shifts of their positions induced by curvature are given for metallic nanotubes. These results agree well with experiments and can be verified experimentally.

  15. The application of particle filters in single trial event-related potential estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohseni, Hamid R; Nazarpour, Kianoush; Sanei, Saeid; Wilding, Edward L

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, an approach for the estimation of single trial event-related potentials (ST-ERPs) using particle filters (PFs) is presented. The method is based on recursive Bayesian mean square estimation of ERP wavelet coefficients using their previous estimates as prior information. To enable a performance evaluation of the approach in the Gaussian and non-Gaussian distributed noise conditions, we added Gaussian white noise (GWN) and real electroencephalogram (EEG) signals recorded during rest to the simulated ERPs. The results were compared to that of the Kalman filtering (KF) approach demonstrating the robustness of the PF over the KF to the added GWN noise. The proposed method also outperforms the KF when the assumption about the Gaussianity of the noise is violated. We also applied this technique to real EEG potentials recorded in an odd-ball paradigm and investigated the correlation between the amplitude and the latency of the estimated ERP components. Unlike the KF method, for the PF there was a statistically significant negative correlation between amplitude and latency of the estimated ERPs, matching previous neurophysiological findings

  16. Quantifying riverine and storm-surge flood risk by single-family residence: application to Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Jeffrey; Kunreuther, Howard; Michel-Kerjan, Erwann

    2013-12-01

    The development of catastrophe models in recent years allows for assessment of the flood hazard much more effectively than when the federally run National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) was created in 1968. We propose and then demonstrate a methodological approach to determine pure premiums based on the entire distribution of possible flood events. We apply hazard, exposure, and vulnerability analyses to a sample of 300,000 single-family residences in two counties in Texas (Travis and Galveston) using state-of-the-art flood catastrophe models. Even in zones of similar flood risk classification by FEMA there is substantial variation in exposure between coastal and inland flood risk. For instance, homes in the designated moderate-risk X500/B zones in Galveston are exposed to a flood risk on average 2.5 times greater than residences in X500/B zones in Travis. The results also show very similar average annual loss (corrected for exposure) for a number of residences despite their being in different FEMA flood zones. We also find significant storm-surge exposure outside of the FEMA designated storm-surge risk zones. Taken together these findings highlight the importance of a microanalysis of flood exposure. The process of aggregating risk at a flood zone level-as currently undertaken by FEMA-provides a false sense of uniformity. As our analysis indicates, the technology to delineate the flood risks exists today. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Application of a single-flicker online SSVEP BCI for spatial navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingjing; Zhang, Dan; Engel, Andreas K; Gong, Qin; Maye, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    A promising approach for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) employs the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) for extracting control information. Main advantages of these SSVEP BCIs are a simple and low-cost setup, little effort to adjust the system parameters to the user and comparatively high information transfer rates (ITR). However, traditional frequency-coded SSVEP BCIs require the user to gaze directly at the selected flicker stimulus, which is liable to cause fatigue or even photic epileptic seizures. The spatially coded SSVEP BCI we present in this article addresses this issue. It uses a single flicker stimulus that appears always in the extrafoveal field of view, yet it allows the user to control four control channels. We demonstrate the embedding of this novel SSVEP stimulation paradigm in the user interface of an online BCI for navigating a 2-dimensional computer game. Offline analysis of the training data reveals an average classification accuracy of 96.9±1.64%, corresponding to an information transfer rate of 30.1±1.8 bits/min. In online mode, the average classification accuracy reached 87.9±11.4%, which resulted in an ITR of 23.8±6.75 bits/min. We did not observe a strong relation between a subject's offline and online performance. Analysis of the online performance over time shows that users can reliably control the new BCI paradigm with stable performance over at least 30 minutes of continuous operation.

  18. Preparation, characterization and single cell testing of new ionic conducting polymers for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano, P. G.; del Río y, C.; Acosta, J. L.

    In this work, heterogeneous sulfonation and both, structural and electrical characterization of a mixture composed on block copolymer ionomers (HSBS and EPDM) and commercial silica, are studied. The incorporation of sulfonic groups was checked by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR). Microstructure was studied by means of dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Also, water uptake and methanol crossover were determined, and the results were compared with those of Nafion ® 117. Electrical behavior was recorded by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) at different hydration times. Results show that sulfonation of the styrene rings has effectively occurred. Conductivity values are similar to Nafion and they improve with hydration time. Methanol crossover is lower than in Nafion. Finally, a single complete proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) as a whole was tested obtaining the polarization and power curves at different temperatures and pressures, and modeling it by an electrical equivalent circuit (EC) in the symmetrical mode (SM) configuration using the EIS technique. This study offers a physical interpretation relating physical parameters to several processes occurring in the system. Power density values are higher than in Nafion.

  19. Fabrications and application of single crystalline GaN for high-performance deep UV photodetectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Velazquez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available High-quality single crystalline Gallium Nitride (GaN semiconductor has been synthesized using molecule beam epitaxy (MBE technique for development of high-performance deep ultraviolet (UV photodetectors. Thickness of the films was estimated by using surface profile meter and scanning electron microscope. Electronic states and elemental composition of the films were obtained using Raman scattering spectroscopy. The orientation, crystal structure and phase purity of the films were examined using a Siemens x-ray diffractometer radiation. The surface microstructure was studied using high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Two types of metal pairs: Al-Al, Al-Cu or Cu-Cu were used for interdigital electrodes on GaN film in order to examine the Schottky properties of the GaN based photodetector. The characterizations of the fabricated prototype include the stability, responsivity, response and recovery times. Typical time dependent photoresponsivity by switching different UV light source on and off five times for each 240 seconds at a bias of 2V, respectively, have been obtained. The detector appears to be highly sensitive to various UV wavelengths of light with very stable baseline and repeatability. The obtained photoresponsivity was up to 354 mA/W at the bias 2V. Higher photoresponsivity could be obtained if higher bias was applied but it would unavoidably result in a higher dark current. Thermal effect on the fabricated GaN based prototype was discussed.

  20. Fabrications and application of single crystalline GaN for high-performance deep UV photodetectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez, R.; Rivera, M.; Feng, P., E-mail: p.feng@upr.edu [Department of Physics, College of Natural Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, 00936-8377, PR/USA (Puerto Rico); Aldalbahi, A. [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-08-15

    High-quality single crystalline Gallium Nitride (GaN) semiconductor has been synthesized using molecule beam epitaxy (MBE) technique for development of high-performance deep ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors. Thickness of the films was estimated by using surface profile meter and scanning electron microscope. Electronic states and elemental composition of the films were obtained using Raman scattering spectroscopy. The orientation, crystal structure and phase purity of the films were examined using a Siemens x-ray diffractometer radiation. The surface microstructure was studied using high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two types of metal pairs: Al-Al, Al-Cu or Cu-Cu were used for interdigital electrodes on GaN film in order to examine the Schottky properties of the GaN based photodetector. The characterizations of the fabricated prototype include the stability, responsivity, response and recovery times. Typical time dependent photoresponsivity by switching different UV light source on and off five times for each 240 seconds at a bias of 2V, respectively, have been obtained. The detector appears to be highly sensitive to various UV wavelengths of light with very stable baseline and repeatability. The obtained photoresponsivity was up to 354 mA/W at the bias 2V. Higher photoresponsivity could be obtained if higher bias was applied but it would unavoidably result in a higher dark current. Thermal effect on the fabricated GaN based prototype was discussed.

  1. Quantitation in PET using isotopes emitting prompt single gammas: application to yttrium-86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walrand, Stephan; Jamar, Francois; Mathieu, Isabelle; De Camps, Joelle; Lonneux, Max; Pauwels, Stanislas; Sibomana, Merence; Labar, Daniel; Michel, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Several yttrium-90 labelled somatostatin analogues are now available for cancer radiotherapy. After injection, a large amount of the compound is excreted via the urinary tract, while a variable part is trapped in the tumour(s), allowing the curative effect. Unfortunately, the compound may also be trapped in critical tissues such as kidney or bone marrow. As a consequence, a method for assessment of individual biodistribution and pharmacokinetics is required to predict the maximum dose that can be safely injected into patients. However, 90 Y, a pure β - particle emitter, cannot be used for quantitative imaging. Yttrium-86 is a positron emitter that allows imaging of tissue uptake using a PET camera. In addition to the positron, 86 Y also emits a multitude of prompt single γ-rays, leading to significant overestimation of uptake when using classical reconstruction methods. We propose a patient-dependent correction method based on sinogram tail fitting using an 86 Y point spread function library. When applied to abdominal phantom acquisition data, the proposed correction method significantly improved the accuracy of the quantification: the initial overestimation of background activity by 117% was reduced to 9%, while the initial error in respect of kidney uptake by 84% was reduced to 5%. In patient studies, the mean discrepancy between PET total body activity and the activity expected from urinary collections was reduced from 92% to 7%, showing the benefit of the proposed correction method. (orig.)

  2. Molecular Modeling of PEGylated Peptides, Dendrimers, and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwankyu Lee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG has been conjugated to many drugs or drug carriers to increase their solubility and circulating lifetime, and reduce toxicity. This has motivated many experimental studies to understand the effect of PEGylation on delivery efficiency. To complement the experimental findings and uncover the mechanism that cannot be captured by experiments, all-atom and coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD simulations have been performed. This has become possible, due to recent advances in simulation methodologies and computational power. Simulations of PEGylated peptides show that PEG chains wrap antimicrobial peptides and weaken their binding interactions with lipid bilayers. PEGylation also influences the helical stability and tertiary structure of coiled-coil peptides. PEGylated dendrimers and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs were simulated, showing that the PEG size and grafting density significantly modulate the conformation and structure of the PEGylated complex, the interparticle aggregation, and the interaction with lipid bilayers. In particular, simulations predicted the structural transition between the dense core and dense shell of PEGylated dendrimers, the phase behavior of self-assembled complexes of lipids, PEGylated lipids, and SWNTs, which all favorably compared with experiments. Overall, these new findings indicate that simulations can now predict the experimentally observed structure and dynamics, as well as provide atomic-scale insights into the interactions of PEGylated complexes with other molecules.

  3. Fully integrated free-running InGaAs/InP single-photon detector for accurate lidar applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chao; Shangguan, Mingjia; Xia, Haiyun; Zhang, Jun; Dou, Xiankang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-06-26

    We present a fully integrated InGaAs/InP negative feedback avalanche diode (NFAD) based free-running single-photon detector (SPD) designed for accurate lidar applications. A free-piston Stirling cooler is used to cool down the NFAD with a large temperature range, and an active hold-off circuit implemented in a field programmable gate array is applied to further suppress the afterpulsing contribution. The key parameters of the free-running SPD including photon detection efficiency (PDE), dark count rate (DCR), afterpulse probability, and maximum count rate (MCR) are dedicatedly optimized for lidar application in practice. We then perform a field experiment using a Mie lidar system with 20 kHz pulse repetition frequency to compare the performance between the free-running InGaAs/InP SPD and a commercial superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD). Our detector exhibits good performance with 1.6 Mcps MCR (0.6 μs hold-off time), 10% PDE, 950 cps DCR, and 18% afterpulse probability over 50 μs period. Such performance is worse than the SNSPD with 60% PDE and 300 cps DCR. However, after performing a specific algorithm that we have developed for afterpulse and count rate corrections, the lidar system performance in terms of range-corrected signal (Pr 2 ) distribution using our SPD agrees very well with the result using the SNSPD, with only a relative error of ∼2%. Due to the advantages of low-cost and small size of InGaAs/InP NFADs, such detector provides a practical solution for accurate lidar applications.

  4. Single-Domain Antibodies As Versatile Affinity Reagents for Analytical and Diagnostic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualberto Gonzalez-Sapienza

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available With just three CDRs in their variable domains, the antigen-binding site of camelid heavy-chain-only antibodies (HcAbs has a more limited structural diversity than that of conventional antibodies. Even so, this does not seem to limit their specificity and high affinity as HcAbs against a broad range of structurally diverse antigens have been reported. The recombinant form of their variable domain [nanobody (Nb] has outstanding properties that make Nbs, not just an alternative option to conventional antibodies, but in many cases, these properties allow them to reach analytical or diagnostic performances that cannot be accomplished with conventional antibodies. These attributes include comprehensive representation of the immune specificity in display libraries, easy adaptation to high-throughput screening, exceptional stability, minimal size, and versatility as affinity building block. Here, we critically reviewed each of these properties and highlight their relevance with regard to recent developments in different fields of immunosensing applications.

  5. The Application and Future of Big Database Studies in Cardiology: A Single-Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuang-Tso; Hour, Ai-Ling; Shia, Ben-Chang; Chu, Pao-Hsien

    2017-11-01

    As medical research techniques and quality have improved, it is apparent that cardiovascular problems could be better resolved by more strict experiment design. In fact, substantial time and resources should be expended to fulfill the requirements of high quality studies. Many worthy ideas and hypotheses were unable to be verified or proven due to ethical or economic limitations. In recent years, new and various applications and uses of databases have received increasing attention. Important information regarding certain issues such as rare cardiovascular diseases, women's heart health, post-marketing analysis of different medications, or a combination of clinical and regional cardiac features could be obtained by the use of rigorous statistical methods. However, there are limitations that exist among all databases. One of the key essentials to creating and correctly addressing this research is through reliable processes of analyzing and interpreting these cardiologic databases.

  6. The influence of question design on the response to self-assessment in www.elearnSCI.org

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, N; Li, X-W; Zhou, M-W

    2015-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: This is an interventional training session. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the difference in response to self-assessment questions in the original and an adjusted version for a submodule of www.elearnSCI.org for student nurses. SETTING: The study was condu......STUDY DESIGN: This is an interventional training session. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the difference in response to self-assessment questions in the original and an adjusted version for a submodule of www.elearnSCI.org for student nurses. SETTING: The study.......elearnSCI.org for self-study. Both groups were then tested using the 10 self-assessment multiple-choice questions (MCQs) related to the same submodule. Group A used the original questions, whereas group B received an adjusted questionnaire. RESULTS: The responses to four conventional single-answer MCQs were nearly all...

  7. Revisiting the single cell protein application of Cupriavidus necator H16 and recovering bioplastic granules simultaneously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunasundari, Balakrishnan; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Kaur, Gurjeet; Maurer, Frans H J; Sudesh, Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Cupriavidus necator H16 (formerly known as Hydrogenomonas eutropha) was famous as a potential single cell protein (SCP) in the 1970s. The drawback however was the undesirably efficient accumulation of non-nutritive polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) storage compound in the cytoplasm of this bacterium. Eventually, competition from soy-based protein resulted in SCP not receiving much attention. Nevertheless, C. necator H16 remained in the limelight as a producer of PHB, which is a material that resembles commodity plastics such as polypropylene. PHB is a 100% biobased and biodegradable polyester. Although tremendous achievements have been attained in the past 3 decades in the efficient production of PHB, this bioplastic is still costly. One of the main problems has been the recovery of PHB from the cell cytoplasm. In this study, we showed for the first time that kilogram quantities of PHB can be easily recovered in the laboratory without the use of any solvents and chemicals, just by using the cells as SCP. In addition, the present study also demonstrated the safety and tolerability of animal model used, Sprague Dawley given lyophilized cells of C. necator H16. The test animals readily produced fecal pellets that were whitish in color, as would be expected of PHB granules. The pellets were determined to contain about 82-97 wt% PHB and possessed molecular mass of around 930 kg/mol. The PHB granules recovered biologically possessed similar molecular mass compared to chloroform extracted PHB [950 kg/mol]. This method now allows the production and purification of substantial quantities of PHB for various experimental trials. The method reported here is easy, does not require expensive instrumentation, scalable and does not involve extensive use of solvents and strong chemicals.

  8. Analysis of Point Based Image Registration Errors With Applications in Single Molecule Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, E A K; Ober, R J

    2013-12-15

    We present an asymptotic treatment of errors involved in point-based image registration where control point (CP) localization is subject to heteroscedastic noise; a suitable model for image registration in fluorescence microscopy. Assuming an affine transform, CPs are used to solve a multivariate regression problem. With measurement errors existing for both sets of CPs this is an errors-in-variable problem and linear least squares is inappropriate; the correct method being generalized least squares. To allow for point dependent errors the equivalence of a generalized maximum likelihood and heteroscedastic generalized least squares model is achieved allowing previously published asymptotic results to be extended to image registration. For a particularly useful model of heteroscedastic noise where covariance matrices are scalar multiples of a known matrix (including the case where covariance matrices are multiples of the identity) we provide closed form solutions to estimators and derive their distribution. We consider the target registration error (TRE) and define a new measure called the localization registration error (LRE) believed to be useful, especially in microscopy registration experiments. Assuming Gaussianity of the CP localization errors, it is shown that the asymptotic distribution for the TRE and LRE are themselves Gaussian and the parameterized distributions are derived. Results are successfully applied to registration in single molecule microscopy to derive the key dependence of the TRE and LRE variance on the number of CPs and their associated photon counts. Simulations show asymptotic results are robust for low CP numbers and non-Gaussianity. The method presented here is shown to outperform GLS on real imaging data.

  9. Metal coated functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes for composite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiang

    This study is considered as a method for producing multifunctional composite materials by using metals coated Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs). In this research, various metals (Ni, Cu, Ag) were successfully deposited onto the surface of SWCNTs. It has been found that homogenous dispersion and dense nucleation sites are the necessary conditions to form uniform coatings on SWCNTs. Functionalization has been applied to achieve considerable improvement in the dispersion of purified SWCNTs and creates more nucleation sites for subsequent metal deposition. A three-step electroless plating approach was used and the coating mechanism is described in the paper. The samples were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Bulk copper/aluminum-SWNT composites were processed by powder metallurgy with wet mixing techniques. Coated SWCNTs were well dispersed in the metal matrix. Cold pressing followed by sintering was applied to control porosity. The relationships between hardness and SWCNTs addition were discussed. Ni-SWCNTs composite coatings were prepared by electro-composite deposition. SWCNTs were suspended in a Ni deposition electrolyte and deposited together with nickel during electrodeposition. SWCNTs concentrations in the coatings were found to be related to the SWCNTs concentration in the solution, current density and agitation rate. The microstructure of the coatings has been examined by electron microscopy. Ni coated SWCNTs were also incorporated into the high temperature Bismaleimide (BMI)/graphite composite to improve Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) shielding and surface conductivity. The vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) was used to process these composites. Surface and volume resistivity and EMI shielding effectiveness of the composites

  10. Response matrix method and its application to SCWR single channel stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jiyun; Tseng, K.J.; Tso, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    To simulate the reactor system dynamic features during density wave oscillations (DWO), both the non-linear method and the linear method can be used. Although some transient information is lost through model linearization, the high computational efficiency and relatively accurate results make the linear analysis methodology attractive, especially for prediction of the onset of instability. In the linear stability analysis, the system models are simplified through linearization of the complex non-linear differential equations, and then, the linear differential equations are generally solved in the frequency domain through Laplace transformation. In this paper, a system response matrix method was introduced by directly solving the differential equations in the time domain. By using a system response matrix method, the complicated transfer function derivation, which must be done in the frequency domain method, can be avoided. Using the response matrix method, a model was developed and applied to the single channel or parallel channel type instability analyses of the typical proposed SCWR design. The sensitivity of the decay ratio (DR) to the axial mesh size was analyzed and it was found that the DR is not sensitive to mesh size once sufficient number of axial nodes is applied. To demonstrate the effects of the inlet orificing to the stability feature for the supercritical condition, the sensitivity of the stability to inlet orifice coefficient was conducted for hot channel. It is clearly shown that a higher inlet orifice coefficient will make the system more stable. The susceptibility of stability to operating parameters such as mass flow rate, power and system pressure was also performed. And the measure to improve the SCWR stability sensitivity to operating parameters was investigated. It was found that the SCWR stability sensitivity feature can be improved by carefully managing the inlet orifices and choosing proper operating parameters. (author)

  11. Revisiting the single cell protein application of Cupriavidus necator H16 and recovering bioplastic granules simultaneously.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan Kunasundari

    Full Text Available Cupriavidus necator H16 (formerly known as Hydrogenomonas eutropha was famous as a potential single cell protein (SCP in the 1970s. The drawback however was the undesirably efficient accumulation of non-nutritive polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB storage compound in the cytoplasm of this bacterium. Eventually, competition from soy-based protein resulted in SCP not receiving much attention. Nevertheless, C. necator H16 remained in the limelight as a producer of PHB, which is a material that resembles commodity plastics such as polypropylene. PHB is a 100% biobased and biodegradable polyester. Although tremendous achievements have been attained in the past 3 decades in the efficient production of PHB, this bioplastic is still costly. One of the main problems has been the recovery of PHB from the cell cytoplasm. In this study, we showed for the first time that kilogram quantities of PHB can be easily recovered in the laboratory without the use of any solvents and chemicals, just by using the cells as SCP. In addition, the present study also demonstrated the safety and tolerability of animal model used, Sprague Dawley given lyophilized cells of C. necator H16. The test animals readily produced fecal pellets that were whitish in color, as would be expected of PHB granules. The pellets were determined to contain about 82-97 wt% PHB and possessed molecular mass of around 930 kg/mol. The PHB granules recovered biologically possessed similar molecular mass compared to chloroform extracted PHB [950 kg/mol]. This method now allows the production and purification of substantial quantities of PHB for various experimental trials. The method reported here is easy, does not require expensive instrumentation, scalable and does not involve extensive use of solvents and strong chemicals.

  12. Photocatalytic applications of Cr{sub 2}S{sub 3} synthesized from single and multi-source precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Wajid [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320, Islamabad (Pakistan); Badshah, Amin, E-mail: aminbadshah@qau.edu.pk [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320, Islamabad (Pakistan); Hussain, Raja Azadar; Imtiaz-ud-Din [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320, Islamabad (Pakistan); Aleem, Muhammad Adeel [The Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS) (Pakistan); Bahadur, Ali [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320, Islamabad (Pakistan); Iqbal, Shahid [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049 (China); Farooq, Muhammad Umar; Ali, Hassan [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2017-06-15

    Most of the material research work is pertinent to the synthesis of transition-metal sulfides nanoparticles but here the studies are limited to the synthesis of chromium sulfide. However, the preparation method, presented in this work, may be extended to other metal chalcogenides nanoparticles for various potential applications. The ligand (precursor), 1-(2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl)-3,3-chlorobenzoyl and Cr{sub 2}S{sub 3} have been synthesized initially from single source precursor and then from multi source precursors. The target was to alter the morphologies of nanomaterial while altering the synthetic route and that was successfully achieved. Chromium sulfide nano-rods were synthesized using single source precursors while nanoparticles were fabricated using multi source precursors. Characterization were carried out through {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction microscopy (PXRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Our objective is to change the morphologies by changing the synthetic route so that is why further applications were done only for multi-source product, denying single source product. The metal sulfides nanoparticles exhibit higher activity than their bulk material for the photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes under visible-light irradiation. So, photocatalytic activity was successfully achieved under direct sunlight against five different cationic and anionic organic dyes including malachite green (MG), methylene blue (MB), rhodamine B (RhB), methyl violet (MV) and methyl orange (MO). These organic dyes MV, MG, MB, and RB were almost diminished or decolorized by Cr{sub 2}S{sub 3} within 110, 90, 100, and 130, minutes, respectively expect MO. - Highlights: • Synthesis of Cr{sub 2}S{sub 3} from single and multisource precursors is

  13. Eliciting several willingness to pay in a single contingent valuation survey: application to health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchini, Stéphane; Protière, Christel; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2003-01-01

    The usual implementation of contingent valuation (CV), in the context of priorities setting for allocation of public funds in health care, is to develop as many surveys as there are programmes, i.e. to perform separate evaluations (SE). In the EuroWill project, three health programmes (for heart disease, breast cancer and a service of helicopter ambulance) were however simultaneously evaluated, i.e. a joint evaluation (JE) was performed. The paper examines the issue of the econometric techniques that should be used to estimate WTP values obtained in the context of JE by comparing the application of independent OLS regressions for each programme versus simultaneous estimations using seemingly unrelated regressions (SUR) on data of the French EuroWill survey. It shows that separate estimations may lead to misspecifications because they cannot take into account that JE exogenously provides a reference structure to the respondent which affects the estimates of WTP for each programme. Therefore, the potential advantage of JE versus SE as an elicitation technique in CV studies applied to health care (to better control the referents used by respondents for evaluating different programmes) only holds if simultaneous rather than independent techniques are used in the estimation of WTPs. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Fluorescence detection, enumeration and characterization of single circulating cells in vivo: technology, applications and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Carolin; Patil, Roshani; Lin, Charles P.; Niedre, Mark

    2018-01-01

    There are many diseases and biological processes that involve circulating cells in the bloodstream, such as cancer metastasis, immunology, reproductive medicine, and stem cell therapies. This has driven significant interest in new technologies for the study of circulating cells in small animal research models and clinically. Most currently used methods require drawing and enriching blood samples from the body, but these suffer from a number of limitations. In contrast, ‘in vivo flow cytometry’ (IVFC) refers to set of technologies that allow study of cells directly in the bloodstream of the organism in vivo. In recent years the IVFC field has grown significantly and new techniques have been developed, including fluorescence microscopy, multi-photon, photo-acoustic, and diffuse fluorescence IVFC. In this paper we review recent technical advances in IVFC, with emphasis on instrumentation, contrast mechanisms, and detection sensitivity. We also describe key applications in biomedical research, including cancer research and immunology. Last, we discuss future directions for IVFC, as well as prospects for broader adoption by the biomedical research community and translation to humans clinically.

  15. The single-domain globin of Vitreoscilla: augmentation of aerobic metabolism for biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Alexander D; Shepherd, Mark; Jokipii-Lukkari, Soile; Häggman, Hely; Kallio, Pauli T

    2011-01-01

    Extensive studies have revealed that large-scale, high-cell density bioreactor cultivations have significant impact on metabolic networks of oxygen-requiring production organisms. Oxygen transfer problems associated with fluid dynamics and inefficient mixing efficiencies result in oxygen gradients, which lead to reduced performance of the bioprocess, decreased product yields, and increased production costs. These problems can be partially alleviated by improving bioreactor configuration and setting, but significant improvements have been achieved by metabolic engineering methods, especially by heterologously expressing Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb). Vast numbers of studies have been accumulating during the past 20 years showing the applicability of VHb to improve growth and product yields in a variety of industrially significant prokaryotic and eukaryotic hosts. The global view on the metabolism of globin-expressing Escherichia coli cells depicts increased energy generation, higher oxygen uptake rates, and a decrease in fermentative by-product excretion. Transcriptome and metabolic flux analysis clearly demonstrate the multidimensional influence of heterologous VHb on the expression of stationary phase-specific genes and on the regulation of cellular metabolic networks. The exact biochemical mechanisms by which VHb is able to improve the oxygen-limited growth remain poorly understood. The suggested mechanisms propose either the delivery of oxygen to the respiratory chain or the detoxification of reactive nitrogen species for the protection of cytochrome activity. The expression of VHb in E. coli bioreactor cultures is likely to assist bacterial growth through providing an increase in available intracellular oxygen, although to fully understand the exact role of VHb in vivo, further analysis will be required. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Planetary Science Research Discoveries (PSRD) www.psrd.hawaii.edu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, L.; Taylor, J.

    2010-12-01

    NASA's Year of the Solar System is celebrating not only Solar System mission milestones but also the collective data reduction and analysis that happens here on Earth. The Cosmochemistry Program of NASA's Science Mission Directorate takes a direct approach to enhance student learning and engage the public in the latest research on meteorites, asteroids, planets, moons, and other materials in our Solar System with the website known as PSRD. The Planetary Science Research Discoveries (PSRD) website at www.psrd.hawaii.edu explores the science questions that researchers are actively pursuing about our Solar System and explains how the answers are discovered and what they mean. The site helps to convey the scientific basis for sample study to the broader scientific community and the excitement of new results in cosmochemistry to the general public. We share with our broad audience the fascinating discoveries made by cosmochemists, increasing public awareness of the value of sample-focused research in particular and of fundamental scientific research and space exploration in general. The scope of the website covers the full range of cosmochemical research and highlights the investigations of extraterrestrial materials that are used to better understand the origin of the Solar System and the processes by which planets, moons, and small bodies evolve. We relate the research to broader planetary science themes and mission results. Articles are categorized into: asteroids, comets, Earth, instruments of cosmochemistry, Jupiter system, Mars, Mars life issues, Mercury, meteorites, Moon, origins, and space weathering. PSRD articles are based on peer-reviewed, journal publications. Some PSRD articles are based on more than one published paper in order to present multiple views and outcomes of research on a topic of interest. To date, 150 PSRD articles have been based on 184 journal articles (and counting) written by some of the most active cosmochemists and planetary scientists

  17. An Efficient Single Frequency Ho:YLF Laser for IPDA Lidar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J.; Bai, Y.; Wong, T.; Reithmeier, K.; Petros, M.

    2016-01-01

    A highly efficient, versatile, single frequency 2-micron pulsed laser can be used in a pulsed Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) / Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) instrument to make precise, high-resolution measurements to investigate sources and sinks of CO2. For a direct detection IPDA lidar, the desired 2 ?m Ho:YLF laser should generate 30-40 mJ pulses at the repetition rate of 100 to 200 Hz, with short pulse length (lidar measurement. The seed beam is entered into the resonator through an output coupler. The laser is mounted on a water cooled optical bench for stable and reliable operation. The size of the optical bench is 22.16 x 9.20 x 1.25 inches. It is stiffened so that the laser can be operated in any orientation of the optical bench. This packaged Ho:YLF laser is designed for either mobile trailer or airborne platform operation. The engineering prototype Ho:YLF laser has been fully characterized to demonstrate laser performance. Figure 1 shows the laser output power as a function of pump power at different pulse repetition rates from 100 Hz to 333 Hz. The threshold of the laser is less than 14 W. The slope efficiencies are 28%, 40%, 41% and 43% for pulse repetition rates of 100, 200, 250 and 333 Hz, respectively. Maximum power increases with the pulse repetition rate. Output power of 4.2 W, 6 W, 6.7 W, and 7.7 W is achieved for pulse repetition rates of 100, 200, 250 and 333Hz, respectively. This represents the optical conversion efficiency of 16.7%, 22.4%, 23.7%, and 26.5% at these various pulse repletion rates. It is the most efficient and compact Ho:YLF laser demonstrated in the high pulse energy (>20mJ) and moderate pulse repetition rate (100's Hz) operation range. As shown in Figure 1, the maximum pulse energy at 100 Hz is 42 mJ. This is limited due to optical damage. The laser stability is characterized and found to be very stable. A relative pulse energy standard deviation of 2% was measured. The beam quality of the Ho:YLF was

  18. A horn shaped air-cooled 300 MHz applicator for use in single field or parallel opposed phased system (POPAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicher, H.I.; Moore, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    A 20cm x 23cm standard design 300 MHz horn waveguide may be used to heat tumors at moderate depth. The heating patterns have been observed using two such applicators excited in phase in parallel opposition about phantoms and living subjects. Both depth and homogeneity of heating profiles were greatly enhanced using the parallel opposed system by the convergence of the waveforms. Experiments performed in pigs and human volunteers show the feasibility of heating several anatomical regions. The pelvis, neck, axilla, limbs and single lung regions provide good candidates for this treatment method. The homogeneity of and treatment accessibility of in vivo fields and counterplay of high and low blood flow regions in normal and tumorous tissue are currently under study

  19. Stress in closed thin-walled tubes of single box subjected by shear forces and application to airfoils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebbiche Toufik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The presented work is to develop a numerical computation program to determine the distribution of the shear stress to shear in closed tubes with asymmetric single thin wall section with a constant thickness and applications to airfoils and therefore determining the position and value of the maximum stress. In the literature, there are exact analytical solutions only for some sections of simple geometries such as circular section. Hence our interest is focused on the search of approximate numerical solutions for more complex sections used in aeronautics. In the second stage the position of the shear center is determined so that the section does not undergo torsion. The analytic function of the boundary of the airfoil is obtained by using the cubic spline interpolation since it is given in the form of tabulated points.

  20. Experimental Implementation of a Low-Cost Single Phase Five-Level Inverter for Autonomous PV System Applications Without Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nouaiti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and the implementation of a low-cost single phase five-level inverter for photovoltaic applications. The proposed multilevel inverter is composed of a simple boost converter, a switched-capacitor converter, and an H-bridge converter. An efficient control method which associates a closed-loop regulation method with a simple maximum power point tracking (MPPT method is applied in order to allow the proposed multilevel inverter to transfer power energy from solar panels to autonomous load with no storage batteries. An experimental prototype of this inverter is fabricated at the laboratory and tested with a digital control system. Obtained results confirm the simplicity and the performance of the proposed photovoltaic system.

  1. Nanostructures based on quantum dots for application in promising methods of single- and multiphoton imaging and diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabiev, I. R.

