WorldWideScience

Sample records for single vehicle traffic

  1. Criterion for traffic phases in single vehicle data and empirical test of a microscopic three-phase traffic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, Boris S; Klenov, Sergey L; Hiller, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Based on empirical and numerical microscopic analyses, the physical nature of a qualitatively different behaviour of the wide moving jam phase in comparison with the synchronized flow phase-microscopic traffic flow interruption within the wide moving jam phase-is found. A microscopic criterion for distinguishing the synchronized flow and wide moving jam phases in single vehicle data measured at a single freeway location is presented. Based on this criterion, empirical microscopic classification of different local congested traffic states is performed. Simulations made show that the microscopic criterion and macroscopic spatiotemporal objective criteria lead to the same identification of the synchronized flow and wide moving jam phases in congested traffic. Microscopic models in the context of three-phase traffic theory have been tested based on the microscopic criterion for the phases in congested traffic. It is found that microscopic three-phase traffic models can explain both microscopic and macroscopic empirical congested pattern features. It is obtained that microscopic frequency distributions for vehicle speed difference as well as fundamental diagrams and speed correlation functions can depend on the spatial co-ordinate considerably. It turns out that microscopic optimal velocity (OV) functions and time headway distributions are not necessarily qualitatively different, even if local congested traffic states are qualitatively different. The reason for this is that important spatiotemporal features of congested traffic patterns are lost in these as well as in many other macroscopic and microscopic traffic characteristics, which are widely used as the empirical basis for a test of traffic flow models, specifically, cellular automata traffic flow models

  2. Traffic Information Unit, Traffic Information System, Vehicle Management System, Vehicle, and Method of Controlling a Vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papp, Z.; Doodeman, G.J.N.; Nelisse, M.W.; Sijs, J.; Theeuwes, J.A.C.; Driessen, B.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    A traffic information unit (MD1, MD2, MD3) according to the invention comprises a facility (MI) for tracking vehicle state information of individual vehicles present at a traffic infrastructure and a facility (T) for transmitting said vehicle state information to a vehicle (70B, 70E). A traffic

  3. The Influence of Intersections on Fuel Consumption in Urban Arterial Road Traffic: A Single Vehicle Test in Harbin, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Wu

    Full Text Available The calculating method for fuel consumption (FC was put forward and calibrated and the characteristics of the fuel consumption on intersections were analyzed based on 18 groups of vehicular operating data which were acquired from the test experiment of a single vehicle along the urban arterial roads in Harbin, China. The results obtained show that 50.36% of the fuel consumption for the test vehicle was used at the area of intersections compared with 28.9% of the influencing distance and 68.5% of the running time; and 78.4% of them was burnt at the stages of acceleration and idling. Meanwhile, the type

  4. Will Automated Vehicles Negatively Impact Traffic Flow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Calvert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With low-level vehicle automation already available, there is a necessity to estimate its effects on traffic flow, especially if these could be negative. A long gradual transition will occur from manual driving to automated driving, in which many yet unknown traffic flow dynamics will be present. These effects have the potential to increasingly aid or cripple current road networks. In this contribution, we investigate these effects using an empirically calibrated and validated simulation experiment, backed up with findings from literature. We found that low-level automated vehicles in mixed traffic will initially have a small negative effect on traffic flow and road capacities. The experiment further showed that any improvement in traffic flow will only be seen at penetration rates above 70%. Also, the capacity drop appeared to be slightly higher with the presence of low-level automated vehicles. The experiment further investigated the effect of bottleneck severity and truck shares on traffic flow. Improvements to current traffic models are recommended and should include a greater detail and understanding of driver-vehicle interaction, both in conventional and in mixed traffic flow. Further research into behavioural shifts in driving is also recommended due to limited data and knowledge of these dynamics.

  5. 2008 South Dakota motor vehicle traffic crash summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    The Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Summary is divided into two main sections, Historical : Trends and 2008 Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Profile. The Historical Trend section : provides information on alcohol involvement in motor vehicle crashes, severity...

  6. 2010 South Dakota motor vehicle traffic crash summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Summary is divided into two main sections, Historical Trends and 2010 Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Profile. The Historical Trend section provides information on alcohol involvement in motor vehicle crashes, severity of ...

  7. 2009 South Dakota motor vehicle traffic crash summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Summary is divided into two main sections, Historical : Trends and 2009 Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Profile. The Historical Trend section : provides information on alcohol involvement in motor vehicle crashes, severity...

  8. Remotely Accessed Vehicle Traffic Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alawi, Raida

    2010-06-01

    The ever increasing number of vehicles in most metropolitan cities around the world and the limitation in altering the transportation infrastructure, led to serious traffic congestion and an increase in the travelling time. In this work we exploit the emergence of novel technologies such as the internet, to design an intelligent Traffic Management System (TMS) that can remotely monitor and control a network of traffic light controllers located at different sites. The system is based on utilizing Embedded Web Servers (EWS) technology to design a web-based TMS. The EWS located at each intersection uses IP technology for communicating remotely with a Central Traffic Management Unit (CTMU) located at the traffic department authority. Friendly GUI software installed at the CTMU will be able to monitor the sequence of operation of the traffic lights and the presence of traffic at each intersection as well as remotely controlling the operation of the signals. The system has been validated by constructing a prototype that resembles the real application.

  9. Traffic theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gazis, Denos C

    2002-01-01

    ... of traffic signal settings The vehicle-actuated traffic signal 87 89 77 CHAPTER 3. TRAFFIC CONTROL 101 Objectives of Traffic Control 103 Single, Isolated Intersection 105 Synchronization Scheme...

  10. Automated mixed traffic vehicle design AMTV 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. R.; Marks, R. A.; Cassell, P. L.

    1982-01-01

    The design of an improved and enclosed Automated Mixed Traffic Transit (AMTT) vehicle is described. AMTT is an innovative concept for low-speed tram-type transit in which suitable vehicles are equipped with sensors and controls to permit them to operate in an automated mode on existing road or walkway surfaces. The vehicle chassis and body design are presented in terms of sketches and photographs. The functional design of the sensing and control system is presented, and modifications which could be made to the baseline design for improved performance, in particular to incorporate a 20-mph capability, are also discussed. The vehicle system is described at the block-diagram-level of detail. Specifications and parameter values are given where available.

  11. Traffic signal control enhancements under vehicle infrastructure integration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Most current traffic signal systems are operated using a very archaic traffic-detection simple binary : logic (vehicle presence/non presence information). The logic was originally developed to provide input for old : electro-mechanical controllers th...

  12. Automated mixed traffic transit vehicle microprocessor controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, R. A.; Cassell, P.; Johnston, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    An improved Automated Mixed Traffic Vehicle (AMTV) speed control system employing a microprocessor and transistor chopper motor current controller is described and its performance is presented in terms of velocity versus time curves. The on board computer hardware and software systems are described as is the software development system. All of the programming used in this controller was implemented using FORTRAN. This microprocessor controller made possible a number of safety features and improved the comfort associated with starting and shopping. In addition, most of the vehicle's performance characteristics can be altered by simple program parameter changes. A failure analysis of the microprocessor controller was generated and the results are included. Flow diagrams for the speed control algorithms and complete FORTRAN code listings are also included.

  13. [Risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, M J; Chen, Y; Li, Y; Hu, J; Zhang, X J

    2017-08-20

    Objective: To examine the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers. Methods: A total of 103 drivers (who had suffered agricultural vehicle road traffic injury within the past year based on the road traffic injury registrar from the Traffic Management Bureau) who were involved in the annual agricultural vehicle inspection from December 2014 to January 2015 were randomly sampled from the Yixing Agricultural Vehicle Station as the case group for this study. Based on a 1∶2 assignment ratio and matched for sex, age, and education, a total of 206 drivers who had not suffered any agricultural vehicle road traffic injury within the past year were selected as the control group. The general information, vehicle information, driving information, driving behavior, and accident details of the agricultural vehicle drivers were analyzed. Results: The incidence rate of road traffic injury was 7.24% given the 103 agricultural vehicle drivers who had suffered agricultural vehicle road traffic injury in the past year. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that drinking, debt, pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, smoking and phone use during driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness were the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers ( OR =2.332, 2.429, 19.778, 5.589, 8.517, 2.125, 3.203, 10.249 and 5.639, respectively) . Multivariate logistic regression analysis also demonstrated that pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness were the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers ( OR =12.139, 11.184, 6.729, 5.939, and 6.544, respectively) . Conclusion: Pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness are the major risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers.

  14. Traffic State Estimation Using Connected Vehicles and Stationary Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen F. Grumert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Real-time traffic state estimation is of importance for efficient traffic management. This is especially the case for traffic management systems that require fast detection of changes in the traffic conditions in order to apply an effective control measure. In this paper, we propose a method for estimating the traffic state and speed and density, by using connected vehicles combined with stationary detectors. The aim is to allow fast and accurate estimation of changes in the traffic conditions. The proposed method does only require information about the speed and the position of connected vehicles and can make use of sparsely located stationary detectors to limit the dependence on the infrastructure equipment. An evaluation of the proposed method is carried out by microscopic traffic simulation. The traffic state estimated using the proposed method is compared to the true simulated traffic state. Further, the density estimates are compared to density estimates from one detector-based method, one combined method, and one connected-vehicle-based method. The results of the study show that the proposed method is a promising alternative for estimating the traffic state in traffic management applications.

  15. Automated mixed traffic vehicle control and scheduling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, T. K. C.; Chon, K.

    1976-01-01

    The operation and the expected performance of a proposed automatic guideway transit system which uses low speed automated mixed traffic vehicles (AMTVs) were analyzed. Vehicle scheduling and headway control policies were evaluated with a transit system simulation model. The effect of mixed traffic interference on the average vehicle speed was examined with a vehicle pedestrian interface model. Control parameters regulating vehicle speed were evaluated for safe stopping and passenger comfort. Some preliminary data on the cost and operation of an experimental AMTV system are included. These data were the result of a separate task conducted at JPL, and were included as background information.

  16. Contributions of vehicle inspection operations to traffic system in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The general view about the routine vehicle inspection operations is to ensure that vehicles are road worthy and meet safety requirements. This is done to enhance safe and clean transport within urban centres since the nature and condition of vehicles on roads can be associated with the efficiency of traffic system.

  17. Mobile Crowd Sensing for Traffic Prediction in Internet of Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiafu; Liu, Jianqi; Shao, Zehui; Vasilakos, Athanasios V; Imran, Muhammad; Zhou, Keliang

    2016-01-11

    The advances in wireless communication techniques, mobile cloud computing, automotive and intelligent terminal technology are driving the evolution of vehicle ad hoc networks into the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) paradigm. This leads to a change in the vehicle routing problem from a calculation based on static data towards real-time traffic prediction. In this paper, we first address the taxonomy of cloud-assisted IoV from the viewpoint of the service relationship between cloud computing and IoV. Then, we review the traditional traffic prediction approached used by both Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) and Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) communications. On this basis, we propose a mobile crowd sensing technology to support the creation of dynamic route choices for drivers wishing to avoid congestion. Experiments were carried out to verify the proposed approaches. Finally, we discuss the outlook of reliable traffic prediction.

  18. Risk analysis of autonomous vehicles in mixed traffic streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the risks associated with the failure of autonomous vehicles in mixed traffic streams and develop strategies to minimize these risks. Three distinct and interconnected phases were used to conduct the risk a...

  19. Detecting Approaching Vehicles at Streets with No Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Robert Wall; Sauerburger, Dona

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the ability of people with visual impairments to reliably detect oncoming traffic at crossing situations with no traffic control. In at least one condition, the participants could not hear vehicles to afford a safe crossing time when sound levels were as quiet as possible. Significant predictors of detection accounted for a…

  20. Traffic control and intelligent vehicle highway systems: a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baskar, L.D.; Schutter, B. de; Hellendoorn, J.; Papp, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic congestion in highway networks is one of the main issues to be addressed by today's traffic management schemes. Automation combined with the increasing market penetration of on-line communication, navigation and advanced driver assistance systems will ultimately result in intelligent vehicle

  1. Traffic Congestion Detection System through Connected Vehicles and Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Benítez, Néstor; Aquino-Santos, Raúl; Magaña-Espinoza, Pedro; Aguilar-Velazco, José; Edwards-Block, Arthur; Medina Cass, Aldo

    2016-04-28

    This article discusses the simulation and evaluation of a traffic congestion detection system which combines inter-vehicular communications, fixed roadside infrastructure and infrastructure-to-infrastructure connectivity and big data. The system discussed in this article permits drivers to identify traffic congestion and change their routes accordingly, thus reducing the total emissions of CO₂ and decreasing travel time. This system monitors, processes and stores large amounts of data, which can detect traffic congestion in a precise way by means of a series of algorithms that reduces localized vehicular emission by rerouting vehicles. To simulate and evaluate the proposed system, a big data cluster was developed based on Cassandra, which was used in tandem with the OMNeT++ discreet event network simulator, coupled with the SUMO (Simulation of Urban MObility) traffic simulator and the Veins vehicular network framework. The results validate the efficiency of the traffic detection system and its positive impact in detecting, reporting and rerouting traffic when traffic events occur.

  2. Strobe Traffic Lights Warn of Approaching Emergency Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    Strobe-enhanced traffic signals have been developed to aid in the preemption of road intersections for emergency vehicles. The strobe-enhanced traffic signals can be incorporated into both new and pre-existing traffic-control systems in which the traffic-signal heads are of a relatively new type based on arrays of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The strobe-enhanced traffic signals offer a less expensive, less complex alternative to a recently developed system of LED-based warning signs placed next to traffic signals. Because of its visual complexity, the combination of traffic signals and warning signs is potentially confusing to motorists. The strobe-enhanced traffic signals present less visual clutter. In a given traffic-signal head, the strobe-enhanced traffic signal is embedded in the red LED array of the stop signal. Two strobe LED strips one horizontal and one vertical are made capable of operating separately from the rest of the red LED matrix. When no emergency vehicle is approaching, the red LED array functions as a normal stop signal: all the red LEDs are turned on and off together. When the intersection is to be preempted for an approaching emergency vehicle, only the LEDs in one of the strobe strips are lit, and are turned on in a sequence that indicates the direction of approach. For example (see figure), if an emergency vehicle approaches from the right, the strobe LEDs are lit in a sequence moving from right to left. Important to the success of strobe-enhanced traffic signals is conformance to city ordinances and close relation to pre-existing traffic standards. For instance, one key restriction is that new icons must not include arrows, so that motorists will not confuse new icons with conventional arrows that indicate allowed directions of movement. It is also critical that new displays like strobe-enhanced traffic signals be similar to displays used in traffic-control systems in large cities. For example, Charleston, South Carolina uses horizontal

  3. Multiple Vehicle Detection and Segmentation in Malaysia Traffic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariz Hasan, Ahmad; Fikri Che Husin, Mohd; Affendi Rosli, Khairul; Norhafiz Hashim, Mohd; Faiz Zainal Abidin, Amar

    2018-03-01

    Vision based system are widely used in the field of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) to extract a large amount of information to analyze traffic scenes. By rapid number of vehicles on the road as well as significant increase on cameras dictated the need for traffic surveillance systems. This system can take over the burden some task was performed by human operator in traffic monitoring centre. The main technique proposed by this paper is concentrated on developing a multiple vehicle detection and segmentation focusing on monitoring through Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) video. The system is able to automatically segment vehicle extracted from heavy traffic scene by optical flow estimation alongside with blob analysis technique in order to detect the moving vehicle. Prior to segmentation, blob analysis technique will compute the area of interest region corresponding to moving vehicle which will be used to create bounding box on that particular vehicle. Experimental validation on the proposed system was performed and the algorithm is demonstrated on various set of traffic scene.

  4. Analysis of the influence of occupation rate of public transit vehicles on mixing traffic flow in a two-lane system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yong-Sheng; Shi, Pei-Ji; Zeng, Qiong; Ma, Chang-Xi; Lin, Fang; Sun, Peng; Yin, Xiao-Ting

    2009-09-01

    Based on the existing classical cellular automaton model of traffic flow, a cellular automaton traffic model with different-maximum-speed vehicles mixed on a single lane is proposed, in which public transit and harbour-shaped bus stops are taken into consideration. Parameters such as length of cellular automaton, operation speed and random slow mechanism are re-demarcated. A harbour-shaped bus stop is set up and the vehicle changing lane regulation is changed. Through computer simulation, the influence of occupation rate of public transit vehicles on mixed traffic flow and traffic capacity is analysed. The results show that a public transport system can ease urban traffic congestion but creates new jams at the same time, and that the influence of occupation rate of public transit vehicles on traffic capacity is considerable. To develop urban traffic, attention should be paid to the occupation rate of public transit vehicles and traffic development in a haphazard way should be strictly avoided.

  5. Online Traffic Signal Control for Reducing Vehicle Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Toshihiko; Otokita, Tohru; Niikura, Satoshi

    In Japan, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions caused by vehicles have been increasing year by year and it is well known that CO2 causes a serious global warming problem. For urban traffic control systems, there is a great demand for realization of signal control measures as soon as possible due to the urgency of the recent environmental situation. This paper describes a new traffic signal control for reducing vehicle CO2 emissions on an arterial road. First, we develop a model for estimating the emissions using the traffic delay and the number of stops a driver makes. Second, to find the optimal control parameters, we introduce a random search method with rapid convergence suitable for an online traffic control. We conduct experiments in Kawasaki to verify the effectiveness of our method. The experiments show that our approach decreases not only the emissions but also congestion and travel time significantly, compared to the method implemented in the real system.

  6. A vehicle overtaking model of traffic dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, S; McCartney, M

    2007-09-01

    Mathematical models that describe the dynamical behavior of a group of vehicles as they move along a stretch of road are known as car following models. They attempt to model the interactions between individual vehicles where the behavior of each vehicle is dependent on the motion of the vehicle directly in front and overtaking is not permitted. In this paper, the traditional car following model is modified by removing this "no overtaking" restriction and its behavior is investigated for a group of vehicles traveling on a closed loop. The resulting model is described in terms of a set of coupled time delay differential equations, and these are solved numerically to analyze their post transient behavior under a periodic perturbation. The effect of varying both the time taken for the driver to respond to the behavior of the vehicle in front and the length of the closed loop is examined. For certain parameter choices, the post transient behavior is found to be chaotic, and in these cases the degree of chaos is estimated using the Grassberger-Procaccia dimension.

