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Sample records for single virtual photon

  1. Photon virtual bound state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, J.; Ohtaka, K.

    2004-01-01

    We study virtual bound states in photonics, which are a vectorial extension of electron virtual bound states. The condition for these states is derived. It is found that the Mie resonant state which satisfies the condition that the size parameter is less than the angular momentum should be interpreted as a photon virtual bound state. In order to confirm the validity of the concept, we compare the photonic density of states, the width of which represents the lifetime of the photon virtual bound states, with numerical results

  2. Single-photon imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Seitz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition and interpretation of images is a central capability in almost all scientific and technological domains. In particular, the acquisition of electromagnetic radiation, in the form of visible light, UV, infrared, X-ray, etc. is of enormous practical importance. The ultimate sensitivity in electronic imaging is the detection of individual photons. With this book, the first comprehensive review of all aspects of single-photon electronic imaging has been created. Topics include theoretical basics, semiconductor fabrication, single-photon detection principles, imager design and applications of different spectral domains. Today, the solid-state fabrication capabilities for several types of image sensors has advanced to a point, where uncoooled single-photon electronic imaging will soon become a consumer product. This book is giving a specialist´s view from different domains to the forthcoming “single-photon imaging” revolution. The various aspects of single-photon imaging are treated by internati...

  3. Single photon ECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Toshio; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tada, Akira; Bunko, Hisashi; Koizumi, Kiyoshi

    1982-01-01

    The detectability of lesions located deep in a body or overlapped with a physiologically increased activity improve with the help of single photon ECT. In some cases, the ECT is superior to the conventional gamma camera images and X-ray CT scans in the evaluation of the location and size of lesion. The single photon ECT of the brain compares favorably with the contrast enhansed X-ray CT scans. The most important adaptation of the single photon ECT are the detection of recurrent brain tumors after craniotomy and the evaluation of ischemic heart diseases. (author)

  4. Single-Photon Optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnenkamp, A.; Børkje, K.; Girvin, S. M.

    2011-08-01

    Optomechanics experiments are rapidly approaching the regime where the radiation pressure of a single photon displaces the mechanical oscillator by more than its zero-point uncertainty. We show that in this limit the power spectrum has multiple sidebands and that the cavity response has several resonances in the resolved-sideband limit. Using master-equation simulations, we also study the crossover from the weak-coupling many-photon to the single-photon strong-coupling regime. Finally, we find non-Gaussian steady states of the mechanical oscillator when multiphoton transitions are resonant. Our study provides the tools to detect and take advantage of this novel regime of optomechanics.

  5. Single photons on demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grangier, P.; Abram, I.

    2004-01-01

    Quantum cryptography and information processing are set to benefit from developments in novel light sources that can emit photons one by one. Quantum mechanics has gained a reputation for making counter-intuitive predictions. But we rarely get the chance to witness these effects directly because, being humans, we are simply too big. Take light, for example. The light sources that are familiar to us, such as those used in lighting and imaging or in CD and DVD players, are so huge that they emit billions and billions of photons. But what if there was a light source that emitted just one photon at a time? Over the past few years, new types of light source that are able to emit photons one by one have been emerging from laboratories around the world. Pulses of light composed of a single photon correspond to power flows in the femtowatt range - a million billion times less than that of a table lamp. The driving force behind the development of these single-photon sources is a range of novel applications that take advantage of the quantum nature of light. Quantum states of superposed and entangled photons could lead the way to guaranteed-secure communication, to information processing with unprecedented speed and efficiency, and to new schemes for quantum teleportation. (U.K.)

  6. Virtual photon spectra for finite nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolynec, E.; Martins, M.N.

    1988-01-01

    The experimental results of an isochromat of the virtual photon spectrum, obtained by measuring the number of ground-state protons emitted by the 16.28 MeV isobaric analogue state in 90 Zr as a function of electron incident energy in the range 17-105 MeV, are compared with the values predicted by a calculation of the E1 DWBA virtual photon spectra for finite nuclei. It is found that the calculations are in excellent agreement with the experimental results. The DWBA virtual photon spectra for finite nuclei for E2 and M1 multipoles are also assessed. (author) [pt

  7. Nanodiamond Emitters of Single Photons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasov I.I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Luminescence properties of single color centers were studied in nanodiamonds of different origin. It was found that single photon emitters could be realized even in molecularsized diamond (less than 2 nm capable of housing stable luminescent center “silicon-vacancy.” First results on incorporation of single-photon emitters based on luminescent nanodiamonds in plasmonic nanoantennas to enhance the photon count rate and directionality, diminish the fluorescence decay time, and provide polarization selectivity are presented.

  8. Virtual photon interactions in high energy QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieseke, S.

    2001-07-01

    We study the interactions of virtual photons in the high energy limit of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The subject is discussed in terms of two closely linked applications: the calculation of the total cross section for γ * γ * -scattering and the description of DIS in the colour dipole model. We calculate virtual corrections in α s to the process γ * q → (qq)q and the tree level process γ * q → (qqg)q in the high energy limit. From this calculation we obtain one-loop corrections to the effective γ * -reggeon-qq-vertex in the helicity basis of the virtual photon and the qq-pair. The loop integrals for the virtual corrections have been performed and expressed in dimensional regularization in terms of logarithms and dilogarithms. We have convoluted the virtual one-loop matrix elements with tree level matrix elements and expressed the integrals over the phase space of the qq-pair explicitly in terms of a set of standard integrals. The real corrections have been calculated and, in case of the longitudinal polarization, expressed in factorized form. From these calculations, the impact factor of virtual photons will be determined, allowing for a first prediction of the total cross section for γ * γ * -scattering in the next-to-leading-log s approximation. The calculations in this thesis extend the photon wave function picture in the colour dipole model to next-to-leading order. For this purpose, the real corrections with a qqg final state are analyzed in transverse configuration space and interpreted as a first higher Fock component of the photon wave function. In addition, the matrix elements that have been calculated in this thesis are needed for the calculation of jet cross sections. (orig.)

  9. Single photon from a single trapped atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingjan, J.; Jones, M.P.A.; Beugnon, J.; Darquiee, B.; Bergamini, S.; Browaeys, A.; Messin, G.; Grangier, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A quantum treatment of the interaction between atoms and light usually begins with the simplest model system: a two-level atom interacting with a monochromatic light wave. Here we demonstrate an elegant experimental realization of this system using an optically trapped single rubidium atom illuminated by resonant light pulses. We observe Rabi oscillations, and show that this system can be used as a highly efficient triggered source of single photons with a well-defined polarisation. In contrast to other sources based on neutral atoms and trapped ions, no optical cavity is required. We achieved a flux of single photons of about 10 4 s -1 at the detector, and observe complete antibunching. This source has potential applications for distributed atom-atom entanglement using single photons. (author)

  10. Single photon and nonlocality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    critical analysis of the concept of hidden variable used by the authors of [1] shows that the reasoning is not correct. Keywords. Nonlocality; single particle; hidden variables. PACS Nos 03.67.Ba; 03.65.Ta; 32.80.Lg; 07.79.Fc. 1. Introduction. Quantum nonlocality [2] for single particle is a subject of debate since the origin.

  11. Single photon and nonlocality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a paper by Home and Agarwal [1], it is claimed that quantum nonlocality can be revealed in a simple interferometry experiment using only single particles. A critical analysis of the concept of hidden variable used by the authors of [1] shows that the reasoning is not correct.

  12. Single photon searches at PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollebeek, R.

    1985-12-01

    The MAC and ASP searches for events with a single photon and no other observed particles are reviewed. New results on the number of neutrino generations and limits on selection, photino, squark and gluino masses from the ASP experiment are presented.

  13. Single photon searches at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollebeek, R.

    1985-12-01

    The MAC and ASP searches for events with a single photon and no other observed particles are reviewed. New results on the number of neutrino generations and limits on selection, photino, squark and gluino masses from the ASP experiment are presented

  14. Virtual photonic couplings of quantum nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsueda, H.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Ducommun, Yann

    as early as 1996, and subsequently on quantum gate application with quantum dots (QDs), coherent modes in an ensemble of QDs, a parity conserving dynamic Förster type mechanism between identical tuned QDs involving a real photon (RPH) or virtual photon (VPH), and the RDDDI mechanism between nonidentical...... detuned realistic GaAs QDs assisted by VPHs showing fine structures in photoluminescence (PL) spectra [2]. Our data are taken on each QD individually, see Fig.1, whereas other published data were so far measured on ensembles of QDs, e.g. solution-grown statistical number of CdSe QDs collected in a layered......, we illustrate more general resonance dynamic multipole-multipole interactions (RDMMIs) by plotting the interaction energy and range as a function of inter-polar distance, see Fig. 2 [4]. This RDMMI should inevitably appear in the course of realizing quantum information devices such as quantum...

  15. CMOS-compatible photonic devices for single-photon generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Chunle

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sources of single photons are one of the key building blocks for quantum photonic technologies such as quantum secure communication and powerful quantum computing. To bring the proof-of-principle demonstration of these technologies from the laboratory to the real world, complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS-compatible photonic chips are highly desirable for photon generation, manipulation, processing and even detection because of their compactness, scalability, robustness, and the potential for integration with electronics. In this paper, we review the development of photonic devices made from materials (e.g., silicon and processes that are compatible with CMOS fabrication facilities for the generation of single photons.

  16. Time relative single-photon (photoelectron) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Binqiao

    1988-01-01

    A single-photon (photoelectron) measuring system is designed. It researches various problems in single-photon (photoelectron) method. The electronic resolving time is less than 25 ps. The resolving time of single-photon (photoelectron) measuring system is 25 to 65 ps

  17. Experimental investigation of quadrupole virtual photon spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouffon, P.

    1986-01-01

    To test experimentally the quadrupole virtual photon spectrum calculation, the (e,α) excitation function of an isolated 2 + level at 20.14 MeV in 24 Mg was measured. The most recent calculations in DWBA, including nuclear size effects, are compared to this experimental curve. The differential cross section d 2 σ/dΩdE was measured 48 0 , 90 0 , 132 0 in the laboratory system, for total electron energies of 20.0, 20.8, 21.5, 24.0, 26.0, 28.0, 30.0, 32.0, 36.0, and 40.0 MeV. The reduced matrix element B(E2) of the 20,14 MeV level is extracted as a secondary product of this work. (author) [pt

  18. Single-photon manipulation in Nanophotonic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sofie Lindskov

    on a gallium arsenide platform. This platform offers near-unity coupling between embedded single-photon emitters and a photonic mode, as well as the ability to suppress decoherence mechanisms, making it highly suited for quantum information applications. In this thesis we show how a single-photon router can...

  19. Heralded single-photon absorption by a single atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, N.; Rohde, F.; Schuck, C.; Almendros, M.; Huwer, J.; Ghosh, J.; Haase, A.; Hennrich, M.; Dubin, F.; Eschner, J.

    2011-01-01

    Emission and absorption of single photons by single atoms is a fundamental limit of matter-light interaction, manifesting its quantum mechanical nature. As a controlled process, it is also a key tool in quantum optical information technology . Controlled single-photon emission is well advanced ; for controlled single-photon absorption by a single atom, proposals exist but only preliminary experimental steps have been taken . Here we report the absorption of single photons by a single trapped ion: employing a photon pair source, detection of the quantum-correlated partner photon heralds the presence of the resonant photon at the atom. We find clear correlations between the detection of the herald and the absorption process in the atom; we also demonstrate polarization control of this process. Our experiment evidences previously unexplored interaction between a single absorber and a quantum light source; with improved control over the coupling, it will open up new avenues in quantum technology.

  20. Single photon emission computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooge, P. de.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis two single-photon emission tomographic techniques are presented: (a) longitudinal tomography with a rotating slanting-hole collimator, and (b) transversal tomography with a rotating gamma camera. These methods overcome the disadvantages of conventional scintigraphy. Both detection systems and the image construction methods are explained and comparisons with conventional scintigraphy are drawn. One chapter is dedicated to the determination of system parameters like spatial resolution, contrast, detector uniformity, and size of the object, by phantom studies. In separate chapters the results are presented of detection of tumors and metastases in the liver and the liver hilus; skeletal diseases; various pathological aberrations of the brain; and myocardial perfusion. The possible use of these two ect's for other organs and body areas is discussed in the last chapter. (Auth.)

  1. Generating single microwave photons in a circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, A A; Schuster, D I; Gambetta, J M; Schreier, J A; Johnson, B R; Chow, J M; Frunzio, L; Majer, J; Devoret, M H; Girvin, S M; Schoelkopf, R J

    2007-09-20

    Microwaves have widespread use in classical communication technologies, from long-distance broadcasts to short-distance signals within a computer chip. Like all forms of light, microwaves, even those guided by the wires of an integrated circuit, consist of discrete photons. To enable quantum communication between distant parts of a quantum computer, the signals must also be quantum, consisting of single photons, for example. However, conventional sources can generate only classical light, not single photons. One way to realize a single-photon source is to collect the fluorescence of a single atom. Early experiments measured the quantum nature of continuous radiation, and further advances allowed triggered sources of photons on demand. To allow efficient photon collection, emitters are typically placed inside optical or microwave cavities, but these sources are difficult to employ for quantum communication on wires within an integrated circuit. Here we demonstrate an on-chip, on-demand single-photon source, where the microwave photons are injected into a wire with high efficiency and spectral purity. This is accomplished in a circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture, with a microwave transmission line cavity that enhances the spontaneous emission of a single superconducting qubit. When the qubit spontaneously emits, the generated photon acts as a flying qubit, transmitting the quantum information across a chip. We perform tomography of both the qubit and the emitted photons, clearly showing that both the quantum phase and amplitude are transferred during the emission. Both the average power and voltage of the photon source are characterized to verify performance of the system. This single-photon source is an important addition to a rapidly growing toolbox for quantum optics on a chip.

  2. Computational Modeling of Photonic Crystal Microcavity Single-Photon Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulnier, Nicole A.

    Conventional cryptography is based on algorithms that are mathematically complex and difficult to solve, such as factoring large numbers. The advent of a quantum computer would render these schemes useless. As scientists work to develop a quantum computer, cryptographers are developing new schemes for unconditionally secure cryptography. Quantum key distribution has emerged as one of the potential replacements of classical cryptography. It relics on the fact that measurement of a quantum bit changes the state of the bit and undetected eavesdropping is impossible. Single polarized photons can be used as the quantum bits, such that a quantum system would in some ways mirror the classical communication scheme. The quantum key distribution system would include components that create, transmit and detect single polarized photons. The focus of this work is on the development of an efficient single-photon source. This source is comprised of a single quantum dot inside of a photonic crystal microcavity. To better understand the physics behind the device, a computational model is developed. The model uses Finite-Difference Time-Domain methods to analyze the electromagnetic field distribution in photonic crystal microcavities. It uses an 8-band k · p perturbation theory to compute the energy band structure of the epitaxially grown quantum dots. We discuss a method that combines the results of these two calculations for determining the spontaneous emission lifetime of a quantum dot in bulk material or in a microcavity. The computational models developed in this thesis are used to identify and characterize microcavities for potential use in a single-photon source. The computational tools developed are also used to investigate novel photonic crystal microcavities that incorporate 1D distributed Bragg reflectors for vertical confinement. It is found that the spontaneous emission enhancement in the quasi-3D cavities can be significantly greater than in traditional suspended slab

  3. Single microwave photon detection in the micromaser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M L; Varcoe, B T H; Wilkes, G J

    2009-01-01

    High-efficiency single photon detection is an interesting problem for many areas of physics, including low temperature measurement, quantum information science and particle physics. For optical photons, there are many examples of devices capable of detecting single photons with high efficiency. However reliable single photon detection of microwaves is very difficult, principally due to their low energy. In this paper, we present the theory of a cascade amplifier operating in the microwave regime that has an optimal quantum efficiency of 93%. The device uses a microwave photon to trigger the stimulated emission of a sequence of atoms where the energy transition is readily detectable. A detailed description of the detector's operation and some discussion of the potential limitations of the detector are presented.

  4. Changing optical band structure with single photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Andreas; Caneva, Tommaso; Chang, Darrick E.

    2017-11-01

    Achieving strong interactions between individual photons enables a wide variety of exciting possibilities in quantum information science and many-body physics. Cold atoms interfaced with nanophotonic structures have emerged as a platform to realize novel forms of nonlinear interactions. In particular, when atoms are coupled to a photonic crystal waveguide, long-range atomic interactions can arise that are mediated by localized atom-photon bound states. We theoretically show that in such a system, the absorption of a single photon can change the band structure for a subsequent photon. This occurs because the first photon affects the atoms in the chain in an alternating fashion, thus leading to an effective period doubling of the system and a new optical band structure for the composite atom-nanophotonic system. We demonstrate how this mechanism can be engineered to realize a single-photon switch, where the first incoming photon switches the system from being highly transmissive to highly reflective, and analyze how signatures can be observed via non-classical correlations of the outgoing photon field.

  5. Quantum identity authentication with single photon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chang ho; Heo, Jino; Jang, Jin Gak; Kwon, Daesung

    2017-10-01

    Quantum identity authentication with single photons is proposed in the paper. It can verify a user's identity without exposing to an authentication key information. The protocol guarantees high efficiency in that it can verify two bits of authentication information using just a single photon. The security of our authentication scheme is analyzed and confirmed in the case of a general attack. Moreover, the proposed protocol is practicable with current technology. Our quantum identity authentication protocol does not require quantum memory registration and any entangled photon sources.

  6. Single-photon manipulation in Nanophotonic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sofie Lindskov

    be realized on a chip with embedded quantum dots. This allows for on-chip generation and manipulation of single photons. The router consists of an on-chip interferometer where the phase difference between the arms of the interferometer is controlled electrically. The response time of the device......Quantum dots in photonic nanostructures has long been known to be a very powerful and versatile solid-state platform for conducting quantum optics experiments. The present PhD thesis describes experimental demonstrations of single-photon generation and subsequent manipulation all realized...

  7. Photonic wires and trumpets for ultrabright single photon sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gérard, Jean-Michel; Claudon, Julien; Bleuse, Joël

    2013-01-01

    as to tailor their radiation diagram in the far-field. We highlight the novel “photonic trumpet” geometry, which provides a clean Gaussian beam, and is much less sensitive to fabrication imperfections than the more common needle-like taper geometry. S4Ps based on a single QD in a PW with integrated bottom...

  8. Single photon detector design features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, Sergey V.; Kurochkin, Vladimir L.; Kurochkin, Yury V.

    2016-12-01

    In the report are discussed the laboratory test results of SPAD detectors with InGaAs / InP avalanche photodiodes, operating in Geiger mode. Device operating in synchronous mode with the dead timer setting for proper working conditions of photodiodes. The report materials will showing the functional block diagram of the detector, real operating signals in the receiver path and clock circuits and main results of measurements. The input signal of the synchronous detector is the clock, which determines the time positions of expected photons arrival. Increasing the clock speed 1-300 MHz or getting more time positions of the time grid, we provide increased capacity for time position code of signals, when QKD information transmitted over the nets. At the same time, the maximum attainable speed of photon reception is limited by diode dead time. Diode quantum noise are minimized by inclusion of a special time interval - dead time 0.1-10 usec, after each received and registered a photon. The lowest attainable value of the dead time is determined as a compromise between transients in electrical circuits, passive avalanche «quenching» circuit and thermal transients cooling crystal diode, after each avalanche pass though photodiode. Achievable time and speed parameters are discussed with specific examples of detectors.

  9. Virtual photonic couplings of quantum nanostructures for quantum information technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsueda, H.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Ducommun, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of virtual photons (VPHs) that need neither to conserve energy nor to follow temporal sequences because of the time-energy uncertainty principle, in the electric interactions between detuned non-identical two level atoms having different size and shape is demonstrated in terms o...

  10. Resolved ${\\gamma^{*}_{L}}$ in hard collisions of virtual photons QCD effects

    CERN Document Server

    Chyla, J; Chyla, Jiri; Tasevsky, Marek

    2001-01-01

    The manifestations of QCD effects on quark and gluon distribution functions of longitudinally polarized virtual photons involved in hard collisions are investigated. It is shown that for moderate photon virtualities and in the kinematical region accessible at HERA and LEP these effects are sizable and significantly enhance theoretical predictions based on contributions of transversally polarized virtual photon only.

  11. Recent results in photoproduction with real and virtual photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diekmann, B.

    1984-10-01

    An overview of recent experimental results on soft photon-hadron-interactions is given. It contains results on inclusive photoproduction of rho and ω-mesons, hyperons and the totally inclusive reaction: γp -> Xp. Results on the search for radially excited vectormesons and on the determination of the radiative width of the rho- meson are updated. An improved measurement of the pion form factor and a test of Vector-Meson-Dominance in case of virtual photons (vertical strokeq 2 vertical stroke 2 ) will be presented. (orig.)

  12. The frontiers of the virtual photons program at MAMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlimme B. S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The most recent results and the future physics program of the high precision electron-scattering experiment at MAMI are briefly outlined. The A1 high-resolution spectrometers facility allows for a unique quality of virtual photon experiments. High precision form factor measurements, few-baryon systems highresolution structure studies and the innovative way in the search of dark photons illustrate the interplay between such diverse fields as precision atomic physics, nuclear astrophysics and astroparticle physics, where hadron physics plays a central and connecting role.

  13. Interfacing superconducting qubits and single optical photons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Sumanta; Faez, Sanli; Sørensen, Anders S.

    2016-01-01

    We propose an efficient light-matter interface at optical frequencies between a superconducting qubit and a single photon. The desired interface is based on a hybrid architecture composed of an organic molecule embedded inside an optical waveguide and electrically coupled to a superconducting qubit

  14. Single Photon Experiments and Quantum Complementarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiev D. D.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Single photon experiments have been used as one of the most striking illustrations of the apparently nonclassical nature of the quantum world. In this review we examine the mathematical basis of the principle of complementarity and explain why the Englert-Greenberger duality relation is not violated in the configurations of Unruh and of Afshar.

  15. Single-photon imaging in CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charbon, E.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the architectural design and fabrication of medium and large arrays of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) for a variety of applications in physics, medicine, and the life sciences. Due to dynamic nature of SPADs, designs featuring a large number of SPADs require careful analysis of

  16. Single-Photon Technologies Based on Quantum-Dots in Photonic Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Tau Bernstorff

    In this thesis, the application of semiconductor quantum-dots in photonic crystals is explored as aresource for single-photon technology.Two platforms based on photonic crystals, a cavity and a waveguide, are examined as platformssingle-photon sources. Both platforms demonstrate strong single-photon...... purity under quasi-resonantexcitation. Furthermore the waveguide based platform demonstrates indistinguishable single-photonsat timescales up to 13 ns.A setup for active demultiplexing of single-photons to a three-fold single-photon state is proposed.Using a fast electro-optical modulator, single-photons...... from a quantum-dot are routed on timescalesof the exciton lifetime. Using active demultiplexing a three-fold single-photon state is generated at anextracted rate of 2:03 ±0:49 Hz.An on-chip power divider integrated with a quantum-dot is investigated. Correlation measurementof the photon statistic...

  17. Compton Scattering of Quasi-Real Virtual Photons at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefiev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degre, A.; Dehmelt, K.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duda, M.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Hage, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S.R.; Jin, B.N.; Jindal, P.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mans, J.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Nisati, A.; Novak, T.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Pal, I.; Palomares, C.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofiev, D.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, Mohammad Azizur; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosemann, C.; Rosenbleck, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmidt-Kaerst, S.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Son, D.; Souga, C.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R.T.; Vasquez, R.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, M.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, H.J.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, An.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.

    2005-01-01

    Compton scattering of quasi-real virtual photons, gamma e+- -> gamma e+-, is studied with 0.6fb-1 of data collected by the L3 detector at the LEP e+e- collider at centre-of-mass energies root(s')=189-209GeV. About 4500 events produced by the interaction of virtual photons emitted by e+- of one beam with e-+ of the opposite beam are collected for effective centre-of-mass energies of the photon-electron and photon-positron systems in the range from root(s')= 35GeV up to root(s')=175GeV, the highest energy at which Compton scattering was ever probed. The cross sections of the gamma e+- -> gamma e+- process as a function of root(s') and of the rest-frame scattering angle are measured, combined with previous L3 measurements down to root(s')~20GeV, and found to agree with the QED expectations.

  18. Ultrafast time measurements by time-correlated single photon counting coupled with superconducting single photon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shcheslavskiy, V., E-mail: vis@becker-hickl.de; Becker, W. [Becker & Hickl GmbH, Nahmitzer Damm 30, 12277 Berlin (Germany); Morozov, P.; Divochiy, A. [Scontel, Rossolimo St., 5/22-1, Moscow 119021 (Russian Federation); Vakhtomin, Yu. [Scontel, Rossolimo St., 5/22-1, Moscow 119021 (Russian Federation); Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1/1 M. Pirogovskaya St., Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Smirnov, K. [Scontel, Rossolimo St., 5/22-1, Moscow 119021 (Russian Federation); Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1/1 M. Pirogovskaya St., Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); National Research University Higher School of Economics, 20 Myasnitskaya St., Moscow 101000 (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    Time resolution is one of the main characteristics of the single photon detectors besides quantum efficiency and dark count rate. We demonstrate here an ultrafast time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) setup consisting of a newly developed single photon counting board SPC-150NX and a superconducting NbN single photon detector with a sensitive area of 7 × 7 μm. The combination delivers a record instrument response function with a full width at half maximum of 17.8 ps and system quantum efficiency ∼15% at wavelength of 1560 nm. A calculation of the root mean square value of the timing jitter for channels with counts more than 1% of the peak value yielded about 7.6 ps. The setup has also good timing stability of the detector–TCSPC board.

  19. Distributed quantum computing with single photon sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beige, A.; Kwek, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Distributed quantum computing requires the ability to perform nonlocal gate operations between the distant nodes (stationary qubits) of a large network. To achieve this, it has been proposed to interconvert stationary qubits with flying qubits. In contrast to this, we show that distributed quantum computing only requires the ability to encode stationary qubits into flying qubits but not the conversion of flying qubits into stationary qubits. We describe a scheme for the realization of an eventually deterministic controlled phase gate by performing measurements on pairs of flying qubits. Our scheme could be implemented with a linear optics quantum computing setup including sources for the generation of single photons on demand, linear optics elements and photon detectors. In the presence of photon loss and finite detector efficiencies, the scheme could be used to build large cluster states for one way quantum computing with a high fidelity. (author)

  20. Sub-megahertz linewidth single photon source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Rambach

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We report 100% duty cycle generation of sub-MHz single photon pairs at the rubidium D1 line using cavity-enhanced spontaneous parametric downconversion. The temporal intensity cross correlation function exhibits a bandwidth of 666±16 kHz for the single photons, an order of magnitude below the natural linewidth of the target transition. A half-wave plate inside our cavity helps to achieve triple resonance between pump, signal, and idler photon, reducing the bandwidth and simplifying the locking scheme. Additionally, stabilisation of the cavity to the pump frequency enables the 100% duty cycle. The quantum nature of the source is confirmed by the idler-triggered second-order autocorrelation function at τ=0 to be gs,s(2(0= 0.016±0.002 for a heralding rate of 5 kHz. The generated photons are well-suited for storage in quantum memory schemes with sub-natural linewidths, such as gradient echo memories.

  1. A High-Efficiency Photonic Nanowire Single-Photon Source Featuring An Inverted Conical Taper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Mørk, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    A photonic nanowire single-photon source design incorporating an inverted conical tapering is proposed. The inverted taper allows for easy electrical contacting and a high photon extraction efficiency of 89 %. Unlike cavity-based approaches, the photonic nanowire features broadband spontaneous...... emission control and an improved tolerance towards fabrication imperfections....

  2. Single-photon imaging in complementary metal oxide semiconductor processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charbon, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the basics of single-photon counting in complementary metal oxide semiconductors, through single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs), and the making of miniaturized pixels with photon-counting capability based on SPADs. Some applications, which may take advantage of SPAD image

  3. Single photon detection in the SQS mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, M.A.; Fraga, M.M.; Lima, E.P. de; Marques, R.F.; Neves, F.; Policarpo, A.

    1997-01-01

    Results are presented concerning the detection of single UV photons in self quenching streamer detectors by photoionization of one of the gas mixture components, in this case TEA (tri ethyl-amine), whose molecules have low photoionization potential and large absorption cross section. As a UV light source, a gas scintillation counter filled with krypton was used, whose emission light spectrum, centered at approximately 150 nm, overlaps well the photoionization spectrum of TEA. The mixtures studied were argon/ethane/TEA, argon/isobutane/TEA, argon/ethane/methylal/TEA and argon/isobutane/methylal/ TEA. (author). 4 refs., 4 figs

  4. Single Photon Double Ionization of Atomic Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramarathna, Madhushani; Gorczyca, Thomas; Ballance, Connor; Stolte, Wayne

    2017-04-01

    Single photon double ionization cross sections are calculated using an R-matrix with pseudostates (RMPS) method which was recently applied by Gorczyca et al. for the double photoionization of helium. With the convergence of these theoretical calculations for the simple case of helium, we extend this methodology to consider the more complex case of oxygen double photoionization. We compare our calculated results with recent measurements at the Advanced Light Source, as well as earlier experimental measurements. Our RMPS results agree well, qualitatively, with the experimental measurements, but there exist outstanding discrepancies to be addressed. This project is supported by NASA APRA award NNX17AD41G.

  5. A search for single photons at PETRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrend, H.J.; Buerger, J.; Criegee, L.; Fenner, H.; Field, J.H.; Franke, G.; Fuster, J.; Holler, Y.; Meyer, J.; Schroeder, V.; Sindt, H.; Timm, U.; Winter, G.G.; Zimmermann, W.; Bussey, P.J.; Buttar, C.; Campbell, A.J.; Dainton, J.B.; Hendry, D.; McCurrach, G.; Scarr, J.M.; Skillicorn, I.O.; Smith, K.M.; Blobel, V.; Feindt, M.; Poppe, M.; Spitzer, H.; Boer, W. de; Buschhorn, G.; Christiansen, W.; Grindhammer, G.; Gunderson, B.; Kiesling, C.; Kotthaus, R.; Kroha, H.; Lueers, D.; Oberlack, H.; Sack, B.; Schacht, P.; Shooshtari, G.; Wiedenmann, W.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Fournier, D.; Gaillard, M.; Grivaz, J.F.; Haissinski, J.; Journe, V.; Le Diberder, F.; Ros, E.; Spadafora, A.; Veillet, J.J.; Aleksan, R.; Cozzika, G.; Ducros, Y.; Lavagne, Y.; Ould Saada, F.; Pamela, J.; Pierre, F.; Zacek, J.; Alexander, G.; Bella, G.; Gnat, Y.; Grunhaus, J.; Levy, A.

    1986-01-01

    A search for single photons, produced in e + e - collisions together with particles interacting only weakly with matter, has been performed using the CELLO detector operating at the PETRA storage ring. From the absence of any signal, an upper limit is set at 15 (90% CL) on the number of light neutrino species, and lower limits on various supersymmetric particle masses are derived. For massless photinos, mass degenerate scalar partners of the left- and right-handed electrons are excluded below 37.7 GeV/c 2 (90% CL). (orig.)

  6. Generation of Fourier-transform-limited heralded single photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U'Ren, Alfred B.; Jeronimo-Moreno, Yasser; Garcia-Gracia, Hipolito

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we study the spectral (temporal) properties of heralded single photon wave packets, triggered by the detection of an idler photon in the process of parametric down conversion. The generated single photons are studied within the framework of the chronocyclic Wigner function, from which the single photon spectral width and temporal duration can be computed. We derive specific conditions on the two-photon joint spectral amplitude which result in both pure and Fourier-transform-limited heralded single photons. Likewise, we present specific source geometries which lead to the fulfillment of these conditions and show that one of these geometries leads, for a given pump bandwidth, to the temporally shortest possible heralded single photon wave packets

  7. TCAD simulations for a novel single-photon avalanche diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiangliang; Yang, Jia; Yang, Hongjiao; Tang, Lizhen; Liu, Weihui

    2015-03-01

    A single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) device with P+-SEN junction, and a low concentration of N-type doping circular virtual guard-ring was presented in this paper. SEN layer of the proposed SPAD has high concentration of N-type doping, causing the SPAD low breakdown voltage (~14.26 V). What's more, an efficient and narrow (about 2μm) guard-ring of the proposed SPAD not only can withstand considerably higher electric fields for preventing edge breakdown, but also offers a little increment in fill factor compared with existing SPADs due to its small area. In addition, some Silvaco TCAD simulations have been done and verify characteristics and performance of the design in this work.

  8. Probing virtual photon parton densities via γ*γ →jets at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poetter, B.

    2000-01-01

    We present a next-to-leading order calculation of jet production in γ*γ collisions from e + e - scattering in a region where the virtuality Q 2 of the probing virtual photon is small compared to the transverse jet energy. We make predictions for cross sections which suggest, that different parametrizations of virtual photon parton densities should be distinguishable by measurements of jet cross sections at LEP

  9. The photonic nanowire: A highly efficient single-photon source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The photonic nanowire represents an attractive platform for a quantum light emitter. However, careful optical engineering using the modal method, which elegantly allows access to all relevant physical parameters, is crucial to ensure high efficiency.......The photonic nanowire represents an attractive platform for a quantum light emitter. However, careful optical engineering using the modal method, which elegantly allows access to all relevant physical parameters, is crucial to ensure high efficiency....

  10. Waveguide-Coupled Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Andrew D.; Briggs, Ryan M.; Marsili, Francesco; Cohen, Justin D.; Meenehan, Sean M.; Painter, Oskar J.; Shaw, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    We have demonstrated WSi-based superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors coupled to SiNx waveguides with integrated ring resonators. This photonics platform enables the implementation of robust and efficient photon-counting detectors with fine spectral resolution near 1550 nm.

  11. Single photon imaging. New instrumentation and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehllehner, G.; Colsher, J.

    1981-01-01

    The performance of Anger scintillation cameras continues to be enhanced through a series of small improvements which result in significantly better imaging characteristics. The most recent changes in camera design consist of: (1) the introduction of photomultipliers with better photocathode and electron collection efficiencies, (2) the use of thinner (3/8 or 1/4 in) crystals giving slightly better intrinsic resolution for low gamma-ray energies, (3) inclusion of a spatially varying energy window to compensate for variations of light collection efficiency, (4) event-by-event, real-time distortion removal for uniformity correction, and (5) introduction of new methods to improve the count-rate capability. Whereas some of these improvements are due to better understanding of the fundamentals of camera design, others are the result of technological advances in electronic components such as analogue-to-digital converters, microprocessors and high-density digital memories. The development of single photon tomography has developed along two parallel paths. Multipinhole and rotating slant-hole collimator attachments provide some degree of longitudinal tomography, and are currently being applied to cardiac imaging. At the same time rotating camera systems capable of transverse as well as longitudinal imaging are being refined technically and evaluated clinically. Longitudinal tomography is of limited use in quantitative studies and is likely to be an interim solution to three-dimensional imaging. Rotating camera systems, on the other hand, not only provide equal resolution in all three dimensions but are also capable of providing quantitative accuracy. This is the result of progress in attenuation correction and the design of special collimators. Single photon tomography provides a small but noticeable improvement in diagnostic accuracy which is likely to result in widespread use of rotating camera systems in the future

  12. A high-efficiency electrically-pumped single-photon source based on a photonics nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Mørk, Jesper

    An electrically-pumped single-photon source design with a predicted efficiency of 89% is proposed. The design is based on a quantum dot embedded in a photonic nanowire with tailored ends and optimized contact electrodes. Unlike cavity-based approaches, the photonic nanowire features broadband...

  13. Probing the parton densities of virtual photons with the reaction γ*γ → jets at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poetter, B.

    1999-01-01

    We present a next-to-leading order calculation of jet production in γ * γ collisions from e + e - scattering in a region where the virtuality Q 2 of the probing virtual photon is small compared to the transverse jet energy. The calculation is based on the phase-space slicing method. The initial state singularity of the virtual photon is factorized into the structure function of the virtual photon, using the MS-bar factorization scheme for virtual photons. Numerical results are presented for LEP2 conditions. The perturbative stability of the pure direct virtual photon approach is compared to that of including resolved virtual photons in different regions of Q 2 . We make predictions for cross sections which suggest that different parametrizations of virtual photon parton densities should be distinguishable by measurements of jet cross sections at LEP

  14. Coherent single-photon absorption by single emitters coupled to 1D nanophotonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yuntian; Wubs, Martijn; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    We have derived an efficient model that allows calculating the dynamical single-photon absorption of an emitter coupled to a waveguide. We suggest a novel and simple structure that leads to strong single-photon absorption.......We have derived an efficient model that allows calculating the dynamical single-photon absorption of an emitter coupled to a waveguide. We suggest a novel and simple structure that leads to strong single-photon absorption....

  15. Single photon emission from ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sumin; Ton-That, Cuong; Phillips, Matthew R.; Aharonovich, Igor, E-mail: igor.aharonovich@uts.edu.au [School of Physics and Advanced Materials, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, New South Wales 2007 (Australia); Johnson, Brett C. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Castelletto, Stefania [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3000 (Australia)

    2014-06-30

    Room temperature single photon emitters are very important resources for photonics and emerging quantum technologies. In this work, we study single photon emission from defect centers in 20 nm zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles. The emitters exhibit bright broadband fluorescence in the red spectral range centered at 640 nm with polarized excitation and emission. The studied emitters showed continuous blinking; however, bleaching can be suppressed using a polymethyl methacrylate coating. Furthermore, hydrogen termination increased the density of single photon emitters. Our results will contribute to the identification of quantum systems in ZnO.

  16. Characterization of the nonclassical nature of conditionally prepared single photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U'Ren, Alfred B.; Silberhorn, Christine; Ball, Jonathan L.; Banaszek, Konrad; Walmsley, Ian A.

    2005-01-01

    A reliable single photon source is a prerequisite for linear optical quantum computation and for secure quantum key distribution. A criterion yielding a conclusive test of the single photon character of a given source, attainable with realistic detectors, is therefore highly desirable. In the context of heralded single photon sources, such a criterion should be sensitive to the effects of higher photon number contributions, and to vacuum introduced through optical losses, which tend to degrade source performance. In this Rapid Communication we present, theoretically and experimentally, a criterion meeting the above requirements

  17. Single-photon source engineering using a Modal Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels

    Solid-state sources of single indistinguishable photons are of great interest for quantum information applications. The semiconductor quantum dot embedded in a host material represents an attractive platform to realize such a single-photon source (SPS). A near-unity efficiency, defined as the num...... nanowire SPSs...

  18. Nanofabrication of Plasmonic Circuits Containing Single Photon Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siampour, Hamidreza; Kumar, Shailesh; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2017-01-01

    Nanofabrication of photonic components based on dielectric loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides (DLSPPWs) excited by single nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in nanodiamonds is demonstrated. DLSPPW circuits are built around NV containing nanodiamonds, which are certified to be single...

  19. Single-photon generator for optical telecommunication wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usuki, T; Sakuma, Y; Hirose, S; Takemoto, K; Yokoyama, N; Miyazawa, T; Takatsu, M; Arakawa, Y

    2006-01-01

    We report on the generation of single-photon pulses from a single InAs/InP quantum dot in telecommunication bands (1.3-1.55 μm: higher transmittance through an optical fiber). First we prepared InAs quantum dots on InP (0 0 1) substrates in a low-pressure MOCVD by using a so-called InP 'double-cap' procedure. The quantum dots have well-controlled photo emission wavelength in the telecommunication bands. We also developed a single-photon emitter in which quantum dots were embedded. Numerical simulation designed the emitter to realize efficient injection of the emitted photons into a single-mode optical fiber. Using a Hanbury-Brown and Twiss technique has proved that the photons through the fiber were single photons

  20. Virtual photon impulse of bunch, beampipe response, coherent RF Beamstrahlung; and BEPC bunch length, BES jam, virtual acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Shen

    1993-01-01

    A brief EEE view of signal QED is presented. The research has been concentrated on the virtual photon modes of ultra relativistic shock wave in a bunch-beampipe system, and real photon modes of Coherent RF Beamstrahlung CRFB. Physically, the virtual photons emitted by a bunch were treated as a travelling pseudo wave packet in a flight coaxial cavity constructed by bunch-wakefield core and beampipe. Mathematically, it is a boundary solution of shock wave excited by ultra relativistic impulse of bunch. The new modes of solution: VTA, VTEM, VTM, VLE are virtual photon packets and RTE, RTM, RTEM are real photon modes of CRFB. By these results the author measured and corrected BEPC bunch length from signals of : (1) TOF reference of BES, (2) BPM of BEPC, (3) Colliding CRFB of BEPC - BES coupling signal, as well as (4) the ordinary method of Synchrotron Radiation. All results of the measured bunch lengths are in accordance with the design length of BEPC, and were verified by the BES data of vertex reconstruction of hadron events. The author also found that CRFB is the unknown jam source of BES electronics. VLE virtual photons can accelerate particles

  1. Entanglement and quantum superposition induced by a single photon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xin-You; Zhu, Gui-Lei; Zheng, Li-Li; Wu, Ying

    2018-03-01

    We predict the occurrence of single-photon-induced entanglement and quantum superposition in a hybrid quantum model, introducing an optomechanical coupling into the Rabi model. Originally, it comes from the photon-dependent quantum property of the ground state featured by the proposed hybrid model. It is associated with a single-photon-induced quantum phase transition, and is immune to the A2 term of the spin-field interaction. Moreover, the obtained quantum superposition state is actually a squeezed cat state, which can significantly enhance precision in quantum metrology. This work offers an approach to manipulate entanglement and quantum superposition with a single photon, which might have potential applications in the engineering of new single-photon quantum devices, and also fundamentally broaden the regime of cavity QED.

  2. Single-photon detector operating under extremely high background photon flux conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochazka, Ivan; Sopko, Bruno; Blazej, Josef

    2009-01-01

    We are reporting our results in research and development in the field of avalanche semiconductor single-photon detectors and their application. Our goal was a development of a solid-state photon-counting detector capable of high-precision photon arrival time tagging in extremely harsh operating conditions. The background photon flux exceeding 10 9 photons per second hitting the detector active area should not avoid the useful signal detection and recognition on the signal level of units of photons per second. This is background photon flux about two orders of magnitude higher than what the conventional solid-state photon counters accept. The detection timing resolution should be better than 100 ps and the delay stability should be on picosecond level. We have developed and tested the active quenched and gated avalanche structure on silicon providing the required features in connection with the K14 detection chips. The detector is capable of gated operation under the conditions of background photon flux of 5x10 9 photons per second. The operational detector tolerates long term exposures to the input photon flux exceeding 10 15 photons (>1 mW) per second without damage.

  3. Quantum private comparison employing single-photon interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Xiao, Di; Huang, Wei; Jia, Heng-Yue; Song, Ting-Ting

    2017-07-01

    As a typical quantum cryptographic task between distrustful participants, quantum private comparison (QPC) has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Here we propose two QPC protocols employing single-photon interference, a typical and interesting technology for quantum communications. Compared with the previous QPC protocols employing normal single states or entangled states, the proposed protocols achieve lower communication complexity utilizing the characteristics of single-photon interference. And we also proved the security of the proposed protocols in theory.

  4. Novel single photon sources for new generation of quantum communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-13

    state single photon sources that was published in Nature Photonics in October 2016. 15. SUBJECT TERMS diamond color center, diamond, AOARD 16. SECURITY...platform for quantum emitters. We developed means to increase their density, developed basic methods to engineer them, and demonstrate coupling to...manipulation of a silicon vacancy color cent er in a nanodiamond. We demonstrate ultra fast coherent control of a photon, that make s this defect

  5. Spectrum of acetylene fluorescence excited by single XUV photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmieder, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The spectrum of visible emission from photofragments of acetylene excited by single 16.85 eV photons has been recorded for the first time. The spectrum is dominated by the Swan and Deslandres-d'Azambuja bands of C 2 and the 431.5 nm band of CH. The yields of these emissions are of the order 10 -3 photons per absorbed incident photon. The experimental conditions suggest that the emission results from primary C* 2 and CH* photofragments

  6. Setting Single Photon Detectors for Use with an Entangled Photon Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    System by Daniel E Jones, Drew Weninger, and Michael Brodsky Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...Laboratory Setting Single Photon Detectors for Use with an Entangled Photon Distribution System by Daniel E Jones and Michael Brodsky Computational...Use with an Entangled Photon Distribution System 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Daniel E Jones

  7. Single-photon light detection with transition-edge sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajteri, M.; Taralli, E.; Portesi, C.; Monticone, E.

    2008-01-01

    Transition-Edge Sensors (TESs) are micro calorimeters that measure the energy of incident single-photons by the resistance increase of a superconducting film biased within the superconducting-to-normal transition. TES are able to detect single photons from x-ray to IR with an intrinsic energy resolution and photon-number discrimination capability. Metrological, astronomical and quantum communication applications are the fields where these properties can be particularly important. In this work, we report about characterization of different TESs based on Ti films. Single-photons have been detected from 200 nm to 800 nm working at T c ∼ 100 m K. Using a pulsed laser at 690 nm we have demonstrated the capability to resolve up to five photons.

  8. Probing the structure of the virtual photon in the deep inelastic Compton process at the DESY HERA collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawczyk, M.; Zembrzuski, A.

    1998-01-01

    The sensitivity of deep inelastic Compton (DIC) scattering at DESY HERA to the structure of the virtual photon is discussed. It is demonstrated that the gluonic content of the virtual photon can be pinned down by measuring the photons with p T ∼5 GeV in the proton direction. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  9. Enhancement of Single-Photon Sources with Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaginov, M. Y.; Bogdanov, S.; Vorobyov, V. V.; Lagutchev, A. S.; Kildishev, A. V.; Akimov, A. V.; Boltasseva, A.; Shalaev, V. M.

    2015-06-01

    Scientists are looking for new, breakthrough solutions that can greatly advance computing and networking systems. These solutions will involve quantum properties of matter and light as promised by the ongoing experimental and theoretical work in the areas of quantum computation and communication. Quantum photonics is destined to play a central role in the development of such technologies due to the high transmission capacity and outstanding low-noise properties of photonic information channels. Among the vital problems to be solved in this direction, are efficient generation and collection of single photons. One approach to tackle these problems is based on engineering emission properties of available single-photon sources using metamaterials. Metamaterials are artificially engineered structures with sub-wavelength features whose optical properties go beyond the limitations of conventional materials. As promising single-photon sources, we have chosen nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond, which are capable to operate stably in a single-photon regime at room temperature in a solid state environment. In this chapter, we report both theoretical and experimental studies of the radiation from a nanodiamond single NV center placed near a hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM). In particular, we derive the reduction of excited-state lifetime and the enhancement of collected single-photon emission rate and compare them with the experimental observations. These results could be of great impact for future integrated quantum sources, especially owing to a CMOS-compatible approach to HMM synthesis.

  10. Extent of sensitivity of single photon production to parton distribution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The prompt photon cross-section is found to be described equally well by all the PDFs within the experimental errors at the RHIC and the LHC energies. The deviation in the single-prompt photon yield for different PDF sets is within ±20% when compared to CTEQ4M, indicating the upper bound of uncertainty in determining ...

  11. Extent of sensitivity of single photon production to parton distribution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The single-prompt photon yield is expected to be sensitive to parton distribution function (PDF) in general and to gluon distribution in particular of the colliding hadron [2–9]. It is also considered an essential ingredient to quantify the nuclear modification of direct photon production in the relativistic nucleus–nucleus collisions ...

  12. Near-unity efficiency, single-photon sources based on tapered photonic nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bleuse, Joël; Munsch, Mathieu; Claudon, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Single-photon emission from excitons in InAs Quantum Dots (QD) embedded in GaAs Tapered Photonic Wires (TPW) already demonstrated a 0.72 collection efficiency, with TPWs were the apex is the sharp end of the cone. Going to alternate designs, still based on the idea of the adiabatic deconfinement...

  13. Controlling light emission from single-photon sources using photonic nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Chen, Yuntian; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    The photonic nanowire has recently emerged as an promising alternative to microcavity-based single-photon source designs. In this simple structure, a geometrical effect ensures a strong coupling between an embedded emitter and the optical mode of interest and a combination of tapers and mirrors a...... designs allowing for electrical contacting, polarization control, improved efficiency and simplified fabrication....

  14. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    Discusses the basic physical principles underlying Biomedical Photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy This volume discusses biomedical photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy, the basic physical principles underlying the technology and its applications. The topics discussed in this volume are: Biophotonics; Fluorescence and Phosphorescence; Medical Photonics; Microscopy; Nonlinear Optics; Ophthalmic Technology; Optical Tomography; Optofluidics; Photodynamic Therapy; Image Processing; Imaging Systems; Sensors; Single Molecule Detection; Futurology in Photonics. Comprehensive and accessible cov

  15. Single Photon Avalanche Diodes: Towards the Large Bidimensional Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Sciacca

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Single photon detection is one of the most challenging goals of photonics. In recent years, the study of ultra-fast and/or low-intensity phenomena has received renewed attention from the academic and industrial communities. Intense research activity has been focused on bio-imaging applications, bio-luminescence, bio-scattering methods, and, more in general, on several applications requiring high speed operation and high timing resolution. In this paper we present design and characterization of bi-dimensional arrays of a next generation of single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs. Single photon sensitivity, dark noise, afterpulsing and timing resolution of the single SPAD have been examined in several experimental conditions. Moreover, the effects arising from their integration and the readout mode have also been deeply investigated.

  16. Modeling and Development of Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detectors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal outlines a research project as the central component of a Ph.D. program focused on the device physics of superconducting nanowire single photon...

  17. Two-photon calcium imaging in mice navigating a virtual reality environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinweber, Marcus; Zmarz, Pawel; Buchmann, Peter; Argast, Paul; Hübener, Mark; Bonhoeffer, Tobias; Keller, Georg B

    2014-02-20

    In recent years, two-photon imaging has become an invaluable tool in neuroscience, as it allows for chronic measurement of the activity of genetically identified cells during behavior(1-6). Here we describe methods to perform two-photon imaging in mouse cortex while the animal navigates a virtual reality environment. We focus on the aspects of the experimental procedures that are key to imaging in a behaving animal in a brightly lit virtual environment. The key problems that arise in this experimental setup that we here address are: minimizing brain motion related artifacts, minimizing light leak from the virtual reality projection system, and minimizing laser induced tissue damage. We also provide sample software to control the virtual reality environment and to do pupil tracking. With these procedures and resources it should be possible to convert a conventional two-photon microscope for use in behaving mice.

  18. Highly efficient photonic nanowire single-photon sources for quantum information applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Claudon, J.; Munsch, M.

    2013-01-01

    must feature near-unity efficiency, where the efficiency is defined as the number of detected photons per trigger, the probability g(2)(τ=0) of multi-photon emission events should be 0 and the emitted photons are required to be indistinguishable. An optically or electrically triggered quantum light......Within the emerging field of optical quantum information processing, the current challenge is to construct the basic building blocks for the quantum computing and communication systems. A key component is the singlephoton source (SPS) capable of emitting single photons on demand. Ideally, the SPS...... emitter, e.g. a nitrogen-vacancy center or a semiconductor quantum dot (QD), embedded in a solid-state semiconductor host material appears as an attractive platform for generating such single photons. However, for a QD in bulk material, the large index contrast at the semiconductor-air interface leads...

  19. Recyclable amplification for single-photon entanglement from photon loss and decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lan; Chen, Ling-Quan; Zhong, Wei; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2018-01-01

    We put forward a highly efficient recyclable single-photon assisted amplification protocol, which can protect single-photon entanglement (SPE) from photon loss and decoherence. Making use of quantum nondemolition detection gates constructed with the help of cross-Kerr nonlinearity, our protocol has some attractive advantages. First, the parties can recover less-entangled SPE to be maximally entangled SPE, and reduce photon loss simultaneously. Second, if the protocol fails, the parties can repeat the protocol to reuse some discarded items, which can increase the success probability. Third, when the protocol is successful, they can similarly repeat the protocol to further increase the fidelity of the SPE. Thereby, our protocol provides a possible way to obtain high entanglement, high fidelity and high success probability simultaneously. In particular, our protocol shows higher success probability in the practical high photon loss channel. Based on the above features, our amplification protocol has potential for future application in long-distance quantum communication.

  20. NLO corrections to the photon impact factor: Combining real and virtual corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, J.; Colferai, D.; Kyrieleis, A.; Gieseke, S.

    2002-08-01

    In this third part of our calculation of the QCD NLO corrections to the photon impact factor we combine our previous results for the real corrections with the singular pieces of the virtual corrections and present finite analytic expressions for the quark-antiquark-gluon intermediate state inside the photon impact factor. We begin with a list of the infrared singular pieces of the virtual correction, obtained in the first step of our program. We then list the complete results for the real corrections (longitudinal and transverse photon polarization). In the next step we defined, for the real corrections, the collinear and soft singular regions and calculate their contributions to the impact factor. We then subtract the contribution due to the central region. Finally, we combine the real corrections with the singular pieces of the virtual corrections and obtain our finite results. (orig.)

  1. Quasi free mechanism in single photon double ionization of helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeffler, Markus; Stuck, Christian [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA (United States); Jahnke, Till; Waitz, Markus; Trinter, Florian; Lenz, Ute; Schmidt-Boecking, Horst; Doerner, Reinhard [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Jones, Mathew; Landers, Allen [Auburn University, Auburn, AL (United States); Belkacem, Ali; Weber, Thorsten [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA (United States); Cocke, Lew [Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Double ionization of Helium by a single photon is widely believed to proceed through two mechanisms: knock-off (TS1) or shake-off, with the last one dominating at high photon energies. A new mechanism, termed ''Quasi Free Mechanism'' (QFM) was predicted 35 years ago by Amusia and coworkers, but escaped experimental observation till today. Here we provide the first proof of this mechanism using 800 eV photons from the Advanced Light Source. Fragments (electrons and ions) were measured in coincidence using momentum spectroscopy (COLTRIMS). He{sup (}2+) ions with zero momentum were found - the fingerprint for the QFM.

  2. Deterministic teleportation using single-photon entanglement as a resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björk, Gunnar; Laghaout, Amine; Andersen, Ulrik L.

    2012-01-01

    We outline a proof that teleportation with a single particle is, in principle, just as reliable as with two particles. We thereby hope to dispel the skepticism surrounding single-photon entanglement as a valid resource in quantum information. A deterministic Bell-state analyzer is proposed which...