    2017-01-01

    Molecules recognizing biomarkers of diseases (monoclonal antibodies (monoABs)) are often too large for biomedical applications, and the conditions that are used to bind them with nanolabels lead to disordered orientation of monoABs with respect to the nanoparticle surface. Extremely small nanoprobes, designed via oriented conjugation of quantum dots (QDs) with single-domain antibodies (sdABs) derived from the immunoglobulin of llama and produced in the E. coli culture, have a hydrodynamic diameter less than 12 nm and contain equally oriented sdAB molecules on the surface of each QD. These nanoprobes exhibit excellent specificity and sensitivity in quantitative determination of a small number of cells expressing biomarkers. In addition, the higher diffusion coefficient of sdABs makes it possible to perform immunohistochemical analysis in bulk tissue, inaccessible for conventional monoABs. The necessary conditions for implementing high-quality immunofluorescence diagnostics are a high specificity of labeling and clear differences between the fluorescence of nanoprobes and the autofluorescence of tissues. Multiphoton micros-copy with excitation in the near-IR spectral range, which is remote from the range of tissue autofluorescence excitation, makes it possible to solve this problem and image deep layers in biological tissues. The two-photon absorption cross sections of CdSe/ZnS QDs conjugated with sdABs exceed the corresponding values for organic fluorophores by several orders of magnitude. These nanoprobes provide clear discrimination between the regions of tumor and normal tissues with a ratio of the sdAB fluorescence to the tissue autofluorescence upon two-photon excitation exceeding that in the case of single-photon excitation by a factor of more than 40. The data obtained indicate that the sdAB-QD conjugates used as labels provide the same, or even better, quality as the "gold standard" of immunohistochemical diagnostics. The developed nanoprobes are expected to

  2. Growth and characterization of single-crystal CVD diamond for radiation detection applications; Synthese et caracterisation de diamants monocristallins pour applications de detecteur de rayonnements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranchant, N

    2008-01-15

    This work aimed at the study of the synthesis of single crystal diamond using the Microwave enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition technique (MPCVD). The work enabled the development and optimisation of the growth conditions, from the study of the crystalline quality, of the material purity, and of its electronic properties. The assessment of the transport properties was the most determinant: the use of the time of flight (TOF) technique has enabled the measurement of the carrier mobilities and of their kinetic properties as a function of the temperature. When coupled with collected charge efficiency measurements, the work led to remarkable carrier mobility values obtained in the synthesised crystals (3000 cm{sup 2}.V-1.s{sup -1}). Prepared samples were mounted as detection devices and used successfully in real conditions for the monitoring of ultra-fast pulses, as well as for neutron fluency monitoring, and for medical dosimeters for radiotherapy applications. (author)

  3. A review of modern advances in analyses and applications of single-phase natural circulation loop in nuclear thermal hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Dipankar N.; Bhattacharyya, Souvik; Das, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Comprehensive review of state-of-the-art on single-phase natural circulation loops. • Detailed discussion on growth in solar thermal system and nuclear thermal hydraulics. • Systematic development in scaling methodologies for fabrication of test facilities. • Importance of numerical modeling schemes for stability assessment using 1-D codes. • Appraisal of current trend of research and possible future directions. - Abstract: A comprehensive review of single-phase natural circulation loop (NCL) is presented here. Relevant literature reported since the later part of 1980s has been meticulously surveyed, with occasional obligatory reference to a few pioneering studies originating prior to that period, summarizing the key observations and the present trend of research. Development in the concept of buoyancy-induced flow is discussed, with introduction to flow initiation in an NCL due to instability. Detailed discussion on modern advancement in important application areas like solar thermal systems and nuclear thermal hydraulics are presented, with separate analysis for various reactor designs working on natural circulation. Identification of scaling criteria for designing lab-scale experimental facilities has gone through a series of modification. A systematic analysis of the same is presented, considering the state-of-the-art knowledge base. Different approaches have been followed for modeling single-phase NCLs, including simplified Lorenz system mostly for toroidal loops, 1-D computational modeling for both steady-state and stability characterization and 3-D commercial system codes to have a better flow visualization. Methodical review of the relevant studies is presented following a systematic approach, to assess the gradual progression in understanding of the practical system. Brief appraisal of current research interest is reported, including the use of nanofluids for fluid property augmentation, marine reactors subjected to rolling waves

  4. Deep reactive ion etching of fused silica using a single-coated soft mask layer for bio-analytical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Tathagata; Zhu, Haixin; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2010-01-01

    In this note, we present our results from process development and characterization of reactive ion etching (RIE) of fused silica using a single-coated soft masking layer (KMPR® 1025, Microchem Corporation, Newton, MA). The effects of a number of fluorine-radical-based gaseous chemistries, the gas flow rate, RF power and chamber pressure on the etch rate and etching selectivity of fused silica were studied using factorial experimental designs. RF power and pressure were found to be the most important factors in determining the etch rate. The highest fused silica etch rate obtained was about 933 Å min −1 by using SF 6 -based gas chemistry, and the highest etching selectivity between the fused silica and KMPR® 1025 was up to 1.2 using a combination of CF 4 , CHF 3 and Ar. Up to 30 µm deep microstructures have been successfully fabricated using the developed processes. The average area roughness (R a ) of the etched surface was measured and results showed it is comparable to the roughness obtained using a wet etching technique. Additionally, near-vertical sidewalls (with a taper angle up to 85°) have been obtained for the etched microstructures. The processes developed here can be applied to any application requiring fabrication of deep microstructures in fused silica with near-vertical sidewalls. To our knowledge, this is the first note on deep RIE of fused silica using a single-coated KMPR® 1025 masking layer and a non-ICP-based reactive ion etcher. (technical note)

  5. Background Error Covariance Estimation Using Information from a Single Model Trajectory with Application to Ocean Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppenne, Christian L.; Rienecker, Michele; Kovach, Robin M.; Vernieres, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    An attractive property of ensemble data assimilation methods is that they provide flow dependent background error covariance estimates which can be used to update fields of observed variables as well as fields of unobserved model variables. Two methods to estimate background error covariances are introduced which share the above property with ensemble data assimilation methods but do not involve the integration of multiple model trajectories. Instead, all the necessary covariance information is obtained from a single model integration. The Space Adaptive Forecast error Estimation (SAFE) algorithm estimates error covariances from the spatial distribution of model variables within a single state vector. The Flow Adaptive error Statistics from a Time series (FAST) method constructs an ensemble sampled from a moving window along a model trajectory.SAFE and FAST are applied to the assimilation of Argo temperature profiles into version 4.1 of the Modular Ocean Model (MOM4.1) coupled to the GEOS-5 atmospheric model and to the CICE sea ice model. The results are validated against unassimilated Argo salinity data. They show that SAFE and FAST are competitive with the ensemble optimal interpolation (EnOI) used by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) to produce its ocean analysis. Because of their reduced cost, SAFE and FAST hold promise for high-resolution data assimilation applications.

  6. Deterministic bead-in-droplet ejection utilizing an integrated plug-in bead dispenser for single bead-based applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hojin; Choi, In Ho; Lee, Sanghyun; Won, Dong-Joon; Oh, Yong Suk; Kwon, Donghoon; Sung, Hyung Jin; Jeon, Sangmin; Kim, Joonwon

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a deterministic bead-in-droplet ejection (BIDE) technique that regulates the precise distribution of microbeads in an ejected droplet. The deterministic BIDE was realized through the effective integration of a microfluidic single-particle handling technique with a liquid dispensing system. The integrated bead dispenser facilitates the transfer of the desired number of beads into a dispensing volume and the on-demand ejection of bead-encapsulated droplets. Single bead-encapsulated droplets were ejected every 3 s without any failure. Multiple-bead dispensing with deterministic control of the number of beads was demonstrated to emphasize the originality and quality of the proposed dispensing technique. The dispenser was mounted using a plug-socket type connection, and the dispensing process was completely automated using a programmed sequence without any microscopic observation. To demonstrate a potential application of the technique, bead-based streptavidin-biotin binding assay in an evaporating droplet was conducted using ultralow numbers of beads. The results evidenced the number of beads in the droplet crucially influences the reliability of the assay. Therefore, the proposed deterministic bead-in-droplet technology can be utilized to deliver desired beads onto a reaction site, particularly to reliably and efficiently enrich and detect target biomolecules.

  7. Spin-flip configuration interaction singles with exact spin-projection: Theory and applications to strongly correlated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchimochi, Takashi

    2015-10-14

    Spin-flip approaches capture static correlation with the same computational scaling as the ordinary single reference methods. Here, we extend spin-flip configuration interaction singles (SFCIS) by projecting out intrinsic spin-contamination to make it spin-complete, rather than by explicitly complementing it with spin-coupled configurations. We give a general formalism of spin-projection for SFCIS, applicable to any spin states. The proposed method is viewed as a natural unification of SFCIS and spin-projected CIS to achieve a better qualitative accuracy at a low computational cost. While our wave function ansatz is more compact than previously proposed spin-complete SF approaches, it successfully offers more general static correlation beyond biradicals without sacrificing good quantum numbers. It is also shown that our method is invariant with respect to open-shell orbital rotations, due to the uniqueness of spin-projection. We will report benchmark calculations to demonstrate its qualitative performance on strongly correlated systems, including conical intersections that appear both in ground-excited and excited-excited degeneracies.

  8. The Application Three-phase to Single-phase Z-Source Matrix Converter in Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vahid asadi rad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new idea of direct three-phase to single-phase Z-source matrix converter (impedance-source matrix converter applicable in stand-alone wind turbine is introduced. In the direct Z-source matrix converter amplitude of output voltage and frequency regulation are of importance to control system. In wind turbines, input voltage and frequency are usually changing due to wind speed variation that these alterations could be easily regulated by means of a direct Z-source matrix converter. A scheme is also offered to control the proposed direct three-phase to single-phase Z-source matrix converter. the control strategy would be able to adjust the output voltage and frequency at desired value as well as producing low THD (total harmonic distortion at the output voltage. The proposed structure and the control methodology are simulated using matlab simulink software and results are investigated and discussed to confirm the performance of the direct Z-source matrix converter in wind turbine.

  9. Webs on the Web (WOW): 3D visualization of ecological networks on the WWW for collaborative research and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ilmi; Williams, Rich; Levine, Eli; Yoon, Sanghyuk; Dunne, Jennifer; Martinez, Neo

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes information technology being developed to improve the quality, sophistication, accessibility, and pedagogical simplicity of ecological network data, analysis, and visualization. We present designs for a WWW demonstration/prototype web site that provides database, analysis, and visualization tools for research and education related to food web research. Our early experience with a prototype 3D ecological network visualization guides our design of a more flexible architecture design. 3D visualization algorithms include variable node and link sizes, placements according to node connectivity and tropic levels, and visualization of other node and link properties in food web data. The flexible architecture includes an XML application design, FoodWebML, and pipelining of computational components. Based on users" choices of data and visualization options, the WWW prototype site will connect to an XML database (Xindice) and return the visualization in VRML format for browsing and further interactions.

  10. Development and Applications of a High Throughput Genotyping Tool for Polyploid Crops: Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Qian; Yang, Xiping; Peng, Ze; Xu, Liping; Wang, Jianping

    2018-01-01

    Polypoid species play significant roles in agriculture and food production. Many crop species are polyploid, such as potato, wheat, strawberry, and sugarcane. Genotyping has been a daunting task for genetic studies of polyploid crops, which lags far behind the diploid crop species. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array is considered to be one of, high-throughput, relatively cost-efficient and automated genotyping approaches. However, there are significant challenges for SNP identification in complex, polyploid genomes, which has seriously slowed SNP discovery and array development in polyploid species. Ploidy is a significant factor impacting SNP qualities and validation rates of SNP markers in SNP arrays, which has been proven to be a very important tool for genetic studies and molecular breeding. In this review, we (1) discussed the pros and cons of SNP array in general for high throughput genotyping, (2) presented the challenges of and solutions to SNP calling in polyploid species, (3) summarized the SNP selection criteria and considerations of SNP array design for polyploid species, (4) illustrated SNP array applications in several different polyploid crop species, then (5) discussed challenges, available software, and their accuracy comparisons for genotype calling based on SNP array data in polyploids, and finally (6) provided a series of SNP array design and genotype calling recommendations. This review presents a complete overview of SNP array development and applications in polypoid crops, which will benefit the research in molecular breeding and genetics of crops with complex genomes. PMID:29467780

  11. Performance analysis of the Single-Phase Grid-Connected Inverter of a photovoltaic system in water and wind applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borkowski Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-phase grid connected inverters are nowadays broadly developed and tested in various types of applications especially in photovoltaic systems. The main aim of the inverter control strategy is to extract the maximum energy from the PV system which corresponds to the maximum power at certain conditions. However, the MPPT methods are also important in other renewable energy conversion systems. This paper analyses the performance of a commercially available photovoltaic inverter in water and wind systems. Presented models are implemented in a laboratory test bench in the form of torque characteristics realised by an induction motor fed by the inverter with vector control. The parameters are scaled into relative variables to provide a proper performance comparison. Presented tests include step response to assess the performance of a system dynamic. The dynamic tests showed a fast response of the investigated systems. The MPPT tracking accuracy tested under realistic profiles is similar for both cases: 98% and 96% respectively for the wind and water systems. These results prove the satisfactory performance of the MPPT of the PV microinverter in these applications.

  12. Microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of NiAl intermetallics in a single mode applicator: Modeling and optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poli, G.; Sola, R.; Veronesi, P.

    2006-01-01

    The microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of NiAl intermetallics in a single mode applicator has been simulated numerically and performed with the aim of achieving the highest yields, energy efficiency and process reproducibility. The electromagnetic field modeling of the microwave system allowed to chose the proper experimental set-up and the materials more suitable for the application, minimising the reflected power and the risks of arcing. In all the experimental conditions tested, conversions of 3-5 g 1:1 atomic ratio Ni and Al powder compacts into NiAl ranged from 98.7% to 100%, requiring from 30 to 180 s with power from 500 to 1500 W. The optimisation procedure allowed to determine and quantify the effects of the main process variables on the ignition time, the NiAl yields and the specific energy consumption, leading to a fast, reproducible and cost-effective process of microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of NiAl intermetallics

  13. Uuenes Eesti riigipea kodulehekülg www.president.ee / Kristel Peterson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peterson, Kristel

    2007-01-01

    Eesti Vabariigi Presidendi uuendatud kujundusega koduleheküljest aadressil www.president.ee. Veebilehe kujunduse tellis presidendi kantselei firmalt ADM Interactive OÜ, loodusfotode autoriks on Jarek Jõepera

  14. Verification of a new biocompatible single-use film formulation with optimized additive content for multiple bioprocess applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkiewicz, Elke; Husemann, Ute; Greller, Gerhard; Barbaroux, Magali; Fenge, Christel

    2014-01-01

    Single-use bioprocessing bags and bioreactors gained significant importance in the industry as they offer a number of advantages over traditional stainless steel solutions. However, there is continued concern that the plastic materials might release potentially toxic substances negatively impacting cell growth and product titers, or even compromise drug safety when using single-use bags for intermediate or drug substance storage. In this study, we have focused on the in vitro detection of potentially cytotoxic leachables originating from the recently developed new polyethylene (PE) multilayer film called S80. This new film was developed to guarantee biocompatibility for multiple bioprocess applications, for example, storage of process fluids, mixing, and cell culture bioreactors. For this purpose, we examined a protein-free cell culture medium that had been used to extract leachables from freshly gamma-irradiated sample bags in a standardized cell culture assay. We investigated sample bags from films generated to establish the operating ranges of the film extrusion process. Further, we studied sample bags of different age after gamma-irradiation and finally, we performed extended media extraction trials at cold room conditions using sample bags. In contrast to a nonoptimized film formulation, our data demonstrate no cytotoxic effect of the S80 polymer film formulation under any of the investigated conditions. The S80 film formulation is based on an optimized PE polymer composition and additive package. Full traceability alongside specifications and controls of all critical raw materials, and process controls of the manufacturing process, that is, film extrusion and gamma-irradiation, have been established to ensure lot-to-lot consistency. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  15. Application of single- and dual-energy CT brain tissue segmentation to PET monitoring of proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Bianca; Landry, Guillaume; Schwarz, Florian; Tessonnier, Thomas; Kamp, Florian; Dedes, George; Thieke, Christian; Würl, Matthias; Kurz, Christopher; Ganswindt, Ute; Verhaegen, Frank; Debus, Jürgen; Belka, Claus; Sommer, Wieland; Reiser, Maximilian; Bauer, Julia; Parodi, Katia

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the ability of single and dual energy computed tomography (SECT, DECT) to estimate tissue composition and density for usage in Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of irradiation induced β + activity distributions. This was done to assess the impact on positron emission tomography (PET) range verification in proton therapy. A DECT-based brain tissue segmentation method was developed for white matter (WM), grey matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The elemental composition of reference tissues was assigned to closest CT numbers in DECT space (DECTdist). The method was also applied to SECT data (SECTdist). In a validation experiment, the proton irradiation induced PET activity of three brain equivalent solutions (BES) was compared to simulations based on different tissue segmentations. Five patients scanned with a dual source DECT scanner were analyzed to compare the different segmentation methods. A single magnetic resonance (MR) scan was used for comparison with an established segmentation toolkit. Additionally, one patient with SECT and post-treatment PET scans was investigated. For BES, DECTdist and SECTdist reduced differences to the reference simulation by up to 62% when compared to the conventional stoichiometric segmentation (SECTSchneider). In comparison to MR brain segmentation, Dice similarity coefficients for WM, GM and CSF were 0.61, 0.67 and 0.66 for DECTdist and 0.54, 0.41 and 0.66 for SECTdist. MC simulations of PET treatment verification in patients showed important differences between DECTdist/SECTdist and SECTSchneider for patients with large CSF areas within the treatment field but not in WM and GM. Differences could be misinterpreted as PET derived range shifts of up to 4 mm. DECTdist and SECTdist yielded comparable activity distributions, and comparison of SECTdist to a measured patient PET scan showed improved agreement when compared to SECTSchneider. The agreement between predicted and measured PET

  16. Development and application of an automated analysis method for individual cerebral perfusion single photon emission tomography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluckie, Alice Jane

    2001-01-01

    Neurological images may be analysed by performing voxel by voxel comparisons with a group of control subject images. An automated, 3D, voxel-based method has been developed for the analysis of individual single photon emission tomography (SPET) scans. Clusters of voxels are identified that represent regions of abnormal radiopharmaceutical uptake. Morphological operators are applied to reduce noise in the clusters, then quantitative estimates of the size and degree of the radiopharmaceutical uptake abnormalities are derived. Statistical inference has been performed using a Monte Carlo method that has not previously been applied to SPET scans, or for the analysis of individual images. This has been validated for group comparisons of SPET scans and for the analysis of an individual image using comparison with a group. Accurate statistical inference was obtained independent of experimental factors such as degrees of freedom, image smoothing and voxel significance level threshold. The analysis method has been evaluated for application to cerebral perfusion SPET imaging in ischaemic stroke. It has been shown that useful quantitative estimates, high sensitivity and high specificity may be obtained. Sensitivity and the accuracy of signal quantification were found to be dependent on the operator defined analysis parameters. Recommendations for the values of these parameters have been made. The analysis method developed has been compared with an established method and shown to result in higher specificity for the data and analysis parameter sets tested. In addition, application to a group of ischaemic stroke patient SPET scans has demonstrated its clinical utility. The influence of imaging conditions has been assessed using phantom data acquired with different gamma camera SPET acquisition parameters. A lower limit of five million counts and standardisation of all acquisition parameters has been recommended for the analysis of individual SPET scans. (author)

  17. Single-Chip Fully Integrated Direct-Modulation CMOS RF Transmitters for Short-Range Wireless Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jamal Deen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-low power radio frequency (RF transceivers used in short-range application such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs require efficient, reliable and fully integrated transmitter architectures with minimal building blocks. This paper presents the design, implementation and performance evaluation of single-chip, fully integrated 2.4 GHz and 433 MHz RF transmitters using direct-modulation power voltage-controlled oscillators (PVCOs in addition to a 2.0 GHz phase-locked loop (PLL based transmitter. All three RF transmitters have been fabricated in a standard mixed-signal CMOS 0.18 µm technology. Measurement results of the 2.4 GHz transmitter show an improvement in drain efficiency from 27% to 36%. The 2.4 GHz and 433 MHz transmitters deliver an output power of 8 dBm with a phase noise of −122 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset, while drawing 15.4 mA of current and an output power of 6.5 dBm with a phase noise of −120 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset, while drawing 20.8 mA of current from 1.5 V power supplies, respectively. The PLL transmitter delivers an output power of 9 mW with a locking range of 128 MHz and consumes 26 mA from 1.8 V power supply. The experimental results demonstrate that the RF transmitters can be efficiently used in low power WSN applications.

  18. Design and Generation of Humanized Single-chain Fv Derived from Mouse Hybridoma for Potential Targeting Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khantasup, Kannika; Chantima, Warangkana; Sangma, Chak; Poomputsa, Kanokwan; Dharakul, Tararaj

    2015-12-01

    Single-chain variable antibody fragments (scFvs) are attractive candidates for targeted immunotherapy in several human diseases. In this study, a concise humanization strategy combined with an optimized production method for humanizing scFvs was successfully employed. Two antibody clones, one directed against the hemagglutinin of H5N1 influenza virus, the other against EpCAM, a cancer biomarker, were used to demonstrate the validity of the method. Heavy chain (VH) and light chain (VL) variable regions of immunoglobulin genes from mouse hybridoma cells were sequenced and subjected to the construction of mouse scFv 3-D structure. Based on in silico modeling, the humanized version of the scFv was designed via complementarity-determining region (CDR) grafting with the retention of mouse framework region (FR) residues identified by primary sequence analysis. Root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) value between mouse and humanized scFv structures was calculated to evaluate the preservation of CDR conformation. Mouse and humanized scFv genes were then constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. Using this method, we successfully generated humanized scFvs that retained the targeting activity of their respective mouse scFv counterparts. In addition, the humanized scFvs were engineered with a C-terminal cysteine residue (hscFv-C) for site-directed conjugation for use in future targeting applications. The hscFv-C expression was extensively optimized to improve protein production yield. The protocol yielded a 20-fold increase in production of hscFv-Cs in E. coli periplasm. The strategy described in this study may be applicable in the humanization of other antibodies derived from mouse hybridoma.

  19. Peptide-coated semiconductor quantum dots and their applications in biological imaging of single molecules in live cells and organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinaud, Fabien Florent

    2007-12-01

    A new surface chemistry has been developed for the solubilization and biofunctionalization of inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals fluorescent probes, also known as quantum dots. This chemistry is based on the surface coating of quantum dots with custom-designed polycysteine peptides and yields water-soluble, small, monodispersed and colloidally stable probes that remain bright and photostable in complex biological milieus. This peptide coating strategy was successfully tested on several types of core and core-shell quantum dots emitting from the visible (e.g. CdSe/ZnS) to the NIR spectrum range (e.g. CdTe/CdSe/ZnS). By taking advantage of the versatile physico-chemical properties of peptides, a peptide "toolkit" was designed and employed to impart several biological functions to individual quantum dots and control their biochemical activity at the nanometer scale. These biofunctionalized peptide-coated quantum dots were exploited in very diverse biological applications. Near-infrared emitting quantum dot probes were engineered with optimized blood circulation and biodistribution properties for in vivo animal imaging. Visible emitting quantum dots were used for single molecule tracking of raft-associated GPI-anchored proteins in live cells. This last application revealed the presence of discrete and non-caveolar lipid microdomains capable of impeding free lateral diffusions in the plasma membrane of Hela cells. Imaging and tracking of peptide-coated quantum dots provided the first direct evidence that microdomains having the composition and behavior expected for lipid rafts can induce molecular compartmentalization in the membrane of living cells.

  20. Computational Ecology and Software (http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/ces/online-version.asp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ces@iaees.org

    Full Text Available Computational Ecology and Software ISSN 2220-721X URL: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/ces/online-version.asp RSS: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/ces/rss.xml E-mail: ces@iaees.org Editor-in-Chief: WenJun Zhang Aims and Scope COMPUTATIONAL ECOLOGY AND SOFTWARE (ISSN 2220-721X is an open access, peer-reviewed online journal that considers scientific articles in all different areas of computational ecology. It is the transactions of the International Society of Computational Ecology. The journal is concerned with the ecological researches, constructions and applications of theories and methods of computational sciences including computational mathematics, computational statistics and computer science. It features the simulation, approximation, prediction, recognition, and classification of ecological issues. Intensive computation is one of the major stresses of the journal. The journal welcomes research articles, short communications, review articles, perspectives, and book reviews. The journal also supports the activities of the International Society of Computational Ecology. The topics to be covered by CES include, but are not limited to: •Computation intensive methods, numerical and optimization methods, differential and difference equation modeling and simulation, prediction, recognition, classification, statistical computation (Bayesian computing, randomization, bootstrapping, Monte Carlo techniques, stochastic process, etc., agent-based modeling, individual-based modeling, artificial neural networks, knowledge based systems, machine learning, genetic algorithms, data exploration, network analysis and computation, databases, ecological modeling and computation using Geographical Information Systems, satellite imagery, and other computation intensive theories and methods. •Artificial ecosystems, artificial life, complexity of ecosystems and virtual reality. •The development, evaluation and validation of software and

  1. RSS (http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/ces/rss.xml

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Computational Ecology and Software (ISSN 2220-721X

    Full Text Available Computational Ecology and Software ISSN 2220-721X URL: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/ces/online-version.asp RSS: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/ces/rss.xml E-mail: ces@iaees.org Editor-in-Chief: WenJun Zhang Aims and Scope COMPUTATIONAL ECOLOGY AND SOFTWARE (ISSN 2220-721X is an open access, peer-reviewed online journal that considers scientific articles in all different areas of computational ecology. It is the transactions of the International Society of Computational Ecology. The journal is concerned with the ecological researches, constructions and applications of theories and methods of computational sciences including computational mathematics, computational statistics and computer science. It features the simulation, approximation, prediction, recognition, and classification of ecological issues. Intensive computation is one of the major stresses of the journal. The journal welcomes research articles, short communications, review articles, perspectives, and book reviews. The journal also supports the activities of the International Society of Computational Ecology. The topics to be covered by CES include, but are not limited to: •Computation intensive methods, numerical and optimization methods, differential and difference equation modeling and simulation, prediction, recognition, classification, statistical computation (Bayesian computing, randomization, bootstrapping, Monte Carlo techniques, stochastic process, etc., agent-based modeling, individual-based modeling, artificial neural networks, knowledge based systems, machine learning, genetic algorithms, data exploration, network analysis and computation, databases, ecological modeling and computation using Geographical Information Systems, satellite imagery, and other computation intensive theories and methods. •Artificial ecosystems, artificial life, complexity of ecosystems and virtual reality. •The development, evaluation and validation of software and

  2. Russian and CIS Library Internet Service: An Analysis of WWW-Server Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shraiberg, Yakov

    This paper traces the expansion of the Internet into Russian and Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) libraries from basic access to the development of World Wide Web (WWW) servers. An analysis of the most representative groups of library WWW-servers arranged by projects, by corporate library network, or by geographical characteristics is…

  3. Implementation and adaptation experiences with a WWW-based course management system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Willem; Collis, Betty

    2001-01-01

    Members of the faculty of educational science and technology of the University of Twente, The Netherlands, have been making innovative use of WWW-based course-support sites since 1994. By 2000 all of the faculty were involved not only in using the WWW, but also more fundamentally in a new

  4. Strategy of development and online marketing for website www.skutecnydarek.cz

    OpenAIRE

    Fodor, Aleš

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this bachelor's thesis is to suggest particular online marketing strategy for People in need's website - www.skutecnydarek.cz. Firstly the thesis is going to aim at analysing the present condition of marketing activities and the quality of the web site for www.skutecnydarek.cz. Then the online marketing strategy is going be developed.

  5. Evaluation of the Electronic Structure of Single-Molecule Junctions Based on Current-Voltage and Thermopower Measurements: Application to C60 Single-Molecule Junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoto, Yuki; Isshiki, Yuji; Fujii, Shintaro; Nishino, Tomoaki; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2017-02-16

    The electronic structure of molecular junctions has a significant impact on their transport properties. Despite the decisive role of the electronic structure, a complete characterization of the electronic structure remains a challenge. This is because there is no straightforward way of measuring electron spectroscopy for an individual molecule trapped in a nanoscale gap between two metal electrodes. Herein, a comprehensive approach to obtain a detailed description of the electronic structure in single-molecule junctions based on the analysis of current-voltage (I-V) and thermoelectric characteristics is described. It is shown that the electronic structure of the prototypical C 60 single-molecule junction can be resolved by analyzing complementary results of the I-V and thermoelectric measurement. This combined approach confirmed that the C 60 single-molecule junction was highly conductive with molecular electronic conductances of 0.033 and 0.003 G 0 and a molecular Seebeck coefficient of -12 μV K -1 . In addition, we revealed that charge transport was mediated by a LUMO whose energy level was located 0.5≈0.6 eV above the Fermi level of the Au electrode. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. A single MCR-ALS model for drug analysis in different formulations: Application on diazepam commercial preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Michele; Ioele, Giuseppina; Spatari, Claudia; Ragno, Gaetano

    2017-02-05

    A multivariate curve resolution - alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) analysis was used to quantify diazepam (DZP) in thirty commercial liquid formulations. MCR calibration was run on the UV spectrophotometric data of the commercial DZP samples over the range 200-400nm, allowing the resolution of the drug signal and then the excipients contained in all the formulations. A single model MCR for the determination of the drug in all samples was then built through the adoption of the correlation constraint. This model was optimized by an appropriate selection of the most useful wavelength ranges and then validated on external samples. DZP concentrations in the pharmaceutical formulations were measured by HPLC-DAD analysis. The performance of the MCR model was compared with that from application of classical partial least squares regression (PLSR). The results, in terms of error of prediction, were very satisfactory, reaching a relative error below of 1.66% against 2.56%, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of Benchmark Examples to Assess the Single and Mixed-Mode Static Delamination Propagation Capabilities in ANSYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    The application of benchmark examples for the assessment of quasi-static delamination propagation capabilities is demonstrated for ANSYS. The examples are independent of the analysis software used and allow the assessment of the automated delamination propagation in commercial finite element codes based on the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT). The examples selected are based on two-dimensional finite element models of Double Cantilever Beam (DCB), End-Notched Flexure (ENF), Mixed-Mode Bending (MMB) and Single Leg Bending (SLB) specimens. First, the quasi-static benchmark examples were recreated for each specimen using the current implementation of VCCT in ANSYS . Second, the delamination was allowed to propagate under quasi-static loading from its initial location using the automated procedure implemented in the finite element software. Third, the load-displacement relationship from a propagation analysis and the benchmark results were compared, and good agreement could be achieved by selecting the appropriate input parameters. The benchmarking procedure proved valuable by highlighting the issues associated with choosing the input parameters of the particular implementation. Overall the results are encouraging, but further assessment for three-dimensional solid models is required.

  8. Multi-objective compared to single-objective optimization with application to model validation and uncertainty quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze-Riegert, R.; Krosche, M.; Stekolschikov, K. [Scandpower Petroleum Technology GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Fahimuddin, A. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany)

    2007-09-13

    History Matching in Reservoir Simulation, well location and production optimization etc. is generally a multi-objective optimization problem. The problem statement of history matching for a realistic field case includes many field and well measurements in time and type, e.g. pressure measurements, fluid rates, events such as water and gas break-throughs, etc. Uncertainty parameters modified as part of the history matching process have varying impact on the improvement of the match criteria. Competing match criteria often reduce the likelihood of finding an acceptable history match. It is an engineering challenge in manual history matching processes to identify competing objectives and to implement the changes required in the simulation model. In production optimization or scenario optimization the focus on one key optimization criterion such as NPV limits the identification of alternatives and potential opportunities, since multiple objectives are summarized in a predefined global objective formulation. Previous works primarily focus on a specific optimization method. Few works actually concentrate on the objective formulation and multi-objective optimization schemes have not yet been applied to reservoir simulations. This paper presents a multi-objective optimization approach applicable to reservoir simulation. It addresses the problem of multi-objective criteria in a history matching study and presents analysis techniques identifying competing match criteria. A Pareto-Optimizer is discussed and the implementation of that multi-objective optimization scheme is applied to a case study. Results are compared to a single-objective optimization method. (orig.)

  9. Consolidating a Distributed Compound Management Capability into a Single Installation: The Application of Overall Equipment Effectiveness to Determine Capacity Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Clive; Taylor, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    Compound management (CM) is a critical discipline enabling hit discovery through the production of assay-ready compound plates for screening. CM in pharma requires significant investments in manpower, capital equipment, repairs and maintenance, and information technology. These investments are at risk from external factors, for example, new technology rendering existing equipment obsolete and strategic site closures. At AstraZeneca, we faced the challenge of evaluating the number of CM sites required to support hit discovery in response to site closures and pressure on our operating budget. We reasoned that overall equipment effectiveness, a tool used extensively in the manufacturing sector, could determine the equipment capacity and appropriate number of sites. We identified automation downtime as the critical component governing capacity, and a connection between automation downtime and the availability of skilled staff. We demonstrated that sufficient production capacity existed in two sites to meet hit discovery demand without the requirement for an additional investment of $7 million in new facilities. In addition, we developed an automated capacity model that incorporated an extended working-day pattern as a solution for reducing automation downtime. The application of this solution enabled the transition to a single site, with an annual cost saving of $2.1 million. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  10. Secondary electron emission from boron-doped diamond under ion impact: Applications in single-ion detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, T.; Cholewa, M.; Saint, A.; Prawer, S.; Legge, G.J.; Butler, J.E.; Vestyck, D.J. , Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The secondary electron emission from a 2 μm thick boron-doped diamond film under ion (4.6 endash 7.7 MeV He + )impact is reported. The yield under ions impact is found to be remarkably high, stable over a period of many months, and independent of which side of the film (i.e., growth or substrate side) is exposed to the ion flux. By taking advantage of the high secondary-electron yield, the passage of each ion through the film could be detected with an efficiency of close to 100%, which to the best of our knowledge is the highest efficiency recorded to date for any thin-film window. This finding has an immediate application in single-ion irradiation systems where a thin vacuum window is required to allow extraction of an ion beam from the vacuum into air and at the same time offer 100% efficiency for the detection of the passage of the ion through the window. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  11. Development of Highly Informative Genome-Wide Single Sequence Repeat Markers for Breeding Applications in Sesame and Construction of a Web Resource: SisatBase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komivi Dossa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The sequencing of the full nuclear genome of sesame (Sesamum indicum L. provides the platform for functional analyses of genome components and their application in breeding programs. Although the importance of microsatellites markers or simple sequence repeats (SSR in crop genotyping, genetics, and breeding applications is well established, only a little information exist concerning SSRs at the whole genome level in sesame. In addition, SSRs represent a suitable marker type for sesame molecular breeding in developing countries where it is mainly grown. In this study, we identified 138,194 genome-wide SSRs of which 76.5% were physically mapped onto the 13 pseudo-chromosomes. Among these SSRs, up to three primers pairs were supplied for 101,930 SSRs and used to in silico amplify the reference genome together with two newly sequenced sesame accessions. A total of 79,957 SSRs (78% were polymorphic between the three genomes thereby suggesting their promising use in different genomics-assisted breeding applications. From these polymorphic SSRs, 23 were selected and validated to have high polymorphic potential in 48 sesame accessions from different growing areas of Africa. Furthermore, we have developed an online user-friendly database, SisatBase (http://www.sesame-bioinfo.org/SisatBase/, which provides free access to SSRs data as well as an integrated platform for functional analyses. Altogether, the reference SSR and SisatBase would serve as useful resources for genetic assessment, genomic studies, and breeding advancement in sesame, especially in developing countries.