  7. Agricultural Vehicles and Rural Road Traffic Safety: an Engineering Challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, C.F.; Vries, de J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Road collisions are a problem world-wide. Related to the kilometers traveled on public roads agricultural vehicles (AVs) are over-represented in reported numbers of traffic victims. We aim to investigate how agricultural engineering can reduce accidents with AVs involved on public roads. We

  8. Intelligent Traffic Control System Implementation for Traffic Violation Control, Congestion Control and Stolen Vehicle Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarup Suresh Kulkarni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Traffic is significant issue in our nation, particularly in urban ranges. Aftereffect of this, activity clog issue happens. Crisis vehicle like rescue vehicle, fire unit, squad cars confront bunches of issue to achieve their goal on account of congested driving conditions, coming about loss of human lives. To minimize this issue we approach new idea name as ”Traffic control framework for blockage control and stolen Vehicle location”. In this framework activity freedom done by transforming Red flag into Green flag. We demonstrate idea of what is called ”Green wave”. Alongside this, we distinguish stolen vehicle by utilizing extremely advantageous RFID innovation. In the event that stolen vehicle is been distinguished, the framework gives ready sign through ringer. Framework sends Message with the assistance of GSM to Police station. In this framework we Use diverse RFID labels for recognizing rescue vehicle, stolen Vehicles. On the off chance that Red flag is on and IR sensor is initiated, then framework gives ringer alarm to movement police. This is novel framework which encourage great answer for comprehend traffic clog.

  9. Taking Over Control From Highly Automated Vehicles in Complex Traffic Situations: The Role of Traffic Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Christian; Körber, Moritz; Lechner, David; Bengler, Klaus

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of traffic density and verbal tasks on takeover performance in highly automated driving. In highly automated vehicles, the driver has to occasionally take over vehicle control when approaching system limits. To ensure safety, the ability of the driver to regain control of the driving task under various driving situations and different driver states needs to be quantified. Seventy-two participants experienced takeover situations requiring an evasive maneuver on a three-lane highway with varying traffic density (zero, 10, and 20 vehicles per kilometer). In a between-subjects design, half of the participants were engaged in a verbal 20-Questions Task, representing speaking on the phone while driving in a highly automated vehicle. The presence of traffic in takeover situations led to longer takeover times and worse takeover quality in the form of shorter time to collision and more collisions. The 20-Questions Task did not influence takeover time but seemed to have minor effects on the takeover quality. For the design and evaluation of human-machine interaction in takeover situations of highly automated vehicles, the traffic state seems to play a major role, compared to the driver state, manipulated by the 20-Questions Task. The present results can be used by developers of highly automated systems to appropriately design human-machine interfaces and to assess the driver's time budget for regaining control. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  10. Is vehicle automation enough to prevent crashes? Role of traffic operations in automated driving environments for traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eunbi; Oh, Cheol; Lee, Seolyoung

    2017-07-01

    Automated driving systems (ADSs) are expected to prevent traffic accidents caused by driver carelessness on freeways. There is no doubt regarding this safety benefit if all vehicles in the transportation system were equipped with ADSs; however, it is implausible to expect that ADSs will reach 100% market penetration rate (MPR) in the near future. Therefore, the following question arises: 'Can ADSs, which consider only situations in the vicinity of an equipped vehicle, really contribute to a significant reduction in traffic accidents?' To address this issue, the interactions between equipped and unequipped vehicles must be investigated, which is the purpose of this study. This study evaluated traffic safety at different MPRs based on a proposed index to represent the overall rear-end crash risk of the traffic stream. Two approaches were evaluated for adjusting longitudinal vehicle maneuvers: vehicle safety-based maneuvering (VSM), which considers the crash risk of an equipped vehicle and its neighboring vehicles, and traffic safety-based maneuvering (TSM), which considers the overall crash risk in the traffic stream. TSM assumes that traffic operational agencies are able to monitor all the vehicles and to intervene in vehicle maneuvering. An optimization process, which attempts to obtain vehicle maneuvering control parameters to minimize the overall crash risk, is integrated into the proposed evaluation framework. The main purpose of employing the optimization process for vehicle maneuvering in this study is to identify opportunities to improve traffic safety through effective traffic management rather than developing a vehicle control algorithm that can be implemented in practice. The microscopic traffic simulator VISSIM was used to simulate the freeway traffic stream and to conduct systematic evaluations based on the proposed methodology. Both TSM and VSM achieved significant reductions in the potential for rear-end crashes. However, TSM obtained much greater

  11. Traffic Congestion Detection System through Connected Vehicles and Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Cárdenas-Benítez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the simulation and evaluation of a traffic congestion detection system which combines inter-vehicular communications, fixed roadside infrastructure and infrastructure-to-infrastructure connectivity and big data. The system discussed in this article permits drivers to identify traffic congestion and change their routes accordingly, thus reducing the total emissions of CO2 and decreasing travel time. This system monitors, processes and stores large amounts of data, which can detect traffic congestion in a precise way by means of a series of algorithms that reduces localized vehicular emission by rerouting vehicles. To simulate and evaluate the proposed system, a big data cluster was developed based on Cassandra, which was used in tandem with the OMNeT++ discreet event network simulator, coupled with the SUMO (Simulation of Urban MObility traffic simulator and the Veins vehicular network framework. The results validate the efficiency of the traffic detection system and its positive impact in detecting, reporting and rerouting traffic when traffic events occur.

  12. Differential Rollover Risk in Vehicle-to-Traffic Barrier Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabauer, Douglas J.; Gabler, Hampton C.

    2009-01-01

    In the roadside safety community, there has been debate over the influence of vehicle and barrier type on rollover rates in traffic barrier crashes. This study investigated rollover rates between sport utility vehicles (SUVs), pickup trucks, and cars in vehicle-traffic barrier crashes and has examined the effect of barrier type on rollover risk for concrete barrier and metal barrier impacts. The analysis included 955 barrier impact cases that were selected from 11-years of in-depth crash data available through the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) / Crashworthiness Data System (CDS). In real world tow-away level longitudinal barrier collisions, the most important predictors of vehicle rollover were found to be vehicle type and whether the vehicle was tracking prior to barrier impact. Based on binary logistic regression, SUVs were found to have 8 times the risk of rollover as cars in barrier impacts. Although pickups were found to have an increased risk of rollover compared to cars, the risk was not as pronounced as that found for SUVs. This finding has direct implications for the full scale crash testing of longitudinal barriers as the testing procedures have been predicated on the assumption that the pickup truck provides a critical or worst case impact scenario. In towaway crashes, our study does not support the notion that concrete barriers have a higher risk of vehicle rollover than metal beam barriers. PMID:20184839

  13. Road traffic safety in conjunction with in-vehicle ITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja TOPOLŠEK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in Intelligent Transportation Systems comes from the problems caused by traffic congestion, road accidents and air pollution. Traffic congestion continues to grow worldwide as a result of increased motorization, population growth, changes in population density and urbanization. Interest in ITS can also be attributed to reducing road accidents and increasing traffic safety. The most common causes for road accidents are excessive speed, inattentive driving and ignorance of the right-of-way rules. To eliminate these causes, experience, knowledge of traffic regulations and a new car are not enough – vehicle safety systems have to take part as well. Therefore, the European Union issued a directive on the installation of intelligent systems, whose functions are active support during driving, warning the driver in dangerous situations and alerting passengers of the car in case of irregularities in motor function or actions carried out by the driver that may cause danger, such as swerving while falling asleep. These systems help drivers to avoid accidents, and in the event of a collision, an emergency call is automatically made. Furthermore, they can be used to regulate traffic patterns or to reduce engine performance, which would reduce pollution. With these benefits in mind, the EU has indicated to the automotive industry that installation of these new Intelligent Transportation Systems should be mandatory in their new vehicles.

  14. Modeling connected and autonomous vehicles in heterogeneous traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lanhang; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a heterogeneous traffic-flow model to study the possible impact of connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs) on the traffic flow. Based on a recently proposed two-state safe-speed model (TSM), a two-lane cellular automaton (CA) model was developed, wherein both the CAVs and conventional vehicles were incorporated in the heterogeneous traffic flow. In particular, operation rules for CAVs are established considering the new characteristics of this emerging technology, including autonomous driving through the adaptive cruise control and inter-vehicle connection via short-range communication. Simulations were conducted under various CAV-penetration rates in the heterogeneous flow. The impact of CAVs on the road capacity was numerically investigated. The simulation results indicate that the road capacity increases with an increase in the CAV-penetration rate within the heterogeneous flow. Up to a CAV-penetration rate of 30%, the road capacity increases gradually; the effect of the difference in the CAV capability on the growth rate is insignificant. When the CAV-penetration rate exceeds 30%, the growth rate is largely decided by the capability of the CAV. The greater the capability, the higher the road-capacity growth rate. The relationship between the CAV-penetration rate and the road capacity is numerically analyzed, providing some insights into the possible impact of the CAVs on traffic systems.

  15. Traffic Management for Emergency Vehicle Priority Based on Visual Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapileswar Nellore

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular traffic is endlessly increasing everywhere in the world and can cause terrible traffic congestion at intersections. Most of the traffic lights today feature a fixed green light sequence, therefore the green light sequence is determined without taking the presence of the emergency vehicles into account. Therefore, emergency vehicles such as ambulances, police cars, fire engines, etc. stuck in a traffic jam and delayed in reaching their destination can lead to loss of property and valuable lives. This paper presents an approach to schedule emergency vehicles in traffic. The approach combines the measurement of the distance between the emergency vehicle and an intersection using visual sensing methods, vehicle counting and time sensitive alert transmission within the sensor network. The distance between the emergency vehicle and the intersection is calculated for comparison using Euclidean distance, Manhattan distance and Canberra distance techniques. The experimental results have shown that the Euclidean distance outperforms other distance measurement techniques. Along with visual sensing techniques to collect emergency vehicle information, it is very important to have a Medium Access Control (MAC protocol to deliver the emergency vehicle information to the Traffic Management Center (TMC with less delay. Then only the emergency vehicle is quickly served and can reach the destination in time. In this paper, we have also investigated the MAC layer in WSNs to prioritize the emergency vehicle data and to reduce the transmission delay for emergency messages. We have modified the medium access procedure used in standard IEEE 802.11p with PE-MAC protocol, which is a new back off selection and contention window adjustment scheme to achieve low broadcast delay for emergency messages. A VANET model for the UTMS is developed and simulated in NS-2. The performance of the standard IEEE 802.11p and the proposed PE-MAC is analysed in detail. The NS-2

  16. Traffic Management for Emergency Vehicle Priority Based on Visual Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellore, Kapileswar; Hancke, Gerhard P

    2016-11-10

    Vehicular traffic is endlessly increasing everywhere in the world and can cause terrible traffic congestion at intersections. Most of the traffic lights today feature a fixed green light sequence, therefore the green light sequence is determined without taking the presence of the emergency vehicles into account. Therefore, emergency vehicles such as ambulances, police cars, fire engines, etc. stuck in a traffic jam and delayed in reaching their destination can lead to loss of property and valuable lives. This paper presents an approach to schedule emergency vehicles in traffic. The approach combines the measurement of the distance between the emergency vehicle and an intersection using visual sensing methods, vehicle counting and time sensitive alert transmission within the sensor network. The distance between the emergency vehicle and the intersection is calculated for comparison using Euclidean distance, Manhattan distance and Canberra distance techniques. The experimental results have shown that the Euclidean distance outperforms other distance measurement techniques. Along with visual sensing techniques to collect emergency vehicle information, it is very important to have a Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol to deliver the emergency vehicle information to the Traffic Management Center (TMC) with less delay. Then only the emergency vehicle is quickly served and can reach the destination in time. In this paper, we have also investigated the MAC layer in WSNs to prioritize the emergency vehicle data and to reduce the transmission delay for emergency messages. We have modified the medium access procedure used in standard IEEE 802.11p with PE-MAC protocol, which is a new back off selection and contention window adjustment scheme to achieve low broadcast delay for emergency messages. A VANET model for the UTMS is developed and simulated in NS-2. The performance of the standard IEEE 802.11p and the proposed PE-MAC is analysed in detail. The NS-2 simulation results

  17. Connect & Drive - On the use of vehicle-to-vehicle communications to increase Traffic Stability and Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijenk, Geert

    2009-01-01

    At moderate to high traffic densities, road traffic exhibits an unstable behavior, resulting in decrease traffic efficiency. One of the phenomena that can be observed at these densities is the propagation of shock waves against the flow of traffic, which seriously reduce the speed of vehicles. The

  18. Traffic-Light-Preemption Vehicle-Transponder Software Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Aaron; Foster, Conrad

    2005-01-01

    A prototype wireless data-communication and control system automatically modifies the switching of traffic lights to give priority to emergency vehicles. The system, which was reported in several NASA Tech Briefs articles at earlier stages of development, includes a transponder on each emergency vehicle, a monitoring and control unit (an intersection controller) at each intersection equipped with traffic lights, and a central monitoring subsystem. An essential component of the system is a software module executed by a microcontroller in each transponder. This module integrates and broadcasts data on the position, velocity, acceleration, and emergency status of the vehicle. The position, velocity, and acceleration data are derived partly from the Global Positioning System, partly from deductive reckoning, and partly from a diagnostic computer aboard the vehicle. The software module also monitors similar broadcasts from other vehicles and from intersection controllers, informs the driver of which intersections it controls, and generates visible and audible alerts to inform the driver of any other emergency vehicles that are close enough to create a potential hazard. The execution of the software module can be monitored remotely and the module can be upgraded remotely and, hence, automatically

  19. Traffic behavior of mixed traffic flow with two kinds of different self-stabilizing control vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Li, Wenzhong; Xu, Shangzhi; Qian, Yeqing; Sun, Jian

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a heterogeneous car following model in terms of an extension to the original optimal velocity model characterizing two classes of different self-stabilizing control vehicles. Linear stability analysis method is utilized to the extended model, for purpose to explore how the varying percentages of the vehicles with short-duration self-stabilizing control influence the stability of the heterogeneous traffic flow. We obtain the neutral stability lines for different percentages of two classes of vehicles, with finding that the traffic flow trends to stable with the decrease of the percentage for short-duration self-stabilizing control vehicles. Moreover, we explore a special case that the same numbers of two different classes of vehicles with self-stabilizing control. We theoretically derive the stability condition of the special case, and conclude the effect of the average value and the standard deviation of two time gaps, on the heterogeneous traffic stability. At last, direct simulations are conducted to verify the conclusion of theoretical analysis.

  20. Control techniques for an automated mixed traffic vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenholder, G. W.; Johnston, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes an automated mixed traffic vehicle (AMTV), a driverless low-speed tram designed to operate in mixed pedestrian and vehicular traffic. The vehicle is a six-passenger electric tram equipped with sensing and control which permit it to function on existing streets in an automatic mode. The design includes established wire-following techniques for steering and near-IR headway sensors. A 7-mph cruise speed is reduced to 2 mph or a complete stop in response to sensor (or passenger) inputs. The AMTV performance is evaluated by operation on a loop route and by simulation. Some necessary improvements involving sensors, sensor pattern, use of an audible signal, and control lag are discussed. It is suggested that appropriate modifications will eliminate collision incidents.

  1. Investigation of the Link Between Macroscopic Traffic Flow Characteristics and Individual Vehicle Fuel Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This project investigated the factors impacting individual vehicle energy consumption, including vehicle characteristics, ambient temperature, season, speed, driving behavior, and traffic flow. A fleet of 18 vehicles with a variety of ownership, size...

  2. Shadow-Based Vehicle Detection in Urban Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ibarra-Arenado

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle detection is a fundamental task in Forward Collision Avoiding Systems (FACS. Generally, vision-based vehicle detection methods consist of two stages: hypotheses generation and hypotheses verification. In this paper, we focus on the former, presenting a feature-based method for on-road vehicle detection in urban traffic. Hypotheses for vehicle candidates are generated according to the shadow under the vehicles by comparing pixel properties across the vertical intensity gradients caused by shadows on the road, and followed by intensity thresholding and morphological discrimination. Unlike methods that identify the shadow under a vehicle as a road region with intensity smaller than a coarse lower bound of the intensity for road, the thresholding strategy we propose determines a coarse upper bound of the intensity for shadow which reduces false positives rates. The experimental results are promising in terms of detection performance and robustness in day time under different weather conditions and cluttered scenarios to enable validation for the first stage of a complete FACS.

  3. Agricultural vehicles and sustainable safe road traffic: solving conflicts on arterial highways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, C.F.; Botma, H.; Ark, van R.G.H.; Willems, G.P.A.

    2003-01-01

    Addressing the issues of traffic safety in rural areas presents a constant challenge. The mix of light and heavy vehicles and the considerable differences in speed among these traffic participants result in high risks and delays for the faster vehicles. Agricultural vehicles (AVs) in particular have

  4. Performance of an Automated-Mixed-Traffic-Vehicle /AMTV/ System. [urban people mover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, T. K. C.; Chon, K.

    1978-01-01

    This study analyzes the operation and evaluates the expected performance of a proposed automatic guideway transit system which uses low-speed Automated Mixed Traffic Vehicles (AMTV's). Vehicle scheduling and headway control policies are evaluated with a transit system simulation model. The effect of mixed-traffic interference on the average vehicle speed is examined with a vehicle-pedestrian interface model. Control parameters regulating vehicle speed are evaluated for safe stopping and passenger comfort.

  5. Reducing deaths in single vehicle collisions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adminaite, D. Jost, G. Stipdonk, H. & Ward, H.

    2017-01-01

    A third of road deaths in the EU are caused by collisions that involve a single motorised vehicle where the driver, rider and/or passengers are killed but no other road users are involved. These single vehicle collisions (SVCs), and how to prevent them occurring, are the subject of this report.

  6. Fine-Tuning ADAS Algorithm Parameters for Optimizing Traffic Safety and Mobility in Connected Vehicle Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the development of Connected Vehicle Technology that facilitates wireless communication among vehicles and road-side infrastructure, the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) can be adopted as an effective tool for accelerating traffic safety and mobility optimization at...

  7. Intelligent vehicle based traffic monitoring – exploring application in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, FJJ

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper details the anticipated benefits of an intelligent vehicle based traffic monitoring approach holds. The approach utilises advanced technology with the potential to reduce crashes and includes the monitor of vehicle speeds and flows...