  3. Resonant interaction of a single atom with single photons from a down-conversion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, C.; Rohde, F.; Piro, N.; Almendros, M.; Huwer, J.; Mitchell, M. W.; Hennrich, M.; Haase, A.; Dubin, F.; Eschner, J.

    2010-01-01

    We observe the interaction of a single trapped calcium ion with single photons produced by a narrow-band, resonant down-conversion source [A. Haase , Opt. Lett. 34, 55 (2009)], employing a quantum jump scheme. Using the temperature dependence of the down-conversion spectrum and the tunability of the narrow source, absorption of the down-conversion photons is quantitatively characterized.

  4. Coherent single-photon absorption by single emitters coupled to one-dimensional nanophotonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yuntian; Wubs, Martijn; Mørk, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    solutions for the dynamics of absorption, with maximum atomic excitation . We furthermore propose a terminated waveguide to aid the single-photon absorption. We found that for an emitter placed at an optimal distance from the termination, the maximum atomic excitation due to an incident single......We study the dynamics of single-photon absorption by a single emitter coupled to a one-dimensional waveguide that simultaneously provides channels for spontaneous emission (SE) decay and a channel for the input photon. We have developed a time-dependent theory that allows us to specify any input......-photon wavepacket can exceed 70%. This high value is a direct consequence of the high SE β-factor for emission into the waveguide. Finally, we have also explored whether waveguide dispersion could aid single-photon absorption by pulse shaping. For a Gaussian input wavepacket, we found that the absorption efficiency...

  5. Total Cross Sections and Event Properties from Real to Virtual Photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friberg, Christer; Sjoestrand, Torbjoern

    2000-01-01

    A model for total cross sections with virtual photons is presented. In particular gamma*-p and gamma*-gamma* cross sections are considered. Our approach extends on a model for photoproduction, where the total cross section is subdivided into three distinct event classes: direct, VMD and anomalous. With increasing photon virtuality, the latter two decrease in importance. Instead Deep Inelastic Scattering dominates, with the direct class being the O(alpha s ) correction thereof. Hence, the model provides a smooth transition between the two regions. By the breakdown into different event classes, one may aim for a complete picture of all event properties. (author)

  6. Single-photon absorption by single photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Herman C. H.; Gamel, Omar E.; Fleming, Graham R.; Whaley, K. Birgitta

    2018-03-01

    We provide a unified theoretical approach to the quantum dynamics of absorption of single photons and subsequent excitonic energy transfer in photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes. Our analysis combines a continuous mode -photon quantum optical master equation for the chromophoric system with the hierarchy of equations of motion describing excitonic dynamics in presence of non-Markovian coupling to vibrations of the chromophores and surrounding protein. We apply the approach to simulation of absorption of single-photon coherent states by pigment–protein complexes containing between one and seven chromophores, and compare with results obtained by excitation using a thermal radiation field. We show that the values of excitation probability obtained under single-photon absorption conditions can be consistently related to bulk absorption cross-sections. Analysis of the timescale and efficiency of single-photon absorption by light-harvesting systems within this full quantum description of pigment–protein dynamics coupled to a quantum radiation field reveals a non-trivial dependence of the excitation probability and the excited state dynamics induced by exciton–phonon coupling during and subsequent to the pulse, on the bandwidth of the incident photon pulse. For bandwidths equal to the spectral bandwidth of Chlorophyll a, our results yield an estimation of an average time of ∼0.09 s for a single chlorophyll chromophore to absorb the energy equivalent of one (single-polarization) photon under irradiation by single-photon states at the intensity of sunlight.

  7. Cooperative single-photon subradiant states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, H. H.; Chang, M.-S.; Chen, Y.-C.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a set of subradiant states which can be prepared and detected in a one-dimensional optical lattice. We find that the decay rates are highly dependent on the spatial phases imprinted on the atomic chain, which allows systematic investigations of the subradiance in fluorescence experiments. The time evolution of these states can have a long decay time where up to 100 ms of lifetime is predicted for 100 atoms. They can also show decayed Rabi-like oscillations with a beating frequency determined by the difference of the cooperative Lamb shift in the subspace. Experimental requirements are also discussed for practical implementation of the subradiant states. Our proposal provides a scheme for quantum storage of photons in arrays of two-level atoms through the preparation and detection of subradiant states, which offers opportunities for quantum many-body state preparation and quantum information processing in optical lattices.

  8. Diagnosis of dementia with single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagust, W.J.; Budinger, T.F.; Reed, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography is a practical modality for the study of physiologic cerebral activity in vivo. We utilized single photon emission computed tomography and N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine iodine 123 to evaluate regional cerebral blood flow in nine patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), five healthy elderly control subjects, and two patients with multi-infarct dementia. We found that all subjects with AD demonstrated flow deficits in temporoparietal cortex bilaterally, and that the ratio of activity in bilateral temporoparietal cortex to activity in the whole slice allowed the differentiation of all patients with AD from both the controls and from the patients with multi-infarct dementia. Furthermore, this ratio showed a strong correlation with disease severity in the AD group. Single photon emission computed tomography appears to be useful in the differential diagnosis of dementia and reflects clinical features of the disease

  9. Fast recognition of single molecules based on single-event photon statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Shuangli; Huang Tao; Liu Yuan; Wang Jun; Zhang Guofeng; Xiao Liantuan; Jia Suotang

    2007-01-01

    Mandel's Q parameter, which is determined from single-event photon statistics, provides an alternative way to recognize single molecules with fluorescence detection, other than the second-order correlation function. It is shown that the Q parameter of an assumed ideal double-molecule fluorescence with the same average photon number as that of the sample fluorescence can act as the criterion for single-molecule recognition. The influence of signal-to-background ratio and the error estimates for photon statistics are also presented. We have applied this method to ascertain single Cy5 dye molecules within hundreds of milliseconds

  10. A Variable Single Photon Plasmonic Beamsplitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Niels Møller; Kumar, Shailesh; Huck, Alexander

    Plasmonic structures can both be exploited for scaling down optical components beyond the diffraction limit and enhancing andcollecting the emission from a single dipole emitter. Here, we experimentally demonstrate adiabatic coupling between two silvernanowires using a nitrogen vacancy center as ...

  11. Direct virtual photon production in Au+Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Adamczyk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the direct virtual photon invariant yields in the transverse momentum ranges 16 GeV/c the production follows TAA scaling. Model calculations with contributions from thermal radiation and initial hard parton scattering are consistent within uncertainties with the direct virtual photon invariant yield.

  12. Direct virtual photon production in Au+Au collisions at √{sNN} = 200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Alekseev, I.; Anderson, D. M.; Aoyama, R.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Ashraf, M. U.; Attri, A.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, X.; Bairathi, V.; Behera, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandenburg, J. D.; Brandin, A. V.; Brown, D.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chankova-Bunzarova, N.; Chatterjee, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, X.; Chen, J. H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Elsey, N.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Esumi, S.; Evdokimov, O.; Ewigleben, J.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Federicova, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fujita, J.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A. I.; Hamed, A.; Harlenderova, A.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, T.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, X.; Humanic, T. J.; Huo, P.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jentsch, A.; Jia, J.; Jiang, K.; Jowzaee, S.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Kocmanek, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulathunga, N.; Kumar, L.; Kvapil, J.; Kwasizur, J. H.; Lacey, R.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, C.; Li, Y.; Lidrych, J.; Lin, T.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, Y.; Liu, F.; Liu, H.; Liu, P.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, L.; Ma, R.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Mallick, D.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H. S.; Meehan, K.; Mei, J. C.; Miller, Z. W.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nie, M.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Niida, T.; Nogach, L. V.; Nonaka, T.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V. A.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Pile, P.; Pluta, J.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Ray, R. L.; Reed, R.; Rehbein, M. J.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roth, J. D.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Saur, M.; Schambach, J.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Schweid, B. R.; Seger, J.; Sergeeva, M.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, Z.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Singha, S.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, D.; Solyst, W.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sugiura, T.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, Y.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, X.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Taranenko, A.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Todoroki, T.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbæk, F.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, G.; Wang, Y.; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Webb, J. C.; Webb, G.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xie, G.; Xu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Yang, C.; Yang, S.; Ye, Z.; Ye, Z.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Z.; Zyzak, M.

    2017-07-01

    We report the direct virtual photon invariant yields in the transverse momentum ranges 1 6 GeV / c the production follows TAA scaling. Model calculations with contributions from thermal radiation and initial hard parton scattering are consistent within uncertainties with the direct virtual photon invariant yield.

  13. Single-photon switch: Controllable scattering of photons inside a one-dimensional resonator waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Gong, Z. R.; Liu, Y. X.; Sun, C. P.; Nori, F.

    2010-03-01

    We analyze the coherent transport of a single photon, which propagates in a one-dimensional coupled-resonator waveguide and is scattered by a controllable two-level system located inside one of the resonators of this waveguide. Our approach, which uses discrete coordinates, unifies low and high energy effective theories for single-photon scattering. We show that the controllable two-level system can behave as a quantum switch for the coherent transport of a single photon. This study may inspire new electro-optical single-photon quantum devices. We also suggest an experimental setup based on superconducting transmission line resonators and qubits. References: L. Zhou, Z.R. Gong, Y.X. Liu, C.P. Sun, F. Nori, Controllable scattering of photons inside a one-dimensional resonator waveguide, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 100501 (2008). L. Zhou, H. Dong, Y.X. Liu, C.P. Sun, F. Nori, Quantum super-cavity with atomic mirrors, Phys. Rev. A 78, 063827 (2008).

  14. Optimization of time-correlated single photon counting spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiufeng; Du Haiying; Sun Jinsheng

    2011-01-01

    The paper proposes a performance improving scheme for the conventional time-correlated single photon counting spectrometer and develops a high speed data acquisition card based on PCI bus and FPGA technologies. The card is used to replace the multi-channel analyzer to improve the capability and decrease the volume of the spectrometer. The process of operation is introduced along with the integration of the spectrometer system. Many standard samples are measured. The experimental results show that the sensitivity of the spectrometer is single photon counting, and the time resolution of fluorescence lifetime measurement can be picosecond level. The instrument could measure the time-resolved spectroscopy. (authors)

  15. Design and simulations of highly efficient single-photon sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Mørk, Jesper

    The realization of the highly-efficient single-photon source represents not only an experimental, but also a numerical challenge. We will present the theory of the waveguide QED approach, the design challenges and the current limitations. Additionally, the important numerical challenges in the si......The realization of the highly-efficient single-photon source represents not only an experimental, but also a numerical challenge. We will present the theory of the waveguide QED approach, the design challenges and the current limitations. Additionally, the important numerical challenges...

  16. Dynamically reconfigurable directionality of plasmon-based single photon sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yuntian; Lodahl, Peter; Koenderink, A. Femius

    2010-01-01

    We propose a plasmon-based reconfigurable antenna to controllably distribute emission from single quantum emitters in spatially separated channels. Our calculations show that crossed particle arrays can split the stream of photons from a single emitter into multiple narrow beams. We predict...... that beams can be switched on and off by switching host refractive index. The design method is based on engineering the dispersion relations of plasmon chains and is generally applicable to traveling wave antennas. Controllable photon delivery has potential applications in classical and quantum communication....

  17. Single-photon interference experiment for high schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondani, Maria

    2014-07-01

    We follow the reductio ad absurdum reasoning described in the book "Sneaking a Look at God's Cards" by Giancarlo Ghirardi to demonstrate the wave-particle duality of light in a Mach-Zehnder interferometric setup analog to the conventional Young double-slit experiment. We aim at showing the double nature of light by measuring the existence of interference fringes down to the single-photon level. The setup includes a strongly attenuated laser, polarizing beam splitters, half-waveplates, polarizers and single-photon detectors.

  18. Optimizing the photon selection of the CMS Single-Photon search for Supersymmetry using multivariate analyses

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to improve the photon selection of the CMS SinglePhoton search for Supersymmetry by using multivariate analyses.The Single-Photon search aims to find Supersymmetry (SUSY) in data taken by theCompact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the Large Hadron Collider located atthe research center CERN. SUSY is an extension of the standard model of particlephysics. The search is designed for a general gauge mediation scenario, which describes the gauge mediated SUSY breaking. The analysis uses final states with jets,at least one photon and missing transverse energy. A data-driven prediction of themultijet background is performed for the analysis. For this purpose, photon candidates have to be classified into two selections.In this thesis the usage of multivariate analyses for the photon candidate classification is studied. The methods used are Fisher Discriminant, Boosted Decision Treesand Artificial Neural Networks. Their performance is evaluated with respect to different aspects impor...

  19. Time stamping of single optical photons with 10 ns resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakaberia, Irakli; Cotlet, Mircea; Fisher-Levine, Merlin; Hodges, Diedra R.; Nguyen, Jayke; Nomerotski, Andrei

    2017-05-01

    High spatial and temporal resolution are key features for many modern applications, e.g. mass spectrometry, probing the structure of materials via neutron scattering, studying molecular structure, etc.1-5 Fast imaging also provides the capability of coincidence detection, and the further addition of sensitivity to single optical photons with the capability of timestamping them further broadens the field of potential applications. Photon counting is already widely used in X-ray imaging,6 where the high energy of the photons makes their detection easier. TimepixCam is a novel optical imager,7 which achieves high spatial resolution using an array of 256×256 55 μm × 55μm pixels which have individually controlled functionality. It is based on a thin-entrance-window silicon sensor, bump-bonded to a Timepix ASIC.8 TimepixCam provides high quantum efficiency in the optical wavelength range (400-1000 nm). We perform the timestamping of single photons with a time resolution of 20 ns, by coupling TimepixCam to a fast image-intensifier with a P47 phosphor screen. The fast emission time of the P479 allows us to preserve good time resolution while maintaining the capability to focus the optical output of the intensifier onto the 256×256 pixel Timepix sensor area. We demonstrate the capability of the (TimepixCam + image intensifier) setup to provide high-resolution single-photon timestamping, with an effective frame rate of 50 MHz.

  20. Protecting single-photon entanglement with practical entanglement source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lan; Ou-Yang, Yang; Wang, Lei; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2017-06-01

    Single-photon entanglement (SPE) is important for quantum communication and quantum information processing. However, SPE is sensitive to photon loss. In this paper, we discuss a linear optical amplification protocol for protecting SPE. Different from the previous protocols, we exploit the practical spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) source to realize the amplification, for the ideal entanglement source is unavailable in current quantum technology. Moreover, we prove that the amplification using the entanglement generated from SPDC source as auxiliary is better than the amplification assisted with single photons. The reason is that the vacuum state from SPDC source will not affect the amplification, so that it can be eliminated automatically. This protocol may be useful in future long-distance quantum communications.

  1. Multi-group dynamic quantum secret sharing with single photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongwei [School of Science and State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Ma, Haiqiang, E-mail: hqma@bupt.edu.cn [School of Science and State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Wei, Kejin [School of Science and State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Yang, Xiuqing [School of Science, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Qu, Wenxiu; Dou, Tianqi; Chen, Yitian; Li, Ruixue; Zhu, Wu [School of Science and State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)

    2016-07-15

    In this letter, we propose a novel scheme for the realization of single-photon dynamic quantum secret sharing between a boss and three dynamic agent groups. In our system, the boss can not only choose one of these three groups to share the secret with, but also can share two sets of independent keys with two groups without redistribution. Furthermore, the security of communication is enhanced by using a control mode. Compared with previous schemes, our scheme is more flexible and will contribute to a practical application. - Highlights: • A multi-group dynamic quantum secret sharing with single photons scheme is proposed. • Any one of the groups can be chosen to share secret through controlling the polarization of photons. • Two sets of keys can be shared simultaneously without redistribution.

  2. Semi-quantum Dialogue Based on Single Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tian-Yu; Ye, Chong-Qiang

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we propose two semi-quantum dialogue (SQD) protocols by using single photons as the quantum carriers, where one requires the classical party to possess the measurement capability and the other does not have this requirement. The security toward active attacks from an outside Eve in the first SQD protocol is guaranteed by the complete robustness of present semi-quantum key distribution (SQKD) protocols, the classical one-time pad encryption, the classical party's randomization operation and the decoy photon technology. The information leakage problem of the first SQD protocol is overcome by the classical party' classical basis measurements on the single photons carrying messages which makes him share their initial states with the quantum party. The security toward active attacks from Eve in the second SQD protocol is guaranteed by the classical party's randomization operation, the complete robustness of present SQKD protocol and the classical one-time pad encryption. The information leakage problem of the second SQD protocol is overcome by the quantum party' classical basis measurements on each two adjacent single photons carrying messages which makes her share their initial states with the classical party. Compared with the traditional information leakage resistant QD protocols, the advantage of the proposed SQD protocols lies in that they only require one party to have quantum capabilities. Compared with the existing SQD protocol, the advantage of the proposed SQD protocols lies in that they only employ single photons rather than two-photon entangled states as the quantum carriers. The proposed SQD protocols can be implemented with present quantum technologies.

  3. Single photons, dileptons and hadrons from relativistic heavy ion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The production of single photons in Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS as measured by the WA98 experiment is analysed. A quark gluon plasma is assumed to be formed initially, which expands, cools, hadronizes, and undergoes freeze-out. A rich hadronic equation of state is used and the transverse expansion of the ...

  4. Single-photon superradiance from a quantum dot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tighineanu, Petru; Daveau, Raphaël Sura; Lehmann, Tau Bernstorff

    2016-01-01

    We report on the observation of single-photon superradiance from an exciton in a semiconductor quantum dot. The confinement by the quantum dot is strong enough for it to mimic a two-level atom, yet sufficiently weak to ensure superradiance. The electrostatic interaction between the electron and t...

  5. Single photons, dileptons and hadrons from relativistic heavy ion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The production of single photons in Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS as measured by the WA98 experiment is analysed. A quark gluon plasma is assumed to be formed initially, which expands, cools, hadronizes, and undergoes freeze-out. A rich hadronic equation of state is used and the transverse expansion of ...

  6. The physics of nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renema, Jelmer Jan

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the detection mechanism in superconducting single photon detectors via quantum detector tomography. We find that the detection event is caused by diffusion of quasiparticles from the absorption spot, combined with entrance of a vortex. Moreover, we investigate the behaviour of

  7. Directional emission of single photons from small atomic samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miroshnychenko, Yevhen; V. Poulsen, Uffe; Mølmer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    We provide a formalism to describe deterministic emission of single photons with tailored spatial and temporal profiles from a regular array of multi-level atoms. We assume that a single collective excitation is initially shared by all the atoms in a metastable atomic state, and that this state i...... is coupled by a classical laser field to an optically excited state which rapidly decays to the ground atomic state. Our model accounts for the different field polarization components via re-absorption and emission of light by the Zeeman manifold of optically excited states.......We provide a formalism to describe deterministic emission of single photons with tailored spatial and temporal profiles from a regular array of multi-level atoms. We assume that a single collective excitation is initially shared by all the atoms in a metastable atomic state, and that this state...

  8. Heterodyne spectroscopy with superconducting single-photon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobanov, Yu.V.; Shcherbatenko, M.L.; Semenov, A.V.; Kovalyuk, V.V.; Korneev, A.A.; Goltsman, G.N.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate successful operation of a Superconducting Single Photon Detector (SSPD) as the core element in a heterodyne receiver. Irradiating the SSPD by both a local oscillator power and signal power simultaneously, we observed beat signal at the intermediate frequency of a few MHz. Gain bandwidth was found to coincide with the detector single pulse width, where the latter depends on the detector kinetic inductance, determined by the superconducting nanowire length.

  9. Single-Photon Source for Quantum Information Based on Single Dye Molecule Fluorescence in Liquid Crystal Host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukishova, S.G.; Knox, R.P.; Freivald, P.; McNamara, A.; Boyd, R.W.; Stroud, Jr. C.R.; Schmid, A.W.; Marshall, K.L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a new application for liquid crystals: quantum information technology. A deterministically polarized single-photon source that efficiently produces photons exhibiting antibunching is a pivotal hardware element in absolutely secure quantum communication. Planar-aligned nematic liquid crystal hosts deterministically align the single dye molecules which produce deterministically polarized single (antibunched) photons. In addition, 1-D photonic bandgap cholesteric liquid crystals will increase single-photon source efficiency. The experiments and challenges in the observation of deterministically polarized fluorescence from single dye molecules in planar-aligned glassy nematic-liquid-crystal oligomer as well as photon antibunching in glassy cholesteric oligomer are described for the first time

  10. Trapping a single atom with a fraction of a photon using a photonic crystal nanocavity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosten, D.; Kuipers, L.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the interaction between a single rubidium atom and a photonic crystal nanocavity. Because of the ultrasmall mode volume of the nanocavity, an extremely strong coupling regime can be achieved in which the atom can shift the cavity resonance by many cavity linewidths. We show that this

  11. The Heisenberg picture for single photon states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pienaar, Jacques; Myers, Casey; Ralph, Timothy C.

    2011-01-01

    In the context of quantum field theory, the Heisenberg picture has a distinct advantage over the Schrodinger picture because the Schrodinger picture requires us to transform the vacuum state itself, which can be intractable in the case of non-inertial reference frames, whereas the Heisenberg picture allows us to keep the same vacuum state and only transform the operators. However, the Heisenberg calculation requires the operators to already be expressed as a function of creation and annihilation operators acting on the original vacuum, whereas calculations in quantum information and quantum computation use operators that act on qubit states, necessarily containing particles. The relationship between the operators acting on these states and the operators acting on the vacuum state has remained elusive. We derive such an expression using an explicit model for single-particle production from the vacuum.

  12. Multi-photon creation and single-photon annihilation of electron-positron pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Huayu

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis we study multi-photon e + e - pair production in a trident process, and singlephoton e + e - pair annihilation in a triple interaction. The pair production is considered in the collision of a relativistic electron with a strong laser beam, and calculated within the theory of laser-dressed quantum electrodynamics. A regularization method is developed systematically for the resonance problem arising in the multi-photon process. Total production rates, positron spectra, and relative contributions of different reaction channels are obtained in various interaction regimes. Our calculation shows good agreement with existing experimental data from SLAC, and adds further insights into the experimental findings. Besides, we study the process in a manifestly nonperturbative domain, whose accessibility to future all-optical experiments based on laser acceleration is shown. In the single-photon e + e - pair annihilation, the recoil momentum is absorbed by a spectator particle. Various kinematic configurations of the three incoming particles are examined. Under certain conditions, the emitted photon exhibits distinct angular and polarization distributions which could facilitate the detection of the process. Considering an equilibrium relativistic e + e - plasma, it is found that the single-photon process becomes the dominant annihilation channel for plasma temperatures above 3 MeV. Multi-particle correlation effects are therefore essential for the e + e - dynamics at very high density. (orig.)

  13. Multi-photon creation and single-photon annihilation of electron-positron pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Huayu

    2011-04-27

    In this thesis we study multi-photon e{sup +}e{sup -} pair production in a trident process, and singlephoton e{sup +}e{sup -} pair annihilation in a triple interaction. The pair production is considered in the collision of a relativistic electron with a strong laser beam, and calculated within the theory of laser-dressed quantum electrodynamics. A regularization method is developed systematically for the resonance problem arising in the multi-photon process. Total production rates, positron spectra, and relative contributions of different reaction channels are obtained in various interaction regimes. Our calculation shows good agreement with existing experimental data from SLAC, and adds further insights into the experimental findings. Besides, we study the process in a manifestly nonperturbative domain, whose accessibility to future all-optical experiments based on laser acceleration is shown. In the single-photon e{sup +}e{sup -} pair annihilation, the recoil momentum is absorbed by a spectator particle. Various kinematic configurations of the three incoming particles are examined. Under certain conditions, the emitted photon exhibits distinct angular and polarization distributions which could facilitate the detection of the process. Considering an equilibrium relativistic e{sup +}e{sup -} plasma, it is found that the single-photon process becomes the dominant annihilation channel for plasma temperatures above 3 MeV. Multi-particle correlation effects are therefore essential for the e{sup +}e{sup -} dynamics at very high density. (orig.)

  14. Phonon number measurements using single photon opto-mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiri-Esfahani, S; Akram, U; Milburn, G J

    2012-01-01

    We describe a system composed of two coupled optical cavity modes with a coupling modulated by a bulk mechanical resonator. In addition, one of the cavity modes is irreversibly coupled to a single photon source. Our scheme is an opto-mechanical realization of the Jaynes–Cummings model where the qubit is a dual rail optical qubit while the bosonic degree of freedom is a matter degree of freedom realized as the bulk mechanical excitation. We show the possibility of engineering phonon number states of the mechanical oscillator in such a system by computing the conditional state of the mechanics after successive photon counting measurements. (paper)

  15. Resonant interaction of a single atom with single photons from a down-conversion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuck, C.; Rohde, F.; Piro, N.; Almendros, M.; Huwer, J.; Mitchell, M. W.; Hennrich, M.; Haase, A.; Dubin, F.; Eschner, J.

    2010-01-01

    We observe the interaction of a single trapped calcium ion with single photons produced by a narrow-band, resonant down-conversion source [A. Haase et al., Opt. Lett. 34, 55 (2009)], employing a quantum jump scheme. Using the temperature dependence of the down-conversion spectrum and the tunability of the narrow source, absorption of the down-conversion photons is quantitatively characterized.

  16. Advanced time-correlated single photon counting applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This book is an attempt to bridge the gap between the instrumental principles of multi-dimensional time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) and typical applications of the technique. Written by an originator of the technique and by sucessful users, it covers the basic principles of the technique, its interaction with optical imaging methods and its application to a wide range of experimental tasks in life sciences and clinical research. The book is recommended for all users of time-resolved detection techniques in biology, bio-chemistry, spectroscopy of live systems, live cell microscopy, clinical imaging, spectroscopy of single molecules, and other applications that require the detection of low-level light signals at single-photon sensitivity and picosecond time resolution.

  17. On-chip single photon filtering and multiplexing in hybrid quantum photonic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshaari, Ali W; Zadeh, Iman Esmaeil; Fognini, Andreas; Reimer, Michael E; Dalacu, Dan; Poole, Philip J; Zwiller, Val; Jöns, Klaus D

    2017-08-30

    Quantum light plays a pivotal role in modern science and future photonic applications. Since the advent of integrated quantum nanophotonics different material platforms based on III-V nanostructures-, colour centers-, and nonlinear waveguides as on-chip light sources have been investigated. Each platform has unique advantages and limitations; however, all implementations face major challenges with filtering of individual quantum states, scalable integration, deterministic multiplexing of selected quantum emitters, and on-chip excitation suppression. Here we overcome all of these challenges with a hybrid and scalable approach, where single III-V quantum emitters are positioned and deterministically integrated in a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor-compatible photonic circuit. We demonstrate reconfigurable on-chip single-photon filtering and wavelength division multiplexing with a foot print one million times smaller than similar table-top approaches, while offering excitation suppression of more than 95 dB and efficient routing of single photons over a bandwidth of 40 nm. Our work marks an important step to harvest quantum optical technologies' full potential.Combining different integration platforms on the same chip is currently one of the main challenges for quantum technologies. Here, Elshaari et al. show III-V Quantum Dots embedded in nanowires operating in a CMOS compatible circuit, with controlled on-chip filtering and tunable routing.

  18. High-fidelity frequency down-conversion of visible entangled photon pairs with superconducting single-photon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Rikizo; Kato, Hiroshi; Kusaka, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Takashi; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Miki, Shigehito; Yamashita, Taro; Terai, Hirotaka; Wang, Zhen; Fujiwara, Mikio; Sasaki, Masahide; Koashi, Masato

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a high-fidelity visible-to-telecommunicationwavelength conversion of a photon by using a solid-state-based difference frequency generation. In the experiment, one half of a pico-second visible entangled photon pair at 780 nm is converted to a 1522-nm photon. Using superconducting single-photon detectors with low dark count rates and small timing jitters, we observed a fidelity of 0.93±0.04 after the wavelength conversion

  19. A bright single-photon source based on a photonic trumpet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munsch, Mathieu; Malik, Nitin S.; Bleuse, Joël

    Fiber-like photonic nanowires, which are optical waveguides made of a high refractive index material n, have recently emerged as non-resonant systems providing an efficient spontaneous emission (SE) control. When they embed a quantum emitter like a quantum dot (QD), they find application to the r......Fiber-like photonic nanowires, which are optical waveguides made of a high refractive index material n, have recently emerged as non-resonant systems providing an efficient spontaneous emission (SE) control. When they embed a quantum emitter like a quantum dot (QD), they find application...... to the realization of bright sources of quantum light and, reversibly, provide an efficient interface between propagating photons and the QD. For a wire diameter ∼ λ/n (λ is the operation wavelength), the fraction of QD SE coupled to the fundamental guided mode exceeds 90%. The collection of the photons can...... be brought close to unity with a proper engineering of the wire ends. In particular, a tapering of the top wire end is necessary to achieve a directive far-field emission pattern [1]. Recently, we have realized a single-photon source featuring a needle-like taper. The source efficiency, though record...

  20. Automated Characterization of Single-Photon Avalanche Photodiode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aina Mardhiyah M. Ghazali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an automated characterization of a single-photon detector based on commercial silicon avalanche photodiode (PerkinElmer C30902SH. The photodiode is characterized by I-V curves at different illumination levels (darkness, 10 pW and 10 µW, dark count rate and photon detection efficiency at different bias voltages. The automated characterization routine is implemented in C++ running on a Linux computer. ABSTRAK: Kami melaporkan pencirian pengesan foton tunggal secara automatik berdasarkan kepada diod foto runtuhan silikon (silicon avalanche photodiode (PerkinElmer C30902SH komersial. Pencirian  diod foto adalah berdasarkan kepada plot arus-voltan (I-V pada tahap pencahayaan yang berbeza (kelam - tanpa cahaya, 10pW, dan 10µW, kadar bacaan latar belakang, kecekapan pengesanan foton pada voltan picuan yang berbeza. Pengaturcaraan C++ digunakan di dalam rutin pencirian automatik melalui komputer dengan sistem pengendalian LINUX.KEYWORDS: avalanche photodiode (APD; single photon detector; photon counting; experiment automation

  1. Measurement of Exclusive $\\rho^{0}\\rho^{0}$ Production in Mid-Virtuality Two-Photon Interactions at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degre, A.; Dehmelt, K.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duda, M.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Hage, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S.R.; Jin, B.N.; Jindal, P.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mans, J.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Nisati, A.; Novak, T.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Pal, I.; Palomares, C.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, Mohammad Azizur; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosemann, C.; Rosenbleck, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Son, D.; Souga, C.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R.T.; Vasquez, R.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, M.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, An.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.

    2004-01-01

    Exclusive rho^0 rho^0 production in two-photon collisions between a quasi-real and a mid-virtuality photon is studied with data collected at LEP at centre-of-mass energies 183GeV rho^0 rho^0 is determined as a function of the photon virtuality, q^2, and the two-photon centre-of-mass energy, Wgg, in the kinematic region: 0.2GeV^2 < q^2 < 0.85GeV^2 and 1.1GeV < Wgg < 3GeV.

  2. An all-silicon single-photon source by unconventional photon blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flayac, Hugo; Gerace, Dario; Savona, Vincenzo

    2015-06-10

    The lack of suitable quantum emitters in silicon and silicon-based materials has prevented the realization of room temperature, compact, stable, and integrated sources of single photons in a scalable on-chip architecture, so far. Current approaches rely on exploiting the enhanced optical nonlinearity of silicon through light confinement or slow-light propagation, and are based on parametric processes that typically require substantial input energy and spatial footprint to reach a reasonable output yield. Here we propose an alternative all-silicon device that employs a different paradigm, namely the interplay between quantum interference and the third-order intrinsic nonlinearity in a system of two coupled optical cavities. This unconventional photon blockade allows to produce antibunched radiation at extremely low input powers. We demonstrate a reliable protocol to operate this mechanism under pulsed optical excitation, as required for device applications, thus implementing a true single-photon source. We finally propose a state-of-art implementation in a standard silicon-based photonic crystal integrated circuit that outperforms existing parametric devices either in input power or footprint area.

  3. Cooling in the single-photon regime of optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnenkamp, Andreas; Borkje, Kjetil; Girvin, Steven

    2012-02-01

    Optomechanics experiments are rapidly approaching the regime where the radiation pressure of a single photon displaces the mechanical oscillator by more than its zero-point uncertainty. We show that in this limit the power spectrum has multiple sidebands and that the cavity response has several resonances in the resolved-sideband limit [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 063602 (2011)]. We then discuss how red-sideband cooling is modified in this nonlinear regime. Using Fermi's Golden rule we calculate the transition rates induced by the optical drive. In the resolved-sideband limit we find multiple cooling resonances for strong single-photon coupling. They lead to non-thermal steady states and are accompanied by multiple mechanical sidebands in the optical output spectrum. Our study provides the tools to detect and take advantage of this novel regime of optomechanics.

  4. On the scalar electron mass limit from single photon experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grivaz, J.F.

    1987-03-01

    We discuss how the 90% C.L. lower limit on the mass of the scalar electron, as extracted from the single photon experiments, is affected by the way the background from radiative neutrino pair production is handled. We argue that some of the results presented at the Berkeley conference are overoptimistic, and that the mass lower limit is 65 GeV rather than the advertized value of 84 GeV, for the case of degenerate scalar electrons with massless photinos

  5. Fabrication and test of Superconducting Single Photon Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leoni, R.; Mattioli, F.; Castellano, M.G.; Cibella, S.; Carelli, P.; Pagano, S.; Perez de Lara, D.; Ejrnaes, M.; Lisitskyi, M.P.; Esposito, E.; Cristiano, R.; Nappi, C.

    2006-01-01

    We report here on the state of our fabrication process for Superconducting Single Photon Detectors (SSPDs). We have fabricated submicrometer SSPD structures by electron beam lithography using very thin (10 nm) NbN films deposited by DC-magnetron sputtering on different substrates and at room substrate temperature. The structures show a fast optical response (risetime <500 ps limited by readout electronics) and interesting self-resetting features

  6. Single-photon ultrashort-lived radionuclides: symposium proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paras, P.; Thiessen, J.W. (eds.)

    1985-01-01

    The purpose was to define the current role and state-of-the-art regarding the development, clinical applications, and usefulness of generator-produced single-photon ultrashort-lived radionuclides (SPUSLR's) and to predict their future impact on medicine. Special emphasis was placed on the generator production of iridium-191, gold-195, and krypton-81. This report contains expanded summaries of the included papers. (ACR)

  7. Storing single photons emitted by a quantum memory on a highly excited Rydberg state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distante, Emanuele; Farrera, Pau; Padrón-Brito, Auxiliadora; Paredes-Barato, David; Heinze, Georg; de Riedmatten, Hugues

    2017-01-19

    Strong interaction between two single photons is a long standing and important goal in quantum photonics. This would enable a new regime of nonlinear optics and unlock several applications in quantum information science, including photonic quantum gates and deterministic Bell-state measurements. In the context of quantum networks, it would be important to achieve interactions between single photons from independent photon pairs storable in quantum memories. So far, most experiments showing nonlinearities at the single-photon level have used weak classical input light. Here we demonstrate the storage and retrieval of a paired single photon emitted by an ensemble quantum memory in a strongly nonlinear medium based on highly excited Rydberg atoms. We show that nonclassical correlations between the two photons persist after retrieval from the Rydberg ensemble. Our result is an important step towards deterministic photon-photon interactions, and may enable deterministic Bell-state measurements with multimode quantum memories.

  8. Single-photon imaging in complementary metal oxide semiconductor processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbon, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the basics of single-photon counting in complementary metal oxide semiconductors, through single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs), and the making of miniaturized pixels with photon-counting capability based on SPADs. Some applications, which may take advantage of SPAD image sensors, are outlined, such as fluorescence-based microscopy, three-dimensional time-of-flight imaging and biomedical imaging, to name just a few. The paper focuses on architectures that are best suited to those applications and the trade-offs they generate. In this context, architectures are described that efficiently collect the output of single pixels when designed in large arrays. Off-chip readout circuit requirements are described for a variety of applications in physics, medicine and the life sciences. Owing to the dynamic nature of SPADs, designs featuring a large number of SPADs require careful analysis of the target application for an optimal use of silicon real estate and of limited readout bandwidth. The paper also describes the main trade-offs involved in architecting such chips and the solutions adopted with focus on scalability and miniaturization. PMID:24567470

  9. A Search for Single Photon Events in Neutrino Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kullenberg, C.T.; Dimmery, D.; Tian, X.C.; Autiero, D.; Gninenko, S.; Rubbia, A.; Alekhin, S.; Astier, P.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P.W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Challis, R.; Chukanov, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Degaudenzi, H.; De Santo, A.; Del Prete, T.; Di Lella, L.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, M.; Feldman, G.J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrère, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.-J.; Gosset, J.; Gößling, C.; Gouanère, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kent, N.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kim, J.J.; Kirsanov, M.; Kulagin, S.; Lacaprara, S.; Lachaud, C.; Lakić, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.M.; Ling, J.; Linssen, L.; Ljubičic, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Lyubushkin, V.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Méchain, X.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Meyer, J.-P.; Mezzetto, M.; Moorhead, G.F.; Naumov, D.; Nédélec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L.S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Poulsen, C.; Popov, B.; Rebuffi, L.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Salvatore, F.; Samoylov, O.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sconza, A.; Scott, A.M.; Seaton, M.B.; Sevior, M.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F.J.P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipčević, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G.N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.-M.; Tovey, S.N.; Tran, M.-T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K.E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Vieira, J.-M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F.V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F.F.; Winton, L.J.; Wu, Q.; Yabsley, B.D.; Zaccone, H.; Zuber, K.; Zuccon, P.

    2012-01-01

    We present a search for neutrino-induced events containing a single, exclusive photon using data from the NOMAD experiment at the CERN SPS where the average energy of the neutrino flux is $\\simeq 25$ GeV. The search is motivated by an excess of electron-like events in the 200--475 MeV energy region as reported by the MiniBOONE experiment. In NOMAD, photons are identified via their conversion to $e^+e^-$ in an active target embedded in a magnetic field. The background to the single photon signal is dominated by the asymmetric decay of neutral pions produced either in a coherent neutrino-nucleus interaction, or in a neutrino-nucleon neutral current deep inelastic scattering, or in an interaction occurring outside the fiducial volume. All three backgrounds are determined {\\it in situ} using control data samples prior to opening the `signal-box'. In the signal region, we observe {\\bf 155} events with a predicted background of {\\bf 129.2 $\\pm$ 8.5 $\\pm$ 3.3}. We interpret this as null evidence for excess of single...

  10. Influence of the virtual photon field on the squeezing properties of an atom laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian-Gang, Zhao; Chang-Yong, Sun; Ling-Hua, Wen; Bao-Long, Liang

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the squeezing properties of an atom laser without rotating-wave approximation in the system of a binomial states field interacting with a two-level atomic Bose–Einstein condensate. It discusses the influences of atomic eigenfrequency, the interaction intensity between the optical field and atoms, parameter of the binomial states field and virtual photon field on the squeezing properties. The results show that two quadrature components of an atom laser can be squeezed periodically. The duration and the degree of squeezing an atom laser have something to do with the atomic eigenfrequency and the parameter of the binomial states field, respectively. The collapse and revival frequency of atom laser fluctuation depends on the interaction intensity between the optical field and atoms. The effect of the virtual photon field deepens the depth of squeezing an atom laser

  11. Heralded noiseless amplification for single-photon entangled state with polarization feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan-Dan; Jin, Yu-Yu; Qin, Sheng-Xian; Zu, Hao; Zhou, Lan; Zhong, Wei; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2018-03-01

    Heralded noiseless amplification is a promising method to overcome the transmission photon loss in practical noisy quantum channel and can effectively lengthen the quantum communication distance. Single-photon entanglement is an important resource in current quantum communications. Here, we construct two single-photon-assisted heralded noiseless amplification protocols for the single-photon two-mode entangled state and single-photon three-mode W state, respectively, where the single-photon qubit has an arbitrary unknown polarization feature. After the amplification, the fidelity of the single-photon entangled state can be increased, while the polarization feature of the single-photon qubit can be well remained. Both the two protocols only require the linear optical elements, so that they can be realized under current experimental condition. Our protocols may be useful in current and future quantum information processing.

  12. Generating functional for mesonic ChPT with virtual photons in a general covariant gauge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agadjanov, Andria; Agadjanov, Dimitri [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); St. Andrew the First-Called Georgian University of the Patriarchate of Georgia, Tbilisi (Georgia); Khelashvili, Anzor [St. Andrew the First-Called Georgian University of the Patriarchate of Georgia, Tbilisi (Georgia); Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Institute of High Energy Physics, Tbilisi (Georgia); Rusetsky, Akaki [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany)

    2013-09-15

    The divergent part of the one-loop effective action in Chiral Perturbation Theory with virtual photons has been evaluated in an arbitrary covariant gauge. The differential operator that emerges in the functional determinant is of non-minimal type, for which the standard heat kernel methods are not directly applicable. Both the SU(2) and SU(3) cases have been worked out. A comparison with existing results in the literature is given. (orig.)

  13. Single mode dye-doped polymer photonic crystal lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Buss, Thomas; Smith, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    Dye-doped polymer photonic crystal (PhC) lasers fabricated by combined nanoimprint and photolithography are studied for their reproducibility and stability characteristics. We introduce a phase shift in the PhC lattice that substantially improves the yield of single wavelength emission. Single mode...... emission and reproducibility of laser characteristics are important if the lasers are to be mass produced in, e. g., optofluidic sensor chips. The fabrication yield is above 85% with highly reproducible wavelengths (within 0.5%), and the temperature dependence on the wavelength is found to be -0.045 or -0...

  14. Charge and finite size corrections for virtual photon spectra in second order Born approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durgapal, P.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the effects of finite nuclear size and charge on the spectrum of virtual photons emitted when a relativistic electron is scattered in the field of an atomic nucleus. The method consisted in expanding the scattering cross section in terms of integrals over the nuclear inelastic form factor with a kernel which was evaluated in second order Born approximation and was derived from the elastic-electron scattering form factor. The kernel could be evaluated analytically provided the elastic form factor contained only poles. For this reason the author used a Yukawa form factor. Before calculating the second order term the author studied the first order term containing finite size effects in the inelastic form factor. The author observed that the virtual photon spectrum is insensitive to the details of the inelastic distribution over a large range of energies and depends only on the transition radius. This gave the author the freedom of choosing an inelastic distribution for which the form factor has only poles and the author chose a modified form of the exponential distribution, which enabled the author to evaluate the matrix element analytically. The remaining integral over the physical momentum transfer was performed numerically. The author evaluated the virtual photon spectra for E1 and M1 transitions for a variety of electron energies using several nuclei and compared the results with the distorted wave calculations. Except for low energy and high Z, the second order results compared well with the distorted wave calculations

  15. Molecular single photon double K-shell ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penent, F.; Nakano, M.; Tashiro, M.; Grozdanov, T.P.; Žitnik, M.; Carniato, S.; Selles, P.; Andric, L.; Lablanquie, P.; Palaudoux, J.; Shigemasa, E.; Iwayama, H.; Hikosaka, Y.; Soejima, K.; Suzuki, I.H.; Kouchi, N.; Ito, K.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied single photon double K-shell ionization of small molecules (N 2 , CO, C 2 H 2n (n = 1–3), …) and the Auger decay of the resulting double core hole (DCH) molecular ions thanks to multi-electron coincidence spectroscopy using a magnetic bottle time-of-flight spectrometer. The relative cross-sections for single-site (K −2 ) and two-site (K −1 K −1 ) double K-shell ionization with respect to single K-shell (K −1 ) ionization have been measured that gives important information on the mechanisms of single photon double ionization. The spectroscopy of two-site (K −1 K −1 ) DCH states in the C 2 H 2n (n = 1–3) series shows important chemical shifts due to a strong dependence on the C-C bond length. In addition, the complete cascade Auger decay following single site (K −2 ) ionization has been obtained

  16. Theoretical and experimental study of single particle tracking in extreme conditions: single photon imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cajgfinger, T.

    2012-10-01

    This manuscript presents my thesis on the high frame rate (500 frames / second) single-photon detector electron-bombarded CMOS (ebCMOS). The first section compares three ultra-sensitive detectors and their methods for improving photon sensitivity: the CMOS low noise (sCMOS), the electron-multiplying CCD (emCCD) with signal multiplication by pixel and the ebCMOS with amplification by applied electric field. The method developed to detect single photon impacts with intra-pixel resolution on the ebCMOS sensor is presented. The second section compares the localization accuracy of these detectors in extreme conditions of very low photon flux (<10 photons/frame). First the theoretical limit is calculated using the Cramer-Rao lower bound for significant parameter sets. An experimental comparison of the detectors is then described. The setup provides one or more point sources controlled in position, signal and background noise. The results allow a comparison of the experimental effectiveness, purity and localization accuracy. The last section describes two experiments with the ebCMOS camera. The first aims at tracking hundreds of quantum dots simultaneously at the Nanoptec center. The second focuses on the swimming of bacteria at the surface at the Joliot Curie Institute. The point sources tracking algorithm using single photons and the Kalman filter implementation developed for these experiments is also described. (author)

  17. Single photon imaging and timing array sensor apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Clayton

    2003-06-24

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for generating a three-dimension image of an object or target. The apparatus is comprised of a photon source for emitting a photon at a target. The emitted photons are received by a photon receiver for receiving the photon when reflected from the target. The photon receiver determines a reflection time of the photon and further determines an arrival position of the photon on the photon receiver. An analyzer is communicatively coupled to the photon receiver, wherein the analyzer generates a three-dimensional image of the object based upon the reflection time and the arrival position.

  18. Search for single photons from supersymmetric particle production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, E.; Ford, W.T.; Qi, N.; Read A.L. Jr.; Smith, J.G.; Camporesi, T.; De Sangro, R.; Marini, A.; Peruzzi, I.; Piccolo, M.; Ronga, F.; Blume, H.T.; Hurst, R.B.; Venuti, J.P.; Wald, H.B.; Weinstein, R.; Band, H.R.; Gettner, M.W.; Goderre, G.P.; Meyer, O.A.; Moromisato, J.H.; Polvado, R.O.; Shambroom, W.D.; Sleeman, J.C.; von Goeler, E.; Ash, W.W.; Chadwick, G.B.; Clearwater, S.H.; Coombes, R.W.; Kaye, H.S.; Lau, K.H.; Leedy, R.E.; Lynch, H.L.; Messner, R.L.; Moss, L.J.; Muller, F.; Nelson, H.N.; Ritson, D.M.; Rosenberg, L.J.; Wiser, D.E.; Zdarko, R.W.; Groom, D.E.; Lee, H.Y.; Delfino, M.C.; Heltsley, B.K.; Johnson, J.R.; Lavine, T.L.; Maruyama, T.; Prepost, R.

    1985-03-18

    A search in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation for final states which contain only a single energetic photon has been performed at ..sqrt..s = 29 GeV with the MAC detector at PEP. The upper limit on an anomalous signal has been interpreted in terms of mass limits for supersymmetric particles under the assumption of radiative pair paroduction of either supersymmetric photons or neutrinos. For the supersymmetric electron (e) this limit is m/sub e/>37 GeV/c/sup 2/ at the 90% confidence level if M/sub e//sub L/ = m/sub e//sub R/ and the supersymmetric photo (gamma-tilde) has m/sub gamma-tilde/ = 0.

  19. Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors: physics and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, Chandra M; Tanner, Michael G; Hadfield, Robert H

    2012-01-01

    Single-photon detectors based on superconducting nanowires (SSPDs or SNSPDs) have rapidly emerged as a highly promising photon-counting technology for infrared wavelengths. These devices offer high efficiency, low dark counts and excellent timing resolution. In this review, we consider the basic SNSPD operating principle and models of device behaviour. We give an overview of the evolution of SNSPD device design and the improvements in performance which have been achieved. We also evaluate device limitations and noise mechanisms. We survey practical refrigeration technologies and optical coupling schemes for SNSPDs. Finally we summarize promising application areas, ranging from quantum cryptography to remote sensing. Our goal is to capture a detailed snapshot of an emerging superconducting detector technology on the threshold of maturity. (topical review)

  20. Limits on the heralding efficiencies and spectral purities of spectrally filtered single photons from photon-pair sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Scott, Evan; Montaut, Nicola; Tiedau, Johannes; Sansoni, Linda; Herrmann, Harald; Bartley, Tim J.; Silberhorn, Christine

    2017-06-01

    Photon pairs produced by parametric down-conversion or four-wave mixing can interfere with each other in multiport interferometers or carry entanglement between distant nodes for use in entanglement swapping. This requires the photons to be spectrally pure to ensure good interference and have high heralding efficiency to know accurately the number of photons involved and to maintain high rates as the number of photons grows. Spectral filtering is often used to remove noise and define spectral properties. For heralded single photons high purity and heralding efficiency are possible by filtering the heralding arm, but when both photons in typical pair sources are filtered, we show that the heralding efficiency of one or both of the photons is strongly reduced even by ideal spectral filters with 100% transmission in the passband: any improvement in reduced-state spectral purity from filtering comes at the cost of lowered heralding efficiency. We consider the fidelity to a pure, lossless single photon, symmetrize it to include both photons of the pair, and show this quantity is intrinsically limited for sources with spectral correlation. We then provide a framework for this effect for benchmarking common photon-pair sources and present an experiment where we vary the photon filter bandwidths and measure the increase in purity and corresponding reduction in heralding efficiency.

  1. Efficient fiber-coupled single-photon source based on quantum dots in a photonic-crystal waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daveau, Raphaël S.; Balram, Krishna C.; Pregnolato, Tommaso

    2017-01-01

    Many photonic quantum information processing applications would benefit from a high brightness, fiber-coupled source of triggered single photons. Here, we present a fiber-coupled photonic-crystal waveguide (PCWG) singlephoton source relying on evanescent coupling of the light field from a tapered...... transfer it to the fiber. The applied outcoupling method is robust, stable over time, and broadband over several tens of nanometers, which makes it a highly promising pathway to increase the efficiency and reliability of planar chip-based single-photon sources....

  2. Optimised quantum hacking of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Michael G; Makarov, Vadim; Hadfield, Robert H

    2014-03-24

    We explore bright-light control of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) in the shunted configuration (a practical measure to avoid latching). In an experiment, we simulate an illumination pattern the SNSPD would receive in a typical quantum key distribution system under hacking attack. We show that it effectively blinds and controls the SNSPD. The transient blinding illumination lasts for a fraction of a microsecond and produces several deterministic fake clicks during this time. This attack does not lead to elevated timing jitter in the spoofed output pulse, and hence does not introduce significant errors. Five different SNSPD chip designs were tested. We consider possible countermeasures to this attack.

  3. Single-photon-level quantum memory at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reim, K F; Michelberger, P; Lee, K C; Nunn, J; Langford, N K; Walmsley, I A

    2011-07-29

    Room-temperature, easy-to-operate quantum memories are essential building blocks for future long distance quantum information networks operating on an intercontinental scale, because devices like quantum repeaters, based on quantum memories, will have to be deployed in potentially remote, inaccessible locations. Here we demonstrate controllable, broadband and efficient storage and retrieval of weak coherent light pulses at the single-photon level in warm atomic cesium vapor using the robust far off-resonant Raman memory scheme. We show that the unconditional noise floor of this technically simple quantum memory is low enough to operate in the quantum regime, even in a room-temperature environment.

  4. Characterization of parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejrnaes, M; Casaburi, A; Pagano, S; Cristiano, R; Quaranta, O; Marchetti, S; Gaggero, A; Mattioli, F; Leoni, R

    2009-01-01

    Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) have been realized using an innovative parallel wire configuration. This configuration allows, at the same time, a large detection area and a fast response, with the additional advantage of large signal amplitudes. The detectors have been thoroughly characterized in terms of signal properties (amplitude, risetime and falltime), detector operation (latching and not latching) and quantum efficiency (at 850 nm). It has been shown that the parallel SNSPD is able to provide significantly higher maximum count rates for large area SNSPDs than meandered SNSPDs. Through a proper parallel wire configuration the increase in maximum count rate can be obtained without latching problems.

  5. Characterization of parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ejrnaes, M; Casaburi, A; Pagano, S; Cristiano, R [CNR-Istituto di Cibernetica ' E Caianiello' , 80078 Pozzuoli (Namibia) (Italy); Quaranta, O; Marchetti, S [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, 84081 Baronissi (Italy); Gaggero, A; Mattioli, F; Leoni, R [CNR-Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, 00156 Roma (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) have been realized using an innovative parallel wire configuration. This configuration allows, at the same time, a large detection area and a fast response, with the additional advantage of large signal amplitudes. The detectors have been thoroughly characterized in terms of signal properties (amplitude, risetime and falltime), detector operation (latching and not latching) and quantum efficiency (at 850 nm). It has been shown that the parallel SNSPD is able to provide significantly higher maximum count rates for large area SNSPDs than meandered SNSPDs. Through a proper parallel wire configuration the increase in maximum count rate can be obtained without latching problems.

  6. Optimised quantum hacking of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Michael G.; Makarov, Vadim; Hadfield, Robert H.

    2014-03-01

    We explore bright-light control of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) in the shunted configuration (a practical measure to avoid latching). In an experiment, we simulate an illumination pattern the SNSPD would receive in a typical quantum key distribution system under hacking attack. We show that it effectively blinds and controls the SNSPD. The transient blinding illumination lasts for a fraction of a microsecond and produces several deterministic fake clicks during this time. This attack does not lead to elevated timing jitter in the spoofed output pulse, and hence does not introduce significant errors. Five different SNSPD chip designs were tested. We consider possible countermeasures to this attack.

  7. cGMP in Mouse Rods: the spatiotemporal dynamics underlying single photon responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen P. Gross

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate vision begins when retinal photoreceptors transduce photons into membrane hyperpolarization, which reduces glutamate release onto second-order neurons. In rod photoreceptors, transduction of single photons is achieved by a well-understood G-protein cascade that modulates cGMP levels, and in turn, cGMP-sensitive inward current. The spatial extent and depth of the decline in cGMP during the single photon response have been major issues in phototransduction research since the discovery that single photons elicit substantial and reproducible changes in membrane current. The spatial profile of cGMP decline during the single photon response affects signal gain, and thus may contribute to reduction of trial-to-trial fluctuations in the single photon response. Here we summarize the general principles of rod phototransduction, emphasizing recent advances in resolving the spatiotemporal dynamics of cGMP during the single photon response.