  12. 2018-03-30T14:08:49Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/all/oai oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    semantics/article info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Peer-reviewed Article application/pdf https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jonamp/article/view/90984 Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics; Vol 16 (2010); 473-482 1116-4336 ...

  13. 2018-03-21T13:09:49Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/all/oai oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdu, SB Hassan, MR Adamu, HY Yashim, SM Oketona, GF Buck, digestibility, Gmelina arborea, maize cobs, red Sokoto bucks An experiment was conducted to ... info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Peer-reviewed Article application/pdf https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjas/article/view/94039 Nigerian Journal of ...

  14. Influence of a Single Soil Surfactant Application on Potato Ridge Moisture Dynamics and Crop Yield in a Water Repellent Sandy Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindie, K.; Dekker, L.W.; Wesseling, J.G.; Moore, D.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies in the USA (e.g. Hopkins and Cook, 2005) show that single applications of a particular soil surfactant, IrrigAid Gold (Aquatrols), on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) crop fields can lead to a more uniform wetting pattern in the potato ridges, higher soil water contents in the ridges

  15. Control and dynamic analysis of a parallel-connected single active bridge DC-DC converter for DC-grid wind farm application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Kiwoo; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a control strategy and its dynamic analysis of a high-power dc-dc converter, which is constructed with the parallel-connected single active bridge (SAB) dc-dc converters for dc-grid wind farm applications. The structural and operational characteristics of the SAB dc-dc converter...

  16. RSS (http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/nb/rss.xml

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Network Biology (ISSN 2220-8879

    Full Text Available Network Biology ISSN 2220-8879 URL: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/nb/online-version.asp RSS: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/nb/rss.xml E-mail: networkbiology@iaees.org Editor-in-Chief: WenJun Zhang Aims and Scope NETWORK BIOLOGY (ISSN 2220-8879; CODEN NBEICS is an open access, peer-reviewed international journal that considers scientific articles in all different areas of network biology. It is the transactions of the International Society of Network Biology. It dedicates to the latest advances in network biology. The goal of this journal is to keep a record of the state-of-the-art research and promote the research work in these fast moving areas. The topics to be covered by Network Biology include, but are not limited to: •Theories, algorithms and programs of network analysis •Innovations and applications of biological networks •Ecological networks, food webs and natural equilibrium •Co-evolution, co-extinction, biodiversity conservation •Metabolic networks, protein-protein interaction networks, biochemical reaction networks, gene networks, transcriptional regulatory networks, cell cycle networks, phylogenetic networks, network motifs •Physiological networks •Network regulation of metabolic processes, human diseases and ecological systems •Social networks, epidemiological networks •System complexity, self-organized systems, emergence of biological systems, agent-based modeling, individual-based modeling, neural network modeling, and other network-based modeling, etc. We are also interested in short communications that clearly address a specific issue or completely present a new ecological network, food web, or metabolic or gene network, etc. Authors can submit their works to the email box of this journal, networkbiology@iaees.org. All manuscripts submitted to this journal must be previously unpublished and may not be considered for publication elsewhere at any time during review period of this journal

  17. Network Biology (http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/nb/online-version.asp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    networkbiology@iaees.org

    Full Text Available Network Biology ISSN 2220-8879 URL: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/nb/online-version.asp RSS: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/nb/rss.xml E-mail: networkbiology@iaees.org Editor-in-Chief: WenJun Zhang Aims and Scope NETWORK BIOLOGY (ISSN 2220-8879; CODEN NBEICS is an open access, peer-reviewed international journal that considers scientific articles in all different areas of network biology. It is the transactions of the International Society of Network Biology. It dedicates to the latest advances in network biology. The goal of this journal is to keep a record of the state-of-the-art research and promote the research work in these fast moving areas. The topics to be covered by Network Biology include, but are not limited to: •Theories, algorithms and programs of network analysis •Innovations and applications of biological networks •Ecological networks, food webs and natural equilibrium •Co-evolution, co-extinction, biodiversity conservation •Metabolic networks, protein-protein interaction networks, biochemical reaction networks, gene networks, transcriptional regulatory networks, cell cycle networks, phylogenetic networks, network motifs •Physiological networks •Network regulation of metabolic processes, human diseases and ecological systems •Social networks, epidemiological networks •System complexity, self-organized systems, emergence of biological systems, agent-based modeling, individual-based modeling, neural network modeling, and other network-based modeling, etc. We are also interested in short communications that clearly address a specific issue or completely present a new ecological network, food web, or metabolic or gene network, etc. Authors can submit their works to the email box of this journal, networkbiology@iaees.org. All manuscripts submitted to this journal must be previously unpublished and may not be considered for publication elsewhere at any time during review period of this journal

  18. Observation of single artificial atom optical bi-stability and its application to single-shot readout in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Luyan; Ginossar, Eran; Guy, Mikhael; Reed, Matthew; Paik, Hanhee; Bishop, Lev S.; Sears, Adam; Petrenko, Andrei; Brecht, Teresa; Frunzio, Luigi; Girvin, Steven; Schoelkopf, Robert

    2012-02-01

    The high power transient behavior of superconducting qubit-cavity systems has recently been used to perform high fidelity readout of transmon qubits [1]. We show that in the steady state, the system exhibits a bi-stable behavior that can be observed on the single-shot level, with the cavity state switching stochastically between dim and bright states. The switching times are shown to be long compared to the cavity and qubit lifetimes. Some features of the bi-stability can be explained by mean field theory, while its switching dynamics is studied with large scale simulations. Understanding these dynamics will be crucial for studying the transient response, an essential aspect of the qubit readout. We will discuss progress on optimizing readout by shaping the measurement pulse. [4pt] [1] M. D. Reed, L. DiCarlo, B. R. Johnson, L. Sun, D. I. Schuster, L. Frunzio, and R. J. Schoelkopf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173601 (2010)

  19. Applicability of single-camera photogrammetry to determine body dimensions of pinnipeds: Galapagos sea lions as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meise, Kristine; Mueller, Birte; Zein, Beate; Trillmich, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    Morphological features correlate with many life history traits and are therefore of high interest to behavioral and evolutionary biologists. Photogrammetry provides a useful tool to collect morphological data from species for which measurements are otherwise difficult to obtain. This method reduces disturbance and avoids capture stress. Using the Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki) as a model system, we tested the applicability of single-camera photogrammetry in combination with laser distance measurement to estimate morphological traits which may vary with an animal's body position. We assessed whether linear morphological traits estimated by photogrammetry can be used to estimate body length and mass. We show that accurate estimates of body length (males: ±2.0%, females: ±2.6%) and reliable estimates of body mass are possible (males: ±6.8%, females: 14.5%). Furthermore, we developed correction factors that allow the use of animal photos that diverge somewhat from a flat-out position. The product of estimated body length and girth produced sufficiently reliable estimates of mass to categorize individuals into 10 kg-classes of body mass. Data of individuals repeatedly photographed within one season suggested relatively low measurement errors (body length: 2.9%, body mass: 8.1%). In order to develop accurate sex- and age-specific correction factors, a sufficient number of individuals from both sexes and from all desired age classes have to be captured for baseline measurements. Given proper validation, this method provides an excellent opportunity to collect morphological data for large numbers of individuals with minimal disturbance.

  20. Fabrication of a membrane filter with controlled pore shape and its application to cell separation and strong single cell trapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dong-Hoon; Yoon, Gun-Wook; Yoon, Jun-Bo; Park, Jeong Won; Lee, Dae-Sik; Ihm, Chunhwa

    2015-01-01

    A porous membrane filter is one of the key components for sample preparation in lab-on-a-chip applications. However, most of the membranes reported to date have only been used for size-based separation since it is difficult to provide functionality to the membrane or improve the performance of the membrane. In this work, as a method to functionalize the membrane filter, controlling the shape of the membrane pores is suggested, and a convenient and mass-producible fabrication method is provided. With the proposed method, membrane filters with round, conical and funnel shape pores were successfully fabricated, and we demonstrated that the sidewall slope of the conical shape pores could be precisely controlled. To verify that the membrane filter can be functionalized by controlled pore shape, we investigated filtration and trapping performance of the membrane filter with conical shape pores. In a filtration test of 1000 cancer cells (MCF-7, a breast cancer cell line) spiked in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution, 77% of the total cancer cells were retained on the membrane, and each cell from among 99.3% of the retained cells was automatically isolated in a single conical pore during the filtration process. Thanks to its engineered pore shape, trapping ability of the membrane with conical pores is dramatically improved. Microparticles trapped in the conical pores maintain their locations without any losses even at a more than 30 times faster external flow rate com-pared with those mounted on conventional cylindrical pores. Also, 78% of the cells trapped in the conical pores withstand an external flow of over 300 μl min −1 whereas only 18% of the cells trapped in the cylindrical pores remain on the membrane after 120 μl min −1 of an external flow is applied. (paper)

  1. Applicability of single-camera photogrammetry to determine body dimensions of pinnipeds: Galapagos sea lions as an example.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Meise

    Full Text Available Morphological features correlate with many life history traits and are therefore of high interest to behavioral and evolutionary biologists. Photogrammetry provides a useful tool to collect morphological data from species for which measurements are otherwise difficult to obtain. This method reduces disturbance and avoids capture stress. Using the Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki as a model system, we tested the applicability of single-camera photogrammetry in combination with laser distance measurement to estimate morphological traits which may vary with an animal's body position. We assessed whether linear morphological traits estimated by photogrammetry can be used to estimate body length and mass. We show that accurate estimates of body length (males: ±2.0%, females: ±2.6% and reliable estimates of body mass are possible (males: ±6.8%, females: 14.5%. Furthermore, we developed correction factors that allow the use of animal photos that diverge somewhat from a flat-out position. The product of estimated body length and girth produced sufficiently reliable estimates of mass to categorize individuals into 10 kg-classes of body mass. Data of individuals repeatedly photographed within one season suggested relatively low measurement errors (body length: 2.9%, body mass: 8.1%. In order to develop accurate sex- and age-specific correction factors, a sufficient number of individuals from both sexes and from all desired age classes have to be captured for baseline measurements. Given proper validation, this method provides an excellent opportunity to collect morphological data for large numbers of individuals with minimal disturbance.

  2. Application of modern tests for stationarity to single-trial MEG data: transferring powerful statistical tools from econometrics to neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipiński, Lech; König, Reinhard; Sielużycki, Cezary; Kordecki, Wojciech

    2011-10-01

    Stationarity is a crucial yet rarely questioned assumption in the analysis of time series of magneto- (MEG) or electroencephalography (EEG). One key drawback of the commonly used tests for stationarity of encephalographic time series is the fact that conclusions on stationarity are only indirectly inferred either from the Gaussianity (e.g. the Shapiro-Wilk test or Kolmogorov-Smirnov test) or the randomness of the time series and the absence of trend using very simple time-series models (e.g. the sign and trend tests by Bendat and Piersol). We present a novel approach to the analysis of the stationarity of MEG and EEG time series by applying modern statistical methods which were specifically developed in econometrics to verify the hypothesis that a time series is stationary. We report our findings of the application of three different tests of stationarity--the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Schin (KPSS) test for trend or mean stationarity, the Phillips-Perron (PP) test for the presence of a unit root and the White test for homoscedasticity--on an illustrative set of MEG data. For five stimulation sessions, we found already for short epochs of duration of 250 and 500 ms that, although the majority of the studied epochs of single MEG trials were usually mean-stationary (KPSS test and PP test), they were classified as nonstationary due to their heteroscedasticity (White test). We also observed that the presence of external auditory stimulation did not significantly affect the findings regarding the stationarity of the data. We conclude that the combination of these tests allows a refined analysis of the stationarity of MEG and EEG time series.

  3. Single step hydrothermal synthesis of carbon nanodot decorated V2O5 nanobelts as hybrid conducting material for supercapacitor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Remya

    2017-09-01

    Carbon nanodot (C-dot) decorated V2O5 (C-dot@V2O5) nanobelts are synthesized by single step, low cost hydrothermal route at low temperature by using V2O5 and glucose as precursors. We have not added any extra organic solvents or surfactants which are commonly used for the preparation of different nanostructures of V2O5. Electron microscopy analyses demonstrate that C-dot is entrapped inside V2O5 nanobelts which in turn enhance the conductivity and ion propagation property of this composite material. The C-dot@V2O5 nanobelts exhibit an excellent three electrode electrochemical performance in 1 M Na2SO4 and which showed a specific capacitance of 270 F g-1 at 1 A g-1, which is 4.5 times higher than the pristine V2O5 electrode. The electrochemical energy storage capacity of this hybrid is investigated towards solid state supercapacitor application also for the first time by employing electrophoretically deposited C-dot as the counter electrode and Li based gel as the electrolyte. The hybrid material delivers an energy density of 60 W h kg-1 and a reasonably high power density of 4.1 kW kg-1 at 5 A g-1 and good cycling stability and capacitance retention of about 87% was observed even after 5000 cycles. Above mentioned results clearly show that C-dot embedded hybrid, nanostructured transition metal oxides has great potential towards fabrication of electrodes for energy storage devices.

  4. Predicting Single-Layer Technetium Dichalcogenides (TcX₂, X = S, Se) with Promising Applications in Photovoltaics and Photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yalong; Zhou, Liujiang; Ma, Fengxian; Gao, Guoping; Kou, Liangzhi; Bell, John; Sanvito, Stefano; Du, Aijun

    2016-03-02

    One of the least known compounds among transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) is the layered triclinic technetium dichalcogenides (TcX2, X = S, Se). In this work, we systematically study the structural, mechanical, electronic, and optical properties of TcS2 and TcSe2 monolayers based on density functional theory (DFT). We find that TcS2 and TcSe2 can be easily exfoliated in a monolayer form because their formation and cleavage energy are analogous to those of other experimentally realized TMDCs monolayer. By using a hybrid DFT functional, the TcS2 and TcSe2 monolayers are calculated to be indirect semiconductors with band gaps of 1.91 and 1.69 eV, respectively. However, bilayer TcS2 exhibits direct-bandgap character, and both TcS2 and TcSe2 monolayers can be tuned from semiconductor to metal under effective tensile/compressive strains. Calculations of visible light absorption indicate that 2D TcS2 and TcSe2 generally possess better capability of harvesting sunlight compared to single-layer MoS2 and ReSe2, implying their potential as excellent light-absorbers. Most interestingly, we have discovered that the TcSe2 monolayer is an excellent photocatalyst for splitting water into hydrogen due to the perfect fit of band edge positions with respect to the water reduction and oxidation potentials. Our predictions expand the two-dimensional (2D) family of TMDCs, and the remarkable electronic/optical properties of monolayer TcS2 and TcSe2 will place them among the most promising 2D TMDCs for renewable energy application in the future.

  5. A Low-Power Single-Bit Continuous-Time ΔΣ Converter with 92.5 dB Dynamic Range for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Saxena

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A third-order single-bit CT-ΔΣ modulator for generic biomedical applications is implemented in a 0.15 µm FDSOI CMOS process. The overall power efficiency is attained by employing a single-bit ΔΣ and a subthreshold FDSOI process. The loop-filter coefficients are determined using a systematic design centering approach by accounting for the integrator non-idealities. The single-bit CT-ΔΣ modulator consumes 110 µW power from a 1.5 V power supply when clocked at 6.144 MHz. The simulation results for the modulator exhibit a dynamic range of 94.4 dB and peak SNDR of 92.4 dB for 6 kHz signal bandwidth. The figure of merit (FoM for the third-order, single-bit CT-ΔΣ modulator is 0.271 pJ/level.

  6. Therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of a single and double application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in a hamster cheek pouch oral precancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti Hughes, A; Pozzi, E C C; Thorp, S; Garabalino, M A; Farias, R O; Gonzalez, S J; Heber, E M; Itoiz, M E; Aromando, R F; Molinari, A J; Miller, M; Nigg, D W; Curotto, P; Trivillin, V A; Schwint, A E

    2012-01-01

    Tumor development from tissue with potentially malignant disorders (PMD) gives rise to second primary tumors. We previously demonstrated the partial inhibitory effect on tumor development of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) mediated by the boron compounds BPA (boronophenylalanine) and decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) in a hamster pouch oral precancer model. Seeking to optimize BNCT, the aim of the present study was to contribute to the knowledge of BNCT radiobiology for oral precancer and assess new BNCT protocols in terms of inhibition of tumor development and radiotoxicity. Groups of cancerized hamsters were locally exposed to single or double applications (2 weeks apart) of BPA-BNCT or (GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT at a total dose of 8Gy to tissue with PMD; to a single application of BPA-BNCT at 6Gy and to a double application (4 weeks apart) of BPA-BNCT or (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT at a total dose of 10Gy. Cancerized, sham-irradiated hamsters served as controls. Clinical status, tumor development from tissue with PMD and mucositis were followed for 8 months. The marked therapeutic efficacy of single applications of BNCT at 6 and 8Gy were associated to severe radiotoxicity. Dose fractionation into 2 applications reduced mucositis but also reduced therapeutic efficacy, depending on dose and interval between applications. A double application (4 weeks apart) of (GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT at a total dose of 10Gy rendered the best therapeutic advantage, i.e. 63% - 100% inhibition of tumor development with only slight mucositis in 67% of cases. The data reported herein show that issues such as dose levels and dose fractionation, interval between applications, and choice of boron compounds are pivotal to therapeutic advantage and must be tailored for a particular pathology and anatomic site. The present study determined treatment conditions that would contribute to optimize BNCT for precancer and that would warrant cautious assessment in a clinical scenario (author)

  7. Application of ZnO single-crystal wire grown by the thermal evaporation method as a chemical gas sensor for hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, N K; Lee, S Y; Lee, T J

    2011-01-01

    A zinc oxide single-crystal wire was synthesized for application as a gas-sensing material for hydrogen sulfide, and its gas-sensing properties were investigated in this study. The gas sensor consisted of a ZnO thin film as the buffer layer and a ZnO single-crystal wire. The ZnO thin film was deposited over a patterning silicon substrate with a gold electrode by the CFR method. The ZnO single-crystal wire was synthesized over the ZnO thin film using zinc and activated carbon as the precursor for the thermal evaporation method at 800 degrees C. The electrical properties of the gas sensors that were prepared for the growth of ZnO single-crystal wire varied with the amount of zinc contained in the precursor. The charged current on the gas sensors increased with the increasing amount of zinc in the precursor. It was concluded that the charged current on the gas sensors was related to ZnO single-crystal wire growth on the silicon substrate area between the two electrodes. The charged current on the gas sensor was enhanced when the ZnO single-crystal wire was exposed to a H2S stream. The experimental results obtained in this study confirmed that a ZnO single-crystal wire can be used as a gas sensor for H2S.

  8. Boolean and advanced searching for EDGAR data on www.sec.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    Securities and Exchange Commission — This search allows users to enter complex boolean queries to access all but the most recent day's EDGAR filings on www.sec.gov. Filings are from 1994 to present.

  9. Determination of intrinsic polarization for K{sub 2}ZnCl{sub 4} single crystal grown by Czochralski technique for ferroelectric applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sonu [Crystal Lab, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-7 (India); Ray, Geeta [Crystal Lab, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-7 (India); Physics Department, Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi-7 (India); Sinha, Nidhi [Crystal Lab, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-7 (India); Department of Electronics, SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-7 (India); Kumar, Binay, E-mail: b3kumar69@yahoo.co.in [Crystal Lab, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-7 (India)

    2017-04-01

    Large sized single crystal of K{sub 2}ZnCl{sub 4} (KZC) was grown by Czochralski (Cz) technique. Structural parameters of KZC were determined by Single crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD). From DSC analysis and temperature dependent dielectric measurement, KZC crystal was found to show Curie phase transition at 151 °C. TG/DTA confirmed the melting point that was found to be 443 °C. The value of piezoelectric charge coefficient (d{sub 33}) for KZC crystal was found to be 32 pC/N demonstrating their applicability in transducers and piezoelectric devices. Ferroelectric P-E loop for the grown crystal was traced at room temperature and the intrinsic polarization obtained by PUND measurement was found to be 0.1398 μC/cm{sup 2} indicating its applicability in switching devices. The energy band gap for KZC single crystal was found to be 6.13 eV. Vickers micro-hardness test revealed soft nature of KZC single crystals. - Highlights: • Large sized K{sub 2}ZnCl{sub 4} (KZC) single crystal was grown by Czochralski technique. • It possesses high Curie temperature as 151 °C. • d{sub 33} coefficient was found to be 32 pC/N. • Intrinsic polarization measured by PUND. • Its direct band gap energy was calculated to be 6.13 eV.

  10. Operationally Comparable Effect Sizes for Quantifying Changes in Behavior, with Application to Meta-Analysis of Single-Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustejovsky, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Single-case designs (SCDs) are a class of research methods for evaluating intervention effects by taking repeated measurements of an outcome over time on a single case, both before and after the deliberate introduction of a treatment. SCDs are used heavily in fields such as special education, school psychology, social work, and applied behavior…

  11. Generalized Single-Valued Neutrosophic Hesitant Fuzzy Prioritized Aggregation Operators and Their Applications to Multiple Criteria Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set (SVNHFS is a combination of single-valued neutrosophic set and hesitant fuzzy set, and its aggregation tools play an important role in the multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM process. This paper investigates the MCDM problems in which the criteria under SVNHF environment are in different priority levels. First, the generalized single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy prioritized weighted average operator and generalized single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy prioritized weighted geometric operator are developed based on the prioritized average operator. Second, some desirable properties and special cases of the proposed operators are discussed in detail. Third, an approach combined with the proposed operators and the score function of single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy element is constructed to solve MCDM problems. Finally, an example of investment selection is provided to illustrate the validity and rationality of the proposed method.

  12. Application of X-ray single crystal diffractometry to investigation of Np(5) complexes with n-donor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, G.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. We present here some results of application of conventional X-ray single crystal diffractometry to the research on the interaction of Np(V) with N-donor ligands. Compounds that can coordinate to actinides through one or several nitrogen atoms are of a great variety and occur widely in the biosphere. For example, imidazole, pyridine and their derivatives are the building blocks of many biologically important molecules; triazines are known to occur in some aquatic plants. The presence of anthropogenic organic agents like amine-N-carboxylic acids in surface waters has the potential to re-mobilize metals from sediments and aquifers and to influence their bioavailability. The interaction of radionuclides with such ligands needs to be studied in detail to give fundamental understanding the conditions of the incorporation of long lived a-emitters (Np and Pu primarily) into the food chain. Another aspect of the same problem is the design of new chelating ligands for selective co-ordination of actinide ions as an alternative to the traditional sequestering agents. The problem of the separation of long-lived minor actinides and their transmutation also calls for design of new highly selective ligands for solvent extraction. Polydentate N-donor ligands are now considered to be very promising. A detailed study of structural chemistry is crucial for understanding the relationship between the architecture of the ligands and their binding affinity for actinides. The X-ray single crystal diffractometry became conventional technique as applied to the investigation of actinides in spite of difficulties regarding safe handling of radionuclides. This technique provides unambiguous information about modes of the ligand co-ordination to the metal ion and geometrical parameters of complexes. Moreover, the employment of a synchrotron radiation shows considerable promise for determination of solid state structures as well as obtaining structural

  13. A generic-tee-plenum mixing system for application to single point aerosol sampling in stacks and ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Taewon; O'Neal, Dennis L; Ortiz, Carlos A

    2007-01-01

    The ANSI/HPS-N13.1-1999 standard is based on the concept of obtaining a single point representative sample from a location where the velocity and contaminant profiles are relatively uniform. It is difficult to predict the level of mixing in an arbitrary stack or duct without experimental data to meet the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 requirements. The goal of this study was to develop experimental data for a range of conditions in "S" (S-shaped configuration) duct systems with different mixing elements and "S" systems having one or two mixing elements. Results were presented in terms of the coefficients of variation (COVs) for velocity, tracer gas, and 10-mum aerodynamic diameter (AD) aerosol particle profiles at different downstream locations for each mixing element. Five mixing elements were tested, including a 90 degrees elbow, a commercial static mixer, a Small-Horizontal Generic-Tee-Plenum (SH-GTP), a Small-Vertical Generic-Tee-Plenum (SV-GTP), and a Large-Horizontal Generic-Tee-Plenum (LH-GTP) system. The COVs for velocity, gas concentration, and aerosol particles for the three GTP systems were all determined to be less than 8%. Tests with two different sizes of GTPs were conducted, and the results showed the performance of the GTPs was relatively unaffected by either size or velocity as reflected by the Reynolds number. The pressure coefficients were 0.59, 0.57, and 0.65, respectively, for the SH-GTP, SV-GTP, and LH-GTP. The pressure drop for the GTPs was approximately twice that of the round elbow, but a factor of 5 less than a Type IV Air Blender. The GTP was developed to provide a sampling location less than 4-duct diameters downstream of a mixing element with low pressure drop condition. The object of the developmental effort was to provide a system that could be employed in new stack; however, the concept of GTPs could also be retrofitted onto existing system applications as well. Results from these tests show that the system performance is well within the ANSI

  14. Analyses of significant features of L-Prolinium Picrate single crystal: An excellent material for non linear optical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thukral, Kanika [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, CSIR- National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi, 110012 (India); CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi, 110 012 (India); Vijayan, N., E-mail: nvijayan@nplindia.org [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi, 110 012 (India); Vij, Mahak [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi, 110 012 (India); Nagaraja, C.M. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Rupnagar, 140001, Punjab (India); Jayaramakrishnan, V. [Centro De Investigations En Optica, Loma del Bosque 115, Colonia Lomas del Campestre, León, Guanajuato, Código Postal, 37150 (Mexico); Jayalakshmy, M.S. [International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala, 686560 (India); Kant, Rajni [Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Jammu, Jammu Tawi, 180006 (India)

    2017-06-15

    Today the fundamental aspect of the researchers is to explore maximum physical properties of the material for device fabrication. In the present article, single crystal X-ray diffraction has been carried out to verify the formation of the synthesized compound. In addition to that, powder X-ray diffraction has been performed to obtain diffraction pattern of L-Prolinium Picrate single crystal. The strain present inside the single crystal was measured using Hall-Williamson equation from PXRD measurements. The dark current and photon current was obtained from photoconductivity technique whose plot depicted that the sample was negative photoconducting material. Optical homogeneity of the single crystal was analyzed using birefringence technique. Its resistance towards Nd: YAG laser was scrutinized for L-Prolinium Picrate single crystal by applying 1 pulse per second. Different thermal parameters like thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, thermal effusivity and specific heat were computed using photo-pyroelectric technique. Solid state parameters were calculated from Clausius Mossotti relation by taking structural information of the title compound. Also, optical parameters like refractive index, reflectance etc were calculated through UV–Vis–NIR analysis. - Highlights: • An optically transparent L-Prolinium Picrate single crystal was harvested from slow evaporation solution growth technique. • The compound shows negative photoconducting nature. • Its optical homogeneity was analyzed using birefringence. • Single shot of laser was applied to sample to measure laser damage threshold value. • The thermal parameters were computed from Photopyroelectric technique.

  15. Synthetic strategies for controlling inter- and intramolecular interactions: Applications in single-molecule fluorescence imaging, bioluminescence imaging, and palladium catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Nicholas R.

    The field of synthetic organic chemistry has reached such maturity that, with sufficient effort and resources, the synthesis of virtually any small molecule which exhibits reasonable stability at room temperature can be realized. While representing a monumental achievement for the field, the ability to exert precise control over molecular structure is just a means to an end, and it is frequently the responsibility of the synthetic chemist to determine which molecules should actually be synthesized. For better or worse, there exists no competitive free market in academia for new molecules, and as a result, the decision of which compounds should be synthesized is seldom driven by the forces of supply and demand; rather, it is guided by the synthetic chemist's interest in an anticipated structure-function relationship or in the properties of a previously unstudied class of molecules. As a consequence, there exists a pervasive need for chemists with synthetic expertise in fields (e.g., molecular imaging) and subdisciplines of chemistry (e.g., physical chemistry) in which the identification of promising synthetic targets dramatically outpaces the synthetic output in that field or subdiscipline, and ample opportunities are available for synthetic chemists who choose to pursue such cross-disciplinary research. This thesis describes synthetic efforts that leverage these opportunities to realize applications in biological imaging and in palladium catalysis. In Part I, the synthesis and characterization of three novel luminophores and their imaging applications are discussed. The first is a molecular beacon that utilizes a fluorophorefluorophore pair which exhibits H-dimer quenching in the closed conformation. This probe offers several advantages over conventional fluorophore-quencher molecular beacons in the detection of oligonucleotides, both in bulk and at the single-molecule level. Secondly, a fluorescent, Cy3-Cy5 covalent heterodimer is reported, which on account of the

  16. The effect of different skin-ankle brace application pressures on quiet single-limb balance and electromyographic activation onset of lower limb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Emmanuel S; Nikolopoulos, Christos; Badekas, Athanasios; Vagenas, George; Papadakis, Stamatios A; Athanasopoulos, Spyros

    2007-09-12

    Several studies have been carried out in order to investigate the effect of ankle bracing on ankle joint function and performance. However, no study so far has examined the role of skin-brace interface pressure in neuromuscular control. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different skin-ankle brace interface pressures on quiet single limb balance and the electromyographic (EMG) activation sequence of four lower limb muscles. Thirty three male physical education students who volunteered to take part in the study were measured under three ankle brace conditions: i) without brace, ii) with brace and 30 kPa application pressure and iii) with brace and 60 kPa application pressure. Single limb balance (anteroposterior and mediolateral parameter) was assessed on the dominant lower limb, with open and closed eyes, on a force platform, simultaneously with the EMG recording of four lower lower limb muscles' (gastrocnemius, peroneus longus, rectus femoris and biceps femoris) activation onset. The results showed that overall balance (total stability parameter) was not significantly affected in any of the three ankle brace conditions. However, the anteroposterior centre of pressure excursion and centre of pressure excursion velocity were significantly increased with the application of ankle brace, both with 30 and 60 kPa application pressures. Furthermore, it was found that single limb balance was significantly worse with closed eyes compared to open eyes. EMG measurements showed that the sequence of lower limb activation onset was not affected in any of the three ankle brace application conditions. The results of this study showed that the application of an ankle brace with two different skin-brace interface pressures had no effect on overall single limb balance and the sequence of lower limb muscle activation. These findings suggest that peripheral joint receptors are either not adequately stimulated by the brace application and therefore are not able to

  17. The effect of different skin-ankle brace application pressures on quiet single-limb balance and electromyographic activation onset of lower limb muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadakis Stamatios A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have been carried out in order to investigate the effect of ankle bracing on ankle joint function and performance. However, no study so far has examined the role of skin-brace interface pressure in neuromuscular control. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different skin-ankle brace interface pressures on quiet single limb balance and the electromyographic (EMG activation sequence of four lower limb muscles. Methods Thirty three male physical education students who volunteered to take part in the study were measured under three ankle brace conditions: i without brace, ii with brace and 30 kPa application pressure and iii with brace and 60 kPa application pressure. Single limb balance (anteroposterior and mediolateral parameter was assessed on the dominant lower limb, with open and closed eyes, on a force platform, simultaneously with the EMG recording of four lower lower limb muscles' (gastrocnemius, peroneus longus, rectus femoris and biceps femoris activation onset. Results The results showed that overall balance (total stability parameter was not significantly affected in any of the three ankle brace conditions. However, the anteroposterior centre of pressure excursion and centre of pressure excursion velocity were significantly increased with the application of ankle brace, both with 30 and 60 kPa application pressures. Furthermore, it was found that single limb balance was significantly worse with closed eyes compared to open eyes. EMG measurements showed that the sequence of lower limb activation onset was not affected in any of the three ankle brace application conditions. The results of this study showed that the application of an ankle brace with two different skin-brace interface pressures had no effect on overall single limb balance and the sequence of lower limb muscle activation. Conclusion These findings suggest that peripheral joint receptors are either not adequately

  18. Short- and long-term temporal changes in soil concentrations of selected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) following single or multiple applications of sewage sludge to pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhind, S M; Kyle, C E; Ruffie, H; Calmettes, E; Osprey, M; Zhang, Z L; Hamilton, D; McKenzie, C

    2013-10-01

    Temporal changes in soil burdens of selected endocrine disrupting compounds were determined following application to pasture of either sewage sludge or inorganic fertilizer. Soil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations were not altered. Changes in concentrations of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and PBDEs 47 and 99 differed with season but concentrations remained elevated for more than three weeks after application, when grazing animals are normally excluded from pasture. It is concluded that single applications of sewage sludge can increase soil concentrations of some, but not all classes of EDCs, possibly to concentrations sufficient to exert biological effects when different chemicals act in combination, but patterns of change depend on season and soil temperature. Analysis of soil from pasture subjected to repeated sludge applications, over 13 years, provided preliminary evidence of greater increases in soil burdens of all of the EDC groups measured, including all of the PBDE congeners measured. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A new website to aid the interpretation of antemortem dental records:www.internationaldentalcharts.org.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manica, Scheila

    2014-12-01

    The INTERPOL (International Police Organization) Disaster Victim Identification forms represent a global standard for mass disasters and the collection of international ante-mortem dental records. These records can now be interpreted more easily with the help of a new online dictionary of dental terminology for translating dental charts from several languages into English. The free website launched in 2013 (www.internationaldentalcharts.org) is the result of a M.Sc project on international dental charts: Guide of International Dental Charts translated into English decoding international ante-mortem dental charts for INTERPOL's Ante-mortem (AM) Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) forms (Section F2), completed in 2011. The aim of this study was to analyze the tooth numbering system, symbols and abbreviations used on dental charting worldwide. A letter was sent to the national dental associations of the 188 INTERPOL member countries, addressing the goals of the project and asking for samples of dental charts. A total of 45 countries replied and 32 common dental alterations were selected for translation, such as: decay, filling and extraction. Their symbols and/or abbreviations used were summarized in various languages. More than one system of dental notations was used in the same country whereas there was an absence of standard systems in other countries. Some of the samples of charts received were of little value. However, a fair amount of useful information and detail was found in most of them. This free consultation website could be useful when the handwriting, symbols, and abbreviations on the ante-mortem dental charts are not clear. It will be particularly applicable when ante-mortem xrays and casts are not available.