  8. Cellular automata model for traffic flow at intersections in internet of vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Han-Tao; Liu, Xin-Ru; Chen, Xiao-Xu; Lu, Jian-Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Considering the effect of the front vehicle's speed, the influence of the brake light and the conflict of the traffic flow, we established a cellular automata model called CE-NS for traffic flow at the intersection in the non-vehicle networking environment. According to the information interaction of Internet of Vehicles (IoV), introducing parameters describing the congestion and the accurate speed of the front vehicle into the CE-NS model, we improved the rules of acceleration, deceleration and conflict, and finally established a cellular automata model for traffic flow at intersections of IoV. The relationship between traffic parameters such as vehicle speed, flow and average travel time is obtained by numerical simulation of two models. Based on this, we compared the traffic situation of the non-vehicle networking environment with conditions of IoV environment, and analyzed the influence of the different degree of IoV on the traffic flow. The results show that the traffic speed is increased, the travel time is reduced, the flux of intersections is increased and the traffic flow is more smoothly under IoV environment. After the vehicle which achieves IoV reaches a certain proportion, the operation effect of the traffic flow begins to improve obviously.

  9. Piezoelectric Energy Generation from Vehicle Traffic with Technoeconomic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiba Najini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a technical simulation based system to support the concept of generating energy from road traffic using piezoelectric materials. The simulation based system design replicates a real life system implementation. It investigates practicality and feasibility using a real-time simulation platform known as MATLAB-Simulink. The system design structure was proposed considering factors involved with the field of material sciences for piezoelectric generator modeling and field of power electronics for additional components in producing a realist outcome. It also ensures ease of vehicle performance, as this system utilizes energy source derived as kinetic energy released from vehicles into electrical power output, that is, obtained by harnessing kinetic energy due to strain of vehicles over asphalt road surface. Due to the real-time simulation platform, the system simulation predicts the effective global carbon footprint. In addition to evaluating technical viability, a technoeconomical business analysis provides a strategic perspective. By using the simulation based power generation results, an estimation of implementation cost and payback time in real life (for United Arab Emirates was derived, hence validating and predicting real-time economic outcome. This is followed by a comparative study with other sources of renewable energy based on levelized energy cost factor that justifies the performance of the proposed system over other renewable energy sources, in support of providing an economical solution on reducing global carbon footprint.

  10. Environmentally friendly traffic management system using integrated road-vehicle system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmod, M.M.; Arem, B. van

    2008-01-01

    Local habitability is coming under increasing pressure from harmful traffic emissions. This emission is strongly correlated to the characteristics and dynamics of traffic: type of vehicle, speed, acceleration and deceleration. This paper investigates the use of integrated road-vehicle systems for

  11. Automated Mixed Traffic Vehicle (AMTV) technology and safety study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. R.; Peng, T. K. C.; Vivian, H. C.; Wang, P. K.

    1978-01-01

    Technology and safety related to the implementation of an Automated Mixed Traffic Vehicle (AMTV) system are discussed. System concepts and technology status were reviewed and areas where further development is needed are identified. Failure and hazard modes were also analyzed and methods for prevention were suggested. The results presented are intended as a guide for further efforts in AMTV system design and technology development for both near term and long term applications. The AMTV systems discussed include a low speed system, and a hybrid system consisting of low speed sections and high speed sections operating in a semi-guideway. The safety analysis identified hazards that may arise in a properly functioning AMTV system, as well as hardware failure modes. Safety related failure modes were emphasized. A risk assessment was performed in order to create a priority order and significant hazards and failure modes were summarized. Corrective measures were proposed for each hazard.

  12. Road traffic crashes among farm vehicle drivers in southern China: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujun; Yang, Yaming; Chen, Yu; Yao, Hongyan; Wu, Ming; Cui, Mengjing; Li, Yang; Hu, Jie; Zhang, Cong; Li, Zhen; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Huiyun

    2017-01-02

    The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence and potential risk factors of farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes among farm vehicle drivers in southern China. A cross-sectional study was used to interview 1,422 farm vehicle drivers in southern China. Farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes that occurred from December 2013 to November 2014 were investigated. Data on farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes and related factors were collected by face-to-face interviews. The prevalence of farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes among the investigated drivers was 7.2%. Farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes were significantly associated with self-reported vision problem (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.48, 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.86-10.87), self-reported sleep disorders (AOR = 10.03, 95% CI, 6.28-15.99), self-reported stress (AOR = 20.47, 95% CI, 9.96-42.08), reported history of crashes (AOR = 5.40, 95% CI, 3.47-8.42), reported history of drunk driving (AOR = 5.07, 95% CI, 2.97-8.65), and reported history of fatigued driving (AOR = 5.72, 95% CI, 3.73-8.78). The number of road traffic crashes was highest in the daytime and during harvest season. In over 96% of farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes, drivers were believed to be responsible for the crash. Major crash-causing factors included improper driving, careless driving, violating of traffic signals or signs, and being in the wrong lane. Findings of this study suggest that farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes have become a burgeoning public health problem in China. Programs need to be developed to prevent farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes in this emerging country.

  13. Possibilistic Clustering Technique-Based Traffic Light Control for Handling Emergency Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    F. Titouna; S. Benferhat; K. Aksa; C. Titouna

    2012-01-01

    A traffic light gives security from traffic congestion,reducing the traffic jam, and organizing the traffic flow. Furthermore,increasing congestion level in public road networks is a growingproblem in many countries. Using Intelligent Transportation Systemsto provide emergency vehicles a green light at intersections canreduce driver confusion, reduce conflicts, and improve emergencyresponse times. Nowadays, the technology of wireless sensornetworks can solve many problems and can offer a good...

  14. Evaluating the Interference of Bicycle Traffic on Vehicle Operation on Urban Streets with Bike Lanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyuan Pu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many urban streets are designed with on-street bike lanes to provide right-of-way for bicycle traffic. However, when bicycle flow is large, extensive passing maneuvers could occupy vehicle lanes and thus cause interferences to vehicle traffic. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate how bicycle traffic affects vehicle operation on urban streets with bike lanes. Data were collected on six street segments in Nanjing, China. The cumulative curves were constructed to extract traffic flow information including individual bicycle and vehicle speeds and aggregated traffic parameters such as flow and density. The results showed that as bicycle density on bike lanes continuously increases faster bicycles may run into vehicle lanes causing considerable reductions in vehicle speeds. A generalized linear model was estimated to predict the vehicle delay. Results showed that vehicle delay increases as bicycle flow and vehicle flow increase. Number of vehicle lanes and width of bike lane also have significant impact on vehicle delay. Findings of the study are helpful to regions around the world in bike infrastructure design in order to improve operations of both bicycles and vehicles.

  15. Analysis of energy consumption and emission of the heterogeneous traffic flow consisting of traditional vehicles and electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hong; Huang, Hai-Jun; Tang, Tie-Qiao

    2017-12-01

    Electric vehicle (EV) has become a potential traffic tool, which has attracted researchers to explore various traffic phenomena caused by EV (e.g. congestion, electricity consumption, etc.). In this paper, we study the energy consumption (including the fuel consumption and the electricity consumption) and emissions of heterogeneous traffic flow (that consists of the traditional vehicle (TV) and EV) under three traffic situations (i.e. uniform flow, shock and rarefaction waves, and a small perturbation) from the perspective of macro traffic flow. The numerical results show that the proportion of electric vehicular flow has great effects on the TV’s fuel consumption and emissions and the EV’s electricity consumption, i.e. the fuel consumption and emissions decrease while the electricity consumption increases with the increase of the proportion of electric vehicular flow. The results can help us better understand the energy consumption and emissions of the heterogeneous traffic flow consisting of TV and EV.

  16. Vehicle-class Specific Route-guidance of Freeway Traffic by Model-predictive Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreiter, T.; Landman, R.L.; Van Lint, J.W.C.; Hegyi, A.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2012-01-01

    Few Active Traffic Management measures proposed in the past consider the distinction of different vehicle classes. Examples of vehicle-class specific measures are truck lanes and high-occupancy/toll (HOT) lanes. We propose that the distinction of different vehicle classes, with different flow

  17. Predictive control strategies for energy saving of hybrid electric vehicles based on traffic light information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijiang YU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the conventional control method for hybrid electric vehicle doesn’t consider the effect of known traffic light information on the vehicle energy management, this paper proposes a model predictive control intelligent optimization strategies based on traffic light information for hybrid electric vehicles. By building the simplified model of the hybrid electric vehicle and adopting the continuation/generalized minimum residual method, the model prediction problem is solved. The simulation is conducted by using MATLAB/Simulink platform. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed model of the traffic light information, and that the proposed model predictive control method can improve fuel economy and the real-time control performance significantly. The research conclusions show that the proposed control strategy can achieve optimal control of the vehicle trajectory, significantly improving fuel economy of the vehicle, and meet the system requirements for the real-time optimal control.

  18. Study on Determination of Preceding Vehicle Motion State at the Traffic Lights Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cailin Wu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the security of automotive safety systems and reduce traffic accidents in traffic lights intersection, In view of this, it is proposed to apply the distance measurement technology of binocular vision ranging in determination of preceding vehicle motion state at the traffic lights intersection, We study the determination of preceding vehicle motion state at the traffic lights intersection based on binocular vision. The system, which is divided into four steps, adopts the theory combining the binocular stereo vision principle and the triangulation principle. First of all, from different angles, image information with preceding vehicles and traffic lights, collected by two CCD cameras, is processed and positioned. Next, two pairs of corresponding feature matching points is obtained by using the stereo matching method. Furthermore, the distance between the cameras and the preceding vehicle, and the distance between the cameras and the traffic lights are determined, according to the camera calibration technique, the parallax disparity principle and the triangulation principle. Finally, the determination about the motion state of traffic lights intersection is determined according to the distance difference principle. Experimental results show that the design, with high measurement accuracy and application value, realize the determination of preceding vehicle’s motion state at traffic lights intersection.

  19. Reducing Traffic Congestions by Introducing CACC-Vehicles on a Multi-Lane Highway Using Agent-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaout, Georges M.; Bowling, Shannon R.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic congestion is an ongoing problem of great interest to researchers from different areas in academia. With the emerging technology for inter-vehicle communication, vehicles have the ability to exchange information with predecessors by wireless communication. In this paper, we present an agent-based model of traffic congestion and examine the impact of having CACC (Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control) embedded vehicle(s) on a highway system consisting of 4 traffic lanes without overtaking. In our model, CACC vehicles adapt their acceleration/deceleration according to vehicle-to-vehicle inter-communication. We analyze the average speed of the cars, the shockwaves, and the evolution of traffic congestion throughout the lifecycle of the model. The study identifies how CACC vehicles affect the dynamics of traffic flow on a complex network and reduce the oscillatory behavior (stop and go) resulting from the acceleration/deceleration of the vehicles.

  20. Network origin-destination demand estimation using limited link traffic counts : strategic deployment of vehicle detectors through an integrated corridor management framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-15

    In typical road traffic corridors, freeway systems are generally well-equipped with traffic surveillance systems such as vehicle detector (VD) and/or closed circuit television (CCTV) systems in order to gather timely traffic information for traffic c...

  1. SMART VIDEO SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE DETECTION AND TRAFFIC FLOW CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. SHAFIE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Traffic signal light can be optimized using vehicle flow statistics obtained by Smart Video Surveillance Software (SVSS. This research focuses on efficient traffic control system by detecting and counting the vehicle numbers at various times and locations. At present, one of the biggest problems in the main city in any country is the traffic jam during office hour and office break hour. Sometimes it can be seen that the traffic signal green light is still ON even though there is no vehicle coming. Similarly, it is also observed that long queues of vehicles are waiting even though the road is empty due to traffic signal light selection without proper investigation on vehicle flow. This can be handled by adjusting the vehicle passing time implementing by our developed SVSS. A number of experiment results of vehicle flows are discussed in this research graphically in order to test the feasibility of the developed system. Finally, adoptive background model is proposed in SVSS in order to successfully detect target objects such as motor bike, car, bus, etc.

  2. An energy management approach of hybrid vehicles using traffic preview information for energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Chunhua; Xu, Guoqing; Xu, Kun; Pan, Zhongming; Liang, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy management approach of hybrid vehicles using traffic preview information. • Vehicle velocity profile and fuel consumption are optimized at the same time. • It is proved that a further energy saving is achieved by the proposed approach. • The proposed approach is useful especially for autonomous hybrid vehicles. - Abstract: The traffic preview information is very helpful for hybrid vehicles when distributing the power requirement of the vehicle to power sources and when determining the next driving route of the vehicle. In this research, an energy management approach for hybrid vehicles is proposed, which optimizes the vehicle velocity profile while minimizing the fuel consumption with the help of the traffic preview information, so that a further energy saving for hybrid vehicles can be achieved. The Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle (PMP) is adopted on the proposed approach. A fuel cell hybrid vehicle (FCHV) is selected as an example, and the proposed energy management approach is applied to the FCHV in a computer simulation environment for the offline and online cases respectively. Simulation results show that the fuel economy of the FCHV is improved by the proposed energy management approach compared to a benchmark case where the driving cycle is fixed and only the hybrid power split (allocation) ratio is optimized. The proposed energy management approach is useful especially for the autonomous hybrid vehicles.

  3. The Vehicles Traffic Flow Optimization in an Urban Transportation System by Using Simulation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coman Marin-Marian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The urban transportation system is characterized by the urban roads development and growth of road traffic, which leads, most of the time, to a series of congestions in the vehicles traffic. Consequently, due to a high time duration spent on the road traffic, the travel time from a location to another one could be very upsetting for any car drivers, or embarrassing for emergency services and vehicle convoys that carry goods or sensitive items. Those are mainly reasons for using simulation modeling to analyze and optimize the travel time of the road traffic actors in the an urban transportation system. This paper focuses on optimization vehicles flow in a crowded area of Sibiu city, by using agent-based modeling concept and AnyLogic simulation modeling software.

  4. Vehicle-class Specific Control of Freeway Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreiter, T.

    2013-01-01

    The increase of mobility of the past decades has led to substantial congestion on the freeways. Traffic jams emerge both on a daily basis at the same location, as well as during accidents when a part of the freeways is temporarily blocked. In those cases, traffic management centers intervene into

  5. Safely towards self-driving vehicles : new opportunities new risks and new challenges during the automation of the traffic system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, C.N. van & Duivenvoorden, C.W.A.E.

    2017-01-01

    There are more and more systems on the market to support the driver in his vehicle. Step by step the automation of our vehicles increases, the traffic system is in a transition towards self-driving vehicles. The automation offers opportunities to make our traffic safer, cleaner and more efficient.

  6. Impacts of Large Vehicles on Traffic Safety in Freeway Interchange Merging Areas and Improvement Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Yifan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to work out the characteristics of traffic operation on freeway interchange merging areas under different ratio of large vehicles, aerial photography technique based on unmanned aircraft and other observation device were used to investigate the merge section traffic data firstly. Based on survey data and actual traffic characteristics, the paper then established simulation models with VI SSIM with calibrated car-following and lane changing behaviour models. Next, the paper analysed the influence of traffic volume and acceleration lane length under various traffic compositions to evaluate safety status of interchange merge sections by traffic conflict technique and speed consistency index. Finally, two kinds of safety promotion strategies, speed limit and setting forbidden line, were evaluated and the results indicated these measures can raise safety level by about 10%∼15% under certain conditions, which were determined as the best applicable conditions.

  7. Traffic Congestion Detection System through Connected Vehicles and Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    C?rdenas-Ben?tez, N?stor; Aquino-Santos, Ra?l; Maga?a-Espinoza, Pedro; Aguilar-Velazco, Jos?; Edwards-Block, Arthur; Medina Cass, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the simulation and evaluation of a traffic congestion detection system which combines inter-vehicular communications, fixed roadside infrastructure and infrastructure-to-infrastructure connectivity and big data. The system discussed in this article permits drivers to identify traffic congestion and change their routes accordingly, thus reducing the total emissions of CO2 and decreasing travel time. This system monitors, processes and stores large amounts of data, which ...

  8. Characteristic Analysis of Mixed Traffic Flow of Regular and Autonomous Vehicles Using Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangzexi Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The technology of autonomous vehicles is expected to revolutionize the operation of road transport systems. The penetration rate of autonomous vehicles will be low at the early stage of their deployment. It is a challenge to explore the effects of autonomous vehicles and their penetration on heterogeneous traffic flow dynamics. This paper aims to investigate this issue. An improved cellular automaton was employed as the modeling platform for our study. In particular, two sets of rules for lane changing were designed to address mild and aggressive lane changing behavior. With extensive simulation studies, we obtained some promising results. First, the introduction of autonomous vehicles to road traffic could considerably improve traffic flow, particularly the road capacity and free-flow speed. And the level of improvement increases with the penetration rate. Second, the lane-changing frequency between neighboring lanes evolves with traffic density along a fundamental-diagram-like curve. Third, the impacts of autonomous vehicles on the collective traffic flow characteristics are mainly related to their smart maneuvers in lane changing and car following, and it seems that the car-following impact is more pronounced.

  9. Application of Image Processing and Three-Dimensional Data Reconstruction Algorithm Based on Traffic Video in Vehicle Component Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle detection is one of the important technologies in intelligent video surveillance systems. Owing to the perspective projection imaging principle of cameras, traditional two-dimensional (2D images usually distort the size and shape of vehicles. In order to solve these problems, the traffic scene calibration and inverse projection construction methods are used to project the three-dimensional (3D information onto the 2D images. In addition, a vehicle target can be characterized by several components, and thus vehicle detection can be fulfilled based on the combination of these components. The key characteristics of vehicle targets are distinct during a single day; for example, the headlight brightness is more significant at night, while the vehicle taillight and license plate color are much more prominent in the daytime. In this paper, by using the background subtraction method and Gaussian mixture model, we can realize the accurate detection of target lights at night. In the daytime, however, the detection of the license plate and taillight of a vehicle can be fulfilled by exploiting the background subtraction method and the Markov random field, based on the spatial geometry relation between the corresponding components. Further, by utilizing Kalman filters to follow the vehicle tracks, detection accuracy can be further improved. Finally, experiment results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  10. A Study on the Model of Traffic Flow and Vehicle Exhaust Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Xue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase of traffic flow in cities causes traffic congestion and accidents as well as air pollution. Traffic problems have attracted the interest of many researchers from the perspective of theory and engineering. In order to provide a simple and practical method for measuring the exhaust emission and assessing the effect of pollution control, a model is based on the relationship between traffic flow and vehicle exhaust emission under a certain level of road capacity constraints. In the proposed model, the hydrocarbons (HC, carbon monoxide (CO, and nitrogen oxides (NOx are considered as the indexes of total exhaust emission, and the speed is used as an intermediate variable. To verify the rationality and practicality of the model, a case study for Beijing, China, is provided in which the effects of taxi fare regulation and the specific vehicle emission reduction policy are analyzed.