  8. Single-photon-level quantum image memory based on cold atomic ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can

    2013-01-01

    A quantum memory is a key component for quantum networks, which will enable the distribution of quantum information. Its successful development requires storage of single-photon light. Encoding photons with spatial shape through higher-dimensional states significantly increases their information-carrying capability and network capacity. However, constructing such quantum memories is challenging. Here we report the first experimental realization of a true single-photon-carrying orbital angular momentum stored via electromagnetically induced transparency in a cold atomic ensemble. Our experiments show that the non-classical pair correlation between trigger photon and retrieved photon is retained, and the spatial structure of input and retrieved photons exhibits strong similarity. More importantly, we demonstrate that single-photon coherence is preserved during storage. The ability to store spatial structure at the single-photon level opens the possibility for high-dimensional quantum memories.

  9. Calibration of a single-photon counting detectors without the need of input photon flux calibration (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrits, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Calibration of fiber-coupled single-photon detectors usually requires knowledge of the input photon flux inside the fiber and/or knowledge of the linearity of a reference power meter. Many approaches have been presented in the past to accurately measure the photon detection probability of a single photon detector [1-6]. Under certain assumptions, one can utilize waveguide-coupled single photon detectors and a series of photon-counting measurements and a single-photon source to calibrate the detection efficiency of a single photon detector without the need of a reference power meter and the knowledge of the incoming photon flux. Here, this method is presented. Furthermore, if a reference detector is used, the detection efficiency of all evanescently coupled waveguide detectors can be measured, and the measurement outcome does not depend on splicing or fiber connection losses within in the setup, i.e., the measurement is setup-independent. In addition, the method, when using a reference detector, can be utilized to measure and distinguish between the absorption of a waveguide-coupled single photon detector and its internal detection efficiency. [1] A. J. Miller et al, Opt. Express 19, 9102-9110 (2011) [2] I. Muller et al., Metrologia 51, S329 (2014). [3] A. L. Migdall, Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on 50, 478-481 (2001). [4] S. V. Polyakov, A. L. Migdall, Optics Express 15, 1390-1407 (2007). [5] A. Avella et al., Optics Express 19, 23249-23257 (2011). [6] T. Lunghi et al., Opt. Express 22, 18078-18092 (2014)

  10. Ultra-Low Power Optical Transistor Using a Single Quantum Dot Embedded in a Photonic Wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, H.A.; Grange, T.; Malik, N.S.

    2017-01-01

    Using a single InAs quantum dot embedded in a GaAs photonic wire, we realize a giant non-linearity between two optical modes to experimentally demonstrate an all-optical transistor triggered by 10 photons.......Using a single InAs quantum dot embedded in a GaAs photonic wire, we realize a giant non-linearity between two optical modes to experimentally demonstrate an all-optical transistor triggered by 10 photons....

  11. Mitigating radiation damage of single photon detectors for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anisimova, Elena; Higgins, Brendon L.; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Cranmer, Miles [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Choi, Eric [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Magellan Aerospace, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Hudson, Danya; Piche, Louis P.; Scott, Alan [Honeywell Aerospace (formerly COM DEV Ltd.), Ottawa, ON (Canada); Makarov, Vadim [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Jennewein, Thomas [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Quantum Information Science Program, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2017-12-15

    Single-photon detectors in space must retain useful performance characteristics despite being bombarded with sub-atomic particles. Mitigating the effects of this space radiation is vital to enabling new space applications which require high-fidelity single-photon detection. To this end, we conducted proton radiation tests of various models of avalanche photodiodes (APDs) and one model of photomultiplier tube potentially suitable for satellite-based quantum communications. The samples were irradiated with 106 MeV protons at doses approximately equivalent to lifetimes of 0.6, 6, 12 and 24 months in a low-Earth polar orbit. Although most detection properties were preserved, including efficiency, timing jitter and afterpulsing probability, all APD samples demonstrated significant increases in dark count rate (DCR) due to radiation-induced damage, many orders of magnitude higher than the 200 counts per second (cps) required for ground-to-satellite quantum communications. We then successfully demonstrated the mitigation of this DCR degradation through the use of deep cooling, to as low as -86 C. This achieved DCR below the required 200 cps over the 24 months orbit duration. DCR was further reduced by thermal annealing at temperatures of +50 to +100 C. (orig.)

  12. Doped niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Tao; Kang, Lin; Zhang, Labao; Zhao, Qingyuan; Gu, Min; Qiu, Jian; Chen, Jian; Jin, Biaobing

    2014-09-01

    We designed and fabricated a special doped niobium (Nb*) superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD) on MgO substrate. The superconductivity of this ultra-thin Nb* film was further improved by depositing an ultra-thin aluminum nitride protective layer on top. Compared with traditional Nb films, Nb* films present higher T C and J C. We investigated the dependence of the characteristics of devices, such as cut-off wavelength, response bandwidth, and temperature, on their geometrical dimensions. Results indicate that reduction in both the width and thickness of Nb* nanowires extended the cut-off wavelength and improved the sensitivity. The Nb* SNSPD (50 nm width and 4.5 nm thickness) exhibited single-photon sensitivities at 1,310, 1,550, and 2,010 nm. We also demonstrated an enhancement in the detection efficiency by a factor of 10 in its count rate by lowering the working temperature from 2.26 K to 315 mK.

  13. Dynamically unpolarized single-photon source in diamond with intrinsic randomness

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Naofumi; Mitsumori, Yasuyoshi; Sadgrove, Mark; Edamatsu, Keiichi

    2017-01-01

    Polarization is one of the fundamental properties of light, providing numerous applications in science and technology. While ?dynamically unpolarized? single-photon sources are demanded for various quantum applications, such sources have never been explored. Here we demonstrate dynamically unpolarized single-photon emission from a single [111]-oriented nitrogen- vacancy centre in diamond, in which the single-photon stream is unpolarized, exhibiting intrinsic randomness with vanishing polariza...

  14. First observation of two-electron one-photon transitions in single-photon K-shell double ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoszowska, J; Dousse, J-Cl; Szlachetko, J; Kayser, Y; Cao, W; Jagodziński, P; Kavčič, M; Nowak, S H

    2011-07-29

    Experimental evidence for the correlated two-electron one-photon transitions (1s(-2)→2s(-1)2p(-1)) following single-photon K-shell double ionization is reported. The double K-shell vacancy states in solid Mg, Al, and Si were produced by means of monochromatized synchrotron radiation, and the two-electron one-photon radiative transitions were observed by using a wavelength dispersive spectrometer. The two-electron one-photon transition energies and the branching ratios of the radiative one-electron to two-electron transitions were determined and compared to available perturbation theory predictions and configuration interaction calculations.

  15. The HERMES recoil photon detector and the study of deeply virtual Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulse, Charlotte van

    2011-03-15

    The study of deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) gives information about the contribution of the quark orbital angular momentum to the spin of the proton. DVCS has been studied at the HERMES experiment at DESY in Hamburg. Here 27.6 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons and positrons were scattered off a gaseous proton target. For the analysis of DVCS the recoiling proton could not be detected, but was reconstructed via its missing mass. This method suffers, however, from a 14% background contribution, mainly originating from associated DVCS. In this process the proton does not stay in its ground state but is excited to a {delta}{sup +} resonance. In order to reduce the background contribution down to less than 1%, a recoil detector was installed in the HERMES experiment beginning of 2006. This detector consists of three subcomponents, of which one is the photon detector. The main function of the photon detector is the detection of {delta}{sup +} decay photons. The photon detector was started up and commissioned for the analysis of (associated) DVCS. Subsequently DVCS and associated DVCS were analyzed using the recoil detector. (orig.)

  16. Photon-by-Photon Hidden Markov Model Analysis for Microsecond Single-Molecule FRET Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirchi, Menahem; Tsukanov, Roman; Khamis, Rashid; Tomov, Toma E; Berger, Yaron; Khara, Dinesh C; Volkov, Hadas; Haran, Gilad; Nir, Eyal

    2016-12-29

    The function of biological macromolecules involves large-scale conformational dynamics spanning multiple time scales, from microseconds to seconds. Such conformational motions, which may involve whole domains or subunits of a protein, play a key role in allosteric regulation. There is an urgent need for experimental methods to probe the fastest of these motions. Single-molecule fluorescence experiments can in principle be used for observing such dynamics, but there is a lack of analysis methods that can extract the maximum amount of information from the data, down to the microsecond time scale. To address this issue, we introduce H 2 MM, a maximum likelihood estimation algorithm for photon-by-photon analysis of single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments. H 2 MM is based on analytical estimators for model parameters, derived using the Baum-Welch algorithm. An efficient and effective method for the calculation of these estimators is introduced. H 2 MM is shown to accurately retrieve the reaction times from ∼1 s to ∼10 μs and even faster when applied to simulations of freely diffusing molecules. We further apply this algorithm to single-molecule FRET data collected from Holliday junction molecules and show that at low magnesium concentrations their kinetics are as fast as ∼10 4 s -1 . The new algorithm is particularly suitable for experiments on freely diffusing individual molecules and is readily incorporated into existing analysis packages. It paves the way for the broad application of single-molecule fluorescence to study ultrafast functional dynamics of biomolecules.

  17. Virtual Photon Correction to the $K^+\\to\\pi^+\\pi^0\\pi^0$ Decay

    OpenAIRE

    Nehme, A.

    2004-01-01

    We consider electromagnetic corrections to the non-leptonic kaon decay, $K^+\\to\\pi^+\\pi^0\\pi^0$, due to explicit virtual photons only. The decay amplitude is calculated at one-loop level in the framework of Chiral Perturbation Theory. The interest in this process is twofold: It is actually measured by the NA48 collaboration from one side, and, the value of the amplitude at the $\\pi\\pi$ threshold gives access to $\\pi\\pi$ scattering lengths from the other side. We found that the present correct...

  18. Virtual Photon Contribution to Frictional Drag in Double-layer Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donarini, Andrea; Ferrari, R.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2003-01-01

    Frictional drag between coupled two-dimensional charge systems is commonly viewed as a second order effect arising either from screened Coulomb interaction, or phonon exchange. We point out that for single-photon exchange the first order contribution does not have to vanish even at T = 0, and eva...

  19. Source of single photons and interferometry with one photon. From the Young's slit experiment to the delayed choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, V.

    2007-11-01

    This manuscript is divided in two independent parts. In the first part, we study the wave-particle duality for a single photon emitted by the triggered photoluminescence of a single NV color center in a diamond nano-crystal. We first present the realization of a single-photon interference experiment using a Fresnel's bi-prism, in a scheme equivalent to the standard Young's double-slit textbook experiment. We then discuss the complementarity between interference and which-path information in this two-path interferometer. We finally describe the experimental realization of Wheeler's delayed-choice Gedanken experiment, which is a fascinating and subtle illustration of wave-particle duality. The second part of the manuscript is devoted to the efficiency improvement of single-photon sources. We first describe the implementation of a new single-photon source based on the photoluminescence of a single nickel-related defect center in diamond. The photophysical properties of such defect make this single-photon source well adapted to open-air quantum cryptography. We finally demonstrate an original method that leads to an improvement of single-molecule photo stability at room temperature. (author)

  20. Direct Photonic-Plasmonic Coupling and Routing in Single Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Rouxue; Pausauskie, Peter; Huang, Jiaxing; Yang, Piedong

    2009-10-20

    Metallic nanoscale structures are capable of supporting surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), propagating collective electron oscillations with tight spatial confinement at the metal surface. SPPs represent one of the most promising structures to beat the diffraction limit imposed by conventional dielectric optics. Ag nano wires have drawn increasing research attention due to 2D sub-100 nm mode confinement and lower losses as compared with fabricated metal structures. However, rational and versatile integration of Ag nanowires with other active and passive optical components, as well as Ag nanowire based optical routing networks, has yet to be achieved. Here, we demonstrate that SPPs can be excited simply by contacting a silver nanowire with a SnO2 nanoribbon that serves both as an unpolarized light source and a dielectric waveguide. The efficient coupling makes it possible to measure the propagation-distance-dependent waveguide spectra and frequency-dependent propagation length on a single Ag nanowire. Furthermore, we have demonstrated prototypical photonic-plasmonic routing devices, which are essential for incorporating low-loss Ag nanowire waveguides as practical components into high-capacity photonic circuits.

  1. Custom single-photon avalanche diode with integrated front-end for parallel photon timing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammi, C.; Panzeri, F.; Gulinatti, A.; Rech, I.; Ghioni, M.

    2012-03-01

    Emerged as a solid state alternative to photo multiplier tubes (PMTs), single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) are nowadays widely used in the field of single-photon timing applications. Custom technology SPADs assure remarkable performance, in particular a 10 counts/s dark count rate (DCR) at low temperature, a high photon detection efficiency (PDE) with a 50% peak at 550 nm and a 30 ps (full width at half maximum, FWHM) temporal resolution, even with large area devices, have been obtained. Over the past few years, the birth of novel techniques of analysis has led to the parallelization of the measurement systems and to a consequent increasing demand for the development of monolithic arrays of detectors. Unfortunately, the implementation of a multidimensional system is a challenging task from the electrical point of view; in particular, the avalanche current pick-up circuit, used to obtain the previously reported performance, has to be modified in order to enable high parallel temporal resolution, while minimizing the electrical crosstalk probability between channels. In the past, the problem has been solved by integrating the front-end electronics next to the photodetector, in order to reduce the parasitic capacitances and consequently the filtering action on the current signal of the SPAD, leading to an improvement of the timing jitter at higher threshold. This solution has been implemented by using standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technologies, which, however, do not allow a complete control on the SPAD structure; for this reason the intrinsic performance of CMOS SPADs, such as DCR, PDE, and afterpulsing probability, are worse than those attainable with custom detectors. In this paper, we propose a pixel architecture, which enables the development of custom SPAD arrays in which every channel maintains the performance of the best single photodetector. The system relies on the integration of the timing signal pick-up circuit next to the

  2. Optical precursors from classical waves to single photons

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, JF; Loy, MMT; Du, Shengwang

    2013-01-01

    Ever since Einstein’s special relativity in 1905, the principle of invariant light speed in vacuum has been attracting attention from a wide range of disciplines. How to interpret the principle of light speed? Is light referred to continuous light, or light pulse with definite boundaries? Recent discovery of superluminal medium triggered vigorous discussion within the Physics community. Can communication via such “superluminal channel” break the speed limit and thus violate causality principle? Or, will a single photon, which is not governed by classical laws of Physics, tend to break the speed limit? To solve these problems, in this Brief we bring in optical precursor, the theoretical works for which started as early as 1914. This is a typical optical phenomenon combining wave propagation theory and light-wave interaction. Both theory and experimental works are covered in this Brief. The study of precursor verifies that the effective information carried by light pulses can never exceed the speed of lig...

  3. Application of single photon ECT for dynamic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, T.; Ishii, Y.; Tamaki, N.

    1982-01-01

    Feasibility of dynamic study in a form of ECT using a rotating gamma camera was evaluated. Since it takes longer one around time sampling, application for the dynamic study is limited under following conditions; 1) physiological gated process, 2) slow clearance process, 3) physiological steady state process. The gated study was applicated for heart pumping action synchronized with ECG. The ECG gated heart ECT either of blood pool or myocardium was useful to reveal a subtle wall motion abnormalities in a tomographic plane, even when a planar imaging failed to reveal it. As for slow dynamic process of tracer, an excretion process of hepatobiliary agent, was subjected to be analyzed in order to calculate clearance rate at each pixel. As for steady state process, an ECT of regional celebral blood flow (rCBF) was investigated during continuous infusion into intracarotid artery. All of these technique were proved to have a clinical feasibility and to potentiate usefulness of the single photon ECT (SPECT)

  4. Single photon emission computed tomography in AIDS dementia complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, P.; Vogl, G.; Fill, H.; Roessler, H.Z.; Zangerle, R.; Gerstenbrand, F.

    1988-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies were performed in AIDS dementia complex using IMP in 12 patients (and HM-PAO in four of these same patients). In all patients, SPECT revealed either multiple or focal uptake defects, the latter corresponding with focal signs or symptoms in all but one case. Computerized tomography showed a diffuse cerebral atrophy in eight of 12 patients, magnetic resonance imaging exhibited changes like atrophy and/or leukoencephalopathy in two of five cases. Our data indicate that both disturbance of cerebral amine metabolism and alteration of local perfusion share in the pathogenesis of AIDS dementia complex. SPECT is an important aid in the diagnosis of AIDS dementia complex and contributes to the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of this disorder

  5. Super-resolution from single photon emission: toward biological application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreva, E.; Traina, P.; Forneris, J.; Ditalia Tchernij, S.; Guarina, L.; Franchino, C.; Picollo, F.; Ruo Berchera, I.; Brida, G.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Carabelli, V.; Olivero, P.; Genovese, M.

    2017-08-01

    Properties of quantum light represent a tool for overcoming limits of classical optics. Several experiments have demonstrated this advantage ranging from quantum enhanced imaging to quantum illumination. In this work, experimental demonstration of quantum-enhanced resolution in confocal fluorescence microscopy will be presented. This is achieved by exploiting the non-classical photon statistics of fluorescence emission of single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond. By developing a general model of super-resolution based on the direct sampling of the kth-order autocorrelation function of the photoluminescence signal, we show the possibility to resolve, in principle, arbitrarily close emitting centers. Finally, possible applications of NV-based fluorescent nanodiamonds in biosensing and future developments will be presented.

  6. Technology development for a single-photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzmann, Roland

    2011-01-01

    the emission from 1.3 μm to 1.5 μm was obtained. To achieve high collection efficiency, the quantum dots should be embedded into photonic crystals. An ArCl 2 -etch-process was developed which enables the etch of small features in Al x Ga y In 1-x-y As material system to transfer the Si 3 N 4 -pattern into the semiconductor. Using this process the fabricated photonic crystals with L3-cavities had Q-factors around 2200. Any concept using a cavity needs a mechanism to control the frequency-detuning between the mode and the quantum dots, due to the inhomogeneous frequency broadening of the quantum dots. Thus an in-situ tuning mechanism is required for adjusting the emission wavelength of the quantum dot or cavity mode, respectively. This concept intents to use the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) to force the emission of a single photon out of a quantum dot into the photonic crystal mode. This is realized using a reversed biased Schottky contact to cause a red-shift of the emission of a single quantum dot. Electroluminescence measurements on the device show, that even with very low currents of 14.5 μA the saturation intensity of single quantum dots could be reached. (orig.)

  7. Bright single photon source based on self-aligned quantum dot–cavity systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Sebastian; Gold, Peter; Forchel, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    We report on a quasi-planar quantum-dot-based single-photon source that shows an unprecedented high extraction efficiency of 42% without complex photonic resonator geometries or post-growth nanofabrication. This very high efficiency originates from the coupling of the photons emitted by a quantum...

  8. Wavevector multiplexed atomic quantum memory via spatially-resolved single-photon detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parniak, Michał; Dąbrowski, Michał; Mazelanik, Mateusz; Leszczyński, Adam; Lipka, Michał; Wasilewski, Wojciech

    2017-12-15

    Parallelized quantum information processing requires tailored quantum memories to simultaneously handle multiple photons. The spatial degree of freedom is a promising candidate to facilitate such photonic multiplexing. Using a single-photon resolving camera, we demonstrate a wavevector multiplexed quantum memory based on a cold atomic ensemble. Observation of nonclassical correlations between Raman scattered photons is confirmed by an average value of the second-order correlation function [Formula: see text] in 665 separated modes simultaneously. The proposed protocol utilizing the multimode memory along with the camera will facilitate generation of multi-photon states, which are a necessity in quantum-enhanced sensing technologies and as an input to photonic quantum circuits.

  9. High Count Rate Single Photon Counting Detector Array, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An optical communications receiver requires efficient and high-rate photon-counting capability so that the information from every photon, received at the aperture,...

  10. Wide-field single photon counting imaging with an ultrafast camera and an image intensifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanda, Gianmarco; Sergent, Nicolas; Green, Mark; Levitt, James A.; Petrášek, Zdeněk; Suhling, Klaus

    2012-12-01

    We are reporting a method for wide-field photon counting imaging using a CMOS camera with a 40 kHz frame rate coupled with a three-stage image intensifier mounted on a standard fluorescence microscope. This system combines high frame rates with single photon sensitivity. The output of the phosphor screen, consisting of single-photon events, is collected by a CMOS camera allowing to create a wide-field image with parallel positional and timing information of each photon. Using a pulsed excitation source and a luminescent sample, the arrival time of hundreds of photons can be determined simultaneously in many pixels with microsecond resolution.

  11. Single-Shot Quantum Nondemolition Detection of Individual Itinerant Microwave Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, Jean-Claude; Gasparinetti, Simone; Collodo, Michele C.; Walter, Theo; Kurpiers, Philipp; Pechal, Marek; Eichler, Christopher; Wallraff, Andreas

    2018-04-01

    Single-photon detection is an essential component in many experiments in quantum optics, but it remains challenging in the microwave domain. We realize a quantum nondemolition detector for propagating microwave photons and characterize its performance using a single-photon source. To this aim, we implement a cavity-assisted conditional phase gate between the incoming photon and a superconducting artificial atom. By reading out the state of this atom in a single shot, we reach an external (internal) photon-detection fidelity of 50% (71%), limited by transmission efficiency between the source and the detector (75%) and the coherence properties of the qubit. By characterizing the coherence and average number of photons in the field reflected off the detector, we demonstrate its quantum nondemolition nature. We envisage applications in generating heralded remote entanglement between qubits and for realizing logic gates between propagating microwave photons.

  12. Photon counting imaging and centroiding with an electron-bombarded CCD using single molecule localisation software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirvonen, Liisa M.; Barber, Matthew J.; Suhling, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Photon event centroiding in photon counting imaging and single-molecule localisation in super-resolution fluorescence microscopy share many traits. Although photon event centroiding has traditionally been performed with simple single-iteration algorithms, we recently reported that iterative fitting algorithms originally developed for single-molecule localisation fluorescence microscopy work very well when applied to centroiding photon events imaged with an MCP-intensified CMOS camera. Here, we have applied these algorithms for centroiding of photon events from an electron-bombarded CCD (EBCCD). We find that centroiding algorithms based on iterative fitting of the photon events yield excellent results and allow fitting of overlapping photon events, a feature not reported before and an important aspect to facilitate an increased count rate and shorter acquisition times.

  13. Comparison between dose calculation in XiO® and dosimetric measurements in virtual wedge photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Laila G.; Amaral, Leonardo L.; Oliveira, Harley F.; Maia, Ana F.

    2012-01-01

    The virtual wedge is useful tool in the radiation treatment planning since it has series of advantages over the hard wedge. Quality control tests ensure correct performance of the planning done in treatment planning systems (TPS). This study aimed to compare doses calculated by TPS and doses measured by ionization chamber (CI) and an ionization chambers array in virtual wedge photon beams of 6 MV. Measures carried out in Primus linear accelerator with a solid water phantom and dosimeter positioned at 10 cm depth with gantry at 0° in many fields sizes and angles in the virtual wedge. Measurements on the central axis used as dosimeter an IC and on off-axis used an IC array. The simulation in CMS-XiO used the CT images of the phantom in the same configuration of the irradiation. Maximum and minimum values of the percentage differences between the doses provided by TPS and measurements with ionization chamber on the central axis were 1.43 and -0.10%, respectively, with average percentage difference of 0.08% and confidence limit of Δ=1.72%. In the region off-axis, the average percentage difference was 0.04%, with a maximum of 1.9%, minimum of 0% and confidence limit of Δ=1.91%. All values for dose percentage differences were below 2% and lower confidence limit of 3% are thus, according to the recommendations of the Technical Report Series - TRS-430. (author)

  14. Proceedings of clinical SPECT [single photon emission computed tomography] symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    It has been five years since the last in-depth American College of Nuclear Physicians/Society of Nuclear Medicine Symposium on the subject of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was held. Because this subject was nominated as the single most desired topic we have selected SPECT imaging as the basis for this year's program. The objectives of this symposium are to survey the progress of SPECT clinical applications that have taken place over the last five years and to provide practical and timely guidelines to users of SPECT so that this exciting imaging modality can be fully integrated into the evaluation of pathologic processes. The first half was devoted to a consideration of technical factors important in SPECT acquisition and the second half was devoted to those organ systems about which sufficient clinical SPECT imaging data are available. With respect to the technical aspect of the program we have selected the key areas which demand awareness and attention in order to make SPECT operational in clinical practice. These include selection of equipment, details of uniformity correction, utilization of phantoms for equipment acceptance and quality assurance, the major aspect of algorithms, an understanding of filtered back projection and appropriate choice of filters and an awareness of the most commonly generated artifacts and how to recognize them. With respect to the acquisition and interpretation of organ images, the faculty will present information on the major aspects of hepatic, brain, cardiac, skeletal, and immunologic imaging techniques. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base

  15. Anti-dynamic-crosstalk method for single photon LIDAR detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Liu, Qiang; Gong, Mali; Fu, Xing

    2017-11-01

    With increasing number of vehicles equipped with light detection and ranging (LIDAR), crosstalk is identified as a critical and urgent issue in the range detection for active collision avoidance. Chaotic pulse position modulation (CPPM) applied in the transmitting pulse train has been shown to prevent crosstalk as well as range ambiguity. However, static and unified strategy on discrimination threshold and the number of accumulated pulse is not valid against crosstalk with varying number of sources and varying intensity of each source. This paper presents an adaptive algorithm to distinguish the target echo from crosstalk with dynamic and unknown level of intensity in the context of intelligent vehicles. New strategy is given based on receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves that consider the detection requirements of the probability of detection and false alarm for the scenario with varying crosstalk. In the adaptive algorithm, the detected results are compared by the new strategy with both the number of accumulated pulses and the threshold being raised step by step, so that the target echo can be exactly identified from crosstalk with the dynamic and unknown level of intensity. The validity of the algorithm has been verified through the experiments with a single photon detector and the time correlated single photo counting (TCSPC) technique, demonstrating a marked drop in required shots for identifying the target compared with static and unified strategy

  16. Continuous-Wave Single-Photon Transistor Based on a Superconducting Circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriienko, Oleksandr; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg

    2016-01-01

    We propose a microwave frequency single-photon transistor which can operate under continuous wave probing and represents an efficient single microwave photon detector. It can be realized using an impedance matched system of a three level artificial ladder-type atom coupled to two microwave cavities...... and the appearance of a photon flux leaving the second cavity through a separate input-output port. The proposal does not require time variation of the probe signals, thus corresponding to a passive version of a single-photon transistor. The resulting device is robust to qubit dephasing processes, possesses low dark...

  17. Experimental single photon exchange along a space link of 7000 km

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dequal, Daniele; Vallone, Giuseppe; Bacco, Davide

    2015-01-01

    at the Matera Laser Ranging Observatory. The single photon transmitter was realized by exploiting the corner cube retro-reflectors mounted on the LAGEOS-2 satellite. Long duration of data collection is possible with such altitude, up to 43 minutes in a single passage. The mean number of photons per pulse (µsat...

  18. Corpuscular Model of Two-Beam Interference and Double-Slit Experiments with Single Photons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Fengping; Yuan, Shengjun; De Raedt, Hans; Michielsen, Kristel; Miyashita, Seiji

    We introduce an event-based corpuscular simulation model that reproduces the wave mechanical results of single-photon double-slit and two-beam interference experiments and (of a one-to-one copy of an experimental realization) of a single-photon interference experiment with a Fresnel biprism. The

  19. Low-noise low-jitter 32-pixels CMOS single-photon avalanche diodes array for single-photon counting from 300 nm to 900 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarcella, Carmelo; Tosi, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.tosi@polimi.it; Villa, Federica; Tisa, Simone; Zappa, Franco [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    We developed a single-photon counting multichannel detection system, based on a monolithic linear array of 32 CMOS SPADs (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes). All channels achieve a timing resolution of 100 ps (full-width at half maximum) and a photon detection efficiency of 50% at 400 nm. Dark count rate is very low even at room temperature, being about 125 counts/s for 50 μm active area diameter SPADs. Detection performance and microelectronic compactness of this CMOS SPAD array make it the best candidate for ultra-compact time-resolved spectrometers with single-photon sensitivity from 300 nm to 900 nm.

  20. Single-photon source engineering using a Modal Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels

    as the number of detected photons by the collection optics per trigger, is desired, and to obtain this high efficiency the photonic environment must be engineered [1] such that all the emitted light couples to the collection optics. A recent design approach is based on a quantum dot placed inside a photonic...... nanowire (Fig. 1). This structure does not feature a cavity but instead relies on a geometrical screening effect to efficiently couple photons to the fundamental waveguide mode. Furthermore, the photonic nanowire SPS implements a bottom metal mirror and exploits tapering strategies based on conical tapers...... to ensure efficient in- and out-coupling. However, the performance of the photonic nanowire SPS depends critically on the geometrical parameters, and exact optical simulations of the scattering coefficients of the fundamental waveguide mode are required to obtain a detailed understanding of the various...

  1. How a single photon can mediate entanglement between two others

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Bernardo, Bertúlio de, E-mail: bertulio.fisica@gmail.com

    2016-10-15

    We describe a novel quantum information protocol, which probabilistically entangles two distant photons that have never interacted. Different from the entanglement swapping protocol, which requires two pairs of maximally entangled photons as the input states, as well as a Bell-state measurement (BSM), the present scheme only requires three photons: two to be entangled and another to mediate the correlation, and no BSM, in a process that we call “entanglement mediation”. Furthermore, in analyzing the paths of the photons in our arrangement, we conclude that one of them, the mediator, exchanges information with the two others simultaneously, which seems to be a new quantum-mechanical feature.

  2. Microscopic theory of cavity-enhanced single-photon emission from optical two-photon Raman processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breddermann, Dominik; Praschan, Tom; Heinze, Dirk; Binder, Rolf; Schumacher, Stefan

    2018-03-01

    We consider cavity-enhanced single-photon generation from stimulated two-photon Raman processes in three-level systems. We compare four fundamental system configurations, one Λ -, one V-, and two ladder (Ξ -) configurations. These can be realized as subsystems of a single quantum dot or of quantum-dot molecules. For a new microscopic understanding of the Raman process, we analyze the Heisenberg equation of motion applying the cluster-expansion scheme. Within this formalism an exact and rigorous definition of a cavity-enhanced Raman photon via its corresponding Raman correlation is possible. This definition for example enables us to systematically investigate the on-demand potential of Raman-transition-based single-photon sources. The four system arrangements can be divided into two subclasses, Λ -type and V-type, which exhibit strongly different Raman-emission characteristics and Raman-emission probabilities. Moreover, our approach reveals whether the Raman path generates a single photon or just induces destructive quantum interference with other excitation paths. Based on our findings and as a first application, we gain a more detailed understanding of experimental data from the literature. Our analysis and results are also transferable to the case of atomic three-level-resonator systems and can be extended to more complicated multilevel schemes.

  3. Three-dimensional photonic crystals created by single-step multi-directional plasma etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Kitano, Keisuke; Ishizaki, Kenji; Noda, Susumu

    2014-07-14

    We fabricate 3D photonic nanostructures by simultaneous multi-directional plasma etching. This simple and flexible method is enabled by controlling the ion-sheath in reactive-ion-etching equipment. We realize 3D photonic crystals on single-crystalline silicon wafers and show high reflectance (>95%) and low transmittance (photonic bandgap. Moreover, our method simply demonstrates Si-based 3D photonic crystals that show the photonic bandgap effect in a shorter wavelength range around 0.6 μm, where further fine structures are required.

  4. Measurement of the Hadronic Cross-Section for the Scattering of Two Virtual Photons at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Cammin, J.; Carnegie, R.K.; Caron, B.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Couchman, J.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Dallison, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Graham, K.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hauschildt, J.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kokott, T.P.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kramer, T.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Krop, D.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Marchant, T.E.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Moed, S.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Rick, H.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Roscoe, K.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Spano, F.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Stumpf, L.; Surrow, B.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vachon, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of virtual photons is investigated using the reaction e+e- -> e+e- hadrons based on data taken by the OPAL experiment at e+e- centre-of-mass energies sqrt(s_ee)=189-209 GeV, for W>5 GeV and at an average Q^2 of 17.9 GeV^2. The measured cross-sections are compared to predictions of the Quark Parton Model (QPM), to the Leading Order QCD Monte Carlo model PHOJET to the NLO prediction for the reaction e+e- -> e+e-qqbar, and to BFKL calculations. PHOJET, NLO e+e- -> e+e-qqbar, and QPM describe the data reasonably well, whereas the cross-section predicted by a Leading Order BFKL calculation is too large.

  5. On-Chip Waveguide Coupling of a Layered Semiconductor Single-Photon Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonndorf, Philipp; Del Pozo-Zamudio, Osvaldo; Gruhler, Nico; Kern, Johannes; Schmidt, Robert; Dmitriev, Alexander I; Bakhtinov, Anatoly P; Tartakovskii, Alexander I; Pernice, Wolfram; Michaelis de Vasconcellos, Steffen; Bratschitsch, Rudolf

    2017-09-13

    Fully integrated quantum technology based on photons is in the focus of current research, because of its immense potential concerning performance and scalability. Ideally, the single-photon sources, the processing units, and the photon detectors are all combined on a single chip. Impressive progress has been made for on-chip quantum circuits and on-chip single-photon detection. In contrast, nonclassical light is commonly coupled onto the photonic chip from the outside, because presently only few integrated single-photon sources exist. Here, we present waveguide-coupled single-photon emitters in the layered semiconductor gallium selenide as promising on-chip sources. GaSe crystals with a thickness below 100 nm are placed on Si 3 N 4 rib or slot waveguides, resulting in a modified mode structure efficient for light coupling. Using optical excitation from within the Si 3 N 4 waveguide, we find nonclassicality of generated photons routed on the photonic chip. Thus, our work provides an easy-to-implement and robust light source for integrated quantum technology.

  6. Proposal for automated transformations on single-photon multipath qudits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldijão, R. D.; Borges, G. F.; Marques, B.; Solís-Prosser, M. A.; Neves, L.; Pádua, S.

    2017-09-01

    We propose a method for implementing automated state transformations on single-photon multipath qudits encoded in a one-dimensional transverse spatial domain. It relies on transferring the encoding from this domain to the orthogonal one by applying a spatial phase modulation with diffraction gratings, merging all the initial propagation paths by using a stable interferometric network, and filtering out the unwanted diffraction orders. The automation feature is attained by utilizing a programmable phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM) where properly designed diffraction gratings displayed on its screen will implement the desired transformations, including, among others, projections, permutations, and random operations. We discuss the losses in the process which is, in general, inherently nonunitary. Some examples of transformations are presented and, considering a realistic scenario, we analyze how they will be affected by the pixelated structure of the SLM screen. The method proposed here enables one to implement much more general transformations on multipath qudits than is possible with a SLM alone operating in the diagonal basis of which-path states. Therefore, it will extend the range of applicability for this encoding in high-dimensional quantum information and computing protocols as well as fundamental studies in quantum theory.

  7. Single photon emission computed tomography in lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, S.; Muro, T.; Eisenstein, S.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of single photon emission computed tomographic images and plain X-ray films of the lumbar vertebrae was performed in 15 patients with lumbar spondylosis and 15 patients with lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis. The facet joint and osteophyte images were observed in particular, and the slipping ratio of spondylolisthetic vertebrae was determined. The slipping ratio of degenerative spondylolisthesis ranged from 11.8 % to 22.3 %. Hot uptake of 99mTc-HMDP by both L4-5 facet joints was significantly greater in the patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis than in those with lumbar spondylosis. The hot uptake by the osteophytes in lumbar spondylosis was nearly uniform among the three inferior segments, L3-4, L4-5 and L5-S, but was localized to the spondylolisthetic vertebrae, L4-5, or L5-S, in the patients with spondylolisthesis. Half of the osteophytes with hot uptake were assigned to the 3rd degree of Nathan's grading. It was suggested that stress was localized to the slipping vertebrae and their facet joints in patients with lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis. (author)

  8. Brain single photon emission computed tomography in neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denays, R.; Van Pachterbeke, T.; Tondeur, M.; Spehl, M.; Toppet, V.; Ham, H.; Piepsz, A.; Rubinstein, M.; Nol, P.H.; Haumont, D. (Free Universities of Brussels (Belgium))

    1989-08-01

    This study was designed to rate the clinical value of ({sup 123}I)iodoamphetamine (IMP) or ({sup 99m}Tc) hexamethyl propylene amine oxyme (HM-PAO) brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in neonates, especially in those likely to develop cerebral palsy. The results showed that SPECT abnormalities were congruent in most cases with structural lesions demonstrated by ultrasonography. However, mild bilateral ventricular dilatation and bilateral subependymal porencephalic cysts diagnosed by ultrasound were not associated with an abnormal SPECT finding. In contrast, some cortical periventricular and sylvian lesions and all the parasagittal lesions well visualized in SPECT studies were not diagnosed by ultrasound scans. In neonates with subependymal and/or intraventricular hemorrhage the existence of a parenchymal abnormality was only diagnosed by SPECT. These results indicate that ({sup 123}I)IMP or ({sup 99m}Tc)HM-PAO brain SPECT shows a potential clinical value as the neurodevelopmental outcome is clearly related to the site, the extent, and the number of cerebral lesions. Long-term clinical follow-up is, however, mandatory in order to define which SPECT abnormality is associated with neurologic deficit.

  9. Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) in childhood epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulati, Sheffali; Kalra, Veena; Bal, C.S.

    2000-01-01

    The success of epilepsy surgery is determined strongly by the precise location of the epileptogenic focus. The information from clinical electrophysiological data needs to be strengthened by functional neuroimaging techniques. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) available locally has proved useful as a localising investigation. It evaluates the regional cerebral blood flow and the comparison between ictal and interictal blood flow on SPECT has proved to be a sensitive nuclear marker for the site of seizure onset. Many studies justify the utility of SPECT in localising lesions to possess greater precision than interictal scalp EEG or anatomic neuroimaging. SPECT is of definitive value in temporal lobe epilepsy. Its role in extratemporal lobe epilepsy is less clearly defined. It is useful in various other generalized and partial seizure disorders including epileptic syndromes and helps in differentiating pseudoseizures from true seizures. The need for newer radiopharmaceutical agents with specific neurochemical properties and longer shelf life are under investigation. Subtraction ictal SPECT co-registered to MRI is a promising new modality. (author)

  10. Proceedings of clinical SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    It has been five years since the last in-depth American College of Nuclear Physicians/Society of Nuclear Medicine Symposium on the subject of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was held. Because this subject was nominated as the single most desired topic we have selected SPECT imaging as the basis for this year's program. The objectives of this symposium are to survey the progress of SPECT clinical applications that have taken place over the last five years and to provide practical and timely guidelines to users of SPECT so that this exciting imaging modality can be fully integrated into the evaluation of pathologic processes. The first half was devoted to a consideration of technical factors important in SPECT acquisition and the second half was devoted to those organ systems about which sufficient clinical SPECT imaging data are available. With respect to the technical aspect of the program we have selected the key areas which demand awareness and attention in order to make SPECT operational in clinical practice. These include selection of equipment, details of uniformity correction, utilization of phantoms for equipment acceptance and quality assurance, the major aspect of algorithms, an understanding of filtered back projection and appropriate choice of filters and an awareness of the most commonly generated artifacts and how to recognize them. With respect to the acquisition and interpretation of organ images, the faculty will present information on the major aspects of hepatic, brain, cardiac, skeletal, and immunologic imaging techniques. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base. (TEM)

  11. Extent of sensitivity of single photon production to parton distribution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prompt photon; parton distribution function; perturbative quantum chromodyanmics. PACS Nos 13.75. ... Because of the point-like coupling, the photons produced through the processes (i) and. (ii) are called 'direct' ... where the fs are called the parton distribution functions (PDFs), which give the probability for the incoming ...

  12. ASP: a new PEP experiment to measure single photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollebeek, R.

    1984-05-01

    The design and construction of a new experiment for PEP designed to measure the flux of low energy photons unaccompanied by any additional photons, or charged tracks is described. The device consists of arrays of extruded lead glass bars and PWC's in the central region with lead-scintillator shower counters, drift chambers and PWC's in the forward regions. 9 references

  13. Local Two-Photon Couplings and the J=0 Fixed Pole in Real and Virtual Compton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

    2008-12-05

    The local coupling of two photons to the fundamental quark currents of a hadron gives an energy-independent contribution to the Compton amplitude proportional to the charge squared of the struck quark, a contribution which has no analog in hadron scattering reactions. We show that this local contribution has a real phase and is universal, giving the same contribution for real or virtual Compton scattering for any photon virtuality and skewness at fixed momentum transfer squared t. The t-dependence of this J = 0 fixed Regge pole is parameterized by a yet unmeasured even charge-conjugation form factor of the target nucleon. The t = 0 limit gives an important constraint on the dependence of the nucleon mass on the quark mass through the Weisberger relation. We discuss how this 1=x form factor can be extracted from high energy deeply virtual Compton scattering and examine predictions given by models of the H generalized parton distribution.

  14. Bright quantum dot single photon source based on a low Q defect cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Sebastian; Gold, Peter; Forchel, A.

    2014-01-01

    The quasi-planar single photon source presented in this paper shows an extraction efficiency of 42% without complex photonic resonator geometries or lithography steps as well as a high purity with a g2(0) value of 0.023.......The quasi-planar single photon source presented in this paper shows an extraction efficiency of 42% without complex photonic resonator geometries or lithography steps as well as a high purity with a g2(0) value of 0.023....

  15. The effect of real and virtual photons in the di-lepton channel at the LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Accomando

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of di-lepton production at the CERN Large Hadron Collider with a particular focus on the contribution resulting from both real and virtual photons in the initial state. We discuss the region of phase space in which the invariant mass of the lepton pair is of the order of several TeV, where searches for new physics phenomena yielding a di-lepton signature are presently carried out. We study both the yield and associated uncertainties for all possible topologies in photon-induced di-lepton production and compare these with what is expected in the standard Drell–Yan channel, where quark–antiquark pairs are responsible for the production of lepton pairs. We analyse the impact of these QED contributions on the expected Standard Model background and on searches for new physics. In this latter case, we use the production of an extra heavy Z′-boson predicted by the Sequential Standard Model (SSM as a benchmark process.

  16. Tunable room-temperature single photon emission from atomic defects in hexagonal boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Gabriele; Moon, Hyowon; Lienhard, Benjamin; Efetov, Dmitri; Furchi, Marco; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Ali, Sajid; Ford, Michael; Aharonovich, Igor; Englund, Dirk

    Two-dimensional van der Waals materials have emerged as promising platforms for solid-state quantum information processing devices with unusual potential for heterogeneous assembly. Recently, bright and photostable single photon emitters were reported from atomic defects in layered hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), but controlling inhomogeneous spectral distribution and reducing multi-photon emission presented open challenges. We demonstrate that strain control allows spectral tunability of hBN single photon emitters, and material processing sharply improves the single-photon purity. Our sample fabrication process relies on ion irradiation and high temperature annealing to isolate individual defects for single photon emission. Spectroscopy on this emitter reports high single photon purity of g(2)(0) =0.07, and high count rates exceeding 107 counts/sec at saturation. Furthermore, these emitters are stable to material transfer to other substrates, including a bendable beam that allows us to controllably apply strain. Our experiments indicate a maximum tuning of 6 meV and emission energy dependencies ranging from -3 to 6 meV/%. High-purity and photostable single photon emission at room temperature, together with spectral tunability and transferability, opens the door to scalable integration of high-quality quantum emitters in photonic quantum technologies.

  17. Evaluation of the ID220 single photon avalanche diode for extended spectral range of photon time-of-flight spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Højager Attermann; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Anderson-Engels, Stefan

    , Lund University (Sweden) together with ID Quantique Inc. (Geneve, Switzerland). As such, the report does not give an introduction to PToF spectroscopy, which may be found om the Doctoral on the topic [2, 18, 1]. The report focuses on a description of the detectors ability to measure the PTo......This paper describe the performance of the ID220 single photon avalanche diode for single photon counting, and investigates its performance for photon time-of-flight (PToF) spectroscopy. At first this report will serve as a summary to the group for PToF spectroscopy at the Department of Physics......F distribution of infrared light. First, a motivation for using the ID220 for measuring PToF distribution is given, followed by a brief description of the experimental setup in which the detector was characterized. Following this, the quantification of delay using cross correlation between PToF distributions...

  18. CdSe quantum dot in vertical ZnSe nanowire and photonic wire for efficient single-photon emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cremel, Thibault; Bellet-Amalric, Edith; Cagnon, Laurent

    We’ve recently demonstrated that a CdSe quantum dot (QD) in a ZnSe nanowire (NW) can emit triggered single photons up to room temperature [1]. In this contribution, we present the possibilities of enhancing the photon emission and collection in such NW-QDs structures for a realistic application...... as a single photon source. We have grown vertically oriented ZnSe NWs (with typical diameter of 10 nm) by molecular beam epitaxy on a ZnSe(111)B buffer layer. The growth of a ZnMgSe passivating shell increases the (otherwise weak) ZnSe near-band-edge luminescence by two orders of magnitude. This has allowed...

  19. Single-Photon Tracking for High-Speed Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan Gyongy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Quanta Imager Sensors provide photon detections at high frame rates, with negligible read-out noise, making them ideal for high-speed optical tracking. At the basic level of bit-planes or binary maps of photon detections, objects may present limited detail. However, through motion estimation and spatial reassignment of photon detections, the objects can be reconstructed with minimal motion artefacts. We here present the first demonstration of high-speed two-dimensional (2D tracking and reconstruction of rigid, planar objects with a Quanta Image Sensor, including a demonstration of depth-resolved tracking.

  20. Efficient multi-mode to single-mode conversion in a 61 port photonic lantern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordegraaf, Danny; Skovgaard, Peter M. W.; Dybendahl Maack, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a multi-mode (MM) to 61 port single-mode (SM) splitter or "Photonic Lantern". Low port count Photonic Lanterns were first described by Leon-Saval et al. (2005). These are based on a photonic crystal fiber type design, with air-holes defining the multi-mode fiber ...... of astrophotonics for coupling MM star-light to an ensemble of SM fibers in order to perform fiber Bragg grating based spectral filtering....

  1. Experimental realization of highly efficient broadband coupling of single quantum dots to a photonic crystal waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Hansen, Toke; Stobbe, Søren; Julsgaard, Brian

    2008-01-01

    We present time-resolved spontaneous emission measurements of single quantum dots embedded in photonic crystal waveguides. Quantum dots that couple to a photonic crystal waveguide are found to decay up to 27 times faster than uncoupled quantum dots. From these measurements -factors of up to 0.89 ...... taking into account that the light-matter coupling is strongly enhanced due to the significant slow-down of light in the photonic crystal waveguides....

  2. Photon emission statistics and photon tracking in single-molecule spectroscopy of molecular aggregates : Dimers and trimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemsma, E. A.; Knoester, J.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the generating function formalism, we investigate broadband photon statistics of emission for single dimers and trimers driven by a continuous monochromatic laser field. In particular, we study the first and second moments of the emission statistics, which are the fluorescence excitation

  3. Efficient fiber-coupled single-photon sources based on quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daveau, Raphaël Sura

    This thesis presents the study of solid-state quantum emitters in two dierent forms. The rst part of the thesis deals with quantum dot based single-photon sources with an emphasis on ecient photon extraction into an optical ber. The second part of the thesis covers a theoretical study of optical...... refrigeration with coupled quantum wells. Many photonic quantum information processing applications would benet from a highbrightness, ber-coupled source of triggered single photons. This thesis presents a study of such sources based on quantum dots coupled to unidirectional photonic-crystal waveguide devices...... the characterization of single quantum dots. The second method, evanescent coupling from a tapered waveguide to a microber, demonstrates a chip-to-ber coupling eciency exceeding 80 % in passive re- ection measurements. The characterization of quantum dots from this device establishes a ber-coupled source eciency of 15...

  4. Cooling in the single-photon strong-coupling regime of cavity optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnenkamp, A.; Børkje, K.; Girvin, S. M.

    2012-05-01

    In this Rapid Communication we discuss how red-sideband cooling is modified in the single-photon strong-coupling regime of cavity optomechanics where the radiation pressure of a single photon displaces the mechanical oscillator by more than its zero-point uncertainty. Using Fermi's golden rule we calculate the transition rates induced by the optical drive without linearizing the optomechanical interaction. In the resolved-sideband limit we find multiple-phonon cooling resonances for strong single-photon coupling that lead to nonthermal steady states including the possibility of phonon antibunching. Our study generalizes the standard linear cooling theory.

  5. Quantum dot resonant tunneling diode single photon detector with aluminum oxide aperture defined tunneling area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, H.W.; Kardynal, Beata; Ellis, D.J.P.

    2008-01-01

    Quantum dot resonant tunneling diode single photon detector with independently defined absorption and sensing areas is demonstrated. The device, in which the tunneling is constricted to an aperture in an insulating layer in the emitter, shows electrical characteristics typical of high quality...... resonant tunneling diodes. A single photon detection efficiency of 2.1%+/- 0.1% at 685 nm was measured corresponding to an internal quantum efficiency of 14%. The devices are simple to fabricate, robust, and show promise for large absorption area single photon detectors based on quantum dot structures....

  6. Integrated single- and two-photon light sheet microscopy using accelerating beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piksarv, Peeter; Marti, Dominik; Le, Tuan

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the first light sheet microscope using propagation invariant, accelerating Airy beams that operates both in single- and two-photon modes. The use of the Airy beam permits us to develop an ultra compact, high resolution light sheet system without beam scanning. In two-photon mode, a...

  7. Efficient multi-mode to single-mode coupling in a photonic lantern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordegraaf, Danny; Skovgaard, Peter M.; Nielsen, Martin D.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a high performance multi-mode (MM) to single-mode (SM) splitter or “photonic lantern”, first described by Leon-Saval et al. (2005). Our photonic lantern is a solid all-glass version, and we show experimentally that this device can be used to achieve efficient and...

  8. Multiparty Quantum English Auction Scheme Using Single Photons as Message Carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ge; Zhang, Jian-Zhong; Xie, Shu-Cui

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a secure and economic multiparty english auction protocol using the single photons as message carrier of bids is proposed. In order to achieve unconditional security, fairness, undeniability and so on, we adopt the decoy photon checking technique and quantum encryption algorithm. Analysis result shows that our protocol satisfies all the characteristics of traditional english auction, meanwhile, it can resist malicious attacks.

  9. Multiparty Quantum English Auction Scheme Using Single Photons as Message Carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ge; Zhang, Jian-Zhong; Xie, Shu-Cui

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a secure and economic multiparty english auction protocol using the single photons as message carrier of bids is proposed. In order to achieve unconditional security, fairness, undeniability and so on, we adopt the decoy photon checking technique and quantum encryption algorithm. Analysis result shows that our protocol satisfies all the characteristics of traditional english auction, meanwhile, it can resist malicious attacks.

  10. Flexible ultrathin-body single-photon avalanche diode sensors and CMOS integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, P.; Ishihara, R.; Charbon, E.

    2016-01-01

    We proposed the world’s first flexible ultrathin-body single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) as photon counting device providing a suitable solution to advanced implantable bio-compatible chronic medical monitoring, diagnostics and other applications. In this paper, we investigate the Geiger-mode

  11. Observation of quantum state collapse and revival due to the single-photon Kerr effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchmair, Gerhard; Vlastakis, Brian; Leghtas, Zaki; Nigg, Simon E; Paik, Hanhee; Ginossar, Eran; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Frunzio, Luigi; Girvin, S M; Schoelkopf, R J

    2013-03-14

    To create and manipulate non-classical states of light for quantum information protocols, a strong, nonlinear interaction at the single-photon level is required. One approach to the generation of suitable interactions is to couple photons to atoms, as in the strong coupling regime of cavity quantum electrodynamic systems. In these systems, however, the quantum state of the light is only indirectly controlled by manipulating the atoms. A direct photon-photon interaction occurs in so-called Kerr media, which typically induce only weak nonlinearity at the cost of significant loss. So far, it has not been possible to reach the single-photon Kerr regime, in which the interaction strength between individual photons exceeds the loss rate. Here, using a three-dimensional circuit quantum electrodynamic architecture, we engineer an artificial Kerr medium that enters this regime and allows the observation of new quantum effects. We realize a gedanken experiment in which the collapse and revival of a coherent state can be observed. This time evolution is a consequence of the quantization of the light field in the cavity and the nonlinear interaction between individual photons. During the evolution, non-classical superpositions of coherent states (that is, multi-component 'Schrödinger cat' states) are formed. We visualize this evolution by measuring the Husimi Q function and confirm the non-classical properties of these transient states by cavity state tomography. The ability to create and manipulate superpositions of coherent states in such a high-quality-factor photon mode opens perspectives for combining the physics of continuous variables with superconducting circuits. The single-photon Kerr effect could be used in quantum non-demolition measurement of photons, single-photon generation, autonomous quantum feedback schemes and quantum logic operations.