  20. A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Investigations on N, N′- Diphenylguanidine Based Single Crystals For Nonlinear Optical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Saravana Kumar, G; Roop Kumar, R; Murugakoothan, P

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Good quality N,N′-Diphenylguanidine based nonlinear optical single crystals were grown by slow evaporation technique. The cell parameters and space group were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The UV-vis study was carried out to assess the transmittance of the title crystals. The optical band gap was determined from the UV-vis analysis. The HOMO-LUMO analysis was carried out using DFT calculations. The presence of second harmonic generation (SHG) ...

  1. Data for increase of Lymantria dispar male survival after topical application of single-stranded RING domain fragment of IAP-3 gene of its nuclear polyhedrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberemok, Volodymyr V.; Laikova, Kateryna V.; Zaitsev, Aleksei S.; Gushchin, Vladimir A.; Skorokhod, Oleksii A.

    2016-01-01

    This data article is related to the research article entitled “The RING for gypsy moth control: topical application of fragment of its nuclear polyhedrosis virus anti-apoptosis gene as insecticide” [1]. This article reports on significantly higher survival of gypsy moth Lymantria dispar male individuals in response to topical application of single-stranded DNA, based on RING (really interesting new gene) domain fragment of LdMNPV (L. dispar multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus) IAP-3 (inhibitor of apoptosis) gene and acted as DNA insecticide. PMID:27054151

  2. Analysis and design of a parallel-connected single active bridge DC-DC converter for high-power wind farm applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Kiwoo; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    ripples without increasing switching losses or device stresses. Analysis of both the input and output current characteristics and design aspects of the transformer, the filter inductor, and the input and output filter capacitors will be presented. Considering the high maintenance cost and fault tolerant......This paper presents a parallel-connected Single Active Bridge (SAB) dc-dc converter for high-power applications. Paralleling lower-power converters can lower the current rating of each modular converter and interleaving the outputs can significantly reduce the magnitudes of input and output current...... requirements, this modular converter concept is expected to be highly beneficial especially for the offshore wind farm application....

  3. Influence of the Radial Clearance of a Squeeze Film Damper on the Vibratory Behavior of a Single Spool Gas Turbine Designed for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Creci, Geraldo; Balastrero, José Orlando; Domingues, Sidney; Torres, Luis Vanderlei; Menezes, João Carlos

    2017-01-01

    This study presents a numerical investigation using the finite element method on the vibratory behavior of a single spool gas turbine designed for unmanned aerial vehicle applications. The shaft of the rotor-bearing system is supported on a front bearing composed of a deep groove ball bearing with a vibration absorber element and a rear squeeze film damper bearing. Three radial clearances for the squeeze film damper were analyzed to determine the best geometric configuration for the rear bear...

  4. Comparative evaluation of tensile bond strengths of total-etch adhesives and self-etch adhesives with single and multiple consecutive applications: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Mandava, Deepthi; P, Ajitha; Narayanan, L Lakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Aim: This study evaluates the effect of single and multiple consecutive applications of adhesives on the tensile bond strength. The currently available adhesives follow either the total-etch or the self-etch concept. However, in both techniques the uniformity and thickness of the adhesive layer plays a significant role in the development of a good bond. Materials and Methods: Sixty composite-dentin bonded specimens were prepared using a total-etch adhesive (Gluma) and another 60 using a self-...

  5. Algorithm for extracting multiple object waves without Fourier transform from a single image recorded by spatial frequency-division multiplexing and its application to digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Tatsuki; Akamatsu, Takanori; Arai, Yasuhiko; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Ito, Tomoyoshi; Kakue, Takashi

    2017-11-01

    We propose a novel algorithm that does not require any Fourier transform to extract multiple object waves in a single image recorded with spatial frequency-division multiplexing. Smoothing is utilized to extract the desired object-wave information from a spatially multiplexed image. Numerical and experimental results show its validity and applicability for image and Fresnel digital holography. Our investigations clarify the speeding up of both the object-wave extractions and multiple object-image reconstructions quantitatively.

  6. Local heat application for the treatment of Buruli ulcer : results of a phase II open label single center non comparative clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Vogel, Moritz; Bayi, Pierre F.; Ruf, Marie-Thérèse; Bratschi, Martin W.; Bolz, Miriam; Um Boock, Alphonse; Zwahlen, Marcel; Pluschke, Gerd; Junghanss, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing skin disease most prevalent among West African children. The causative organism, Mycobacterium ulcerans, is sensitive to temperatures above 37°C. We investigated the safety and efficacy of a local heat application device based on phase change material. METHODS In a phase II open label single center noncomparative clinical trial (ISRCTN 72102977) under GCP standards in Cameroon, laboratory confirmed BU patients received up to 8 weeks of...

  7. A method for using unmanned aerial vehicles for emergency investigation of single geo-hazards and sample applications of this method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haifeng; Long, Jingjing; Yi, Wu; Yi, Qinglin; Zhang, Guodong; Lei, Bangjun

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become widely used in emergency investigations of major natural hazards over large areas; however, UAVs are less commonly employed to investigate single geo-hazards. Based on a number of successful investigations in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China, a complete UAV-based method for performing emergency investigations of single geo-hazards is described. First, a customized UAV system that consists of a multi-rotor UAV subsystem, an aerial photography subsystem, a ground control subsystem and a ground surveillance subsystem is described in detail. The implementation process, which includes four steps, i.e., indoor preparation, site investigation, on-site fast processing and application, and indoor comprehensive processing and application, is then elaborated, and two investigation schemes, automatic and manual, that are used in the site investigation step are put forward. Moreover, some key techniques and methods - e.g., the layout and measurement of ground control points (GCPs), route planning, flight control and image collection, and the Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetry processing - are explained. Finally, three applications are given. Experience has shown that using UAVs for emergency investigation of single geo-hazards greatly reduces the time, intensity and risks associated with on-site work and provides valuable, high-accuracy, high-resolution information that supports emergency responses.

  8. Effect of and satisfaction with www.elearnSCI.org for training of nurse students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, N; Li, X W; Zhou, M W

    2014-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Interventional training session. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect and satisfaction with didactic training using printed text of a submodule of www.elearnSCI.org for nurse students and to assess the answers of each question. SETTING: A Peking University teaching hospital. METHODS...... presentation are effective methods for training the content of www.elearnSCI.org to nurse students. The training satisfaction of this submodule within the www.elearnSCI.org is favorable.......STUDY DESIGN: Interventional training session. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect and satisfaction with didactic training using printed text of a submodule of www.elearnSCI.org for nurse students and to assess the answers of each question. SETTING: A Peking University teaching hospital. METHODS......: Twenty-eight nurse students in two groups (14 in each) were involved. Only group A received a translated print-out of the slides from the 'Nursing management' submodule in www.elearnSCI.org for 1-h self-study before the class. At the beginning of class, both groups were tested using the self assessment...

  9. WWW-based remote analysis framework for UniSampo and Shaman analysis software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarnio, P.A.; Ala-Heikkilae, J.J.; Routti, J.T.; Nikkinen, M.T.

    2005-01-01

    UniSampo and Shaman are well-established analytical tools for gamma-ray spectrum analysis and the subsequent radionuclide identification. These tools are normally run locally on a Unix or Linux workstation in interactive mode. However, it is also possible to run them in batch/non-interactive mode by starting them with the correct parameters. This is how they are used in the standard analysis pipeline operation. This functionality also makes it possible to use them for remote operation over the network. Framework for running UniSampo and Shaman analysis using the standard WWW-protocol has been developed. A WWW-server receives requests from the client WWW-browser and runs the analysis software via a set of CGI-scripts. Authentication, input data transfer, and output and display of the final analysis results is all carried out using standard WWW-mechanisms. This WWW-framework can be utilized, for example, by organizations that have radioactivity surveillance stations in a wide area. A computer with a standard internet/intranet connection suffices for on-site analyses. (author)

  10. Synthesis and characterization of γ-glycine – a nonlinear optical single crystal for optoelectronic and photonic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha A. Arputha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A single crystal of gamma-glycine (GG, a polymorph of glycine, was synthesized by crystallization. The single crystal of GG was grown from an aqueous solution. The morphology of GG was studied in order to assess its growth facets. The good quality single crystals were subjected to X-ray diffraction studies to reveal their structure. The FT-IR spectral analysis was carried out to confirm the presence of expected functional groups. The UV-Vis analysis was done for GG single crystals to determine the optical transparency and band gap. Simultaneous TG-DTA analysis was employed to understand the thermal and physicochemical stability of the title compound. The mechanical stability and laser stability of GG single crystal were studied using Vickers microhardness test and laser induced damage threshold on different planes of the crystal to reveal its anisotropic nature. The dielectric measurement was carried out as a function of frequency and the results were discussed. The existence of second harmonic generation (SHG of the title compound was confirmed by Kurtz-Perry powder technique. The SHG effective nonlinearity and particle size dependence of GG powder sample were compared with a standard reference material: potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP.

  11. Neutron beam applications - Development of single crystal structure analysis technique using the HANARO neutron four circle diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Il Hwan; Kim, Moon Jib; Kim, Jin Gyu [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    As the four circle diffractometer (FCD) has been set up in HANARO, it has become possible to study the single crystal structures by means of the neutron diffraction. Taking account of the geometry of the FCD, a program for the control of te FCD and neutron data acquisition operating under Windows' circumstance has been accomplished. Also, a computer program which can automatically measure the diffraction intensity data has been developed. All data obtained from the FCD are processed automatically for further work and a software for the single crystal structure analyses has been prepared. A KC1 single crystal was selected as first test sample for a structure analysis had been successfully performed on the FCD using in-house developed program and accordingly their functionings with precision were confirmed. For regular single crystal diffraction experiments, the structure analyses of chrysoberyl and Zr(Y)0{sub 1.87} single crystals were performed using both neutron and X-ray diffraction methods, and the result showed that the neutron diffraction work is superior to the X-ray one from the viewpoint of certain crystallographic information obtainable only from the former one. 24 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs. (Author)

  12. Single- and dual-fiber fluorescence probes: application to oil-film measurements in an internal combustion engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandhi, J B

    2000-10-20

    Single- and dual-fiber fluorescence probes have been utilized to study oil-film behavior in a firing Diesel engine. A detailed analysis of the response characteristics of these probes was performed, and universal response curves have been generated through identification of the appropriate nondimensional parameters. For single-fiber probes a single curve was obtained, and for dual-fiber probes families of curves were identified based on three geometric dimensionless parameters. The complementary response characteristics of the single- and dual-fiber probes allows determination of the oil distribution within the piston-liner gap. The dual-fiber probe is not sensitive at small distances. Thus its signal originates solely from the piston surface, whereas the single-fiber probe is most sensitive at small distances and hence to the wall oil film. The engine data from the dual-fiber probe confirmed the presence of an oil film on the piston and provided a means of quantifying the transport of this oil within the engine.

  13. Single application prophylaxis against gray mold in pot rose and pelargonium with Ulocladium atrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yohalem, D S; Paaske, K; Kristensen, K

    2007-01-01

    with conidia of Botrytis cinerea was more effective than application after the infection period. For pot rose, the minimum effective dose when compared to the fungicide fenhexamid was 106 conidia ml-1 and persisted for up to 21-d in direct comparison to the fungicide. The effect of pre-emptive application...

  14. Application of ITO/Al reflectors for increasing the efficiency of single-crystal silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopach, V. R.; Kirichenko, M. V.; Khrypunov, G. S.; Zaitsev, R. V.

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that an increase in the efficiency and manufacturability of single-junction single-crystal silicon photoelectric converters of solar energy requires the use of a back-surface reflector based on conductive transparent indium-tin oxide (ITO) 0.25-2 μm thick. To increase the efficiency and reduce the sensitivity to the angle of light incidence on the photoreceiving surface of multijunction photoelectric converters with vertical diode cells based on single-crystal silicon, ITO/Al reflectors with an ITO layer >1 μm thick along vertical boundaries of diode cells should be fabricated. The experimental study of multijunction photoelectric converters with ITO/Al reflectors at diode cell boundaries shows the necessity of modernizing the used technology of ITO layers to achieve their theoretically calculated thickness.

  15. Development of technique for high-pressure single-crystal neutron scattering and its application to studies of magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osakabe, Toyotake

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a new high-pressure apparatus for single-crystal magnetic neutron diffraction under 10 GPa is described. First, new hybrid-anvil, which is composed of an opposed pair of a supported SiC anvil and a tungsten carbide (WC) anvil with a center-dimpled culet, is introduced. Next, results of an investigation of pressure-transmitting media are shown. The hydrostaticity of the media is essential for the single-crystal diffraction experiments. Finally, a thermal neutron focusing device with a lot of curved supermirrors is shown. The device can compensate weak magnetic signals from tiny samples in high-pressure cells. As examples of the studies using the apparatus, the high-pressure single-crystal magnetic neutron diffraction experiments on 4f-electron systems PrFe 4 P 12 and HoB 2 C 2 are taken up. (author)

  16. Physical manipulation of single-molecule DNA using microbead and its application to analysis of DNA-protein interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Hirofumi; Yasuda, Hachiro; Takashima, Kazunori; Katsura, Shinji; Mizuno, Akira

    2009-01-01

    We carried out an individual DNA manipulation using an optical trapping for a microbead. This manipulation system is based on a fluorescent microscopy equipped with an IR laser. Both ends of linear DNA molecule were labeled with a biotin and a thiol group, respectively. Then the biotinylated end was attached to a microbead, and the other was immobilized on a thiol-linkable glass surface. We controlled the form of an individual DNA molecule by moving the focal point of IR laser, which trapped the microbead. In addition, we applied single-molecule approach to analyze DNA hydrolysis. We also used microchannel for single-molecule observation of DNA hydrolysis. The shortening of DNA in length caused by enzymatic hydrolysis was observed in real-time. The single-molecule DNA manipulation should contribute to elucidate detailed mechanisms of DNA-protein interactions

  17. Hybrid subtractive-additive-welding microfabrication for lab-on-chip applications via single amplified femtosecond laser source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonušauskas, Linas; Rekštytė, Sima; Buividas, Ričardas; Butkus, Simas; Gadonas, Roaldas; Juodkazis, Saulius; Malinauskas, Mangirdas

    2017-09-01

    An approach employing ultrafast laser hybrid subtractive-additive microfabrication, which combines ablation, three-dimensional nanolithography, and welding, is proposed for the realization of a lab-on-chip (LOC) device. A single amplified Yb:KGW femtosecond (fs)-pulsed laser source is shown to be suitable for fabricating microgrooves in glass slabs, polymerization of fine-meshes microfilter out of hybrid organic-inorganic photopolymer SZ2080 inside them, and, finally, sealing the whole chip with cover glass into a single monolithic piece. The created microfluidic device proved its particle sorting function by separating 1- and 10-μm polystyrene spheres in an aqueous mixture. All together, this proves that laser microfabrication based on a single amplified fs laser source is a flexible and versatile approach for the hybrid subtractive-additive manufacturing of functional mesoscale multimaterial LOC devices.

  18. Application of Single-Mode Fiber-Coupled Receivers in Optical Satellite to High-Altitude Platform Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidler Franz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a free-space optical communication system employing fiber-optic components, the phasefront distortions induced by atmospheric turbulence limit the efficiency with which the laser beam is coupled into a single-mode fiber. We analyze different link scenarios including a geostationary (GEO satellite, a high-altitude platform (HAP, and an optical ground station (OGS. Single-mode coupled optically preamplified receivers allow for efficient suppression of background noise and highly sensitive detection. While GEO-to-OGS communication suffers from atmospheric turbulence, we demonstrate that GEO-to-HAP communication allows for close to diffraction-limited performance when applying tip-tilt correction.

  19. Application of Single-Mode Fiber-Coupled Receivers in Optical Satellite to High-Altitude Platform Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswald Wallner

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In a free-space optical communication system employing fiber-optic components, the phasefront distortions induced by atmospheric turbulence limit the efficiency with which the laser beam is coupled into a single-mode fiber. We analyze different link scenarios including a geostationary (GEO satellite, a high-altitude platform (HAP, and an optical ground station (OGS. Single-mode coupled optically preamplified receivers allow for efficient suppression of background noise and highly sensitive detection. While GEO-to-OGS communication suffers from atmospheric turbulence, we demonstrate that GEO-to-HAP communication allows for close to diffraction-limited performance when applying tip-tilt correction.

  20. Spent fuel isotopic composition data base system on WWW. SFCOMPO on W3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, Kenya

    1997-11-01

    Spent Fuel Composition Data Base System 'SFCOMPO' has been developed on IBM compatible PC. This data base system is not widely used, since users must purchase the data base software by themselves. 'SFCOMPO on W3' is a system to overcome this problem. User can search and visualize the data in the data base by accessing WWW server through the Internet from local machine. Only a browsing software to access WWW should be prepared. It enables us to easily search data of spent fuel composition if we can access the Internet. This system can be operated on WWW server machine which supports use of Common Gateway Interface (CGI). This report describes the background of the development of SFCOMPO on W3 and is it's user's manual. (author)

  1. In Vivo skin hydration and anti-erythema effects of Aloe vera, Aloe ferox and Aloe marlothii gel materials after single and multiple applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Lizelle T.; du Plessis, Jeanetta; Gerber, Minja; van Zyl, Sterna; Boneschans, Banie; Hamman, Josias H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the skin hydrating and anti-erythema activity of gel materials from Aloe marlothii A. Berger and A. ferox Mill. in comparison to that of Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) in healthy human volunteers. Materials and Methods: Aqueous solutions of the polisaccharidic fractions of the selected aloe leaf gel materials were applied to the volar forearm skin of female subjects. The hydration effect of the aloe gel materials were measured with a Corneometer® CM 825, Visioscan® VC 98 and Cutometer® dual MPA 580 after single and multiple applications. The Mexameter® MX 18 was used to determine the anti-erythema effects of the aloe material solutions on irritated skin areas. Results: The A. vera and A. marlothii gel materials hydrated the skin after a single application, whereas the A. ferox gel material showed dehydration effects compared to the placebo. After multiple applications all the aloe materials exhibited dehydration effects on the skin. Mexameter® readings showed that A. vera and A. ferox have anti-erythema activity similar to that of the positive control group (i.e. hydrocortisone gel) after 6 days of treatment. Conclusion: The polysaccharide component of the gel materials from selected aloe species has a dehydrating effect on the skin after multiple applications. Both A. vera and A. ferox gel materials showed potential to reduce erythema on the skin similar to that of hydrocortisone gel. PMID:24991119

  2. www.kernenergie.de - nuclear power has a German Internet address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    www.kernenergie.de is the address on the worldwide web under which the German nuclear organizations, Deutsches Atomforum (DAtF), Informationskreis Kernenergie (IK), and Kerntechnische Gesellschaft (KTG) as well as atw - internationale Zeitschrift fuer Kernenergie, and INFORUM can be reached. Extensive sources of information, discussions, on-line dictionaries, computer codes, dynamic web pages, digital documents and multimedia offerings can be called up via the portal under the individual web sites. In this way, www.kernenergie.de provides a comprehensive and up-to-date background of information about nuclear power and adjacent topics in the digital worldwide web. (orig.) [de

  3. A Single-Phase Transformerless Inverter With Charge Pump Circuit Concept for Grid-Tied PV Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardashir, Jaber Fallah; Sabahi, Mehran; Hosseini, Seyed Hossein

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new single-phase transformerless photovoltaic (PV) inverter for grid-tied PV systems. The topology is derived from the concept of a charge pump circuit in order to eliminate the leakage current. It is composed of four power switches, two diodes, two capacitors, and an LCL ou...

  4. Single channel 112Gbit/sec PAM4 at 56Gbaud with digital signal processing for data centers applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadot, Dan; Dorman, G; Gorshtein, Albert; Sonkin, Eduard; Vidal, Or

    2015-01-26

    112Gbit/sec DSP-based single channel transmission of PAM4 at 56Gbaud over 15GHz of effective analog bandwidth is experimentally demonstrated. The DSP enables use of mature 25G optoelectronics for 2-10km datacenter intra-connections, and 8Tbit/sec over 80km interconnections between data centers.

  5. The single chest tube versus double chest tube application after pulmonary lobectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Compared with the double chest tube, the single chest tube significantly decreases amount of drainage, duration of chest tube drainage, pain score, the number of patients who need thoracentesis, and cost. Although there is convincing evidence to confirm the results mentioned herein, they still need to be confirmed by large-sample, multicenter, randomized, controlled trials.

  6. Transistor Clamped Five-Level Inverter using Non-Inverting Double Reference Single Carrier PWM Technique for photovoltaic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar; Fedák, Viliam

    2017-01-01

    supplies or capacitor banks. To design the proposed five level inverter five numbers of power control switches and eight diodes are required. The proposed inverter circuitry is investigated by using Non-Inverting Double Reference Single Carrier PWM (NIDRSC PWM) Technique in terms of harmonics content...

  7. UV-Triggered Self-Healing of a Single Robust SiO2 Microcapsule Based on Cationic Polymerization for Potential Application in Aerospace Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wanchun; Jia, Yin; Tian, Kesong; Xu, Zhaopeng; Jiao, Jiao; Li, Ruifei; Wu, Yuehao; Cao, Ling; Wang, Haiyan

    2016-08-17

    UV-triggered self-healing of single microcapsules has been a good candidate to enhance the life of polymer-based aerospace coatings because of its rapid healing process and healing chemistry based on an accurate stoichiometric ratio. However, free radical photoinitiators used in single microcapsules commonly suffer from possible deactivation due to the presence of oxygen in the space environment. Moreover, entrapment of polymeric microcapsules into coatings often involves elevated temperature or a strong solvent, probably leading to swelling or degradation of polymer shell, and ultimately the loss of active healing species into the host matrix. We herein describe the first single robust SiO2 microcapsule self-healing system based on UV-triggered cationic polymerization for potential application in aerospace coatings. On the basis of the similarity of solubility parameters of the active healing species and the SiO2 precursor, the epoxy resin and cationic photoinitiator are successfully encapsulated into a single SiO2 microcapsule via a combined interfacial/in situ polymerization. The single SiO2 microcapsule shows solvent resistance and thermal stability, especially a strong resistance for thermal cycling in a simulated space environment. In addition, the up to 89% curing efficiency of the epoxy resin in 30 min, and the obvious filling of scratches in the epoxy matrix demonstrate the excellent UV-induced healing performance of SiO2 microcapsules, attributed to a high load of healing species within the capsule (up to 87 wt %) and healing chemistry based on an accurate stoichiometric ratio of the photoinitiator and epoxy resin at 9/100. More importantly, healing chemistry based on a UV-triggered cationic polymerization mechanism is not sensitive to oxygen, extremely facilitating future embedment of this single SiO2 microcapsule in spacecraft coatings to achieve self-healing in a space environment with abundant UV radiation and oxygen.

  8. Lithium tantalate single crystal for pyroelectricity-based laser energy-meter: growth, application and phase transition study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaumik, Indranil; Ganesamoorthy, S.; Bhatt, R.; Karnal, A.K.; Gupta, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    Single crystals of lithium tantalate have been grown. Dielectric-spectroscopy study reveals phase transition in congruent lithium tantalate (CLT) single crystal is diffusive and frequency dependent in contrast to that in near stoichiometric lithium tantalate where it is sharper. The ac conductivity measurements show that the conductivity is lower for 0.5Mg-SLT as compared to 1.0Mg-SLT. This is explained in terms of a Li-vacancy model. Calculation of activation energy from the lnσ vs. 1000/T plot reveals that hopping of Li + ions becomes difficult for 0.5 Mg-SLT. The pyroelectric response of CLT for pulsed Nd:YAG laser output has been tested. (author)

  9. An Adaptive Quadrature Signal Generation Based Single-Phase Phase-Locked Loop for Grid-Connected Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Abusorrah, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    The quadrature signal generation based phase-locked loops (QSG-PLLs) are highly popular for synchronization purposes in single-phase systems. The main difference among these PLLs often lies in the technique they use for creating the fictitious quadrature component. One of the easiest QSG approaches...... is delaying the original single-phase signal by a quarter of a cycle. The PLL with such QSG technique is often called the transfer delay based PLL (TD-PLL). The TD-PLL benefits from a simple structure, rather fast dynamic response, and a good detection accuracy when the grid frequency is at its nominal value......, but it suffers from a phase offset error and double frequency oscillatory error in the estimated phase and frequency in the presence of frequency drifts. In this paper, a simple yet effective approach to remove the aforementioned errors of the TD-PLL is proposed. The resultant PLL structure is called...

  10. Application about an one-single-channel online radioactive monitoring equipment used for multiple areas in Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhong; Zheng Suhong; Hong Yuanjin

    2012-01-01

    Generally, one online monitoring instrument used for monitoring radioactive is needed for one area of nuclear island workshop in nuclear power plant. This paper will expound one monitoring system which can measure multiple areas by one instrument. It uses a single instrument, through the electromagnetic valve automatically switch and compressor continuous suction, realized the 11 different areas of on-line radioactive monitoring. Since its operation, this monitoring system is running stably, it is available for reference to fellows. (authors)

  11. On the calculation of single ion activity coefficients in homogeneous ionic systems by application of the grand canonical ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Peter

    1993-01-01

    The grand canonical ensemble has been used to study the evaluation of single ion activity coefficients in homogeneous ionic fluids. In this work, the Coulombic interactions are truncated according to the minimum image approximation, and the ions are assumed to be placed in a structureless...... of the individual ionic activity coefficients with respect to the total ionic concentration. This formula has previously been proposed on the basis of somewhat different considerations....

  12. Single-mode optical fiber design with wide-band ultra low bending-loss for FTTH application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watekar, Pramod R; Ju, Seongmin; Han, Won-Taek

    2008-01-21

    We propose a new design of a single-mode optical fiber (SMF) which exhibits ultra low bend sensitivity over a wide communication band (1.3 microm to 1.65 microm). A five-cladding fiber structure has been proposed to minimize the bending loss, estimated to be as low as 4.4x10(-10) dB/turn for the bend radius of 10 mm.

  13. [CLINICAL APPLICATION OF OXFORD MOBILE-BEARING BIPOLAR PROSTHESIS UNICOMPARTMENTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY FOR SINGLE COMPARTMENTAL KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shangzeng; Cheng, Shao; Wang, Yisheng

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Oxford mobile-bearing bipolar prosthesis unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) in the treatment of single compartmental knee osteoarthritis. Between June 2011 and July 2013, 22 cases of single compartmental knee osteoarthritis were treated by Oxford mobile-bearing bipolar prosthesis UKA. Of 22 cases, 8 were male and 14 were female with an average age of 65 years (range, 45-80 years); the left knee was involved in 12 cases, and the right knee in 10 cases, with a mean disease duration of 32.5 months (range, 8-90 months). The mean weight was 55.2 kg (range, 50-65 kg), and the mean body mass index was 20.8 kg/m2 (range, 17-25 kg/m2). Osteoarthritis involved in the single knee medial compartment in all patients. Knee society score (KSS) and range of motion (ROM) were measured to evaluate the knee joint function. Primary healing of incision was obtained in all patients, and there was no complication of infection, bedsore, or deep venous thrombosis. Postoperative follow-up was 2-4 years (mean, 3.2 years). The X-ray films showed good position of prosthesis, no prosthesis dislocation, or periprosthetic infection during follow-up. Knee ROM, KSS function score, and KSS clinical score were significantly improved at 1 week after operation and at last follow-up when compared with preoperative ones (P 0.05). Oxford mobile-bearing bipolar prosthesis UKA is an effective method to treat single compartmental knee osteoarthritis, with the advantages of less trauma, earlier rehabilitation exercise, near physiological state in joint function, and less risk of complications.

  14. Application of higher harmonics in protection against single-phase earth faults in resonant grounded cable networks of medium voltage

    OpenAIRE

    Vinokurova, T. Yu.; Dobryagina, O. A.; Shagurina, E. S.; Shuin, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Protections based by higher harmonics absolute measurements the zero sequence currents of the protected object connections against single-phase earth faults in resonant grounded cable networks of medium voltage industrial and urban energy supply systems have been widely applied in Russia since the late 60s of the 20th century. However, some operational problems connected with sufficient selectivity and sensitivity of these protection devices appeared with time. Sensitivity and selectivity of ...

  15. Screening helical CT for mass screening of lung cancer. Application of low-dose and single-breath-hold scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shigeki; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Isomura, Takayuki; Endo, Tokiko; Yamakawa, Kouji; Itoh, Kengo; Naganawa, Shinji; Maruyama, Kunihiro; Ishigaki, Takeo

    1998-01-01

    The usefulness of helical CT with low-dose and single-breath-hold scanning was investigated for lung cancer screening. Twenty-four helical CT scans of the lung were performed using various parameters in 10 healthy volunteers. The effects of tube current and pitch were evaluated by assessment of image quality and detection of simulated nodules. Screening helical CT was performed at 120 kVp, 50 mA, 1 sec/rotation, 10 mm collimation, and a pitch of 2.0 in 110 patients. The ability of this method to detect nodules and masses, focal parenchymal opacities, and diffuse fibrotic changes was evaluated using conventional CT as the gold standard. A reduction in tube current to 50 mA did not significantly change the assessment of image quality or detection of simulated nodules. Although these factors were degraded by increasing the pitch, there was no significant difference between 1.5 and 2.0. Screening helical CT permitted the entire lung to be scanned with ease during a single-breath-hold in all patients. This method detected 177 of 196 nodules and masses (87 for 91 lesions greater than 5 mm in diameter), 54 of 57 focal parenchymal opacitied, and 15 of 15 cases with fibrotic changes. Screening helical CT with low-dose and single-breath-hold scanning shows promise for lung cancer screening. (author)

  16. Design and characterization of a single channel two-liquid capacitor and its application to hyperelastic strain sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shanliangzi; Sun, Xiaoda; Hildreth, Owen J; Rykaczewski, Konrad

    2015-03-07

    Room temperature liquid-metal microfluidic devices are attractive systems for hyperelastic strain sensing. These liquid-phase electronics are intrinsically soft and retain their functionality even when stretched to several times their original length. Currently two types of liquid metal-based strain sensors exist for in-plane measurements: single-microchannel resistive and two-microchannel capacitive devices. With a winding serpentine channel geometry, these sensors typically have a footprint of about a square centimeter. This large footprint of an individual device limits the number of sensors that can be embedded into, for example, electronic fabric or skin. In this work we introduce an alternative capacitor design consisting of two liquid metal electrodes separated by a liquid dielectric material within a single straight channel. Using a liquid insulator instead of a solid elastomer enables us to tailor the system's capacitance by selecting high or low dielectric constant liquids. We quantify the effects of the electrode geometry including the diameter, spacing, and meniscus shape as well as the dielectric constant of the insulating liquid on the overall system's capacitance. We also develop a procedure for fabricating the two-liquid capacitor within a single straight polydiemethylsiloxane channel and demonstrate that this device can have about 25 times higher capacitance per sensor's base area when compared to two-channel liquid metal capacitors. Lastly, we characterize the response of this compact device to strain and identify operational issues arising from complex hydrodynamics near liquid-liquid and liquid-elastomer interfaces.