  11. Investigation of the Link Between Macroscopic Traffic Flow Characteristics and Individual Vehicle Fuel Consumption : Tech Transfer Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the impacts of several factors, including vehicle characteristics, ambient temperature, season, speed, driving behavior, and traffic flow, on individual vehicle energy consumption.

  12. Human factors evaluation of an in-vehicle active traffic and demand management (ATDM) system : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-15

    This research study focused on the development and subsequent evaluation of an in-vehicle Active Traffic and Demand Management (ATDM) system deployed on Interstate 66 in Northern Virginia. The ATDM elements inside the vehicle allowed drivers to remai...

  13. A decision support tool for vehicle infrastructure integration : understanding information effects and advancing data fusion algorithms for traffic management applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-15

    This research seeks to explore vehicle-to-vehicle information networks to understand the interplay : between the information communicated and traffic conditions on the network. A longer-term goal is to : develop a decision support tool for processing...

  14. Wireless Magnetic Sensor Network for Road Traffic Monitoring and Vehicle Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velisavljevic Vladan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of transportation of people and goods is playing a vital role in economic growth. A key component for enabling effective planning of transportation networks is the deployment and operation of autonomous monitoring and traffic analysis tools. For that reason, such systems have been developed to register and classify road traffic usage. In this paper, we propose a novel system for road traffic monitoring and classification based on highly energy efficient wireless magnetic sensor networks. We develop novel algorithms for vehicle speed and length estimation and vehicle classification that use multiple magnetic sensors. We also demonstrate that, using such a low-cost system with simplified installation and maintenance compared to current solutions, it is possible to achieve highly accurate estimation and a high rate of positive vehicle classification.

  15. Travel demand management : a toolbox of strategies to reduce single\\0x2010occupant vehicle trips and increase alternate mode usage in Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The report provides a suite of recommended strategies to reduce single-occupant vehicle traffic in the urban : areas of Phoenix and Tucson, Arizona, which are presented as a travel demand management toolbox. The : toolbox includes supporting research...

  16. Poster Abstract: Automatic Calibration of Device Attitude in Inertial Measurement Unit Based Traffic Probe Vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa

    2016-04-28

    Probe vehicles consist in mobile traffic sensor networks that evolve with the flow of vehicles, transmitting velocity and position measurements along their path, generated using GPSs. To address the urban positioning issues of GPSs, we propose to replace them with inertial measurement units onboard vehicles, to estimate vehicle location and attitude using inertial data only. While promising, this technology requires one to carefully calibrate the orientation of the device inside the vehicle to be able to process the acceleration and rate gyro data. In this article, we propose a scheme that can perform this calibration automatically by leveraging the kinematic constraints of ground vehicles, and that can be implemented on low-end computational platforms. Preliminary testing shows that the proposed scheme enables one to accurately estimate the actual accelerations and rotation rates in the vehicle coordinates. © 2016 IEEE.

  17. A cellular automata model for traffic flow based on kinetics theory, vehicles capabilities and driver reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, H. A.; Lárraga, M. E.; Alvarez-Icaza, L.; Carvajal, J.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a reliable cellular automata model oriented to faithfully reproduce deceleration and acceleration according to realistic reactions of drivers, when vehicles with different deceleration capabilities are considered is presented. The model focuses on describing complex traffic phenomena by coding in its rules the basic mechanisms of drivers behavior, vehicles capabilities and kinetics, while preserving simplicity. In particular, vehiclés kinetics is based on uniform accelerated motion, rather than in impulsive accelerated motion as in most existing CA models. Thus, the proposed model calculates in an analytic way three safe preserving distances to determine the best action a follower vehicle can take under a worst case scenario. Besides, the prediction analysis guarantees that under the proper assumptions, collision between vehicles may not happen at any future time. Simulations results indicate that all interactions of heterogeneous vehicles (i.e., car-truck, truck-car, car-car and truck-truck) are properly reproduced by the model. In addition, the model overcomes one of the major limitations of CA models for traffic modeling: the inability to perform smooth approach to slower or stopped vehicles. Moreover, the model is also capable of reproducing most empirical findings including the backward speed of the downstream front of the traffic jam, and different congested traffic patterns induced by a system with open boundary conditions with an on-ramp. Like most CA models, integer values are used to make the model run faster, which makes the proposed model suitable for real time traffic simulation of large networks.

  18. [Study on illegal driving behavior and vehicle road traffic injury in China from 2006 to 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jing; Yang, Yunjuan

    2015-06-01

    To study the characteristics and trend of illegal driving behavior in China to provide evidence for related policy enforcement. Using indices as death rate of ten thousand vehicle, death rate per 100 000 population, thousands of road mileage, degree of motorization and death ratio etc. to analyze the current situation, characteristics of illegal vehicle driving behavior related to road traffic injuries, in China. From 2006 to 2010, death ratio on vehicle road traffic injuries related to the top five illegal driving behaviors were as follows: speeding (from 0.33 down to 0.17), on refuse to give way to others (from 0.26 to 0.14), on driving without license (from 0.21 to 0.08), on illegal driving encroachment (from 0.17 to 0.04) and on reverse driving (from 0.11 to 0.07). Death rates related to vehicle road traffic injuries on drunk driving or fatigue driving were 0.04 in 2010 and 0.02 in 2010, respectively. Despite the fact that the number of vehicle road traffic injuries appeared a declining trend, the severity was increasing. Illegal driving behavior was still prevalent in China.

  19. Influence of Lateral Vehicle Acceleration on Distribution of Braking Forces as Causes of Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerko Radoš

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering previous calculation of vehicle speeds negotiatingcwvcs, in this paper we are trying to define and detenninelateral accelerations which occur when a vehicle negotiates acun1e. We have also analysed how the speed of negotiating acwve influences the braking force, which is in many traffic accidentsthe cause of the accident, if the braking system is not adjustedto the speed (and vice versa.

  20. Alternative vehicle detection technologies for traffic signal systems : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Due to the well-documented problems associated with inductive loops, most jurisdictions have : replaced many intersection loops with video image vehicle detection systems (VIVDS). While VIVDS : have overcome some of the problems with loops such as tr...

  1. Information-Aided Smart Schemes for Vehicle Flow Detection Enhancements of Traffic Microwave Radar Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan-Jan Ho

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available For satisfactory traffic management of an intelligent transport system, it is vital that traffic microwave radar detectors (TMRDs can provide real-time traffic information with high accuracy. In this study, we develop several information-aided smart schemes for traffic detection improvements of TMRDs in multiple-lane environments. Specifically, we select appropriate thresholds not only for removing noise from fast Fourier transforms (FFTs of regional lane contexts but also for reducing FFT side lobes within each lane. The resulting FFTs of reflected vehicle signals and those of clutter are distinguishable. We exploit FFT and lane-/or time stamp-related information for developing smart schemes, which mitigate adverse effects of lane-crossing FFT side lobes of a vehicle signal. As such, the proposed schemes can enhance the detection accuracy of both lane vehicle flow and directional traffic volume. On-site experimental results demonstrate the advantages and feasibility of the proposed methods, and suggest the best smart scheme.

  2. Engineering Social Justice into Traffic Control for Self-Driving Vehicles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenovic, Milos N; McPherson, Tristram

    2016-08-01

    The convergence of computing, sensing, and communication technology will soon permit large-scale deployment of self-driving vehicles. This will in turn permit a radical transformation of traffic control technology. This paper makes a case for the importance of addressing questions of social justice in this transformation, and sketches a preliminary framework for doing so. We explain how new forms of traffic control technology have potential implications for several dimensions of social justice, including safety, sustainability, privacy, efficiency, and equal access. Our central focus is on efficiency and equal access as desiderata for traffic control design. We explain the limitations of conventional traffic control in meeting these desiderata, and sketch a preliminary vision for a next-generation traffic control tailored to address better the demands of social justice. One component of this vision is cooperative, hierarchically distributed self-organization among vehicles. Another component of this vision is a priority system enabling selection of priority levels by the user for each vehicle trip in the network, based on the supporting structure of non-monetary credits.

  3. The effect of traffic calming on pedestrian injuries and motor vehicle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Motor vehicle collisions and pedestrian injuries in areas where schools are located are public health problems in Durban. Objective. To evaluate the effect of traffic calming humps on the number and severity of incidences of collisions and injuries in the Chatsworth and KwaMashu residential areas of the ...

  4. 78 FR 56267 - Article 19-A of the State of New York's Vehicle and Traffic Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... regulate interstate passenger carrier operations. MCC specifically identified New York's request for bus... the American Bus Association (ABA) and Motor Coach Canada (MCC) seeking a determination that Article 19-A of the State of New York's Vehicle and Traffic Law governing drivers of passenger-carrying...

  5. A behavior-based framework for assessing barrier effects to wildlife from vehicle traffic volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra L. Jacobson; Leslie L. Bliss-Ketchum; Catherine E. de Rivera; Winston P. Smith; D. P. C. Peters

    2016-01-01

    Roads, while central to the function of human society, create barriers to animal movement through collisions and habitat fragmentation. Barriers to animal movement affect the evolution and trajectory of populations. Investigators have attempted to use traffic volume, the number of vehicles passing a point on a road segment, to predict effects to wildlife populations...

  6. Prevision of vehicle headway effect on urban traffic with a new car-following model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guanghan; Lu, Weizhen; He, Hongdi; Gu, Zhenghua

    2017-04-01

    In this study, a new car-following model is established aiming to predict the variation of vehicle headways on urban road. The linear stability condition is derived corresponding to the prevision of headway in moving. The modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation is deduced through the nonlinear analysis. The kink-antikink soliton solution of the mKdV equation can interpret the urban traffic jams near the critical point under the prevision of vehicle headway. Moreover, it is clear that the prevision of headway effect did improve the stability of urban traffic flow since the traffic jams are alleviated efficiently by taking into account the prevision of headway term in numerical simulations, which are consistent with the theoretical analysis.

  7. Traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtblau, G.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter deals with passenger and freight traffic, public and private transportation, traffic related environmental impacts, future developments, traffic indicators, regional traffic planning, health costs due to road traffic related air pollution, noise pollution, measures and regulations for traffic control and fuels for traffic. In particular energy consumption, energy efficiency, pollutant emissions ( CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , HC, CO, N 2 O, NH 3 and particulates) and environmental effects of the different types of traffic and different types of fuels are compared and studied. Legal regulations and measures for an effective traffic control are discussed. (a.n.)

  8. What do autonomous vehicles mean to traffic congestion and crash? : Network traffic flow modeling and simulation for autonomous vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Transportation infrastructure is quickly moving towards revolutionary changes to : accommodate the deployment of AVs. On the other hand, the transition to new : vehicle technologies will be shaped in large part by changes in performance of : roadway ...

  9. Exploiting Spatial Abstraction in Predictive Analytics of Vehicle Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Andrienko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available By applying visual analytics techniques to vehicle traffic data, we found a way to visualize and study the relationships between the traffic intensity and movement speed on links of a spatially abstracted transportation network. We observed that the traffic intensities and speeds in an abstracted network are interrelated in the same way as they are in a detailed street network at the level of street segments. We developed interactive visual interfaces that support representing these interdependencies by mathematical models. To test the possibility of utilizing them for performing traffic simulations on the basis of abstracted transportation networks, we devised a prototypical simulation algorithm employing these dependency models. The algorithm is embedded in an interactive visual environment for defining traffic scenarios, running simulations, and exploring their results. Our research demonstrates a principal possibility of performing traffic simulations on the basis of spatially abstracted transportation networks using dependency models derived from real traffic data. This possibility needs to be comprehensively investigated and tested in collaboration with transportation domain specialists.

  10. IMPROVEMENT OF TRAFFIC SAFETY BY ROAD-VEHICLE COOPERATIVE SMART CRUISE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio HOSAKA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Hopes have been pinned on the development of intelligent systems for road traffic as a way of solving road traffic safety and other such issues. To be sure, work is moving ahead with the incorporation of intelligent systems into automobiles but, with automobiles alone, there are limits in areas such as environment recognition. Compensation for the limits imposed by automobiles can be provided by the support given to environment recognition and related areas of road infrastructure. This paper examines the special features of vehicles and road infrastructure, and describes what role is played by roads and what role is played by vehicles. On the basis of the observations made, road-vehicle cooperative support systems called “smart cruise systems”, which are currently being developed, will be introduced and the expected effects of these systems will be outlined.

  11. SDP Policy Iteration-Based Energy Management Strategy Using Traffic Information for Commuter Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Jiao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates an energy management method using traffic information for commuter hybrid electric vehicles. A control strategy based on stochastic dynamic programming (SDP is developed, which minimizes on average the equivalent fuel consumption, while satisfying the battery charge-sustaining constraints and the overall vehicle power demand for drivability. First, according to the sample information of the traffic speed profiles, the regular route is divided into several segments and the statistic characteristics in the different segments are constructed from gathered data on the averaged vehicle speeds. And then, the energy management problem is formulated as a stochastic nonlinear and constrained optimal control problem and a modified policy iteration algorithm is utilized to generate a time-invariant state-dependent power split strategy. Finally, simulation results over some driving cycles are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy.

  12. Road rage and road traffic accidents among commercial vehicle drivers in Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, M A; Shaikh, I A; Siddiqui, Z

    2012-04-01

    Road rage and road traffic accidents increase the burden of morbidity and mortality in a population. A cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted among commercial vehicle drivers in Lahore, Pakistan (n = 901) to record their behaviours/experiences regarding road rage and road traffic accidents. Respondents were asked about incidents of shouting/cursing/rude gestures or threats to physically hurt the person/vehicle, by others or themselves, in the previous 24 hours or 3 months, and their involvement in road traffic accidents in the previous 12 months. Auto-rickshaw drivers were significantly more likely to report various road rage experiences/behaviours and involvement in accidents compared with bus and wagon drivers. A total of 112 respondents (12.4%) reported being involved in a road traffic accident in the previous 12 months but traffic police did not record the accident in 52.7% of cases. The results of this study underline the need to improve road safety in Pakistan.

  13. Time Headway Modelling of Motorcycle-Dominated Traffic to Analyse Traffic Safety Performance and Road Link Capacity of Single Carriageways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Priyantha Wedagama

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop time headway distribution models to analyse traffic safety performance and road link capacities for motorcycle-dominated traffic in Denpasar, Bali. Three road links selected as the case study are Jl. Hayam Wuruk, Jl.Hang Tuah, and Jl. Padma. Data analysis showed that between 55%-80% of motorists in Denpasar during morning and evening peak hours paid less attention to the safe distance with the vehicles in front. The study found that Lognormal distribution models are best to fit time headway data during morning peak hours while either Weibull (3P or Pearson III distributions is for evening peak hours. Road link capacities for mixed traffic predominantly motorcycles are apparently affected by the behaviour of motorists in keeping safe distance with the vehicles in front. Theoretical road link capacities for Jl. Hayam Wuruk, Jl. Hang Tuah and Jl. Padma are 3,186 vehicles/hour, 3,077 vehicles/hour and 1935 vehicles/hour respectively.

  14. Thermodynamic treatment of nonphysical systems: formalism and an example (single-lane traffic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, H.; Hammerich, A.D.; Montroll, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    An effort is made to introduce thermodynamic and statistical thermodynamic methods into the treatment of nonphysical (e.g., social, economic, etc.) systems. Emphasis is placed on the use of the entire thermodynamic framework, not merely entropy. Entropy arises naturally, related in a simple manner to other measurables, but does not occupy a primary position in the theory. However, the maximum entropy formalism is a convenient procedure for deriving the thermodynamic analog framework in which undetermined multipliers are thermodynamic-like variables which summarize the collective behavior of the system. The authors discuss the analysis of Levine and his coworkers showing that the maximum entropy formalism is the unique algorithm for achieving consistent inference of probabilities. The thermodynamic-like formalism for treating a single lane of vehicular traffic is developed and applied to traffic in which the interaction between cars is chosen to be a particular form of the ''follow-the-leader'' type. The equation of state of the traffic, the distributions of velocity and headway, and the various thermodynamic-like parameters, e.g., temperature (collective sensitivity), pressure, etc. are determined for the example of the Holland Tunnel. Nearest-neighbor and pair correlation functions for the vehicles are also determined. Interesting and suggestive results are obtained

  15. An RFID-based intelligent vehicle speed controller using active traffic signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Joshué; Seco, Fernando; Milanés, Vicente; Jiménez, Antonio; Díaz, Julio C; de Pedro, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    These days, mass-produced vehicles benefit from research on Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). One prime example of ITS is vehicle Cruise Control (CC), which allows it to maintain a pre-defined reference speed, to economize on fuel or energy consumption, to avoid speeding fines, or to focus all of the driver's attention on the steering of the vehicle. However, achieving efficient Cruise Control is not easy in roads or urban streets where sudden changes of the speed limit can happen, due to the presence of unexpected obstacles or maintenance work, causing, in inattentive drivers, traffic accidents. In this communication we present a new Infrastructure to Vehicles (I2V) communication and control system for intelligent speed control, which is based upon Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for identification of traffic signals on the road, and high accuracy vehicle speed measurement with a Hall effect-based sensor. A fuzzy logic controller, based on sensor fusion of the information provided by the I2V infrastructure, allows the efficient adaptation of the speed of the vehicle to the circumstances of the road. The performance of the system is checked empirically, with promising results.