  12. A real-time virtual delivery system for photon radiotherapy delivery monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Shi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Treatment delivery monitoring is important for radiotherapy, which enables catching dosimetric error at the earliest possible opportunity. This project develops a virtual delivery system to monitor the dose delivery process of photon radiotherapy in real-time using GPU-based Monte Carlo (MC method.Methods: The simulation process consists of 3 parallel CPU threads. A thread T1 is responsible for communication with a linac, which acquires a set of linac status parameters, e.g. gantry angles, MLC configurations, and beam MUs every 20 ms. Since linac vendors currently do not offer interface to acquire data in real time, we mimic this process by fetching information from a linac dynalog file at the set frequency. Instantaneous beam fluence map (FM is calculated based. A FM buffer is also created in T1 and the instantaneous FM is accumulated to it. This process continues, until a ready signal is received from thread T2 on which an in-house developed MC dose engine executes on GPU. At that moment, the accumulated FM is transferred to T2 for dose calculations, and the FM buffer in T1 is cleared. Once the dose calculation finishes, the resulting 3D dose distribution is directed to thread T3, which displays it in three orthogonal planes in color wash overlaid on the CT image. This process continues to monitor the 3D dose distribution in real-time.Results: An IMRT and a VMAT cases used in our patient-specific QA are studied. Maximum dose differences between our system and treatment planning system are 0.98% and 1.58% for the IMRT and VMAT cases, respectively. The update frequency is >10Hz and the relative uncertainty level is 2%.Conclusion: By embedding a GPU-based MC code in a novel data/work flow, it is possible to achieve real-time MC dose calculations to monitor delivery process.------------------------------Cite this article as: Shi F, Gu X, Graves YJ, Jiang S, Jia X. A real-time virtual delivery system for photon radiotherapy delivery

  13. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    Discusses the basic physical principles underlying thescience and technology of nanophotonics, its materials andstructures This volume presents nanophotonic structures and Materials.Nanophotonics is photonic science and technology that utilizeslight/matter interactions on the nanoscale where researchers arediscovering new phenomena and developing techniques that go wellbeyond what is possible with conventional photonics andelectronics.The topics discussed in this volume are: CavityPhotonics; Cold Atoms and Bose-Einstein Condensates; Displays;E-paper; Graphene; Integrated Photonics; Liquid Cry

  14. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    This book covers modern photonics accessibly and discusses the basic physical principles underlying all the applications and technology of photonicsThis volume covers the basic physical principles underlying the technology and all applications of photonics from statistical optics to quantum optics. The topics discussed in this volume are: Photons in perspective; Coherence and Statistical Optics; Complex Light and Singular Optics; Electrodynamics of Dielectric Media; Fast and slow Light; Holography; Multiphoton Processes; Optical Angular Momentum; Optical Forces, Trapping and Manipulation; Pol

  15. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    Discusses the basic physical principles underlying the technology instrumentation of photonics This volume discusses photonics technology and instrumentation. The topics discussed in this volume are: Communication Networks; Data Buffers; Defense and Security Applications; Detectors; Fiber Optics and Amplifiers; Green Photonics; Instrumentation and Metrology; Interferometers; Light-Harvesting Materials; Logic Devices; Optical Communications; Remote Sensing; Solar Energy; Solid-State Lighting; Wavelength Conversion Comprehensive and accessible coverage of the whole of modern photonics Emphas

  16. Towards single photon generation using NV centers in diamond coupled to thin layer optical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshiyuki Tashima

    2014-01-01

    Single photon emitters like the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond are important for quantum communication such as quantum cryptography and quantum metrology. In this context, e.g. tapered optical nano-fibers are a promising approach as they allow efficient coupling of single photons into a single spatial mode. Yet, integration of such fibers in a compact integrated quantum circuit is demanding. Here we propose a NV defect center in diamond as a single photon emitter coupled to a thin layer photonic waveguide. The benefit is to allow smaller size devices while having a similar strong evanescent field like tapered nano-optical fibers. We present numerical simulations and fabrication steps of such structures. (author)

  17. NFAD Arrays for Single Photon Optical Communications at 1.5 um, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For this program, we propose to develop large pixel-count single photon counting detector arrays suitable for deployment in spacecraft terminal receivers supporting...

  18. Single Photon Sensitive HgCdTe Avalanche Photodiode Detector (APD), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Leveraging Phase I SBIR successes, in Phase II, a single photon sensitive LIDAR receiver will be fabricated and delivered to NASA. In Phase I, high-gain,...

  19. Single-photon emission computed tomography and early death in acute ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limburg, M.; van Royen, E. A.; Hijdra, A.; de Bruïne, J. F.; Verbeeten, B. W.

    1990-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography with thallium-201-labeled diethyldithiocarbamate was performed in 26 consecutive patients less than or equal to 24 hours after a supratentorial brain infarction. Computed tomography excluded other relevant pathology. Two observers assessed the initial

  20. NFAD Arrays for Single Photon Optical Communications at 1.5 um, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For this program, we propose to develop large pixel-count single photon counting detector arrays suitable for deployment in spacecraft terminal receivers supporting...

  1. Room-Temperature Single-Photon Source for Secure Quantum Communication

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are asking for four years of support for PhD student Justin Winkler's work on a research project entitled "Room temperature single photon source for secure...

  2. Modeling resonant cavities for single-photon waveguide sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Philip G.; Bennink, Ryan S.; Grice, Warren P.

    2008-01-01

    Spectral correlations between photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) in bulk non-linear optical crystals remain a hindrance to the implementation of efficient quantum communication architectures. It has been demonstrated that SPDC within a distributed micro-cavity can result in little or no correlation between photon pairs. We present results on modeling three different cavity configurations based on integrated Bragg gratings. Output from the SPDC process can be tailored by altering the periodicity and geometry of such nanostructures. We will discuss the merits of each cavity configuration from the standpoint of degenerate Type-II SPDC

  3. Multiple-output microwave single-photon source using superconducting circuits with longitudinal and transverse couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Miranowicz, Adam; Li, Hong-Rong; Nori, Franco

    2016-11-01

    Single-photon devices at microwave frequencies are important for applications in quantum information processing and communication in the microwave regime. In this work we describe a proposal of a multioutput single-photon device. We consider two superconducting resonators coupled to a gap-tunable qubit via both its longitudinal and transverse degrees of freedom. Thus, this qubit-resonator coupling differs from the coupling in standard circuit quantum-electrodynamic systems described by the Jaynes-Cummings model. We demonstrate that an effective quadratic coupling between one of the normal modes and the qubit can be induced and this induced second-order nonlinearity is much larger than that for conventional Kerr-type systems exhibiting photon blockade. Assuming that a coupled normal mode is resonantly driven, we observe that the output fields from the resonators exhibit strong sub-Poissonian photon-number statistics and photon antibunching. Contrary to previous studies on resonant photon blockade, the first-excited state of our device is a pure single-photon Fock state rather than a polariton state, i.e., a highly hybridized qubit-photon state. In addition, it is found that the optical state truncation caused by the strong qubit-induced nonlinearity can lead to an entanglement between the two resonators, even in their steady state under the Markov approximation.

  4. Single Microwave-Photon Detector using an Artificial Lambda-type Three-Level System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-11

    Single microwave -photon detector using an artificial Λ-type three-level system Kunihiro Inomata,1∗†, Zhirong Lin,1†, Kazuki Koshino,2, William D...are those of the author and are not necessarily endorsed by the United States Government. Single microwave -photon detector using an artificial Λ-type...in both the optical and the microwave domains. However, the energy of mi- crowave quanta are four to five orders of magnitude less than their optical

  5. Direct Production of High $p_T$ Single Photons at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Diakonou, M; Resvanis, L.K.; Filippas, T.A.; Fokitis, E.; Trakkas, C.; Cnops, A.M.; Cobb, J.H.; Fowler, E.C.; Hood, D.M.; Iwata, S.; Palmer, R.B.; Rahm, D.C.; Rehak, P.; Stumer, I.; Fabjan, C.W.; Fields, T.; Lissauer, D.; Mannelli, I.; Molzon, W.; Mouzourakis, P.; Nakamura, K.; Nappi, A.; Willis, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    Single photon production in pp collisions at 30 < √ s < 62 GeV has been measured with liquid-argon-lead calorimeters at the CERN ISR. This process remains approximately constant with increasing √ s . For fixed √ s , the single photon to π 0 ratio increases strongly with increase in p T . The γ π 0 ratio is about 0.2 for p T above 4.5 GeV/c.

  6. Photonic transistor and router using a single quantum-dot-confined spin in a single-sided optical microcavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, C Y

    2017-03-28

    The future Internet is very likely the mixture of all-optical Internet with low power consumption and quantum Internet with absolute security guaranteed by the laws of quantum mechanics. Photons would be used for processing, routing and com-munication of data, and photonic transistor using a weak light to control a strong light is the core component as an optical analogue to the electronic transistor that forms the basis of modern electronics. In sharp contrast to previous all-optical tran-sistors which are all based on optical nonlinearities, here I introduce a novel design for a high-gain and high-speed (up to terahertz) photonic transistor and its counterpart in the quantum limit, i.e., single-photon transistor based on a linear optical effect: giant Faraday rotation induced by a single electronic spin in a single-sided optical microcavity. A single-photon or classical optical pulse as the gate sets the spin state via projective measurement and controls the polarization of a strong light to open/block the photonic channel. Due to the duality as quantum gate for quantum information processing and transistor for optical information processing, this versatile spin-cavity quantum transistor provides a solid-state platform ideal for all-optical networks and quantum networks.

  7. Interfacing Superconducting Qubits and Single Optical Photons Using Molecules in Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sumanta; Elfving, Vincent E.; Faez, Sanli; Sørensen, Anders S.

    2017-04-01

    We propose an efficient light-matter interface at optical frequencies between a single photon and a superconducting qubit. The desired interface is based on a hybrid architecture composed of an organic molecule embedded inside an optical waveguide and electrically coupled to a superconducting qubit placed near the outside surface of the waveguide. We show that high fidelity, photon-mediated, entanglement between distant superconducting qubits can be achieved with incident pulses at the single photon level. Such a low light level is highly desirable for achieving a coherent optical interface with superconducting qubit, since it minimizes decoherence arising from the absorption of light.

  8. Investigating and improving student understanding of quantum mechanics in the context of single photon interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha

    2017-06-01

    Single photon experiments involving a Mach-Zehnder interferometer can illustrate the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, e.g., the wave-particle duality of a single photon, single photon interference, and the probabilistic nature of quantum measurement involving single photons. These experiments explicitly make the connection between the abstract quantum theory and concrete laboratory settings and have the potential to help students develop a solid grasp of the foundational issues in quantum mechanics. Here we describe students' conceptual difficulties with these topics in the context of Mach-Zehnder interferometer experiments with single photons and how the difficulties found in written surveys and individual interviews were used as a guide in the development of a Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT). The QuILT uses an inquiry-based approach to learning and takes into account the conceptual difficulties found via research to help upper-level undergraduate and graduate students learn about foundational quantum mechanics concepts using the concrete quantum optics context. It strives to help students learn the basics of quantum mechanics in the context of single photon experiment, develop the ability to apply fundamental quantum principles to experimental situations in quantum optics, and explore the differences between classical and quantum ideas in a concrete context. We discuss the findings from in-class evaluations suggesting that the QuILT was effective in helping students learn these abstract concepts.

  9. arXiv Single-electron and single-photon sensitivity with a silicon Skipper CCD

    CERN Document Server

    Tiffenberg, Javier; Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Essig, Rouven; Guardincerri, Yann; Holland, Steve; Volansky, Tomer; Yu, Tien-Tien

    2017-09-26

    We have developed ultralow-noise electronics in combination with repetitive, nondestructive readout of a thick, fully depleted charge-coupled device (CCD) to achieve an unprecedented noise level of 0.068  e- rms/pixel. This is the first time that discrete subelectron readout noise has been achieved reproducible over millions of pixels on a stable, large-area detector. This enables the contemporaneous, discrete, and quantized measurement of charge in pixels, irrespective of whether they contain zero electrons or thousands of electrons. Thus, the resulting CCD detector is an ultra-sensitive calorimeter. It is also capable of counting single photons in the optical and near-infrared regime. Implementing this innovative non-destructive readout system has a negligible impact on CCD design and fabrication, and there are nearly immediate scientific applications. As a particle detector, this CCD will have unprecedented sensitivity to low-mass dark matter particles and coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering, while ...

  10. Design, development, testing and validation of a Photonics Virtual Laboratory for the study of LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Francisco L.; Martínez, Guadalupe; Pérez, Ángel L.; Pardo, Pedro J.

    2014-07-01

    This work presents the design, development, testing and validation of a Photonic Virtual Laboratory, highlighting the study of LEDs. The study was conducted from a conceptual, experimental and didactic standpoint, using e-learning and m-learning platforms. Specifically, teaching tools that help ensure that our students perform significant learning have been developed. It has been brought together the scientific aspect, such as the study of LEDs, with techniques of generation and transfer of knowledge through the selection, hierarchization and structuring of information using concept maps. For the validation of the didactic materials developed, it has been used procedures with various assessment tools for the collection and processing of data, applied in the context of an experimental design. Additionally, it was performed a statistical analysis to determine the validity of the materials developed. The assessment has been designed to validate the contributions of the new materials developed over the traditional method of teaching, and to quantify the learning achieved by students, in order to draw conclusions that serve as a reference for its application in the teaching and learning processes, and comprehensively validate the work carried out.

  11. A highly efficient single-photon source based on a quantum dot in a photonic nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudon, Julien; Bleuse, Joel; Malik, Nitin Singh

    2010-01-01

    –4 or a semiconductor quantum dot5–7. Achieving a high extraction efficiency has long been recognized as a major issue, and both classical solutions8 and cavity quantum electrodynamics effects have been applied1,9–12. We adopt a different approach, based on an InAs quantum dot embedded in a GaAs photonic nanowire...

  12. Multi-state discrimination below the quantum noise limit at the single-photon level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdinand, A. R.; DiMario, M. T.; Becerra, F. E.

    2017-10-01

    Measurements approaching the ultimate quantum limits of sensitivity are central in quantum information processing, quantum metrology, and communication. Quantum measurements to discriminate multiple states at the single-photon level are essential for optimizing information transfer in low-power optical communications and quantum communications, and can enhance the capabilities of many quantum information protocols. Here, we theoretically investigate and experimentally demonstrate the discrimination of multiple coherent states of light with sensitivities surpassing the quantum noise limit (QNL) at the single-photon level under realistic conditions of loss and noise based on strategies implementing globally-optimized adaptive measurements with single photon counting and displacement operations. These discrimination strategies can provide realistic advantages to enhance information transfer at low powers, and are compatible with photon number resolving detection, which provides robustness at high powers, thus allowing for surpassing the QNL at arbitrary input power levels under realistic conditions.

  13. On-chip III-V monolithic integration of heralded single photon sources and beamsplitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhassen, J.; Baboux, F.; Yao, Q.; Amanti, M.; Favero, I.; Lemaître, A.; Kolthammer, W. S.; Walmsley, I. A.; Ducci, S.

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate a monolithic III-V photonic circuit combining a heralded single photon source with a beamsplitter, at room temperature and telecom wavelength. Pulsed parametric down-conversion in an AlGaAs waveguide generates counterpropagating photons, one of which is used to herald the injection of its twin into the beamsplitter. We use this configuration to implement an integrated Hanbury-Brown and Twiss experiment, yielding a heralded second-order correlation gher(2 )(0 )=0.10 ±0.02 that confirms single-photon operation. The demonstrated generation and manipulation of quantum states on a single III-V semiconductor chip opens promising avenues towards real-world applications in quantum information.

  14. Single-Photon Switching and Entanglement of Solid- State Qubits in an Integrated Nanophotonic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ruffin; Sipahigil, Alp; Sukachev, Denis; Burek, Michael; Borregaard, Johannes; Bhaskar, Mihir; Nguyen, Christian; Pacheco, Jose; Bielejec, Edward; Loncar, Marko; Lukin, Mikhail

    2017-04-01

    Efficient interfaces between photons and quantum emitters form the basis for quantum networks and enable optical nonlinearities at the single-photon level. We demonstrate a platform for scalable quantum nanophotonics based on silicon-vacancy (SiV) color centers coupled to diamond nanodevices. By placing SiV centers inside diamond photonic crystal cavities, we realize a quantum-optical switch controlled by a single color center. We control the switch using SiV metastable states and observe switching at the single-photon level. Raman transitions are used to realize a single-photon source with a tunable frequency and bandwidth in a diamond waveguide. By measuring intensity correlations of indistinguishable Raman photons emitted into a single waveguide, we observe quantum interference resulting from the superradiant emission of two entangled SiV centers. We also discuss current work to extend the coherence time of the SiV spin degree of freedom, engineer deterministic multi-emitter interactions via the cavity mode, and related work with the Germanium-Vacancy center.

  15. Pulsed single-photon spectrometer by frequency-to-time mapping using chirped fiber Bragg gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alex O C; Saulnier, Paul M; Karpiński, Michał; Smith, Brian J

    2017-05-29

    A fiber-integrated spectrometer for single-photon pulses outside the telecommunications wavelength range based upon frequency-to-time mapping, implemented by chromatic group delay dispersion (GDD), and precise temporally-resolved single-photon counting, is presented. A chirped fiber Bragg grating provides low-loss GDD, mapping the frequency distribution of an input pulse onto the temporal envelope of the output pulse. Time-resolved detection with fast single-photon-counting modules enables monitoring of a wavelength range from 825 nm to 835 nm with nearly uniform efficiency at 55 pm resolution (24 GHz at 830 nm). To demonstrate the versatility of this technique, spectral interference of heralded single photons and the joint spectral intensity distribution of a photon-pair source are measured. This approach to single-photon-level spectral measurements provides a route to realize applications of time-frequency quantum optics at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, where multiple spectral channels must be simultaneously monitored.

  16. Characterization of Disorder in Semiconductors via Single-Photon Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozsoki, P.; Thomas, P.; Kira, M.; Hoyer, W.; Meier, T.; Koch, S. W.; Maschke, K.; Varga, I.; Stolz, H.

    2006-12-01

    The method of angular photonic correlations of spontaneous emission is introduced as an experimental, purely optical scheme to characterize disorder in semiconductor nanostructures. The theoretical expression for the angular correlations is derived and numerically evaluated for a model system. The results demonstrate how the proposed experimental method yields direct information about the spatial distribution of the relevant states and thus on the disorder present in the system.

  17. Optimal multi-photon phase sensing with a single interference fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, G. Y.; Hofmann, H. F.; Pryde, G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Quantum entanglement can help to increase the precision of optical phase measurements beyond the shot noise limit (SNL) to the ultimate Heisenberg limit. However, the N-photon parity measurements required to achieve this optimal sensitivity are extremely difficult to realize with current photon detection technologies, requiring high-fidelity resolution of N + 1 different photon distributions between the output ports. Recent experimental demonstrations of precision beyond the SNL have therefore used only one or two photon-number detection patterns instead of parity measurements. Here we investigate the achievable phase sensitivity of the simple and efficient single interference fringe detection technique. We show that the maximally-entangled “NOON” state does not achieve optimal phase sensitivity when N > 4, rather, we show that the Holland-Burnett state is optimal. We experimentally demonstrate this enhanced sensitivity using a single photon-counted fringe of the six-photon Holland-Burnett state. Specifically, our single-fringe six-photon measurement achieves a phase variance three times below the SNL. PMID:24067490

  18. Probabilistically cloning two single-photon states using weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wen; Rui, Pinshu; Zhang, Ziyun; Yang, Qun

    2014-01-01

    By using quantum nondemolition detectors (QNDs) based on weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities, we propose an experimental scheme for achieving 1→2 probabilistic quantum cloning (PQC) of a single-photon state, secretly choosing from a two-state set. In our scheme, after a QND is performed on the to-be-cloned photon and the assistant photon, a single-photon projection measurement is performed by a polarization beam splitter (PBS) and two single-photon trigger detectors (SPTDs). The measurement is to judge whether the PQC should be continued. If the cloning fails, a cutoff is carried out and some operations are omitted. This makes our scheme economical. If the PQC is continued according to the measurement result, two more QNDs and some unitary operations are performed on the to-be-cloned photon and the cloning photon to achieve the PQC in a nearly deterministic way. Our experimental scheme for PQC is feasible for future technology. Furthermore, the quantum logic network of our PQC scheme is presented. In comparison with similar networks, our PQC network is simpler and more economical. (paper)

  19. Single-photon compressive imaging with some performance benefits over raster scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Wen-Kai; Liu, Xue-Feng; Yao, Xu-Ri; Wang, Chao; Zhai, Guang-Jie; Zhao, Qing

    2014-01-01

    A single-photon imaging system based on compressed sensing has been developed to image objects under ultra-low illumination. With this system, we have successfully realized imaging at the single-photon level with a single-pixel avalanche photodiode without point-by-point raster scanning. From analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio in the measurement we find that our system has much higher sensitivity than conventional ones based on point-by-point raster scanning, while the measurement time is also reduced. - Highlights: • We design a single photon imaging system with compressed sensing. • A single point avalanche photodiode is used without raster scanning. • The Poisson shot noise in the measurement is analyzed. • The sensitivity of our system is proved to be higher than that of raster scanning

  20. Efficient frequency downconversion at the single photon level from the red spectral range to the telecommunications C-band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaske, Sebastian; Lenhard, Andreas; Becher, Christoph

    2011-06-20

    We report on single photon frequency downconversion from the red part of the spectrum (738 nm) to the telecommunications C-band. By mixing attenuated laser pulses with an average photon number per pulse telecommunications wavelengths.

  1. Virtual substitution scan via single-step free energy perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Ying-Chih; Wang, Yi

    2016-02-05

    With the rapid expansion of our computing power, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations ranging from hundreds of nanoseconds to microseconds or even milliseconds have become increasingly common. The majority of these long trajectories are obtained from plain (vanilla) MD simulations, where no enhanced sampling or free energy calculation method is employed. To promote the 'recycling' of these trajectories, we developed the Virtual Substitution Scan (VSS) toolkit as a plugin of the open-source visualization and analysis software VMD. Based on the single-step free energy perturbation (sFEP) method, VSS enables the user to post-process a vanilla MD trajectory for a fast free energy scan of substituting aryl hydrogens by small functional groups. Dihedrals of the functional groups are sampled explicitly in VSS, which improves the performance of the calculation and is found particularly important for certain groups. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we employ VSS to compute the solvation free energy change upon substituting the hydrogen of a benzene molecule by 12 small functional groups frequently considered in lead optimization. Additionally, VSS is used to compute the relative binding free energy of four selected ligands of the T4 lysozyme. Overall, the computational cost of VSS is only a fraction of the corresponding multi-step FEP (mFEP) calculation, while its results agree reasonably well with those of mFEP, indicating that VSS offers a promising tool for rapid free energy scan of small functional group substitutions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Coherent properties of single quantum dot transitions and single photon emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ester, Patrick

    2008-04-23

    of the first laser pulse. The relative phase of the QDs exciton can be controlled externally via the bias voltage. This effect is the basis for the observation of RAMSEY-fringes, which are presented in this work. The coherent manipulation of the p-shell is the basis for a novel excitation scheme for single photon emission. In this work it is shown that the first excited state can be coherently manipulated, similar to the ground state. (orig.)

  3. An integrated single- and two-photon non-diffracting light-sheet microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Sze Cheung; Chiu, Hoi Chun; Zhao, Luwei; Zhao, Teng; Loy, M. M. T.; Du, Shengwang

    2018-04-01

    We describe a fluorescence optical microscope with both single-photon and two-photon non-diffracting light-sheet excitations for large volume imaging. With a special design to accommodate two different wavelength ranges (visible: 400-700 nm and near infrared: 800-1200 nm), we combine the line-Bessel sheet (LBS, for single-photon excitation) and the scanning Bessel beam (SBB, for two-photon excitation) light sheet together in a single microscope setup. For a transparent thin sample where the scattering can be ignored, the LBS single-photon excitation is the optimal imaging solution. When the light scattering becomes significant for a deep-cell or deep-tissue imaging, we use SBB light-sheet two-photon excitation with a longer wavelength. We achieved nearly identical lateral/axial resolution of about 350/270 nm for both imagings. This integrated light-sheet microscope may have a wide application for live-cell and live-tissue three-dimensional high-speed imaging.

  4. Single passband microwave photonic filter with wideband tunability and adjustable bandwidth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Yi, Xiaoke; Li, Liwei; Minasian, Robert

    2012-11-15

    A new and simple structure for a single passband microwave photonic filter is presented. It is based on using an electro-optical phase modulator and a tunable optical filter and only requires a single wavelength source and a single photodetector. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate a single passband, flat-top radio-frequency filter response without free spectral range limitations, along with the capability of tuning the center frequency and filter bandwidth independently.

  5. Development of a high-speed single-photon pixellated detector for visible wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Mac Raighne, Aaron; Mathot, Serge; McPhate, Jason; Vallerga, John; Jarron, Pierre; Brownlee, Colin; O’Shea, Val

    2009-01-01

    We present the development of a high-speed, single-photon counting, Hybrid Photo Detector (HPD). The HPD consists of a vacuum tube, containing the detector assembly, sealed with a transparent optical input window. Photons incident on the photocathode eject a photoelectron into a large electric field, which accelerates the incident electron onto a silicon detector. The silicon detector is bump bonded to a Medipix readout chip. This set-up allows for the detection and readout of low incident photon intensities at rates that are otherwise unattainable with current camera technology. Reported is the fabrication of the camera that brings together a range of sophisticated design and fabrication techniques and the expected theoretical imaging performance. Applications to cellular and molecular microscopy are also described in which single-photon-counting abilities at high frame rates are crucial

  6. Memory effect in silicon time-gated single-photon avalanche diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Mora, A.; Contini, D., E-mail: davide.contini@polimi.it; Di Sieno, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Tosi, A.; Boso, G.; Villa, F. [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Pifferi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); CNR, Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-03-21

    We present a comprehensive characterization of the memory effect arising in thin-junction silicon Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) when exposed to strong illumination. This partially unknown afterpulsing-like noise represents the main limiting factor when time-gated acquisitions are exploited to increase the measurement dynamic range of very fast (picosecond scale) and faint (single-photon) optical signals following a strong stray one. We report the dependences of this unwelcome signal-related noise on photon wavelength, detector temperature, and biasing conditions. Our results suggest that this so-called “memory effect” is generated in the deep regions of the detector, well below the depleted region, and its contribution on detector response is visible only when time-gated SPADs are exploited to reject a strong burst of photons.

  7. Increasing the photon collection rate from a single NV center with a silver mirror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Niels Møller; Kumar, Shailesh; Tawfieq, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    maintaining a high signal-to-noise ratio. In this work, we use a single nitrogen vacancy center in diamond as a quantum emitter operating at ambient conditions and we demonstrate an increased photon count rate up to a factor of 1.76 by placing a silver mirror fabricated on the end facet of an optical fiber......In the pursuit of realizing quantum optical networks, a large variety of different approaches have been studied to achieve a single photon source on-demand. The common goal for these approaches is to harvest all the emission from a quantum emitter into a single spatial optical mode while...

  8. Nano-optical observation of cascade switching in a parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, Robert M.; Tanner, Michael G.; Casaburi, Alessandro; Hadfield, Robert H.; Webster, Mark G.; San Emeterio Alvarez, Lara; Jiang, Weitao; Barber, Zoe H.; Warburton, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The device physics of parallel-wire superconducting nanowire single photon detectors is based on a cascade process. Using nano-optical techniques and a parallel wire device with spatially separate pixels, we explicitly demonstrate the single- and multi-photon triggering regimes. We develop a model for describing efficiency of a detector operating in the arm-trigger regime. We investigate the timing response of the detector when illuminating a single pixel and two pixels. We see a change in the active area of the detector between the two regimes and find the two-pixel trigger regime to have a faster timing response than the one-pixel regime

  9. Quantum non-demolition detection of single microwave photons in a circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B. R.; Reed, M. D.; Houck, A. A.; Schuster, D. I.; Bishop, Lev S.; Ginossar, E.; Gambetta, J. M.; Dicarlo, L.; Frunzio, L.; Girvin, S. M.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2010-09-01

    Thorough control of quantum measurement is key to the development of quantum information technologies. Many measurements are destructive, removing more information from the system than they obtain. Quantum non-demolition (QND) measurements allow repeated measurements that give the same eigenvalue. They could be used for several quantum information processing tasks such as error correction, preparation by measurement and one-way quantum computing. Achieving QND measurements of photons is especially challenging because the detector must be completely transparent to the photons while still acquiring information about them. Recent progress in manipulating microwave photons in superconducting circuits has increased demand for a QND detector that operates in the gigahertz frequency range. Here we demonstrate a QND detection scheme that measures the number of photons inside a high-quality-factor microwave cavity on a chip. This scheme maps a photon number, n, onto a qubit state in a single-shot by means of qubit-photon logic gates. We verify the operation of the device for n=0 and 1 by analysing the average correlations of repeated measurements, and show that it is 90% QND. It differs from previously reported detectors because its sensitivity is strongly selective to chosen photon number states. This scheme could be used to monitor the state of a photon-based memory in a quantum computer.

  10. Quantum interference of electrically generated single photons from a quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Raj B; Bennett, Anthony J; Shields, Andrew J; Cooper, Ken; Atkinson, Paola; Nicoll, Christine A; Ritchie, David A

    2010-01-01

    Quantum interference lies at the foundation of many protocols for scalable quantum computing and communication with linear optics. To observe these effects the light source must emit photons that are indistinguishable. From a technological standpoint, it would be beneficial to have electrical control over the emission. Here we report of an electrically driven single-photon source emitting indistinguishable photons. The device consists of a layer of InAs quantum dots embedded in the intrinsic region of a p-i-n diode. Indistinguishability of consecutive photons is tested in a two-photon interference experiment under two modes of operation, continuous and pulsed current injection. We also present a complete theory based on the interference of photons with a Lorentzian spectrum which we compare to both our continuous wave and pulsed experiments. In the former case, a visibility was measured limited only by the timing resolution of our detection system. In the case of pulsed injection, we employ a two-pulse voltage sequence which suppresses multi-photon emission and allows us to carry out temporal filtering of photons which have undergone dephasing. The characteristic Hong-Ou-Mandel 'dip' is measured, resulting in a visibility of 64 ± 4%.

  11. Single-Photon Interference due to Motion in an Atomic Collective Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, D. J.; Šibalić, N.; Keaveney, J.; Adams, C. S.; Hughes, I. G.

    2017-06-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the heralded generation of bichromatic single photons from an atomic collective spin excitation (CSE). The photon arrival times display collective quantum beats, a novel interference effect resulting from the relative motion of atoms in the CSE. A combination of velocity-selective excitation with strong laser dressing and the addition of a magnetic field allows for exquisite control of this collective beat phenomenon. The present experiment uses a diamond scheme with near-IR photons that can be extended to include telecommunications wavelengths or modified to allow storage and retrieval in an inverted-Y scheme.

  12. Channel analysis for single photon underwater free space quantum key distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peng; Zhao, Shi-Cheng; Gu, Yong-Jian; Li, Wen-Dong

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the optical absorption and scattering properties of underwater media pertinent to our underwater free space quantum key distribution (QKD) channel model. With the vector radiative transfer theory and Monte Carlo method, we obtain the attenuation of photons, the fidelity of the scattered photons, the quantum bit error rate, and the sifted key generation rate of underwater quantum communication. It can be observed from our simulations that the most secure single photon underwater free space QKD is feasible in the clearest ocean water.

  13. Oxide-apertured microcavity single-photon-emitting diodes-simultaneous confinement of current and light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, David J P; Bennett, Anthony J; Dewhurst, Samuel J; Shields, Andrew J; Atkinson, Paola; Nicoll, Christine A; Ritchie, David A

    2008-01-01

    We report on the development of a generation of microcavity single-photon sources in which an aluminium oxide aperture provides simultaneous confinement of the injected current and the optical mode. The aperture is formed by the wet oxidation of an aluminium-rich AlGaAs layer. This approach allows a high quality cavity to be successfully integrated into an electrical device, from which enhanced photon emission is observed through the Purcell effect. The resulting source demonstrated an improved photon collection efficiency and was shown to operate at repetition rates in excess of 0.5 GHz.

  14. Indistinguishable and efficient single photons from a quantum dot in a planar nanobeam waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsanské, Gabija; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup; Daveau, Raphaël Sura

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a high-purity source of indistinguishable single photons using a quantum dot embedded in a nanophotonic waveguide. The source features a near-unity internal coupling efficiency and the collected photons are efficiently coupled off chip by implementing a taper that adiabatically...... allows pinpointing the residual decoherence processes, notably the effect of phonon broadening. Strict resonant excitation is implemented as well as another means of suppressing photon jitter, and the additional complexity of suppressing the excitation laser source is addressed. The paper opens a clear...

  15. Mapping the Local Density of Optical States of a Photonic Crystal with Single Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qin; Stobbe, Søren; Lodahl, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We use single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots as internal probes to map the local density of optical states of photonic crystal membranes. The employed technique separates contributions from nonradiative recombination and spin-flip processes by properly accounting for the role of the exciton...... fine structure. We observe inhibition factors as high as 70 and compare our results to local density of optical states calculations available from the literature, thereby establishing a quantitative understanding of photon emission in photonic crystal membranes. © 2011 American Physical Society....

  16. Linearly Polarized, Single-Mode Spontaneous Emission in a Photonic Nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munsch, Mathieu; Claudon, Julien; Bleuse, Joël

    2012-01-01

    We introduce dielectric elliptical photonic nanowires to funnel efficiently the spontaneous emission of an embedded emitter into a single optical mode. Inside a wire with a moderate lateral aspect ratio, the electromagnetic environment is largely dominated by a single guided mode, with a linear...

  17. Modes of an endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber: a finite element investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uranus, H.P.; Hoekstra, Hugo; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    2004-01-01

    Using a finite-element mode solver, the modes of a commercial endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber (ESM-PCF) were investigated. Based on the loss discrimination between the dominant and the nearest higher order mode, we set-up a criterion for the single-modeness. Using that measure, we

  18. Rise time of voltage pulses in NbN superconducting single photon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, K. V.; Divochiy, A. V.; Karpova, U. V.; Morozov, P. V.; Vakhtomin, Yu. B.; Seleznev, V. A.; Sidorova, M. V.; Zotova, A. N.; Vodolazov, D. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    We have found experimentally that the rise time of voltage pulse in NbN superconducting single photon detectors increases nonlinearly with increasing the length of the detector L. The effect is connected with dependence of resistance of the detector R n , which appears after photon absorption, on its kinetic inductance L k and, hence, on the length of the detector. This conclusion is confirmed by our calculations in the framework of two temperature model.

  19. Unambiguous modification of nonorthogonal single- and two-photon polarization states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Ruiz, F. A.; Aguirre, J.; Delgado, A.; Lima, G.; Neves, L.; Roa, L.; Saavedra, C.; Padua, S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a probabilistic method which allows an unambiguous modification of two nonorthogonal quantum states. We experimentally implement this protocol by using two-photon polarization states generated in the process of spontaneous parametric down conversion. In the experiment, for codifying initial quantum states, we consider single-photon states and heralded detection. We show that the application of this protocol to entangled states allows a fine control of the amount of entanglement of the initial state.

  20. RETRACTED: Quantum key distribution without sharing reference frame using single photon rotational-invariant subspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong-Xu; Liu, Rui-Feng; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hong-Rong; Gao, Hong; Li, Fu-Li

    2013-11-01

    We report an experimental proposal of quantum key distribution without sharing reference frame by using single photon rotational-invariant subspace. The rotational-invariant subspace is achieved by taking advantage of photon's spin-orbital composite states. Our scheme is simple and can be developed as a compact QKD system under current technology. Earth-to-satellite QKD is an emerging scenario that will benefit from our protocol.

  1. Rise time of voltage pulses in NbN superconducting single photon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, K. V. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1 Malaya Pirogovskaya St., 119435 Moscow (Russian Federation); CJSC “Superconducting Nanotechnology” (Scontel), 5/22-1 Rossolimo St., 119021 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, 34 Tallinskaya St., 109028 Moscow (Russian Federation); Divochiy, A. V.; Karpova, U. V.; Morozov, P. V. [CJSC “Superconducting Nanotechnology” (Scontel), 5/22-1 Rossolimo St., 119021 Moscow (Russian Federation); Vakhtomin, Yu. B.; Seleznev, V. A. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1 Malaya Pirogovskaya St., 119435 Moscow (Russian Federation); CJSC “Superconducting Nanotechnology” (Scontel), 5/22-1 Rossolimo St., 119021 Moscow (Russian Federation); Sidorova, M. V. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1 Malaya Pirogovskaya St., 119435 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zotova, A. N.; Vodolazov, D. Yu. [Institute for Physics of Microstructure, Russian Academy of Sciences, GSP-105, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, 23 Gagarin Avenue, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-01

    We have found experimentally that the rise time of voltage pulse in NbN superconducting single photon detectors increases nonlinearly with increasing the length of the detector L. The effect is connected with dependence of resistance of the detector R{sub n}, which appears after photon absorption, on its kinetic inductance L{sub k} and, hence, on the length of the detector. This conclusion is confirmed by our calculations in the framework of two temperature model.

  2. Increasing the collection efficiency of time-correlated single-photon counting with single-photon avalanche diodes using immersion lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichette, Charles; Giudice, Andrea; Thibault, Simon; Bérubé-Lauzière, Yves

    2016-11-20

    Single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) achieving high timing resolution (≈20-50  ps) developed for time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) generally have very small photosensitive areas (25-100 μm in diameter). This limits the achievable photon counting rate and signal-to-noise ratio and may lead to long counting times. This is detrimental in applications requiring several measurements, such as fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) microscopy, which requires scanning, and time-domain diffuse optical tomography (TD-DOT). We show in this work that the use of an immersion lens directly affixed onto the photosensitive area of the SPAD helps alleviate this problem by allowing more light to be concentrated onto the detector. Following careful optical design and simulations, our experimental results show that it is actually possible to achieve the predicted theoretical increase in the photon counting rate (we achieve a factor of ≈4 here). This work is of high relevance in high timing resolution TCSPC with small photosensitive area detectors and should find widespread interest in FLIM and TD-DOT with SPADs.

  3. Single Quantum Dot with Microlens and 3D-Printed Micro-objective as Integrated Bright Single-Photon Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Sarah; Schlehahn, Alexander; Thoma, Alexander; Srocka, Nicole; Gissibl, Timo; Ristok, Simon; Thiele, Simon; Kaganskiy, Arsenty; Strittmatter, André; Heindel, Tobias; Rodt, Sven; Herkommer, Alois; Giessen, Harald; Reitzenstein, Stephan

    2017-06-21

    Integrated single-photon sources with high photon-extraction efficiency are key building blocks for applications in the field of quantum communications. We report on a bright single-photon source realized by on-chip integration of a deterministic quantum dot microlens with a 3D-printed multilens micro-objective. The device concept benefits from a sophisticated combination of in situ 3D electron-beam lithography to realize the quantum dot microlens and 3D femtosecond direct laser writing for creation of the micro-objective. In this way, we obtain a high-quality quantum device with broadband photon-extraction efficiency of (40 ± 4)% and high suppression of multiphoton emission events with g (2) (τ = 0) < 0.02. Our results highlight the opportunities that arise from tailoring the optical properties of quantum emitters using integrated optics with high potential for the further development of plug-and-play fiber-coupled single-photon sources.

  4. High-speed bridge circuit for InGaAs avalanche photodiode single-photon detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Tomita, Akihisa; Okamoto, Atsushi

    2014-02-01

    Because of low power consumption and small footprint, avalanche photodiodes (APD) have been commonly applied to photon detection. Recently, high speed quantum communication has been demonstrated for high bit-rate quantum key distribution. For the high speed quantum communication, photon detectors should operate at GHz-clock frequencies. We propose balanced detection circuits for GHz-clock operation of InGaAs-APD photon detectors. The balanced single photon detector operates with sinusoidal wave gating. The sinusoidal wave appearing in the output is removed by the subtraction from APD signal without sharp band-elimination filters. Omission of the sharp filters removes the constraint on the operating frequency of the single photon detector. We present two designs, one works with two identical APDs, the other with one APD and a low-pass filter. The sinusoidal gating enables to eliminate the gating noise even with the simple configuration of the latter design. We demonstrated the balanced single photon detector operating with 1.020GHz clock at 233 K, 193 K, and 186.5 K. The dark count probability was 4.0 x 10-4 counts/pulse with the quantum efficiency of 10% at 233K, and 1.6 x 10-4 counts/pulse at 186.5 K. These results were obtained with easily available APDs (NR8300FP-C.C, RENESASS) originally developed for optical time-domain reflectmeters.

  5. Mini-stop bands in single heterojunction photonic crystal waveguides

    KAUST Repository

    Shahid, N.

    2013-01-01

    Spectral characteristics of mini-stop bands (MSB) in line-defect photonic crystal (PhC) waveguides and in heterostructure PhC waveguides having one abrupt interface are investigated. Tunability of the MSB position by air-fill factor heterostructure PhC waveguides is utilized to demonstrate different filter functions, at optical communication wavelengths, ranging from resonance-like to wide band pass filters with high transmission. The narrowest filter realized has a resonance-like transmission peak with a full width at half maximum of 3.4 nm. These devices could be attractive for coarse wavelength selection (pass and drop) and for sensing applications. 2013 Copyright 2013 Author(s). This article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

  6. Fluctuation mechanisms in superconductors nanowire single-photon counters, enabled by effective top-down manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolf, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Holger Bartolf discusses state-of-the-art detection concepts based on superconducting nanotechnology as well as sophisticated analytical formulæ that model dissipative fluctuation-phenomena in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors. Such knowledge is desirable for the development of advanced devices which are designed to possess an intrinsic robustness against vortex-fluctuations and it provides the perspective for honorable fundamental science in condensed matter physics. Especially the nanowire detector allows for ultra-low noise detection of signals with single-photon sensitivity and GHz repetition rates. Such devices have a huge potential for future technological impact and might enable unique applications (e.g. high rate interplanetary deep-space data links from Mars to Earth). Contents Superconducting Single-Photon Detectors Nanotechnological Manufacturing; Scale: 10 Nanometer Berezinskii-Kosterlitz Thouless (BKT) Transition, Edge-Barrier, Phase Slips Target Groups Researchers and students of...

  7. Electromagnetically induced transparency and reduced speeds for single photons in a fully quantized model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdy, Thomas; Ligare, Martin

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a simple model for electromagnetically induced transparency in which all fields are treated quantum mechanically. We study a system of three separated atoms at fixed positions in a one-dimensional multimode optical cavity. The first atom serves as the source for a single spontaneously emitted photon; the photon scatters from a three-level 'Λ'-configuration atom which interacts with an additional single-mode field coupling two of the atomic levels; the third atom serves as a detector of the total transmitted field. We find an analytical solution for the quantum dynamics. From the quantum amplitude describing the excitation of the detector atom we extract information that provides exact single-photon analogues to wave delays predicted by semi-classical theories. We also find complementary information in the expectation value of the electric field intensity operator

  8. Two-Color Single-Photon Photoinitiation and Photoinhibition for Subdiffraction Photolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Timothy F.; Kowalski, Benjamin A.; Sullivan, Amy C.; Bowman, Christopher N.; McLeod, Robert R.

    2009-05-01

    Controlling and reducing the developed region initiated by photoexposure is one of the fundamental goals of optical lithography. Here, we demonstrate a two-color irradiation scheme whereby initiating species are generated by single-photon absorption at one wavelength while inhibiting species are generated by single-photon absorption at a second, independent wavelength. Co-irradiation at the second wavelength thus reduces the polymerization rate, delaying gelation of the material and facilitating enhanced spatial control over the polymerization. Appropriate overlapping of the two beams produces structures with both feature sizes and monomer conversions otherwise unobtainable with use of single- or two-photon absorption photopolymerization. Additionally, the generated inhibiting species rapidly recombine when irradiation with the second wavelength ceases, allowing for fast sequential exposures not limited by memory effects in the material and thus enabling fabrication of complex two- or three-dimensional structures.

  9. A universal setup for active control of a single-photon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qin; Skaar, Johannes; Lamas-Linares, Antía; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Makarov, Vadim; Gerhardt, Ilja

    2014-01-01

    The influence of bright light on a single-photon detector has been described in a number of recent publications. The impact on quantum key distribution (QKD) is important, and several hacking experiments have been tailored to fully control single-photon detectors. Special attention has been given to avoid introducing further errors into a QKD system. We describe the design and technical details of an apparatus which allows to attack a quantum-cryptographic connection. This device is capable of controlling free-space and fiber-based systems and of minimizing unwanted clicks in the system. With different control diagrams, we are able to achieve a different level of control. The control was initially targeted to the systems using BB84 protocol, with polarization encoding and basis switching using beamsplitters, but could be extended to other types of systems. We further outline how to characterize the quality of active control of single-photon detectors

  10. Single microwave-photon detector using an artificial Λ-type three-level system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Kunihiro; Lin, Zhirong; Koshino, Kazuki; Oliver, William D.; Tsai, Jaw-Shen; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Yasunobu

    2016-07-01

    Single-photon detection is a requisite technique in quantum-optics experiments in both the optical and the microwave domains. However, the energy of microwave quanta are four to five orders of magnitude less than their optical counterpart, making the efficient detection of single microwave photons extremely challenging. Here we demonstrate the detection of a single microwave photon propagating through a waveguide. The detector is implemented with an impedance-matched artificial Λ system comprising the dressed states of a driven superconducting qubit coupled to a microwave resonator. Each signal photon deterministically induces a Raman transition in the Λ system and excites the qubit. The subsequent dispersive readout of the qubit produces a discrete `click'. We attain a high single-photon-detection efficiency of 0.66+/-0.06 with a low dark-count probability of 0.014+/-0.001 and a reset time of ~400 ns. This detector can be exploited for various applications in quantum sensing, quantum communication and quantum information processing.

  11. Large scale fabrication of nitrogen vacancy-embedded diamond nanostructures for single-photon source applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qianqing; Li, Wuxia; Tang, Chengchun; Chang, Yanchun; Hao, Tingting; Pan, Xinyu; Ye, Haitao; Li, Junjie; Gu, Changzhi

    2016-11-01

    Some color centers in diamond can serve as quantum bits which can be manipulated with microwave pulses and read out with laser, even at room temperature. However, the photon collection efficiency of bulk diamond is greatly reduced by refraction at the diamond/air interface. To address this issue, we fabricated arrays of diamond nanostructures, differing in both diameter and top end shape, with HSQ and Cr as the etching mask materials, aiming toward large scale fabrication of single-photon sources with enhanced collection efficiency made of nitrogen vacancy (NV) embedded diamond. With a mixture of O2 and CHF3 gas plasma, diamond pillars with diameters down to 45 nm were obtained. The top end shape evolution has been represented with a simple model. The tests of size dependent single-photon properties confirmed an improved single-photon collection efficiency enhancement, larger than tenfold, and a mild decrease of decoherence time with decreasing pillar diameter was observed as expected. These results provide useful information for future applications of nanostructured diamond as a single-photon source. Project supported by the National Key Research and Development Plan of China (Grant No. 2016YFA0200402), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants Nos. 11574369, 11574368, 91323304, 11174362, and 51272278), and the FP7 Marie Curie Action (project No. 295208) sponsored by the European Commission.

  12. Nonlocality of a single photon: Paths to an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-steering experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S. J.; Wiseman, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    A single-photon incident on a beam splitter produces an entangled field state, and in principle could be used to violate a Bell inequality, but such an experiment (without postselection) is beyond the reach of current experiments. Here we consider the somewhat simpler task of demonstrating Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering with a single photon (also without postselection). We demonstrate that Alice's choice of measurement on her portion of the entangled state can affect Bob's portion of the entangled state in his laboratory, in a sense rigorously defined by us and Doherty [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 140402 (2007)]. Previous work by Lvovsky and coworkers [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 047903 (2004)] has addressed this phenomenon (which they called remote preparation) experimentally using homodyne measurements on a single photon. Here we show that, unfortunately, their experimental parameters do not meet the bounds necessary for a rigorous demonstration of EPR steering with a single photon. However, we also show that modest improvements in the experimental parameters, and the addition of photon counting to the arsenal of Alice's measurements, would be sufficient to allow such a demonstration.

  13. Measurement of exclusive $\\rho^{+}\\rho^{-}$ production in mid-virtuality two-photon interactions and study of the $\\gamma \\gamma^{*} \\to \\rho\\rho$ process at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefiev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degre, A.; Dehmelt, K.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duda, M.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Hage, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S.R.; Jin, B.N.; Jindal, P.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mans, J.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Nisati, A.; Novak, T.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Pal, I.; Palomares, C.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofiev, D.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, Mohammad Azizur; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosemann, C.; Rosenbleck, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Son, D.; Souga, C.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R.T.; Vasquez, R.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, M.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, An.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.

    2005-01-01

    Exclusive rho+rho- production in two-photon collisions between a quasi-real photon, gamma, and a mid-virtuality photon, gamma*, is studied with data collected at LEP at centre-of-mass energies root(s)=183-209GeV with a total integrated luminosity of 684.8pb^-1. The cross section of the gamma gamma* -> rho+ rho- process is determined as a function of the photon virtuality, Q^2, and the two-photon centre-of-mass energy, W_gg, in the kinematic region: 0.2GeV^2 rho rho process over the Q^2-region 0.2GeV^2 < Q^2 < 30 GeV^2.

  14. A finite element characterization of a commercial endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber: is it really single mode?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uranus, H.P.; Hoekstra, Hugo; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    2007-01-01

    One of interesting properties of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) is their possibility to be single-moded over a wide wavelength range, down to UV, while still having a reasonably large modal profile. Such properties are attractive for applications like optical sensing, interferometry, and transport

  15. Analysis of InP-based single photon avalanche diodes based on a single recess-etching process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kiwon

    2018-04-01

    Effects of the different etching techniques have been investigated by analyzing electrical and optical characteristics of two-types of single-diffused single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs). The fabricated two-types of SPADs have no diffusion depth variation by using a single diffusion process at the same time. The dry-etched SPADs show higher temperature dependence of a breakdown voltage, larger dark-count-rate (DCR), and lower photon-detection-efficiency (PDE) than those of the wet-etched SPADs due to plasma-induced damage of dry-etching process. The results show that the dry etching damages can more significantly affect the performance of the SPADs based on a single recess-etching process.

  16. Photon-photon collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1988-07-01

    Highlights of the VIIIth International Workshop on Photon-Photon Collisions are reviewed. New experimental and theoretical results were reported in virtually every area of ..gamma gamma.. physics, particularly in exotic resonance production and tests of quantum chromodynamics where asymptotic freedom and factorization theorems provide predictions for both inclusive and exclusive ..gamma gamma.. reactions at high momentum transfer. 73 refs., 12 figs.

  17. Coupling of a single active nanoparticle to a polymer-based photonic structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dam Thuy Trang Nguyen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The engineered coupling between a guest moiety (molecule, nanoparticle and the host photonic nanostructure may provide a great enhancement of the guest optical response, leading to many attractive applications. In this article, we describe briefly the basic concept and some recent progress considering the coupling of a single nanoparticle into a photonic structure. Different kinds of nanoparticles of great interest including quantum dots and nitrogen-vacancy centers in nanodiamond for single photon source, nonlinear nanoparticles for efficient nonlinear effect and sensors, magnetic nanoparticles for Kerr magneto-optical effect, and plasmonic nanoparticles for ultrafast optical switching and sensors, are briefly reviewed. We focus further on the coupling of plasmonic gold nanoparticles and polymeric photonic structures by optimizing theoretically the photonic structures and developing efficient way to realize desired hybrid structures. The simple and low-cost fabrication technique, the optical enhancement of the fluorescent nanoparticles induced by the photonic structure, as well as the limitations, challenges and appealing prospects are discussed in details.

  18. Growth of optical-quality anthracene crystals doped with dibenzoterrylene for controlled single photon production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, Kyle D., E-mail: kyle.major11@imperial.ac.uk; Lien, Yu-Hung; Polisseni, Claudio; Grandi, Samuele; Kho, Kiang Wei; Clark, Alex S.; Hwang, J.; Hinds, E. A., E-mail: ed.hinds@imperial.ac.uk [Centre for Cold Matter, Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    Dibenzoterrylene (DBT) molecules within a crystalline anthracene matrix show promise as quantum emitters for controlled, single photon production. We present the design and construction of a chamber in which we reproducibly grow doped anthracene crystals of optical quality that are several mm across and a few μm thick. We demonstrate control of the DBT concentration over the range 6–300 parts per trillion and show that these DBT molecules are stable single-photon emitters. We interpret our data with a simple model that provides some information on the vapour pressure of DBT.

  19. Extraction of the beta-factor for single quantum dots coupled to a photonic crystal waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup; Sapienza, Luca; Lodahl, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We present measurements of the β-factor, describing the coupling efficiency of light emitted by single InAs/GaAs semiconductor quantum dots into a photonic crystal waveguide mode. The β-factor is evaluated by means of time resolved frequency-dependent photoluminescence spectroscopy. The emission...... wavelength of single quantum dots is temperature tuned across the band edge of a photonic crystal waveguide and the spontaneous emission rate is recorded. Decay rates up to 5.7 ns−1, corresponding to a Purcell factor of 5.2, are measured and β-factors up to 85% are extracted. These results prove...

  20. Short-range energy budget simulator of single photon lidar demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtazin, Mark V.; Prochazka, Ivan; Blazej, Josef; Pershin, Sergey M.; Lednev, Vasily N.

    2017-05-01

    The compact single photon lidar demonstrator dedicated for asteroid rendezvous missions has been designed and realized in our laboratory two years ago. The instrument provides crucial data on altitude and terrain profile for altitudes exceeding 5 km with a precision of less than 10 cm fulfilling the Rayleigh criterion. One of the calibration procedure of demonstrator is the positioning of receiver and transmitter optics related to detector and laser and the aligning of transmitter and receiver optical common paths. To improve this particular indoor calibration procedure the new simulator of single photon energy budget during short range operation has been created. The comparison of simulated and experimental data will be presented and discussed.

  1. Single photon emission from charged excitons in CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, K. G.; Rakhlin, M. V.; Sorokin, S. V.; Klimko, G. V.; Gronin, S. V.; Sedova, I. V.; Mukhin, I. S.; Ivanov, S. V.; Toropov, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    We report on micro-photoluminescence studies of individual self-organized CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots intended for single-photon-source applications in a visible spectral range. The quantum dots surface density below 1010 per cm2 was achieved by using a thermally activated regime of molecular beam epitaxy that allowed fabrication of etched mesa-structures containing only a few emitting quantum dots. The single photon emission with the autocorrelation function g(2)(0)<0.2 was detected and identified as recombination of charged excitons in the individual quantum dot.

  2. Combined optical and single photon emission imaging: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boschi, Federico; Calderan, Laura; Sbarbati, Andrea [Department of Morphological-Biomedical Sciences, Section of Anatomy and Histology, University of Verona, Verona (Italy); Spinelli, Antonello E [Medical Physics Department, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); D' Ambrosio, Daniela; Marengo, Mario [Medical Physics Department, S. Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: federico.boschi@univr.it

    2009-12-07

    In vivo optical imaging instruments are generally devoted to the acquisition of light coming from fluorescence or bioluminescence processes. Recently, an instrument was conceived with radioisotopic detection capabilities (Kodak in Vivo Multispectral System F) based on the conversion of x-rays from the phosphorus screen. The goal of this work is to demonstrate that an optical imager (IVIS 200, Xenogen Corp., Alameda, USA), designed for in vivo acquisitions of small animals in bioluminescent and fluorescent modalities, can even be employed to detect signals due to radioactive tracers. Our system is based on scintillator crystals for the conversion of high-energy rays and a collimator. No hardware modifications are required. Crystals alone permit the acquisition of photons coming from an in vivo 20 g nude mouse injected with a solution of methyl diphosphonate technetium 99 metastable (Tc99m-MDP). With scintillator crystals and collimators, a set of measurements aimed to fully characterize the system resolution was carried out. More precisely, system point spread function and modulation transfer function were measured at different source depths. Results show that system resolution is always better than 1.3 mm when the source depth is less than 10 mm. The resolution of the images obtained with radioactive tracers is comparable with the resolution achievable with dedicated techniques. Moreover, it is possible to detect both optical and nuclear tracers or bi-modal tracers with only one instrument. (letter to the editor)

  3. Spectrally pure heralded single photons by spontaneous four-wave mixing in a fiber: reducing impact of dispersion fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Jacob Gade; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge

    2017-01-01

    We model the spectral quantum-mechanical purity of heralded single photons from a photon-pair source based on nondegenerate spontaneous four-wave mixing taking the impact of distributed dispersion fluctuations into account. The considered photon-pair-generation scheme utilizes pump-pulse walk......-off to produce pure heralded photons and phase matching is achieved through the dispersion properties of distinct spatial modes in a few-mode silica step-index fiber. We show that fiber-core-radius fluctuations in general severely impact the single-photon purity. Furthermore, by optimizing the fiber design we...... frequency. (C) 2017 Optical Society of America...