  17. A Ratiometric Sensor Using Single Chirality Near-Infrared Fluorescent Carbon Nanotubes: Application to In Vivo Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Juan P; Landry, Markita P; Kwak, Seon-Yeong; Jain, Rishabh M; Wong, Min Hao; Iverson, Nicole M; Ben-Naim, Micha; Strano, Michael S

    2015-08-26

    Advances in the separation and functionalization of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) by their electronic type have enabled the development of ratiometric fluorescent SWCNT sensors for the first time. Herein, single chirality SWCNT are independently functionalized to recognize either nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), or no analyte (remaining invariant) to create optical sensor responses from the ratio of distinct emission peaks. This ratiometric approach provides a measure of analyte concentration, invariant to the absolute intensity emitted from the sensors and hence, more stable to external noise and detection geometry. Two distinct ratiometric sensors are demonstrated: one version for H(2)O(2), the other for NO, each using 7,6 emission, and each containing an invariant 6,5 emission wavelength. To functionalize these sensors from SWCNT isolated from the gel separation technique, a method for rapid and efficient coating exchange of single chirality sodium dodecyl sulfate-SWCNT is introduced. As a proof of concept, spatial and temporal patterns of the ratio sensor response to H(2)O(2) and, separately, NO, are monitored in leaves of living plants in real time. This ratiometric optical sensing platform can enable the detection of trace analytes in complex environments such as strongly scattering media and biological tissues. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Page 1 2009-06-20 http://www.loksatta.com/daily/20090620/ch04 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-06-20 http://www.loksatta.com/daily/20090620/ch04.htm. #1. Leading International Marathi News Daily. Expressindia | The I ndian Express The Financial Express | City Newslines | Screen | Kashmir Live ||. Express Computer. | Network Mag az inel ngifa eBusiness TravellerExpressP harmal Express Hospitality| ...

  19. Designing for differences: Cultural issues in the design of WWW-based course-support sites.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty

    1999-01-01

    Culture is a critical influence on the acceptance, use of, and impact of learning resources. WWW-based course-support sites are becoming an increasingly familiar type of learning resource in higher education. How might different aspects of culture be predicted to affect the institution's,

  20. Creador de WWW: "ICANN no deberia estar controlada solo por EEUU"

    CERN Multimedia

    Barros, X

    2003-01-01

    "El creador del sistema de intercambio de informacion World Wide Web (www), Tim Berners Lee, que participa hoy en la inauguracion de la Cumbre Mundial de la Sociedad de la Informacion, dijo que el registro de nombres de dominio en Internet no deberia depender unicamente de Estados Unidos" (1 page).

  1. webXice: an Infrastructure for Information Commerce on the WWW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wombacher, Andreas; Kostaki, Paraskevi; Aberer, Karl

    Systems for information commerce on the WWW have to support flexible business models if they should be able to cover a wide range of requirements imposed by the different types of information businesses. This leads to non-trivial functional and security requirements both on the provider and consumer

  2. Page 1 2009-08-15 http://www.loksatta.com/daily/20090815/ch12 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-08-15

    Aug 15, 2009 ... http://www.loksatta.com/daily/20090815/ch12.htm. #. 2. Expressindia | The I ndian Expres$ The Financial Express | City Newslines | Screen | Kashmir Live ||. Express Computer. | Network Mag az ine I ndifa eBusiness TravellerExpressP harmal Express Hospitality| Express Textile ||. Express TravelWorld.

  3. Chapter-10.ppt | Chemistry-352 | harvey | www.chem.wwu.edu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; initiat; sci ed; resources; chemistry; www.chem.wwu.edu; harvey; Chemistry-352; Chapter-10.ppt. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 ...

  4. 351.pdf | mar2007 | jbiosci | www.ias.ac.in | | http: | Indian Academy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; http: www.ias.ac.in; jbiosci; mar2007; 351.pdf. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Summer Research Fellowship Programme 2018. Posted on 16 December 2017.

  5. Lessons from Afar: A Review of www.daisakuikeda.org, Official Website of Daisaku Ikeda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arauz, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Daisaku Ikeda (1928- ) is a Buddhist leader, peace builder, school founder, and poet. His own biography and lifework provide a model for how one can transform adversity into alternative opportunities for some of the most disenfranchised students. Scrutinizing Ikeda's official website (www.daisakuikeda.org) reveals an extensive collection of his…

  6. e73.pdf.pdf | 92 | OnlineResources | jgenet | www.ias.ac.in | http ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; public; Volumes; jgen; 092; online; http; www.ias.ac.in; jgenet; OnlineResources; 92; e73.pdf.pdf. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 ...

  7. Instructional design of WWW-based course-support environments : From case to general principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Sanne; Collis, Betty; Eseryel, Deniz

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we describe the design of a WWW-based course-support environment for a course in instructional-design theories, give an overview of how the environment was used as part of the course experience, and summarize the student evaluation of the course. Our conclusion is that such a

  8. A Class-Based Least-Recently-Used Caching Algorithm for WWW Proxies Proceedings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khayari el Abdouni, Rachid; Sadre, R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Kemper, P.; Sanders, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we study and analyze the in uence of caching stategies on the performance of WWW proxies. We propose a new strategy called class-based LRU that works recency-based as well as size-based, with the ultimate aim to obtain a well-balanced mixture between large and small documents in the

  9. WWW-intensive concept mapping for metacognition in solving ill-structured problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, S.; Stoyanov, Slavi; Kommers, Petrus A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Concept mapping is one of the most intimate and most dynamic learning support activities that needs still a drastic further evolution of methods and tools. WWW-based concept mapping gains momentum quite fast now and needs a solid reviewing of the various approaches and the empirical effects. This

  10. 30 Page 22 www.jopat.gov.ng JOPAT Vol. 15(2)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    COMPASIONATE

    ABSTRACT. Aim: This study was aimed at determining the prevalence, antibiotic resistance and heat resistance ... grounded garlic, chunked fresh tomatoes and .... Page 26 www.jopat.gov.ng. Table 3. Antibiotic susceptibility study of the isolates from suya samples. Antibiotics. Sensitive. Resistant. Intermediate. Gentamicin.

  11. Tourniquet application after local forearm warming to improve venodilation for peripheral intravenous cannulation in young and middle-aged adults: A single-blind prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagami, Yuki; Tomita, Kohei; Tsujimoto, Tomomi; Inoue, Tomoko

    2017-07-01

    Local forearm warming before tourniquet application is often used to promote venodilation for peripheral intravenous cannulation; however, few studies have compared the effect of tourniquet application with and without local warming on vein size. To evaluate the effectiveness of tourniquet application after local forearm warming with that of tourniquet application alone in young and middle-aged adults. A single-blind, prospective, parallel group, randomized controlled trial. A national university in Japan. Seventy-two volunteers aged 20-64 years. Participants were randomly allocated to one of two groups: tourniquet application for 30s after forearm application of a heat pack warmed to 40°C±2°C for 15min (active warming group; n=36) or tourniquet application for 30s after applying a non-warmed heat pack for 15min (passive warming group; n=36). The primary outcomes were vein cross-sectional area on the forearm, measured after the intervention by blinded research assistants using ultrasound. Secondary outcomes were shortest diameter, and longest diameter of vein on the forearm, forearm skin temperature, body temperature, pulse, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. All outcomes were assessed at the same site before and immediately after the intervention, once per participant. Vein cross-sectional area, shortest vein diameter, and longest vein diameter were significantly increased in the active warming group compared with the passive warming group (p application after local warming was superior to tourniquet application alone in increasing vein cross-sectional, shortest diameter, and longest diameter (between-group differences of 2.2mm 2 , 0.5mm, and 0.5mm, respectively), and in raising skin temperature (between-group difference: 5.2°C). However, there were no significant differences in body temperature, pulse, or systolic or diastolic blood pressure between the groups. There were no adverse events associated with either intervention. Tourniquet

  12. Low propagation loss in a one-port SAW resonator fabricated on single-crystal diamond for super-high-frequency applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Satoshi; Odawara, Tatsuya; Yamada, Haruya; Omori, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Ken-Ya; Torii, Hironori; Umezawa, Hitoshi; Shikata, Shinichi

    2013-05-01

    Diamond has the highest known SAW phase velocity, sufficient for applications in the gigahertz range. However, although numerous studies have demonstrated SAW devices on polycrystalline diamond thin films, all have had much larger propagation loss than single-crystal materials such as LiNbO3. Hence, in this study, we fabricated and characterized one-port SAW resonators on single-crystal diamond substrates synthesized using a high-pressure and high-temperature method to identify and minimize sources of propagation loss. A series of one-port resonators were fabricated with the interdigital transducer/ AlN/diamond structure and their characteristics were measured. The device with the best performance exhibited a resonance frequency f of 5.3 GHz, and the equivalent circuit model gave a quality factor Q of 5509. Thus, a large fQ product of approximately 2.9 × 10(13) was obtained, and the propagation loss was found to be only 0.006 dB/wavelength. These excellent properties are attributed mainly to the reduction of scattering loss in a substrate using a single-crystal diamond, which originated from the grain boundary of diamond and the surface roughness of the AlN thin film and the diamond substrate. These results show that single-crystal diamond SAW resonators have great potential for use in low-noise super-high-frequency oscillators.

  13. Advances in single- and multi-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers for space applications in NLIP/SITP/CAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Haizheng; Tan, Jun; Zha, Rui; Li, Jiaqi; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yibo; Gao, Zhiqian; Bao, Dingli; Li, Ning; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Yongjiang; Zhao, Bangjian

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a review of recent advances in single- and multi-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTCs) for space applications developed at the National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NLIP/SITP/CAS). A variety of single-stage SPTCs operating at 25-150 K have been developed, including several mid-sized ones operating at 80-110 K. Significant progress has been achieved in coolers operating at 30-40 K which use common stainless steel meshes as regenerator matrices. Another important advance is the micro SPTCs with an overall mass of 300-800 g operating at high frequencies varying from 100 Hz to 400 Hz. The main purpose of developing two-stage SPTCs is to simultaneously acquire cooling capacities at both stages, obviating the need for auxiliary precooling in various applications. The three-stage SPTCs are developed mainly for applications at around 10 K, which are also used for precooling the J-T coolers to achieve further lower temperatures. The four-stage SPTCs are developed to directly achieve the liquid helium temperature for cooling space low-Tc superconducting devices and for the deep space exploration as well. Several typical development programs are described and an overview of the cooler performances is presented.

  14. Growth and Characterization of Ca2Al2SiO7 Piezoelectric Single Crystals for High-Temperature Sensor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Manabu; Noguchi, Hiroaki; Hoshina, Takuya; Takeda, Hiroaki; Fujihara, Shinobu; Kodama, Nobuhiro; Tsurumi, Takaaki

    2013-09-01

    The electrical properties of a piezoelectric single crystal of calcium aluminate silicate Ca2Al2SiO7 (CAS) were studied at elevated temperatures and its applicability to high-temperature pressure sensors was investigated. The CAS bulk single crystal was grown by the Czochralski method. The piezoelectric d14 and d36 constants were respectively evaluated as 6.04 and 4.04 pC/N by the resonance and antiresonance method. The temperature dependence of the piezoelectric constant was investigated at temperatures up to 500 °C. The electrical resistivity at 800 °C was on the order of 108 Ω.cm along both the crystallographic a- and c-axes. The measurement of direct piezoelectric response at 700 °C demonstrated that the CAS crystal could detect a pseudo-combustion pressure change of an automobile engine. Our observations suggest that CAS crystals are superior candidates for sensing pressure at high temperatures.

  15. Multilayered InGaN/GaN structure vs. single InGaN layer for solar cell applications: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gmili, Y.; Orsal, G.; Pantzas, K.; Moudakir, T.; Sundaram, S.; Patriarche, G.; Hester, J.; Ahaitouf, A.; Salvestrini, J.P.; Ougazzaden, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report a comparison of the morphological, structural and optical properties of both InGaN single-layer and multilayered structures, the latter consisting of periodic thin GaN interlayers inserted during InGaN growth. It is shown that such a structure suppresses the In concentration fluctuations and corresponding different states of strain relaxation with depth, both detrimental to solar cell applications. Measurements performed by X-ray diffraction, cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence demonstrate that this multilayer growth is a promising approach to increase both the InGaN layer total thickness and In content in InGaN epilayers. As an example, single-phase 120 nm thick InGaN with 14.3% In content is obtained and found to possess high structural quality

  16. An automatic algorithm for blink-artifact suppression based on iterative template matching: application to single channel recording of cortical auditory evoked potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Joaquin T.; de la Torre, Angel; Van Dun, Bram

    2018-02-01

    Objective. Artifact reduction in electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is usually necessary to carry out data analysis appropriately. Despite the large amount of denoising techniques available with a multichannel setup, there is a lack of efficient algorithms that remove (not only detect) blink-artifacts from a single channel EEG, which is of interest in many clinical and research applications. This paper describes and evaluates the iterative template matching and suppression (ITMS), a new method proposed for detecting and suppressing the artifact associated with the blink activity from a single channel EEG. Approach. The approach of ITMS consists of (a) an iterative process in which blink-events are detected and the blink-artifact waveform of the analyzed subject is estimated, (b) generation of a signal modeling the blink-artifact, and (c) suppression of this signal from the raw EEG. The performance of ITMS is compared with the multi-window summation of derivatives within a window (MSDW) technique using both synthesized and real EEG data. Main results. Results suggest that ITMS presents an adequate performance in detecting and suppressing blink-artifacts from a single channel EEG. When applied to the analysis of cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs), ITMS provides a significant quality improvement in the resulting responses, i.e. in a cohort of 30 adults, the mean correlation coefficient improved from 0.37 to 0.65 when the blink-artifacts were detected and suppressed by ITMS. Significance. ITMS is an efficient solution to the problem of denoising blink-artifacts in single-channel EEG applications, both in clinical and research fields. The proposed ITMS algorithm is stable; automatic, since it does not require human intervention; low-invasive, because the EEG segments not contaminated by blink-artifacts remain unaltered; and easy to implement, as can be observed in the Matlab script implemeting the algorithm provided as supporting material.

  17. The application of X-ray, γ-ray and neutron diffraction to the characterization of single crystal perfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, A.; Schneider, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    The work is divided into the following three chapters: 1) diffraction by perfect and imperfect crystals, 2) experimental apparatus (describing gamma ray, X-ray and neutron diffractometers), 3) application of diffraction methods to the development of neutron monochromators. (WBU) [de

  18. Distally Based Sural Artery Adipofascial Flap based on a Single Sural Nerve Branch: Anatomy and Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Loong James Mok

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe distally based sural artery flap is a reliable, local reconstructive option for small soft tissue defects of the distal third of the leg. The purpose of this study is to describe an adipofascial flap based on a single sural nerve branch without sacrificing the entire sural nerve, thereby preserving sensibility of the lateral foot.MethodsThe posterior aspect of the lower limb was dissected in 15 cadaveric limbs. Four patients with soft tissue defects over the tendo-achilles and ankle underwent reconstruction using the adipofascial flap, which incorporated the distal peroneal perforator, short saphenous vein, and a single branch of the sural nerve.ResultsFrom the anatomical study, the distal peroneal perforator was situated at an average of 6.2 cm (2.5-12 cm from the distal tip of the lateral malleolus. The medial and lateral sural nerve branches ran subfascially and pierced the muscle fascia 16 cm (14-19 cm proximal to the lateral malleolus to enter the subcutaneous plane. They merged 1-2 cm distal to the subcutaneous entry point to form the common sural nerve at a mean distance of 14.5 cm (11.5-18 cm proximal to the lateral malleolus. This merging point determined the pivot point of the flap. In the clinical cases, all patients reported near complete recovery of sensation over the lateral foot six months after surgery. All donor sites healed well with a full range of motion over the foot and ankle.ConclusionsThe distally based sural artery adipofascial flap allowed for minimal sensory loss, a good range of motion, an aesthetically acceptable outcome and can be performed by a single surgeon in under 2 hours.

  19. Growth of segmented gold nanorods with nanogaps by the electrochemical wet etching technique for single-electron transistor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Nguyen Van; Kumar, Sanjeev; Kim, Gil-Ho

    2009-03-01

    The growth of multisegment nanorods comprising gold (Au) and sacrificial silver (Ag) segments (Au-Ag-Au or Au-Ag-Au-Ag-Au) using the electrochemical wet etching method is reported. The nanorods were fabricated using an alumina template of thickness 100 µm and pore size of 200 nm. A variety of nanorods from single to seven segments comprising alternate Au and Ag segments were fabricated with better control of growth rate. The multisegment nanorods were selectively etched by removing the Ag segments to create gaps in the fabricated nanorods. A careful investigation led to the creation of a wide variety of nanogaps in the fabricated multisegment nanorods. The size of the nanogap was controlled by the passage of current through the electrochemical process, and size below 10 nm was achievable at exchanged charges of ~1 mC. A further lowering in the size of nanogaps was achieved by diluting the silver plating solution and a segmented nanorod with nanogap (Au-nanogap-Au) of 3.8 nm at exchanged charges of 0.2 mC was successfully created. In addition, segmented nanorods with two or more nanogaps (Au-nanogap-Au-nanogap-Ag) placed symmetrically and asymmetrically on either side of the central Au segments were also created. A prototype of a single-electron transistor device based on segmented nanorods with two nanogaps is proposed. The results obtained could form the basis for the realization of quantum tunneling devices where the barrier thickness is very critical and demands values less than 5 nm. The encouraging results show the promise of multisegment nanorods for fabricating devices working at the de Broglie wavelength such as single-electron transistors.

  20. Twisted intra-molecular charge transfer investigations of semiorganic triglycine phosphate single crystal for non linear optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meera, M. R.; Joselin Beaula, T.; Rayar, S. L.; Bena Jothy, V.

    2017-09-01

    NLO materials are gaining importance in technologies such as optical communication, optical computing and dynamic image processing. Many NLO crystals grown by mixing amino acids with various organic and inorganic acids have been reported in the literature. Hence, glycine mixed semi-organic material will be of special interest as a fundamental building block to develop many complex crystals with improved NLO properties. A semi organic Single crystal of Triglycine Phosphate (TGP) which was grown and spectral analysis have been using FTIR and Raman spectral analysis. Natural Bond Orbital Analysis and the atomic natural charges are also predicted. HOMO LUMO energy gap value suggests the possibility of charge transfer within the molecule.

  1. Calcium aluminate silicate Ca2Al2SiO7 single crystal applicable to piezoelectric sensors at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Hiroaki; Hagiwara, Manabu; Noguchi, Hiroaki; Hoshina, Takuya; Takahashi, Tomoko; Kodama, Nobuhiro; Tsurumi, Takaaki

    2013-06-01

    Ca2Al2SiO7 (CAS) bulk single crystals were grown by the Czochralski method. Material constants of the crystal were determined over the driving temperature range of a typical combustion pressure sensor. The electrical resistivity at 800 °C was found to be of the order of 108 Ωcm. We constructed a measurement system for the direct piezoelectric effect at high temperature, and characterized the crystals in a simulated engine cylinder combustion environment. Output charge signal against applied stress was detected at 700 °C. These observations suggest that CAS crystals are superior candidate materials for high temperature for stress sensing.

  2. Mechanical unfolding of proteins: reduction to a single-reaction coordinate unfolding potential, and an application of the Jarzynski Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmsted, Peter; West, Daniel; Paci, Emanuele

    2007-03-01

    Single molecule force spectroscopy (AFM, optical tweezers, etc) has revolutionized the study of many biopolymers, including DNA, RNA, and proteins. In this talk I will discuss recent work on modelling of mechanical unfolding of proteins, as often probed by AFM. I will address two issues in obtaining a coarse-grained description of protein unfolding: how to project the entire energy landscape onto an effective one dimensional unfolding potential, and how to apply the Jarzynski Relation to extract equilibrium free energies from nonequilibrium unfolding experiments.

  3. SINGLE CHANNEL SEISMIC APPLICATION FOR GAS CHARGED SEDIMENT RECONNAISSANCE IN GEOHAZARD STUDY OF PORT CONSTRUCTION AT WETLAND AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufan Wiguna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gas charged sediment as a one of parameter for geohazard study in infrastructure especially in swamp area. Instability of sediment layer for exampel subsidence and landslide result in geohazard potention that caused by gas charged sediment. Seismic single channel can be used to identufy gas charged sediment location. Seabed morphology is collected from bathymetry and tidal survey. From seismic profile interpretation shows gas charged sediment indication in Line A and Line B. That indication emerged by presence of acoustic turbid zone and acoustic blanking. Line A and Line B location will be spotlight in next geotechnic port construction study.

  4. Design and Simulation of Scanner Wrapped by Flexible Microcoil Embedded in Polymer Film for Single-Optical Endoscope Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mengyuan; Yang, Zhuoqing; Xiang, Xiaojian; Sun, Bin; Ding, Guifu; Zhao, Xiaolin

    2018-03-01

    A single optic fiber scanner with large scanning angle, based on novel electromagnetic driven, is presented. The cylinder magnet and weight are fixed on the fiber, and vibrate under its second-order frequency by driving racetrack coils on the tube. The flexible driving coil is fabricated by uncomplicated planar MEMS technology on polyimide film, and wrapped on the tube. The electromagnetic and mechanical properties of the endoscope system are studied. Experimental results show that the maximum of the second resonant scanning angle is 9.47°.

  5. Single-Electrical-Port Control of Cascaded Doubly-Fed Induction Machine for EV/HEV Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Peng; Cheng, Ming; Chen, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    as a master/slave architecture, that is, the power winding is supplied with a constant-voltage constant-frequency inverter, termed as the master inverter, in an open-loop way, while the control winding is fed by a closed-loop field-oriented-controlled (FOC) variable-voltage variable-frequency inverter, termed...... as slave inverter. With this configuration, the control emphasis is placed on the slave inverter, yielding reduced control complexity and cost, and the inaccuracy of flux estimation in conventional FOC for singly-fed induction machines is avoided at very low or even zero speed. It is found that the doubly...

  6. Application of the single-channel continuous synthesis method to criticity and power distribution calculations in thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrano Asensio, Gregorio.

    1976-06-01

    A detailed power distribution calculation in a large power reactor requires the solution of the multigroup 3D diffusion equations. Using the finite difference method, this computation is too expensive to be performed for design purposes. This work is devoted to the single channel continous synthesis method: the choice of the trial functions and the determination of the mixing functions are discussed in details; 2D and 3D results are presented. The method is applied to the calculation of the IAEA ''Benchmark'' reactor and the results obtained are compared with a finite element resolution and with published results [fr

  7. Comparison of three types of XPAD3.2/CdTe single chip hybrids for hard X-ray applications in material science and biomedical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buton, C.; Dawiec, A.; Graber-Bolis, J.; Arnaud, K.; Bérar, J. F.; Blanc, N.; Boudet, N.; Clémens, J. C.; Debarbieux, F.; Delpierre, P.; Dinkespiler, B.; Gastaldi, T.; Hustache, S.; Morel, C.; Pangaud, P.; Perez-Ponce, H.; Vigeolas, E.

    2014-09-01

    The CHIPSPECT consortium aims at building a large multi-modules CdTe based photon counting detector for hard X-ray applications. For this purpose, we tested nine XPAD3.2 single chip hybrids in various configurations (i.e. Ohmic vs. Schottky contacts or electrons vs. holes collection mode) in order to select the most performing and best suited configuration for our experimental requirements. Measurements have been done using both X-ray synchrotron beams and 241Am source. Preliminary results on the image quality, calibration, stability, homogeneity and linearity of the different types of detectors are presented.

  8. Application of electrochemical method to microfabricated region in single-crystal device of FeSe1‑ x Te x superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kazuhiro; Takagi, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Ohnuma, Haruka; Noji, Takashi; Koike, Yoji; Ayukawa, Shin-ya; Kitano, Haruhisa

    2018-04-01

    The application of an electrochemical method to the iron-based chalcogenide superconductors has great potentials in enhancing their properties such as the superconducting transition temperature. Unfortunately, this method has been limited to polycrystalline powders or thin film samples with a large surface area. Here, we demonstrate that the electrochemical method can be usefully applied to single-crystal devices of FeSe1‑ x Te x superconductors by combining it with the focused ion beam (FIB) microfabrication techniques. Our results open a new route to developing the high-quality superconducting devices fabricated using layered iron-based chalcogenides, whose properties are electrochemically controlled.

  9. Evaluation of Single or Double Hurdle Sanitizer Applications in Simulated Field or Packing Shed Operations for Cantaloupes Contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy C. Webb

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes contamination of cantaloupes has become a serious concern as contaminated cantaloupes led to a deadly outbreak in the United States in 2011. To reduce cross-contamination between cantaloupes and to reduce resident populations on contaminated melons, application of sanitizers in packing shed wash water is recommended. The sanitizing agent of 5% levulinic acid and 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS applied as a single hurdle in either a simulated dump or dip treatment significantly reduced L. monocytogenes to lower levels at the stem scar compared to a simulated dump treatment employing 200 ppm chlorine; however pathogen reductions on the rind tissue were not significantly different. Double hurdle approaches employing two sequential packing plant treatments with different sanitizers revealed decreased reduction of L. monocytogenes at the stem scar. In contrast, application of sanitizers both in the field and at the packing plant led to greater L. monocytogenes population reductions than if sanitizers were only applied at the packing plant.

  10. Analysis and Implementation of Parallel Connected Two-Induction Motor Single-Inverter Drive by Direct Vector Control for Industrial Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunabalan, Ramachandiran; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Sensorless-based direct vector control techniques are widely used for three-phase induction motor drive, whereas in case of multiple-motor control, it becomes intensively complicated and very few research articles in support to industrial applications were found. A straight-forward direct vector...... control with sensorless operation for parallel connected two similar-rated induction motors driven by single three-phase inverter is proposed and verified numerically by simulation software test under balanced and unbalanced conditions. The proposed control algorithm adapts the natural observer...... to estimate the rotor speed, rotor flux, and load torque of both motors. Simulation results along with theoretical background provided in this paper confirm the feasibility of operation of the ac motors and proves reliability for industrial applications....

  11. Growth and Characterization of Lithium Potassium Phthalate (LiKP) Single Crystals for Third Order Nonlinear Optical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivakumar, B.; Mohan, R. [Preidency College, Bangalore (India); Raj, S. Gokul [RR and Dr. SR Technical Univ., Avadi (India); Kumar, G. Ramesh [Anna Univ., Arni (India)

    2012-11-15

    Single crystals of lithium potassium phthalate (LiKP) were successfully grown from aqueous solution by solvent evaporation technique. The grown crystals were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The lithium potassium phthalate C{sub 16} H{sub 12} K Li{sub 3} O{sub 11} belongs to triclinic system with the following unit-cell dimensions at 298(2) K; a = 7.405(5) A; b = 9.878(5) A; c = 13.396(5) A; α = 71.778(5) .deg.; β = 87.300(5) .deg.; γ = 85.405(5) .deg.; having a space group P1. Mass spectrometric analysis provides the molecular weight of the compound and possible ways of fragmentations occurs in the compound. Thermal stability of the crystal was also studied by both simultaneous TGA/DTA analyses. The UV-Vis-NIR spectrum shows a good transparency in the whole of Visible and as well as in the near IR range. Third order nonlinear optical studies have also been studied by Z-scan technique. Nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refractive index were found out and the third order bulk susceptibility of compound was also estimated.

  12. Optimized and secure technique for multiplexing QR code images of single characters: application to noiseless messages retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trejos, Sorayda; Barrera, John Fredy; Torroba, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    We present for the first time an optical encrypting–decrypting protocol for recovering messages without speckle noise. This is a digital holographic technique using a 2f scheme to process QR codes entries. In the procedure, letters used to compose eventual messages are individually converted into a QR code, and then each QR code is divided into portions. Through a holographic technique, we store each processed portion. After filtering and repositioning, we add all processed data to create a single pack, thus simplifying the handling and recovery of multiple QR code images, representing the first multiplexing procedure applied to processed QR codes. All QR codes are recovered in a single step and in the same plane, showing neither cross-talk nor noise problems as in other methods. Experiments have been conducted using an interferometric configuration and comparisons between unprocessed and recovered QR codes have been performed, showing differences between them due to the involved processing. Recovered QR codes can be successfully scanned, thanks to their noise tolerance. Finally, the appropriate sequence in the scanning of the recovered QR codes brings a noiseless retrieved message. Additionally, to procure maximum security, the multiplexed pack could be multiplied by a digital diffuser as to encrypt it. The encrypted pack is easily decoded by multiplying the multiplexing with the complex conjugate of the diffuser. As it is a digital operation, no noise is added. Therefore, this technique is threefold robust, involving multiplexing, encryption, and the need of a sequence to retrieve the outcome. (paper)

  13. Optimized and secure technique for multiplexing QR code images of single characters: application to noiseless messages retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejos, Sorayda; Fredy Barrera, John; Torroba, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    We present for the first time an optical encrypting-decrypting protocol for recovering messages without speckle noise. This is a digital holographic technique using a 2f scheme to process QR codes entries. In the procedure, letters used to compose eventual messages are individually converted into a QR code, and then each QR code is divided into portions. Through a holographic technique, we store each processed portion. After filtering and repositioning, we add all processed data to create a single pack, thus simplifying the handling and recovery of multiple QR code images, representing the first multiplexing procedure applied to processed QR codes. All QR codes are recovered in a single step and in the same plane, showing neither cross-talk nor noise problems as in other methods. Experiments have been conducted using an interferometric configuration and comparisons between unprocessed and recovered QR codes have been performed, showing differences between them due to the involved processing. Recovered QR codes can be successfully scanned, thanks to their noise tolerance. Finally, the appropriate sequence in the scanning of the recovered QR codes brings a noiseless retrieved message. Additionally, to procure maximum security, the multiplexed pack could be multiplied by a digital diffuser as to encrypt it. The encrypted pack is easily decoded by multiplying the multiplexing with the complex conjugate of the diffuser. As it is a digital operation, no noise is added. Therefore, this technique is threefold robust, involving multiplexing, encryption, and the need of a sequence to retrieve the outcome.

  14. Single channel atmospheric pressure transporting plasma and plasma stream demultiplexing: physical characterization and application to E. coli bacteria inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valinataj Omran, A; Arefi-Khonsari, F; Sohbatzadeh, F; Siadati, S N; Hosseinzadeh Colagar, A; Akishev, Y

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we developed transporting plasma sources that operate at atmospheric pressure. The effect of electrode configuration on plasma transporting was investigated. In order to increase the transporting plasma cross-section, we converted a plasma stream into four plasma channels by a cylindrical housing. Electron excitation and rotational temperatures were estimated using optical emission spectroscopy. Furthermore, the electrical and temporal characteristics of the plasma, discharge power and charge deposition on the target were investigated. The propagation characteristics of single and multi-channel transporting plasma were compared with the same cross-sectional area. Two configurations for multi-channels were designed for this purpose. Escherichia coli bacteria were exposed to the single and multi-channel transporting discharge for different time durations. After exposure, the results indicated that the inactivation zones were significantly increased by a multi-channel transporting plasma. Finally, E. coli inactivation by those plasma apparatuses was compared with that of several standard antimicrobial test discs such as Gentamicin, Tetracycline, Amoxicillin and Cefixime. (paper)

  15. Study of the mechanical properties of single- layer and multi-layer metallic coatings with protective-decorative applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherneva Sabina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Single thin coating of matt nickel (Nimat, a mirror bright copper (Cubright, a mirror bright nickel (Nibright and their combinations were electrochemically deposited on brass substrate with thickness 500 μm. The basic aim was electrodeposition of two-layer Cubright/Nimat and Nibright/Cubright systems, and three-layer Nibright Cubrigh/Nimat system, which are among the most widely applied protective and decorative systems in light and medium operating conditions of corrosion. The thicknesses of the obtained films varied from 1 μm to 3.25 μm. They were investigated via nanoindentation experiments, in order to characterize their basic physical and mechanical characteristics, related with their good adhesion and corrosion protective ability, as well as ensuring the integrity of the system “protective coating/substrate” to possible mechanical, dynamic and/or thermal stresses. As a result, load-displacement curves were obtained and indentation hardness and indentation modulus were calculated using the Oliver & Pharr approximation method. The dependence of the indentation modulus and the indentation hardness on the depth of the indentation, surface morphology and structure of the obtained coatings, their texture and surface roughness were investigated too. The obtained results showed that the three-layer Nibright/Cubright /Niimat/CuZn37 system has highest indentation modulus and indentation hardness, following by two-layer Nibright/Cubright system and single layer coatings.

  16. Improved Laser Manipulation for On-chip Fabricated Microstructures Based on Solution Replacement and Its Application in Single Cell Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yue

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the fabrication and assembly of microstructures inside a microfluidic device based on a photocrosslinkable resin and optical tweezers. We also report a method of solution replacement inside the microfluidic channel in order to improve the manipulation performance and apply the assembled microstructures for single cell cultivation. By the illumination of patterned ultraviolet (UV through a microscope, microstructures of arbitrary shape were fabricated by the photocrosslinkable resin inside a microfluidic channel. Based on the microfluidic channel with both glass and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS surfaces, immovable and movable microstructures were fabricated and manipulated. The microstructures were fabricated at the desired places and manipulated by the optical tweezers. A rotational microstructure including a microgear and a rotation axis was assembled and rotated in demonstrating this technique. The improved laser manipulation of microstructures was achieved based on the on-chip solution replacement method. The manipulation speed of the microstructures increased when the viscosity of the solvent decreased. The movement efficiency of the fabricated microstructures inside the lower viscosity solvent was evaluated and compared with those microstructures inside the former high viscosity solvent. A novel cell cage was fabricated and the cultivation of a single yeast cell (w303 was demonstrated in the cell cage, inside the microfluidic device.

  17. The influence of the residency application process on the online social networking behavior of medical students: a single institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strausburg, Matthew B; Djuricich, Alexander M; Carlos, W Graham; Bosslet, Gabriel T

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate medical students' behavior regarding online social networks (OSNs) in preparation for the residency matching process. The specific aims were to quantify the use of OSNs by students to determine whether and how these students were changing OSN profiles in preparation for the residency application process, and to determine attitudes toward residency directors using OSNs as a screening method to evaluate potential candidates. An e-mail survey was sent to 618 third- and fourth-year medical students at Indiana University School of Medicine over a three-week period in 2012. Statistical analysis was completed using nonparametric statistical tests. Of the 30.1% (183/608) who responded to the survey, 98.9% (181/183) of students reported using OSNs. More than half, or 60.1% (110/183), reported that they would (or did) alter their OSN profile before residency matching. Respondents' opinions regarding the appropriateness of OSN screening by residency directors were mixed; however, most respondents did not feel that their online OSN profiles should be used in the residency application process. The majority of respondents planned to (or did) alter their OSN profile in preparation for the residency match process. The majority believed that residency directors are screening OSN profiles during the matching process, although most did not believe their OSN profiles should be used in the residency application process. This study implies that the more medical students perceive that residency directors use social media in application screening processes, the more they will alter their online profiles to adapt to protect their professional persona.