  16. An RFID-Based Intelligent Vehicle Speed Controller Using Active Traffic Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Joshué; Seco, Fernando; Milanés, Vicente; Jiménez, Antonio; Díaz, Julio C.; de Pedro, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    These days, mass-produced vehicles benefit from research on Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). One prime example of ITS is vehicle Cruise Control (CC), which allows it to maintain a pre-defined reference speed, to economize on fuel or energy consumption, to avoid speeding fines, or to focus all of the driver’s attention on the steering of the vehicle. However, achieving efficient Cruise Control is not easy in roads or urban streets where sudden changes of the speed limit can happen, due to the presence of unexpected obstacles or maintenance work, causing, in inattentive drivers, traffic accidents. In this communication we present a new Infrastructure to Vehicles (I2V) communication and control system for intelligent speed control, which is based upon Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for identification of traffic signals on the road, and high accuracy vehicle speed measurement with a Hall effect-based sensor. A fuzzy logic controller, based on sensor fusion of the information provided by the I2V infrastructure, allows the efficient adaptation of the speed of the vehicle to the circumstances of the road. The performance of the system is checked empirically, with promising results. PMID:22219692

  17. An RFID-Based Intelligent Vehicle Speed Controller Using Active Traffic Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshué Pérez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available These days, mass-produced vehicles benefit from research on Intelligent Transportation System (ITS. One prime example of ITS is vehicle Cruise Control (CC, which allows it to maintain a pre-defined reference speed, to economize on fuel or energy consumption, to avoid speeding fines, or to focus all of the driver’s attention on the steering of the vehicle. However, achieving efficient Cruise Control is not easy in roads or urban streets where sudden changes of the speed limit can happen, due to the presence of unexpected obstacles or maintenance work, causing, in inattentive drivers, traffic accidents. In this communication we present a new Infrastructure to Vehicles (I2V communication and control system for intelligent speed control, which is based upon Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology for identification of traffic signals on the road, and high accuracy vehicle speed measurement with a Hall effect-based sensor. A fuzzy logic controller, based on sensor fusion of the information provided by the I2V infrastructure, allows the efficient adaptation of the speed of the vehicle to the circumstances of the road. The performance of the system is checked empirically, with promising results.

  18. Validation of Microscopic Traffic Models Based on GPS Precise Measurement of Vehicle Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Apeltauer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A necessary stage in the development of traffic models is model validation, where the developed model is verified by comparing its outputs with observed data. The most frequently used variables are average value of speed, flow intensity and flow density (during a selected period.It is possible to use these values for the calibration of macroscopic models, but one cannot always obtain a relevant microscopic dynamic model in this way. A typical use of the microsimulation models is the capacity assessment, where this sort of data (flow, speed and queues is considered to be standard and sufficient. However microsimulation is also increasingly being used for other assessments (e.g. noise and emissions where the correct representation of each vehicle’s acceleration and deceleration plays a crucial role. Another emerging area is the use of microsimulation to predict near-miss situations and conflicts to identify dangerous and accident prone locations. In such assessments the vehicle trajectory, distance from other vehicles as well as velocity and acceleration are very important.Additional source of data, which can be used to validate vehicle dynamics in microsimulation models, is the Global Positioning System (GPS that is able to determine vehicle position with centimeter accuracy.In this article we discuss validation of selected microscopic traffic models, based on the comparison of simulated vehicle dynamics with observed dynamic characteristics of vehicles recorded by the precise geodetic GPS equipment.

  19. Low level off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic negatively impacts macroinvertebrate assemblages at sandy beaches in south-western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Rebecca; Speldewinde, Peter C.; Stewart, Barbara A.

    2016-04-01

    Off-road vehicle use is arguably one of the most environmentally damaging human activities undertaken on sandy beaches worldwide. Existing studies focused on areas of high traffic volumes have demonstrated significantly lower abundance, diversity and species richness of fauna in zones where traffic is concentrated. The impact of lower traffic volumes is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of relatively low-level vehicle traffic on sandy beach fauna by sampling invertebrate communities at eight beaches located in south-western Australia. We found that even low-level vehicle traffic negatively impacts the physical beach environment, and consequently, the ability of many species to survive in this habitat in the face of this disturbance. Compaction, rutting and displacement of the sand matrix were observed over a large area, resulting in significant decreases in species diversity and density, and measurable shifts in community structure on beaches that experienced off-road vehicle traffic. Communities at impact sites did not display seasonal recovery as traffic was not significantly different between seasons. Given a choice between either reducing traffic volumes, or excluding ORV traffic from beaches, our results suggest that the latter would be more appropriate when the retention of ecological integrity is the objective.

  20. Two-vehicle injury severity models based on integration of pavement management and traffic engineering factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ximiao; Huang, Baoshan; Yan, Xuedong; Zaretzki, Russell L; Richards, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The severity of traffic-related injuries has been studied by many researchers in recent decades. However, the evaluation of many factors is still in dispute and, until this point, few studies have taken into account pavement management factors as points of interest. The objective of this article is to evaluate the combined influences of pavement management factors and traditional traffic engineering factors on the injury severity of 2-vehicle crashes. This study examines 2-vehicle rear-end, sideswipe, and angle collisions that occurred on Tennessee state routes from 2004 to 2008. Both the traditional ordered probit (OP) model and Bayesian ordered probit (BOP) model with weak informative prior were fitted for each collision type. The performances of these models were evaluated based on the parameter estimates and deviances. The results indicated that pavement management factors played identical roles in all 3 collision types. Pavement serviceability produces significant positive effects on the severity of injuries. The pavement distress index (PDI), rutting depth (RD), and rutting depth difference between right and left wheels (RD_df) were not significant in any of these 3 collision types. The effects of traffic engineering factors varied across collision types, except that a few were consistently significant in all 3 collision types, such as annual average daily traffic (AADT), rural-urban location, speed limit, peaking hour, and light condition. The findings of this study indicated that improved pavement quality does not necessarily lessen the severity of injuries when a 2-vehicle crash occurs. The effects of traffic engineering factors are not universal but vary by the type of crash. The study also found that the BOP model with a weak informative prior can be used as an alternative but was not superior to the traditional OP model in terms of overall performance.

  1. Traffic lanes for vehicles of mass public passenger transport on city streets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladović Pavle V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of the basic measures of regulating public mass passenger transport in a city network are the introduction and management of traffic lanes reserved for the public transportation. These traffic lanes are important for several reasons: faster moving and shorter travelling time for the vehicles, reducing operating costs, improving the safety, increasing passenger comfort, maintaining of the timetable quality, etc. In most cities, an intensive use of the public transport is concentrated in the morning and the afternoon peak period. The state of the public transport system during these periods is reflected in the crowds inside the vehicles, long vehicle queues at intersections and at bus stops, which cause congestion on the streets and result in delays of public transport vehicles. This paper provides an overview of the current situation on an example in the city of Belgrade. The capacity and the quality of service for the street surfaces reserved for the public transportation vehicles were analysed on the aforementioned example.

  2. Heavy weight vehicle traffic and its relationship with antimony content in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Waldo; De Gregori, Ida; Basilio, Paola; Bravo, Manuel; Pinto, Marcela; Lobos, Maria Gabriela

    2009-05-01

    Brake pads systems are nowadays considered as one of the most important sources of antimony in airborne particulate matter. One way that antimony can enter the body is through the lungs and specially by the interaction of antimony with -SH groups present in erythrocyte membrane cells. In spite of that, there are no studies about antimony enrichment in blood of workers exposed to high vehicle traffic. Port workers are generally exposed to heavy weight vehicle traffic. In Chile the biggest marine port is found in Valparaíso City. In this study antimony in whole blood and its fractions (erythrocytes-plasma and erythrocytes membranes-cytoplasm) of 45 volunteers were determined. The volunteers were port workers from Valparaíso city, and two control groups, one from Valparaíso and another from Quebrada Alvarado, the latter being a rural area located about 100 Km away from Valparaíso. The results demonstrate that port workers are highly impacted by antimony emissions from heavy weight vehicle traffic showing an average concentration of 27 +/- 9 ng Sb kg(-1), 5-10 times higher than the concentration of antimony in the blood of control groups. These are the highest antimony levels in blood ever reported in the literature. The highest antimony percentages (>60%) were always found in the erythrocyte fractions. However, the exposure degree to vehicle traffic is significant over antimony distribution in plasma, erythrocytes and cytoplasm. This results shows that the antimony mass in the erythrocyte membranes, was approximately constant at 1.0 +/- 0.1 ng Sb g(-1) of whole blood in all blood samples analyzed.

  3. Big data analytics : predicting traffic flow regimes from simulated connected vehicle messages using data analytics and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-25

    The key objectives of this study were to: 1. Develop advanced analytical techniques that make use of a dynamically configurable connected vehicle message protocol to predict traffic flow regimes in near-real time in a virtual environment and examine ...

  4. Impact of Different Spacing Policies for Adaptive Cruise Control on Traffic and Energy Consumption of Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Bayar, Bilgehan; Sajadi Alamdari, Seyed Amin; Viti, Francesco; Voos, Holger

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of different spacing policies for Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) systems on traffic and environment. The largest deal of existing studies focus on assessing the performance in terms of safety, while only few deal with the effect of ACC on the traffic flow and the environment. In particular, very little is know on traffic stability and energy consumption. In this study, the vehicles equipped with ACC are modelled and controlled by two different spacing policies. B...

  5. Design Of Fuzzy Logic Traffic Controller For Isolated Intersections With Emergency Vehicle Priority System Using MATLAB Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, Mohit; Shukla, Shailja

    2014-01-01

    Traffic is the chief puzzle problem which every country faces because of the enhancement in number of vehicles throughout the world, especially in large urban towns. Hence the need arises for simulating and optimizing traffic control algorithms to better accommodate this increasing demand. Fuzzy optimization deals with finding the values of input parameters of a complex simulated system which result in desired output. This paper presents a MATLAB simulation of fuzzy logic traffic controller f...

  6. Operational performance of a congested corridor with lanes dedicated to autonomous vehicle traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Vander Laan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the operational performance impact of autonomous vehicles (AV on a multi-lane freeway corridor with separate lanes dedicated to AV and non-AV traffic. Autonomous vehicle behavior is modeled at the macroscopic level by modifying the fundamental diagram relating hourly traffic flow and vehicle density, a step that is justified by adjusting a parameter from Newell’s car-following model at the microscopic level and transforming back to a macroscopic representation. The model is applied to the I-95 corridor between Washington, DC and Baltimore, MD during the PM peak period, where the impact of introducing a managed AV-only lane is assessed at varying penetration rates of autonomous vehicles. The results show that the overall corridor performance metrics improve with increasing penetration rates up to 30%, 40% or 50% (depending on the underlying assumptions that govern AV behavior, after which the performance deteriorates drastically. Implications of the results are discussed in light of the per-lane and aggregated metrics, and future directions for research are proposed.

  7. Evaluation of uncertainty of vehicle speed when autotechnical examination of traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashkanov А.А.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The existing methods and ways to measure vehicle speed, which can be used in autotechnical examination of road accidents, in order to identify ways to improve the peer review mechanism of emergencies are analyzed. To achieve the goal we propose to take measurement errors vehicle speed into account. Modern automated technology (GPS, EDR and ACN can reduce these errors, and with sufficient accuracy to determine the speed of the vehicle and other motion parameters and technical data that helps to quicken research in various stages of examination, but there are a number of objective problems hindering their widespread use in Ukraine. To solve these problems need to develop and improve existing methods of expert investigation of the circumstances of accidents based process automation capabilities fixing mechanism and the scene, measurements and calculations options vehicular traffic. This will increase the effectiveness of traditional methods and to minimize the influence of subjective factors.

  8. A novel method for detecting and tracking vehicles in traffic-image sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jieqiong; Wang, Guoyu; Sun, Feifei

    2013-07-01

    A novel method for detecting and tracking vehicles is proposed. The method which based on motion object segmentation used Cellular Neural Network (CNN) in the background substraction for motion detection in order to distinguish the vehicles from others of the interested regions. Meanwhile a tracking method based on regional characteristic matching is proposed, by which the distance between characteristic vectors can be used to match current motion regions and track the vehicles. Perceptual grouping refers to the organization ability that visual system detect image features in accordance with certain cues such as proximity, continuity, closure, etc, and attracts wide attentions and high regards in computer vision. In this paper, we proposed a new approach for occlution elimination by combining perceptual grouping with Optical flow field. Experimental results show that the methods can extract traffic information with high accuracy and efficiency.

  9. A Region Tracking-Based Vehicle Detection Algorithm in Nighttime Traffic Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The preceding vehicles detection technique in nighttime traffic scenes is an important part of the advanced driver assistance system (ADAS. This paper proposes a region tracking-based vehicle detection algorithm via the image processing technique. First, the brightness of the taillights during nighttime is used as the typical feature, and we use the existing global detection algorithm to detect and pair the taillights. When the vehicle is detected, a time series analysis model is introduced to predict vehicle positions and the possible region (PR of the vehicle in the next frame. Then, the vehicle is only detected in the PR. This could reduce the detection time and avoid the false pairing between the bright spots in the PR and the bright spots out of the PR. Additionally, we present a thresholds updating method to make the thresholds adaptive. Finally, experimental studies are provided to demonstrate the application and substantiate the superiority of the proposed algorithm. The results show that the proposed algorithm can simultaneously reduce both the false negative detection rate and the false positive detection rate.

  10. Characterizing spatial variability of air pollution from vehicle traffic around the Houston Ship Channel area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueying; Craft, Elena; Zhang, Kai

    2017-07-01

    Mobile emissions are a major source of urban air pollution and have been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. The Houston Ship Channel area is the home of a large number of diesel-powered vehicles emitting fine particulate matter (PM2.5; ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). However, the spatial variability of traffic-related air pollutants in the Houston Ship Channel area has rarely been investigated. The objective of this study is to characterize spatial variability of PM2.5 and NOx concentrations attributable to on-road traffic in the Houston Ship Channel area in the year of 2011. We extracted the road network from the Texas Department of Transportation Road Inventory, and calculated emission rates using the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator version 2014a (MOVES2014a). These parameters and preprocessed meteorological parameters were entered into a Research LINE-source Dispersion Model (RLINE) to conduct a simulation. Receptors were placed at 50 m resolution within 300 m to major roads and at 150 m resolution in the rest of the area. Our findings include that traffic-related PM2.5 were mainly emitted from trucks, while traffic-related NOx were emitted from both trucks and cars. The traffic contributed 0.90 μg/m3 PM2.5 and 29.23 μg/m3 NOx to the annual average mass concentrations of on-road air pollution, and the concentrations of the two pollutants decreased by nearly 40% within 500 m distance to major roads. The pollution level of traffic-related PM2.5 and NOx was higher in winter than those in the other three seasons. The Houston Ship Channel has earlier morning peak hours and relative late afternoon hours, which indicates the influence of goods movement from port activity. The varied near-road gradients illustrate that proximities to major roads are not an accurate surrogate of traffic-related air pollution.

  11. Traffic safety facts 2009 : a compilation of motor vehicle crash data from the fatality analysis reporting system and the general estimates system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In this annual report, Traffic Safety Facts 2009: A Compilation of Motor Vehicle Crash Data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and the General Estimates System, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) presents descriptive ...

  12. Non-public vehicle traffic-violation detection using mobile cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Huini; Hu, Yang; Huang, Rui

    2013-10-01

    With the rapid development of technologies, road traffic surveillance tends to be more intelligent. Detection of non-public vehicles driving in public bus lanes is one of the emerging applications. Commonly, fixed cameras are adopted in video surveillance systems. Compared with the limited monitoring areas of fixed cameras, mobile cameras can follow the moving targets and in this way greatly extend the monitoring areas. However, for mobile cameras, many detection methods do not perform well because the background is rapidly changing and the target is moving fast as well. In this paper, we propose a novel method to detect non-public vehicles driving in the bus lanes (hence violating the traffic regulations) using mobile cameras installed on buses. In particular, we first use Hough transform and SVM classifier with color features to detect bus lanes, and then use AdaBoost cascade classifier with Haar features to detect license plates in the bus lane area. Finally another SVM classifier is used to classify the color of the license plate to determine if it belongs to a non-public vehicle. As shown in the experiments, our method is proven to be robust to complex background and performs well in the real world situations.

  13. Deployment and Field Evaluation of In-Vehicle Traffic Signal Advisory System (ITSAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyoung Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluates the impact of In-vehicle Signal Advisory System (ITSAS on signalized arterial. ITSAS provides individual drivers equipped with a mobile communication device with advisory speed information enabling to minimize the time delay and fuel consumption when crossing intersection. Given the instantaneous vehicular driving information, such as position, speed, and acceleration rate, ITSAS produces advisory speed information by taking into consideration the traffic signal changes at a downstream intersection. The advisory speed information includes not only an optimal speed range updated every 300-ft for individual drivers but also a descriptive message to warn drivers stop to ensure safety at the downstream intersection. Unlike other similar Connected Vehicles applications for intersection management, ITSAS does not require Roadside Equipment (RSE to disseminate the advisory speed information as it is designed to exploit commercial cellular network service (i.e., 3G and 4G-LTE. Thus, ITSAS can be easily plugged into existing traffic control management system to rapidly conduct its implementation without significant additional cost. This research presents the field evaluations of ITSAS on a signalized corridor in New Jersey, which discovered significant travel time savings for the equipped vehicle.

  14. Impact of Road Bends on Traffic Flow in a Single-Lane Traffic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Junwei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking the characteristics of road bends as a research object, this work proposes the cellular model (CA with road bends based on the NaSch model, with which the traffic flow is examined under different conditions, such as bend radius, bend arc length, and road friction coefficiency. The simulation results show that, with the increase of the bend radius, the peak flow will be continuously increased, and the fundamental diagram will become more similar to that of the classic NaSch model; the smaller the bend radius is, the easier it is for the occurrence of blockage; for different bend lengths, all the corresponding traffic flows show that the phenomenon of go-and-stop and the bends exert slight inhibitory effect on traffic flow; under the same bend radius, the inhibition effect of the bends on the traffic flow will be weakened with the increase of the friction coefficiency.

  15. Continuous traffic flow modeling of driver support systems in multiclass traffic with inter-vehicle communication and drivers in the loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tampere, C.M.J.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Arem, B. van

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a continuous traffic-flow model for the explorative analysis of advanced driver-assistance systems (ADASs). Such systems use technology (sensors and intervehicle communication) to support the task of the driver, who retains full control over the vehicle. Based on a review of

  16. Grid to vehicle and vehicle to grid energy transfer using single ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The design of the various components of proposed configuration for energy transfer from grid to vehicle and vehicle to grid consists of a single phase half bridge boost AC-DC converter, a bidirectional DC-DC boost converter, and a battery energy storage system. The detailed design of each part is given in the following ...