  4. Enhancing the brightness of electrically driven single-photon sources using color centers in silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khramtsov, Igor A.; Vyshnevyy, Andrey A.; Fedyanin, Dmitry Yu.

    2018-03-01

    Practical applications of quantum information technologies exploiting the quantum nature of light require efficient and bright true single-photon sources which operate under ambient conditions. Currently, point defects in the crystal lattice of diamond known as color centers have taken the lead in the race for the most promising quantum system for practical non-classical light sources. This work is focused on a different quantum optoelectronic material, namely a color center in silicon carbide, and reveals the physics behind the process of single-photon emission from color centers in SiC under electrical pumping. We show that color centers in silicon carbide can be far superior to any other quantum light emitter under electrical control at room temperature. Using a comprehensive theoretical approach and rigorous numerical simulations, we demonstrate that at room temperature, the photon emission rate from a p-i-n silicon carbide single-photon emitting diode can exceed 5 Gcounts/s, which is higher than what can be achieved with electrically driven color centers in diamond or epitaxial quantum dots. These findings lay the foundation for the development of practical photonic quantum devices which can be produced in a well-developed CMOS compatible process flow.

  5. Simple Atomic Quantum Memory Suitable for Semiconductor Quantum Dot Single Photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Janik; Buser, Gianni; Horsley, Andrew; Béguin, Lucas; Jöckel, Andreas; Jahn, Jan-Philipp; Warburton, Richard J; Treutlein, Philipp

    2017-08-11

    Quantum memories matched to single photon sources will form an important cornerstone of future quantum network technology. We demonstrate such a memory in warm Rb vapor with on-demand storage and retrieval, based on electromagnetically induced transparency. With an acceptance bandwidth of δf=0.66  GHz, the memory is suitable for single photons emitted by semiconductor quantum dots. In this regime, vapor cell memories offer an excellent compromise between storage efficiency, storage time, noise level, and experimental complexity, and atomic collisions have negligible influence on the optical coherences. Operation of the memory is demonstrated using attenuated laser pulses on the single photon level. For a 50 ns storage time, we measure η_{e2e}^{50  ns}=3.4(3)% end-to-end efficiency of the fiber-coupled memory, with a total intrinsic efficiency η_{int}=17(3)%. Straightforward technological improvements can boost the end-to-end-efficiency to η_{e2e}≈35%; beyond that, increasing the optical depth and exploiting the Zeeman substructure of the atoms will allow such a memory to approach near unity efficiency. In the present memory, the unconditional read-out noise level of 9×10^{-3} photons is dominated by atomic fluorescence, and for input pulses containing on average μ_{1}=0.27(4) photons, the signal to noise level would be unity.

  6. Simple Atomic Quantum Memory Suitable for Semiconductor Quantum Dot Single Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Janik; Buser, Gianni; Horsley, Andrew; Béguin, Lucas; Jöckel, Andreas; Jahn, Jan-Philipp; Warburton, Richard J.; Treutlein, Philipp

    2017-08-01

    Quantum memories matched to single photon sources will form an important cornerstone of future quantum network technology. We demonstrate such a memory in warm Rb vapor with on-demand storage and retrieval, based on electromagnetically induced transparency. With an acceptance bandwidth of δ f =0.66 GHz , the memory is suitable for single photons emitted by semiconductor quantum dots. In this regime, vapor cell memories offer an excellent compromise between storage efficiency, storage time, noise level, and experimental complexity, and atomic collisions have negligible influence on the optical coherences. Operation of the memory is demonstrated using attenuated laser pulses on the single photon level. For a 50 ns storage time, we measure ηe2 e 50 ns=3.4 (3 )% end-to-end efficiency of the fiber-coupled memory, with a total intrinsic efficiency ηint=17 (3 )%. Straightforward technological improvements can boost the end-to-end-efficiency to ηe 2 e≈35 %; beyond that, increasing the optical depth and exploiting the Zeeman substructure of the atoms will allow such a memory to approach near unity efficiency. In the present memory, the unconditional read-out noise level of 9 ×10-3 photons is dominated by atomic fluorescence, and for input pulses containing on average μ1=0.27 (4 ) photons, the signal to noise level would be unity.

  7. Results on the Coherent Interaction of High Energy Electrons and Photons in Oriented Single Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Apyan, A.; Badelek, B.; Ballestrero, S.; Biino, C.; Birol, I.; Cenci, P.; Connell, S.H.; Eichblatt, S.; Fonseca, T.; Freund, A.; Gorini, B.; Groess, R.; Ispirian, K.; Ketel, T.J.; Kononets, Yu.V.; Lopez, A.; Mangiarotti, A.; van Rens, B.; Sellschop, J.P.F.; Shieh, M.; Sona, P.; Strakhovenko, V.; Uggerhoj, E.; Uggerhj, Ulrik Ingerslev; Unel, G.; Velasco, M.; Vilakazi, Z.Z.; Wessely, O.; Kononets, Yu.V.

    2005-01-01

    The CERN-NA-59 experiment examined a wide range of electromagnetic processes for multi-GeV electrons and photons interacting with oriented single crystals. The various types of crystals and their orientations were used for producing photon beams and for converting and measuring their polarisation. The radiation emitted by 178 GeV unpolarised electrons incident on a 1.5 cm thick Si crystal oriented in the Coherent Bremsstrahlung (CB) and the String-of-Strings (SOS) modes was used to obtain multi-GeV linearly polarised photon beams. A new crystal polarimetry technique was established for measuring the linear polarisation of the photon beam. The polarimeter is based on the dependence of the Coherent Pair Production (CPP) cross section in oriented single crystals on the direction of the photon polarisation with respect to the crystal plane. Both a 1 mm thick single crystal of Germanium and a 4 mm thick multi-tile set of synthetic Diamond crystals were used as analyzers of the linear polarisation. A birefringence ...

  8. Photon Cascade from a Single Crystal Phase Nanowire Quantum Dot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouwes Bavinck, Maaike; Jöns, Klaus D; Zieliński, Michal

    2016-01-01

    We report the first comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the optical properties of single crystal phase quantum dots in InP nanowires. Crystal phase quantum dots are defined by a transition in the crystallographic lattice between zinc blende and wurtzite segments and therefore offe...

  9. SIMIND Monte Carlo simulation of a single photon emission CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahreyni Toossi, M.T.; Pirayesh Islamian, J.; Naseri, S.H.; Momennezhad, M.; Ljungberg, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we simulated a Siemens E.CAM SPECT system using SIMIND Monte Carlo program to acquire its experimental characterization in terms of energy resolution, sensitivity, spatial resolution and imaging of phantoms using 99m Tc. The experimental and simulation data for SPECT imaging was acquired from a point source and Jaszczak phantom. Verification of the simulation was done by comparing two sets of images and related data obtained from the actual and simulated systems. Image quality was assessed by comparing image contrast and resolution. Simulated and measured energy spectra (with or without a collimator) and spatial resolution from point sources in air were compared. The resulted energy spectra present similar peaks for the gamma energy of 99m Tc at 140 KeV. FWHM for the simulation calculated to 14.01 KeV and 13.80 KeV for experimental data, corresponding to energy resolution of 10.01 and 9.86% compared to defined 9.9% for both systems, respectively. Sensitivities of the real and virtual gamma cameras were calculated to 85.11 and 85.39 cps/MBq, respectively. The energy spectra of both simulated and real gamma cameras were matched. Images obtained from Jaszczak phantom, experimentally and by simulation, showed similarly in contrast and resolution. SIMIND Monte Carlo could successfully simulate the Siemens E.CAM gamma camera. The results validate the use of the simulated system for further investigation, including modification, planning, and developing a SPECT system to improve the quality of images. (author)

  10. Simple and efficient absorption filter for single photons from a cold atom quantum memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Daniel T; Lee, Patricia J; Quraishi, Qudsia

    2015-03-09

    The ability to filter unwanted light signals is critical to the operation of quantum memories based on neutral atom ensembles. Here we demonstrate an efficient frequency filter which uses a vapor cell filled with (85)Rb and a buffer gas to attenuate both residual laser light and noise photons by nearly two orders of magnitude with little loss to the single photons associated with our cold (87)Rb quantum memory. This simple, passive filter provides an additional 18 dB attenuation of our pump laser and erroneous spontaneous emissions for every 1 dB loss of the single photon signal. We show that the addition of a frequency filter increases the non-classical correlations and the retrieval efficiency of our quantum memory by ≈ 35%.

  11. Quantum key distribution with a single photon from a squeezed coherent state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Masahiro; Hirano, Takuya

    2003-01-01

    Squeezing of the coherent state by optical parametric amplifier is shown to efficiently produce single-photon states with reduced multiphoton probabilities compared with the weak coherent light. It can be a better source for a longer-distance quantum key distribution and also for other quantum optical experiments. The necessary condition for a secure quantum key distribution given by Brassard et al. is analyzed as functions of the coherent-state amplitude and squeeze parameter. Similarly, the rate of the gained secure bits G after error correction and privacy amplification given by Luetkenhaus is calculated. Compared with the weak coherent light, it is found that G is about ten times larger and its high level continues on about two times longer distance. By improvement of the detector efficiency it is shown that the distance extends further. Measurement of the intensity correlation function and the relation to photon antibunching are discussed for the experimental verification of the single-photon generation

  12. Single-photon detectors combining high efficiency, high detection rates, and ultra-high timing resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Esmaeil Zadeh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Single-photon detection with high efficiency, high time resolution, low dark counts, and high photon detection rates is crucial for a wide range of optical measurements. Although efficient detectors have been reported before, combining all performance parameters in a single device remains a challenge. Here, we show a broadband NbTiN superconducting nanowire detector with an efficiency exceeding 92%, over 150 MHz photon detection rate, and a dark count rate below 130 Hz operated in a Gifford-McMahon cryostat. Furthermore, with careful optimization of the detector design and readout electronics, we reach an ultra-low system timing jitter of 14.80 ps (13.95 ps decoupled while maintaining high detection efficiencies (>75%.

  13. Tunable single-photon multi-channel quantum router based on an optomechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Peng-Cheng; Yan, Lei-Lei; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Gui-Bin; Li, Xiao-Wei; Zhan, You-Bang

    2018-01-01

    Routing of photons plays a key role in optical communication networks and quantum networks. Although the quantum routing of signals has been investigated for various systems, both in theory and experiment, the general form of a quantum router with multi-output terminals still needs to be explored. Here, we propose an experimentally accessible tunable single-photon multi-channel routing scheme using an optomechanics cavity which is Coulomb coupled to a nanomechanical resonator. The router can extract single photons from the coherent input signal and directly modulate them into three different output channels. More importantly, the two output signal frequencies can be selected by adjusting the Coulomb coupling strength. For application purposes, we justify that there is insignificant influence from the vacuum and thermal noises on the performance of the router under cryogenic conditions. Our proposal may pave a new avenue towards multi-channel routers and quantum networks.

  14. Single-photon blockade in a hybrid cavity-optomechanical system via third-order nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Bijita; Sarma, Amarendra K.

    2018-04-01

    Photon statistics in a weakly driven optomechanical cavity, with Kerr-type nonlinearity, are analyzed both analytically and numerically. The single-photon blockade effect is demonstrated via calculations of the zero-time-delay second-order correlation function g (2)(0). The analytical results obtained by solving the Schrödinger equation are in complete conformity with the results obtained through numerical solution of the quantum master equation. A systematic study on the parameter regime for observing photon blockade in the weak coupling regime is reported. The parameter regime where the photon blockade is not realizable due to the combined effect of nonlinearities owing to the optomechanical coupling and the Kerr-effect is demonstrated. The experimental feasibility with state-of-the-art device parameters is discussed and it is observed that photon blockade could be generated at the telecommunication wavelength. An elaborate analysis of the thermal effects on photon antibunching is presented. The system is found to be robust against pure dephasing-induced decoherences and thermal phonon number fluctuations.

  15. Flat-top Drop Filter based on a Single Topology Optimized Photonic Crystal Cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Elesin, Yuriy; Guan, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    Outperforming conventional design concepts, a flat-top drop filter has been designed byapplying 3D topology optimization to a single waveguide-coupled L3 photonic crystal cavity.Measurements on the design fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material reveal that the pass-band ofthe drop channel...

  16. Does Ca2+ reach millimolar concentrations after single photon absorption in Drosophila photoreceptor microvilli?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Marten; Oberwinkler, J; Stavenga, DG

    1999-01-01

    The quantum bump, the elementary event of fly phototransduction induced by the absorption of a single photon, is a small, transient current due to the opening of cation-channels permeable to Ca2+. These channels are located in small, tube-like protrusions of the cell membrane, the microvilli. Using

  17. Experimental demonstration of highly anisotropic decay rates of single quantum dots inside photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qin; Stobbe, Søren; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup

    We have systematically measured the variation of the spontaneous emission rate with polarization for self-assembled single quantum dots in two-dimensional photonic crystal membranes and obtained a maximum anisotropy factor of 6 between the decay rates of the two nondegenerate bright exciton states....

  18. New bi-dimensional SPAD arrays for time resolved single photon imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, R. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud and Sez., INFN di Catania, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Centro Siciliano di Fisica Nucleare e Struttura della Materia, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Tudisco, S., E-mail: tudisco@lns.infn.it [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud and Sez., INFN di Catania, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Centro Siciliano di Fisica Nucleare e Struttura della Materia, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Piemonte, C. [FBK-Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via S. Croce 77, 38122 Trento (Italy); Lo Presti, D. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud and Sez., INFN di Catania, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Anzalone, A. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud and Sez., INFN di Catania, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Musumeci, F.; Scordino, A. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud and Sez., INFN di Catania, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Serra, N.; Zorzi, N. [FBK-Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via S. Croce 77, 38122 Trento (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Some of the first results concerning the electrical and optical performances of new bi-dimensional single photon avalanche diodes arrays for imaging applications are briefly presented. The planned arrays were realized at the Fondazione Bruno Kessler—Trento and tested at LNS–INFN. The proposed new solution, utilizing a new architecture with integrated quenching resistors, allows to simplify the electronic readout.

  19. New bi-dimensional SPAD arrays for time resolved single photon imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, R.; Tudisco, S.; Piemonte, C.; Lo Presti, D.; Anzalone, A.; Musumeci, F.; Scordino, A.; Serra, N.; Zorzi, N.

    2013-01-01

    Some of the first results concerning the electrical and optical performances of new bi-dimensional single photon avalanche diodes arrays for imaging applications are briefly presented. The planned arrays were realized at the Fondazione Bruno Kessler—Trento and tested at LNS–INFN. The proposed new solution, utilizing a new architecture with integrated quenching resistors, allows to simplify the electronic readout

  20. Monitoring CBF in clinical routine by dynamic single photon emission tomography (SPECT) of inhaled xenon-133

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiyama, H; Christensen, J; Skyhøj Olsen, T

    1986-01-01

    A very simple and low-cost brain dedicated, rapidly rotating Single Photon Emission Tomograph SPECT is described. Its use in following patients with ischemic stroke is illustrated by two middle cerebral artery occlusion cases, one with persistent occlusion and low CBF in MCA territory, and one wi...

  1. 3D near-infrared imaging based on a single-photon avalanche diode array sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mata Pavia, J.; Charbon, E.; Wolf, M.

    2011-01-01

    An imager for optical tomography was designed based on a detector with 128x128 single-photon pixels that included a bank of 32 time-to-digital converters. Due to the high spatial resolution and the possibility of performing time resolved measurements, a new contact-less setup has been conceived in

  2. A new single-photon avalanche diode in 90nm standard CMOS technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karami, M.A.; Gersbach, M.; Charbon, E.

    2010-01-01

    A single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) fabricated in a 90nm standard CMOS process is reported. The detector comprises an octagonal multiplication region and a guard ring to prevent premature edge breakdown using exclusively standard layers. The proposed structure is the result of a systematic study

  3. Characterization of Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes in Standard 140-nm SOI CMOS Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, M.J.; Sun, P.; Charbon, E.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the characterization of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) fabricated in standard 140-nm silicon on insulator (SOI) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. As a methodology for SPAD optimization, a test structure array, called SPAD farm, was realized with several

  4. Fundamental limitations in spontaneous emission rate of single-photon sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Khurgin, Jacob B.

    2016-01-01

    The rate of single-photon generation by quantum emitters (QEs) can be enhanced by placing a QE inside a resonant structure. This structure can represent an all-dielectric micro-resonator or waveguide and thus be characterized by ultra-low loss and dimensions on the order of wavelength. Or it can ...

  5. Evaluation of a 99Tcm bound brain scanning agent for single photon emission computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A R; Hasselbalch, S G; Paulson, O B

    1986-01-01

    D,L HM-PAO-99Tcm (PAO) is a lipophilic tracer complex which is avidly taken up by the brain. We have compared the regional distribution of PAO with regional cerebral blood flow (CBF). CBF was measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) by Tomomatic 64 after 133Xe inhalation in 41...

  6. QCD corrections to single top quark production in electron-photon interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kühn, J H; Uwer, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Single top quark production in electron-photon interactions provides a clean environment for the measurement of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element V sub t sub b. Aiming at an experimental precision at the percent level the knowledge of radiative corrections is important. In this paper we present results for the radiative corrections in quantum chromodynamics. (orig.)

  7. Single photon emission computed tomography in motor neuron disease with dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, H.; Udaka, F.; Kishi, Y.; Seriu, N.; Ohtani, S.; Abe, K.; Mezaki, T.; Kameyama, M.; Honda, M.; Tomonobu, M.

    1988-12-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography with (123 I) isopropylamphetamine was carried out on a patient with motor neutron disease with dementia. (123 I) uptake was decreased in the frontal lobes. This would reflect the histopathological findings such as neuronal loss and gliosis in the frontal lobes.

  8. Single photon emission computed tomography in motor neuron disease with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, H; Udaka, F; Kishi, Y; Seriu, N; Mezaki, T; Kameyama, M; Honda, M; Tomonobu, M

    1988-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography with [123 I] isopropylamphetamine was carried out on a patient with motor neuron disease with dementia. [123 I] uptake was decreased in the frontal lobes. This would reflect the histopathological findings such as neuronal loss and gliosis in the frontal lobes.

  9. From Single Atoms to Engineered “Super-Atoms”: Interfacing Photons and Atoms in Free Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevhen Miroshnychenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades the development of laser cooling and trapping has revolutionized the field of quantum optics. Now we master techniques to control the quantum properties of atoms and light, even at a single atom and single photon level. Understanding and controlling interactions of atoms and light both on the microscopic single particle and on the macroscopic collective levels, are two of the very active directions of the current research in this field. The goal is to engineer quantum systems with tailored properties designed for specific applications. One of the ambitious applications on this way is interfacing quantum information for quantum communication and quantum computing. We summarize here theoretical ideas and experimental methods for interfacing atom-based quantum memories with single flying photons.

  10. K$^{-}$ over K$^{+}$ multiplicity ratio for kaons produced in DIS with a large fraction of the virtual-photon energy

    CERN Document Server

    Akhunzyanov, R.; The COMPASS collaboration; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anfimov, N.V.; Anosov, V.; Antoshkin, A.; Augsten, K.; Augustyniak, W.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C.D.R.; Badełek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, M.; Barth, J.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Birsa, R.; Bodlak, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Burtsev, V.E.; Capozza, L.; Chang, W.-C.; Chatterjee, C.; Chiosso, M.; Chumakov, A.G.; Chung, S.-U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Dreisbach, Ch.; Dünnweber, W.; Dusaev, R.R.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Eversheim, P.D.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; jr., M.Finger; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giarra, J.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grasso, A.; Gridin, A.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Grube, B.; Guskov, A.; Hahne, D.; Hamar, G.; von Harrach, D.; Heitz, R.; Herrmann, F.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Hsieh, C.-Y.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jary, V.; Joosten, R.; Jörg, P.; Kabuß, E.; Kerbizi, A.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.M.; Kral, Z.; Krämer, M.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kulinich, Y.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R.P.; Kuznetsov, I.I.; Kveton, A.; Lednev, A.A.; Levchenko, E.A.; Levorato, S.; Lian, Y.-S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Lyubovitskij, V.E.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Mamon, S.A.; Marchand, C.; Marianski, B.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matoušek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.V.; Meyer, M.; Meyer, W.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Mikhasenko, M.; Mitrofanov, E.; Mitrofanov, N.; Miyachi, Y.; Moretti, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nový, J.; Nowak, W.-D.; Nukazuka, G.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, F.; Pesaro, G.; Pešek, M.; Pešková, M.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Pierre, N.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Rybnikov, A.; Rychter, A.; Salac, R.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sawada, T.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmieden, H.; Seder, E.; Selyunin, A.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Smolik, J.; Srnka, A.; Steffen, D.; Stolarski, M.; Subrt, O.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thiel, A.; Tomsa, J.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Vasilishin, B.I.; Vauth, A.; Veit, B.M.; Veloso, J.; Vidon, A.; Virius, M.; Wallner, S.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Zaremba, K.; Zavada, P.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhuravlev, N.; Ziembicki, M.

    2018-01-01

    The K$^{-}$ over K$^{+}$ multiplicity ratio is measured in deep-inelastic scattering, for the first time for kaons carrying a large fraction $z$ of the virtual-photon energy. The data were obtained by the COMPASS collaboration using a 160 GeV muon beam and an isoscalar $^6$LiD target. The regime of deep-inelastic scattering is ensured by requiring $Q^2>1$ (GeV/$c)^2$ for the photon virtuality and $W>5$ GeV/$c^2$ for the invariant mass of the produced hadronic system. Kaons are identified in the momentum range from 12 GeV/$c$ to 40 GeV/$c$, thereby restricting the range in Bjorken-$x$ to $0.010.75$. For very large values of $z$, $i.e.$ $z>0.8$, the results contradict expectations obtained using the formalism of (next-to-)leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics. This may imply that cross-section factorisation or/and universality of (kaon) fragmentation functions do not hold. Our studies suggest that within this formalism an additional correction may be required, which takes into account th...

  11. Quantum interference of single photons from two remote nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Michael; Sipahigil, Alp; Togan, Emre; Chu, Yiwen; Markham, Mark; Twitchen, Daniel; Zibrov, Alexander; Kubanek, Alexander; Lukin, Mikhail

    2012-06-01

    The interference of two identical photons impinging on a beam splitter leads to perfect photon coalescence where both photons leave through the same output port. This effect, known as Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference, can be used to characterize the properties of quantum emitters with high accuracy. This is a particularly useful tool for quantum emitters embedded in a solid state matrix because their internal properties, unlike those of atoms in free space, differ substantially from emitter to emitter due to strong interactions with the environment. HOM interference can also be used to generate optically mediated entanglement between two remote quantum emitters, a crucial step toward the development of long-distance quantum communication and scalable quantum computation architectures. Here, we demonstrate this interference effect with single photons emitted from two single Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) centers in diamond samples that are spatially separated by 2 meters [1]. The detuning of the photons can be tuned by applying a DC electric field to one NV center. We discuss current efforts toward optical entanglement of the two NV centers. [4pt] [1] A. Sipahigil, M. L. Goldman, E. Togan, Y. Chu, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, A. S. Zibrov, A. Kubanek, and M. D. Lukin, arXiv:1112.3975v1.

  12. Integration of Single-Photon Sources and Detectors on GaAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Enrica Digeronimo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantum photonic integrated circuits (QPICs on a GaAs platform allow the generation, manipulation, routing, and detection of non-classical states of light, which could pave the way for quantum information processing based on photons. In this article, the prototype of a multi-functional QPIC is presented together with our recent achievements in terms of nanofabrication and integration of each component of the circuit. Photons are generated by excited InAs quantum dots (QDs and routed through ridge waveguides towards photonic crystal cavities acting as filters. The filters with a transmission of 20% and free spectral range ≥66 nm are able to select a single excitonic line out of the complex emission spectra of the QDs. The QD luminescence can be measured by on-chip superconducting single photon detectors made of niobium nitride (NbN nanowires patterned on top of a suspended nanobeam, reaching a device quantum efficiency up to 28%. Moreover, two electrically independent detectors are integrated on top of the same nanobeam, resulting in a very compact autocorrelator for on-chip g(2(τ measurements.

  13. Periodically modulated single-photon transport in one-dimensional waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingmin; Wei, L. F.

    2018-03-01

    Single-photon transport along a one-dimension waveguide interacting with a quantum system (e.g., two-level atom) is a very useful and meaningful simplified model of the waveguide-based optical quantum devices. Thus, how to modulate the transport of the photons in the waveguide structures by adjusting certain external parameters should be particularly important. In this paper, we discuss how such a modulation could be implemented by periodically driving the energy splitting of the interacting atom and the atom-photon coupling strength. By generalizing the well developed time-independent full quantum mechanical theory in real space to the time-dependent one, we show that various sideband-transmission phenomena could be observed. This means that, with these modulations the photon has certain probabilities to transmit through the scattering atom in the other energy sidebands. Inversely, by controlling the sideband transmission the periodic modulations of the single photon waveguide devices could be designed for the future optical quantum information processing applications.

  14. Photon-Induced Magnetization Reversal in Single Molecule Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Mustafa

    2005-03-01

    Single-molecule magnets (SMM) have been the subject of intensive research for more than a decade now because of their unique properties such as macroscopic quantum tunneling. Recent work in this area is focused on whether SMM are potential qubits, as proposed theoretically [1]. We use continuous millimeter wave radiation to manipulate the populations of the energy levels of a single crystal molecular magnet Fe8 [2]. When radiation is in resonance with the transitions between energy levels, the steady state magnetization exhibits dips. As expected, the magnetic field locations of these dips vary linearly with the radiation frequency. We will describe our experimental results, which provide a lower bound of 0.17 ns for transverse relaxation time. Transitions between excited states are found even though these states have negligible population at the experimental temperature. We find evidence that the sample heating is significant when the resonance condition is satisfied. Recent experiments are concentrated on the spin dynamics of Fe8 induced by pulsed radiation and results of these studies will also be presented. [1] Leuenberger, M. N. and Loss, D., Nature 410, 789 (2001). [2] M. Bal et al., Phys. Rev. B 70, 100408(R) (2004).

  15. Controllable single-photon transport between remote coupled-cavity arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Wei; Nori, Franco

    2015-01-01

    We develop a new approach for controllable single-photon transport between two remote one-dimensional coupled-cavity arrays, used as quantum registers, mediated by an additional one-dimensional coupled-cavity array, acting as a quantum channel. A single two-level atom located inside one cavity of the intermediate channel is used to control the long-range coherent quantum coupling between two remote registers, thereby functioning as a quantum switch. With a time-independent perturbative treatm...

  16. Angular correlation of annihilation photons in ice single crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O. E.; Kvajic, G.; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard

    1971-01-01

    -lattice vectors g⃗ on the direction perpendicular to the slits and the sample surface. The relative area of the central plus the side peaks was (15.2 ± 0.4)% for all curves. All the peaks are interpreted as due to parapositronium annihilation. The side peaks are explained as evidence for the positronium center......Linear-slit angular-correlation curves were obtained at - 148 °C for the [0001], [10¯10], and [11¯20] directions in single crystals of ice. Besides the narrow central peak, pronounced narrow side peaks were also observed. They occurred at angles θ=2πℏgz/mc, where gz is the projection of reciprocal...

  17. Development of new photon-counting detectors for single-molecule fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalet, X.; Colyer, R. A.; Scalia, G.; Ingargiola, A.; Lin, R.; Millaud, J. E.; Weiss, S.; Siegmund, Oswald H. W.; Tremsin, Anton S.; Vallerga, John V.; Cheng, A.; Levi, M.; Aharoni, D.; Arisaka, K.; Villa, F.; Guerrieri, F.; Panzeri, F.; Rech, I.; Gulinatti, A.; Zappa, F.; Ghioni, M.; Cova, S.

    2013-01-01

    Two optical configurations are commonly used in single-molecule fluorescence microscopy: point-like excitation and detection to study freely diffusing molecules, and wide field illumination and detection to study surface immobilized or slowly diffusing molecules. Both approaches have common features, but also differ in significant aspects. In particular, they use different detectors, which share some requirements but also have major technical differences. Currently, two types of detectors best fulfil the needs of each approach: single-photon-counting avalanche diodes (SPADs) for point-like detection, and electron-multiplying charge-coupled devices (EMCCDs) for wide field detection. However, there is room for improvements in both cases. The first configuration suffers from low throughput owing to the analysis of data from a single location. The second, on the other hand, is limited to relatively low frame rates and loses the benefit of single-photon-counting approaches. During the past few years, new developments in point-like and wide field detectors have started addressing some of these issues. Here, we describe our recent progresses towards increasing the throughput of single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy in solution using parallel arrays of SPADs. We also discuss our development of large area photon-counting cameras achieving subnanosecond resolution for fluorescence lifetime imaging applications at the single-molecule level. PMID:23267185

  18. Measurement and modeling of microlenses fabricated on single-photon avalanche diode arrays for fill factor recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mata Pavia, J.; Wolf, M.; Charbon, E.

    2014-01-01

    Single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) imagers typically have a relatively low fil factor, i.e. a low proportion of the pixel’s surface is light sensitive, due to in-pixel circuitry. We present a microlens array fabricated on a 128x128 single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) imager to enhance its

  19. Radio frequency phototube and optical clock: High resolution, high rate and highly stable single photon timing technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margaryan, Amur

    2011-10-01

    A new timing technique for single photons based on the radio frequency phototube and optical clock or femtosecond optical frequency comb generator is proposed. The technique has a 20 ps resolution for single photons, is capable of operating with MHz frequencies and achieving 10 fs instability level.

  20. Fast measurement of luminosity at LEP by detecting the single bremsstrahlung photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bini, C.; De Zorzi, G.; Diambrini Palazzi, G.; Di Cosimo, G.; Di Domenico, A.; Gauzzi, P.; Zanello, D.

    1991-01-01

    Luminosity and beam angular divergence have been measured at LEP with a fast monitor based on the single bremsstrahlung process e + e - → e + e - γ. The photons emitted at the interaction point 1 are detected by an electromagnetic calorimeter: both the photon energy and the impact point are measured. The beam angular divergence and the luminosity are determined in few minutes with a statistical error of 1%. With the present experimental layout the systematic error is of few percent; it would be reduced by performing the measurement on an experimental interaction point. (orig.)

  1. Space-qualified silicon avalanche-photodiode single-photon-counting modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Krainak, Michael A.; Abshire, James B.; Spinhirne, James D.; Trottier, Claude; Davies, Murray; Dautet, Henri; Allan, Graham R.; Lukemire, Alan T.; Vandiver, James C.

    2004-09-01

    A space-qualified silicon avalanche-photodiode (APD) based single-photon-counting-module (SPCM) was developed for the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on board NASA's Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat). Numerous improvements were made over the commercially available SPCMs in both performance and reliability. The measured optoelectronic parameters include, 65% photon detection efficiency at the 532 nm wavelength, 15-17 mega-counts per second (Mcps) maximum count rate and less than 200 s-1 dark counts before exposure to space radiation.

  2. Photon-assisted tunneling in a Fe8 single-molecule magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorace, L.; Wernsdorfer, W.; Thirion, C.; Barra, A.-L.; Pacchioni, M.; Mailly, D.; Barbara, B.

    2003-12-01

    The low-temperature spin dynamics of a Fe8 single-molecule magnet was studied under circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation allowing us to establish clearly photon-assisted tunneling. This effect, while linear at low power, becomes highly nonlinear above a relatively low-power threshold. Heating due to phonon emission, spin-spin interactions, and coherent emission/absorption of photons might lead to the observed nonlinearity. These results are of importance if such systems are to be used as quantum computers.

  3. Measurement of the atom number distribution in an optical tweezer using single-photon counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrmanek, A.; Sortais, Y. R. P.; Grangier, P.; Browaeys, A.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate in this paper a method to reconstruct the atom number distribution of a cloud containing a few tens of cold atoms. The atoms are first loaded from a magneto-optical trap into a microscopic optical dipole trap and then released in a resonant light probe where they undergo a Brownian motion and scatter photons. We count the number of photon events detected on an image intensifier. Using the response of our detection system to a single atom as a calibration, we extract the atom number distribution when the trap is loaded with more than one atom. The atom number distribution is found to be compatible with a Poisson distribution.

  4. Multi-mode to single-mode conversion in a 61 port photonic lantern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordegraaf, Danny; Skovgaard, Peter M.W.; Maack, Martin D.

    2010-01-01

    Efficient multi-mode (MM) to single-mode (SM) conversion in a 61 port splitter or “Photonic Lantern” is demonstrated. The coupling loss from a 100 µm core diameter MM section to an ensemble of 61 SM fibers and back to another 100 µm core MM section is measured to be as low as 0.76 dB. This demons......B. This demonstration shows the feasibility of using the Photonic Lanterns within the field of astrophotonics for coupling MM star-light to an ensemble of SM fibers in order to perform fiber Bragg grating based spectral filtering."...

  5. Ultrathin NbN film superconducting single-photon detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, K; Korneev, A; Minaeva, O; Divochiy, A; Tarkhov, M; Ryabchun, S; Seleznev, V; Kaurova, N; Voronov, B; Gol'tsman, G; Polonsky, S

    2007-01-01

    We report on the fabrication process of the 2 x 2 superconducting single-photon detector (SSPD) array. The SSPD array is made from ultrathin NbN film and is operated at liquid helium temperatures. Each detector is a nanowire-based structure patterned by electron beam lithography process. The advances in fabrication technology allowed us to produce highly uniform strips and preserve superconducting properties of the unpatterned film. SSPD exhibit up to 30% quantum efficiency in near infrared and up to 1% at 5-μm wavelength. Due to 120 MHz counting rate and 18 ps jitter, the time-domain multiplexing read-out is proposed for large scale SSPD arrays. Single-pixel SSPD has already found a practical application in non-invasive testing of semiconductor very-large scale integrated circuits. The SSPD significantly outperformed traditional single-photon counting avalanche diodes

  6. Single passband microwave photonic filter using continuous-time impulse response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Thomas X H; Yi, Xiaoke; Minasian, Robert A

    2011-03-28

    A single passband microwave photonic signal processor based on continuous time impulse response that has high resolution, multiple-taps and baseband-free response as well as exhibiting a square-top passband and tunability, is presented. The design and synthesis of the frequency response are based on a full systematic model for single passband microwave photonic filters to account for arbitrary spectrum slice shapes, which for the first time investigates the combined effects from both the dispersion-induced carrier suppression effect and the RF decay effect due to the spectrum slice width, to enable the optimum design to be realized by utilizing the carrier suppression effect to improve the filter performance. Experimental results demonstrate a high order microwave filter showing high resolution single passband filtering as well as exhibiting reconfiguration, square-top passband and tunability, for the first time to our best knowledge.

  7. Low-temperature optical characterization of a near-infrared single-photon emitter in nanodiamonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siyushev, P; Jacques, V; Kaiser, F; Jelezko, F; Wrachtrup, J [3.Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Stuttgart, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Aharonovich, I; Castelletto, S; Prawer, S [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, VA 3010 (Australia); Mueller, T; Lombez, L; Atatuere, M [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: v.jacques@physik.uni-stuttgart.de

    2009-11-15

    In this paper, we study the optical properties of single defects emitting in the near infrared (NIR) in nanodiamonds at liquid helium temperature. The nanodiamonds are synthesized using a microwave chemical vapor deposition method followed by nickel implantation and annealing. We show that single defects exhibit several striking features at cryogenic temperature: the photoluminescence is strongly concentrated into a sharp zero-phonon line (ZPL) in the NIR, the radiative lifetime is in the nanosecond range and the emission is linearly polarized. The spectral stability of the defects is then investigated. An optical resonance linewidth of 4 GHz is measured using resonant excitation on the ZPL. Although Fourier-transform-limited emission is not achieved, our results show that it might be possible to use consecutive photons emitted in the NIR by single defects in diamond nanocrystals to perform two photon interference experiments, which are at the heart of linear quantum computing protocols.

  8. Non-Markovian dynamics of a qubit due to single-photon scattering in a waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yao-Lung L.; Ciccarello, Francesco; Baranger, Harold U.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the open dynamics of a qubit due to scattering of a single photon in an infinite or semi-infinite waveguide. Through an exact solution of the time-dependent multi-photon scattering problem, we find the qubit's dynamical map. Tools of open quantum systems theory allow us then to show the general features of this map, find the corresponding non-Linbladian master equation, and assess in a rigorous way its non-Markovian nature. The qubit dynamics has distinctive features that, in particular, do not occur in emission processes. Two fundamental sources of non-Markovianity are present: the finite width of the photon wavepacket and the time delay for propagation between the qubit and the end of the semi-infinite waveguide.

  9. Sub-Shot-Noise Transmission Measurement Enabled by Active Feed-Forward of Heralded Single Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabines-Chesterking, J.; Whittaker, R.; Joshi, S. K.; Birchall, P. M.; Moreau, P. A.; McMillan, A.; Cable, H. V.; O'Brien, J. L.; Rarity, J. G.; Matthews, J. C. F.

    2017-07-01

    Harnessing the unique properties of quantum mechanics offers the possibility of delivering alternative technologies that can fundamentally outperform their classical counterparts. These technologies deliver advantages only when components operate with performance beyond specific thresholds. For optical quantum metrology, the biggest challenge that impacts on performance thresholds is optical loss. Here, we demonstrate how including an optical delay and an optical switch in a feed-forward configuration with a stable and efficient correlated photon-pair source reduces the detector efficiency required to enable quantum-enhanced sensing down to the detection level of single photons and without postselection. When the switch is active, we observe a factor of improvement in precision of 1.27 for transmission measurement on a per-input-photon basis compared to the performance of a laser emitting an ideal coherent state and measured with the same detection efficiency as our setup. When the switch is inoperative, we observe no quantum advantage.

  10. Dead time effect on single photon counting for the longitudinal density monitor of LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bravin, E

    2005-01-01

    The longitudinal distribution of the protons in the two LHC rings needs to be known with high accuracy. This is required for both: the correct operation of the machine and the understanding of beam dynamics effects that can influence the performances of the collider. One possible way of achieving the required time resolution of 50 ps and dynamic range of 10.4 is single photons counting of the synchrotron radiation emitted by the beams using avalanche photo diodes (APDs). Although this kind of devices have very short rise times and allow precise time stamping of detected photons, they also have long recovery times (dead time) of the order of hundreds of nanoseconds, much longer than the bunch length of the LHC beams. For this reason it is important to evaluate the masking effect introduced by this dead time, where photons emitted by protons in different longitudinal positions will have different probabilities of being detected.

  11. Dead time effect on single photon counting for the longitudinal density monitor LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bravin, E

    2005-01-01

    The longitudinal distribution of the protons in the two LHC rings needs to be known with high accuracy. This is required for both: the correct operation of the machine and the understanding of beam dynamics effects that can influence the performances of the collider. One possible way of achieving the required time resolution of 50 ps and dynamic range of 10.4 is single photons counting of the synchrotron radiation emitted by the beams using avalanche photo diodes (APDs). Although this kind of devices have very short rise times and allow precise time stamping of detected photons, they also have long recovery times (dead time) of the order of humdreds of nanoseconds, much longer than the bunch length of the LHC beams. For this reason it is important to evaluate the masking effect introduced by this dead time, where photons emitted by protons in different longitudinal positions will have different probabilities of being detected.

  12. Room-Temperature Single-photon level Memory for Polarization States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupchak, Connor; Mittiga, Thomas; Jordaan, Bertus; Namazi, Mehdi; Nölleke, Christian; Figueroa, Eden

    2015-01-01

    An optical quantum memory is a stationary device that is capable of storing and recreating photonic qubits with a higher fidelity than any classical device. Thus far, these two requirements have been fulfilled for polarization qubits in systems based on cold atoms and cryogenically cooled crystals. Here, we report a room-temperature memory capable of storing arbitrary polarization qubits with a signal-to-background ratio higher than 1 and an average fidelity surpassing the classical benchmark for weak laser pulses containing 1.6 photons on average, without taking into account non-unitary operation. Our results demonstrate that a common vapor cell can reach the low background noise levels necessary for polarization qubit storage using single-photon level light, and propels atomic-vapor systems towards a level of functionality akin to other quantum information processing architectures.

  13. Frequency and bandwidth conversion of single photons in a room-temperature diamond quantum memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kent A G; England, Duncan G; MacLean, Jean-Philippe W; Bustard, Philip J; Resch, Kevin J; Sussman, Benjamin J

    2016-04-05

    The spectral manipulation of photons is essential for linking components in a quantum network. Large frequency shifts are needed for conversion between optical and telecommunication frequencies, while smaller shifts are useful for frequency-multiplexing quantum systems, in the same way that wavelength division multiplexing is used in classical communications. Here we demonstrate frequency and bandwidth conversion of single photons in a room-temperature diamond quantum memory. Heralded 723.5 nm photons, with 4.1 nm bandwidth, are stored as optical phonons in the diamond via a Raman transition. Upon retrieval from the diamond memory, the spectral shape of the photons is determined by a tunable read pulse through the reverse Raman transition. We report central frequency tunability over 4.2 times the input bandwidth, and bandwidth modulation between 0.5 and 1.9 times the input bandwidth. Our results demonstrate the potential for diamond, and Raman memories in general, as an integrated platform for photon storage and spectral conversion.

  14. 0.4 THz Photonic-Wireless Link With 106 Gb/s Single Channel Bitrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jia, Shi; Pang, Xiaodan; Ozolins, Oskars

    2018-01-01

    THz channel is enabled by combining spectrally efficient modulation format, ultrabroadband THz transceiver and advanced digital signal processing routine. Besides that, our demonstration from system-wide implementation viewpoint also features high transmission stability, and hence shows its great......, we experimentally demonstrate a single channel 0.4 THz photonic-wireless link achieving a net data rate of beyond 100 Gb/s by using a single pair of THz emitter and receiver, without employing any spatial/frequency division multiplexing techniques. The high throughput up to 106 Gb/s within a single...

  15. Photon-counting single-molecule spectroscopy for studying conformational dynamics and macromolecular interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurence, Ted Alfred [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Single-molecule methods have the potential to provide information about conformational dynamics and molecular interactions that cannot be obtained by other methods. Removal of ensemble averaging provides several benefits, including the ability to detect heterogeneous populations and the ability to observe asynchronous reactions. Single-molecule diffusion methodologies using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) are developed to monitor conformational dynamics while minimizing perturbations introduced by interactions between molecules and surfaces. These methods are used to perform studies of the folding of Chymotrypsin Inhibitor 2, a small, single-domain protein, and of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) homopolymers. Confocal microscopy is used in combination with sensitive detectors to detect bursts of photons from fluorescently labeled biomolecules as they diffuse through the focal volume. These bursts are analyzed to extract fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiency. Advances in data acquisition and analysis techniques that are providing a more complete picture of the accessible molecular information are discussed. Photon Arrival-time Interval Distribution (PAID) analysis is a new method for monitoring macromolecular interactions by fluorescence detection with simultaneous determination of coincidence, brightness, diffusion time, and occupancy (proportional to concentration) of fluorescently-labeled molecules undergoing diffusion in a confocal detection volume. This method is based on recording the time of arrival of all detected photons, and then plotting the two-dimensional histogram of photon pairs, where one axis is the time interval between each pair of photons 1 and 2, and the second axis is the number of other photons detected in the time interval between photons 1 and 2. PAID is related to Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) by a collapse of this histogram onto the time interval axis. PAID extends auto- and cross-correlation FCS

  16. Photon-counting single-molecule spectroscopy for studying conformational dynamics and macromolecular interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurence, Ted Alfred

    2002-01-01

    Single-molecule methods have the potential to provide information about conformational dynamics and molecular interactions that cannot be obtained by other methods. Removal of ensemble averaging provides several benefits, including the ability to detect heterogeneous populations and the ability to observe asynchronous reactions. Single-molecule diffusion methodologies using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) are developed to monitor conformational dynamics while minimizing perturbations introduced by interactions between molecules and surfaces. These methods are used to perform studies of the folding of Chymotrypsin Inhibitor 2, a small, single-domain protein, and of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) homopolymers. Confocal microscopy is used in combination with sensitive detectors to detect bursts of photons from fluorescently labeled biomolecules as they diffuse through the focal volume. These bursts are analyzed to extract fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiency. Advances in data acquisition and analysis techniques that are providing a more complete picture of the accessible molecular information are discussed. Photon Arrival-time Interval Distribution (PAID) analysis is a new method for monitoring macromolecular interactions by fluorescence detection with simultaneous determination of coincidence, brightness, diffusion time, and occupancy (proportional to concentration) of fluorescently-labeled molecules undergoing diffusion in a confocal detection volume. This method is based on recording the time of arrival of all detected photons, and then plotting the two-dimensional histogram of photon pairs, where one axis is the time interval between each pair of photons 1 and 2, and the second axis is the number of other photons detected in the time interval between photons 1 and 2. PAID is related to Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) by a collapse of this histogram onto the time interval axis. PAID extends auto- and cross-correlation FCS

  17. The associated charged particle multiplicity of high-p/sub T/ pi /sup 0/ and single-photon events

    CERN Document Server

    Diakonou, M; Albrow, M G; Almehed, S; Benary, O; Bøggild, H; Botner, O; Cnops, A M; Cockerill, D J A; Dagan, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahl-Jensen, I; Damgaard, G; Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang; Filippas-Tassos, A; Fokitis, E; Fowler, E C; Hallgren, A; Hansen, K H; Henning, S; Hood, D M; Hooper, J; Jarlskog, G; Karpathopoulos, S; Killian, T; Kourkoumelis, C; Kreisler, M; Lissauer, D; Lörstad, B; Ludlam, T; Mannelli, I; McCubbin, N A; Melin, A; Mjörnmark, U; Møller, R; Molzon, W; Mouzourakis, P; Nielsen, B S; Nielsen, S O; Nilsson, A; Oren, Y; Palmer, R B; Rahm, David Charles; Rehak, P; Resvanis, L K; Rosselt, L; Schistad, B; Stumer, I; Svensson, L; von Dardel, Guy F; Willis, W J

    1980-01-01

    The associated charged particle multiplicities of high-p/sub T/ pi /sup 0/ and single-photon events were measured at the CERN intersecting storage rings using lead/liquid-argon calorimeters and a scintillation counter array placed around the intersection region. The average multiplicity on the trigger side for the single-photon events was found to be significantly lower than that for the pi /sup 0/ events. The away-side multiplicity for both pi /sup 0/ and single- photon events increases with the trigger particle p/sub T/, but, at a fixed p/sub T/, the direct photon sample was found to have a slightly lower average multiplicity. The differences in the event structure can be explained if a large fraction of the single photons are produced via qg to gamma q constituent scattering. (16 refs).

  18. Single photon detection and localization accuracy with an ebCMOS camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cajgfinger, T. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Dominjon, A., E-mail: agnes.dominjon@nao.ac.jp [Université de Lyon, Université de Lyon 1, Lyon 69003 France. (France); Barbier, R. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Université de Lyon, Université de Lyon 1, Lyon 69003 France. (France)

    2015-07-01

    The CMOS sensor technologies evolve very fast and offer today very promising solutions to existing issues facing by imaging camera systems. CMOS sensors are very attractive for fast and sensitive imaging thanks to their low pixel noise (1e-) and their possibility of backside illumination. The ebCMOS group of IPNL has produced a camera system dedicated to Low Light Level detection and based on a 640 kPixels ebCMOS with its acquisition system. After reminding the principle of detection of an ebCMOS and the characteristics of our prototype, we confront our camera to other imaging systems. We compare the identification efficiency and the localization accuracy of a point source by four different photo-detection devices: the scientific CMOS (sCMOS), the Charge Coupled Device (CDD), the Electron Multiplying CCD (emCCD) and the Electron Bombarded CMOS (ebCMOS). Our ebCMOS camera is able to identify a single photon source in less than 10 ms with a localization accuracy better than 1 µm. We report as well efficiency measurement and the false positive identification of the ebCMOS camera by identifying more than hundreds of single photon sources in parallel. About 700 spots are identified with a detection efficiency higher than 90% and a false positive percentage lower than 5. With these measurements, we show that our target tracking algorithm can be implemented in real time at 500 frames per second under a photon flux of the order of 8000 photons per frame. These results demonstrate that the ebCMOS camera concept with its single photon detection and target tracking algorithm is one of the best devices for low light and fast applications such as bioluminescence imaging, quantum dots tracking or adaptive optics.

  19. Performance and limitations of high granularity single photon processing X-ray imaging detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Tlustos, L

    2005-01-01

    Progress in CMOS technology and in fine pitch bump bonding has made possible the development of single photon counting detectors for X-ray imaging with pixel pitches on the order of 50 µm giving a spatial resolution which is comparable to conventional CCD and flat panel detectors. This thesis studies the interaction of X-ray photons in the energy range of 5 keV to 70 keV with various sensor materials as well as the response of the Medipix2 readout system to both monochromatic and wide spectrum X-ray sources. Single photon processing offers the potential for spectroscopic imaging. However, this thesis demonstrates using simulations and measurements that the charge deposition and collection within the semiconductor sensor impose fundamental limits on the achievable energy resolution. In particular the discussion of charge during collection in the sensor and the generation of fluorescence photons in heavier sensor materials contribute to the appearance of a low energy tail on the detected spectrum of an incomin...

  20. A superconducting microcalorimeter for low-flux detection of near-infrared single photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyling-Eschweiler, Jan

    2014-07-01

    This thesis covers the development and the characterization of a single photon detector based on a superconducting microcalorimeter. The detector development is motivated by the Any Light Particle Search II (ALPS II) experiment at DESY in Hamburg, which searches for weakly interacting sub-eV particles (WISPs). Therefore, a detection of low-fluxes of 1064 nm light is required. The work is divided in three analyses: the characterization of a milli-kelvin (mK) cryostat, the characterization of superconducting sensors for single photon detection, and the determination of dark count rates concerning 1064 nm signals. Firstly, an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is characterized, which allows to reach mK-temperatures. During commissioning, the ADR cryostat is optimized and prepared to stably cool superconducting sensors at 80 mK±25 μK. It is found that sensors can be continuously operated for ∝20 h before recharging the system in -4 s -1 . By operating a fiber-coupled TES, it is found that the dark count rate for 1064 nm signals is dominated by pile-up events of near-infrared thermal photons coming through the fiber from the warm environment. Considering a detection efficiency of ∝18 %, a dark count rate of 8.6 . 10 -3 s -1 is determined for 1064 nm ALPS photons.Concerning ALPS II, this results in a sensitivity gain compared to the ALPS I detector. Furthermore, this thesis is the starting point of TES detector development in Hamburg, Germany.

  1. Strong coupling of a single photon to a superconducting qubit using circuit quantum electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallraff, A; Schuster, D I; Blais, A; Frunzio, L; Huang, R- S; Majer, J; Kumar, S; Girvin, S M; Schoelkopf, R J

    2004-09-09

    The interaction of matter and light is one of the fundamental processes occurring in nature, and its most elementary form is realized when a single atom interacts with a single photon. Reaching this regime has been a major focus of research in atomic physics and quantum optics for several decades and has generated the field of cavity quantum electrodynamics. Here we perform an experiment in which a superconducting two-level system, playing the role of an artificial atom, is coupled to an on-chip cavity consisting of a superconducting transmission line resonator. We show that the strong coupling regime can be attained in a solid-state system, and we experimentally observe the coherent interaction of a superconducting two-level system with a single microwave photon. The concept of circuit quantum electrodynamics opens many new possibilities for studying the strong interaction of light and matter. This system can also be exploited for quantum information processing and quantum communication and may lead to new approaches for single photon generation and detection.

  2. Collective effects of nuclei in single X-ray photon superradiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Xiangjin

    2016-07-28

    This thesis is dedicated to the study of collective effects of nuclei in single X-ray photon superradiance. To this end we investigate aspects of superradiance in both nuclear forward scattering and in thin-film cavities with an embedded {sup 57}Fe nuclear layer. A general theoretical framework is developed to investigate a single-photon cooperative emission from a cloud of resonant systems, atoms or nuclei, in the presence of magnetic hyperfine splitting. In the limit of a thick sample, we present our results for two means to coherently control the collective single X-ray photon emission in nuclear forward scattering. In the limit of a thin sample in a thin-film cavity with embedded resonant nuclei, we find out that unlike the magnetic hyperfine splitting of a single atom or nucleus, interesting collective effects may occur which modify the hyperfine level structure. In addition, for a certain parameter regime a spectrum reminiscent of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) can be achieved. Based on this EIT-like effect, a theoretical control mechanism for stopping X-ray pulses in the thin-film X-ray cavity is put forward. Finally, we show theoretically that for the case of two nuclear ensembles in the thin-film cavity, pseudo-Rabi splitting due to the strong coupling between the two layers should occur. The latter findings are confirmed by preliminary experimental data.