  18. Characterization of single cell derived cultures of periosteal progenitor cells to ensure the cell quality for clinical application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Stich

    Full Text Available For clinical applications of cells and tissue engineering products it is of importance to characterize the quality of the used cells in detail. Progenitor cells from the periosteum are already routinely applied in the clinics for the regeneration of the maxillary bone. Periosteal cells have, in addition to their potential to differentiate into bone, the ability to develop into cartilage and fat. However, the question arises whether all cells isolated from periosteal biopsies are able to differentiate into all three tissue types, or whether there are subpopulations. For an efficient and approved application in bone or cartilage regeneration the clarification of this question is of interest. Therefore, 83 different clonal cultures of freshly isolated human periosteal cells derived from mastoid periosteum biopsies of 4 donors were generated and growth rates calculated. Differentiation capacities of 51 clonal cultures towards the osteogenic, the chondrogenic, and the adipogenic lineage were investigated. Histological and immunochemical stainings showed that 100% of the clonal cultures differentiated towards the osteogenic lineage, while 94.1% demonstrated chondrogenesis, and 52.9% could be stimulated to adipogenesis. For osteogenesis real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR of BGLAP and RUNX2 and for adipogenesis of FABP4 and PPARG confirmed the results. Overall, 49% of the cells exhibited a tripotent potential, 45.1% showed a bipotent potential (without adipogenic differentiation, 3.9% bipotent (without chondrogenic differentiation, and 2% possessed a unipotent osteogenic potential. In FACS analyses, no differences in the marker profile of undifferentiated clonal cultures with bi- and tripotent differentiation capacity were found. Genome-wide microarray analysis revealed 52 differentially expressed genes for clonal subpopulations with or without chondrogenic differentiation capacity, among them DCN, NEDD9, TGFBR3, and TSLP. For clinical

  19. Thermal analysis of different application techniques on Nd:YAG laser after root canal preparation of single-rooted teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archilla, Jose Ricardo de F.

    2001-01-01

    The experiment objective is to analyze temperature variation, by means of three different application techniques of Nd:YAG laser in the root canals of singlerooted anterior teeth. Three root canals were instrumented, irrigated, X-rayed to measure the remaining dentin in the apical area and submitted to laser irradiation techniques used by Gutknecht, Matsumoto and a new technique with oscillatory movement. The used laser parameters were: pulse energy 250 mJ, frequency 5 Hz, pulse fluency 354 J/cm 2 , average potency 1,25 W, pulse width 300 μs, fiber core diameter 300 μs and interval of thermal relaxation of 20 s. After temperature evaluation and interpretation of the obtained data, it was concluded: 1) the oscillatory technique provided a better heat distribution during the laser application, when analyzing the graphs separately; 2) all the used techniques are within a pattern of safety, analyzing the average and highest temperatures of the apical area and the middle third, even so, disrespecting the last application day and the middle third of root 'C'.(author)

  20. Principle of single and multiple time interval analysis applicable to radioactive nuclides with half-lives of millisecond order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, T.; Noguchi, M.; Washio, H.; Yamamoto, Y.; Uezu, Y.

    1992-01-01

    A delayed coincidence method has been developed for the selective extraction of radionuclides with half-lives of millisecond order using a personal computer. The time interval analysis is fundamentally based on the distinction of the time interval distribution between the correlated and random events, which arise from radioactive disintegration and/or background events within a certain fixed time. Theoretical functions of a time spectrum or a time distribution curve were dealt with from aspects of statistical treatments consisting of a single time interval analysis and a multiple one (STA and MTA). The theoretical equations obtained were used to simulate time spectra on the assumption of some ideal data and compared with the experimental results. Conclusively, the MTA method has been verified to be more suitable for the selective extraction of the objective correlated events from random or background events for the search of radioactive nuclides with millisecond life-times. (author) 11 refs.; 8 figs

  1. Structural, mechanical and light yield characterisation of heat treated LYSO:Ce single crystals for medical imaging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mengucci, P; Auffray, E; Barucca, G; Cecchi, C; Chipaux, R; Cousson, A; Davì, F; Di Vara, N; Rinaldi, D; Santecchia, E

    2015-01-01

    Five single crystals of cerium-doped lutetium yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO:Ce) grown by the Czochralski method were submitted to structural characterisation by X-ray (XRD) and neutron (ND) diffraction, scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy and energy dispersive microanalysis (EDS). The Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS), the Young Modulus (YM) and the Light Yield (LY) of the samples were also measured in order to correlate the mechanical and the optical behaviour of the crystals with the characteristics of their microstructure. Two of the samples analysed were also heat treated at 300 °C for 10 h to evidence possible variations induced by the temperature in the optical and mechanical response of the crystals. Results showed that the mean compositional variations evidenced by the structural analyses do not affect the mechanical and optical behaviour of the samples. On the contrary, the thermal treatment could induce the formation of coherent spherical particles (size 10 to 15 nm), not unifo...

  2. Formation of single-walled carbon nanotube thin films enriched with semiconducting nanotubes and their application in photoelectrochemical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li; Tezuka, Noriyasu; Umeyama, Tomokazu; Imahori, Hiroshi; Chen, Yuan

    2011-04-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin films, containing a high-density of semiconducting nanotubes, were obtained by a gel-centrifugation method. The agarose gel concentration and centrifugation force were optimized to achieve high semiconducting and metallic nanotube separation efficiency at 0.1 wt% agarose gel and 18,000g. The thickness of SWCNT films can be precisely controlled from 65 to 260 nm with adjustable transparency. These SWCNT films were applied in photoelectrochemical devices. Photocurrents generated by semiconducting SWCNT enriched films are 15-35% higher than those by unsorted SWCNT films. This is because of reducing exciton recombination channels as a result of the removal of metallic nanotubes. Thinner films generate higher photocurrents because charge carriers have less chances going in metallic nanotubes for recombination, before they can reach electrodes. Developing more scalable and selective methods for high purity semiconducting SWCNTs is important to further improve the photocurrent generation efficiency by using SWCNT-based photoelectrochemical devices.

  3. Nuclear data relevant to single-event upsets (SEU) in microelectronics and their application to SEU simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yukinobu; Tukamoto, Yasuyuki; Kodama, Akihiro; Nakashima, Hideki

    2004-01-01

    A cross-section database for neutron-induced reactions on 28 Si was developed in the energy range between 2 MeV and 3 GeV in order to analyze single-event upsets (SEUs) phenomena induced by cosmic-ray neutrons in microelectronic devices. A simplified spherical device model was proposed for simulation of the initial process of SEUs. The model was applied to SEU cross-section calculations for semiconductor memory devices. The calculated results were compared with measured SEU cross-sections and the other simulation result. The dependence of SEU cross-sections on incident neutron energy and secondary ions having the most important effects on SEUs are discussed. (author)

  4. 3-lead acquisition using single channel ECG device developed on AD8232 analog front end for wireless ECG application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agung, Mochammad Anugrah; Basari

    2017-02-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) devices measure electrical activity of the heart muscle to determine heart conditions. ECG signal quality is the key factor in determining the diseases of the heart. This paper presents the design of 3-lead acquistion on single channel wireless ECG device developed on AD8232 chip platform using microcontroller. To make the system different from others, monopole antenna 2.4 GHz is used in order to send and receive ECG signal. The results show that the system still can receive ECG signal up to 15 meters by line of sight (LOS) condition. The shape of ECG signals is precisely similar with the expected signal, although some delays occur between two consecutive pulses. For further step, the system will be applied with on-body antenna in order to investigate body to body communication that will give variation in connectivity from the others.

  5. Development and application of an automated analysis method for individual cerebral perfusion single photon emission tomography images

    CERN Document Server

    Cluckie, A J

    2001-01-01

    Neurological images may be analysed by performing voxel by voxel comparisons with a group of control subject images. An automated, 3D, voxel-based method has been developed for the analysis of individual single photon emission tomography (SPET) scans. Clusters of voxels are identified that represent regions of abnormal radiopharmaceutical uptake. Morphological operators are applied to reduce noise in the clusters, then quantitative estimates of the size and degree of the radiopharmaceutical uptake abnormalities are derived. Statistical inference has been performed using a Monte Carlo method that has not previously been applied to SPET scans, or for the analysis of individual images. This has been validated for group comparisons of SPET scans and for the analysis of an individual image using comparison with a group. Accurate statistical inference was obtained independent of experimental factors such as degrees of freedom, image smoothing and voxel significance level threshold. The analysis method has been eval...

  6. A methodology to compile food metrics related to diet sustainability into a single food database: Application to the French case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazan, Rozenn; Barré, Tangui; Perignon, Marlène; Maillot, Matthieu; Darmon, Nicole; Vieux, Florent

    2018-01-01

    The holistic approach required to assess diet sustainability is hindered by lack of comprehensive databases compiling relevant food metrics. Those metrics are generally scattered in different data sources with various levels of aggregation hampering their matching. The objective was to develop a general methodology to compile food metrics describing diet sustainability dimensions into a single database and to apply it to the French context. Each step of the methodology is detailed: indicators and food metrics identification and selection, food list definition, food matching and values assignment. For the French case, nutrient and contaminant content, bioavailability factors, distribution of dietary intakes, portion sizes, food prices, greenhouse gas emission, acidification and marine eutrophication estimates were allocated to 212 commonly consumed generic foods. This generic database compiling 279 metrics will allow the simultaneous evaluation of the four dimensions of diet sustainability, namely health, economic, social and environmental, dimensions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Second order single particle dynamics in quasi-isochronous storage rings and its application to the LNLS-UVX ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Liu (Pro-Reitoria de Pesquisa, Univ. Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil) Lab. Nacional de Luz Sincrotron-LNLS, Campinas, SP (Brazil)); Concalves da Silva, C.E.T. (Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Univ. Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil) Lab. Nacional de Luz Sincrotron-LNLS, Campinas, SP (Brazil))

    1993-05-15

    We analyze the second order single particle longitudinal dynamics in a quasi-isochronous storage ring. We expand the momentum compaction factor to include the effects of second order terms taking sextupoles into account and of transverse betatron oscillations. The introduction of nonlinearities due to higher order terms results in a second stability region for longitudinal phase oscillations, in addition to the well known linear stable operation point. The conditions for this new solution to fall within the energy acceptance of the storage ring are presented. Inclusion of transverse motion coupling may lead to either a reduction or an enhancement of the stable longitudinal phase-space regions. The analysis is applied to the LNLS 1.15 GeV UVX electron storage ring, indicating that it should be possible to operate this ring in a quasi-isochronous mode. (orig.).

  8. SiC MOSFET Based Single Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onar, Omer C [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL; Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL; Campbell, Steven L [ORNL; Miller (JNJ), John M. [JNJ-Miller PLC

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges the utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance due to variable parameters such as battery state-of-charge, coupling factor, and coil misalignment. This paper presents the implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation. The proposed SiC MOSFET based single phase active front end rectifier with PFC resulted in >97% efficiency at 137mm air-gap and >95% efficiency at 160mm air-gap.

  9. Evaluation of genotoxicity after application of Listerine(R) on human lymphocytes by micronucleus and single cell gel electrophoresis assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkez, Hasan; Togar, Basak; Arabaci, Taner

    2012-04-01

    Listerine (LN) is one of the most commonly used mouth rinses worldwide although very limited information is available concerning its genotoxicity. In another view, the biological safety profile of oral care products is frequently assumed on the basis of simplistic test models. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the in vitro genotoxic potential of LN using micronucleus and single cell gel electrophoresis tests as genetic endpoints. Different concentrations of LN (0-100% of ml/culture, v/v) were applied to whole human blood cultures (n = 5). The result of the present study showed that there were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) between the control group and the groups treated with LN alone in both analysed endpoints. In conclusion, our result first demonstrated the absence of genotoxicity of LN on human lymphocytes.

  10. Low-field single-sided NMR for one-shot 1D-mapping: Application to membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judeinstein, Patrick; Ferdeghini, Filippo; Oliveira-Silva, Rodrigo; Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Sakellariou, Dimitrios

    2017-04-01

    Many single-sided permanent magnet NMR systems have been proposed over the years allowing for 1D proton-density profiling, diffusion measurements and relaxometry. In this manuscript we make use of a recently published unilateral magnet for low-field NMR exhibiting an extremely uniform magnetic field gradient with moderate strength and cylindrical symmetry, allowing for a well-defined sweet spot. Combined with a goniometer, our system is used to characterize precisely the uniformity of its gradient and to achieve micrometric precision 1D profiling, as well as spatially localized relaxometry and diffusometry on thick (∼150 μm) membrane samples. Profiling with this magnet did not require repositioning of the samples with respect to the 1D tomograph.

  11. Dynamics of intracellular ionic concentrations in single living cells using videomicrofluorometry: application to pHi variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallet, Pierre M.; Yassine, Mohamed; Salmon, Jean-Marie; Vigo, Jean

    1996-01-01

    The intracellular concentration of ions such as H+, Mg2+, Ca2+, is known to monitor the activity of many fundamental enzymes. Furthermore these ions are generally considered as intracellular messengers involved in the transduction of extracellular signals. Recent technological progress, occulting the physicochemical properties of the probe, led to the feeling that accurate data on microvolumes are instantly accessible. Unfortunately fluorescent probes are supposed to fill up conflicting requirements for ionic affinity, absence of fading and intracellular calibration. Such a situation generally precludes the use of the simplest methods of data acquisition and treatment. This paper is based on the use of microspectrofluorometry, resolution of single cell complex fluorescence spectrum, and videomicrofluorometry. The methods of data handling allow us to demonstrate that most of the problems met in intracellular calibration come from the fighting of cells against the modification of the extracellular pH. Using these techniques allows us to restrict the need of comparison between results in cuvettes and intracellular results to the physiological pH range. A consequence of such an approach is that the effect with time of known concentrations of amiloride and nigericin on pHi became accessible. Data is presented allowing us to get information on the behavior of the ionic channels and/or cation/H+ exchangers involved in the pHi regulation. Such a method leads the way to direct investigations and monitoring of the different processes of regulation of the intracellular ionic concentrations in different cell lines at the level of single cells. Using different specific modifiers (activators or blocking agents) and convenient specific fluorescent probes, the efficiency of such pathways is expected to be checked at will. Compared to the patch clamp techniques, the method can be extended to the study of pathways located on the inner cell membranes.

  12. Clinical application of Half Fourier Acquisition Single Shot Turbo Spin Echo (HASTE) imaging accelerated by simultaneous multi-slice acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Jenni; P Marques, José; Ter Telgte, Annemieke; van Dorst, Anouk; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Meijer, Frederick J A; Norris, David G

    2018-01-01

    As a single-shot sequence with a long train of refocusing pulses, Half-Fourier Acquisition Single-Shot Turbo-Spin-Echo (HASTE) suffers from high power deposition limiting use at high resolutions and high field strengths, particularly if combined with acceleration techniques such as simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) imaging. Using a combination of multiband (MB)-excitation and PINS-refocusing pulses will effectively accelerate the acquisition time while staying within the SAR limitations. In particular, uncooperative and young patients will profit from the speed of the MB-PINS HASTE sequence, as clinical diagnosis can be possible without sedation. Materials and MethodsMB-excitation and PINS-refocusing pulses were incorporated into a HASTE-sequence with blipped CAIPIRINHA and TRAPS including an internal FLASH reference scan for online reconstruction. Whole brain MB-PINS HASTE data were acquired on a Siemens 3T-Prisma system from 10 individuals and compared to a clinical HASTE protocol. ResultsThe proposed MB-PINS HASTE protocol accelerates the acquisition by about a factor 2 compared to the clinical HASTE. The diagnostic image quality proved to be comparable for both sequences for the evaluation of the overall aspect of the brain, the detection of white matter changes and areas of tissue loss, and for the evaluation of the CSF spaces although artifacts were more frequently encountered with MB-PINS HASTE. ConclusionsMB-PINS HASTE enables acquisition of slice accelerated highly T2-weighted images and provides good diagnostic image quality while reducing acquisition time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis and meta-analysis of single-case designs with a standardized mean difference statistic: a primer and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadish, William R; Hedges, Larry V; Pustejovsky, James E

    2014-04-01

    This article presents a d-statistic for single-case designs that is in the same metric as the d-statistic used in between-subjects designs such as randomized experiments and offers some reasons why such a statistic would be useful in SCD research. The d has a formal statistical development, is accompanied by appropriate power analyses, and can be estimated using user-friendly SPSS macros. We discuss both advantages and disadvantages of d compared to other approaches such as previous d-statistics, overlap statistics, and multilevel modeling. It requires at least three cases for computation and assumes normally distributed outcomes and stationarity, assumptions that are discussed in some detail. We also show how to test these assumptions. The core of the article then demonstrates in depth how to compute d for one study, including estimation of the autocorrelation and the ratio of between case variance to total variance (between case plus within case variance), how to compute power using a macro, and how to use the d to conduct a meta-analysis of studies using single-case designs in the free program R, including syntax in an appendix. This syntax includes how to read data, compute fixed and random effect average effect sizes, prepare a forest plot and a cumulative meta-analysis, estimate various influence statistics to identify studies contributing to heterogeneity and effect size, and do various kinds of publication bias analyses. This d may prove useful for both the analysis and meta-analysis of data from SCDs. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Application of the Theory of Synthesis of a Delay Line with a Surface Acoustic Wave for a Single-Mode Oscillator of Electric Signals in Some Sensors of Non-Electrical Quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šimko Milan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of constructing delay lines on the basis of surface acoustic waves and their application to single-mode oscillators. As a result of a theoretical analysis concrete delay lines are proposed.

  15. Single-Thread-Based Wearable and Highly Stretchable Triboelectric Nanogenerators and Their Applications in Cloth-Based Self-Powered Human-Interactive and Biomedical Sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Ying-Chih

    2016-11-03

    The development of wearable and large-area fabric energy harvester and sensor has received great attention due to their promising applications in next-generation autonomous and wearable healthcare technologies. Here, a new type of “single” thread-based triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and its uses in elastically textile-based energy harvesting and sensing have been demonstrated. The energy-harvesting thread composed by one silicone-rubber-coated stainless-steel thread can extract energy during contact with skin. With sewing the energy-harvesting thread into a serpentine shape on an elastic textile, a highly stretchable and scalable TENG textile is realized to scavenge various kinds of human-motion energy. The collected energy is capable to sustainably power a commercial smart watch. Moreover, the simplified single triboelectric thread can be applied in a wide range of thread-based self-powered and active sensing uses, including gesture sensing, human-interactive interfaces, and human physiological signal monitoring. After integration with microcontrollers, more complicated systems, such as wireless wearable keyboards and smart beds, are demonstrated. These results show that the newly designed single-thread-based TENG, with the advantage of interactive, responsive, sewable, and conformal features, can meet application needs of a vast variety of fields, ranging from wearable and stretchable energy harvesters to smart cloth-based articles.

  16. Profiling convoluted single-dimension proton NMR spectra: a Plackett-Burman approach for assessing quantification error of metabolites in complex mixtures with application to cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolenko, Stanislav; Blondeel, Eric J M; Azlah, Nada; George, Ben; Schulze, Steffen; Chang, David; Aucoin, Marc G

    2014-04-01

    Single-dimension hydrogen, or proton, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1D-(1)H NMR) has become an attractive option for characterizing the full range of components in complex mixtures of small molecular weight compounds due to its relative simplicity, speed, spectral reproducibility, and noninvasive sample preparation protocols compared to alternative methods. One challenge associated with this method is the overlap of NMR resonances leading to "convoluted" spectra. While this can be mitigated through "targeted profiling", there is still the possibility of increased quantification error. This work presents the application of a Plackett-Burman experimental design for the robust estimation of precision and accuracy of 1D-(1)H NMR compound quantification in synthetic mixtures, with application to mammalian cell culture supernatant. A single, 20 sample experiment was able to provide a sufficient estimate of bias and variability at different metabolite concentrations. Two major sources of bias were identified: incorrect interpretation of singlet resonances and the quantification of resonances from protons in close proximity to labile protons. Furthermore, decreases in measurement accuracy and precision could be observed with decreasing concentration for a small fraction of the components as a result of their particular convolution patterns. Finally, the importance of a priori concentration estimates is demonstrated through the example of interpreting acetate metabolite trends from a bioreactor cultivation of Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing a recombinant antibody.

  17. Effectiveness of a single application of 0·25% fipronil solution for the treatment of hirstiellosis in captive green iguanas (Iguana iguana): an open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmaki, Rania; Simou, Chrisa; Papadopoulos, Elias; Koutinas, Alexander F; Saridomichelakis, Manolis N

    2013-08-01

    Hirstiella spp. are common ectoparasites of captive green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Suggested treatments are empirical and some of them are of low efficacy and potentially toxic. The objective of this open-label study was to investigate the short-term efficacy and safety of a single application of 0·25% fipronil solution for the treatment of hirstiellosis. The skin of 50 green iguanas was thoroughly examined with the aid of bright light and magnifying lenses. A total of 21 iguanas were found to be infested, harbouring 1-24 mites (median: 5). All 35 mites collected from 17 iguanas were identified as Hirstiella sp. Both infested and non-infested lizards, sharing the same enclosure, were carefully wiped with 0·25% fipronil solution. The safety and the efficacy of the treatment were evaluated after 2 days in 47/50 (94%) and 7 days in 29/50 (58%) iguanas. Compared with pre-treatment levels, the parasitic load did not changed significantly on the second day but was significantly lower on day 7 (P = 0·006). No adverse reactions were noticed. Based on these results a single whole-body application of 0·25% fipronil solution can be considered a safe and effective treatment for the reduction of parasitic burden in captive green iguanas infested by Hirstiella sp. mites.

  18. Single-lens 3D digital image correlation system based on a bilateral telecentric lens and a bi-prism: validation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lifu; Zhu, Jianguo; Xie, Huimin

    2015-09-10

    By using the principle of stereovision, 3D digital image correlation (3D-DIC) can determine the 3D morphology and deformation of a target and has been widely used in experimental mechanics as a noncontact 3D measurement technique. To eliminate the limitations of the conventional 3D-DIC system, this study proposes a calibration-free single-lens 3D-DIC system based on a bilateral telecentric lens and a bi-prism. The performance of the proposed system is verified by tests of rigid-body translation along the out-of-plane direction. As a comparison, the same rigid-body translations are measured using a single-entocentric-lens 3D-DIC system. The results show that the measurement accuracy of the proposed system is higher than that of the entocentric-lens-based one. As an application, the proposed system is used to measure the thermal linear expansion of a ceramic plate at elevated temperatures. The reasonable measurement results verify its applicability in deformation measurements, even in high-temperature environments.

  19. www.derm101.com: a growing online resource for learning dermatology and dermatopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Almut; Nischal, K C

    2007-01-01

    The internet is increasingly being used to distribute knowledge in medicine in novel and unconventional ways. In this article, we give a brief introduction into the website www.derm101.com, which was founded by A. B. Ackerman for the purpose of teaching dermatology and dermatopathology. A clinical atlas, online books such as the 3rd edition of his volume "Histologic diagnosis of inflammatory skin diseases", works on clues and differential diagnoses in dermatopathology, a resource on therapeutic strategies in dermatology, a video lecture library on controversial issues in dermatology, the quarterly online journal Dermatopathology: Practical and Conceptual and much more can be found on derm101.com. The site is enriched with new contents biweekly and offers several interactive teaching devices. Currently, www.derm101.com is the most comprehensive online library of dermatology resources.

  20. www.derm101.com: A growing online resource for learning dermatology and dermatopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boer Almut

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The internet is increasingly being used to distribute knowledge in medicine in novel and unconventional ways. In this article, we give a brief introduction into the website www.derm101.com, which was founded by A. B. Ackerman for the purpose of teaching dermatology and dermatopathology. A clinical atlas, online books such as the 3rd edition of his volume "Histologic diagnosis of inflammatory skin diseases", works on clues and differential diagnoses in dermatopathology, a resource on therapeutic strategies in dermatology, a video lecture library on controversial issues in dermatology, the quarterly online journal Dermatopathology: Practical and Conceptual and much more can be found on derm101.com. The site is enriched with new contents biweekly and offers several interactive teaching devices. Currently, www.derm101.com is the most comprehensive online library of dermatology resources.

  1. Playing with Mathematics in Peru through Internet: A Case Study of www.20enmate.com

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Delgado-Aparicio

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available www.20enmate.com is an interactive website designed in 2003 to improve mathematical skills among Peruvian primary and secondary school students. The site seeks to strengthen the children's sense of motivation and self-sufficiency through an innovative didactic methodology that stresses the idea that learning and practicing mathematics can be both fun and rewarding. www.20enmate.com has achieved outstanding qualitative and quantitative indicators for the first three years, a result of its creative design and well-coordinated network of students, teachers, schools, parents, local Internet booths, the private sector and the general community. The design and implementation of this website is an initiative of Grupo APOYO and its social responsibility program.

  2. The influence of question design on the response to self-assessment in www.elearnSCI.org: a submodule pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, N; Li, X-W; Zhou, M-W; Biering-Sørensen, F

    2015-08-01

    This is an interventional training session. The objective of this study was to investigate the difference in response to self-assessment questions in the original and an adjusted version for a submodule of www.elearnSCI.org for student nurses. The study was conducted in a teaching hospital affiliated to Peking University, China. In all, 28 student nurses divided into two groups (groups A and B; 14 in each) received a print-out of a Chinese translation of the slides from the 'Maintaining skin integrity following spinal cord injury' submodule in www.elearnSCI.org for self-study. Both groups were then tested using the 10 self-assessment multiple-choice questions (MCQs) related to the same submodule. Group A used the original questions, whereas group B received an adjusted questionnaire. The responses to four conventional single-answer MCQs were nearly all correct in both groups. However, in three questions, group A, with the option 'All of the above', had a higher number of correct answers than group B, with multiple-answer MCQs. In addition, in another three questions, group A, using the original multiple-answer MCQs, had fewer correct answers than group B, where it was only necessary to tick a single incorrect answer. Variations in design influence the response to questions. The use of conventional single-answer MCQs should be reconsidered, as they only examine the recall of isolated knowledge facts. The 'All of the above' option should be avoided because it would increase the number of correct answers arrived at by guessing. When using multiple-answer MCQs, it is recommended that the questions asked should be in accordance with the content within the www.elearnSCI.org.

  3. East and Central African Journal of Surgery http://www.bioline.org.br ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patrick

    ... African Journal of Surgery http://www.bioline.org.br/js 152. Strike by hospital staff. 24. 19.4. No anaesthetic drugs /contrast/surgical material. 13. 10.5. Power outage. 4. 3.2. Medical students examination. 4. 3.2. Emergency/No operating space. 3. 2.4. Public holidays. 2. 1.6. Sub total. 50. 40.3. Surgeon/ Anaesthetist related.

  4. e73.pdf.pdf | 92 | OnlineResources | jgenet | www.ias.ac.in | http ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; public; Volumes; jgen; 092; online; http; www.ias.ac.in; jgenet; OnlineResources; 92; e73.pdf.pdf. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 ...

  5. [Construction of haplotype and haplotype block based on tag single nucleotide polymorphisms and their applications in association studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ming-liang; Chu, Jia-you

    2007-12-01

    Human genome has structures of haplotype and haplotype block which provide valuable information on human evolutionary history and may lead to the development of more efficient strategies to identify genetic variants that increase susceptibility to complex diseases. Haplotype block can be divided into discrete blocks of limited haplotype diversity. In each block, a small fraction of ptag SNPsq can be used to distinguish a large fraction of the haplotypes. These tag SNPs can be potentially useful for construction of haplotype and haplotype block, and association studies in complex diseases. There are two general classes of methods to construct haplotype and haplotype blocks based on genotypes on large pedigrees and statistical algorithms respectively. The author evaluate several construction methods to assess the power of different association tests with a variety of disease models and block-partitioning criteria. The advantages, limitations and applications of each method and the application in the association studies are discussed equitably. With the completion of the HapMap and development of statistical algorithms for addressing haplotype reconstruction, ideas of construction of haplotype based on combination of mathematics, physics, and computer science etc will have profound impacts on population genetics, location and cloning for susceptible genes in complex diseases, and related domain with life science etc.

  6. Ionospheric Electron/Ion Densities Temperatures on CD-ROM and WWW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Papitashvili, Natasha; Schar, Bill; Grebowsky, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    As part of this project a large volume of ionospheric satellite insitu data from the sixties, seventies and early eighties were made accessible online in ASCII format for public use. This includes 14 data sets from the BE-B, Alouette 2, DME-A, AE-B, ISIS-1, ISIS-2, OGO-6, DE-2, AEROS-A, AE-C, AE-D, AE-E, and Hinotori satellites. The original data existed in various machine-specific, highly compressed, binary encoding on 7-, or 9-track magnetic tapes. The data were decoded and converted to a common ASCII data format, solar and magnetic indices were added, and some quality control measures were taken. The original intent of producing CD-ROMs with these data was overtaken by the rapid development of the Internet. Most users now prefer to obtain the data directly online and greatly value WWW-interfaces to browse, plot and subset the data. Accordingly the data were made available online on the anonymous ftp site of NASA's National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) at ftp://nssdcftp.gsfc.nasa.gov/spacecraft data/ and on NSSDC's ATMOWeb (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/atmoweb/), a WWW-interface for plotting, subsetting, and downloading the data. Several new features were implemented into ATMOWeb as part of this project including a filtering and scatter plot capability. The availability of this new database and WWW system was announced through several electronic mailer (AGU, CEDAR, IRI, etc) and through talks and posters during scientific meetings.

  7. Application of a single root-scale model to improve macroscopic modeling of root water uptake: focus on osmotic stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorda, Helena; Perelman, Adi; Lazarovitch, Naftali; Vanderborght, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Root water uptake is a fundamental process in the hydrological cycle and it largely regulates the water balance in the soil vadose zone. Macroscopic stress functions are currently used to estimate the effect of salinity on root water uptake. These functions commonly assume stress to be a function of bulk salinity and of the plant sensitivity to osmotic stress expressed as the salinity at which transpiration is reduced by half or so called tolerance value. However, they fail to integrate additional relevant factors such as atmospheric conditions or root architectural traits. We conducted a comprehensive simulation study on a single root using a 3-D physically-based model that resolves flow and transport to individual root segments and that couples flow in the soil and root system. The effect of salt concentrations on root water uptake was accounted for by including osmotic water potential gradients between the solution at the soil root interface and the root xylem sap in the hydraulic gradient between the soil and root. A large set of factors were studied, namely, potential transpiration rate and dynamics, root length density (RLD), irrigation water quality and irrigation frequency, and leaching fraction. Results were fitted to the macroscopic function developed by van Genuchten and Hoffman (1984) and the dependency of osmotic stress and the fitted macroscopic parameters on the studied factors was evaluated. Osmotic stress was found to be highly dependent on RLD. Low RLDs result in a larger stress to the plant due to high evaporative demand per root length unit. In addition, osmotic stress was positively correlated to potential transpiration rate, and sinusoidal potential transpiration lead to larger stress than when imposed as a constant boundary condition. Macroscopic parameters are usually computed as single values for each crop and used for the entire growing season. However, our study shows that both tolerance value and shape parameter p from the van Genuchten

  8. Retrofitting of heat exchanger networks involving streams with variable heat capacity: Application of single and multi-objective optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreepathi, Bhargava Krishna; Rangaiah, G.P.

    2015-01-01

    Heat exchanger network (HEN) retrofitting improves the energy efficiency of the current process by reducing external utilities. In this work, HEN retrofitting involving streams having variable heat capacity is studied. For this, enthalpy values of a stream are fitted to a continuous cubic polynomial instead of a stepwise approach employed in the previous studies [1,2]. The former methodology is closer to reality as enthalpy or heat capacity changes gradually instead of step changes. Using the polynomial fitting formulation, single objective optimization (SOO) and multi-objective optimization (MOO) of a HEN retrofit problem are investigated. The results obtained show an improvement in the utility savings, and MOO provides many Pareto-optimal solutions to choose from. Also, Pareto-optimal solutions involving area addition in existing heat exchangers only (but no new exchangers and no structural modifications) are found and provided for comparison with those involving new exchangers and structural modifications as well. - Highlights: • HEN retrofitting involving streams with variable heat capacities is studied. • A continuous approach to handle variable heat capacity is proposed and tested. • Better and practical solutions are obtained for HEN retrofitting in process plants. • Pareto-optimal solutions provide many alternate choices for HEN retrofitting

  9. Single-vehicle crashes along rural mountainous highways in Malaysia: An application of random parameters negative binomial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusli, Rusdi; Haque, Md Mazharul; King, Mark; Voon, Wong Shaw

    2017-05-01

    Mountainous highways generally associate with complex driving environment because of constrained road geometries, limited cross-section elements, inappropriate roadside features, and adverse weather conditions. As a result, single-vehicle (SV) crashes are overrepresented along mountainous roads, particularly in developing countries, but little attention is known about the roadway geometric, traffic and weather factors contributing to these SV crashes. As such, the main objective of the present study is to investigate SV crashes using detailed data obtained from a rigorous site survey and existing databases. The final dataset included a total of 56 variables representing road geometries including horizontal and vertical alignment, traffic characteristics, real-time weather condition, cross-sectional elements, roadside features, and spatial characteristics. To account for structured heterogeneities resulting from multiple observations within a site and other unobserved heterogeneities, the study applied a random parameters negative binomial model. Results suggest that rainfall during the crash is positively associated with SV crashes, but real-time visibility is negatively associated. The presence of a road shoulder, particularly a bitumen shoulder or wider shoulders, along mountainous highways is associated with less SV crashes. While speeding along downgrade slopes increases the likelihood of SV crashes, proper delineation decreases the likelihood. Findings of this study have significant implications for designing safer highways in mountainous areas, particularly in the context of a developing country. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Aspects of Lubrication in a Reciprocating Single-ring Test Rig and Further Implementation to Engine Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Dellis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A major concern in modern engine design is the issue of the lubrication regime at the piston-liner assembly. To fully understand the complex lubrication phenomena between the piston-rings and cylinder liner in reciprocating engines and at the same time achieve minimal energy losses with the oncoming emission regulations, it is important to characterize the developing oil film. This dynamic process involves many factors, such as piston-ring and piston dynamics, starved lubrication, liner geometry deformation, lubricant - additive degradation and blow-by, which, in turn, enhance the difficulty of interpreting engine experimental results. The simplified test rig is used as a platform to develop oil film measuring techniques and study experimental results from different sensors by means of a robust and solid technique without the engine testing ambiguities, at different lubrication regimes. This paper is focused on experimental findings from the simplified test rig and how these can be applied on specially modified engines, with the respective sensors fitted. A comparison between the single-ring test rig and the engine visualization results is attempted so that similar forms of cavitation identified, be further studied. Moreover, a calibration coefficient for LIF engine experiments can be derived via the simplified test rig arrangement.