  17. Rainfall effect on single-vehicle crash severities using polychotomous response models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Soyoung; Qin, Xiao; Noyce, David A

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Wisconsin road weather safety initiative, the objective of this study is to assess the effects of rainfall on the severity of single-vehicle crashes on Wisconsin interstate highways utilizing polychotomous response models. Weather-related factors considered in this study include estimated rainfall intensity for 15 min prior to a crash occurrence, water film depth, temperature, wind speed/direction, stopping sight distance and deficiency of car-following distance at the crash moment. For locations with unknown weather information, data were interpolated using the inverse squared distance method. Non-weather factors such as road geometrics, traffic conditions, collision types, vehicle types, and driver and temporal attributes were also considered. Two types of polychotomous response models were compared: ordinal logistic and sequential logistic regressions. The sequential logistic regression was tested with forward and backward formats. Comparative models were also developed for single vehicle crash severity during clear weather. In conclusion, the backward sequential logistic regression model produced the best results for predicting crash severities in rainy weather where rainfall intensity, wind speed, roadway terrain, driver's gender, and safety belt were found to be statistically significant. Our study also found that the seasonal factor was significant in clear weather. The seasonal factor is a predictor suggesting that inclement weather may affect crash severity. These findings can be used to determine the probabilities of single vehicle crash severity in rainy weather and provide quantitative support on improving road weather safety via weather warning systems, highway facility improvements, and speed limit management.

  18. Noise abatement and traffic safety: The trade-off of quieter engines and pavements on vehicle detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, C; Freitas, E; Ferreira, J P; Raimundo, I D; Santos, J A

    2013-03-01

    Road traffic sounds are a major source of noise pollution in urban areas. But recent developments such as low noise pavements and hybrid/electric engine vehicles cast an optimistic outlook over such an environmental problem. However, it can be argued that engine, tire, and road noise could be relevant sources of information to avoid road traffic conflicts and accidents. In this paper, we analyze the potential trade-offs of traffic-noise abatement approaches in an experimental study, focusing for the first time on the impact and interaction of relevant factors such as pavement type, vehicle type, listener's age, and background noise, on vehicle detection levels. Results reveal that vehicle and pavement type significantly affect vehicle detection. Age is a significant factor, as both younger and older people exhibit lower detection levels of incoming vehicles. Low noise pavements combined with all-electric and hybrid vehicles might pose a severe threat to the safety of vulnerable road users. All factors interact simultaneously, and vehicle detection is best predicted by the loudness signal-to-noise ratio. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigation of Roadway Geometric and Traffic Flow Factors for Vehicle Crashes Using Spatiotemporal Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, G.; Sakrani, T.; Cheng, W.; Zhou, J.

    2017-09-01

    Traffic safety is a major concern in the transportation industry due to immense monetary and emotional burden caused by crashes of various severity levels, especially the injury and fatality ones. To reduce such crashes on all public roads, the safety management processes are commonly implemented which include network screening, problem diagnosis, countermeasure identification, and project prioritization. The selection of countermeasures for potential mitigation of crashes is governed by the influential factors which impact roadway crashes. Crash prediction model is the tool widely adopted by safety practitioners or researchers to link various influential factors to crash occurrences. Many different approaches have been used in the past studies to develop better fitting models which also exhibit prediction accuracy. In this study, a crash prediction model is developed to investigate the vehicular crashes occurring at roadway segments. The spatial and temporal nature of crash data is exploited to form a spatiotemporal model which accounts for the different types of heterogeneities among crash data and geometric or traffic flow variables. This study utilizes the Poisson lognormal model with random effects, which can accommodate the yearly variations in explanatory variables and the spatial correlations among segments. The dependency of different factors linked with roadway geometric, traffic flow, and road surface type on vehicular crashes occurring at segments was established as the width of lanes, posted speed limit, nature of pavement, and AADT were found to be correlated with vehicle crashes.

  20. INVESTIGATION OF ROADWAY GEOMETRIC AND TRAFFIC FLOW FACTORS FOR VEHICLE CRASHES USING SPATIOTEMPORAL INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gill

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Traffic safety is a major concern in the transportation industry due to immense monetary and emotional burden caused by crashes of various severity levels, especially the injury and fatality ones. To reduce such crashes on all public roads, the safety management processes are commonly implemented which include network screening, problem diagnosis, countermeasure identification, and project prioritization. The selection of countermeasures for potential mitigation of crashes is governed by the influential factors which impact roadway crashes. Crash prediction model is the tool widely adopted by safety practitioners or researchers to link various influential factors to crash occurrences. Many different approaches have been used in the past studies to develop better fitting models which also exhibit prediction accuracy. In this study, a crash prediction model is developed to investigate the vehicular crashes occurring at roadway segments. The spatial and temporal nature of crash data is exploited to form a spatiotemporal model which accounts for the different types of heterogeneities among crash data and geometric or traffic flow variables. This study utilizes the Poisson lognormal model with random effects, which can accommodate the yearly variations in explanatory variables and the spatial correlations among segments. The dependency of different factors linked with roadway geometric, traffic flow, and road surface type on vehicular crashes occurring at segments was established as the width of lanes, posted speed limit, nature of pavement, and AADT were found to be correlated with vehicle crashes.

  1. Power Stabilization Strategy of Random Access Loads in Electric Vehicles Wireless Charging System at Traffic Lights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Tan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An opportunity wireless charging system for electric vehicles when they stop and wait at traffic lights is proposed in this paper. In order to solve the serious power fluctuation caused by random access loads, this study presents a power stabilization strategy based on counting the number of electric vehicles in a designated area, including counting method, power source voltage adjustment strategy and choice of counting points. Firstly, the circuit model of a wireless power system with multi-loads is built and the equation of each load is obtained. Secondly, after the counting method of electric vehicles is stated, the voltage adjustment strategy, based on the number of electric vehicles when the system is at a steady state, is set out. Then, the counting points are chosen according to power curves when the voltage adjustment strategy is adopted. Finally, an experimental prototype is implemented to verify the power stabilization strategy. The experimental results show that, with the application of this strategy, the charging power is stabilized with the fluctuation of no more than 5% when loads access randomly.

  2. Evaluation of Environmental Impact of Biodiesel Vehicles in Real Traffic Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Susumu; Mizushima, Norifumi [National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory (NTSEL) (Japan); Saito, Akira; Takada, Yutaka [Organization for the Promotion of Low Emission Vehicles (LEVO)(Japan

    2012-01-15

    This report focuses on the comparison of the real-world emissions between the case of using diesel oil and BDF (biodiesel fuel) for fuel. For this purpose, the on-road driving tests were made, by applying BDF, with the latest diesel vehicles complying with the latest emission regulations while avoiding any particular modification to them. For measurement, a PEMS (Portable Emission Measurement System) was used. Note that the heavy diesel vehicles complying with the latest emission gas regulations of Japan also meet the heavy vehicle fuel economy regulations introduced by Japan ahead of other countries of the world. Since application of BDF presents problems not only for the emission gas, but also has non-negligible influence on the fuel economy, the survey was also made for the real-world fuel economy. This report has been produced as the final version deliverable from the International Energy Agency’s (IEA’s) Advanced Motor Fuels (AMF) Implementing Agreement (Annex XXXVIII - Evaluation of Environmental Impact of Biodiesel Vehicle in Real Traffic Conditions).

  3. Fugitive dust control experiments using soil fixatives on vehicle traffic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winberg, M.R.; Wixom, V.E.

    1992-08-01

    This report presents the results of engineering scale dust control experiments using soil fixative for contamination control during handling of transuranic waste. These experiments focused on controlling dust during retrieval operations of buried waste where waste and soil are intimately mixed. Sources of dust generation during retrieval operations include digging, dumping, and vehicle traffic. Because contaminants are expected to attach to soil particles and move with the generated dust, control of the dust spread may be the key to contamination control. Dust control techniques examined in these experiments include the use of soil fixatives to control generation of fugitive dusts during vehicle traffic operations. Previous experiments conducted in FY 1990 included testing of the soil fixative, ENTAC. These experiments showed that ENTAC was effective in controlling dust generation but had several undesirable properties such as slow cure times and clogged the pumps and application nozzles. Therefore, other products would have to be evaluated to find a suitable candidate. As a result, two soil fixatives were tested in these present experiments, COHEREX-PM, an asphalt emulsion product manufactured by Witco Corporation and FLAMBINDER, a calcium lignosulfonate product manufactured by Flambeau Corporation. The results of the experiments include product performance and recommended application methods for application in a field deployable contamination control unit to be built in FY 1993

  4. Modeling Vehicle Collision Angle in Traffic Crashes Based on Three-Dimensional Laser Scanning Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengchao Lyu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In road traffic accidents, the analysis of a vehicle’s collision angle plays a key role in identifying a traffic accident’s form and cause. However, because accurate estimation of vehicle collision angle involves many factors, it is difficult to accurately determine it in cases in which less physical evidence is available and there is a lack of monitoring. This paper establishes the mathematical relation model between collision angle, deformation, and normal vector in the collision region according to the equations of particle deformation and force in Hooke’s law of classical mechanics. At the same time, the surface reconstruction method suitable for a normal vector solution is studied. Finally, the estimation model of vehicle collision angle is presented. In order to verify the correctness of the model, verification of multi-angle collision experiments and sensitivity analysis of laser scanning precision for the angle have been carried out using three-dimensional (3D data obtained by a 3D laser scanner in the collision deformation zone. Under the conditions with which the model has been defined, validation results show that the collision angle is a result of the weighted synthesis of the normal vector of the collision point and the weight value is the deformation of the collision point corresponding to normal vectors. These conclusions prove the applicability of the model. The collision angle model proposed in this paper can be used as the theoretical basis for traffic accident identification and cause analysis. It can also be used as a theoretical reference for the study of the impact deformation of elastic materials.

  5. Studies of vehicle lane-changing dynamics and its effect on traffic efficiency, safety and environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2017-02-01

    Drivers often change lanes on the road to maintain desired speed and to avoid slow vehicles, pedestrians, obstacles and lane closure. Understanding the effect of lane-changing on the traffic is an important topic in designing optimal traffic control systems. This paper presents a comprehensive study of this topic. We review the theory of microscopic dynamic car-following models and the lane-changing models, propose additional lane-changing rules to deal with moving bottleneck and lane reduction, and investigate the effects of lane-changing on the traffic efficiency, traffic safety and fuel consumption as a function of different variables including the distance of the emergency sign ahead of the lane closure, speed limit, traffic density, etc. Extensive simulations of the traffic system have been carried out in different scenarios. A number of important findings of the effect of various factors on the traffic are reported. These findings provide guidance on the traffic management and are important to the designers and engineers of modern highway or inner city roads to achieve high traffic efficiency and safety with minimum environmental impact.

  6. Vehicle emission implications of drivers' smart advisory system for traffic operations in work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Qiao, Fengxiang; Yu, Lei

    2016-05-01

    Wireless communication systems have been broadly applied in various complicated traffic operations to improve mobility and safety on roads, which may raise a concern about the implication of the new technology on vehicle emissions. This paper explores how the wireless communication systems improve drivers' driving behaviors and its contributions to the emission reduction, in terms of Operating Mode (OpMode) IDs distribution used in emission estimation. A simulated work zone with completed traffic operation was selected as a test bed. Sixty subjects were recruited for the tests, whose demographic distribution was based on the Census data in Houston, Texas. A scene of a pedestrian's crossing in the work zone was designed for the driving test. Meanwhile, a wireless communication system called Drivers Smart Advisory System (DSAS) was proposed and introduced in the driving simulation, which provided drivers with warning messages in the work zone. Two scenarios were designed for a leading vehicle as well as for a following vehicle driving through the work zone, which included a base test without any wireless communication systems, and a driving test with the trigger of the DSAS. Subjects' driving behaviors in the simulation were recorded to evaluate safety and estimate the vehicle emission using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released emission model MOVES. The correlation between drivers' driving behavior and the distribution of the OpMode ID during each scenario was investigated. Results show that the DSAS was able to induce drivers to accelerate smoothly, keep longer headway distance and stop earlier for a hazardous situation in the work zone, which driving behaviors result in statistically significant reduction in vehicle emissions for almost all studied air pollutants (p-values range from 4.10E-51 to 2.18E-03). The emission reduction was achieved by the switching the distribution of the OpMode IDs from higher emission zones to lower emission zones

  7. Signal Control for Reducing Vehicle NOx and CO2 Emissions Based on Prediction of Arrival Traffic Flows at Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Toshihiko

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from vehicles have been increasing every year because of the growing number of vehicles, and they cause serious environmental problems such as air pollution and global warming. To alleviate these problems, this paper proposes a new traffic signal control method for reducing vehicle NOx and CO2 emissions on arterial roads. To this end, we first model the amount of vehicle emissions as a function of the traffic delay and the number of stops at intersections. This step is necessary because it is difficult to obtain the amount of emissions directly using traffic control systems. Second, we introduce a signal control model in which the control parameters are continuously updated on the basis of predictions of arrival traffic flows at intersections. The signal timings are calculated in such a manner so as to minimize the weighted sum of the two emissions, which depend on the traffic flow. To evaluate the validity of this method, simulation experiments are carried out on an arterial road. The experiments show that the proposed method significantly outperforms existing methods in reducing both the emissions and travel time.

  8. Simulating the impacts of on-street vehicle parking on traffic operations on urban streets using cellular automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingxu; Li, Zhibin; Jiang, Hang; Zhu, Senlai; Wang, Wei

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, many bicycle lanes on urban streets are replaced with vehicle parking places. Spaces for bicycle riding are reduced, resulting in changes in bicycle and vehicle operational features. The objective of this study is to estimate the impacts of on-street parking on heterogeneous traffic operation on urban streets. A cellular automaton (CA) model is developed and calibrated to simulate bicycle lane-changing on streets with on-street parking. Two types of street segments with different bicycle lane width are considered. From the simulation, two types of conflicts between bicycles and vehicles are identified which are frictional conflicts and blocking conflicts. Factors affecting the frequency of conflicts are also identified. Based on the results, vehicle delay is estimated for various traffic situations considering the range of occupancy levels for on-street parking. Later, a numerical network example is analyzed to estimate the network impact of on-street parking on traffic assignment and operation. Findings of the study are helpful to policies and design regarding on-street vehicle parking to improve the efficiency of traffic operations.

  9. Evaluation of Traffic Density Parameters as an Indicator of Vehicle Emission-Related Near-Road Air Pollution: A Case Study with NEXUS Measurement Data on Black Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important factor in evaluating health risk of near-road air pollution is to accurately estimate the traffic-related vehicle emission of air pollutants. Inclusion of traffic parameters such as road length/area, distance to roads, and traffic volume/intensity into models such as...

  10. Convergence of Vehicle and Infrastructure Data for Traffic and Demand Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Stanley E.

    2015-11-16

    The increasing availability of highly granular, vehicle trajectory data combined with ever increasing stores of roadway sensor data has provided unparalleled observability into the operation of our urban roadway networks. These data sources are quickly moving from research and prototype environments into full-scale commercial deployment and data offerings. The observability gained allows for increased control opportunities to enhance transportation mobility, safety and energy efficiency. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is involved in three initiatives to leverage these data for positive outcomes: 1) In 2015 NREL, in cooperation with industry and university partners, was awarded an ARPA-E research grant to research a control architecture to incentivize individual travelers toward more sustainable travel behavior. Based on real-time data on the traveler's destination and state of the system, the traveler is presented with route and/or mode choices and offered incentives to accept sustainable alternatives over less-sustainable ones. The project tests the extent to which small incentives can influence, or tip the balance toward more sustainable travel behavior. 2) Although commercial sources of travel time and speed have emerged in recent years based on vehicle probe data, volume estimates continue to rely primarily on historical count data factored for the time of day, day of week, and season of year. Real-time volume flows would enable better tools, simulation in the loop, and ultimately more effective control outcomes. NREL in cooperation with the University of Maryland and industry traffic data providers (INRIX, HERE and TomTom), are attempting to accelerate the timeframe to a viable real-time vehicle volume data feed based on probe data. 3) Signal control on urban arterials for years has had to rely on models rather than measured data to assess performance. High-resolution controller data and low-cost re-identification data now allows for

  11. Preceding Vehicle Detection and Tracking Adaptive to Illumination Variation in Night Traffic Scenes Based on Relevance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junbin; Wang, Jianqiang; Guo, Xiaosong; Yu, Chuanqiang; Sun, Xiaoyan

    2014-01-01

    Preceding vehicle detection and tracking at nighttime are challenging problems due to the disturbance of other extraneous illuminant sources coexisting with the vehicle lights. To improve the detection accuracy and robustness of vehicle detection, a novel method for vehicle detection and tracking at nighttime is proposed in this paper. The characteristics of taillights in the gray level are applied to determine the lower boundary of the threshold for taillights segmentation, and the optimal threshold for taillight segmentation is calculated using the OTSU algorithm between the lower boundary and the highest grayscale of the region of interest. The candidate taillight pairs are extracted based on the similarity between left and right taillights, and the non-vehicle taillight pairs are removed based on the relevance analysis of vehicle location between frames. To reduce the false negative rate of vehicle detection, a vehicle tracking method based on taillights estimation is applied. The taillight spot candidate is sought in the region predicted by Kalman filtering, and the disturbed taillight is estimated based on the symmetry and location of the other taillight of the same vehicle. Vehicle tracking is completed after estimating its location according to the two taillight spots. The results of experiments on a vehicle platform indicate that the proposed method could detect vehicles quickly, correctly and robustly in the actual traffic environments with illumination variation. PMID:25195855

  12. Simulation and analysis of traffic flow based on cellular automaton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xianping; Liu, Xia

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, single-lane and two-lane traffic model are established based on cellular automaton. Different values of vehicle arrival rate at the entrance and vehicle departure rate at the exit are set to analyze their effects on density, average speed and traffic flow. If the road exit is unblocked, vehicles can pass through the road smoothly despite of the arrival rate at the entrance. If vehicles enter into the road continuously, the traffic condition is varied with the departure rate at the exit. To avoid traffic jam, reasonable vehicle departure rate should be adopted.

  13. An electric vehicle driving behavior model in the traffic system with a wireless charging lane

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia; Huang, Hai-Jun; Yang, Hai; Tang, Tie-Qiao

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a car-following model is proposed to study each EV's (electric vehicle) motion behavior near the WCL (wireless charging lane) and a lane-changing rule is designed to describe the EV's lane-changing behavior. Then, the car-following model and lane-changing rule are used to explore each EV's micro driving behavior in a two-lane system with a WCL. Finally, the impacts of the WCL on each EV's motion behavior are investigated. The numerical results show that each EV should run slowly on the WCL if it needs charge of electricity, that the EV's lane-changing behavior has great effects on the whole system, that the delay time caused by the WCL turns more prominent when the traffic turns heavy, and that lane-changing frequently occurs near the WCL (especially at the downstream of the WCL).