  3. Security and gain improvement of a practical quantum key distribution using a gated single-photon source and probabilistic photon-number resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Hideki; Wang, Haibo; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2005-01-01

    We propose a high security quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme utilizing one mode of spontaneous parametric downconversion gated by a photon number resolving detector. This photon number measurement is possible by using single-photon detectors operating at room temperature and optical fibers. By post selection, the multiphoton probability in this scheme can be reduced to lower than that of a scheme using an attenuated coherent light resulting in improvement of security. Furthermore, if distillation protocol (error correction and privacy amplification) is performed, the gain will be increased. Hence a QKD system with higher security and bit rate than the laser-based QKD system can be attained using present available technologies

  4. Modification of emission photon statistics from single quantum dots using metal/SiO2 core/shell nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiki, Hiroyuki; Oikawa, Hidetoshi; Masuo, Sadahiro

    2017-04-12

    Emission photon statistics, i.e., single-photon and multi-photon emissions, of isolated QDs is required for tailoring optoelectronic applications. In this article, we demonstrate that the emission photon statistics can be modified by the control of the spectral overlap of the QDs with the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the metal nanoparticle (metal NP) and by the distance between the QD and the metal NP. Moreover, the contribution to the modification of the emission photon statistics, which is the excitation and emission enhancements and the quenching generated by the spectral overlap and the distance, is elucidated. By fabricating well-defined SiO 2 -coated AgNPs and AuNPs (metal/SiO 2 ), the spectral overlap originated from the metal species of Ag and Au and the distance constituted by the thickness of the SiO 2 shell are controlled. The probability of single-photon emission of single QD was increased by the enhancement of the excitation rate via adjusting the distance using Ag/SiO 2 while the single-photon emission was converted to multi-photon emission by the effect of exciton quenching at a short distance and a small spectral overlap. By contrast, the probability of multi-photon emission was increased by enhancement of the multi-photon emission rate and the quenching via the spectral overlap using Au/SiO 2 . These results indicated the fundamental finding to control emission photon statistics in single QDs by controlling the spectral overlap and the distance, and understand the interaction of plasmonic nanostructures and single QD systems.

  5. Fabrication of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors by nonlinear femtosecond optical lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaev, N. V.; Tarkhov, M. A.; Dudova, D. S.; Timashev, P. S.; Chichkov, B. N.; Bagratashvili, V. N.

    2018-02-01

    This paper describes a new approach to the fabrication of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors from ultrathin NbN films on SiO2 substrates. The technology is based on nonlinear femtosecond optical lithography and includes direct formation of the sensitive element of the detector (the meander) through femtosecond laser exposure of the polymethyl methacrylate resist at a wavelength of 525 nm and subsequent removal of NbN using plasma-chemical etching. The nonlinear femtosecond optical lithography method allows the formation of planar structures with a spatial resolution of ~50 nm. These structures were used to fabricate single-photon superconducting detectors with quantum efficiency no worse than 8% at a wavelength of 1310 nm and dark count rate of 10 s‑1 at liquid helium temperature.

  6. Invariant operator theory for the single-photon energy in time-varying media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong-Ryeol, Choi

    2010-01-01

    After the birth of quantum mechanics, the notion in physics that the frequency of light is the only factor that determines the energy of a single photon has played a fundamental role. However, under the assumption that the theory of Lewis–Riesenfeld invariants is applicable in quantum optics, it is shown in the present work that this widely accepted notion is valid only for light described by a time-independent Hamiltonian, i.e., for light in media satisfying the conditions, ε(i) = ε(0), μ(t) = μ(0), and σ(t) = 0 simultaneously. The use of the Lewis–Riesenfeld invariant operator method in quantum optics leads to a marvelous result: the energy of a single photon propagating through time-varying linear media exhibits nontrivial time dependence without a change of frequency. (general)

  7. A Single-Photon Avalanche Diode Array for Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David Eric; Charbon, Edoardo; Shepard, Kenneth L.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the design, characterization, and demonstration of a fully integrated single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) imager for use in time-resolved fluorescence imaging. The imager consists of a 64-by-64 array of active SPAD pixels and an on-chip time-to-digital converter (TDC) based on a delay-locked loop (DLL) and calibrated interpolators. The imager can perform both standard time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) and an alternative gated-window detection useful for avoiding pulse pile-up when measuring bright signal levels. To illustrate the use of the imager, we present measurements of the decay lifetimes of fluorescent dyes of several types with a timing resolution of 350 ps. PMID:23976789

  8. A direct measurement of the Z sup 0 invisible width by single photon counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akrawy, M.Z.; Alexander, G.; Allison, J.; Allport, P.P.; Anderson, K.J.; Armitage, J.C.; Arnison, G.T.J.; Ashton, P.; Azuelos, G.; Baines, J.T.M.; Ball, A.H.; Banks, J.; Barker, G.J.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, J.R.; Beaudoin, G.; Beck, A.; Becker, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, K.W.; Bella, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Binder, U.; Boodworth, I.J.; Bock, P.; Breuker, H.; Brown, R.M.; Brun, R.; Buijs, A.; Burckhart, H.J.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, D.G.; Chrin, J.T.M.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Cohen, I.; Collins, W.J.; Conboy, J.E.; Couch, M.; Coupland, M.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.M.; Jong, S. de; Debu, P.; Deninno, M.M.; Dieckmann, A.; Dittmar, M.; Dixit, M.S.; Duchovni, E.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Dumas, D.J.P.; Elcombe, P.A.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Farthouat, P.; Fischer, H.M.; Fong, D.G.; French, M.T.; Fukunaga, C.; Gaidot, A.; Ganel, O.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Geddes, N.I.; Gee, C.N.P.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Gensler, S.W.; Gentit; OPAL Collaboration

    1991-05-01

    The OPAL detector at LEP is used to measure the branching ratio of the Z{sup 0} into invisible particles by measruing the cross section of single photon events in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions at centre-of-mass energies near the Z{sup 0} resonance. In a data sample of 5.3 pb{sup -1}, we observe 73 events with single photons depositing more than 1.5 GeV in the electromagnetic calorimeter, with an expected background of 8+-2 events not associated with invisible Z{sup 0} decay. With this data we determine the Z{sup 0} invisible width to be 0.50+-0.07+-0.03 GeV, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic. This corresponds to 3.0+-0.4+-0.2 light neutrino generations in the Standard Model. (orig.).

  9. Controlling the transmitted information of a multi-photon interacting with a single-Cooper pair box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadry, Heba, E-mail: hkadry1@yahoo.com; Abdel-Aty, Abdel-Haleem, E-mail: hkadry1@yahoo.com; Zakaria, Nordin, E-mail: hkadry1@yahoo.com [Computer and Information Science Department, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Cheong, Lee Yen [Fundamental and Applied Science Department, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    We study a model of a multi-photon interaction of a single Cooper pair box with a cavity field. The exchange of the information using this system is studied. We quantify the fidelity of the transmitted information. The effect of the system parameters (detuning parameter, field photons, state density and mean photon number) in the fidelity of the transmitted information is investigated. We found that the fidelity of the transmitted information can be controlled using the system parameters.

  10. High-performance imaging of stem cells using single-photon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Douglas J.; Moats, Rex A.; Hartsough, Neal E.; Meier, Dirk; Hugg, James W.; Yang, Tang; Gazit, Dan; Pelled, Gadi; Patt, Bradley E.

    2011-10-01

    Radiolabeled cells have been imaged for decades in the field of autoradiography. Recent advances in detector and microelectronics technologies have enabled the new field of "digital autoradiography" which remains limited to ex vivo specimens of thin tissue slices. The 3D field-of-view (FOV) of single cell imaging can be extended to millimeters if the low energy (10-30 keV) photon emissions of radionuclides are used for single-photon nuclear imaging. This new microscope uses a coded aperture foil made of highly attenuating elements such as gold or platinum to form the image as a kind of "lens". The detectors used for single-photon emission microscopy are typically silicon detectors with a pixel pitch less than 60 μm. The goal of this work is to image radiolabeled mesenchymal stem cells in vivo in an animal model of tendon repair processes. Single-photon nuclear imaging is an attractive modality for translational medicine since the labeled cells can be imaged simultaneously with the reparative processes by using the dual-isotope imaging technique. The details our microscope's two-layer gold aperture and the operation of the energy-dispersive, pixellated silicon detector are presented along with the first demonstration of energy discrimination with a 57Co source. Cell labeling techniques have been augmented by genetic engineering with the sodium-iodide symporter, a type of reporter gene imaging method that enables in vivo uptake of free 99mTc or an iodine isotope at a time point days or weeks after the insertion of the genetically modified stem cells into the animal model. This microscopy work in animal research may expand to the imaging of reporter-enabled stem cells simultaneously with the expected biological repair process in human clinical trials of stem cell therapies.

  11. Effect of Loss on Multiplexed Single-Photon Sources (Open Access Publisher’s Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-28

    theCreative CommonsAttribution 3.0 licence . Any further distribution of this workmustmaintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of thework...themultiplexed (MUX) single-photon source [14], which uses an array ofHSPSs, delay lines, electronics for classical logic operations , and an active...the squeezing parameter or the loss in the idler arm. In section 3wewill show that a practicalmultiplexed sourcewill require operation in the strong

  12. Degenerative dementia: nosological aspects and results of single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, B.; Habert, M.O.

    1999-01-01

    Ten years ago, the diagnosis discussion of a dementia case for the old patient was limited to two pathologies: the Alzheimer illness and the Pick illness. During these last years, the frame of these primary degenerative dementia has fallen into pieces. The different diseases and the results got with single photon emission computed tomography are discussed. for example: fronto-temporal dementia, primary progressive aphasia, progressive apraxia, visio-spatial dysfunction, dementia at Lewy's bodies, or cortico-basal degeneration. (N.C.)

  13. Electromagnetic properties of terbium gallium garnet at millikelvin temperatures and single photon energy

    OpenAIRE

    Kostylev, Nikita; Goryachev, Maxim; Bushev, Pavel; Tobar, Michael E.

    2017-01-01

    Electromagnetic properties of single crystal terbium gallium garnet (TGG) are characterised from room down to millikelvin temperatures using the whispering gallery mode method. Microwave spectroscopy is performed at low powers equivalent to a few photons in energy and conducted as functions of the magnetic field and temperature. A phase transition is detected close to the temperature of 3.5 K. This is observed for multiple whispering gallery modes causing an abrupt negative frequency shift an...

  14. An ultrawide tunable range single passband microwave photonic filter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yongchuan; Guo, Jing; Wu, Kui; Qu, Pengfei; Qi, Huajuan; Liu, Caixia; Ruan, Shengping; Chen, Weiyou; Dong, Wei

    2013-02-11

    A single passband microwave photonic filter with ultrawide tunable range based on stimulated Brillouin scattering is theoretically analyzed. Combining the gain and loss spectrums, tuning range with 44GHz is obtained without crosstalk by introducing two pumps. Adding more pumps, Tuning range multiplying with the multiplication factor equaling to the total quantity of pump can be achieved, which has potential application in microwave and millimeter wave wireless communication systems.

  15. Diagnostic merits of current and potential applications of single photon and positron imaging: a perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, P. V.

    1978-01-01

    A brief review of the limitations of medical radionuclide imaging techniques in competition with x-ray CAT scanning and ultrasound suggest that the emphasis in this are should be on measurement of the physiologic uptake of tracer materials. Tomography greatly improves the possibilities of quantitation of this uptake - examples using positron and single photon techniques are presented for /sup 13/NH/sub 3/ and /sup 201/Tl in the heart.

  16. Photon-assisted tunneling in a Fe-8 single-molecule magnet

    OpenAIRE

    Sorace, L.; Wernsdorfer, W.; Thirion, C.; Barra, A. L.; Pacchioni, M.; Mailly, D.; Barbara, B.

    2003-01-01

    The low temperature spin dynamics of a Fe8 Single-Molecule Magnet was studied under circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation allowing us to establish clearly photon-assisted tunneling. This effect, while linear at low power, becomes highly non-linear above a relatively low power threshold. This non-linearity is attributed to the nature of the coupling of the sample to the thermostat.These results are of great importance if such systems are to be used as quantum computers.

  17. Evaluation of a 99Tcm bound brain scanning agent for single photon emission computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A R; Hasselbalch, S G; Paulson, O B

    1986-01-01

    D,L HM-PAO-99Tcm (PAO) is a lipophilic tracer complex which is avidly taken up by the brain. We have compared the regional distribution of PAO with regional cerebral blood flow (CBF). CBF was measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) by Tomomatic 64 after 133Xe inhalation in ...... of the (decay corrected) brain counts were lost during 24 hours....

  18. Fast single-photon imager acquires 1024 pixels at 100 kframe/s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, Fabrizio; Tisa, Simone; Zappa, Franco

    2009-02-01

    We present the design and we discuss in depth the operating conditions of a two-dimensional (2-D) imaging array of single-photon detectors that provides a total of 1024 pixels, laid out in 32 rows by 32 columns array, integrated within a monolithic silicon chip with dimensions of 3.5 mm x 3.5 mm. We employed a standard high-voltage 0.35μm CMOS fabrication technology, with no need of any custom processing. Each pixel consists of one Single-Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) and a compact front-end analog electronics followed by a digital processing circuitry. The in-pixel front-end electronics senses the ignition of the avalanche, quenches the detector, provides a pulse and restores the detector for detecting a subsequent photon. The processing circuitry counts events (both photon and unwelcome "noise" ignition) within user-selectable integration time-slots and stores the count into an in-pixel memory cell, which is read-out in 10 ns/pixel. Such a two-levels pipeline architecture allows to acquire the actual frame while contemporary reading out the previous one, thus achieving a very high free-running frame rate, with negligible inter-frame dead-time. Each pixel is therefore a completely independent photon-counter. The measured Photo Detection Efficiency (PDE) tops 43% at 5V excess-bias, while the Dark-Counting Rate (DCR) is below 4kcps (counts per second) at room temperature. The maximum frame-rate depends on the system clock; with a convenient 100MHz system clock we achieved a free-running speed of 100 kframe/s from the all 1024 pixels.

  19. High-dimensional quantum key distribution with the entangled single-photon-added coherent state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yang [Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology Institute, Zhengzhou, 450001 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Bao, Wan-Su, E-mail: 2010thzz@sina.com [Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology Institute, Zhengzhou, 450001 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Bao, Hai-Ze; Zhou, Chun; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Li, Hong-Wei [Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology Institute, Zhengzhou, 450001 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2017-04-25

    High-dimensional quantum key distribution (HD-QKD) can generate more secure bits for one detection event so that it can achieve long distance key distribution with a high secret key capacity. In this Letter, we present a decoy state HD-QKD scheme with the entangled single-photon-added coherent state (ESPACS) source. We present two tight formulas to estimate the single-photon fraction of postselected events and Eve's Holevo information and derive lower bounds on the secret key capacity and the secret key rate of our protocol. We also present finite-key analysis for our protocol by using the Chernoff bound. Our numerical results show that our protocol using one decoy state can perform better than that of previous HD-QKD protocol with the spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) using two decoy states. Moreover, when considering finite resources, the advantage is more obvious. - Highlights: • Implement the single-photon-added coherent state source into the high-dimensional quantum key distribution. • Enhance both the secret key capacity and the secret key rate compared with previous schemes. • Show an excellent performance in view of statistical fluctuations.

  20. Realization of a Cascaded Quantum System: Heralded Absorption of a Single Photon Qubit by a Single-Electron Charged Quantum Dot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delteil, Aymeric; Sun, Zhe; Fält, Stefan; Imamoğlu, Atac

    2017-04-28

    Photonic losses pose a major limitation for the implementation of a quantum state transfer between nodes of a quantum network. A measurement that heralds a successful transfer without revealing any information about the qubit may alleviate this limitation. Here, we demonstrate the heralded absorption of a single photonic qubit, generated by a single neutral quantum dot, by a single-electron charged quantum dot that is located 5 m away. The transfer of quantum information to the spin degree of freedom takes place upon the emission of a photon; for a properly chosen or prepared quantum dot, the detection of this photon yields no information about the qubit. We show that this process can be combined with local operations optically performed on the destination node by measuring classical correlations between the absorbed photon color and the final state of the electron spin. Our work suggests alternative avenues for the realization of quantum information protocols based on cascaded quantum systems.

  1. Tunable single photonic defect-mode in cholesteric liquid crystals with laser-induced local modifications of helix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Lee, Chee Heng; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori

    2006-01-01

    The authors demonstrate a tunable single photonic defect-mode in a single cholesteric liquid crystal material based on a structural defect introduced by local modification of the helix. An unpolymerized region of cholesteric liquid crystal acting as the defect was left between two polymerized regions via a two-photon excitation laser-lithography process. Upon polymerization, the cholesteric liquid crystal helix elongated and became thermally stable, and a single photonic defect mode was exhibited due to the contrast in the helix pitch at the defect. The defect mode showed tunability upon heating, and a 36 nm redshift was seen over a temperature range of 30 deg. C

  2. Cross-correlated imaging of single-mode photonic crystal rod fiber with distributed mode filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurila, Marko; Barankov, Roman; Jørgensen, Mette Marie

    2013-01-01

    Photonic crystal bandgap fibers employing distributed mode filtering design provide near diffraction-limited light outputs, a critical property of fiber-based high-power lasers. Microstructure of the fibers is tailored to achieve single-mode operation at specific wavelength by resonant mode...... identify regimes of resonant coupling between higher-order core modes and cladding band. We demonstrate a passive fiber design in which the higher-order modal content inside the single-mode guiding regime is suppressed by at least 20 dB even for significantly misaligned input-coupling configurations....

  3. A wide spectral range single-photon avalanche diode fabricated in an advanced 180 nm CMOS technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandai, S.; Fishburn, M.W.; Maruyama, Y.; Charbon, E.

    2012-01-01

    We present a single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) with a wide spectral range fabricated in an advanced 180 nm CMOS process. The realized SPAD achieves 20 % photon detection probability (PDP) for wavelengths ranging from 440 nm to 820 nm at an excess bias of 4V, with 30 % PDP at wavelengths from 520

  4. High-Dimensional Single-Photon Quantum Gates: Concepts and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babazadeh, Amin; Erhard, Manuel; Wang, Feiran; Malik, Mehul; Nouroozi, Rahman; Krenn, Mario; Zeilinger, Anton

    2017-11-01

    Transformations on quantum states form a basic building block of every quantum information system. From photonic polarization to two-level atoms, complete sets of quantum gates for a variety of qubit systems are well known. For multilevel quantum systems beyond qubits, the situation is more challenging. The orbital angular momentum modes of photons comprise one such high-dimensional system for which generation and measurement techniques are well studied. However, arbitrary transformations for such quantum states are not known. Here we experimentally demonstrate a four-dimensional generalization of the Pauli X gate and all of its integer powers on single photons carrying orbital angular momentum. Together with the well-known Z gate, this forms the first complete set of high-dimensional quantum gates implemented experimentally. The concept of the X gate is based on independent access to quantum states with different parities and can thus be generalized to other photonic degrees of freedom and potentially also to other quantum systems.

  5. High-Dimensional Single-Photon Quantum Gates: Concepts and Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babazadeh, Amin; Erhard, Manuel; Wang, Feiran; Malik, Mehul; Nouroozi, Rahman; Krenn, Mario; Zeilinger, Anton

    2017-11-03

    Transformations on quantum states form a basic building block of every quantum information system. From photonic polarization to two-level atoms, complete sets of quantum gates for a variety of qubit systems are well known. For multilevel quantum systems beyond qubits, the situation is more challenging. The orbital angular momentum modes of photons comprise one such high-dimensional system for which generation and measurement techniques are well studied. However, arbitrary transformations for such quantum states are not known. Here we experimentally demonstrate a four-dimensional generalization of the Pauli X gate and all of its integer powers on single photons carrying orbital angular momentum. Together with the well-known Z gate, this forms the first complete set of high-dimensional quantum gates implemented experimentally. The concept of the X gate is based on independent access to quantum states with different parities and can thus be generalized to other photonic degrees of freedom and potentially also to other quantum systems.

  6. Compton-scatter tissue densitometry: calculation of single and multiple scatter photon fluences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battista, J.J.; Bronskill, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    The accurate measurement of in vivo electron densities by the Compton-scatter method is limited by attenuations and multiple scattering in the patient. Using analytic and Monte Carlo calculation methods, the Clarke tissue density scanner has been modelled for incident monoenergetic photon energies from 300 to 2000 keV and for mean scattering angles of 30 to 130 degrees. For a single detector focussed to a central position in a uniform water phantom (25 x 25 x 25 cm 3 ) it has been demonstrated that: (1) Multiple scatter contamination is an inherent limitation of the Compton-scatter method of densitometry which can be minimised, but not eliminated, by improving the energy resolution of the scattered radiation detector. (2) The choice of the incident photon energy is a compromise between the permissible radiation dose to the patient and the tolerable level of multiple scatter contamination. For a mean scattering angle of 40 degrees, the intrinsic multiple-single scatter ratio decreases from 64 to 35%, and the radiation dose (per measurement) increases from 1.0 to 4.1 rad, as the incident photon energy increases from 300 to 2000 keV. These doses apply to a sampled volume of approximately 0.3 cm 3 and an electron density precision of 0.5%. (3) The forward scatter densitometer configuration is optimum, minimising both the dose and the multiple scatter contamination. For an incident photon energy of 1250 keV, the intrinsic multiple-single scatter ratio reduces from 122 to 27%, and the dose reduces from 14.3 to 1.2 rad, as the mean scattering angle decreases from 130 to 30 degrees. These calculations have been confirmed by experimental measurements. (author)

  7. Investigations of high mobility single crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond for radiotherapy photon beam monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromson, D.; Descamps, C.; Tranchant, N.; Bergonzo, P.; Nesladek, M.; Isambert, A.

    2008-03-01

    The intrinsic properties of diamond make this material theoretically very suitable for applications in medical physics. Until now ionization chambers have been fabricated from natural stones and are commercialized by PTW, but their fairly high costs and long delivery times have often limited their use in hospital. The properties of commercialized intrinsic polycrystalline diamond were investigated in the past by many groups. The results were not completely satisfactory due to the nature of the polycrystalline material itself. In contrast, the recent progresses in the growth of high mobility single crystal synthetic diamonds prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique offer new alternatives. In the framework of the MAESTRO project (Methods and Advanced Treatments and Simulations for Radio Oncology), the CEA-LIST is studying the potentialities of synthetic diamond for new techniques of irradiation such as intensity modulated radiation therapy. In this paper, we present the growth and characteristics of single crystal diamond prepared at CEA-LIST in the framework of the NoRHDia project (Novel Radiation Hard CVD Diamond Detector for Hadrons Physics), as well as the investigations of high mobility single crystal CVD diamond for radiotherapy photon beam monitoring: dosimetric analysis performed with the single crystal diamond detector in terms of stability and repeatability of the response signal, signal to noise ratio, response speed, linearity of the signal versus the absorbed dose, and dose rate. The measurements performed with photon beams using radiotherapy facilities demonstrate that single crystal CVD diamond is a good alternative for air ionization chambers for beam quality control.

  8. Single-photon emission correlated to double-electron capture by bare ions: background processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkafrawy, T.; Warczak, A.; Simon, A.; Tanis, J. A.

    2013-09-01

    Radiative single- and double-electron capture are one-step processes where a single target electron or two target electrons, respectively, are captured to a bound state of a highly charged projectile with the simultaneous emission of a single photon. In ion-atom collisions, several background processes are likely to contribute to these processes and may interfere with the measured x-rays due to radiative single and double capture. In this study, possible contributions from radiative electron capture to the continuum, secondary electron bremsstrahlung, the two-step process of independent double radiative electron capture, as well as radiative- combined with nonradiative-electron capture are taken into account based on our analysis of the data for 2.21 MeV u-1 F9+ ions colliding with a thin carbon foil.

  9. DESIGN, PROTOTYPE AND MEASUREMENT OF A SINGLE-CELL DEFLECTING CAVITY FOR THE ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haipeng Wang, Guangfeng Cheng, Gianluigi Ciovati, Peter Kneisel, Robert Rimmer, Kai Tian, Larry Turlington, Alireza Nassiri, Geoff Waldschmidt

    2009-05-01

    After the design optimization of a squashed elliptical shape, single-cell, superconducting (SC) deflecting cavity at 2.815 GHz, a copper prototype has been bench measured to determine its rf properties and the effectiveness of waveguide damping of parasitic modes [1]. RF cold tests were also performed at 2K on niobium single-cell and two-cell prototype cavities. Details of impedance calculation using wakefiled analysis of the single-cell cavity are shown to meet the strict 200 mA beam stability requirement of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Lab where a total of 16 single-cell cavities will be divided into two cryomodule. The design of higher-order mode (HOM) waveguide damping, the simulations of the Lorenz force detuning, and the prototype of on-cell damping are presented.

  10. Measurement system of correlation functions of microwave single photon source in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenkov, A.; Dmitriev, A.; Astafiev, O.

    2018-02-01

    Several quantum setups, such as quantum key distribution networks[1] and quantum simulators (e.g. boson sampling), by their design rely on single photon sources (SPSs). These quantum setups were demonstrated to operate in optical frequency domain. However, following the steady advances in circuit quantum electrodynamics, a proposal has been made recently[2] to demonstrate boson sampling with microwave photons. This in turn requires the development of reliable microwave SPS. It's one of the most important characteristics are the first-order and the second-order correlation functions g1 and g2. The measurement technique of g1 and g2 is significantly different from that in the optical domain [3],[4] because of the current unavailability of microwave single-photon detectors. In particular, due to high levels of noise present in the system a substantial amount of statistics in needed to be acquired. This work presents a platform for measurement of g1 and g2 that processes the incoming data in real time, maximizing the efficiency of data acquisition. The use of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) electronics, common in similar experiments[3] but complex in programming, is avoided; instead, the calculations are performed on a standard desktop computer. The platform is used to perform the measurements of the first-order and the second-order correlation functions of the microwave SPS.

  11. Memory effect in gated single-photon avalanche diodes: a limiting noise contribution similar to afterpulsing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contini, D.; Dalla Mora, A.; Di Sieno, L.; Cubeddu, R.; Tosi, A.; Boso, G.; Pifferi, A.

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, emerging applications, such as diffuse optical imaging and spectroscopy (e.g., functional brain imaging and optical mammography), in which a wide dynamic range is crucial, have turned the interest towards Single-Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD). In these fields, the use of a fast-gated SPAD has proven to be a successful technique to increase the measurement sensitivity of different orders of magnitude. However, an unknown background noise has been observed at high illumination during the gate-OFF time, thus setting a limit to the maximum increase of the dynamic range. In this paper we describe this noise in thin-junction silicon single-photon avalanche diode when a large amount of photons reaches the gated detector during the OFF time preceding the enabling time. This memory effect increases the background noise with respect to primary dark count rate similarly to a classical afterpulsing process, but differently it is not related to a previous avalanche ignition in the detector. We discovered that memory effect increases linearly with the power of light impinging on the detector and it has an exponential trend with time constants far different from those of afterpulsing and independently of the bias voltage applied to the junction. For these reasons, the memory effect is not due to the same trapping states of afterpulsing and must be described as a different process.

  12. Identification of Intensity Ratio Break Points from Photon Arrival Trajectories in Ratiometric Single Molecule Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingemann, Dieter; Allen, Rachel M.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a statistical method to analyze dual-channel photon arrival trajectories from single molecule spectroscopy model-free to identify break points in the intensity ratio. Photons are binned with a short bin size to calculate the logarithm of the intensity ratio for each bin. Stochastic photon counting noise leads to a near-normal distribution of this logarithm and the standard student t-test is used to find statistically significant changes in this quantity. In stochastic simulations we determine the significance threshold for the t-test’s p-value at a given level of confidence. We test the method’s sensitivity and accuracy indicating that the analysis reliably locates break points with significant changes in the intensity ratio with little or no error in realistic trajectories with large numbers of small change points, while still identifying a large fraction of the frequent break points with small intensity changes. Based on these results we present an approach to estimate confidence intervals for the identified break point locations and recommend a bin size to choose for the analysis. The method proves powerful and reliable in the analysis of simulated and actual data of single molecule reorientation in a glassy matrix. PMID:22837704

  13. Single photon detection and signal analysis for high sensitivity dosimetry based on optically stimulated luminescence with beryllium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, J.; Sponner, J.; Jakobi, C.; Schneider, J.; Sommer, M.; Teichmann, T.; Ullrich, W.; Henniger, J.; Kormoll, T.

    2018-01-01

    Single photon detection applied to optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimetry is a promising approach due to the low level of luminescence light and the known statistical behavior of single photon events. Time resolved detection allows to apply a variety of different and independent data analysis methods. Furthermore, using amplitude modulated stimulation impresses time- and frequency information into the OSL light and therefore allows for additional means of analysis. Considering the impressed frequency information, data analysis by using Fourier transform algorithms or other digital filters can be used for separating the OSL signal from unwanted light or events generated by other phenomena. This potentially lowers the detection limits of low dose measurements and might improve the reproducibility and stability of obtained data. In this work, an OSL system based on a single photon detector, a fast and accurate stimulation unit and an FPGA is presented. Different analysis algorithms which are applied to the single photon data are discussed.

  14. Microwave photonic mixer based on a single bidirectional Mach-Zehnder modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Erwin H W

    2014-03-01

    A microwave photonic mixer based on a single electro-optic Mach-Zehnder intensity modulator operating in both directions is presented. In this mixer structure, the light from the optical source travels in opposite directions inside the modulator and is modulated by both the RF signal and the local oscillator (LO). The output optical spectrum comprises the RF signal and LO sidebands without the optical carrier. This enables a high conversion efficiency mixing operation to be obtained. The mixer has a simple structure, and its performance is insensitive to the modulator bias voltage; hence no DC bias voltage and no modulator bias controller are required to obtain robust high conversion efficiency mixing operation. Experimental results are presented showing large conversion efficiency improvement of 25.7 dB compared to the conventional dual Mach-Zehnder modulator-based microwave photonic mixer and a modulator bias insensitive mixing performance.

  15. An ultrafast NbN hot-electron single-photon detector for electronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipatov, A; Okunev, O; Smirnov, K; Chulkova, G; Korneev, A; Kouminov, P; Gol'tsman, G; Zhang, J; Slysz, W; Verevkin, A; Sobolewski, R

    2002-01-01

    We present the latest generation of our superconducting single-photon detector (SPD), which can work from ultraviolet to mid-infrared optical radiation wavelengths. The detector combines a high speed of operation and low jitter with high quantum efficiency (QE) and very low dark count level. The technology enhancement allows us to produce ultrathin (3.5 nm thick) structures that demonstrate QE hundreds of times better, at 1.55 μm, than previous 10 nm thick SPDs. The best, 10x10 μm 2 , SPDs demonstrate QE up to 5% at 1.55 μm and up to 11% at 0.86 μm. The intrinsic detector QE, normalized to the film absorption coefficient, reaches 100% at bias currents above 0.9 I c for photons with wavelengths shorter than 1.3 μm

  16. single photon emission tomography and positron emission tomography - Part 1 (October 2012), Part 2 (October 2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buvat, Irene

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this lecture is to present the single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and the positron emission tomography (PET) imaging techniques. Part 1 Content: 1 - Introduction: anatomic, functional and molecular imaging; 2 - Radiotracers: chemical and physical constraints, gamma photon emitters, positon emitters, radioisotopes production, emitters type and imaging techniques; 3 - Gamma cameras; 4 - Quantification in emission tomography: attenuation, scattering, un-stationary spatial resolution; 5 - Synthesis and conclusion. Part 2 content: 1 - Positon emitters; 2 - Positons detection: Coincidence detection (electronic collimation, PET detectors with gamma cameras, dedicated PET detectors, spectrometry); PET detectors type; time-of-flight PET; 2D PET; 3D PET; 3 - Quantification in emission tomography: detected events, attenuation, scattering, fortuitous coincidences, standardisation; 4 - Common SPECT and PET problems: partial volume effect, movement, tomographic reconstruction, calibration, dead time; 5 - Synthesis and conclusion

  17. Study of KS0 pair production in single-tag two-photon collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, M.; Uehara, S.; Watanabe, Y.; Adachi, I.; Ahn, J. K.; Aihara, H.; Al Said, S.; Asner, D. M.; Atmacan, H.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Ayad, R.; Babu, V.; Badhrees, I.; Bansal, V.; Behera, P.; Berger, M.; Bhardwaj, V.; Bhuyan, B.; Biswal, J.; Bondar, A.; Bonvicini, G.; Bozek, A.; Bračko, M.; Červenkov, D.; Chen, A.; Cheon, B. G.; Chilikin, K.; Cho, K.; Choi, Y.; Choudhury, S.; Cinabro, D.; Czank, T.; Dash, N.; Di Carlo, S.; Doležal, Z.; Drásal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Eidelman, S.; Epifanov, D.; Fast, J. E.; Ferber, T.; Fulsom, B. G.; Garg, R.; Gaur, V.; Gabyshev, N.; Garmash, A.; Gelb, M.; Giri, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Guido, E.; Haba, J.; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; Hedges, M. T.; Hou, W.-S.; Iijima, T.; Inami, K.; Inguglia, G.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, M.; Iwasaki, Y.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jaegle, I.; Jin, Y.; Joo, K. K.; Julius, T.; Kang, K. H.; Karyan, G.; Kawasaki, T.; Kichimi, H.; Kiesling, C.; Kim, D. Y.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, J. B.; Kim, K. T.; Kim, S. H.; Kodyš, P.; Kotchetkov, D.; Križan, P.; Kroeger, R.; Krokovny, P.; Kulasiri, R.; Kuzmin, A.; Kwon, Y.-J.; Lee, I. S.; Lee, S. C.; Li, L. K.; Li, Y.; Li Gioi, L.; Libby, J.; Liventsev, D.; Lubej, M.; Luo, T.; Matsuda, T.; Matvienko, D.; Merola, M.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyata, H.; Mizuk, R.; Mohanty, G. B.; Moon, H. K.; Mori, T.; Mussa, R.; Nakao, M.; Nakazawa, H.; Nanut, T.; Nath, K. J.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nayak, M.; Niiyama, M.; Nisar, N. K.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, S.; Okuno, S.; Ono, H.; Onuki, Y.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Pal, B.; Park, H.; Paul, S.; Pedlar, T. K.; Pestotnik, R.; Piilonen, L. E.; Ritter, M.; Rostomyan, A.; Russo, G.; Sakai, Y.; Salehi, M.; Sandilya, S.; Santelj, L.; Sanuki, T.; Savinov, V.; Schneider, O.; Schnell, G.; Schwanda, C.; Seidl, R.; Seino, Y.; Senyo, K.; Seon, O.; Sevior, M. E.; Shebalin, V.; Shen, C. P.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shimizu, N.; Shiu, J.-G.; Shwartz, B.; Sokolov, A.; Solovieva, E.; Starič, M.; Strube, J. F.; Sumihama, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Takizawa, M.; Tamponi, U.; Tanida, K.; Tenchini, F.; Teramoto, Y.; Uchida, M.; Uglov, T.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Urquijo, P.; Van Hulse, C.; Varner, G.; Vinokurova, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Vossen, A.; Wang, B.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.-Z.; Wang, P.; Wang, X. L.; Watanabe, M.; Widmann, E.; Won, E.; Ye, H.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yusa, Y.; Zakharov, S.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zhukova, V.; Zhulanov, V.; Zupanc, A.; Belle Collaboration

    2018-03-01

    We report a measurement of the cross section for KS0 pair production in single-tag two-photon collisions, γ*γ →KS0KS0, for Q2 up to 30 GeV2 , where Q2 is the negative of the invariant mass squared of the tagged photon. The measurement covers the kinematic range 1.0 GeV total energy and kaon scattering angle, respectively, in the γ*γ center-of-mass system. These results are based on a data sample of 759 fb-1 collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+e- collider. For the first time, the transition form factor of the f2'(1525 ) meson is measured separately for the helicity-0, -1, and -2 components and also compared with theoretical calculations. We have derived the cross section for the process for W total.

  18. Picosecond UV single photon detectors with lateral drift field: Concept and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakimov, M.; Oktyabrsky, S.; Murat, P.

    2015-09-01

    Group III–V semiconductor materials are being considered as a Si replacement for advanced logic devices for quite some time. Advances in III–V processing technologies, such as interface and surface passivation, large area deep submicron lithography with high-aspect ratio etching primarily driven by the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor development can also be used for other applications. In this paper we will focus on photodetectors with the drift field parallel to the surface. We compare the proposed concept to the state-of-the-art Si-based technology and discuss requirements which need to be satisfied for such detectors to be used in a single photon counting mode in blue and ultraviolet spectral region with about 10 ps photon timing resolution essential for numerous applications ranging from high-energy physics to medical imaging.

  19. Virtual Campus Hub: A single sign-on system for cross-border collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Vercoulen, F.; Monaco, L.

    2013-01-01

    Four technical universities in Europe work together in the EU-funded project Virtual Campus Hub (FP7 RI-283746, www.virtualcampushub.eu) to lower the technical barriers for cross-border collaboration. Universities have many connections to the outside world (e.g. to other universities, to joint...... the applications used there. The objective of Virtual Campus Hub is to use state-of-the-art European e-Infrastructures (Géant) in combination with federated authentication to establish a single sign-on system between universities. A pilot environment, which links applications from the four partner universities...... to European e-Infrastructures relies upon the National Research and Education Networks (NRENs) which are not geared towards commercial enterprises at present. A range of applications for online teaching and collaboration has been developed as part of the Virtual Campus Hub project. These include remote...

  20. Performance assessment of the single photon emission microscope: high spatial resolution SPECT imaging of small animal organs

    OpenAIRE

    Mejia, J.; Reis, M.A.; Miranda, A.C.C.; Batista, I.R.; Barboza, M.R.F.; Shih, M.C.; Fu, G.; Chen, C.T.; Meng, L.J.; Bressan, R.A.; Amaro Jr, E.

    2013-01-01

    The single photon emission microscope (SPEM) is an instrument developed to obtain high spatial resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images of small structures inside the mouse brain. SPEM consists of two independent imaging devices, which combine a multipinhole collimator, a high-resolution, thallium-doped cesium iodide [CsI(Tl)] columnar scintillator, a demagnifying/intensifier tube, and an electron-multiplying charge-coupling device (CCD). Collimators have 300- and ...

  1. A single source microwave photonic filter using a novel single-mode fiber to multimode fiber coupling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, John; Fok, Mable P; Meister, James; Prucnal, Paul R

    2013-03-11

    In this paper we present a fully tunable and reconfigurable single-laser multi-tap microwave photonic FIR filter that utilizes a special SM-to-MM combiner to sum the taps. The filter requires only a single laser source for all the taps and a passive component, a SM-to-MM combiner, for incoherent summing of signal. The SM-to-MM combiner does not produce optical interference during signal merging and is phase-insensitive. We experimentally demonstrate an eight-tap filter with both positive and negative programmable coefficients with excellent correspondence between predicted and measured values. The magnitude response shows a clean and accurate function across the entire bandwidth, and proves successful operation of the FIR filter using a SM-to-MM combiner.

  2. Analysis of single-photon time resolution of FBK silicon photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acerbi, Fabio; Ferri, Alessandro; Gola, Alberto; Zorzi, Nicola; Piemonte, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    We characterized and analyzed an important feature of silicon photomultipliers: the single-photon time resolution (SPTR). We characterized the SPTR of new RGB (Red–Green–Blue) type Silicon Photomultipliers and SPADs produced at FBK (Trento, Italy), studying its main limiting factors. We compared time resolution of 1×1 mm 2 and 3×3 mm 2 SiPMs and a single SiPM cell (i.e. a SPAD with integrated passive-quenching), employing a mode-locked pulsed laser with 2-ps wide pulses. We estimated the contribution of front-end electronic-noise, of cell-to-cell uniformity, and intrinsic cell time-resolution. At a single-cell level, we compared the results obtained with different layouts. With a circular cell with a top metallization covering part of the edge and enhancing the signal extraction, we reached ~20 ps FWHM of time resolution

  3. Analysis of single-photon time resolution of FBK silicon photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acerbi, Fabio, E-mail: acerbi@fbk.eu; Ferri, Alessandro; Gola, Alberto; Zorzi, Nicola; Piemonte, Claudio

    2015-07-01

    We characterized and analyzed an important feature of silicon photomultipliers: the single-photon time resolution (SPTR). We characterized the SPTR of new RGB (Red–Green–Blue) type Silicon Photomultipliers and SPADs produced at FBK (Trento, Italy), studying its main limiting factors. We compared time resolution of 1×1 mm{sup 2} and 3×3 mm{sup 2} SiPMs and a single SiPM cell (i.e. a SPAD with integrated passive-quenching), employing a mode-locked pulsed laser with 2-ps wide pulses. We estimated the contribution of front-end electronic-noise, of cell-to-cell uniformity, and intrinsic cell time-resolution. At a single-cell level, we compared the results obtained with different layouts. With a circular cell with a top metallization covering part of the edge and enhancing the signal extraction, we reached ~20 ps FWHM of time resolution.

  4. Spectrum of single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography findings in patients with parathyroid adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Dhritiman; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Harisankar, Chidambaram Natrajan Balasubramanian; Bhattacharya, Anish; Bhadada, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism results from excessive parathyroid hormone secretion. Approximately 85% of all cases of primary hyperparathyroidism are caused by a single parathyroid adenoma; 10-15% of the cases are caused by parathyroid hyperplasia. Parathyroid carcinoma accounts for approximately 3-4% of cases of primary disease. Technetium-99m-sestamibi (MIBI), the current scintigraphic procedure of choice for preoperative parathyroid localization, can be performed in various ways. The "single-isotope, double-phase technique" is based on the fact that MIBI washes out more rapidly from the thyroid than from abnormal parathyroid tissue. However, not all parathyroid lesions retain MIBI and not all thyroid tissue washes out quickly, and subtraction imaging is helpful. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides information for localizing parathyroid lesions, differentiating thyroid from parathyroid lesions, and detecting and localizing ectopic parathyroid lesions. Addition of CT with SPECT improves the sensitivity. This pictorial assay demonstrates various SPECT/CT patterns observed in parathyroid scintigraphy.

  5. Geiger-mode APD camera system for single-photon 3D LADAR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, Mark; Itzler, Mark A.; Chen, Jim; Owens, Mark; Patel, Ketan; Jiang, Xudong; Slomkowski, Krystyna; Rangwala, Sabbir

    2012-06-01

    The unparalleled sensitivity of 3D LADAR imaging sensors based on single photon detection provides substantial benefits for imaging at long stand-off distances and minimizing laser pulse energy requirements. To obtain 3D LADAR images with single photon sensitivity, we have demonstrated focal plane arrays (FPAs) based on InGaAsP Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GmAPDs) optimized for use at either 1.06 μm or 1.55 μm. These state-of-the-art FPAs exhibit excellent pixel-level performance and the capability for 100% pixel yield on a 32 x 32 format. To realize the full potential of these FPAs, we have recently developed an integrated camera system providing turnkey operation based on FPGA control. This system implementation enables the extremely high frame-rate capability of the GmAPD FPA, and frame rates in excess of 250 kHz (for 0.4 μs range gates) can be accommodated using an industry-standard CameraLink interface in full configuration. Real-time data streaming for continuous acquisition of 2 μs range gate point cloud data with 13-bit time-stamp resolution at 186 kHz frame rates has been established using multiple solid-state storage drives. Range gate durations spanning 4 ns to 10 μs provide broad operational flexibility. The camera also provides real-time signal processing in the form of multi-frame gray-scale contrast images and single-frame time-stamp histograms, and automated bias control has been implemented to maintain a constant photon detection efficiency in the presence of ambient temperature changes. A comprehensive graphical user interface has been developed to provide complete camera control using a simple serial command set, and this command set supports highly flexible end-user customization.

  6. Brain receptor single-photon emission computer tomography with 123I Datscan in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minchev, D.; Peshev, N.; Kostadinova, I.; Grigorova, O.; Trindev, P.; Shotekov, P.

    2005-01-01

    Clinical aspects of Parkinson's disease are not enough for the early diagnosis of the disease. Positron emission tomography and the receptor single - photon emission tomography can be used for imaging functional integrity of nigrostriatal dopaminergic structures. 24 patient (17 men and 7 women) were investigated. 20 of them are with Parkinson's disease and 4 are with essential tremor. The radiopharmaceutical - 123I-Datscan (ioflupane, bind with 123I) represent a cocaine analogue with selective affinity to dopamine transporters, located in the dopaminergic nigrostriatal terminals in the striatum. Single - photon emission computer tomography was performed with SPECT gamma camera (ADAC, SH Epic detector). The scintigraphic study was made 3 to 6 hours after intravenous injection of the radiopharmaceutical - 123I- Datscan in dose 185 MBq. 120 frames are registered with duration of each one 22 seconds and gamma camera rotation 360. After generation of transversal slices we generated two composites pictures. The first composite picture image the striatum, the second - the occipital region. Two ratios were calculated representing the uptake of the radiopharmaceutical in the left and right striatum. Qualitative and quantitative criteria were elaborated for evaluating the scintigraphic patterns. Decreased, nonhomogeneous and asymmetric uptake of the radiopharmaceutical coupled with low quantitative parameters in range from 1.44 to 2.87 represents the characteristic scintigraphic pattern for Parkinson's disease with clear clinical picture. Homogenous with high intensity and symmetric uptake of the radiopharmaceutical in the striatum coupled with his clear frontier and with quantitative parameters up to 4.40 represent the scintigraphic pattern in two patients with essential tremor. Receptor single - photon emission computer tomography with 123I - Datscan represents an accurate nuclear-medicine method for precise diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and for its differentiation from

  7. Cryptic iridescence in a fossil weevil generated by single diamond photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria E; Saranathan, Vinod; Locatelli, Emma R; Noh, Heeso; Briggs, Derek E G; Orr, Patrick J; Cao, Hui

    2014-11-06

    Nature's most spectacular colours originate in integumentary tissue architectures that scatter light via nanoscale modulations of the refractive index. The most intricate biophotonic nanostructures are three-dimensional crystals with opal, single diamond or single gyroid lattices. Despite intense interest in their optical and structural properties, the evolution of such nanostructures is poorly understood, due in part to a lack of data from the fossil record. Here, we report preservation of single diamond (Fd-3m) three-dimensional photonic crystals in scales of a 735,000 year old specimen of the brown Nearctic weevil Hypera diversipunctata from Gold Run, Canada, and in extant conspecifics. The preserved red to green structural colours exhibit near-field brilliancy yet are inconspicuous from afar; they most likely had cryptic functions in substrate matching. The discovery of pristine fossil examples indicates that the fossil record is likely to yield further data on the evolution of three-dimensional photonic nanostructures and their biological functions. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Disentangling subpopulations in single-molecule FRET and ALEX experiments with photon distribution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomov, Toma E; Tsukanov, Roman; Masoud, Rula; Liber, Miran; Plavner, Noa; Nir, Eyal

    2012-03-07

    Among the advantages of the single-molecule approach when used to study biomolecular structural dynamics and interaction is its ability to distinguish between and independently observe minor subpopulations. In a single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and alternating laser excitation diffusion experiment, the various populations are apparent in the resultant histograms. However, because histograms are calculated based on the per-burst mean FRET and stoichiometry ratio and not on the internal photon distribution, much of the acquired information is lost, thereby reducing the capabilities of the method. Here we suggest what to our knowledge is a novel statistical analysis tool that significantly enhances these capabilities, and we use it to identify and isolate static and dynamic subpopulations. Based on a kernel density estimator and a proper photon distribution analysis, for each individual burst, we calculate scores that reflect properties of interest. Specifically, we determine the FRET efficiency and brightness ratio distributions and use them to reveal 1), the underlying structure of a two-state DNA-hairpin and a DNA hairpin that is bound to DNA origami; 2), a minor doubly labeled dsDNA subpopulation concealed in a larger singly labeled dsDNA; and 3), functioning DNA origami motors concealed within a larger subpopulation of defective motors. Altogether, these findings demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed approach. The method was developed and tested using simulations, its rationality is described, and a computer algorithm is provided. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Single photon image from PET with insertable collimator for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jooyoung; Suh, Tae Suk; Hong, Key Jo

    2014-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a radiation therapy technique for treating deep-seated brain tumors by irradiation with a thermal neutron in which boron-labelled low molecular weight compounds. Once completed, a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan is conducted to investigate for the region of therapy using an isotope exclusive to SPECT. In the case of an existing PET/SPECT combination system, at least two types of isotopes should be used for each scan with their purposes. Recently, researchers examined the effects of PET/SPECT dual modality on animal imaging systems. They reported that the PET/SPECT combination system was effective for simultaneous achievement of a single event and coincidence. The aim of our proposed system is to confirm the feasibility of extraction of two types of images from one PET module with an insertable collimator for brain tumor treatment during the BNCT. We attempted to acquire the PET and SPECT images simultaneously using only PET without an additional isotope. Single photon images were acquired using an insertable collimator on a PET detector

  10. Single photon emitters in boron nitride: More than a supplementary material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koperski, M.; Nogajewski, K.; Potemski, M.

    2018-03-01

    We present comprehensive optical studies of recently discovered single photon sources in boron nitride, which appear in form of narrow lines emitting centres. Here, we aim to compactly characterise their basic optical properties, including the demonstration of several novel findings, in order to inspire discussion about their origin and utility. Initial inspection reveals the presence of narrow emission lines in boron nitride powder and exfoliated flakes of hexagonal boron nitride deposited on Si/SiO2 substrates. Generally rather stable, the boron nitride emitters constitute a good quality visible light source. However, as briefly discussed, certain specimens reveal a peculiar type of blinking effects, which are likely related to existence of meta-stable electronic states. More advanced characterisation of representative stable emitting centres uncovers a strong dependence of the emission intensity on the energy and polarisation of excitation. On this basis, we speculate that rather strict excitation selectivity is an important factor determining the character of the emission spectra, which allows the observation of single and well-isolated emitters. Finally, we investigate the properties of the emitting centres in varying external conditions. Quite surprisingly, it is found that the application of a magnetic field introduces no change in the emission spectra of boron nitride emitters. Further analysis of the impact of temperature on the emission spectra and the features seen in second-order correlation functions is used to provide an assessment of the potential functionality of boron nitride emitters as single photon sources capable of room temperature operation.

  11. Control of single photon emitters in semiconductor nanowires by surface acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazić, S.; Hernández-Mínguez, A.; Santos, P. V.

    2017-08-01

    We report on an experimental study into the effects of surface acoustic waves on the optical emission of dot-in-a-nanowire heterostructures in III-V material systems. Under direct optical excitation, the excitonic energy levels in III-nitride dot-in-a-nanowire heterostructures oscillate at the acoustic frequency, producing a characteristic splitting of the emission lines in the time-integrated photoluminescence spectra. This acoustically induced periodic tuning of the excitonic transition energies is combined with spectral detection filtering and employed as a tool to regulate the temporal output of anti-bunched photons emitted from these nanowire quantum dots. In addition, the acoustic transport of electrons and holes along a III-arsenide nanowire injects the electric charges into an ensemble of quantum dot-like recombination centers that are spatially separated from the optical excitation area. The acoustic population and depopulation mechanism determines the number of carrier recombination events taking place simultaneously in the ensemble, thus allowing control of the anti-bunching degree of the emitted photons. The results presented are relevant for the dynamic control of single photon emission in III-V semiconductor heterostructures.

  12. Structure, function, and self-assembly of single network gyroid (I4132) photonic crystals in butterfly wing scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Osuji, Chinedum O.; Mochrie, Simon G. J.; Noh, Heeso; Narayanan, Suresh; Sandy, Alec; Dufresne, Eric R.; Prum, Richard O.

    2010-01-01

    Complex three-dimensional biophotonic nanostructures produce the vivid structural colors of many butterfly wing scales, but their exact nanoscale organization is uncertain. We used small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) on single scales to characterize the 3D photonic nanostructures of five butterfly species from two families (Papilionidae, Lycaenidae). We identify these chitin and air nanostructures as single network gyroid (I4132) photonic crystals. We describe their optical function from SAXS data and photonic band-gap modeling. Butterflies apparently grow these gyroid nanostructures by exploiting the self-organizing physical dynamics of biological lipid-bilayer membranes. These butterfly photonic nanostructures initially develop within scale cells as a core-shell double gyroid (Ia3d), as seen in block-copolymer systems, with a pentacontinuous volume comprised of extracellular space, cell plasma membrane, cellular cytoplasm, smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) membrane, and intra-SER lumen. This double gyroid nanostructure is subsequently transformed into a single gyroid network through the deposition of chitin in the extracellular space and the degeneration of the rest of the cell. The butterflies develop the thermodynamically favored double gyroid precursors as a route to the optically more efficient single gyroid nanostructures. Current approaches to photonic crystal engineering also aim to produce single gyroid motifs. The biologically derived photonic nanostructures characterized here may offer a convenient template for producing optical devices based on biomimicry or direct dielectric infiltration. PMID:20547870

  13. Single-mode ytterbium-doped large-mode-area photonic bandgap rod fiber amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Scolari, Lara; Broeng, Jes

    2011-01-01

    Enabling Single-Mode (SM) operation in Large-Mode-Area (LMA) fiber amplifiers and lasers is critical, since a SM output ensures high beam quality and excellent pointing stability. In this paper, we demonstrate and test a new design approach for achieving SM LMA rod fibers by using a photonic...... bandgap structure. The structure allows resonant coupling of higher-order modes from the core and acts as a spatially Distributed Mode Filter (DMF). With this approach, we demonstrate passive SM performance in an only ~50cm long and straight ytterbium-doped rod fiber. The amplifier has a mode field...

  14. Widely tunable single-bandpass microwave photonic filter employing a non-sliced broadband optical source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiaoxiao; Zheng, Xiaoping; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhou, Bingkun

    2011-09-12

    We demonstrate a novel microwave photonic filter based on a non-coherent broadband optical source and the variable optical carrier time shift (VOCTS) method. Optical slicing which is essential conventionally is not employed in our scheme. Nevertheless, equivalent "electrical slicing" is performed by VOCTS, generating a passband free from the carrier-suppression effect. The baseband response is eliminated by using carrier-suppression or phase modulation. Single bandpass is also achieved due to the continuous-time sinusoidal impulse response. Detailed theoretical analyses are presented and agree with the experiments quite well.

  15. Bronchobiliary Fistula Localized by Cholescintigraphy with Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artunduaga, Maddy; Patel, Niraj R.; Wendt, Julie A.; Guy, Elizabeth S.; Nachiappan, Arun C.