  11. Structural, mechanical and light yield characterisation of heat treated LYSO:Ce single crystals for medical imaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengucci, P., E-mail: p.mengucci@univpm.it [Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); André, G. [Laboratoire Léon Brillouin, CEA-CNRS, CE-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Auffray, E. [Department PH-CMX CERN, Route de Meyrin, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Barucca, G. [Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Cecchi, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Chipaux, R. [CEA DSM/IRFU/SEDI, CE-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Cousson, A. [Laboratoire Léon Brillouin, CEA-CNRS, CE-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Davì, F. [Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Di Vara, N. [Department PH-CMX CERN, Route de Meyrin, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Rinaldi, D.; Santecchia, E. [Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2015-06-11

    Five single crystals of cerium-doped lutetium yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO:Ce) grown by the Czochralski method were submitted to structural characterisation by X-ray (XRD) and neutron (ND) diffraction, scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy and energy dispersive microanalysis (EDS). The Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS), the Young Modulus (YM) and the Light Yield (LY) of the samples were also measured in order to correlate the mechanical and the optical behaviour of the crystals with the characteristics of their microstructure. Two of the samples analysed were also heat treated at 300 °C for 10 h to evidence possible variations induced by the temperature in the optical and mechanical response of the crystals. Results showed that the mean compositional variations evidenced by the structural analyses do not affect the mechanical and optical behaviour of the samples. On the contrary, the thermal treatment could induce the formation of coherent spherical particles (size 10 to 15 nm), not uniformly distributed inside the sample, that strongly reduce the UTS and YM values, but it does not affect the optical response of the crystal. This latter result was attributed to the low value of the heating temperature (300 °C) that is not sufficiently high to induce annealing of the oxygen vacancies traps that are responsible of the deterioration of the scintillation properties of the LYSO:Ce crystals. This study was carried out in the framework of the Crystal Clear Collaboration (CCC)

  12. A device for the application of uniaxial strain to single crystal samples for use in synchrotron radiation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gannon, L. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford Physics Department, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 ODE (United Kingdom); Bosak, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Burkovsky, R. G. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University, 29 Politekhnicheskaya, 195251, St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Nisbet, G.; Hoesch, M., E-mail: Moritz.Hoesch@diamond.ac.uk [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 ODE (United Kingdom); Petrović, A. P. [DPMC-MaNEP, Université de Genève, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 24, 1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland)

    2015-10-15

    We present the design, construction, and testing of a straining device compatible with many different synchrotron radiation techniques, in a wide range of experimental environments (including low temperature, high field and ultra-high vacuum). The device has been tested by X-ray diffraction on single crystal samples of quasi-one-dimensional Cs{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 6} and K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 6}, in which microscopic strains up to a Δc/c = 0.12% ± 0.01% change in the c lattice parameters have been achieved. We have also used the device in an inelastic X-ray scattering experiment, to probe the strain-dependent speed of sound ν along the c axis. A reduction Δν/ν of up to −3.8% was obtained at a strain of Δc/c = 0.25% in K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 6}.

  13. Single-resonance optical pumping spectroscopy and application in dressed-state measurement with atomic vapor cell at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qiangbing; Yang, Baodong; Zhang, Tiancai; Wang, Junmin

    2010-06-21

    By monitoring the transmission of probe laser beam (also served as coupling laser beam) which is locked to a cycling hyperfine transition of cesium D(2) line, while pumping laser is scanned across cesium D(1) or D(2) lines, the single-resonance optical pumping (SROP) spectra are obtained with atomic vapor cell. The SROP spectra indicate the variation of the zero-velocity atoms population of one hyperfine fold of ground state, which is optically pumped into another hyperfine fold of ground state by pumping laser. With the virtue of Doppler-free linewidth, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), flat background and elimination of crossover resonance lines (CRLs), the SROP spectra with atomic vapor cell around room temperature can be employed to measure dressed-state splitting of ground state, which is normally detected with laser-cooled atomic sample only, even if the dressed-state splitting is much smaller than the Doppler-broaden linewidth at room temperature.

  14. Molecular simulation of flavin adenine dinucleotide immobilized on charged single-walled carbon nanotubes for biosensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Kang, Zhengzhong; Ye, Xuesong; Wu, Tao; Zhu, Qin

    2012-12-01

    The reconstitution of apo-glucose oxidase (apo-GOx) on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) functionalized with the cofactor, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), greatly improved electron transfer turnover rate of the redox reactions in glucose sensing with glucose sensors. The research reported here is aimed to better understand molecular details of affection of the charging SWNT to the conformational changes of FAD, in order to find a rational design and selection scheme of SWNT which is suitable for the FAD and apo-GOx to perform their reconstitution. In this report, molecular simulations of FAD functionalized differently charged SWNTs were carried outin an aqueous environment, with counterions to maintain total charge neutrality. The conformation and orientation changes were observed by both trajectory and quantitative analyses. The simulation results showed that in both uncharged and positively charged SWNT situations, FAD adsorbed onto SWNT at the end of the simulations, which increased the steric resistance of molecules and hindered the reconstitution of apo-GOx and FAD to some degree. By contrast, FAD functionalized negatively charged SWNT maintained its original conformation largely. In addition, negatively charged SWNT may be the best choice for electron transfer mediator for the reconstitution of apo-GOx on relay-cofactor units associated with electrodes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Whole Blood PCR Amplification with Pfu DNA Polymerase and Its Application in Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Er-Ping; Wang, Yan; He, Xiao-Hui; Guan, Jun-Jie; Wang, Jin; Qin, Zheng-Hong; Sun, Wan-Ping

    2015-11-01

    Point-of-care genetic analysis may require polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to be carried out on whole blood. However, human blood contains natural inhibitors of PCR such as hemoglobin, immunoglobulin G, lactoferrin, and proteases, as well as anticoagulant agents, including EDTA and heparin that can reduce whole blood PCR efficiency. Our purpose was to develop a highly specific, direct whole blood single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis method based on allele-specific (AS) PCR that is mediated by Pfu DNA polymerase and phosphorothioate-modified AS primers. At high Mg(2+) concentrations, Pfu DNA polymerase efficiently amplified genomic DNA in a reaction solution containing up to 14% whole blood. Among the three anticoagulants tested, Pfu DNA polymerase showed the highest activity with sodium citrate. Meanwhile, Triton X-100 and betaine inhibited Pfu DNA polymerase activity in whole blood PCR, whereas trehalose had virtually no effect. These findings provided for the development of a low-cost, simple, and fast direct whole blood genotyping method that uses Pfu DNA polymerase combined with phosphorothioate AS primers for CYP2C9*3 and VKORC1(-1639) loci. With its high DNA amplification efficiency and tolerance of various blood conditions, Pfu DNA polymerase can be used in clinical laboratories to analyze SNPs in whole blood samples.

  16. Single crystal growth and nonlinear optical properties of Nd3+ doped STGS crystal for self-frequency-doubling application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feifei; Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Xinle; Cheng, Xiufeng; Yu, Fapeng; Wang, Zhengping; Zhao, Xian

    2017-11-01

    The self-frequency-doubling crystal is an important kind of multi-functional crystal materials. In this work, Nd3+ doped Sr3TaGa3Si2O14 (Nd:STGS) single crystals were successfully grown by using Czochralski pulling method, in addition, the nonlinear and laser-frequency-doubling properties of Nd:STGS crystals were studied. The continuous-wave laser at 1064 nm was demonstrated along different physical axes, where the maximum output power was obtained to be 295 mW for the Z-cut samples, much higher than the Y-cut (242 mW) and X-cut (217 mW) samples. Based on the measured refractive indexes, the phase matching directions were discussed and determined for type I (42.5°, 30°) and type II (69.5°, 0°) crystal cuts. As expected, self-frequency-doubling green laser at 529 nm was achieved with output powers being around 16 mW and 12 mW for type I and type II configurations, respectively.

  17. Single nucleotide primer extension to detect genetic diseases: Experimental application to hemophilia B (factor IX) and cystic fibrosis genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuppuswamy, M.N.; Hoffmann, J.W.; Spitzer, S.G.; Groce, S.L.; Bajaj, S.P.; Kasper, C.K.

    1991-01-01

    In this report, the authors describe an approach to detect the presence of abnormal alleles in those genetic diseases in which frequency of occurrence of the same mutation is high (e.g., hemophilia B). Initially, from each subject, the DNA fragment containing the putative mutation site is amplified by the polymerase chain reaction. For each fragment two reaction mixtures are then prepared. Each contains the amplified fragment, a primer (18-mer or longer) whose sequence is identical to the coding sequence of the normal gene immediately flanking the 5' end of the mutation site, and either an α- 32 P-labeled nucleotide corresponding to the normal coding sequence at the mutation site or an α- 32 P-labeled nucleotide corresponding to the mutant sequence. An essential feature of the present methodology is that the base immediately 3' to the template-bound primer is one of those altered in the mutant, since in this way an extension of the primer by a single base will give an extended molecule characteristic of either the mutant or the wild type. The method is rapid and should be useful in carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis of every genetic disease with a known sequence variation

  18. A parallel genetic algorithm for single class pattern classification and its application for gene expression profiling in Streptomyces coelicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vohradsky Jiri

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of coordinately regulated genes according to the level of their expression during the time course of a process allows for discovering functional relationships among genes involved in the process. Results We present a single class classification method for the identification of genes of similar function from a gene expression time series. It is based on a parallel genetic algorithm which is a supervised computer learning method exploiting prior knowledge of gene function to identify unknown genes of similar function from expression data. The algorithm was tested with a set of randomly generated patterns; the results were compared with seven other classification algorithms including support vector machines. The algorithm avoids several problems associated with unsupervised clustering methods, and it shows better performance then the other algorithms. The algorithm was applied to the identification of secondary metabolite gene clusters of the antibiotic-producing eubacterium Streptomyces coelicolor. The algorithm also identified pathways associated with transport of the secondary metabolites out of the cell. We used the method for the prediction of the functional role of particular ORFs based on the expression data. Conclusion Through analysis of a time series of gene expression, the algorithm identifies pathways which are directly or indirectly associated with genes of interest, and which are active during the time course of the experiment.

  19. Effective material parameter retrieval for thin sheets: Theory and application to graphene, thin silver films, and single-layer metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassin, Philippe, E-mail: tassin@ameslab.gov [Ames Laboratory - U.S. DOE and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Koschny, Thomas, E-mail: koschny@ameslab.gov [Ames Laboratory - U.S. DOE and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Soukoulis, Costas M., E-mail: soukoulis@ameslab.gov [Ames Laboratory - U.S. DOE and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Institute of Electronic Structure and Lasers (IESL), FORTH, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2012-10-15

    An important tool in the field of metamaterials is the extraction of effective material parameters from simulated or measured scattering parameters of a sample. Here we discuss a retrieval method for thin-film structures that can be approximated by a two-dimensional scattering sheet. We determine the effective sheet conductivity from the scattering parameters and we point out the importance of the magnetic sheet current to avoid an overdetermined inversion problem. Subsequently, we present two applications of the sheet retrieval method. First, we determine the effective sheet conductivity of thin silver films and we compare the resulting conductivities with the sheet conductivity of graphene. Second, we apply the method to a cut-wire metamaterial with an electric dipole resonance. The method is valid for thin-film structures such as two-dimensional metamaterials and frequency-selective surfaces and can be easily generalized for anisotropic or chiral media.

  20. New GasB-based single-mode diode lasers in the NIR and MIR spectral regime for sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milde, Tobias; Hoppe, Morten; Tatenguem, Herve; Honsberg, Martin; Mordmüller, Mario; O'Gorman, James; Schade, Wolfgang; Sacher, Joachim

    2018-02-01

    The NIR/MIR region between 1.8μm and 3.5μm contains important absorption lines for gas detection. State of the art are InP laser based setups, which show poor gain above 1.8μm and cannot be applied beyond 2.1μm. GaSb laser show a significantly higher output power (100mW for Fabry-Perot, 30mW for DFB). The laser design is presented with simulation and actual performance data. The superior performance of the GaSb lasers is verified in gas sensing applications. TDLAS and QEPAS measurements at trace gases like CH4, CO2 and N2O are shown to prove the spectroscopy performance.

  1. An electrocorticographic BCI using code-based VEP for control in video applications: A single-subject study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eKapeller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A brain-computer-interface (BCI allows the user to control a device or software with brain activity. Many BCIs rely on visual stimuli with constant stimulation cycles that elicit steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP in the electroencephalogram (EEG. This EEG response can be generated with a LED or a computer screen flashing at a constant frequency, and similar EEG activity can be elicited with pseudo-random stimulation sequences on a screen (code-based BCI. Using electrocorticography (ECoG instead of EEG promises higher spatial and temporal resolution and leads to more dominant evoked potentials due to visual stimulation. This work is focused on BCIs based on visual evoked potentials (VEP and its capability as a continuous control interface for augmentation of video applications. One 35 year old female subject with implanted subdural grids participated in the study. The task was to select one out of four visual targets, while each was flickering with a code sequence. After a calibration run including 200 code sequences, a linear classifier was used during an evaluation run to identify the selected visual target based on the generated code-based VEPs over 20 trials. Multiple ECoG buffer lengths were tested and subject reached a mean online classification accuracy of 99.21 % for a window length of 3.15 s. Finally, the subject performed an unsupervised free run in combination with visual feedback of the current selection. Additionally, an algorithm was implemented that allowed to suppress false positive selections and this allowed the subject to start and stop the BCI at any time. The code-based BCI system attained very high online accuracy, which makes this approach very promising for control applications where a continuous control signal is needed.

  2. Modelization, fabrication and evaluation avalanche photodiodes polarized in Geiger mode for the single photon in astrophysics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellion, D.

    2008-12-01

    The genesis of the work presented in this this is in the field of very high energy astrophysics. One century ago, scientists identified a new type of messenger coming from space: cosmic rays. This radiation consists of particles (photons or other) of very high energy which bombard the Earth permanently. The passage of cosmic radiations in the Earth's atmosphere results in the creation of briefs luminous flashes (5 ns) of very low intensity (1 pW), a Cherenkov flash, and then becomes visible on the ground. In the current state of the art the best detector of light today is the Photomultiplier tube (PMT), thanks to its characteristics of sensitivity and speed. But there are some drawbacks: low quantum efficiency, cost, weight etc. We present in this thesis a new alternative technology: silicon photon counters, made of photodiodes polarized in Geiger mode. This operating mode makes it possible to obtain an effect of multiplication comparable to that of the PMT. A physical and electrical model was developed to reproduce the behaviour of this detector. We then present in this thesis work an original technological process allowing the realization of these devices in the Center of Technology of LAAS-CNRS, with the simulation of each operation of the process. We developed a scheme for the electric characterization of the device, from the static mode to the dynamic mode, in order to check conformity with SILVACO simulations and to the initial model. Results are already excellent, given this is only a first prototype step, and comparable with the results published in the literature. These silicon devices can intervene in all the applications where there is a photomultiplier and replace it. The applications are thus very numerous and the growth of the market of these detectors is very fast. We present a first astrophysical experiment installed at the 'Pic du Midi' site which has detected Cherenkov flashes from cosmic rays with this new semiconductor technology. (author)

  3. The fate of prospective spine studies registered on www.ClinicalTrials.gov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnmeiss, Donna D

    2015-03-01

    There has been concern expressed about research ethics with respect to not fully reporting data collected during clinical studies. One site available for all clinical trials is ClinicalTrials.gov. The original purpose of this site was to facilitate patients seeking a trial for the treatment of their particular condition. The internationally available site offers general information about the study, sponsor name, principal investigator, patient selection criteria, enrollment goal, study design, outcome measures, participating centers, initiation date, date posted, date completed, and other pertinent data. The site can be used to identify studies conducted for a particular condition or intervention. The purpose of this study was to investigate the fate of spine-related studies registered on www.ClinicalTrials.gov, with particular focus on the publication rate of completed trials. Analysis and classification of clinical studies posted on an international research registry Web page and literature search for related publications. Not applicable. The primary outcome measure was publication of the study registered on ClinicalTrials.gov. Multiple searches were conducted on ClinicalTrials.gov Web site to identify studies related to commonly treated spinal conditions, including herniated disc, degenerative disc disease, stenosis, and spondylolisthesis. Studies related to tumors, fractures, or that included nonspine conditions were not included. For studies classified as completed more than 18 months before this review, literature searches were conducted to determine if the results of the study had been published and factors related to publication. The author has no financial conflict related to this work. There were 263 spine-related studies identified from searches on the ClinicalTrials.gov site. Data on the site had the studies classified as follows: 72 completed, 70 active, not recruiting (generally indicates collecting follow-up data), 74 recruiting, 11 recruiting by

  4. Comparative analysis of disease-linked single nucleotide polymorphic markers from Brassica rapa for their applicability to Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Il; Ahn, Yul-Kyun; Tripathi, Swati; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Do-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been conducted in humans, and other animals, and in major crops, including rice, soybean, and Chinese cabbage. However, the number of SNP studies in cabbage is limited. In this present study, we evaluated whether 7,645 SNPs previously identified as molecular markers linked to disease resistance in the Brassica rapa genome could be applied to B. oleracea. In a BLAST analysis using the SNP sequences of B. rapa and B. oleracea genomic sequence data registered in the NCBI database, 256 genes for which SNPs had been identified in B. rapa were found in B. oleracea. These genes were classified into three functional groups: molecular function (64 genes), biological process (96 genes), and cellular component (96 genes). A total of 693 SNP markers, including 145 SNP markers [BRH--developed from the B. rapa genome for high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis], 425 SNP markers (BRP--based on the B. rapa genome that could be applied to B. oleracea), and 123 new SNP markers (BRS--derived from BRP and designed for HRM analysis), were investigated for their ability to amplify sequences from cabbage genomic DNA. In total, 425 of the SNP markers (BRP-based on B. rapa genome), selected from 7,645 SNPs, were successfully applied to B. oleracea. Using PCR, 108 of 145 BRH (74.5%), 415 of 425 BRP (97.6%), and 118 of 123 BRS (95.9%) showed amplification, suggesting that it is possible to apply SNP markers developed based on the B. rapa genome to B. oleracea. These results provide valuable information that can be utilized in cabbage genetics and breeding programs using molecular markers derived from other Brassica species.

  5. Dust optical properties in antarctic ice cores: application of the Single Particle Extinction and Scattering (SPES) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, Marco; Villa, Stefano; Sanvito, Tiziano; Albani, Samuel; Delmonte, Barbara; Maggi, Valter

    2015-04-01

    From the point of view of light scattering each particle is characterized by several parameters, the size being by far the most important in determining the amount of radiated power. Nevertheless, composition, internal structure, shape do slightly affect the way light is scattered, and in turn also prevent the possibility to extract the correct size. Recovering the whole information is of paramount difficulty, if not impossibile for single particles. A trade off can be obtained by introducing the optical thickness, i.e. the product of the size and the refractive index, which determines the optical properties. Here we focus at studying the optical thickness of dust particles from the EPICA Dome C ice core. We provide for the first time a direct measurement of dust optical parameters that is the most direct information needed by climate models, and highlight important differences among samples. The SPES method is named after its capability to access both the extinction cross section and the forward scattered field amplitude for each particle. This method is well working with extremely dilute suspensions, such as Antarctic ice core samples. The SPES method is based upon combined and simultaneous measurements of the power reduction of a laser beam in presence of the particle (extinction by definition) and the interference between the intense transmitted beam and the much fainter forward scattered wave (scattering). In such a way it is possible to access both the amplitude and phase of the scattered wave, which means both the real and imaginary parts of the complex field amplitude. This makes the difference with traditional approaches. We show some preliminary results from glacial and interglacial samples from the EPICA ice core and suggest a method to extract information which is important for the light scattering properties of the ensemble of dust particles contained in each sample.

  6. Comparative Analysis of Disease-Linked Single Nucleotide Polymorphic Markers from Brassica rapa for Their Applicability to Brassica oleracea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Il; Ahn, Yul-Kyun; Tripathi, Swati; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Do-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been conducted in humans, and other animals, and in major crops, including rice, soybean, and Chinese cabbage. However, the number of SNP studies in cabbage is limited. In this present study, we evaluated whether 7,645 SNPs previously identified as molecular markers linked to disease resistance in the Brassica rapa genome could be applied to B. oleracea. In a BLAST analysis using the SNP sequences of B. rapa and B. oleracea genomic sequence data registered in the NCBI database, 256 genes for which SNPs had been identified in B. rapa were found in B. oleracea. These genes were classified into three functional groups: molecular function (64 genes), biological process (96 genes), and cellular component (96 genes). A total of 693 SNP markers, including 145 SNP markers [BRH—developed from the B. rapa genome for high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis], 425 SNP markers (BRP—based on the B. rapa genome that could be applied to B. oleracea), and 123 new SNP markers (BRS—derived from BRP and designed for HRM analysis), were investigated for their ability to amplify sequences from cabbage genomic DNA. In total, 425 of the SNP markers (BRP-based on B. rapa genome), selected from 7,645 SNPs, were successfully applied to B. oleracea. Using PCR, 108 of 145 BRH (74.5%), 415 of 425 BRP (97.6%), and 118 of 123 BRS (95.9%) showed amplification, suggesting that it is possible to apply SNP markers developed based on the B. rapa genome to B. oleracea. These results provide valuable information that can be utilized in cabbage genetics and breeding programs using molecular markers derived from other Brassica species. PMID:25790283

  7. Comparative analysis of disease-linked single nucleotide polymorphic markers from Brassica rapa for their applicability to Brassica oleracea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Il Cho

    Full Text Available Numerous studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been conducted in humans, and other animals, and in major crops, including rice, soybean, and Chinese cabbage. However, the number of SNP studies in cabbage is limited. In this present study, we evaluated whether 7,645 SNPs previously identified as molecular markers linked to disease resistance in the Brassica rapa genome could be applied to B. oleracea. In a BLAST analysis using the SNP sequences of B. rapa and B. oleracea genomic sequence data registered in the NCBI database, 256 genes for which SNPs had been identified in B. rapa were found in B. oleracea. These genes were classified into three functional groups: molecular function (64 genes, biological process (96 genes, and cellular component (96 genes. A total of 693 SNP markers, including 145 SNP markers [BRH--developed from the B. rapa genome for high-resolution melt (HRM analysis], 425 SNP markers (BRP--based on the B. rapa genome that could be applied to B. oleracea, and 123 new SNP markers (BRS--derived from BRP and designed for HRM analysis, were investigated for their ability to amplify sequences from cabbage genomic DNA. In total, 425 of the SNP markers (BRP-based on B. rapa genome, selected from 7,645 SNPs, were successfully applied to B. oleracea. Using PCR, 108 of 145 BRH (74.5%, 415 of 425 BRP (97.6%, and 118 of 123 BRS (95.9% showed amplification, suggesting that it is possible to apply SNP markers developed based on the B. rapa genome to B. oleracea. These results provide valuable information that can be utilized in cabbage genetics and breeding programs using molecular markers derived from other Brassica species.

  8. Highly Ordered Single Crystalline Nanowire Array Assembled Three-Dimensional Nb3O7(OH) and Nb2O5 Superstructures for Energy Storage and Conversion Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haimin; Wang, Yun; Liu, Porun; Chou, Shu Lei; Wang, Jia Zhao; Liu, Hongwei; Wang, Guozhong; Zhao, Huijun

    2016-01-26

    Three-dimensional (3D) metal oxide superstructures have demonstrated great potentials for structure-dependent energy storage and conversion applications. Here, we reported a facile hydrothermal method for direct growth of highly ordered single crystalline nanowire array assembled 3D orthorhombic Nb3O7(OH) superstructures and their subsequent thermal transformation into monoclinic Nb2O5 with well preserved 3D nanowire superstructures. The performance of resultant 3D Nb3O7(OH) and Nb2O5 superstructures differed remarkably when used for energy conversion and storage applications. The thermally converted Nb2O5 superstructures as anode material of lithium-ion batteries (LiBs) showed higher capacity and excellent cycling stability compared to the Nb3O7(OH) superstructures, while directly hydrothermal grown Nb3O7(OH) nanowire superstructure film on FTO substrate as photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) without the need for further calcination exhibited an overall light conversion efficiency of 6.38%, higher than that (5.87%) of DSSCs made from the thermally converted Nb2O5 film. The high energy application performance of the niobium-based nanowire superstructures with different chemical compositions can be attributed to their large surface area, superior electron transport property, and high light utilization efficiency resulting from a 3D superstructure, high crystallinity, and large sizes. The formation process of 3D nanowire superstructures before and after thermal treatment was investigated and discussed based on our theoretical and experimental results.

  9. Application of AERONET Single Scattering Albedo and Absorption Angstrom Exponent to Classify Dominant Aerosol Types during DRAGON Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Schafer, J.; Crawford, J. H.; Kim, J.; Sano, I.; Liew, S.; Salinas Cortijo, S. V.; Chew, B. N.; Lim, H.; Smirnov, A.; Sorokin, M.; Kenny, P.; Slutsker, I.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosols can have major implications on human health by inducing respiratory diseases due to inhalation of fine particles from biomass burning smoke or industrial pollution and on radiative forcing whereby the presence of absorbing aerosol particles (e.g., black carbon) increases atmospheric heating. Aerosol classification techniques have utilized aerosol loading and aerosol properties derived from multi-spectral and multi-angle observations by ground-based (e.g., AERONET) and satellite instrumentation (e.g., MISR). Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data have been utilized to determine aerosol types by implementing various combinations of measured aerosol optical depth or retrieved size and absorption aerosol properties (e.g., Gobbi et al., 2007; Russell et al., 2010). Giles et al. [2012] showed single scattering albedo (SSA) relationship with extinction Angstrom exponent (EAE) can provide an estimate of the general classification of dominant aerosol types (i.e., desert dust, urban/industrial pollution, biomass burning smoke, and mixtures) based on data from ~20 AERONET sites located in known aerosol source regions. In addition, the absorption Angstrom exponent relationship with EAE can provide an indication of the dominant absorbing aerosol type such as dust, black carbon, brown carbon, or mixtures of them. These classification techniques are applied to the AERONET Level 2.0 quality assured data sets collected during Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observational Network (DRAGON) campaigns in Maryland (USA), Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Penang (Malaysia), and California (USA). An analysis of aerosol type classification for DRAGON sites is performed as well as an assessment of the spatial variability of the aerosol types for selected DRAGON campaigns. Giles, D. M., B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Sinyuk, A. Smirnov, I. Slutsker, R. R. Dickerson, A. M. Thompson, and J. S. Schafer (2012), An analysis of AERONET aerosol absorption properties and classifications

  10. Emerging radiotherapy technology in a developing country: A single Brazilian institution assessment of stereotactic body radiotherapy application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Fabio Ynoe; Bonifacio, Lorine Arias; Neves-Junior, Wellington Pimenta; Hanna, Samir Abdallah; Abreu, Carlos Eduardo Cintra Vita; Arruda, Fernando Freire; Silva, Joao Luis Fernandes; Carvalho, Heloisa Andrade, E-mail: fymoraes@gmail.com [Hospital Sirio-Libanes, Sao Paulo, SP(Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    Objective: To provide a quantitative profile of the indications and use of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in a developing country oncology-based institution. In addition, to describe the patient and treatment characteristics, and to provide a temporal analysis. Method: SBRT patients treated from 2007 to 2015 were retrospectively evaluated by two independently investigators. Data were stratified and compared in two periods: first experience (FE) (May 2007 to April 2011), and following experience (FollowE) (May 2011 to April 2015). The following parameters were compared between the groups: total number of treated patients and lesions, treatment site, additional image fusion used, formal protocol adoption, and SBRT planning technique. Results: One hundred and seventy-six (176) patients with 191 lesions were treated: 34 (18%) lesions in the FE and 157 (82%) lesions in FollowE. The majority of lesions were metastases (60.3%), and lung (60.2%) was the most common treatment site, followed by spine (31%), and others (8.8%). An average of 1.4 (±0.6) additional imaging exams for delineation was performed. Conformal 3D radiotherapy planning technique was used in 64.4%, and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in the remaining 35.6% (p=0.0001). Higher rates of curative treatments were observed in FE, as well as more lung lesions, patients ≥ 70 years, 3D conformal, number of additional images and ECOG 0, and all presented p<0.05. The global rate of protocol statement was 79%, lung treatment being the most stated. Conclusion: SBRT application is rapidly increasing in our setting. Treatment sites and planning techniques are becoming more diversified and complex. (author)

  11. Single pot synthesized gold nanoparticles using Hippophae rhamnoides leaf and berry extract showed shape-dependent differential nanobiotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhavana; Deswal, Renu

    2018-04-04

    A facile one-pot green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with different geometries was achieved using an underutilized Himalayan bioresource Hippophae rhamnoides. Aqueous leaf (LE) and berry extracts (BE) showed rapid synthesis of monodispersed spherical LEAuNPs (27 ± 3.2 nm) and anisotropic BEAuNPs (55 ± 4.5 nm) within 2 and 15 min, respectively. The Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed involvement of polyphenolics/flavonoids in AuNPs reduction. LE AuNPs (IC 50 49 µg) exhibited higher antioxidant potential than BE AuNPs (IC 50 57 µg). Both BE nanotriangles and LE nanospheres exhibited cytotoxicity against Jurkat cell lines. These nanocatalysts also exhibited effective (80-99%) reductive degradation of structurally different carcinogenic azo dyes. Kinetic studies revealed that BE nanotriangles exhibited higher catalytic efficiency (14-67%) than LE nanospheres suggesting shape-dependent regulation of biological activities. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis confirmed conversion of toxic methyl orange dye to non-toxic intermediates. Probable degradation mechanism involving adsorption and catalytic reduction of azo bonds was proposed. The present synthesis protocol provided a facile and energy saving procedure for rapid synthesis of highly stable nanoparticles with significant antioxidant and anticancer potential. This is the first report of H. rhamnoides-mediated green synthesis of multipurpose AuNPs as antioxidant, anticancer and nanocatalytic agents for treatment of dye contaminated waste water and future therapeutic applications.

  12. CFD simulation of flow through single and multi vane spiral pump for low pressure application using moving node unsteady computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, I.; Mahendra, A.K.; Chandresh, B.G.; Srikanthan, M.R.; Bera, T.K.

    2010-01-01

    A spiral pump uses two interleaved spirals (it can be involutes of a circle, involutes of a square, hybrid wraps, Archimedean spiral, logarithmic spirals and so on). Interleaved spiral orbits eccentrically without rotation around a fixed scroll, thereby trapping and compressing pockets of fluids between the spirals. Another method of providing the compression motion is by virtue of co-rotating the spirals synchronously with an offset in centers of rotation thereby providing relative motion similar to orbiting. Recently spiral pumps for low-pressure application have become popular. Since spiral pumps contain gas volumes, whose shapes and size change continuously, the flow fields inside the pumps is time dependent. The unsteadiness controls the mechanisms responsible for the behavior of the spiral pump components. To improve the spiral pump design for better performance as per our process requirement and reliability, information is required to understand the detailed physics of the unsteady flows inside the spiral pumps. The unsteady flows in a pump are studied numerically. The system simulated includes one side gap between fixed and moving spirals as the other side lies just in the reverse symmetry of the one side. Heavy molecular weight, condensable gas is used as the moving fluid. The mesh free Least Square Kinetic Upwind Method (LSKUM) for moving node is applied for numerical analysis of wobbling spiral. Nodes and boundaries change their positions, for every real time step hence at every iteration nodes take new coordinates. Our work consists of identifying various spiral dimensions and geometry, geometric modeling of suction process, identifying the eccentric orbiting motion of the moving spiral, formation of variable velocity moving nodes. Flow analysis of the spiral pump is done with a view to design and develop new pump as per our requirement. Experimental data from an existing spiral pump is used to carryout validation of the code. (author)

  13. A novel algorithm to enhance P300 in single trials: application to lie detection using F-score and SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junfeng; Tian, Hongjun; Yang, Yong; Yu, Xiaolin; Li, Chenhong; Rao, Nini

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of lie detection methods based on P300 potentials has drawn much interest in recent years. We presented a novel algorithm to enhance signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of P300 and applied it in lie detection to increase the classification accuracy. Thirty-four subjects were divided randomly into guilty and innocent groups, and the EEG signals on 14 electrodes were recorded. A novel spatial denoising algorithm (SDA) was proposed to reconstruct the P300 with a high SNR based on independent component analysis. The differences between the proposed method and our/other early published methods mainly lie in the extraction and feature selection method of P300. Three groups of features were extracted from the denoised waves; then, the optimal features were selected by the F-score method. Selected feature samples were finally fed into three classical classifiers to make a performance comparison. The optimal parameter values in the SDA and the classifiers were tuned using a grid-searching training procedure with cross-validation. The support vector machine (SVM) approach was adopted to combine with an F-score because this approach had the best performance. The presented model F-score_SVM reaches a significantly higher classification accuracy for P300 (specificity of 96.05%) and non-P300 (sensitivity of 96.11%) compared with the results obtained without using SDA and compared with the results obtained by other classification models. Moreover, a higher individual diagnosis rate can be obtained compared with previous methods, and the presented method requires only a small number of stimuli in the real testing application.