  14. Various aspects of vehicles image data-streams reduction for road traffic sufficient description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan PIECHA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The on-line image processing was implemented for video-camera usage for traffic control. Due to reduce the immense data sets dimension various speculations of data sampling methods were introduced. At the beginning the needed sampling ratio has been found then simple but effective image processing algorithms have to be chosen, finally the hardware solutions for parallel processing are discussed. The PLA computing engine was involved for coping with this task; for fulfilling the assumed characteristics. The developer has to consider several restrictions and preferences. None universal algorithm is available up to now. The reported works, concern vehicles stream recorders development that has to do all recording and computing procedures in strictly defined time limits.

  15. Robust Vehicle Detection under Various Environments to Realize Road Traffic Flow Surveillance Using an Infrared Thermal Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yoichiro; Misumi, Masato; Nakamiya, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    To realize road traffic flow surveillance under various environments which contain poor visibility conditions, we have already proposed two vehicle detection methods using thermal images taken with an infrared thermal camera. The first method uses pattern recognition for the windshields and their surroundings to detect vehicles. However, the first method decreases the vehicle detection accuracy in winter season. To maintain high vehicle detection accuracy in all seasons, we developed the second method. The second method uses tires' thermal energy reflection areas on a road as the detection targets. The second method did not achieve high detection accuracy for vehicles on left-hand and right-hand lanes except for two center-lanes. Therefore, we have developed a new method based on the second method to increase the vehicle detection accuracy. This paper proposes the new method and shows that the detection accuracy for vehicles on all lanes is 92.1%. Therefore, by combining the first method and the new method, high vehicle detection accuracies are maintained under various environments, and road traffic flow surveillance can be realized. PMID:25763384

  16. Stability and manoeuvrability characteristics of single track vehicles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godthelp, J. & Buist, M.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was carried out concerning stability and manoeuvrability characteristics of single track vehicles. This report deals with the first phase of this study and refers to experiments carried out(1) with an instrumented varied and (2) with a number of popular bicycles and mopeds. In

  17. The single-track road running parallel to the D884 dual carriageway in the Pays de Gex is now closed to motor vehicles

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The French authorities have informed CERN that, once the corresponding road signs have been installed, the single-track road running parallel to the dual carriageway culminating at Gate E will be closed to all motorised vehicle traffic, with the exception of agricultural plant, motorcycles, and service, emergency and police vehicles. Relations with the Host States Service Tel.: 72848 mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.chhttp://www.cern.ch/relations

  18. Multi-level Bayesian analyses for single- and multi-vehicle freeway crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rongjie; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed

    2013-09-01

    This study presents multi-level analyses for single- and multi-vehicle crashes on a mountainous freeway. Data from a 15-mile mountainous freeway section on I-70 were investigated. Both aggregate and disaggregate models for the two crash conditions were developed. Five years of crash data were used in the aggregate investigation, while the disaggregate models utilized one year of crash data along with real-time traffic and weather data. For the aggregate analyses, safety performance functions were developed for the purpose of revealing the contributing factors for each crash type. Two methodologies, a Bayesian bivariate Poisson-lognormal model and a Bayesian hierarchical Poisson model with correlated random effects, were estimated to simultaneously analyze the two crash conditions with consideration of possible correlations. Except for the factors related to geometric characteristics, two exposure parameters (annual average daily traffic and segment length) were included. Two different sets of significant explanatory and exposure variables were identified for the single-vehicle (SV) and multi-vehicle (MV) crashes. It was found that the Bayesian bivariate Poisson-lognormal model is superior to the Bayesian hierarchical Poisson model, the former with a substantially lower DIC and more significant variables. In addition to the aggregate analyses, microscopic real-time crash risk evaluation models were developed for the two crash conditions. Multi-level Bayesian logistic regression models were estimated with the random parameters accounting for seasonal variations, crash-unit-level diversity and segment-level random effects capturing unobserved heterogeneity caused by the geometric characteristics. The model results indicate that the effects of the selected variables on crash occurrence vary across seasons and crash units; and that geometric characteristic variables contribute to the segment variations: the more unobserved heterogeneity have been accounted, the better

  19. Potential Traffic Levels after Increasing the Maximum Vehicle Weight in Environmentally Efficient Transportation System: The Case of Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teijo Palander

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study how the maximum vehicle weight (76 t will affect roundwood transportation in environmentally efficient transportation system. Actual traffic levels were assessed with calculations based on the vehicle configurations (60, 64, 68, and 76 t a year after the weight limit was raised. Consequences of this change were also assessed for predicted future traffic levels. The reduction in operational vehicle-km was 12.5% (versus a decrease of 9.3% based on the legal weight, though this may underestimate the long-term prediction (26.7% that will be achieved when the roundwood transportation sector adjusts fully to the higher maximum weight limit. The migration of loads to heavier vehicles did not create any wood harvesting problems for 60, 64 and 68 t vehicle configurations. However, 76 t vehicles were often volume-constrained, so it was harder to achieve the maximum weight. The main operational challenge was pulpwood (3.5 and 4.0 m when onboard loaders were not available. Based on comparison of roundwood length measurements as an indicator of volume-constraint vehicles, the best practice system is discussed to enable an efficient transportation system for sustainable wood procurement.

  20. Single and Combined Effects of Air, Road, and Rail Traffic Noise on Sleep and Recuperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Müller, Uwe; Elmenhorst, Eva-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Study Objective: Traffic noise disturbs sleep and may impair recuperation. There is limited information on single and combined effects of air, road, and rail traffic noise on sleep and recuperation. Design: Repeated measures. Setting: Polysomnographic laboratory study. Participants: 72 healthy subjects, mean ± standard deviation 40 ± 13 years, range 18-71 years, 32 male. Interventions: Exposure to 40, 80, or 120 rail, road, and/or air traffic noise events. Measurement and Results: Subjects were investigated for 11 consecutive nights, which included 8 noise exposure nights and one noise-free control night. Noise effects on sleep structure and continuity were subtle, even in nights with combined exposure, most likely because of habituation and an increase in arousal thresholds both within and across nights. However, cardiac arousals did not habituate across nights. Noise exposure significantly affected subjective assessments of sleep quality and recuperation, whereas objective performance was unaffected, except for a small increase in mean PVT reaction time (+4 ms, adjusted P sleep structure and continuity, whereas subjective assessments of sleep were worse after nights with air and rail traffic noise exposure. In contrast to daytime annoyance, cortical arousal probabilities and cardiac responses were significantly lower for air than for road and rail traffic noise (all P 3 kHz) noise event components. Conclusions: Road, rail, and air traffic noise differentially affect objective and subjective assessments of sleep. Differences in the degree of noise-induced sleep fragmentation between traffic modes were explained by the specific spectral and temporal composition of noise events, indicating potential targets for active and passive noise control. Field studies are needed to validate our findings in a setting with higher ecologic validity. Citation: Basner M; Müller U; Elmenhorst EM. Single and combined effects of air, road, and rail traffic noise on sleep and

  1. Life-cycle private-cost-based competitiveness analysis of electric vehicles in China considering the intangible cost of traffic policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao, Qinghua; Sun, Wei; Yuan, Xinmei; Li, Lili; Zheng, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • LCCs of BEVs and CVs are compared, considering the effects of traffic policy. • BEVs are economically competitive with both national and local subsidies. • Traffic policies have a significant impact on the competitiveness of BEVs. • The promotion of electric vehicles should prioritize mega-cities. - Abstract: Electric vehicles produce zero tailpipe emissions during operation and have thus been considered a most promising method for providing mobility while reducing the greenhouse gas emissions of the transportation sector in the future. The life-cycle cost of electric vehicles has been widely studied to evaluate their competitiveness compared to conventional vehicles. However, the competitiveness of electric vehicles is highly dependent on government promotion policies, and the effects of non-economic incentive policies are currently difficult to include in life-cycle cost analysis. These non-economic effects are usually measured by the intangible cost. Traffic policies represent typical non-economic incentive policies. In China, electric vehicles are exempted from purchase restrictions (license plate control policy) and driving restrictions; thus, the intangible cost of traffic policies has significant effects on the comparison of electric vehicles and conventional vehicles. In this paper, from the consumers’ perspective, the intangible cost of purchase and driving restrictions is modeled and expressed in monetary terms; then, the impact of these non-economic incentive policies are compared with subsidies and other costs of vehicles. Thus, a more comprehensive comparison between electric and conventional vehicles can be provided. Using three selected typical battery electric vehicles and three correspondingly similarly sized conventional vehicles in China, the private life-cycle costs of battery electric vehicles and conventional vehicles are calculated and compared, a parametric variation analysis is performed, and the effects of economic

  2. Cooperative vehicles for robust traffic congestion reduction: An analysis based on algorithmic, environmental and agent behavioral factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Prajakta; Loke, Seng W; Desai, Aniruddha

    2017-01-01

    Traffic congestion continues to be a persistent problem throughout the world. As vehicle-to-vehicle communication develops, there is an opportunity of using cooperation among close proximity vehicles to tackle the congestion problem. The intuition is that if vehicles could cooperate opportunistically when they come close enough to each other, they could, in effect, spread themselves out among alternative routes so that vehicles do not all jam up on the same roads. Our previous work proposed a decentralized multiagent based vehicular congestion management algorithm entitled Congestion Avoidance and Route Allocation using Virtual Agent Negotiation (CARAVAN), wherein the vehicles acting as intelligent agents perform cooperative route allocation using inter-vehicular communication. This paper focuses on evaluating the practical applicability of this approach by testing its robustness and performance (in terms of travel time reduction), across variations in: (a) environmental parameters such as road network topology and configuration; (b) algorithmic parameters such as vehicle agent preferences and route cost/preference multipliers; and (c) agent-related parameters such as equipped/non-equipped vehicles and compliant/non-compliant agents. Overall, the results demonstrate the adaptability and robustness of the decentralized cooperative vehicles approach to providing global travel time reduction using simple local coordination strategies.

  3. Cooperative vehicles for robust traffic congestion reduction: An analysis based on algorithmic, environmental and agent behavioral factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajakta Desai

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion continues to be a persistent problem throughout the world. As vehicle-to-vehicle communication develops, there is an opportunity of using cooperation among close proximity vehicles to tackle the congestion problem. The intuition is that if vehicles could cooperate opportunistically when they come close enough to each other, they could, in effect, spread themselves out among alternative routes so that vehicles do not all jam up on the same roads. Our previous work proposed a decentralized multiagent based vehicular congestion management algorithm entitled Congestion Avoidance and Route Allocation using Virtual Agent Negotiation (CARAVAN, wherein the vehicles acting as intelligent agents perform cooperative route allocation using inter-vehicular communication. This paper focuses on evaluating the practical applicability of this approach by testing its robustness and performance (in terms of travel time reduction, across variations in: (a environmental parameters such as road network topology and configuration; (b algorithmic parameters such as vehicle agent preferences and route cost/preference multipliers; and (c agent-related parameters such as equipped/non-equipped vehicles and compliant/non-compliant agents. Overall, the results demonstrate the adaptability and robustness of the decentralized cooperative vehicles approach to providing global travel time reduction using simple local coordination strategies.

  4. Traffic data collection and anonymous vehicle detection using wireless sensor networks : research summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Problem: : Most Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) applications require distributed : acquisition of various traffic metrics such as traffic speed, volume, and density. : The existing measurement technologies, such as inductive loops, infrared, ...

  5. Traffic data collection and anonymous vehicle detection using wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    New traffic sensing devices based on wireless sensing technologies were designed and tested. Such devices encompass a cost-effective, battery-free, and energy self-sustained architecture for real-time traffic measurement over distributed points in a ...

  6. Guidelines for deploying connected vehicle-enabled weather responsive traffic management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    State and local Departments of Transportation (DOTs) are interested in providing effective traffic management and operations strategies to mitigate the roadway mobility and safety problems due to adverse weather. Weather Responsive Traffic Management...

  7. Effectiveness of electronic stability control on single-vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of electronic stability control (ESC) on single-vehicle injury accidents while controlling for a number of confounders influencing the accident risk. Using police-registered injury accidents from 2004 to 2011 in Denmark with cars manufactured in the period 1998 to 2011 and the principle of induced exposure, 2 measures of the effectiveness of ESC were calculated: The crude odds ratio and the adjusted odds ratio, the latter by means of logistic regression. The logistic regression controlled for a number of confounding factors, of which the following were significant. For the driver: Age, gender, driving experience, valid driving license, and seat belt use. For the vehicle: Year of registration, weight, and ESC. For the accident surroundings: Visibility, light, and location. Finally, for the road: Speed limit, surface, and section characteristics. The present study calculated the crude odds ratio for ESC-equipped cars of getting in a single-vehicle injury accident as 0.40 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34-0.47) and the adjusted odds ratio as 0.69 (95% CI, 0.54-0.88). No difference was found in the effectiveness of ESC across the injury severity categories (slight, severe, and fatal). In line with previous results, this study concludes that ESC reduces the risk for single-vehicle injury accidents by 31% when controlling for various confounding factors related to the driver, the car, and the accident surroundings. Furthermore, it is concluded that it is important to control for human factors (at a minimum age and gender) in analyses where evaluations of this type are performed.

  8. Modified Motor Vehicles Travel Speed Models on the Basis of Curb Parking Setting under Mixed Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Mei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing controversy about in what condition should we set the curb parking has few definitive answers because comprehensive research in this area has been lacking. Our goal is to present a set of heuristic urban street speed functions under mixed traffic flow by taking into account impacts of curb parking. Two impacts have been defined to classify and quantify the phenomena of motor vehicles' speed dynamics in terms of curb parking. The first impact is called Space impact, which is caused by the curb parking types. The other one is the Time impact, which results from the driver maneuvering in or out of parking space. In this paper, based on the empirical data collected from six typical urban streets in Nanjing, China, two models have been proposed to describe these phenomena for one-way traffic and two-way traffic, respectively. An intensive experiment has been conducted in order to calibrate and validate these proposed models, by taking into account the complexity of the model parameters. We also provide guidelines in terms of how to cluster and calculate those models' parameters. Results from these models demonstrated promising performance of modeling motor vehicles' speed for mixed traffic flow under the influence of curb parking.

  9. Modified Motor Vehicles Travel Speed Models on the Basis of Curb Parking Setting under Mixed Traffic Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, Zhenyu; Chen, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing controversy about in what condition should we set the curb parking has few definitive answers because comprehensive research in this area has been lacking. Our goal is to present a set of heuristic urban street speed functions under mixed traffic flow by taking into account impacts of curb parking. Two impacts have been defined to classify and quantify the phenomena of motor vehicles' speed dynamics in terms of curb parking. The first impact is called Space impact, which is caused...

  10. Prediction of vehicle crashes by drivers' characteristics and past traffic violations in Korea using a zero-inflated negative binomial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Hwan; Ramjan, Lucie M; Mak, Kwok-Kei

    2016-01-01

    Traffic safety is a significant public health challenge, and vehicle crashes account for the majority of injuries. This study aims to identify whether drivers' characteristics and past traffic violations may predict vehicle crashes in Korea. A total of 500,000 drivers were randomly selected from the 11.6 million driver records of the Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs in Korea. Records of traffic crashes were obtained from the archives of the Korea Insurance Development Institute. After matching the past violation history for the period 2004-2005 with the number of crashes in year 2006, a total of 488,139 observations were used for the analysis. Zero-inflated negative binomial model was used to determine the incident risk ratio (IRR) of vehicle crashes by past violations of individual drivers. The included covariates were driver's age, gender, district of residence, vehicle choice, and driving experience. Drivers violating (1) a hit-and-run or drunk driving regulation at least once and (2) a signal, central line, or speed regulation more than once had a higher risk of a vehicle crash with respective IRRs of 1.06 and 1.15. Furthermore, female gender, a younger age, fewer years of driving experience, and middle-sized vehicles were all significantly associated with a higher likelihood of vehicle crashes. Drivers' demographic characteristics and past traffic violations could predict vehicle crashes in Korea. Greater resources should be assigned to the provision of traffic safety education programs for the high-risk driver groups.

  11. Using Probe Vehicle Data for Automatic Extraction of Road Traffic Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Popescu Maria Alexandra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Through this paper the author aims to study and find solutions for automatic detection of traffic light position and for automatic calculation of the waiting time at traffic light. The first objective serves mainly the road transportation field, mainly because it removes the need for collaboration with local authorities to establish a national network of traffic lights. The second objective is important not only for companies which are providing navigation solutions, but especially for authorities, institutions, companies operating in road traffic management systems. Real-time dynamic determination of traffic queue length and of waiting time at traffic lights allow the creation of dynamic systems, intelligent and flexible, adapted to actual traffic conditions, and not to generic, theoretical models. Thus, cities can approach the Smart City concept by boosting, efficienting and greening the road transport, promoted in Europe through the Horizon 2020, Smart Cities, Urban Mobility initiative.

  12. Identification of Drivers in Traffic Accidents and Determination of Passenger Position in a Vehicle by Finger Marks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Trapečar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The following paper aims to illustrate certain investigative activities in the forensic analysis and examination of the scene of traffic accidents. When a traffic accident occurs, the scene must be secured as soon as possible to enable professional and proper forensic investigation. Failure to secure the accident scene might result in losing or contaminating the traces, which makes it more difficult to prove or explain trace evidence in further procedure or even makes such evidence inadmissible. The topic is discussed from the viewpoint of crime scene examination, since analysing and investigating traffic accidents requires a great deal of expertise and attention of the investigators. Complex traffic accidents include feigned accidents, hit-and-run accidents as well as accidents in which the driver and passengers, dead or alive, need to be identified. In identifying the passengers, standard criminal investigation methods as well as police forensic and forensic medicine methods are followed. Such methods include confirming the identities with identity documents, other documents and vehicle ownership, fingerprints, biological traces, fibre traces, contact traces, traces of physical injuries on the driver and passengers, etc. According to the results obtained in fingerprint detection on human skin surfaces, this method can also be applied in confirming physical contact between the driver and the passengers in the accident, e.g. in the event of moving the victims and changing the scene of the accident.   Key words: traffic accidents, accident analysis, driver's identity, passengers' position, finger marks, human skin

  13. A Space-Time Network-Based Modeling Framework for Dynamic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Routing in Traffic Incident Monitoring Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisheng Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is essential for transportation management centers to equip and manage a network of fixed and mobile sensors in order to quickly detect traffic incidents and further monitor the related impact areas, especially for high-impact accidents with dramatic traffic congestion propagation. As emerging small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs start to have a more flexible regulation environment, it is critically important to fully explore the potential for of using UAVs for monitoring recurring and non-recurring traffic conditions and special events on transportation networks. This paper presents a space-time network- based modeling framework for integrated fixed and mobile sensor networks, in order to provide a rapid and systematic road traffic monitoring mechanism. By constructing a discretized space-time network to characterize not only the speed for UAVs but also the time-sensitive impact areas of traffic congestion, we formulate the problem as a linear integer programming model to minimize the detection delay cost and operational cost, subject to feasible flying route constraints. A Lagrangian relaxation solution framework is developed to decompose the original complex problem into a series of computationally efficient time-dependent and least cost path finding sub-problems. Several examples are used to demonstrate the results of proposed models in UAVs’ route planning for small and medium-scale networks.