    2015-01-01

    Biliptysis is an important clinical feature to recognize as it is associated with bronchobiliary fistula, a rare entity. Bronchobiliary fistulas have been diagnosed with planar cholescintigraphy. However, cholescintigraphy with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can better spatially localize a bronchobiliary fistula as compared to planar cholescintigraphy alone, and is useful for preoperative planning if surgical treatment is required. Here, we present the case of a 23-year-old male who developed a bronchobiliary fistula in the setting of posttraumatic and postsurgical infection, which was diagnosed and localized by cholescintigraphy with SPECT

  16. Search for new phenomena using single photon events in the DELPHI detector at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Agasi, E; Ajinenko, I; Aleksan, Roy; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barate, R; Barbi, M S; Barbiellini, Guido; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Blyth, S; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Bosworth, S; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brillault, L; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Buys, A; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerrito, L; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Chauveau, J; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contreras, J L; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Dönszelmann, M; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Dufour, Y; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Ershaidat, N; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrer, A; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gerdyukov, L N; Gibbs, M; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Gumenyuk, S A; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hao, W; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khokhlov, Yu A; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Korcyl, K; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Kramer, P H; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamblot, S; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Last, I; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemoigne, Y; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Lokajícek, M; Loken, J G; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Maio, A; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Maron, T; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Merk, M; Meroni, C; Meyer, S; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Petrovykh, M; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Pindo, M; Plaszczynski, S; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Prest, M; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Rybicki, K; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schimmelpfennig, M; Schneider, H; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Siccama, I; Siegrist, P; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Solovyanov, O; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zuberi, R; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G; Charpentier, Ph; Gavillet, Ph

    1997-01-01

    Data are presented on the reaction \\epem~\\into~\\gamma + no other detected particle at center-of-mass energies, \\sqs = 89.48 GeV, 91.26 GeV and 93.08 GeV. The cross section for this reaction is related directly to the number of light neutrino generations which couple to the \\zz boson, and to several other phenomena such as excited neutrinos, the production of an invisible `X' particle, a possible magnetic moment of the tau neutrino, and neutral monojets. Based on the observed number of single photon events, the number of light neutrinos which couple to the \\zz is measured to be N_\

  17. Single-Photon Emission Computerized Tomography (SPECT in Neuropsychiatry: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Puri

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Cranial single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT or SPET can now give regional cerebral blood flow images with a resolution approaching that of positron emission tomography (PET. In this paper, the use of high resolution SPECT neuroimaging in neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, multi-infarct dementia, Pick's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, Korsakoff's psychosis, Creutzfeld-Jakob disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, schizophrenia, mood disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, HIV infection and AIDS is reviewed. Finally, further potential research and clinical uses, based on ligand studies, are outlined.

  18. Single photon timing resolution and detection efficiency of the IRST silicon photo-multipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collazuol, G.; Ambrosi, G.; Boscardin, M.; Corsi, F.; Dalla Betta, G.F.; Del Guerra, A.; Dinu, N.; Galimberti, M.; Giulietti, D.; Gizzi, L.A.; Labate, L.; Llosa, G.; Marcatili, S.; Morsani, F.; Piemonte, C.; Pozza, A.; Zaccarelli, L.; Zorzi, N.

    2007-01-01

    Silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM) consist in matrices of tiny, passive quenched avalanche photo-diode cells connected in parallel via integrated resistors and operated in Geiger mode. Novel types of SiPM are being developed at FBK-IRST (Trento, Italy). Despite their classical shallow junction n-on-p structure the devices are unique in their enhanced photo-detection efficiency (PDE) for short-wavelengths and in their low level of dark rate and excess noise factor. After a summary of the extensive SiPM characterization we will focus on the study of PDE and the single photon timing resolution

  19. Painful spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis studied by radiography and single-photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, B.D.; Johnson, R.P.; Carrera, G.F.

    1985-01-01

    Planar bone scintigraphy (PBS) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were compared in 19 adults with radiographic evidence of spondylolysis and/or spondylolisthesis. SPECT was more sensitive than PBS when used to identify symptomatic patients and sites of painful defects in the pars interarticularis. In addition, SPECT allowed more accurate localization than PBS. In 6 patients, spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis was unrealted to low back pain, and SPECT images of the posterior neural arch were normal. The authors conclude that when spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis is the cause of low back pain, pars defects are frequently heralded by increased scintigraphic activity which is best detected and localized by SPECT

  20. Painful spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis studied by radiography and single-photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collier, B.D.; Johnson, R.P.; Carrera, G.F.; Meyer, G.A.; Schwab, J.P.; Flatley, T.J.; Isitman, A.T.; Hellman, R.S.; Zielonka, J.S.; Knobel, J.

    1985-01-01

    Planar bone scintigraphy (PBS) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were compared in 19 adults with radiographic evidence of spondylolysis and/or spondylolisthesis. SPECT was more sensitive than PBS when used to identify symptomatic patients and sites of painful defects in the pars interarticularis. In addition, SPECT allowed more accurate localization than PBS. In 6 patients, spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis was unrealted to low back pain, and SPECT images of the posterior neural arch were normal. The authors conclude that when spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis is the cause of low back pain, pars defects are frequently heralded by increased scintigraphic activity which is best detected and localized by SPECT.

  1. Single-photon emission CT in the assessment of low back pain in young athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.T.; Lagatutta, F.P.; Lazarus, M.L.; Faulkner, T.J.; Nolan, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Fifty-two teenage and young adult athletes (ages 12-24 years) with low back pain (LBP) underwent routine lumbar radiography and bone scintigraphy including planar and single-photon CT and SPECT imaging. This paper illustrates the significant limitations of routine radiography and the importance of SPECT bone scintigraphy in evaluating young athletes with LBP and suspected spondylolysis; the increased sensitivity and specificity of SPECT compared to planar scintigraphy in the diagnosis of spondylolysis; and the potential utility of follow-up SPECT studies in evaluating success of therapy in athletes with initially positive diagnostic indicators for spondylolysis or impending spondylolysis

  2. High-fidelity teleportation of continuous-variable quantum States using delocalized single photons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik L; Ralph, Timothy C

    2013-01-01

    Traditional continuous-variable teleportation can only approach unit fidelity in the limit of an infinite (and unphysical) amount of squeezing. We describe a new method for continuous-variable teleportation that approaches unit fidelity with finite resources. The protocol is not based on squeezed...... states as in traditional teleportation but on an ensemble of single photon entangled states. We characterize the teleportation scheme with coherent states, mesoscopic superposition states, and two-mode squeezed states and we find several situations in which near-unity teleportation fidelity can...

  3. Photon-HDF5: Open Data Format and Computational Tools for Timestamp-based Single-Molecule Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingargiola, Antonino; Laurence, Ted; Boutelle, Robert; Weiss, Shimon; Michalet, Xavier

    2016-02-13

    Archival of experimental data in public databases has increasingly become a requirement for most funding agencies and journals. These data-sharing policies have the potential to maximize data reuse, and to enable confirmatory as well as novel studies. However, the lack of standard data formats can severely hinder data reuse. In photon-counting-based single-molecule fluorescence experiments, data is stored in a variety of vendor-specific or even setup-specific (custom) file formats, making data interchange prohibitively laborious, unless the same hardware-software combination is used. Moreover, the number of available techniques and setup configurations make it difficult to find a common standard. To address this problem, we developed Photon-HDF5 (www.photon-hdf5.org), an open data format for timestamp-based single-molecule fluorescence experiments. Building on the solid foundation of HDF5, Photon-HDF5 provides a platform- and language-independent, easy-to-use file format that is self-describing and supports rich metadata. Photon-HDF5 supports different types of measurements by separating raw data (e.g. photon-timestamps, detectors, etc) from measurement metadata. This approach allows representing several measurement types and setup configurations within the same core structure and makes possible extending the format in backward-compatible way. Complementing the format specifications, we provide open source software to create and convert Photon-HDF5 files, together with code examples in multiple languages showing how to read Photon-HDF5 files. Photon-HDF5 allows sharing data in a format suitable for long term archival, avoiding the effort to document custom binary formats and increasing interoperability with different analysis software. We encourage participation of the single-molecule community to extend interoperability and to help defining future versions of Photon-HDF5.

  4. Progress Toward Single-Photon-Level Nonlinear Optics in Crystalline Microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowligy, Abijith S.

    Over the last two decades, the emergence of quantum information science has uncovered many practical applications in areas such as communications, imaging, and sensing where harnessing quantum features of Nature provides tremendous benefits over existing methods exploiting classical physical phenomena. In this effort, one of the frontiers of research has been to identify and utilize quantum phenomena that are not susceptible to environmental and parasitic noise processes. Quantum photonics has been at the forefront of these studies because it allows room-temperature access to its inherently quantum-mechanical features, and allows leveraging the mature telecommunication industry. Accompanying the weak environmental influence, however, are also weak optical nonlinearities. Efficient nonlinear optical interactions are indispensible for many of the existing protocols for quantum optical computation and communication, e.g. high-fidelity entangling quantum logic gates rely on large nonlinear responses at the one- or few-photon-level. While this has been addressed to a great extent by interfacing photons with single quantum emitters and cold atomic gases, scalability has remained elusive. In this work, we identify the macroscopic second-order nonlinear polarization as a robust platform to address this challenge, and utilize the recent advances in the burgeoning field of optical microcavities to enhance this nonlinear response. In particular, we show theoretically that by using the quantum Zeno effect, low-noise, single-photon-level optical nonlinearities can be realized in lithium niobate whispering-gallery-mode microcavities, and present experimental progress toward this goal. Using the measured strength of the second-order nonlinear response in lithium niobate, we modeled the nonlinear system in the strong coupling regime using the Schrodinger picture framework and theoretically demonstrated that the single-photon-level operation can be observed for cavity lifetimes in

  5. Wide-field time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) microscopy with time resolution below the frame exposure time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvonen, Liisa M. [Department of Physics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Petrášek, Zdeněk [Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Department of Cellular and Molecular Biophysics, Am Klopferspitz 18, D-82152 Martinsried (Germany); Suhling, Klaus, E-mail: klaus.suhling@kcl.ac.uk [Department of Physics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    Fast frame rate CMOS cameras in combination with photon counting intensifiers can be used for fluorescence imaging with single photon sensitivity at kHz frame rates. We show here how the phosphor decay of the image intensifier can be exploited for accurate timing of photon arrival well below the camera exposure time. This is achieved by taking ratios of the intensity of the photon events in two subsequent frames, and effectively allows wide-field TCSPC. This technique was used for measuring decays of ruthenium compound Ru(dpp) with lifetimes as low as 1 μs with 18.5 μs frame exposure time, including in living HeLa cells, using around 0.1 μW excitation power. We speculate that by using an image intensifier with a faster phosphor decay to match a higher camera frame rate, photon arrival time measurements on the nanosecond time scale could well be possible.

  6. Large-sub(pT) production of single and double photons in proton-proton and pion-proton collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.L.; Argonne National Lab., IL; Braaten, E.; Field, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    Quantum chromodynamic (QCD) predictions are made for the large transverse momentum production of single and double photons in proton-proton, proton-antiproton, and pion-proton collisions. In π - p collisions at center-of-mass energy W=27.4 GeV and psub(T)=4.0 GeV, it is estimated that about 0.3% of the 90 0 single photon triggers will be balanced on the 'away-side' by a single photon with roughly the same transverse momentum. In π + p collisions this fraction drops to about 0.09%. These fractions increase with psub(T). In addition to the pure QED annihilation term qanti q -> γγ, it is found that the QCD-induced subprocess gg -> γγ provides an important source of double photons. Photon bremsstrahlung contributions are also examined. Experimental study of the systematics of single and double photon production in hadron-hadron collisions will provide information on the size of the strong interaction coupling constant, αsub(s)(Q), and on the charges of the quarks. Knowledge of the gluon distributions within hadrons and of the effective transverse momentum of partons in hadrons can also be gained. (orig.)

  7. Scanning, Multibeam, Single Photon Lidars for Rapid, Large Scale, High Resolution, Topographic and Bathymetric Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Degnan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Several scanning, single photon sensitive, 3D imaging lidars are herein described that operate at aircraft above ground levels (AGLs between 1 and 11 km, and speeds in excess of 200 knots. With 100 beamlets and laser fire rates up to 60 kHz, we, at the Sigma Space Corporation (Lanham, MD, USA, have interrogated up to 6 million ground pixels per second, all of which can record multiple returns from volumetric scatterers such as tree canopies. High range resolution has been achieved through the use of subnanosecond laser pulsewidths, detectors and timing receivers. The systems are presently being deployed on a variety of aircraft to demonstrate their utility in multiple applications including large scale surveying, bathymetry, forestry, etc. Efficient noise filters, suitable for near realtime imaging, have been shown to effectively eliminate the solar background during daytime operations. Geolocation elevation errors measured to date are at the subdecimeter level. Key differences between our Single Photon Lidars, and competing Geiger Mode lidars are also discussed.

  8. The effect of scattering on single photon transmission of optical angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, D L

    2011-01-01

    Schemes for the communication and registration of optical angular momentum depend on the fidelity of transmission between optical system components. It is known that electron spin can be faithfully relayed between exciton states in quantum dots; it has also been shown by several theoretical and experimental studies that the use of beams conveying orbital angular momentum can significantly extend the density and efficiency of such information transfer. However, it remains unclear to what extent the operation of such a concept at the single photon level is practicable—especially where this involves optical propagation through a material system, in which forward scattering events can intervene. The possibility of transmitting and decoding angular momentum over nanoscale distances itself raises other important issues associated with near-field interrogation. This paper provides a framework to address these and related issues. A quantum electrodynamical representation is constructed and used to pursue the consequences of individual photons, from a Laguerre–Gaussian beam, undergoing single and multiple scattering events in the course of propagation. In this context, issues concerning orbital angular momentum conservation, and its possible compromise, are tackled by identifying the relevant components of the electromagnetic scattering and coupling tensors, using an irreducible Cartesian basis. The physical interpretation broadly supports the fidelity of quantum information transmission, but it also identifies potential limitations of principle

  9. The effect of scattering on single photon transmission of optical angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D. L.

    2011-06-01

    Schemes for the communication and registration of optical angular momentum depend on the fidelity of transmission between optical system components. It is known that electron spin can be faithfully relayed between exciton states in quantum dots; it has also been shown by several theoretical and experimental studies that the use of beams conveying orbital angular momentum can significantly extend the density and efficiency of such information transfer. However, it remains unclear to what extent the operation of such a concept at the single photon level is practicable—especially where this involves optical propagation through a material system, in which forward scattering events can intervene. The possibility of transmitting and decoding angular momentum over nanoscale distances itself raises other important issues associated with near-field interrogation. This paper provides a framework to address these and related issues. A quantum electrodynamical representation is constructed and used to pursue the consequences of individual photons, from a Laguerre-Gaussian beam, undergoing single and multiple scattering events in the course of propagation. In this context, issues concerning orbital angular momentum conservation, and its possible compromise, are tackled by identifying the relevant components of the electromagnetic scattering and coupling tensors, using an irreducible Cartesian basis. The physical interpretation broadly supports the fidelity of quantum information transmission, but it also identifies potential limitations of principle.

  10. 32-channel time-correlated-single-photon-counting system for high-throughput lifetime imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peronio, P; Labanca, I; Acconcia, G; Ruggeri, A; Lavdas, A A; Hicks, A A; Pramstaller, P P; Ghioni, M; Rech, I

    2017-08-01

    Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) is a very efficient technique for measuring weak and fast optical signals, but it is mainly limited by the relatively "long" measurement time. Multichannel systems have been developed in recent years aiming to overcome this limitation by managing several detectors or TCSPC devices in parallel. Nevertheless, if we look at state-of-the-art systems, there is still a strong trade-off between the parallelism level and performance: the higher the number of channels, the poorer the performance. In 2013, we presented a complete and compact 32 × 1 TCSPC system, composed of an array of 32 single-photon avalanche diodes connected to 32 time-to-amplitude converters, which showed that it was possible to overcome the existing trade-off. In this paper, we present an evolution of the previous work that is conceived for high-throughput fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. This application can be addressed by the new system thanks to a centralized logic, fast data management and an interface to a microscope. The new conceived hardware structure is presented, as well as the firmware developed to manage the operation of the module. Finally, preliminary results, obtained from the practical application of the technology, are shown to validate the developed system.

  11. 32-channel time-correlated-single-photon-counting system for high-throughput lifetime imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peronio, P.; Labanca, I.; Acconcia, G.; Ruggeri, A.; Lavdas, A. A.; Hicks, A. A.; Pramstaller, P. P.; Ghioni, M.; Rech, I.

    2017-08-01

    Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) is a very efficient technique for measuring weak and fast optical signals, but it is mainly limited by the relatively "long" measurement time. Multichannel systems have been developed in recent years aiming to overcome this limitation by managing several detectors or TCSPC devices in parallel. Nevertheless, if we look at state-of-the-art systems, there is still a strong trade-off between the parallelism level and performance: the higher the number of channels, the poorer the performance. In 2013, we presented a complete and compact 32 × 1 TCSPC system, composed of an array of 32 single-photon avalanche diodes connected to 32 time-to-amplitude converters, which showed that it was possible to overcome the existing trade-off. In this paper, we present an evolution of the previous work that is conceived for high-throughput fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. This application can be addressed by the new system thanks to a centralized logic, fast data management and an interface to a microscope. The new conceived hardware structure is presented, as well as the firmware developed to manage the operation of the module. Finally, preliminary results, obtained from the practical application of the technology, are shown to validate the developed system.

  12. Cooperative single-photon subradiant states in a three-dimensional atomic array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jen, H.H., E-mail: sappyjen@gmail.com

    2016-11-15

    We propose a complete superradiant and subradiant states that can be manipulated and prepared in a three-dimensional atomic array. These subradiant states can be realized by absorbing a single photon and imprinting the spatially-dependent phases on the atomic system. We find that the collective decay rates and associated cooperative Lamb shifts are highly dependent on the phases we manage to imprint, and the subradiant state of long lifetime can be found for various lattice spacings and atom numbers. We also investigate both optically thin and thick atomic arrays, which can serve for systematic studies of super- and sub-radiance. Our proposal offers an alternative scheme for quantum memory of light in a three-dimensional array of two-level atoms, which is applicable and potentially advantageous in quantum information processing. - Highlights: • Cooperative single-photon subradiant states in a three-dimensional atomic array. • Subradiant state manipulation via spatially-increasing phase imprinting. • Quantum storage of light in the subradiant state in two-level atoms.

  13. Design and Characterization of 64K Pixels Chips Working in Single Photon Processing Mode

    CERN Document Server

    Llopart Cudie, Xavier; Campbell, M

    2007-01-01

    Progress in CMOS technology and in fine pitch bump bonding has made possible the development of high granularity single photon counting detectors for X-ray imaging. This thesis studies the design and characterization of three pulse processing chips with 65536 square pixels of 55 µm x 55 µm designed in a commercial 0.25 µm 6-metal CMOS technology. The 3 chips share the same architecture and dimensions and are named Medipix2, Mpix2MXR20 and Timepix. The Medipix2 chip is a pixel detector readout chip consisting of 256 x 256 identical elements, each working in single photon counting mode for positive or negative input charge signals. The preamplifier feedback provides compensation for detector leakage current on a pixel by pixel basis. Two identical pulse height discriminators are used to define an energy window. Every event falling inside the energy window is counted with a 13 bit pseudo-random counter. The counter logic, based in a shift register, also behaves as the input/output register for the pixel. Each...

  14. Single photon and multiphoton events with missing energy in $e^{+} e^{-}$ collisions at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2004-01-01

    Single- and multi-photon events with missing energy are selected in 619/pb of data collected by the L3 detector at LEP at centre-of-mass energies between 189GeV and 209GeV. The cross sections of the process e^+e^- -> nu nu gamma (gamma) are found to be in agreement with the Standard Model expectations, and the number of light neutrino species is determined, including lower energy data, to be N_nu = 2.98 +/- 0.05 +/- 0.04. Selection results are also given in the form of tables which can be used to test future models involving single- and multi-photon signatures at LEP. These final states are also predicted by models with large extra dimensions and by several supersymmetric models. No evidence for such models is found. Among others, lower limits between 1.5TeV and 0.65TeV are set, at 95% confidence level, on the new scale of gravity for the number of extra dimensions between 2 and 8.

  15. Analysis of single photon detection in avalanche photodetectors with multi-gain-stage multiplication region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Amir; Zavvari, Mahdi

    2017-02-20

    We report the design and analysis of a single photon avalanche detector (SPAD) with cascaded multiplication stages with asymmetric gain series for near-IR applications. The asymmetric gain profile allows us to selectively enhance the ionization coefficient for injected electrons and suppress the hole-initiated ionization by repetition of high and low field layers. The low field layer acts as a carrier relaxation region, which inhibits avalanche feedback between stages; hence, it is expected to have a lower dark count rate (DCR). The gain stage consists of three distinct layers with different electric fields, which can be adjusted by geometrical and mole fraction design. In this paper we study the effect of these layers' field and thickness on the single photon quantum efficiency (SPQE) and DCR of the proposed SPAD. Our results show that the high-field layer can better influence the performance of the detector rather than the others. In comparison with a conventional SPAD with a uniform multiplication region, our proposed structure shows lower DCR for a same SPQE.

  16. High-efficiency integrated readout circuit for single photon avalanche diode arrays in fluorescence lifetime imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acconcia, G.; Cominelli, A.; Rech, I.; Ghioni, M.

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, lifetime measurements by means of the Time Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) technique have led to a significant breakthrough in medical and biological fields. Unfortunately, the many advantages of TCSPC-based approaches come along with the major drawback of a relatively long acquisition time. The exploitation of multiple channels in parallel could in principle mitigate this issue, and at the same time it opens the way to a multi-parameter analysis of the optical signals, e.g., as a function of wavelength or spatial coordinates. The TCSPC multichannel solutions proposed so far, though, suffer from a tradeoff between number of channels and performance, and the overall measurement speed has not been increased according to the number of channels, thus reducing the advantages of having a multichannel system. In this paper, we present a novel readout architecture for bi-dimensional, high-density Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) arrays, specifically designed to maximize the throughput of the whole system and able to guarantee an efficient use of resources. The core of the system is a routing logic that can provide a dynamic connection between a large number of SPAD detectors and a much lower number of high-performance acquisition channels. A key feature of our smart router is its ability to guarantee high efficiency under any operating condition.

  17. DE-BLURRING SINGLE PHOTON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IMAGES USING WAVELET DECOMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neethu M. Sasi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Single photon emission computed tomography imaging is a popular nuclear medicine imaging technique which generates images by detecting radiations emitted by radioactive isotopes injected in the human body. Scattering of these emitted radiations introduces blur in this type of images. This paper proposes an image processing technique to enhance cardiac single photon emission computed tomography images by reducing the blur in the image. The algorithm works in two main stages. In the first stage a maximum likelihood estimate of the point spread function and the true image is obtained. In the second stage Lucy Richardson algorithm is applied on the selected wavelet coefficients of the true image estimate. The significant contribution of this paper is that processing of images is done in the wavelet domain. Pre-filtering is also done as a sub stage to avoid unwanted ringing effects. Real cardiac images are used for the quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the algorithm. Blur metric, peak signal to noise ratio and Tenengrad criterion are used as quantitative measures. Comparison against other existing de-blurring algorithms is also done. The simulation results indicate that the proposed method effectively reduces blur present in the image.

  18. Strong exciton-photon coupling in organic single crystal microcavity with high molecular orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Kaname [Department of Electronics, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Yamashita, Kenichi, E-mail: yamasita@kit.ac.jp [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Yanagi, Hisao [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST), 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Yamao, Takeshi; Hotta, Shu [Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan)

    2016-08-08

    Strong exciton-photon coupling has been observed in a highly oriented organic single crystal microcavity. This microcavity consists of a thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer (TPCO) single crystal laminated on a high-reflection distributed Bragg reflector. In the TPCO crystal, molecular transition dipole was strongly polarized along a certain horizontal directions with respect to the main crystal plane. This dipole polarization causes significantly large anisotropies in the exciton transition and optical constants. Especially the anisotropic exciton transition was found to provide the strong enhancement in the coupling with the cavity mode, which was demonstrated by a Rabi splitting energy as large as ∼100 meV even in the “half-vertical cavity surface emitting lasing” microcavity structure.

  19. Strong field line shapes and photon statistics from a single molecule under anomalous noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanda, Frantisek

    2009-10-01

    We revisit the line-shape theory of a single molecule with anomalous stochastic spectral diffusion. Waiting time profiles for bath induced spectral jumps in the ground and excited states become different when a molecule, probed by continuous-wave laser field, reaches the steady state. This effect is studied for the stationary dichotomic continuous-time-random-walk spectral diffusion of a single two-level chromophore with power-law distributions of waiting times. Correlated waiting time distributions, line shapes, two-point fluorescence correlation function, and Mandel Q parameter are calculated for arbitrary magnitude of laser field. We extended previous weak field results and examined the breakdown of the central limit theorem in photon statistics, indicated by asymptotic power-law growth of Mandel Q parameter. Frequency profile of the Mandel Q parameter identifies the peaks of spectrum, which are related to anomalous spectral diffusion dynamics.

  20. Extremely low-loss single-mode photonic crystal fiber in the terahertz regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Raonaqul; Hasanuzzaman, G. K M; Sadath, Md Anwar

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an updated design and numerical characterization of a rotated porous-core hexagonal photonic crystal fiber (PCF) for single-mode terahertz (THz) wave guidance. The simulation results are found using an efficient finite element method (FEM) which show a better and ultra......-low effective absorption loss of 0.045 cm-1 at 1 THz and a more flattened dispersion of 0.74±0.07ps/THz/cm in a wider bandwidth (0.54-1.36 THz) than the previously reported results. Besides, the single-mode region has been extended up to 1.74 THz (previously up to 1.3 THz) which is advantageous for wideband THz...

  1. Highly reconfigurable microwave photonic single-bandpass filter with complex continuous-time impulse responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiaoxiao; Zheng, Xiaoping; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhou, Bingkun

    2012-11-19

    We propose a novel structure of complex-tap microwave photonic filter (MPF) employing an incoherent broadband optical source (BOS) and a programmable optical spectrum processor. By tailoring the optical spectral amplitude and phase, arbitrary complex continuous-time impulse responses of the MPF can be constructed. Frequency responses with a single flat-top, highly chirped, or arbitrary-shape passband are demonstrated, respectively. The passband center can also be tuned in a wide range only limited by the opto-electrical devices. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first demonstration of an incoherent-BOS-based MPF which is single-bandpass, widely tunable, and highly reconfigurable with complex taps.

  2. Microwave photonic single-passband filter with highly flexible tunability of bandwidth and frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enming; Han, Xiuyou

    2017-01-01

    A microwave photonic single-passband filter with highly flexible tunability of bandwidth and frequency is proposed and demonstrated. Two different light waves with their polarizations aligned with two principal axes of a polarization modulator are modulated, and two phase-modulated signals with opposite phase modulation indices are generated. Two different lower parts of the lower sidebands are removed by a fiber Bragg grating to convert two phase-modulated signals into two intensity-modulated signals. Two high-pass frequency responses with different cut-off frequencies are realized. Since the two converted intensity-modulated signals are out of phase, the overlapped frequency responses are cancelled, and a single-passband filter is realized. The bandwidth and the central frequency can be tuned independently by properly adjusting the two wavelengths simultaneously. Furthermore, both the bandwidth and the central frequency can be simultaneously tuned by adjusting one of the two wavelengths.

  3. A direct measurement of the invisible width of the Z from single photon counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskulic, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Ariztizabal, F.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Mattison, T.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Pasual, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Quattromini, M.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Chai, Y.; Hu, H.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, R.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Blucher, E.; Bonvicini, G.; Boudreau, J.; Casper, D.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Ganis, G.; Gay, C.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Hilgart, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Lohse, T.; Maggi, M.; Markou, C.; Martinez, M.; Mato, P.; Meinhard, H.; Minten, A.; Miotto, A.; Miquel, R.; Moser, H.-G.; Palazzi, P.; Pater, J. R.; Perlas, J. A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Redlinger, G.; Rolandi, L.; Rothberg, J.; Ruan, T.; Saich, M.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Sefkow, F.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Veenhof, R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wasserbaech, S.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Atjaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; El Fellous, R.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Prulhière, F.; Saadi, F.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Badier, J.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Fouque, G.; Orteu, S.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Focardi, E.; Moneta, L.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Ikeda, M.; Levinthal, D.; Antonelli, A.; Baldini, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; D'Ettorre-Piazzoli, B.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Picchi, P.; Colrain, P.; Ten Have, I.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Smith, M. G.; Thompson, A. S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Brandl, B.; Braun, O.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Maumary, Y.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Stahl, A.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Greene, A. M.; Hassard, J. F.; Lieske, N. M.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Patton, S.; Payne, D. G.; Phillips, M. J.; San Martin, G.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Wright, A. G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Vogl, R.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Petl, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Steeg, F.; Walther, S. M.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, B.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Drinkard, J.; Etienne, F.; Nicod, D.; Papalexiou, S.; Payre, P.; Roos, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schwemling, P.; Talby, M.; Adlung, S.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Cattaneo, P.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Frank, M.; Halley, A. W.; Jakobs, K.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Richter, R.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stielin, U.; Stiegler, U.; St. Denis, R.; Wolf, G.; Alemany, R.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jaffe, D. E.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Schune, M.-H.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zhang, Z.; Abbaneo, D.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Mannelli, E. B.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Sanguinetti, G.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Valassi, A.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; March, P. V.; Mir, Ll. M.; Medcalf, T.; Quazi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; West, L. R.; Botteril, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Duarte, H.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Wear, J.; Ashman, J. G.; Babbage, W.; Booth, C. N.; Buttar, C.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Dawson, I.; Thompson, L. F.; Barberio, E.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Rivera, F.; Schäfer, U.; Smolik, L.; Bosisio, L.; della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Ragusa, F.; Bellatoni, L.; Chen, W.; Conway, J. S.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Nachtman, J. M.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I.; Sharma, V.; Shi, Z. H.; Turk, J. D.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; Sau, Lan, Wu; Wu, X.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.

    1993-09-01

    The ALEPH detector at LEP is used to study single photon events in e+e- collisions at the Z resonance. In a total data sample of 15.7 pb-1 taken in 1990 and 1991 scanning the resonance, 400 events were recorded where each has a single deposition of more than 1.5 GeV measured in the polar angular region cosθγ < 0.74 of the electromagnetic calorimeter. It is shown that this number of events cab be accounted for by known processes. After subtraction of background events, the invisible width of the Z is determined to be 45 +/- 34(stat.) +/- 34(syst.) MeV. Using Z. resonance parameters derived by ALEPH, the corresponding number oflight neutrino generations is found to be 2.68 +/- 0.20(stat.) +/- 0.20(syst.). Supported by the US Department of Energy, contract DE-ACO2-76ER00881.

  4. Self-aligned multi-channel superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Risheng; Guo, Xiang; Ma, Xiaosong; Fan, Linran; Fong, King Y; Poot, Menno; Tang, Hong X

    2016-11-28

    We describe a micromachining process to allow back-side coupling of an array of single-mode telecommunication fibers to individual superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs). This approach enables a back-illuminated detector structure which separates the optical access and electrical readout on two sides of the chip and thus allows for compact integration of multi-channel detectors. As proof of principle, we show the integration of four detectors on the same silicon chip with two different designs and their performances are compared. In the optimized design, the device shows saturated system detection efficiency of 16% while the dark count rate is less than 20 Hz, all achieved without the use of metal reflectors or distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs). This back-illumination approach also eliminates the cross-talk between different detection channels.

  5. A multichannel single-photon sensitive detector for high-energy physics: the megapixel EBCCD

    CERN Document Server

    Benussi, L; Frekers, D; Frenkel, A; Giannini, G; Golovkin, S V; Kozarenko, E N; Kreslo, I E; Liberti, B; Martellotti, G; Medvedkov, A M; Mondardini, M R; Penso, G; Polizzi, A; Santacesaria, R; Santini, G; Spinetti, M; Vilain, P; Votano, L; Wilquet, G; Winter, Klaus

    2000-01-01

    We present a study of the characteristics of a hybrid image intensifier tube based on a thinned backside Electron Bombarded CCD (EBCCD) with better performance in spatial resolution, single photoelectron detection and gain stability than the conventional intensified systems based on a Micro Channel Plate followed by a CCD. Single photon detection sensitivity has been studied and a procedure to correct the gain non-uniformity of the EBCCD has been developed. The EBCCD, operating at 14 kV, has an average gain of approx 3000 electrons/photoelectron and a noise of the order of 100 electron/pixel. These characteristics make the EBCCD a very attractive device for many applications in high-energy physics, astrophysics and biomedicine. A possible application in a neutrino oscillation experiment is presented.

  6. Time-over-threshold readout to enhance the high flux capabilities of single-photon-counting detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergamaschi, Anna; Dinapoli, Roberto; Greiffenberg, Dominic; Henrich, Beat; Johnson, Ian; Mozzanica, Aldo; Radicci, Valeria; Schmitt, Bernd; Shi, Xintian; Stoppani, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The MYTHEN photon-counting ASIC operated in time-over-threshold mode shows an innovative approach towards the development of a detector operating with very high photon intensities while maintaining the single-photon sensitivity for synchrotron radiation experiments. The MYTHEN single-photon-counting (SPC) detector has been characterized using the time-over-threshold (ToT) readout method, i.e. measuring the time that the signal produced by the detected X-rays remains above the comparator threshold. In the following it is shown that the ToT readout preserves the sensitivity, dynamic range and capability of background suppression of the SPC mode, while enhancing the count-rate capability, which is the main limitation of state-of-the-art SPC systems

  7. Time-over-threshold readout to enhance the high flux capabilities of single-photon-counting detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamaschi, Anna, E-mail: anna.bergamaschi@psi.ch; Dinapoli, Roberto; Greiffenberg, Dominic; Henrich, Beat; Johnson, Ian; Mozzanica, Aldo; Radicci, Valeria; Schmitt, Bernd; Shi, Xintian; Stoppani, Laura [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2011-11-01

    The MYTHEN photon-counting ASIC operated in time-over-threshold mode shows an innovative approach towards the development of a detector operating with very high photon intensities while maintaining the single-photon sensitivity for synchrotron radiation experiments. The MYTHEN single-photon-counting (SPC) detector has been characterized using the time-over-threshold (ToT) readout method, i.e. measuring the time that the signal produced by the detected X-rays remains above the comparator threshold. In the following it is shown that the ToT readout preserves the sensitivity, dynamic range and capability of background suppression of the SPC mode, while enhancing the count-rate capability, which is the main limitation of state-of-the-art SPC systems.

  8. Coupling of single nitrogen-vacancy defect centers in diamond nanocrystals to optical antennas and photonic crystal cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolters, Janik; Kewes, Guenter; Schell, Andreas W.; Aichele, Thomas; Benson, Oliver [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, Berlin (Germany); Nuesse, Nils; Schoengen, Max; Loechel, Bernd [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Hanke, Tobias; Leitenstorfer, Alfred [Department of Physics and Center for Applied Photonics, Universitaet Konstanz, Konstanz (Germany); Bratschitsch, Rudolf [Department of Physics and Center for Applied Photonics, Universitaet Konstanz, Konstanz (Germany); Technische Universitaet Chemnitz, Institut fuer Physik, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    We demonstrate the ability to modify the emission properties and enhance the interaction strength of single-photon emitters coupled to nanophotonic structures based on metals and dielectrics. Assembly of individual diamond nanocrystals, metal nanoparticles, and photonic crystal cavities to meta-structures is introduced. Experiments concerning controlled coupling of single defect centers in nanodiamonds to optical nanoantennas made of gold bowtie structures are reviewed. By placing one and the same emitter at various locations with high precision, a map of decay rate enhancements was obtained. Furthermore, we demonstrate the formation of a hybrid cavity quantum electrodynamics system in which a single defect center is coupled to a single mode of a gallium phosphite photonic crystal cavity. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Ultrabright and efficient single-photon generation based on nitrogen-vacancy centres in nanodiamonds on a solid immersion lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Tim; Gaedeke, Friedemann; Banholzer, Moritz Julian; Benson, Oliver, E-mail: tim.schroeder@physik.hu-berlin.de [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, AG Nano Optics Newtonstrasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Single photons are fundamental elements for quantum information technologies such as quantum cryptography, quantum information storage and optical quantum computing. Colour centres in diamond have proven to be stable single-photon sources and thus essential components for reliable and integrated quantum information technology. A key requirement for such applications is a large photon flux and a high efficiency. Paying tribute to various attempts to maximize the single-photon flux, we show that collection efficiencies of photons from colour centres can be increased with a rather simple experimental setup. To do so, we spin-coated nanodiamonds containing single nitrogen-vacancy (N-V) colour centres on the flat surface of a ZrO{sub 2} solid immersion lens. We found stable single-photon count rates of up to 853 kcts s{sup -1} at saturation under continuous wave excitation while having access to more than 100 defect centres with count rates from 400 to 500 kcts s{sup -1}. For a blinking defect centre, we found count rates up to 2.4 Mcts s{sup -1} for time intervals of several tens of seconds. It seems to be a general feature that very high rates are accompanied by blinking behaviour. The overall collection efficiency of our setup of up to 4.2% is the highest yet reported for N-V defect centres in diamond. Under pulsed excitation of a stable emitter of 10 MHz, 2.2% of all pulses caused a click on the detector adding to 221 kcts s{sup -1} thus, opening the way towards diamond-based on-demand single-photon sources for quantum applications.

  10. Storage and retrieval of THz-bandwidth single photons using a room-temperature diamond quantum memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Duncan G; Fisher, Kent A G; MacLean, Jean-Philippe W; Bustard, Philip J; Lausten, Rune; Resch, Kevin J; Sussman, Benjamin J

    2015-02-06

    We report the storage and retrieval of single photons, via a quantum memory, in the optical phonons of a room-temperature bulk diamond. The THz-bandwidth heralded photons are generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion and mapped to phonons via a Raman transition, stored for a variable delay, and released on demand. The second-order correlation of the memory output is g((2))(0)=0.65±0.07, demonstrating a preservation of nonclassical photon statistics throughout storage and retrieval. The memory is low noise, high speed and broadly tunable; it therefore promises to be a versatile light-matter interface for local quantum processing applications.

  11. 3D dual-virtual-pinhole assisted single particle tracking microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ye; Wang, Yifan; Zhou, Xin; Kuang, Cuifang; Liu, Xu

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel approach for high-speed, three-dimensional single particle tracking (SPT), which we refer to as dual-virtual-pinhole assisted single particle tracking microscopy (DVPaSPTM). DVPaSPTM system can obtain axial information of the sample without optical or mechanical depth scanning, so as to offer numbers of advantages including faster imaging, improved efficiency and a great reduction of photobleaching and phototoxicity. In addition, by the use of the dual-virtual-pinhole, the effect that the quantum yield exerts to the fluorescent signal can be eliminated, which makes the measurement independent of the surroundings and increases the accuracy of the result. DVPaSPTM system measures the intensity within different virtual pinholes of which the radii are given by the host computer. Axial information of fluorophores can be measured by the axial response curve through the ratio of intensity signals. We demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed method by a series of experiments. Results showed that the standard deviation of the axial measurement was 19.2 nm over a 2.5 μm range with 30 ms temporal resolution. (papers)

  12. Position dependent optical coupling between single quantum dots and photonic crystal nanocavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuruma, K.; Takamiya, D. [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Ota, Y.; Kakuda, M. [Institute of Nano Quantum Information Electronics, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Iwamoto, S.; Arakawa, Y. [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Institute of Nano Quantum Information Electronics, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    We demonstrate precise and quick detection of the positions of quantum dots (QDs) embedded in two-dimensional photonic crystal nanocavities. We apply this technique to investigate the QD position dependence of the optical coupling between the QD and the nanocavity. We use a scanning electron microscope (SEM) operating at a low acceleration voltage to detect surface bumps induced by the QDs buried underneath. This enables QD detection with a sub-10 nm precision. We then experimentally measure the vacuum Rabi spectra to extract the optical coupling strengths (gs) between single QDs and cavities, and compare them to the values estimated by a combination of the SEM-measured QD positions and electromagnetic cavity field simulations. We found a highly linear relationship between the local cavity field intensities and the QD-cavity gs, suggesting the validity of the point dipole approximation used in the estimation of the gs. The estimation using SEM has a small standard deviation of ±6.2%, which potentially enables the high accuracy prediction of g prior to optical measurements. Our technique will play a key role for deeply understanding the interaction between QDs and photonic nanostructures and for advancing QD-based cavity quantum electrodynamics.

  13. Improvement on image quality of single photon ECT with converging collimator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Hideo; Nohara, Norimasa; Tanaka, Eiichi

    1986-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with converging collimator system was proposed to improve quality of reconstructed images. The collimator system was designed to enhance sensitivity at the center region of field-of-view, where the probability photons escape the attenuating medium is smaller than at the off-center region. In order to evaluate efficiency of the improvement on image quality, the weighting function of projection, which is defined as relative sensitivity to the average on the lateral sampling of projection, was adopted to the image reconstruction algorithm of Radial Post Correction method. Statistical mean square noise in a reconstructed image was formulated in this method. Simulation studies using typical weighting function showed that center-enhanced weighting function brings effective improvement on image quality, especially, at the center region of cold area surrounded by annularly distributed activity. A new SPECT system was proposed as one example of the converging collimator systems. The system is composed of four gamma cameras with four fan-beam collimators, which have different focal distances one another. Simple simulation studies showed that the proposed system has reasonable center-enhanced weighting function, and the image quality based on the proposed system was fairly improved as compared with one based on uniform weighting function at the center region of the field-of-view. (author)

  14. Ultra-wideband microwave photonic frequency downconverter based on carrier-suppressed single-sideband modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunxin; Li, Jingnan; Wang, Dayong; Zhou, Tao; Xu, Jiahao; Zhong, Xin; Yang, Dengcai; Rong, Lu

    2018-03-01

    An ultra-wideband microwave photonic frequency downconverter is proposed based on carrier-suppressed single-sideband (CS-SSB) modulation. A radio frequency (RF) signal and a local oscillator (LO) signal are combined to drive a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DPMZM) through the electrical 90°hybrid coupler. To break through the bandwidth limit, an optical bandpass filter (OBPF) is applied simultaneously. Then a photodetector (PD) after OBPF is used to obtain intermediate frequency (IF) signal. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed frequency downconverter can generate the CS-SSB modulation signal from 2 to 40 GHz in optical spectrum. All the mixing spurs are completely suppressed under the noise floor in electrical spectrum, and the output IF signal possesses high purity with a suppression ratio of the undesired signals (≥40 dB). Furthermore, the multi-octave downconversion can also be implemented to satisfy the bandwidth requirement of multi-channel communication. The proposed frequency downconverter supplies an ultra-wideband and high-purity alternative for the signal processing in microwave photonic applications.

  15. Fully differential single-photon double ionization of neon and argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Frank; Martin, Fernando; Rescigno, Thomas; McCurdy, C.

    2013-05-01

    Double photoionization of neon and argon differ significantly from helium in that three different final state couplings of the residual double ion (1 S , 1 D , and 3 P) are possible and greatly impact the observed angular distributions, but the multi-electron nature of such targets makes ab initio theoretical treatments of this correlated process a challenge. Triply differential cross sections (TDCS) have been calculated for single photon double ionization of these heavier rare gases at various photon energies by utilizing an expanded frozen-core treatment to represent the remaining N - 2 target electrons of the residual ion. The resulting angular distributions are compared with and show significant agreement with existing experimental data. Work supported by U. S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231, by the MICINN Projects No. FIS2010-15127, No. ACI2008-0777,No. CSD 2007-00010, and ERC Advanced Grant 290853.

  16. Single-Photon Avalanche Diode with Enhanced NIR-Sensitivity for Automotive LIDAR Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Isamu; Matsubara, Hiroyuki; Soga, Mineki; Ohta, Mitsuhiko; Ogawa, Masaru; Yamashita, Tatsuya

    2016-03-30

    A single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) with enhanced near-infrared (NIR) sensitivity has been developed, based on 0.18 μm CMOS technology, for use in future automotive light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems. The newly proposed SPAD operating in Geiger mode achieves a high NIR photon detection efficiency (PDE) without compromising the fill factor (FF) and a low breakdown voltage of approximately 20.5 V. These properties are obtained by employing two custom layers that are designed to provide a full-depletion layer with a high electric field profile. Experimental evaluation of the proposed SPAD reveals an FF of 33.1% and a PDE of 19.4% at 870 nm, which is the laser wavelength of our LIDAR system. The dark count rate (DCR) measurements shows that DCR levels of the proposed SPAD have a small effect on the ranging performance, even if the worst DCR (12.7 kcps) SPAD among the test samples is used. Furthermore, with an eye toward vehicle installations, the DCR is measured over a wide temperature range of 25-132 °C. The ranging experiment demonstrates that target distances are successfully measured in the distance range of 50-180 cm.

  17. Single-Photon Avalanche Diode with Enhanced NIR-Sensitivity for Automotive LIDAR Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isamu Takai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD with enhanced near-infrared (NIR sensitivity has been developed, based on 0.18 μm CMOS technology, for use in future automotive light detection and ranging (LIDAR systems. The newly proposed SPAD operating in Geiger mode achieves a high NIR photon detection efficiency (PDE without compromising the fill factor (FF and a low breakdown voltage of approximately 20.5 V. These properties are obtained by employing two custom layers that are designed to provide a full-depletion layer with a high electric field profile. Experimental evaluation of the proposed SPAD reveals an FF of 33.1% and a PDE of 19.4% at 870 nm, which is the laser wavelength of our LIDAR system. The dark count rate (DCR measurements shows that DCR levels of the proposed SPAD have a small effect on the ranging performance, even if the worst DCR (12.7 kcps SPAD among the test samples is used. Furthermore, with an eye toward vehicle installations, the DCR is measured over a wide temperature range of 25–132 °C. The ranging experiment demonstrates that target distances are successfully measured in the distance range of 50–180 cm.

  18. Performance trade-offs in single-photon avalanche diode miniaturization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Hod; Hsu, Mark J.; Zlatanovic, Sanja; Esener, Sadik

    2007-10-01

    Single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) provide photons' time of arrival for various applications. In recent years, attempts have been made to miniaturize SPADs in order to facilitate large-array integration and in order to reduce the dead time of the device. We investigate the benefits and drawbacks of device miniaturization by characterizing a new fast SPAD in a commercial 0.18μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The device employs a novel and efficient guard ring, resulting in a high fill factor. Thanks to its small size, the dead time is only 5ns, resulting in the fastest reported SPAD to date. However, the short dead time is accompanied by a high after-pulsing rate, which we show to be a limiting parameter for SPAD miniaturization. We describe a new and compact active-recharge scheme which improves signal-to-noise tenfold compared with the passive configuration, using a fraction of the area of state-of-the-art active-recharge circuits, and without increasing the dead time. The performance of compact SPADs stands to benefit such applications as high-resolution fluorescence-lifetime imaging, active-illumination three-dimensional imagers, and quantum key distribution systems.

  19. An x-ray-based capsule for colorectal cancer screening incorporating single photon counting technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, Ronen; Kimchy, Yoav; Gelbard, Nir; Leibushor, Avi; Golan, Oleg; Elgali, Avner; Hassoon, Salah; Kaplan, Max; Smirnov, Michael; Shpigelman, Boaz; Bar-Ilan, Omer; Rubin, Daniel; Ovadia, Alex

    2017-03-01

    An ingestible capsule for colorectal cancer screening, based on ionizing-radiation imaging, has been developed and is in advanced stages of system stabilization and clinical evaluation. The imaging principle allows future patients using this technology to avoid bowel cleansing, and to continue the normal life routine during procedure. The Check-Cap capsule, or C-Scan ® Cap, imaging principle is essentially based on reconstructing scattered radiation, while both radiation source and radiation detectors reside within the capsule. The radiation source is a custom-made radioisotope encased in a small canister, collimated into rotating beams. While traveling along the human colon, irradiation occurs from within the capsule towards the colon wall. Scattering of radiation occurs both inside and outside the colon segment; some of this radiation is scattered back and detected by sensors onboard the capsule. During procedure, the patient receives small amounts of contrast agent as an addition to his/her normal diet. The presence of contrast agent inside the colon dictates the dominant physical processes to become Compton Scattering and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), which differ mainly by the energy of scattered photons. The detector readout electronics incorporates low-noise Single Photon Counting channels, allowing separation between the products of these different physical processes. Separating between radiation energies essentially allows estimation of the distance from the capsule to the colon wall, hence structural imaging of the intraluminal surface. This allows imaging of structural protrusions into the colon volume, especially focusing on adenomas that may develop into colorectal cancer.

  20. Single Photon Detection with Semiconductor Pixel Arrays for Medical Imaging Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mikulec, B

    2000-01-01

    This thesis explores the functioning of a single photon counting pixel detector for X-ray imaging. It considers different applications for such a device, but focuses mainly on the field of medical imaging. The new detector comprises a CMOS read-out chip called PCC containing 4096 identical channels each of which counts X-ray hits. The conversion of the X-rays to electric charge takes place in a semiconductor sensor which is segmented into 4096 matching square diodes of side length 170 um, the 'pixels'. The photon counting concept is based on setting a threshold in energy above which a hit is registered. The immediate advantages are the elimination of background and the in principle unlimited dynamic range. Moreover, this approach allows the use of an electronic shutter for arbitrary measurement periods. As the device was intended for operation in the energy range of ~10-70 keV, gallium arsenide was selected as the preferred sensor material. The development of this detector followed on from about 10 years of r...

  1. Searches for new physics in single-photon events and a search for charginos at the DELPHI experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ask, S M

    2004-01-01

    A search for new physics using events with a single photon and missing energy has been made at the DELPHI experiment together with a search for charginos. The results were based on data collected up to and including the final year of 2000. An integrated luminosity of 650 pb−1 was used in the single photon analysis and 450 pb−1 in the chargino search. Center-of-mass energies up to 209 GeV were explored. Searches have been made for supersymmetry as well as for extra dimensions and non standard neutrino interactions. Since no signs of a signal have been observed in any of the searches the results have been used to set exclusion limits and to constrain the theoretical parameter spaces. The search results using single and acoplanar photon events from the four LEP experiments have also been combined within the searches for supersymmetry and extra dimensions.

  2. Single-photon emission associated with double electron capture in F9 ++C collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkafrawy, T.; Simon, A.; Tanis, J. A.; Warczak, A.

    2016-10-01

    Radiative double electron capture (RDEC), the one-step process occurring in ion-atom collisions, has been investigated for bare fluorine ions colliding with carbon. RDEC is completed when two target electrons are captured to a bound state of a projectile simultaneously with the emission of a single photon. This work is a follow-up to our earlier measurement of RDEC for bare oxygen projectiles, thus providing a recipient system free of electron-related Coulomb fields in both cases and allowing for the comparison between the two collision systems as well as with available theoretical studies. The most significant mechanisms of x-ray emission that may contribute to the RDEC energy region as background processes are also addressed.

  3. Comparative study of afterpulsing behavior and models in single photon counting avalanche photo diode detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziarkash, Abdul Waris; Joshi, Siddarth Koduru; Stipčević, Mario; Ursin, Rupert

    2018-03-22

    Single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detectors, have a great importance in fields like quantum key distribution, laser ranging, florescence microscopy, etc. Afterpulsing is a non-ideal behavior of SPADs that adversely affects any application that measures the number or timing of detection events. Several studies based on a few individual detectors, derived distinct mathematical models from semiconductor physics perspectives. With a consistent testing procedure and statistically large data sets, we show that different individual detectors - even if identical in type, make, brand, etc. - behave according to fundamentally different mathematical models. Thus, every detector must be characterized individually and it is wrong to draw universal conclusions about the physical meaning behind these models. We also report the presence of high-order afterpulses that are not accounted for in any of the standard models.

  4. Depression following intracerebral hemorrhage and the evaluation of cerebral blood flow by single photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masada, Tetsuya; Makabe, Tetsuo; Kunishio, Katsuzo; Matsumoto, Akira

    2007-01-01

    The authors studied patients who presented depression and apathy following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Twelve patients who were admitted in our hospital were divided into two groups according to the presence of post-stroke depression (PSD). Five patients with PSD are in group A, and another seven patients without PSD are in group B. Zung-self depression scale (SDS) and apathy scale were used for screening of depression and apathy. PSD was recognized in 5 (42%) of patients following ICH. Single photon emission tomography (SPECT) suggested the reduction of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the frontal lobe in all patients of the group A (100%), whereas only 29% of patients of the group B. The reduction of CBF in the frontal lobe might be involved in the mechanism of depression following ICH in subacute stage. (author)

  5. A study on single photon production at radicals=54. 0-61. 4 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, K. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)); Amako, K.; Arai, Y.; Fukawa, M.; Fukushima, Y.; Haidt, D.; Ishihara, N.; Kamitani, T.; Kanzaki, J.; Kondo, T.; Matsui, T.; Odaka, S.; Ogawa, K.; Ohama, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakuda, M.; Shirai, J.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Takasaki, F.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uehara, S.; Unno, Y.; Watase, Y.; Yamada, Y. (National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)); Asano, Y.; Koseki, T.; Mori, S.; Sakano, M.; Shirakata, S.; Takada, Y.; Yonezawa, Y. (Tsukuba Univ., Sakura, Ibaraki (Japan)); Chiba, M.; Fukui, T.; Hirose, T.; Minami, M.; Narita, Y.; Oyama, T.; Saito, H.; Utsumi, M.; Wakai, M.; Watanabe, T.; Yabuki, F.; Yamagata, T. (Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan)); Chiba, Y.; Endo, I.; Hayashibara, I.; Ohsugi, T.; Taketani, A.; Tanaka, R.; Terunuma, N. (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan)); Daigo, M. (Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan)); Emura, T. (Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Tech., Koganei (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Haba, J.; Kanematsu, N.; Nagashima, Y.; Osabe,; VENUS Collaboration

    1989-12-07

    A study of single photon events, produced in association with light neutrinos or other weakly interacting neutral particles in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions, has been performed at radicals=54.0-61.4 GeV with the VENUS detector at TRISTAN. No anomalous signal has been observed in a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 28.2 pb{sup -1}. This result indicates that the upper limit on the number of light neutrinos, N{sub nu}, is 11 (15) at a 90 (95)% confidence level. Combining this with published results from other e{sup +}e{sup -} experiments, the number of light neutrinos is limited to N{sub nu}<3.9 (4.8) at the 90 (95)% confidence level. Limits are also placed on the mass of supersymmetric particles. (orig.).

  6. Evaluation of single photon and Geiger mode Lidar for the 3D Elevation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Jason M.; Abdullah, Qassim; Nayegandhi, Amar; Winehouse, Jayna

    2016-01-01

    Data acquired by Harris Corporation’s (Melbourne, FL, USA) Geiger-mode IntelliEarth™ sensor and Sigma Space Corporation’s (Lanham-Seabrook, MD, USA) Single Photon HRQLS sensor were evaluated and compared to accepted 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) data and survey ground control to assess the suitability of these new technologies for the 3DEP. While not able to collect data currently to meet USGS lidar base specification, this is partially due to the fact that the specification was written for linear-mode systems specifically. With little effort on part of the manufacturers of the new lidar systems and the USGS Lidar specifications team, data from these systems could soon serve the 3DEP program and its users. Many of the shortcomings noted in this study have been reported to have been corrected or improved upon in the next generation sensors.