  14. Methods for preparing polymer-decorated single exchange-biased magnetic nanoparticles for application in flexible polymer-based films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Ourry

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs must not only be well-defined in composition, shape and size to exhibit the desired properties (e.g., exchange-bias for thermal stability of the magnetization but also judiciously functionalized to ensure their stability in air and their compatibility with a polymer matrix, in order to avoid aggregation which may seriously affect their physical properties. Dipolar interactions between NPs too close to each other favour a collective magnetic glass state with lower magnetization and coercivity because of inhomogeneous and frustrated macrospin cluster freezing. Consequently, tailoring chemically (through surface functionalization and magnetically stable NPs for technological applications is of primary importance.Results: In this work, well-characterized exchange-biased perfectly epitaxial CoxFe3−xO4@CoO core@shell NPs, which were isotropic in shape and of about 10 nm in diameter, were decorated by two different polymers, poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA or polystyrene (PS, using radical-controlled polymerization under various processing conditions. We compared the influence of the synthesis parameters on the structural and microstructural properties of the resulting hybrid systems, with special emphasis on significantly reducing their mutual magnetic attraction. For this, we followed two routes: the first one consists of the direct grafting of bromopropionyl ester groups at the surface of the NPs, which were previously recovered and redispersed in a suitable solvent. The second route deals with an “all in solution” process, based on the decoration of NPs by oleic acid followed by ligand exchange with the desired bromopropionyl ester groups. We then built various assemblies of NPs directly on a substrate or suspended in PMMA.Conclusion: The alternative two-step strategy leads to better dispersed polymer-decorated magnetic particles, and the resulting nanohybrids can be considered as valuable building

  15. Multi-Tasking and Choice of Training Data Influencing Parietal ERP Expression and Single-Trial Detection—Relevance for Neuroscience and Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Elsa A.; Kim, Su Kyoung

    2018-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) are often used in brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) for communication or system control for enhancing or regaining control for motor-disabled persons. Especially results from single-trial EEG classification approaches for BCIs support correlations between single-trial ERP detection performance and ERP expression. Hence, BCIs can be considered as a paradigm shift contributing to new methods with strong influence on both neuroscience and clinical applications. Here, we investigate the relevance of the choice of training data and classifier transfer for the interpretability of results from single-trial ERP detection. In our experiments, subjects performed a visual-motor oddball task with motor-task relevant infrequent (targets), motor-task irrelevant infrequent (deviants), and motor-task irrelevant frequent (standards) stimuli. Under dual-task condition, a secondary senso-motor task was performed, compared to the simple-task condition. For evaluation, average ERP analysis and single-trial detection analysis with different numbers of electrodes were performed. Further, classifier transfer was investigated between simple and dual task. Parietal positive ERPs evoked by target stimuli (but not by deviants) were expressed stronger under dual-task condition, which is discussed as an increase of task emphasis and brain processes involved in task coordination and change of task set. Highest classification performance was found for targets irrespective whether all 62, 6 or 2 parietal electrodes were used. Further, higher detection performance of targets compared to standards was achieved under dual-task compared to simple-task condition in case of training on data from 2 parietal electrodes corresponding to results of ERP average analysis. Classifier transfer between tasks improves classification performance in case that training took place on more varying examples (from dual task). In summary, we showed that P300 and overlaying parietal positive

  16. A comparative study and application of continuously variable transmission to a single main rotor heavy lift helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameer, Sameer

    Rotorcraft transmission design is limited by empirical weight trends that are proportional to the power/torque raised to the two-thirds coupled with the relative inexperience industry has with the employment of variable speed transmission to heavy lift helicopters of the order of 100,000 lbs gross weight and 30,000 installed horsepower. The advanced rotorcraft transmission program objectives are to reduce transmission weight by at least 25%, reduce sound pressure levels by at least 10 dB, have a 5000 hr mean time between removal, and also incorporate the use of split torque technology in rotorcraft drivetrains of the future. The major obstacle that challenges rotorcraft drivetrain design is the selection, design, and optimization of a variable speed transmission in the goal of achieving a 50% reduction in rotor speed and its ability to handle high torque with light weight gears, as opposed to using a two-speed transmission which has inherent structural problems and is highly unreliable due to the embodiment of the traction type transmission, complex clutch and brake system. This thesis selects a nontraction pericyclic continuously variable transmission (P-CVT) as the best approach for a single main rotor heavy lift helicopter. The objective is to target and overcome the above mentioned obstacle for drivetrain design. Overcoming this obstacle provides advancement in the state of the art of drivetrain design over existing planetary and split torque transmissions currently used in helicopters. The goal of the optimization process was to decrease weight, decrease noise, increase efficiency, and increase safety and reliability. The objective function utilized the minimization of the weight and the major constraint is the tooth bending stress of the facegears. The most important parameters of the optimization process are weight, maintainability, and reliability which are cross-functionally related to each other, and these parameters are related to the torques and

  17. Numerical investigation with a coupled single-column lake-atmosphere model: An application to Western Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyette, Stéphane

    2017-04-01

    The potential of a novel atmospheric single-column model (SCM) developed in the framework of the Canadian Regional Climate Model, CRCM, driven by NCEP-NCAR reanalyses is investigated. The approach to solve the model equations and the technique described here may be implemented in any RCM system environment as a model option. The working hypothesis underlying this SCM formulation is that a substantial portion of the variability simulated in the column can be reproduced by processes operating in the vertical dimension and a lesser portion comes from processes operating in the horizontal dimension. This SCM offers interesting prospects as the horizontal and vertical resolution of the RCM is ever increasing. Due to its low computational cost, multiple simulations may be carried out in a short period of time. In this paper, a range of possible results from changing the lower boundary from land to open water surface, and varying model parameters are shown for western Switzerland. The benefit of using Newtonian relaxation, or "nudging", is demonstrated. Results show that air temperature, moisture and windspeed profiles are modified in a coherent manner in the lowest levels. Such changes are consistent with those of the surface vertical sensible, latent heat and momentum fluxes. Compared to atmospheric profiles over land, switching to and open water surface representative of Lake Geneva over the annual cycle of 1990, air temperature is increased by up to 1°C during the autumn and winter seasons, and by 0.5°C during the spring and summer seasons. Specific humidity is increased by up to 0.2 g kg-1 during the autumn and winter seasons and decreased by 0.3 g kg-1 during the spring and summer seasons. The increased windspeed at the surface, often more than 1.5 m s-1, is due to the smaller roughness height. The surface radiation and energy budgets are also modified subsequent to the different partionning of the latent end sensible heat fluxes, but also the solar and thermal

  18. Multifunctional Bi{sub 2}ZnOB{sub 2}O{sub 6} single crystals for second and third order nonlinear optical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliopoulos, K. [LUNAM Université, Université d' Angers, CNRS UMR 6200, Laboratoire MOLTECH-Anjou, 2 Bd Lavoisier, 49045 Angers Cedex (France); Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH/ICE-HT), 26504 Patras (Greece); Kasprowicz, D. [Faculty of Technical Physics, Poznan University of Technology, Nieszawska 13 A, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Majchrowski, A. [Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warszawa (Poland); Michalski, E. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warszawa (Poland); Gindre, D.; Sahraoui, B., E-mail: bouchta.sahraoui@univ-angers.fr [LUNAM Université, Université d' Angers, CNRS UMR 6200, Laboratoire MOLTECH-Anjou, 2 Bd Lavoisier, 49045 Angers Cedex (France)

    2013-12-02

    Bi{sub 2}ZnOB{sub 2}O{sub 6} nonlinear optical single crystals were grown by means of the Kyropoulos method from stoichiometric melt. The second and third harmonic generation (SHG/THG) of Bi{sub 2}ZnOB{sub 2}O{sub 6} crystals were investigated by the SHG/THG Maker fringes technique. Moreover, SHG microscopy studies were carried out providing two-dimensional SHG images as a function of the incident laser polarization. The high nonlinear optical efficiency combined with the possibility to grow high quality crystals make Bi{sub 2}ZnOB{sub 2}O{sub 6} an excellent candidate for photonic applications.

  19. The Application of Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm to the Parameter Optimization of Single-Well Potential Stochastic Resonance Algorithm Aimed at Simultaneous Determination of Multiple Weak Chromatographic Peaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haishan Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous determination of multiple weak chromatographic peaks via stochastic resonance algorithm attracts much attention in recent years. However, the optimization of the parameters is complicated and time consuming, although the single-well potential stochastic resonance algorithm (SSRA has already reduced the number of parameters to only one and simplified the process significantly. Even worse, it is often difficult to keep amplified peaks with beautiful peak shape. Therefore, multiobjective genetic algorithm was employed to optimize the parameter of SSRA for multiple optimization objectives (i.e., S/N and peak shape and multiple chromatographic peaks. The applicability of the proposed method was evaluated with an experimental data set of Sudan dyes, and the results showed an excellent quantitative relationship between different concentrations and responses.

  20. Factors predicting publication of spinal cord injury trials registered on www.ClinicalTrials. gov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePasse, J Mason; Park, Sara; Eltorai, Adam E M; Daniels, Alan H

    2018-02-06

    Treatment options for spinal cord injuries are currently limited, but multiple clinical trials are underway for a variety of interventions, drugs, and devices. The Food and Drug Administration website www.ClinicalTrials.gov catalogues these trials and includes information on the status of the trial, date of initiation and completion, source of funding, and region. This investigation assesses the factors associated with publication and the publication rate of spinal cord injury trials. Retrospective analysis of publically available data on www.ClinicalTrials.gov. The www.ClinicalTrials.gov was queried for all trials on patients with spinal cord injury, and these trials were assessed for status, type of intervention, source of funding, and region. Multiple literature searches were performed on all completed trials to determine publication status. There were 626 studies identified concerning the treatment of patients with spinal cord injury, of which 250 (39.9%) were completed. Of these, only 119 (47.6%) were published. There was no significant difference in the rate of publication between regions (p> 0.16) or by study type (p> 0.29). However, trials that were funded by the NIH were more likely to be published than trials funded by industry (p= 0.01). The current publication rate of spinal cord injury trials is only 47.6%, though this rate is similar to the publication rate for trials in other fields. NIH-funded trials are significantly more likely to become published than industry-funded trials, which could indicate that some trials remain unpublished due to undesirable results. However, it is also likely that many trials on spinal cord injury yield negative results, as treatments are often ineffective.

  1. 3D asynchronous particle tracking in single and dual continuum matrix-fractures. Application to nuclear waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, M.Ph.

    2008-06-01

    This PhD research was conducted as a collaboration between Laboratoire National d'Hydraulique et Environnement (LNHE) from EDF R and D and the Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse (IMFT) in the frame of a CIFRE contract. This PhD thesis aims at providing LNHE a reliable numerical model to study the feasibility of a nuclear waste storage in deep geological structures. The main focus of the thesis is put on developing and implementing a Random Walk Particle Method (RWPM) to model contaminant transport in 3D heterogeneous and fractured porous media. In its first part, the report presents the Lagrangian particle tracking method used to model transport in heterogeneous media with a direct high resolution approach. The solute plume is discretized into concentration packets: particles. The model tracks each particle based on a time-explicit displacement algorithm according to an advective component and a diffusive random component. The method is implemented on a hydraulic model discretized on a 3D unstructured tetrahedral finite element mesh. We focus on techniques to overcome problems due to the discontinuous transport parameters and the unstructured mesh. First, we introduce an asynchronous time-stepping approach to deal with the numerical and overshoot errors that occur with conventional RWPM. Then, a filtering method is applied to smooth discontinuous transport parameters (pre-processing). Finally, once the particle displacements are computed, we propose several filtering and sampling methods to obtain concentrations from particle positions (post-processing). Applications of these methods are presented with cases of tracer advection-dispersion in homogeneous and heterogeneous media. For dense fracture networks, direct high resolution methods are very time consuming and need a lot of computational resources. So, as an alternative to the discrete approach, a dual-continuum representation is used, in the second part of the report, to describe the porous matrix

  2. Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Poly (Styrene-4- Vinyl Pyridine) Membranes Assembled With Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    He, Haoze

    2011-06-01

    Poly(styrene‐4‐vinylpyridine) (PS‐P4VP) isoporous membranes were prepared and their properties were evaluated in this research. The solution was prepared by dissolving PS‐P4VP polymer with necessary additives into a 1:1:1 1,4‐dioxane – N,N‐dimethyl formamide – tetrahydrofuran (DOX‐DMF‐THF, DDT) solvent. Then 0.5‐1.0 mL of the primary solution was cast onto the non‐woven substrate membrane on a glass slide, evaporated for 15‐20 sec and immersed into de‐ionized water for more than 30 min for the solidification of isoporous structure and for the formation of the primary films, which could be post‐processed in different ways for different tests. The membrane surface presents a well‐ordered, hexagonal self‐assembly structure, which is fit for aqueous and gaseous filtration. The pore size of the isoporous surface is 30~40 nm. The pore size is also sensitive to [H+] in the solution and a typical pair of S‐shape pH‐correlation curves with significant hysteresis was found. Four techniques were tried to improve the properties of the membranes in this research: 1) 1,4‐diiodobutane was introduced to chemically change the structure as a cross‐linking agent. 2) single‐wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) was linked to the membranes in order to strengthen the stability and rigidity and to reduce the hysteresis. 3) Homo‐poly(4‐vinylpyridine) (homo‐P4VP) was added and inserted into the PS‐P4VP micelles to affect the pore size and surface structure. 4) Copper acetate (Cu(Ac)2) was used as substitute of dioxane to prepare the Cu(Ac)2‐DMF‐THF (CDT) mixed solvent, for a better SWCNT dispersion. All the possible improvements were judged by the atomic force microscopy (AFM) images, water and gas flux tests and pH‐correlation curves. The introduction of SWCNT was the most important innovation in this research and is promising in future applications.

  3. GEOGRAPHY WEBSITE ANALYSIS. THE CASE OF http://www.profudegeogra.eu/ IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUELA GAVRIȘ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research started in response to the findings that http://www.profudegeogra.eu/ is one of the best known websites among the Romanian websites concerning geographical issues. This article examines the resources offered by this website, their relevance and how they help students and even teachers in the activity of learning or teaching Geography. To quantify the popularity and the utility of this website, we applied a questionnaire to a target group represented by 27 students of various university majors of the Faculty of Geography, “Babeș-Bolyai” University, ClujNapoca, Romania.

  4. Congreso www.derechotics.com 2010 De Miguel- Oltra Mesa 2

    OpenAIRE

    Cotino Hueso, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    La autorregulación europea de las redes sociales: análisis de las políticas de uso de la imagen de menores en España, por María de Miguel Molina, Profesora Contratada Doctora y Juan Vicente Oltra Gutiérrez, Profesor Titular de Escuela Universitaria, U. Politécnica de Valencia.Mesa 2: Control y responsabilidad en la redCongreso www.derechotics.com Valencia, 14-15 octubre 2010 Libertades informativas en internet: ejercicio, amenazas y garantías, Lorenzo Cotino (org.)

  5. Chinese hamster genome database: an online resource for the CHO community at www.CHOgenome.org.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Stephanie; Kaplarevic, Mihailo; Borth, Nicole; Betenbaugh, Michael J; Lee, Kelvin H

    2012-06-01

    The Chinese hamster genome database (http://www.chogenome.org/) is an online resource for the Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell communities. CHO cells are important for biomedical research and are widely used in industry for the production of biopharmaceuticals. The genome of the CHO-K1 cell line was recently sequenced and the CHO community has developed an online resource to facilitate accessibility of the genomic data and the development of genomic tools. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Combining in situ chemical oxidation, stabilization, and anaerobic bioremediation in a single application to reduce contaminant mass and leachability in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassidy, Daniel P., E-mail: daniel.cassidy@wmich.edu [Department of Geosciences, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Srivastava, Vipul J., E-mail: vipul.srivastava@ch2m.com [CH2M HILL, 125S Wacker, Ste 3000, Chicago, IL 60606 (United States); Dombrowski, Frank J., E-mail: frank.dombrowski@we-energies.com [We Energies, 333W Everett St., A231, Milwaukee, WI 53203 (United States); Lingle, James W., E-mail: jlingle@epri.com [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), 4927W Willow Road, Brown Deer, WI 53223 (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Portland cement and lime activated persulfate by increasing pH and temperature. • Chemical oxidation achieved BTEX and PAH removal ranging from 55% to 75%. • Activating persulfate with ISS amendments reduced leachability more than NaOH. • Native sulfate-reducing bacteria degraded PAHs within weeks after ISCO finished. • ISCO, ISS, and anaerobic bioremediation were combined in a single application. - Abstract: Laboratory batch reactors were maintained for 32 weeks to test the potential for an in situ remedy that combines chemical oxidation, stabilization, and anaerobic bioremediation in a single application to treat soil from a manufactured gas plant, contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Portland cement and slaked lime were used to activate the persulfate and to stabilize/encapsulate the contaminants that were not chemically oxidized. Native sulfate-reducing bacteria degraded residual contaminants using the sulfate left after persulfate activation. The ability of the combined remedy to reduce contaminant mass and leachability was compared with NaOH-activated persulfate, stabilization, and sulfate-reducing bioremediation as stand-alone technologies. The stabilization amendments increased pH and temperature sufficiently to activate the persulfate within 1 week. Activation with both stabilization amendments and NaOH removed between 55% and 70% of PAH and BTEX. However, combined persulfate and stabilization significantly reduced the leachability of residual BTEX and PAH compared with NaOH activation. Sulfide, 2-naphthoic acid, and the abundance of subunit A of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrA) were used to monitor native sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were negatively impacted by activated persulfate, but recovered completely within weeks.

  7. Impact of a Single Phage and a Phage Cocktail Application in Broilers on Reduction of Campylobacter jejuni and Development of Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Samuel; Kittler, Sophie; Klein, Günter; Glünder, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is currently the most frequent foodborne zoonosis in many countries. One main source is poultry. The aim of this study was to enhance the knowledge about the potential of bacteriophages in reducing colonization of broilers with Campylobacter , as there are only a few in vivo studies published. Commercial broilers were inoculated with 104 CFU/bird of a Campylobacter jejuni field strain. Groups of 88 birds each were subsequently treated with a single phage or a four-phage cocktail (107 PFU/bird in CaCO3 buffered SM-Buffer). Control birds received the solvent only. Afterwards, subgroups of eleven birds each were examined for their loads with phages and Campylobacter on day 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 after phage application. The susceptibility of the Campylobacter population to phage infection was determined using ten isolates per bird. In total 4180 re-isolates were examined. The study demonstrated that the deployed phages persisted over the whole investigation period. The Campylobacter load was permanently reduced by the phage-cocktail as well as by the single phage. The reduction was significant between one and four weeks after treatment and reached a maximum of log10 2.8 CFU/g cecal contents. Phage resistance rates of initially up to 43% in the single phage treated group and 24% in the cocktail treated group later stabilized at low levels. The occurrence of phage resistance influenced but did not override the Campylobacter reducing effect. Regarding the reduction potential, the cocktail treatment had only a small advantage over the singe phage treatment directly after phage administration. However, the cocktail moderated and delayed the emergence of phage resistance. PMID:24205254

  8. Background Error Covariance Estimation using Information from a Single Model Trajectory with Application to Ocean Data Assimilation into the GEOS-5 Coupled Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppenne, Christian L.; Rienecker, Michele M.; Kovach, Robin M.; Vernieres, Guillaume; Koster, Randal D. (Editor)

    2014-01-01

    An attractive property of ensemble data assimilation methods is that they provide flow dependent background error covariance estimates which can be used to update fields of observed variables as well as fields of unobserved model variables. Two methods to estimate background error covariances are introduced which share the above property with ensemble data assimilation methods but do not involve the integration of multiple model trajectories. Instead, all the necessary covariance information is obtained from a single model integration. The Space Adaptive Forecast error Estimation (SAFE) algorithm estimates error covariances from the spatial distribution of model variables within a single state vector. The Flow Adaptive error Statistics from a Time series (FAST) method constructs an ensemble sampled from a moving window along a model trajectory. SAFE and FAST are applied to the assimilation of Argo temperature profiles into version 4.1 of the Modular Ocean Model (MOM4.1) coupled to the GEOS-5 atmospheric model and to the CICE sea ice model. The results are validated against unassimilated Argo salinity data. They show that SAFE and FAST are competitive with the ensemble optimal interpolation (EnOI) used by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) to produce its ocean analysis. Because of their reduced cost, SAFE and FAST hold promise for high-resolution data assimilation applications.

  9. Application of Single Molecule Fluorescence Microscopy to Characterize the Penetration of a Large Amphiphilic Molecule in the Stratum Corneum of Human Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Volz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report here on the application of laser-based single molecule total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM to study the penetration of molecules through the skin. Penetration of topically applied drug molecules is often observed to be limited by the size of the respective drug. However, the molecular mechanisms which govern the penetration of molecules through the outermost layer of the skin are still largely unknown. As a model compound we have chosen a larger amphiphilic molecule (fluorescent dye ATTO-Oxa12 with a molecular weight >700 Da that was applied to excised human skin. ATTO-Oxa12 penetrated through the stratum corneum (SC into the viable epidermis as revealed by TIRFM of cryosections. Single particle tracking of ATTO-Oxa12 within SC sheets obtained by tape stripping allowed us to gain information on the localization as well as the lateral diffusion dynamics of these molecules. ATTO-Oxa12 appeared to be highly confined in the SC lipid region between (intercellular space or close to the envelope of the corneocytes. Three main distinct confinement sizes of 52 ± 6, 118 ± 4, and 205 ± 5 nm were determined. We conclude that for this amphiphilic model compound several pathways through the skin exist.

  10. [Application of confocal micro-beam X-ray fluorescence in nondestructive scanning analysis of the distribution of elements in a single hair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He-He; Liu, Zhi-Guo; Sun, Tian-Xi; Peng, Song; Zhao, Wei-Gang; Sun, Wei-Yuan; Li, Yu-De; Lin, Xiao-Yan; Zhao, Guang-Cui; Luo, Ping; Ding, Xun-Liang

    2013-11-01

    The confocal micro X-ray fluorescence (XRF) based on polycapillary X-ray lens and conventional X-ray source was used to carry out the scanning analysis of the distribution of the elements in a single hair. The elemental distribution in the single hair was obtained. In the confocal micro XRF technology, the output focal spot of the polycapillary focusing X-ray lens and the input focal spot of the polycapillary parallel X-ray lens were adjusted confocally. The detector could only detect the X-rays from the overlapping foci. This confocal structure decreased the effects of the background on the X-ray spectra, and was accordingly helpful for improving the accuracy of this XRF technology. A polycapillary focusing X-ray lens with a high gain in power density was used to decrease the requirement of power of the X-ray source used in this confocal technology, and made it possible to perform such confocal micro XRF analysis by using the conventional X-ray source with low cost. Experimental results indicated that the confocal micro X-ray fluorescence based on polycapillary X-ray lens had potential applications in analyzing the elemental distribution of individual hairs.

  11. ANN Synthesis Model of Single-Feed Corner-Truncated Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna with an Air Gap for Wideband Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongbao Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A computer-aided design model based on the artificial neural network (ANN is proposed to directly obtain patch physical dimensions of the single-feed corner-truncated circularly polarized microstrip antenna (CPMA with an air gap for wideband applications. To take account of the effect of the air gap, an equivalent relative permittivity is introduced and adopted to calculate the resonant frequency and Q-factor of square microstrip antennas for obtaining the training data sets. ANN architectures using multilayered perceptrons (MLPs and radial basis function networks (RBFNs are compared. Also, six learning algorithms are used to train the MLPs for comparison. It is found that MLPs trained with the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM algorithm are better than RBFNs for the synthesis of the CPMA. An accurate model is achieved by using an MLP with three hidden layers. The model is validated by the electromagnetic simulation and measurements. It is enormously useful to antenna engineers for facilitating the design of the single-feed CPMA with an air gap.

  12. Single gaze gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Lilholm, Martin; Gail, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines gaze gestures and their applicability as a generic selection method for gaze-only controlled interfaces. The method explored here is the Single Gaze Gesture (SGG), i.e. gestures consisting of a single point-to-point eye movement. Horizontal and vertical, long and short SGGs were...

  13. Single-sided NMR

    CERN Document Server

    Casanova, Federico; Blümich, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Single-Sided NMR describes the design of the first functioning single-sided tomograph, the related measurement methods, and a number of applications. One of the key advantages to this method is the speed at which the images are obtained.

  14. The Arabidopsis co-expression tool (act): a WWW-based tool and database for microarray-based gene expression analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jen, C. H.; Manfield, I. W.; Michalopoulos, D. W.

    2006-01-01

    gene co-expression patterns. To demonstrate the ability of the software to develop testable hypotheses on gene function within a defined biological process we have used the example of cell wall biosynthesis genes. The resource is freely available at http://www.arabidopsis.leeds.ac.uk/ACT/......, and dissection into cliques of co-regulated genes. We illustrate the applications of the software by analysing genes encoding functionally related proteins, as well as pathways involved in plant responses to environmental stimuli. These analyses demonstrate novel biological relationships underlying the observed...

  15. An Innovative 3D Ultrasonic Actuator with Multidegree of Freedom for Machine Vision and Robot Guidance Industrial Applications Using a Single Vibration Ring Transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shafik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an innovative 3D piezoelectric ultrasonic actuator using a single flexural vibration ring transducer, for machine vision and robot guidance industrial applications. The proposed actuator is principally aiming to overcome the visual spotlight focus angle of digital visual data capture transducer, digital cameras and enhance the machine vision system ability to perceive and move in 3D. The actuator Design, structures, working principles and finite element analysis are discussed in this paper. A prototype of the actuator was fabricated. Experimental tests and measurements showed the ability of the developed prototype to provide 3D motions of Multidegree of freedom, with typical speed of movement equal to 35 revolutions per minute, a resolution of less than 5μm and maximum load of 3.5 Newton. These initial characteristics illustrate, the potential of the developed 3D micro actuator to gear the spotlight focus angle issue of digital visual data capture transducers and possible improvement that such technology could bring to the machine vision and robot guidance industrial applications.

  16. Granulomatous Lung Disease Requiring Mechanical Ventilation Induced by a Single Application of Oxaliplatin-Based Chemotherapy for Colorectal Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dane Wildner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined chemotherapeutic regimens in conjunction with oxaliplatin are considered safe and effective treatment options in the clinical management of metastatic colorectal cancer. A 62-year-old male patient with a metastatic rectal carcinoma developed a pulmonary reaction after the first application of the combined standard chemotherapy regimen (5-fluorouracil and sodium folinic acid as a 24 h infusion and oxaliplatin. Following the first dose of chemotherapy, the patient developed acute dyspnoea and fever. A computerised scan of the chest revealed bilateral pulmonary patchy consolidation. Despite high-dose empiric antibiotic and antimycotic treatment, no clinical improvement was seen. The patient's condition deteriorated, and he required invasive mechanical ventilation. Diagnostic thoracoscopic wedge resections were performed for further diagnosis. The histological workup revealed distinct granulomatous inflammation, but no microbial pathogens were to be found. Thereupon, a drug-induced reaction to chemotherapy was suspected and high-dose steroid treatment initiated. Subsequently, the patient's respiratory condition improved and he was extubated. The present case exemplifies the rare course of a bilateral pneumonia-like, drug-induced granulomatous reaction following a single application of oxaliplatin. In addition to the known side effects of oxaliplatin-containing combination chemotherapy, unexpected serious adverse events in the form of pulmonary toxicities should also be taken into account.

  17. Development of Screen-Printed Texture-Barrier Paste for Single-Side Texturization of Interdigitated Back-Contact Silicon Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Cheng Chen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Continuous cost reduction of silicon-based solar cells is needed to lower the process time and increase efficiency. To achieve lower costs, screen-printed texture-barrier (SPTB paste was first developed for single-side texturization (ST of the interdigitated back-contact (IBC for silicon-based solar cell applications. The SPTB paste was screen-printed on silicon substrates. The SPTB paste was synthesized from intermixed silicate glass (75 wt %, a resin binder (ethyl cellulose ethoce: 20 wt %, and a dispersing agent (fatty acid: 5 wt %. The silicate glass is a necessity for contact formation during firing. A resin binder and a dispersing agent determine the rheology of the SPTB paste. In this work, by modulating various parameters, including post SPTB firing, alkali texturing, and removal of the SPTB, the ST of IBC silicon solar cells was achieved. Since the advantages of the SPTB paste include low toxicity and prompt formation of the texture-barrier, SPTB is potentially suited for simple fabrication at low-cost for solar cell applications. The cost of the SPTB is around $100/kg which is lower than the SiH4/NH3 gas ambient used in plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD. Thus, the expensive Si3N4 film deposited by PECVD using SiH4 and NH3 gas ambient for silicon solar cells can be replaced by this SPTB.

  18. Development of Screen-Printed Texture-Barrier Paste for Single-Side Texturization of Interdigitated Back-Contact Silicon Solar Cell Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Shun; Cheng, Chin-Lung; Whang, Thou-Jen; Chen, Chi-Cheng

    2013-10-17

    Continuous cost reduction of silicon-based solar cells is needed to lower the process time and increase efficiency. To achieve lower costs, screen-printed texture-barrier (SPTB) paste was first developed for single-side texturization (ST) of the interdigitated back-contact (IBC) for silicon-based solar cell applications. The SPTB paste was screen-printed on silicon substrates. The SPTB paste was synthesized from intermixed silicate glass (75 wt %), a resin binder (ethyl cellulose ethoce: 20 wt %), and a dispersing agent (fatty acid: 5 wt %). The silicate glass is a necessity for contact formation during firing. A resin binder and a dispersing agent determine the rheology of the SPTB paste. In this work, by modulating various parameters, including post SPTB firing, alkali texturing, and removal of the SPTB, the ST of IBC silicon solar cells was achieved. Since the advantages of the SPTB paste include low toxicity and prompt formation of the texture-barrier, SPTB is potentially suited for simple fabrication at low-cost for solar cell applications. The cost of the SPTB is around $100/kg which is lower than the SiH₄/NH₃ gas ambient used in plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Thus, the expensive Si₃N₄ film deposited by PECVD using SiH₄ and NH₃ gas ambient for silicon solar cells can be replaced by this SPTB.

  19. A facile and low-cost length sorting of single-wall carbon nanotubes by precipitation and applications for thin-film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Hui; Chen, Haitian; Khripin, Constantine Y; Liu, Bilu; Fagan, Jeffrey A; Zhou, Chongwu; Zheng, Ming

    2016-02-14

    Semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with long lengths are highly desirable for many applications such as thin-film transistors and circuits. Previously reported length sorting techniques usually require sophisticated instrumentation and are hard to scale up. In this paper, we report for the first time a general phenomenon of a length-dependent precipitation of surfactant-dispersed carbon nanotubes by polymers, salts, and their combinations. Polyelectrolytes such as polymethacrylate (PMAA) and polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) are found to be especially effective on cholate and deoxycholate dispersed SWCNTs. By adding PMAA to these nanotube dispersions in a stepwise fashion, we have achieved nanotube precipitation in a length-dependent order: first nanotubes with an average length of 650 nm, and then successively of 450 nm, 350 nm, and 250 nm. A similar effect of nanotube length sorting has also been observed for PSS. To demonstrate the utility of the length fractionation, the 650 nm-long nanotube fraction was subjected to an aqueous two-phase separation to obtain semiconducting enriched nanotubes. Thin-film transistors fabricated with the resulting semiconducting SWCNTs showed a carrier mobility up to 18 cm(2) (V s)(-1) and an on/off ratio up to 10(7). Our result sheds new light on the phase behavior of aqueous nanotube dispersions under high concentrations of polymers and salts, and offers a facile, low-cost, and scalable method to produce length sorted semiconducting nanotubes for macroelectronics applications.

  20. [Learning from regional differences: online platform: http://www.versorgungsatlas.de].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiapane, S

    2014-02-01

    In 2011, the Central Research Institute of Ambulatory Health Care in Germany (ZI) published the website http://www.versorgungsatlas.de, a portal that presents research results from regional health services in Germany. The Web portal provides a publicly accessible source of information and a growing number of selected analyses focusing on regional variation in health care. Each topic is presented in terms of interactive maps, tables, and diagrams and is supplemented by a paper that examines the results in detail and provides an explanation of the findings. The portal has been designed to provide a forum on which health service researchers can publish their results derived from various data sources of different institutions in Germany and can comment on results already available on http://www.versorgungsatlas.de. For health policy actors, the discussion of regional differences offers a new, previously unavailable basis for determining the region-specific treatment needs and for providing health-care management with the goal of high-quality care for each resident.