  7. Photonic-crystal membranes for optical detection of single nano-particles, designed for biosensor application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grepstad, Jon Olav; Kaspar, Peter; Solgaard, Olav; Johansen, Ib-Rune; Sudbø, Aasmund S

    2012-03-26

    A sensor designed to detect bio-molecules is presented. The sensor exploits a planar 2D photonic crystal (PC) membrane with sub-micron thickness and through holes, to induce high optical fields that allow detection of nano-particles smaller than the diffraction limit of an optical microscope. We report on our design and fabrication of a PC membrane with a nano-particle trapped inside. We have also designed and built an imaging system where an optical microscope and a CCD camera are used to take images of the PC membrane. Results show how the trapped nano-particle appears as a bright spot in the image. In a first experimental realization of the imaging system, single particles with a radius of 75 nm can be detected.

  8. Performance Analysis of Single Photon Avalanche Diode Underwater VLC System Using ARQ

    KAUST Repository

    Shafiqu, Taniya

    2017-08-24

    Single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) has recently been introduced as a powerful detector for long distance underwater visible light (UVLC) communication. In this paper, the performance of the SPAD detector in UVLC is analyzed considering the effect of the turbulence induced fading resulting from air bubbles in addition to the combined effect of attenuation and scattering. Automatic repeat request (ARQ) system is adopted to mitigate different underwater impairments and reduce the error probability at the receiver side. Approximate packet error rate (PER) expressions are derived using Laguerre Gauss polynomial for a finite number of transmission. Next, the average energy efficiency and throughput are analyzed to account for the increased energy consumption cost and the decreased effective transmission rate, which results from adopting the ARQ scheme. Finally, different numerical results are introduced to verify the derived PER expressions, demonstrate the ability of the proposed ARQ system in extending the transmission range, and show the trade-off between energy efficiency (EE) and throughput.

  9. Brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography in major psychiatric disorders: From basics to clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santra, Amburanjan; Kumar, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a well-established and reliable method to assess brain function through measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). It can be used to define a patient's pathophysiological status when neurological or psychiatric symptoms cannot be explained by anatomical neuroimaging findings. Though there is ample evidence validating brain SPECT as a technique to track human behavior and correlating psychiatric disorders with dysfunction of specific brain regions, only few psychiatrists have adopted brain SPECT in routine clinical practice. It can be utilized to evaluate the involvement of brain regions in a particular patient, to individualize treatment on basis of SPECT findings, to monitor the treatment response and modify treatment, if necessary. In this article, we have reviewed the available studies in this regard from existing literature and tried to present the evidence for establishing the clinical role of brain SPECT in major psychiatric illnesses

  10. Thallium-201 myocardial imaging with single photon emission CT in Kawasaki disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Syuhei

    1992-01-01

    Seventy-five patients with Kawasaki disease underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and planar imaging with thallium-201 after dipyridamole in order to evaluate the usefulness of detecting the complication of coronary artery disease (CAD). The results of SPECT with a three reconstruction imaging study (short axis, vertical long axis, horizontal long axis) and of planar imaging study with thallium-201 were compared with coronary angiography. The overall sensitivity of detecting CAD was 86.7% with SPECT and 66.7% with planar imaging. The sensitivity in identifying individual vessels was 76.0% with SPECT and 44.0% with planar imaging. SPECT was especially superior to planar imaging in detecting localized stenosis. (53.8% vs 15.4%) The specificity of SPECT did not differ from the planar imaging study. Dipyridamole thallium-201 SPECT is a useful non-invasive method to detect CAD due to Kawasaki disease. (author)

  11. Threshold behavior in single-photon double ionization of atomic oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z. X.; Moberg, R.; Samson, J. A. R.

    1995-12-01

    The threshold behavior of the single-photon double-ionization cross section of atomic oxygen has been studied using vacuum uv radiation from a synchrotron storage ring. The double-ionization cross section appears to follow a power law Eα (where E is the kinetic energy of the two electrons) from its threshold to about 2.0 eV above with an exponent α=1.08+/-0.03, which is consistent with Wannier's theoretical value of 1.056. The cross section also shows the influence of the doubly excited 2s2p3nln'l' (n,n'>~3) neutral states, among which the first three converge to the 2s2p3(5So)4p(6Po) ionic state of oxygen.

  12. Control of single-photon routing in a T-shaped waveguide by another atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin-Song; Wang, Jing-Wen; Wang, Yan; Li, Yan-Ling; Huang, You-Wen

    2018-04-01

    Quantum routers with a high routing rate of much more than 0.5 are of great importance for quantum networks. We provide a scheme to perform bidirectional high routing-rate transfer in a T-shaped coupled-resonator waveguide (CRW), which extends a recent unidirectional scheme proposed by Lu et al. (Opt Express 23:22955, 2015). By locating an extra two-level atom in the infinite CRW channel of the T-shaped CRW with a three-level system, an effective potential is generated. Our numerical results show that high routing capability from the infinite CRW channel to the semi-infinite channel can be achieved, and routing capability from the semi-infinite CRW channel to the infinite channel can also be significantly enhanced, with the help of the effective potential. Therefore, the proposed double-atom configuration could be utilized as a bidirectional quantum routing controller to implement high transfer rate routing of single photons.

  13. Gating circuit for single photon-counting fluorescence lifetime instruments using high repetition pulsed light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laws, W.R.; Potter, D.W.; Sutherland, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    We have constructed a circuit that permits conventional timing electronics to be used in single photon-counting fluorimeters with high repetition rate excitation sources (synchrotrons and mode-locked lasers). Most commercial time-to-amplitude and time-to-digital converters introduce errors when processing very short time intervals and when subjected to high-frequency signals. This circuit reduces the frequency of signals representing the pulsed light source (stops) to the rate of detected fluorescence events (starts). Precise timing between the start/stop pair is accomplished by using the second stop pulse after a start pulse. Important features of our design are that the circuit is insensitive to the simultaneous occurrence of start and stop signals and that the reduction in the stop frequency allows the start/stop time interval to be placed in linear regions of the response functions of commercial timing electronics

  14. Brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography in children after acute encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Mana; Nakae, Yoichiro; Kohagizawa, Toshitaka; Eto, Yoshikatsu

    2005-01-01

    We studied single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of 15 children with acute encephalopathy after more than 1 year from the onset, using technetium-99 m-L, L-ethyl cystinate dimer ( 99m Tc-ECD) and a three-dementional stereotaxic region of interest template. Regional cerebral blood flow was evaluated and divided in three groups according to the severity of disability: absent or mild, moderate, and severe. There was no abnormality on SPECT in the patients without disability or with mild disability. Diffuse hypoperfusion was shown in the groups with moderate and severe disability. The patients with severe disability showed hypoperfusion in the pericallosal, frontal and central areas which was more pronounced than in the patients with moderate disability. (author)

  15. Potential new approaches for the development of brain imaging agents for single-photon applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Srivastava, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes new strategies for the brain-specific delivery of radionuclides that can be used to evaluate regional cerebral perfusion by single photon imaging techniques. A description of several examples of interesting new strategies that have recently been reported is presented. A new approach at this institution for the brain-specific delivery of radioiodinated iodophenylalkyl-substituted dihyronicotinamide systems is described which shows good brain uptake and retention in preliminary studies in rats. Following transport into the brain these agents appear to undergo facile intracerebral oxidation to the quaternized analogues which do not recross the intact blood-brain barrier and so are effectively trapped in the brain. 49 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Development of radioiodinated receptor ligands for cerebral single photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; McPherson, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    In the last decade the use of radiolabeled ligands for the imaging of cerebral receptors by emission computed tomography (ECT) has seen rapid growth. The opportunity to routinely perform cerebral single photon emission tomography (SPET) with iodine-123-labeled ligands depends on the availability of receptor ligands into which iodine can be introduced without decreasing the required high target receptor specificity. The use of iodine-123-labeled receptor-specific ligands also depends on the availability of high purity iodine-123 at reasonable costs and the necessary imaging instrumentation. In this paper, the development and current stage of evaluation of various iodine-123-labeled ligands for SPET imaging of dopaminergic, serotonergic and muscarinic acetylcholinergic receptor classes are discussed

  17. Single-photon emission associated with double electron capture in F9+ + C collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Elkafrawy, Tamer; Tanis, John A; Warczak, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Radiative double electron capture (RDEC), the one-step process occurring in ion-atom collisions, has been investigated for bare fluorine ions colliding with carbon. RDEC is completed when two target electrons are captured to a bound state of a projectile simultaneously with the emission of a single photon. This work is a follow-up to our earlier measurement of RDEC for bare oxygen projectiles, thus providing a recipient system free of electron-related Coulomb fields in both cases and allowing for the comparison between the two collision systems as well as with available theoretical studies. The most significant mechanisms of x-ray emission that may contribute to the RDEC energy region as background processes are also addressed.

  18. Fundamental limits to single-photon detection determined by quantum coherence and backaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Steve M.; Sarovar, Mohan; Léonard, François

    2018-03-01

    Single-photon detectors have achieved impressive performance and have led to a number of new scientific discoveries and technological applications. Existing models of photodetectors are semiclassical in that the field-matter interaction is treated perturbatively and time-separated from physical processes in the absorbing matter. An open question is whether a fully quantum detector, whereby the optical field, the optical absorption, and the amplification are considered as one quantum system, could have improved performance. Here we develop a theoretical model of such photodetectors and employ simulations to reveal the critical role played by quantum coherence and amplification backaction in dictating the performance. We show that coherence and backaction lead to trade-offs between detector metrics and also determine optimal system designs through control of the quantum-classical interface. Importantly, we establish the design parameters that result in a ideal photodetector with 100% efficiency, no dark counts, and minimal jitter, thus paving the route for next-generation detectors.

  19. Hot water epilepsy: Phenotype and single photon emission computed tomography observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehul Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the anatomical correlates of reflex hot water epilepsy (HWE using multimodality investigations viz. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, electroencephalography (EEG, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT. Five men (mean age: 27.0 ΁ 5.8 years with HWE were subjected to MRI of brain, video-EEG studies, and SPECT scan. These were correlated with phenotypic presentations. Seizures could be precipitated in three patients with pouring of hot water over the head and semiology of seizures was suggestive of temporal lobe epilepsy. Ictal SPECT showed hyperperfusion in: left medial temporal - one, left lateral temporal - one, and right parietal - one. Interictal SPECT was normal in all five patients and did not help in localization. MRI and interictal EEG was normal in all the patients. The clinical and SPECT studies suggested temporal lobe as the seizure onset zone in some of the patients with HWE.

  20. Single-photon emission computed tomography in human immunodeficiency virus encephalopathy: A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masdeu, J.C.; Yudd, A.; Van Heertum, R.L.; Grundman, M.; Hriso, E.; O'Connell, R.A.; Luck, D.; Camli, U.; King, L.N.

    1991-01-01

    Depression or psychosis in a previously asymptomatic individual infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may be psychogenic, related to brain involvement by the HIV or both. Although prognosis and treatment differ depending on etiology, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are usually unrevealing in early HIV encephalopathy and therefore cannot differentiate it from psychogenic conditions. Thirty of 32 patients (94%) with HIV encephalopathy had single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) findings that differed from the findings in 15 patients with non-HIV psychoses and 6 controls. SPECT showed multifocal cortical and subcortical areas of hypoperfusion. In 4 cases, cognitive improvement after 6-8 weeks of zidovudine (AZT) therapy was reflected in amelioration of SPECT findings. CT remained unchanged. SPECT may be a useful technique for the evaluation of HIV encephalopathy

  1. Acoustically segmented photonic crystal fiber for single-frequency high-power laser applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Craig; Dajani, Iyad

    2011-07-15

    The Brillouin gain characteristics of a Yb-doped polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber possessing a segmented acoustic profile are investigated using a pump-probe technique. The concentrations of fluorine, aluminum, and germanium in two regions of the core were selected, such that the corresponding Brillouin shifts were sufficiently separated to allow for the introduction of a temperature profile along the fiber for further stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression. By using a cutback technique to measure loss, we estimated the Brillouin gain coefficient to be 1.2×10(-11) m/W. Despite differences in the concentration levels of dopants between the two segments, there was no evidence of a development of an optical interface. When this fiber was utilized in a counterpumped amplifier configuration, close to 500 W of near-diffraction-limited single-frequency output was obtained. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  2. The contribution of single photon emission computed tomography in the clinical assessment of Alzheimer type dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudousq, V.; Collombier, L.; Kotzki, P.O.

    1999-01-01

    Interest of brain single-photon emission computed tomography to support clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer-type dementia is now established. Numerous studies have reported a decreased perfusion in the association cortex of the parietal lobe and the posterior temporal regions. In patients with mild cognitive complaints, the presence of focal hypoperfusion may increase substantially the probability of the disease. In addition, emission tomography emerges as a helpful tool in situation in which there is diagnostic doubt. In this case, the presence of temporo-parietal perfusion deficit associated with hippocampal atrophy on MRI or X-ray computed tomography contributes to diagnostic accuracy. However, some studies suggest that emission tomography may be useful for preclinical prediction of Alzheimer's disease and to predict cognitive decline. (author)

  3. Filling of double vacancy in the K atomic shell with emission of one single photon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalbert, G.

    1978-12-01

    A method was developed to calculate the transition rate for two-electron one-photon K(sub αα) transition (2s 2p → 1s 2 ). The method was tested for Ni with two K-shell vacancies in the initial state. The (sub αα) rate is calculated within the framework of a single system formed by the atom and the radiation. The transition is originated in the interactiion between the parts of that system. In the dipole approximation, the transition rate is obtained from the second order term of the time dependente perturbation theory. Hartree-Fock-Slater wave functions were used in the calculations for Ni. The results are compared with the available theoretical and experimental information. (Author) [pt

  4. Storage of multiple single-photon pulses emitted from a quantum dot in a solid-state quantum memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian-Shun; Zhou, Zong-Quan; Wang, Yi-Tao; Li, Yu-Long; Liu, Xiao; Hua, Yi-Lin; Zou, Yang; Wang, Shuang; He, De-Yong; Chen, Geng; Sun, Yong-Nan; Yu, Ying; Li, Mi-Feng; Zha, Guo-Wei; Ni, Hai-Qiao; Niu, Zhi-Chuan; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2015-10-15

    Quantum repeaters are critical components for distributing entanglement over long distances in presence of unavoidable optical losses during transmission. Stimulated by the Duan-Lukin-Cirac-Zoller protocol, many improved quantum repeater protocols based on quantum memories have been proposed, which commonly focus on the entanglement-distribution rate. Among these protocols, the elimination of multiple photons (or multiple photon-pairs) and the use of multimode quantum memory are demonstrated to have the ability to greatly improve the entanglement-distribution rate. Here, we demonstrate the storage of deterministic single photons emitted from a quantum dot in a polarization-maintaining solid-state quantum memory; in addition, multi-temporal-mode memory with 1, 20 and 100 narrow single-photon pulses is also demonstrated. Multi-photons are eliminated, and only one photon at most is contained in each pulse. Moreover, the solid-state properties of both sub-systems make this configuration more stable and easier to be scalable. Our work will be helpful in the construction of efficient quantum repeaters based on all-solid-state devices.

  5. Storage of multiple single-photon pulses emitted from a quantum dot in a solid-state quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian-Shun; Zhou, Zong-Quan; Wang, Yi-Tao; Li, Yu-Long; Liu, Xiao; Hua, Yi-Lin; Zou, Yang; Wang, Shuang; He, De-Yong; Chen, Geng; Sun, Yong-Nan; Yu, Ying; Li, Mi-Feng; Zha, Guo-Wei; Ni, Hai-Qiao; Niu, Zhi-Chuan; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2015-01-01

    Quantum repeaters are critical components for distributing entanglement over long distances in presence of unavoidable optical losses during transmission. Stimulated by the Duan–Lukin–Cirac–Zoller protocol, many improved quantum repeater protocols based on quantum memories have been proposed, which commonly focus on the entanglement-distribution rate. Among these protocols, the elimination of multiple photons (or multiple photon-pairs) and the use of multimode quantum memory are demonstrated to have the ability to greatly improve the entanglement-distribution rate. Here, we demonstrate the storage of deterministic single photons emitted from a quantum dot in a polarization-maintaining solid-state quantum memory; in addition, multi-temporal-mode memory with 1, 20 and 100 narrow single-photon pulses is also demonstrated. Multi-photons are eliminated, and only one photon at most is contained in each pulse. Moreover, the solid-state properties of both sub-systems make this configuration more stable and easier to be scalable. Our work will be helpful in the construction of efficient quantum repeaters based on all-solid-state devices. PMID:26468996

  6. 8-channel acquisition system for time-correlated single-photon counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonioli, S.; Miari, L.; Cuccato, A.; Crotti, M.; Rech, I.; Ghioni, M.

    2013-06-01

    Nowadays, an increasing number of applications require high-performance analytical instruments capable to detect the temporal trend of weak and fast light signals with picosecond time resolution. The Time-Correlated Single-Photon Counting (TCSPC) technique is currently one of the preferable solutions when such critical optical signals have to be analyzed and it is fully exploited in biomedical and chemical research fields, as well as in security and space applications. Recent progress in the field of single-photon detector arrays is pushing research towards the development of high performance multichannel TCSPC systems, opening the way to modern time-resolved multi-dimensional optical analysis. In this paper we describe a new 8-channel high-performance TCSPC acquisition system, designed to be compact and versatile, to be used in modern TCSPC measurement setups. We designed a novel integrated circuit including a multichannel Time-to-Amplitude Converter with variable full-scale range, a D/A converter, and a parallel adder stage. The latter is used to adapt each converter output to the input dynamic range of a commercial 8-channel Analog-to-Digital Converter, while the integrated DAC implements the dithering technique with as small as possible area occupation. The use of this monolithic circuit made the design of a scalable system of very small dimensions (95 × 40 mm) and low power consumption (6 W) possible. Data acquired from the TCSPC measurement are digitally processed and stored inside an FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array), while a USB transceiver allows real-time transmission of up to eight TCSPC histograms to a remote PC. Eventually, the experimental results demonstrate that the acquisition system performs TCSPC measurements with high conversion rate (up to 5 MHz/channel), extremely low differential nonlinearity (<0.04 peak-to-peak of the time bin width), high time resolution (down to 20 ps Full-Width Half-Maximum), and very low crosstalk between channels.

  7. Performance and Characterization of a Modular Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detector System for Space-to-Earth Optical Communications Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyhnalek, Brian E.; Tedder, Sarah A.; Nappier, Jennifer M.

    2018-01-01

    Space-to-ground photon-counting optical communication links supporting high data rates over large distances require enhanced ground receiver sensitivity in order to reduce the mass and power burden on the spacecraft transmitter. Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) have been demonstrated to offer superior performance in detection efficiency, timing resolution, and count rates over semiconductor photodetectors, and are a suitable technology for high photon efficiency links. Recently photon detectors based on superconducting nanowires have become commercially available, and we have assessed the characteristics and performance of one such commercial system as a candidate for potential utilization in ground receiver designs. The SNSPD system features independent channels which can be added modularly, and we analyze the scalability of the system to support different data rates, as well as consider coupling concepts and issues as the number of channels increases.

  8. Measurements of Pair Production Under Channelling Conditions by 70-180 GeV Photons Incident on Single Crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment will use the WA69 set-up to deliver a tagged photon beam in the energy range from 15~GeV to 150~GeV with a total angular spread of about @M~0.5~mrad. The incident photon direction is known to about 35~@mrad through the direction of the emitting electron. The photon beam is incident on an about 1~mm thick Ge single crystal in order to investigate pair production in single crystals. Above a certain energy threshold photons incident along crystal axis will show strongly increased pair production yi - the so-called .us Channelling Pair Production (ChPP). The produced pairs are analyzed in the @W-spectrometer. The large spread in incident photon angles offers an excellent opportunity to investigate in one single experiment the pair production in an angular region around a crystal axes and thereby compare ChPP with coherent (CPP) and incoherent (ICPP) processes. The very abrupt onset of ChPP (around threshold) will be measured and give a crucial test of the theoretical calculations. The differential...

  9. Radical distributions in ammonium tartrate single crystals exposed to photon and neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrale, M.; Longo, A.; Brai, M.; Barbon, A.; Brustolon, M.

    2014-01-01

    The radiation therapy carried out by means of heavy charged particles (such as carbon ions) and neutrons is rapidly becoming widespread worldwide. The success of these radiation therapies relies on the high density of energy released by these particles or by secondary particles produced after primary interaction with matter. The biological damages produced by ionising radiations in tissues and cells depend more properly on the energy released per unit pathlength, which is the linear energy transfer and which determines the radiation quality. To improve the therapy effectiveness, it is necessary to grasp the mechanisms of free radical production and distribution after irradiation with these particles when compared with the photon beams. In this work some preliminary results on the analysis of the spatial distributions of the free radicals produced after exposure of ammonium tartrate crystals to various radiation beams ( 60 Co gamma photons and thermal neutrons) were reported. Electron spin resonance analyses were performed by the electron spin echo technique, which allows the determination of local spin concentrations and by double electron-electron resonance technique, which is able to measure the spatial distance distribution (range 1.5-8 nm) among pairs of radicals in solids. The results of these analyses are discussed on the basis of the different distributions of free radicals produced by the two different radiation beams used. This paper extends to the single crystal case, a similar work done on AT powder irradiated with different beams, with assessment of microscopic radical concentration by determining the amount of ID contribution and obtaining the inter-radical distance distributions by double microwave irradiation. In this paper single crystals of AT have been exposed to 60 Co photons and neutrons. The results confirm that advanced pulse EPR techniques allow the direct measurement of the local free radical concentration and provide information about the

  10. Proposal of Michelson-Morley experiment via single photon interferometer: Interpretation of Michelson-Morley experimental results using de Broglie-Bohm picture

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Masanori

    2004-01-01

    The Michelson-Morley experiment is considered via a single photon interferometer and we propose the interpretation of the Michelson-Morley experimental results using de Broglie-Bohm picture. We point out that the Michelson-Morley experiment revealed the interference of photons, however, it did not reveal the photons simultaneous arrival at the beam splitter. According to the de Broglie-Bohm picture, the quantum potential nonlocally determines the interference of photons. The interference of t...

  11. Single-shot photonic time-stretch digitizer using a dissipative soliton-based passively mode-locked fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Di; Zhang, Zhiyao; Zeng, Zhen; Zhang, Lingjie; Lyu, Yanjia; Liu, Yong; Xie, Kang

    2018-03-19

    We demonstrate a single-shot photonic time-stretch digitizer using a dissipative soliton-based passively mode-locked fiber laser. The theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that the dissipative soliton-based optical source with a flat spectrum relieves the envelope-induced signal distortion, and its high energy spectral density helps to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, both of which are favorable for simplifying the optical front-end architecture of a photonic time-stretch digitizer. By employing a homemade dissipative soliton-based passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser in a single-shot photonic time-stretch digitizer, an effective number of bits of 4.11 bits under an effective sampling rate of 100 GS/s is experimentally obtained without optical amplification in the link and pulse envelope removing process.

  12. Time-gated single-photon detection module with 110 ps transition time and up to 80 MHz repetition rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttafava, Mauro, E-mail: mauro.buttafava@polimi.it; Boso, Gianluca; Ruggeri, Alessandro; Tosi, Alberto [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Dalla Mora, Alberto [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-08-15

    We present the design and characterization of a complete single-photon counting module capable of time-gating a silicon single-photon avalanche diode with ON and OFF transition times down to 110 ps, at repetition rates up to 80 MHz. Thanks to this sharp temporal filtering of incoming photons, it is possible to reject undesired strong light pulses preceding (or following) the signal of interest, allowing to increase the dynamic range of optical acquisitions up to 7 decades. A complete experimental characterization of the module highlights its very flat temporal response, with a time resolution of the order of 30 ps. The instrument is fully user-configurable via a PC interface and can be easily integrated in any optical setup, thanks to its small and compact form factor.

  13. Heralded quantum repeater based on the scattering of photons off single emitters in one-dimensional waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Guo-Zhu; Zhang, Mei; Ai, Qing; Yang, Guo-Jian [Department of Physics, Applied Optics Beijing Area Major Laboratory, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Alsaedi, Ahmed; Hobiny, Aatef [NAAM-Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Deng, Fu-Guo, E-mail: fgdeng@bnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Applied Optics Beijing Area Major Laboratory, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); NAAM-Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-03-15

    We propose a heralded quantum repeater based on the scattering of photons off single emitters in one-dimensional waveguides. We show the details by implementing nonlocal entanglement generation, entanglement swapping, and entanglement purification modules with atoms in waveguides, and discuss the feasibility of the repeater with currently achievable technology. In our scheme, the faulty events can be discarded by detecting the polarization of the photons. That is, our protocols are accomplished with a fidelity of 100% in principle, which is advantageous for implementing realistic long-distance quantum communication. Moreover, additional atomic qubits are not required, but only a single-photon medium. Our scheme is scalable and attractive since it can be realized in solid-state quantum systems. With the great progress on controlling atom-waveguide systems, the repeater may be very useful in quantum information processing in the future.

  14. Bio-Docklets: virtualization containers for single-step execution of NGS pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Baekdoo; Ali, Thahmina; Lijeron, Carlos; Afgan, Enis; Krampis, Konstantinos

    2017-08-01

    Processing of next-generation sequencing (NGS) data requires significant technical skills, involving installation, configuration, and execution of bioinformatics data pipelines, in addition to specialized postanalysis visualization and data mining software. In order to address some of these challenges, developers have leveraged virtualization containers toward seamless deployment of preconfigured bioinformatics software and pipelines on any computational platform. We present an approach for abstracting the complex data operations of multistep, bioinformatics pipelines for NGS data analysis. As examples, we have deployed 2 pipelines for RNA sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing, preconfigured within Docker virtualization containers we call Bio-Docklets. Each Bio-Docklet exposes a single data input and output endpoint and from a user perspective, running the pipelines as simply as running a single bioinformatics tool. This is achieved using a "meta-script" that automatically starts the Bio-Docklets and controls the pipeline execution through the BioBlend software library and the Galaxy Application Programming Interface. The pipeline output is postprocessed by integration with the Visual Omics Explorer framework, providing interactive data visualizations that users can access through a web browser. Our goal is to enable easy access to NGS data analysis pipelines for nonbioinformatics experts on any computing environment, whether a laboratory workstation, university computer cluster, or a cloud service provider. Beyond end users, the Bio-Docklets also enables developers to programmatically deploy and run a large number of pipeline instances for concurrent analysis of multiple datasets. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Bone mineral content measurement in small infants by single-photon absorptiometry: current methodologic issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steichen, J.J.; Asch, P.A.; Tsang, R.C.

    1988-07-01

    Single-photon absorptiometry (SPA), developed in 1963 and adapted for infants by Steichen et al. in 1976, is an important tool to quantitate bone mineralization in infants. Studies of infants in which SPA was used include studies of fetal bone mineralization and postnatal bone mineralization in very low birth weight infants. The SPA technique has also been used as a research tool to investigate longitudinal bone mineralization and to study the effect of nutrition and disease processes such as rickets or osteopenia of prematurity. At present, it has little direct clinical application for diagnosing bone disease in single patients. The bones most often used to measure bone mineral content (BMC) are the radius, the ulna, and, less often, the humerus. The radius appears to be preferred as a suitable bone to measure BMC in infants. It is easily accessible; anatomic reference points are easily palpated and have a constant relationship to the radial mid-shaft site; soft tissue does not affect either palpation of anatomic reference points or BMC quantitation in vivo. The peripheral location of the radius minimizes body radiation exposure. Trabecular and cortical bone can be measured separately. Extensive background studies exist on radial BMC in small infants. Most important, the radius has a relatively long zone of constant BMC. Finally, SPA for BMC in the radius has a high degree of precision and accuracy. 61 references.

  16. Pinhole single-photon emission tomography reconstruction based on median root prior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohlberg, Antti; Kuikka, Jyrki T.; Ruotsalainen, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    The maximum likelihood expectation maximisation (ML-EM) algorithm can be used to reduce reconstruction artefacts produced by filtered backprojection (FBP) methods in pinhole single-photon emission tomography (SPET). However, ML-EM suffers from noise propagation along iterations, which leads to quantitatively unpleasant reconstruction results. To avoid this increase in noise, the median root prior (MRP) algorithm for pinhole SPET was implemented. Projection data of a line source and Picker's thyroid phantom were collected using a single-head gamma camera with a pinhole collimator. MRP was added to existing pinhole ML-EM reconstruction algorithm and the phantom studies were reconstructed using MRP, ML-EM and FBP for comparison. Coefficients of variation, contrasts and full-widths at half-maximum were calculated and showed a clear reduction in noise without significant loss of resolution or decrease in contrast when MRP was applied. MRP also produced visually pleasing images even with high iteration numbers, free of the checkerboard-type noise patterns which are typical of ML-EM images. (orig.)

  17. Bend-insensitive single-mode photonic crystal fiber with ultralarge effective area for dual applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Asiful; Alam, M. Shah

    2013-05-01

    A novel photonic crystal fiber (PCF) having circular arrangement of cladding air holes has been designed and numerically optimized to obtain a bend insensitive single mode fiber with large mode area for both wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) communication and fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) application. The bending loss of the proposed bent PCF lies in the range of 10-3 to 10-4 dB/turn or lower over 1300 to 1700 nm, and 2 × 10-4 dB/turn at the wavelength of 1550 nm for a 30-mm bend radius with a higher order mode (HOM) cut-off frequency below 1200 nm for WDM application. When the whole structure of the PCF is scaled down, a bending loss of 6.78×10-4 dB/turn at 1550 nm for a 4-mm bend radius is obtained, and the loss remains in the order of 10-4 dB/turn over the same range of wavelength with an HOM cut-off frequency below 700 nm, and makes the fiber useful for FTTH applications. Furthermore, this structure is also optimized to show a splice loss near zero for fusion-splicing to a conventional single-mode fiber (SMF).

  18. Quantitation of postexercise lung thallium-201 uptake during single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, J.K.; Carry, M.M.; McGhie, I.; Pippin, J.J.; Akers, M.S.; Corbett, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that analysis of lung thallium uptake measured during single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) yields supplementary clinical information as reported for planar imaging, quantitative analysis of lung thallium uptake following maximal exercise was performed in 40 clinically normal subjects (Group 1) and 15 angiographically normal subjects (Group 2). Lung thallium uptake was measured from anterior projection images using a ratio of heart-to-lung activities. Seventy subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD) (Group 3) determined by angiography (greater than or equal to 70% luminal stenosis) underwent thallium perfusion SPECT. Thirty-nine percent of these subjects had multivessel and 61% had single vessel CAD. Lung thallium uptake was elevated in 47 of 70 (67%) Group 3 subjects. Group 3 subjects with elevated lung thallium uptake did not differ from Group 3 subjects with normal lung thallium uptake with respect to extent or distribution of coronary artery disease, left ventricular function, or severity of myocardial ischemia as determined by exercise and redistribution thallium SPECT. Thus, the measurement of thallium lung uptake from anterior projection images obtained during SPECT frequently identifies patients with CAD, but it may not provide supplementary information regarding the extent of myocardial ischemia or ventricular dysfunction

  19. Bone mineral content measurement in small infants by single-photon absorptiometry: current methodologic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steichen, J.J.; Asch, P.A.; Tsang, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Single-photon absorptiometry (SPA), developed in 1963 and adapted for infants by Steichen et al. in 1976, is an important tool to quantitate bone mineralization in infants. Studies of infants in which SPA was used include studies of fetal bone mineralization and postnatal bone mineralization in very low birth weight infants. The SPA technique has also been used as a research tool to investigate longitudinal bone mineralization and to study the effect of nutrition and disease processes such as rickets or osteopenia of prematurity. At present, it has little direct clinical application for diagnosing bone disease in single patients. The bones most often used to measure bone mineral content (BMC) are the radius, the ulna, and, less often, the humerus. The radius appears to be preferred as a suitable bone to measure BMC in infants. It is easily accessible; anatomic reference points are easily palpated and have a constant relationship to the radial mid-shaft site; soft tissue does not affect either palpation of anatomic reference points or BMC quantitation in vivo. The peripheral location of the radius minimizes body radiation exposure. Trabecular and cortical bone can be measured separately. Extensive background studies exist on radial BMC in small infants. Most important, the radius has a relatively long zone of constant BMC. Finally, SPA for BMC in the radius has a high degree of precision and accuracy. 61 references

  20. The role of single photon emission computed tomography in bone imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikaya, I; Sarikaya, A; Holder, L E

    2001-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the bone is the second most frequently performed SPECT examination in routine nuclear medicine practice, with cardiac SPECT being the most frequent. Compared with planar scintigraphy, SPECT increases image contrast and improves lesion detection and localization. Studies have documented the unique diagnostic information provided by SPECT, particularly for avascular necrosis of the femoral head, in patients with back pain, for the differential diagnosis between malignant and benign spinal lesions, in the detection of metastatic cancer in the spine, for the diagnosis of temporomandibular joint internal derangement, and for the evaluation of acute and chronic knee pain. Although less rigorously documented, SPECT is being increasingly used in all types of situations that demand more precise anatomic localization of abnormal tracer uptake. The effectiveness of bone SPECT increases with the selection of the proper collimator, which allows one to acquire adequate counts and minimize the patient-to-detector distance. Low-energy, ultrahigh-resolution or high-resolution collimation is preferred over all-purpose collimators. Multihead gamma cameras can increase the counts obtained or shorten acquisition time, making SPECT acquisitions more practical in busy departments and also increasing image quality compared with single-head cameras. Iterative reconstruction, with the use of ordered subsets estimation maximization, provides better quality images than classical filtered back projection algorithms. Three-dimensional image analysis often aids lesion localization.

  1. Enhanced single-photon emission from a diamond–silver aperture

    KAUST Repository

    Choy, Jennifer T.

    2011-10-09

    Solid-state quantum emitters, such as the nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond, are robust systems for practical realizations of various quantum information processing protocols2-5 and nanoscale magnetometry schemes6,7 at room temperature. Such applications benefit from the high emission efficiency and flux of single photons, which can be achieved by engineering the electromagnetic environment of the emitter. One attractive approach is based on plasmonic resonators8-13, in which sub-wavelength confinement of optical fields can strongly modify the spontaneous emission of a suitably embedded dipole despite having only modest quality factors. Meanwhile, the scalability of solid-state quantum systems critically depends on the ability to control such emitterg-cavity interaction in a number of devices arranged in parallel. Here, we demonstrate a method to enhance the radiative emission rate of single nitrogen-vacancy centres in ordered arrays of plasmonic apertures that promises greater scalability over the previously demonstrated bottom-up approaches for the realization of on-chip quantum networks. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  2. On-Demand Single Photons with High Extraction Efficiency and Near-Unity Indistinguishability from a Resonantly Driven Quantum Dot in a Micropillar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Xing; He, Yu; Duan, Z.-C.

    2016-01-01

    Scalable photonic quantum technologies require on-demand single-photon sources with simultaneously high levels of purity, indistinguishability, and efficiency. These key features, however, have only been demonstrated separately in previous experiments. Here, by s-shell pulsed resonant excitation...... of a Purcellenhanced quantum dot-micropillar system, we deterministically generate resonance fluorescence single photons which, at π pulse excitation, have an extraction efficiency of 66%, single-photon purity of 99.1%, and photon indistinguishability of 98.5%. Such a single-photon source for the first time combines...... the features of high efficiency and near-perfect levels of purity and indistinguishabilty, and thus opens the way to multiphoton experiments with semiconductor quantum dots....

  3. Phantom evaluation of simultaneous thallium-201/technetium-99m acquisition in single-photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Zongjian; Chen, C.C.; Maunoury, C.; Holder, L.E.; Abraham, T.C.; Tehan, A.

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated downscatter effects in cardiac single-photon emission tomographic studies with simultaneous thallium-201/technetium-99m acquisition, and evaluated a previously proposed subtraction technique for downscatter compensation. Ten studies were carried out with different defect sizes and locations and varying activity distributions using four energy windows: 70±10% keV, 140±10% keV, 100±10% KeV, and 103±16% keV. The subtraction technique used the 100- or 103-keV data to remove scattered 99m Tc counts from the 70-keV data. The size and contrast of infarcts in the dual-isotope 70-keV image were artificially decreased compared to those in the 140-keV image, caused by scattered 99m Tc counts that were comparable to the primary 201 Tl counts in the 70-keV window. The subtraction technique produced larger defects and more heterogeneous activity in the myocardial wall in dual-isotope 70-keV images compared to the corresponding 201 Tl-only images. These artifacts were caused by the markedly different spatial distributions of scattered 99m Tc counts in the 100-keV (or 103-keV) window as compared with the 70-keV window. It is concluded that scattered 99m Tc photons may cause overestimation of ischemia and myocardial viability in simultaneous dual-isotope patient studies. The proposed subtraction technique was inaccurate and produced image artifacts. Adequate downscatter compensation methods must be developed before applying simultaneous 201 Tl/ 99m Tc acquisition in clinical practice. (orig.). With 6 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Voxel-Based Spatial Filtering Method for Canopy Height Retrieval from Airborne Single-Photon Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Tang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Airborne single-photon lidar (SPL is a new technology that holds considerable potential for forest structure and carbon monitoring at large spatial scales because it acquires 3D measurements of vegetation faster and more efficiently than conventional lidar instruments. However, SPL instruments use green wavelength (532 nm lasers, which are sensitive to background solar noise, and therefore SPL point clouds require more elaborate noise filtering than other lidar instruments to determine canopy heights, particularly in daytime acquisitions. Histogram-based aggregation is a commonly used approach for removing noise from photon counting lidar data, but it reduces the resolution of the dataset. Here we present an alternate voxel-based spatial filtering method that filters noise points efficiently while largely preserving the spatial integrity of SPL data. We develop and test our algorithms on an experimental SPL dataset acquired over Garrett County in Maryland, USA. We then compare canopy attributes retrieved using our new algorithm with those obtained from the conventional histogram binning approach. Our results show that canopy heights derived using the new algorithm have a strong agreement with field-measured heights (r2 = 0.69, bias = 0.42 m, RMSE = 4.85 m and discrete return lidar heights (r2 = 0.94, bias = 1.07 m, RMSE = 2.42 m. Results are consistently better than height accuracies from the histogram method (field data: r2 = 0.59, bias = 0.00 m, RMSE = 6.25 m; DRL: r2 = 0.78, bias = −0.06 m and RMSE = 4.88 m. Furthermore, we find that the spatial-filtering method retains fine-scale canopy structure detail and has lower errors over steep slopes. We therefore believe that automated spatial filtering algorithms such as the one presented here can support large-scale, canopy structure mapping from airborne SPL data.

  5. Assessment of endogenous dopamine release by methylphenidate challenge using iodine-123 iodobenzamide single-photon emission tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, J.; Korn, P.; Linszen, D. H.; van Royen, E. A.

    1997-01-01

    This double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessed pharmacologically induced endogenous dopamine (DA) release in healthy male volunteers (n=12). Changes in endogenous DA release after injection of the psychostimulant drug methylphenidate were evaluated by single-photon emission tomography (SPET)

  6. Few-view single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) reconstruction based on a blurred piecewise constant object model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, Paul A.; Jørgensen, Jakob Sauer; Schmidt, Taly G.

    2013-01-01

    A sparsity-exploiting algorithm intended for few-view Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) reconstruction is proposed and characterized. The algorithm models the object as piecewise constant subject to a blurring operation. To validate that the algorithm closely approximates the true...

  7. Diagnosing Alzheimer's disease in elderly, mildly demented patients: the impact of routine single photon emission computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gool, W. A.; Walstra, G. J.; Teunisse, S.; van der Zant, F. M.; Weinstein, H. C.; van Royen, E. A.

    1995-01-01

    Based on the observation of bilateral temporoparietal hypoperfusion in Alzheimer's disease (AD), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is advocated by some as a powerful diagnostic tool in the evaluation of demented patients. We studied whether routine brain SPECT in elderly, mildly

  8. On the excess photon noise in single-beam measurements with photo-emissive and photo-conductive cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, C.T.J.

    In this paper the so-called excess photon noise is theoretically considered with regard to noise power measurements with a single, illumined photo-emissive or photo-conductive cell. Starting from a modification of Mandel's stochastic association of the emission of photo-electrons with wave

  9. Search for anomalous production of single photons at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 130 and 136 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Agasi, E; Ajinenko, I; Aleksan, Roy; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barate, R; Barbi, M S; Barbiellini, Guido; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Buys, A; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Chauveau, J; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contreras, J L; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Dönszelmann, M; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Durand, J D; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrer, A; Fichet, S; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gibbs, M; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Gumenyuk, S A; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hao, W; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khokhlov, Yu A; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Korcyl, K; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Kramer, P H; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamblot, S; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Last, I; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leser, G; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemoigne, Y; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Maio, A; Malychev, V; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Maron, T; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Merk, M; Meroni, C; Meyer, S; Meyer, W T; Myagkov, A; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Novák, M; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Petrovykh, M; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Pindo, M; Plaszczynski, S; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Prest, M; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Rybicki, K; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sahr, O; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schimmelpfennig, M; Schneider, H; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Serbelloni, L; Shellard, R C; Siccama, I; Siegrist, P; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stevenson, K; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Thomas, J; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Todorova, S; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G; Wiele

    1996-01-01

    This letter reports the results of the measurement of single photon production in the reaction $e^+e^- \\rightarrow \\gamma +$ invisible particles at centre-of-mass energies $\\sqrt{s}=$~130 and 136 GeV and an integrated luminosity of 5.83~pb$

  10. Measurement of single photon production in e[sup +]e[sup -] collisions near the Z[sup 0] resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, R. (Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics); Alexander, G.; Allison, J.; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Astbury, A.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, R.J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J.R.; Beaudoin, G.; Beck, A.; Beck, G.A.; Becker, J.; Beeston, C.; Behnke, T.; Bell, K.W.; Bella, G.; Bentkowski, P.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berlich, P.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bock, P.; Bosch, H.M.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brown, R.M.; Buijs, A.; Burckhart, H.J.; Burgard, C.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlesworth, C.; Charlton, D.G.; Chu, S.L.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clayton, J.C.; Clowes, S.G.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Coupland, M.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallapiccola, C.; Darling, C.; Dallavalle, G.M.; Jong, S. de; Deng, H.; Dittmar, M.; Dixit, M.S.; Couto e Silva, E. do; Duchovni, E.; Duboscq, J.E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Dunwoody, U.C.; Elcombe, P.A.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Et; OPAL Collaboration

    1995-01-01

    A measurement of the single photon production cross-section is presented based on a data-sample of 40.5 pb[sup -1] collected with the OPAL detector at centre-of-mass energies within 3 GeV of the Z[sup 0] mass. Single photon events arise from initial state radiation and the production of an ''invisible'' final state consisting of neutrinos or possibly particles such as sneutrinos or photinos. The single photon topology is also sensitive to new Z[sup 0] decays such as Z[sup 0] [yields] anti [nu][nu][sup *] [yields] anti [nu][nu][gamma] or Z[sup 0] [yields] [gamma]X, X [yields] invisible particles. A total of 447 single photon candidates were observed with energy exceeding 1.75 GeV in the polar angle region vertical stroke cos [theta]vertical stroke < 0.7. The estimated background from processes with visible reaction products, mainly e[sup +]e[sup -] [yields] e[sup +]e[sup -][gamma], is 37 [+-] 6 events. Interpreting the cross-sections as being solely due to Z[sup 0] decay to invisible particles and the expected W-contributions, the Z[sup 0] invisible width is determined to be 539 [+-] 26 [+-] 17 MeV corresponding to N[sub [nu

  11. Exercise echocardiography and single photon emission computed tomography in patients with left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Salustri (Alessandro); M. Pozzoli (M.); B. Ilmer; W.R.M. Hermans (Walter); A.E.M. Reijs (Ambroos); J.H.C. Reiber (Johan); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos); P.M. Fioretti (Paolo)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractTo compare the diagnostic value of exercise echocardiography and perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the detection of the presence and the severity of coronary artery disease, we studied 21 patients with isolated stenosis of different degree of the left

  12. Quantum Correlations between Single Telecom Photons and a Multimode On-Demand Solid-State Quantum Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Seri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantum correlations between long-lived quantum memories and telecom photons that can propagate with low loss in optical fibers are an essential resource for the realization of large-scale quantum information networks. Significant progress has been realized in this direction with atomic and solid-state systems. Here, we demonstrate quantum correlations between a telecom photon and a multimode on-demand solid state quantum memory. This is achieved by mapping a correlated single photon onto a spin collective excitation in a Pr^{3+}:Y_{2}SiO_{5} crystal for a controllable time. The stored single photons are generated by cavity-enhanced spontaneous parametric down-conversion and heralded by their partner photons at telecom wavelength. These results represent the first demonstration of a multimode on-demand solid state quantum memory for external quantum states of light. They provide an important resource for quantum repeaters and pave the way for the implementation of quantum information networks with distant solid state quantum nodes.

  13. Frequency tuning of single photons from a whispering-gallery mode resonator to MHz-wide transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schunk, G.; Vogl, U.; Sedlmeir, F.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum repeaters rely on interfacing flying qubits with quantum memories. The most common implementations include a narrowband single photon matched in bandwidth and central frequency to an atomic system. Previously, we demonstrated the compatibility of our versatile source of heralded single....... Finally, we present an accurate analytical description of our observations. Providing the demonstrated flexibility in connecting various atomic transitions with telecom wavelengths, we show a promising approach to realize an essential building block for quantum repeaters....

  14. Photon-photon collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The study of photon-photon collisions has progressed enormously, stimulated by new data and new calculational tools for QCD. In the future we can expect precise determinations of ..cap alpha../sub s/ and ..lambda../sup ms/ from the ..gamma..*..gamma.. ..-->.. ..pi../sup 0/ form factor and the photon structure function, as well as detailed checks of QCD, determination of the shape of the hadron distribution amplitudes from ..gamma gamma.. ..-->.. H anti H, reconstruction of sigma/sub ..gamma gamma../ from exclusive channels at low W/sub ..gamma gamma../, definitive studies of high p/sub T/ hadron and jet production, and studies of threshold production of charmed systems. Photon-photon collisions, along with radiative decays of the psi and UPSILON, are ideal for the study of multiquark and gluonic resonances. We have emphasized the potential for resonance formation near threshold in virtually every hadronic exclusive channel, including heavy quark states c anti c c anti c, c anti c u anti u, etc. At higher energies SLC, LEP, ...) parity-violating electroweak effects and Higgs production due to equivalent Z/sup 0/ and W/sup + -/ beams from e ..-->.. eZ/sup 0/ and e ..-->.. nu W will become important. 44 references.

  15. Photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The study of photon-photon collisions has progressed enormously, stimulated by new data and new calculational tools for QCD. In the future we can expect precise determinations of α/sub s/ and Λ/sup ms/ from the γ*γ → π 0 form factor and the photon structure function, as well as detailed checks of QCD, determination of the shape of the hadron distribution amplitudes from γγ → H anti H, reconstruction of sigma/sub γγ/ from exclusive channels at low W/sub γγ/, definitive studies of high p/sub T/ hadron and jet production, and studies of threshold production of charmed systems. Photon-photon collisions, along with radiative decays of the psi and UPSILON, are ideal for the study of multiquark and gluonic resonances. We have emphasized the potential for resonance formation near threshold in virtually every hadronic exclusive channel, including heavy quark states c anti c c anti c, c anti c u anti u, etc. At higher energies SLC, LEP, ...) parity-violating electroweak effects and Higgs production due to equivalent Z 0 and W +- beams from e → eZ 0 and e → nu W will become important. 44 references

  16. Imaging of dopamine transporters in rats using high-resolution pinhole single-photon emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booij, Jan; Bruin, Kora de; Habraken, Jan B.A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, F2N, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Voorn, Pieter [Department of Anatomy, Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2002-09-01

    To date, the vast majority of investigations on the dopaminergic system in small animals have been in vitro studies. In comparison with in vitro studies, single-photon emission tomography (SPET) or positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of the dopaminergic system in small animals has the advantage of permitting repeated studies within the same group of animals. Dopamine transporter imaging is a valuable non-invasive tool with which to investigate the integrity of dopaminergic neurons. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of assessing dopamine transporter density semi-quantitatively in rats using a recently developed high-resolution pinhole SPET system. This system was built exclusively for imaging of small animals. In this unique single-pinhole system, the animal rotates instead of the collimated detector. The system has proven to have a high spatial resolution. We performed SPET imaging with [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT to quantify striatal dopamine transporters in rat brain. In all seven studied control rats, symmetrical striatal binding to dopamine transporters was seen 2 h after injection of the radiotracer, with striatal-to-cerebellar binding ratios of approximately 3.5. In addition, test/retest variability of the striatal-to-cerebellar binding ratios was studied and found to be 14.5%. Finally, in unilaterally 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats, striatal binding was only visible on the non-lesioned side. Quantitative analysis revealed that striatal-to-cerebellar SPET ratios were significantly lower on the lesioned (mean binding ratio 2.2{+-}0.2) than on the non-lesioned (mean ratio 3.1{+-}0.4) side. The preliminary results of this study indicate that semi-quantitative assessment of striatal dopamine transporter density using our recently developed high-resolution single-pinhole SPET system is feasible in living rat brain. (orig.)

  17. SPADAS: a high-speed 3D single-photon camera for advanced driver assistance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronzi, D.; Zou, Y.; Bellisai, S.; Villa, F.; Tisa, S.; Tosi, A.; Zappa, F.

    2015-02-01

    Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are the most advanced technologies to fight road accidents. Within ADAS, an important role is played by radar- and lidar-based sensors, which are mostly employed for collision avoidance and adaptive cruise control. Nonetheless, they have a narrow field-of-view and a limited ability to detect and differentiate objects. Standard camera-based technologies (e.g. stereovision) could balance these weaknesses, but they are currently not able to fulfill all automotive requirements (distance range, accuracy, acquisition speed, and frame-rate). To this purpose, we developed an automotive-oriented CMOS single-photon camera for optical 3D ranging based on indirect time-of-flight (iTOF) measurements. Imagers based on Single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays offer higher sensitivity with respect to CCD/CMOS rangefinders, have inherent better time resolution, higher accuracy and better linearity. Moreover, iTOF requires neither high bandwidth electronics nor short-pulsed lasers, hence allowing the development of cost-effective systems. The CMOS SPAD sensor is based on 64 × 32 pixels, each able to process both 2D intensity-data and 3D depth-ranging information, with background suppression. Pixel-level memories allow fully parallel imaging and prevents motion artefacts (skew, wobble, motion blur) and partial exposure effects, which otherwise would hinder the detection of fast moving objects. The camera is housed in an aluminum case supporting a 12 mm F/1.4 C-mount imaging lens, with a 40°×20° field-of-view. The whole system is very rugged and compact and a perfect solution for vehicle's cockpit, with dimensions of 80 mm × 45 mm × 70 mm, and less that 1 W consumption. To provide the required optical power (1.5 W, eye safe) and to allow fast (up to 25 MHz) modulation of the active illumination, we developed a modular laser source, based on five laser driver cards, with three 808 nm lasers each. We present the full characterization of

  18. Single photon sources using oxide apertured micropillars with integrated electrical control for novel functionalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltz, Nicholas G.

    The goal of this thesis is to apply the oxide apertured vertical cavity laser structure in order to explore quantum dot-microcavity coupling for the development of novel single photon sources (SPS). Optical microcavities combined with active emitters provide an opportunity to study the light matter interaction on a fundamental level. Edward Purcell first theorized in 1947 that the spontaneous emission (SE) rate of an optical emitter could be modified in the presence of an optical cavity. As semiconductor microcavity technology has advanced many optoelectronic devices have benefited from the increased SE rates predicted by the Purcell effect. The development of quantum emitters on an integrated semiconductor platform in the form of semiconductor self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) has expanded applications in the field. Coupling atomic emitters to optical microcavities in the solid state allows for the study of cavity quantum electrodynamics and the fabrication single photon (SP) devices. Optoelectronic devices providing non-classical light states have a broad range of applications in quantum information science, including quantum key distribution systems, quantum lithography, and quantum computing. Here, the oxide apertured micropillar approach demonstrates high quality microcavities with cavity quality factors up to 50,000 and measured Purcell enhancements of 10. In addition the inherent advantages provided by the oxide apertured micropillar, specifically high collection efficiency, have produced SPSs with record high SP rates and quantum efficiencies representing a six-fold improvement over reported values. In addition we have developed and integrated a scheme allowing for on-chip electrical control of SP devices for the implementation of SPSs with novel functionalities. The active electrical control of QD charge state has allowed for the elimination of dark states which severely limit SP rates and efficiencies. The active electrical tuning of QD emission energy

  19. Single photon emission and quantum ring-cavity coupling in InAs/GaAs quantum rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo, E; Nowak, A K; Sanvitto, D; Meulen, H P van der; Calleja, J M [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); MartInez, L J; Prieto, I; Alija, A R; Granados, D; Taboada, A G; GarcIa, J M; Postigo, P A [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid, Centro Nacional de MicrotecnologIa, CSIC, Isaac Newton 8, PTM Tres Cantos, E-28760 Madrid (Spain); Sarkar, D, E-mail: eva.gallardo@uam.e [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-01

    Different InAs/GaAs quantum rings embedded in a photonic crystal microcavity are studied by quantum correlation measurements. Single photon emission, with g{sup (2)}(0) values around 0.3, is demonstrated for a quantum ring not coupled to the microcavity. Characteristic rise-times are found to be longer for excitons than for biexcitons, resulting in the time asymmetry of the exciton-biexciton cross-correlation. No antibunching is observed in another quantum ring weakly coupled to the microcavity.

  20. Nonlinear optics at the single-photon level inside a hollow core fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofferberth, Sebastian; Peyronel, Thibault; Liang, Qiyu

    2011-01-01

    Cold atoms inside a hollow core fiber provide an unique system for studying optical nonlinearities at the few-photon level. Confinement of both atoms and photons inside the fiber core to a diameter of just a few wavelengths results in high electric field intensity per photon and large optical...... depths with a relatively small number of atoms. We present our experimental apparatus and discuss results regarding all-optical switching at ultra-low light levels....