  14. A Space-Time Network-Based Modeling Framework for Dynamic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Routing in Traffic Incident Monitoring Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jisheng; Jia, Limin; Niu, Shuyun; Zhang, Fan; Tong, Lu; Zhou, Xuesong

    2015-06-12

    It is essential for transportation management centers to equip and manage a network of fixed and mobile sensors in order to quickly detect traffic incidents and further monitor the related impact areas, especially for high-impact accidents with dramatic traffic congestion propagation. As emerging small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) start to have a more flexible regulation environment, it is critically important to fully explore the potential for of using UAVs for monitoring recurring and non-recurring traffic conditions and special events on transportation networks. This paper presents a space-time network- based modeling framework for integrated fixed and mobile sensor networks, in order to provide a rapid and systematic road traffic monitoring mechanism. By constructing a discretized space-time network to characterize not only the speed for UAVs but also the time-sensitive impact areas of traffic congestion, we formulate the problem as a linear integer programming model to minimize the detection delay cost and operational cost, subject to feasible flying route constraints. A Lagrangian relaxation solution framework is developed to decompose the original complex problem into a series of computationally efficient time-dependent and least cost path finding sub-problems. Several examples are used to demonstrate the results of proposed models in UAVs' route planning for small and medium-scale networks.

  15. Effectiveness of electronic stability control on single-vehicle accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2015-01-01

    the following were significant. For the driver: Age, gender, driving experience, valid driving license, and seat belt use. For the vehicle: Year of registration, weight, and ESC. For the accident surroundings: Visibility, light, and location. Finally, for the road: Speed limit, surface, and section...... manufactured in the period 1998 to 2011 and the principle of induced exposure, 2 measures of the effectiveness of ESC were calculated: The crude odds ratio and the adjusted odds ratio, the latter by means of logistic regression. The logistic regression controlled for a number of confounding factors, of which...... characteristics. Results: The present study calculated the crude odds ratio for ESC-equipped cars of getting in a single-vehicle injury accident as 0.40 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34-0.47) and the adjusted odds ratio as 0.69 (95% CI, 0.54-0.88). No difference was found in the effectiveness of ESC across...

  16. Single-Frame Terrain Mapping Software for Robotic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo L.

    2011-01-01

    This software is a component in an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) perception system that builds compact, single-frame terrain maps for distribution to other systems, such as a world model or an operator control unit, over a local area network (LAN). Each cell in the map encodes an elevation value, terrain classification, object classification, terrain traversability, terrain roughness, and a confidence value into four bytes of memory. The input to this software component is a range image (from a lidar or stereo vision system), and optionally a terrain classification image and an object classification image, both registered to the range image. The single-frame terrain map generates estimates of the support surface elevation, ground cover elevation, and minimum canopy elevation; generates terrain traversability cost; detects low overhangs and high-density obstacles; and can perform geometry-based terrain classification (ground, ground cover, unknown). A new origin is automatically selected for each single-frame terrain map in global coordinates such that it coincides with the corner of a world map cell. That way, single-frame terrain maps correctly line up with the world map, facilitating the merging of map data into the world map. Instead of using 32 bits to store the floating-point elevation for a map cell, the vehicle elevation is assigned to the map origin elevation and reports the change in elevation (from the origin elevation) in terms of the number of discrete steps. The single-frame terrain map elevation resolution is 2 cm. At that resolution, terrain elevation from 20.5 to 20.5 m (with respect to the vehicle's elevation) is encoded into 11 bits. For each four-byte map cell, bits are assigned to encode elevation, terrain roughness, terrain classification, object classification, terrain traversability cost, and a confidence value. The vehicle s current position and orientation, the map origin, and the map cell resolution are all included in a header for each

  17. Epidemiology of traffic injuries and motor vehicles utilization in the Capital of Iran: A population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soori Hamid

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Road traffic injuries are a serious public health problem worldwide. The incidence rate of fatal road traffic injuries is 26.4 per 100000 in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Road traffic injuries are a major public health problem in Iran. Different routine sources are available for road traffic injuries in Iran, but they present several limitations. This study aimed to determine the epidemiology of road traffic injuries in greater Tehran, using a population-based approach which is less prone to under-estimation compared to service-based data. Methods In the year 2008, 2488 households were randomly selected for a face to face interview. Trained interviewers referred to the selected households to collect the subjects' demographic information, as well as their motor vehicle utilization and traffic injuries during the year prior to data collection. All interviews were recorded using a digital voice recorder and reviewed by a quality control team the day after the interview. The Student's t-test and ANOVA were used to analyze continuous variables. Chi-square test -including a test for trend for ordinal data- was used to analyze categorical variables. Ninety-five percent confidence interval was calculated for point estimates of incidences using Poisson or binomial distribution assumptions accordingly. Results There were 119 traffic injury cases including 3 deaths (33 per 100 000 in the survey sample (n = 9100. The annual incidence of all traffic injuries for 1000 population was 13.1 (95% CI: 10.8 - 15.6, and that of fatal traffic injuries was 33.0 per 100 000 population (95% CI: 6.80 - 96.32. The annual incidence of collision traffic injury for 1000 motorcycles was 95. Conclusion This population-based study demonstrates that the morbidity rate of RTIs is about ten times higher than the national figures reported by other available sources; and this can serve as an important warning to countries like Iran to prioritize this issue in

  18. Intelligent Traffic Light Based on PLC Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lin; Zhang, Lijian; Wang, Lingling

    2017-11-01

    The traditional traffic light system with a fixed control mode and single control function is contradicted with the current traffic section. The traditional one has been unable to meet the functional requirements of the existing flexible traffic control system. This paper research and develop an intelligent traffic light called PLC control system. It uses PLC as control core, using a sensor module for receiving real-time information of vehicles, traffic control mode for information to select the traffic lights. Of which control mode is flexible and changeable, and it also set the countdown reminder to improve the effectiveness of traffic lights, which can realize the goal of intelligent traffic diversion, intelligent traffic diversion.

  19. Increasing Intelligence in Inter-Vehicle Communications to Reduce Traffic Congestions: Experiments in Urban and Highway Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo I Meneguette

    Full Text Available Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS rely on Inter-Vehicle Communication (IVC to streamline the operation of vehicles by managing vehicle traffic, assisting drivers with safety and sharing information, as well as providing appropriate services for passengers. Traffic congestion is an urban mobility problem, which causes stress to drivers and economic losses. In this context, this work proposes a solution for the detection, dissemination and control of congested roads based on inter-vehicle communication, called INCIDEnT. The main goal of the proposed solution is to reduce the average trip time, CO emissions and fuel consumption by allowing motorists to avoid congested roads. The simulation results show that our proposed solution leads to short delays and a low overhead. Moreover, it is efficient with regard to the coverage of the event and the distance to which the information can be propagated. The findings of the investigation show that the proposed solution leads to (i high hit rate in the classification of the level of congestion, (ii a reduction in average trip time, (iii a reduction in fuel consumption, and (iv reduced CO emissions.

  20. Proposal for a limit value reduction scenario for road vehicles compatible with the German national traffic noise prevention. Package II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven, Heinz [Data Analysis and Consultancy, Heinsberg (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    With COM(2011) 856 final from 09.12.2011 the EU Commission launched a proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the sound level of motor vehicles. This proposal is related to motor vehicles having at least four wheels. Objective and aim are described as follows: ''The objective of the proposal is to ensure a high level of health and environmental protection and to safeguard the Internal Market for motor vehicles as regards their sound level. The proposal aims at reducing environmental noise by introducing a new test method for measuring noise emissions, by lowering the noise limit values, by including additional sound emission provisions in the type-approval procedure...'' (see paragraph 1 of the explanatory memorandum). Under the bullet point ''- new limit values'' of paragraph 1 of the explanatory memorandum the following statements are listed: ''On the basis of the results of the monitoring data an impact assessment has been prepared with different policy options for the noise test method and corresponding limit values. According to the most preferable option the limit values for light and medium size vehicles will be lowered in two steps of each 2 dB(A) and for heavy vehicles in a first step of 1 and a second step of 2 dB(A). This will result in a reduction of the noise impact of about 3 dB(A) for free flowing traffic and up to 4 dB(A) for intermittent traffic. The reduction of the number of highly annoyed people will be 25 %. The cost-benefit ratio for this measure is estimated to be around 20 times in favour of the noise reduction compared to no action taken.'' The forecast for the reduction of the noise impact in real traffic is far too optimistic. It is highly unlikely that the reduction of limit values by 3 to 4 dB will lead to a reduction of the noise impact in real traffic by the same amount without any deterioration factor. Own calculations with the TRANECAM

  1. Bicycle-vehicle interactions at mid-sections of mixed traffic streets: Examining passing distance and bicycle comfort perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apasnore, Peter; Ismail, Karim; Kassim, Ali

    2017-09-01

    This paper studies the relevant factors in mixed urban traffic that may impact the lateral spacing between bicycles and vehicles (passing distance, PD), and their resulting effect on a bicyclists' comfort based on a study of six sites in Ottawa, Canada. The observations are: [i] the average position of bicycles from the curb is 0.57m, and lesser (i.e. 0.35m) in the presence of parking; [ii] 90% of passes exceed 1.23m; [iii] PD is positively correlated with motor vehicle speed, lane width, and bicycle position from adjacent curb edge line, whiles inversely correlated to ambient traffic density and bicycle speed; [iv] motor vehicle speed has the highest prediction of PD variability; [v] PD and ambient traffic density (ATD) are found to be the most important factors to a bicyclists' comfort perception (BCP). Two linear regression models for PD and BCP were developed and significant variables are identified as: motor vehicle speed, bicycle speed, ATD, number of lanes, and lane width. The presence or absence of a grade slope is found to be significant to the PD model and not to BCP. The models both exhibit limited predictive ability, however residual plots and significance of included variables are indicative of correct assumptions for the models. It is recommended that speed calming, sharrows, road signs instructing road sharing, and educating road users against "dooring" crashes be considered in improving road sharing, especially for narrow lanes (i.e. less than 3.6m) and lanes wider than 4.5m. It is also prudent for designers to avoid installing parking zones on narrow shared roads. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Exchanging Battery on the Electric Vehicle’s Electricity Consumption in a Single-Lane Traffic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Chun Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a car-following model to explore the influences of exchanging battery on each vehicle’s electricity consumption under three traffic situations from the numerical perspective. The numerical results show that exchanging battery will destroy the stability of traffic flow, but the effects are related to each vehicle’s initial headway, the time that each electric vehicle exchanges the battery, the proportion of the electric vehicles that should exchange the battery, the number of charging stations, and the distance between two adjacent charging stations.

  3. Stationary LiDAR for traffic and safety applications - vehicles interpretation and tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the T-Scan project is to develop a data processing module for a novel LiDAR-based traffic scanner to collect highly accurate microscopic traffic data at road intersections. : T-Scan uses Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology that...

  4. High-resolution simulation of link-level vehicle emissions and concentrations for air pollutants in a traffic-populated eastern Asian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle emissions containing air pollutants created substantial environmental impacts on air quality for many traffic-populated cities in eastern Asia. A high-resolution emission inventory is a useful tool compared with traditional tools (e.g. registration data-based approach to accurately evaluate real-world traffic dynamics and their environmental burden. In this study, Macau, one of the most populated cities in the world, is selected to demonstrate a high-resolution simulation of vehicular emissions and their contribution to air pollutant concentrations by coupling multimodels. First, traffic volumes by vehicle category on 47 typical roads were investigated during weekdays in 2010 and further applied in a networking demand simulation with the TransCAD model to establish hourly profiles of link-level vehicle counts. Local vehicle driving speed and vehicle age distribution data were also collected in Macau. Second, based on a localized vehicle emission model (e.g. the emission factor model for the Beijing vehicle fleet – Macau, EMBEV–Macau, this study established a link-based vehicle emission inventory in Macau with high resolution meshed in a temporal and spatial framework. Furthermore, we employed the AERMOD (AMS/EPA Regulatory Model model to map concentrations of CO and primary PM2.5 contributed by local vehicle emissions during weekdays in November 2010. This study has discerned the strong impact of traffic flow dynamics on the temporal and spatial patterns of vehicle emissions, such as a geographic discrepancy of spatial allocation up to 26 % between THC and PM2.5 emissions owing to spatially heterogeneous vehicle-use intensity between motorcycles and diesel fleets. We also identified that the estimated CO2 emissions from gasoline vehicles agreed well with the statistical fuel consumption in Macau. Therefore, this paper provides a case study and a solid framework for developing high-resolution environment assessment tools for other

  5. Modeling Single Occupant Vehicle Behavior in High-Occupancy Toll (HOT) Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-14

    High-occupancy toll (HOT) lanes are in operation, under construction, and planned for in several major metropolitan areas. The premise behind HOT lanes is to allow single occupant vehicles (SOVs) to access high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes (and theo...

  6. Predictive Energy Management Strategy Including Traffic Flow Data for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, K.R.; Pham, T.H.; Wilkins, S.; Hofman, T.

    2017-01-01

    Within hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) predictive energy management strategies (EMSs) have the potential to reduce the fuel consumption compared to conventional EMSs, where the drive cycle is unknown. Typically, predictive EMSs require a future vehicle speed profile prediction. However, when

  7. A Multi-dimensional Model for Vehicle Impact on Traffic Safety, Congestion, and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) has recently received great attention in the research : community. It offers a revolutionary vision of transportation, in which a full-scale : communication scheme between vehicles (V2V) and vehicles and in...

  8. Real-time traffic management to maximize throughput of automated vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    In intelligent transportation systems, most of the research work has focused on lane change assistant : systems. No existing work considers minimizing the disruption of traffic flow by maximizing the number : of lane changes while eliminating the col...

  9. Multi-Modal Intelligent Traffic Signal Systems Vehicle Trajectories for Roadside Equipment

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Data were collected during the Multi-Modal Intelligent Transportation Signal Systems (MMITSS) study. MMITSS is a next-generation traffic signal system that seeks to...

  10. Traffic collisions between electric mobility devices (wheelchairs) and motor vehicles: Accidents, hubris, or self-destructive behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBan, Myron M; Nabity, Thomas S

    2010-07-01

    This study had its genesis in a personally observed collision between a motor vehicle and a motorized wheelchair (electric mobility device) on a busy street in the middle of the block at an unmarked crossing. To the observer, at the time, this appeared to be a suicidal act. This investigation was initiated to both delineate the number of these crashes nationally and understand this phenomena as a potentially planned act of self-destruction. An initial survey of police reports was immediately frustrated by an inability to separate motor vehicle and electric mobility device collisions from the much larger group that involved ambulatory citizens because both types were classified together as "pedestrian" accidents. Instead, the search engine NexisLexis was used to identify 107 newspaper articles each of which described a motor vehicle and electric mobility device accident. In the motor vehicle and electric mobility device collisions, men predominated women (3:1 ratio) with an average age of 56 yrs. Sixty of these accidents were fatal. Ninety-four percent involved an electric mobility device and 6% a manual wheelchair. In 50% of the cases, the motor vehicle was a truck, van, or sport utility vehicle. Fifty percent occurred at dusk or dawn or at night. The electric mobility device occupant was cited as the guilty party in 39% of the cases and the driver of the motor vehicle in 27%. Twenty percent were unwitnessed hit-and-run accidents, whereas "no fault" was found in 8% of the cases. Although many accidents do happen by chance, when an electric mobility device operator openly challenges busy traffic by attempting to traverse it in the middle of the block at an unmarked crossing, predisposing psychosocial factors must also be considered. Hubris or premeditated self-destructive behavior or both need to be explored as preeminent issues with reference to the prodromal of the "accident process."

  11. Evaluation of Traffic Density Parameters as an Indicator of Vehicle Emission-Related Near-Road Air Pollution: A Case Study with NEXUS Measurement Data on Black Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi V. Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An important factor in evaluating health risk of near-road air pollution is to accurately estimate the traffic-related vehicle emission of air pollutants. Inclusion of traffic parameters such as road length/area, distance to roads, and traffic volume/intensity into models such as land use regression (LUR models has improved exposure estimation. To better understand the relationship between vehicle emissions and near-road air pollution, we evaluated three traffic density-based indices: Major-Road Density (MRD, All-Traffic Density (ATD and Heavy-Traffic Density (HTD which represent the proportions of major roads, major road with annual average daily traffic (AADT, and major road with commercial annual average daily traffic (CAADT in a buffered area, respectively. We evaluated the potential of these indices as vehicle emission-specific near-road air pollutant indicators by analyzing their correlation with black carbon (BC, a marker for mobile source air pollutants, using measurement data obtained from the Near-road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS. The average BC concentrations during a day showed variations consistent with changes in traffic volume which were classified into high, medium, and low for the morning rush hours, the evening rush hours, and the rest of the day, respectively. The average correlation coefficients between BC concentrations and MRD, ATD, and HTD, were 0.26, 0.18, and 0.48, respectively, as compared with −0.31 and 0.25 for two commonly used traffic indicators: nearest distance to a major road and total length of the major road. HTD, which includes only heavy-duty diesel vehicles in its traffic count, gives statistically significant correlation coefficients for all near-road distances (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 m that were analyzed. Generalized linear model (GLM analyses show that season, traffic volume, HTD, and distance from major roads are highly related to BC measurements. Our analyses

  12. Evaluation of Traffic Density Parameters as an Indicator of Vehicle Emission-Related Near-Road Air Pollution: A Case Study with NEXUS Measurement Data on Black Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi V; Chen, Fu-Lin; Xue, Jianping

    2017-12-15

    An important factor in evaluating health risk of near-road air pollution is to accurately estimate the traffic-related vehicle emission of air pollutants. Inclusion of traffic parameters such as road length/area, distance to roads, and traffic volume/intensity into models such as land use regression (LUR) models has improved exposure estimation. To better understand the relationship between vehicle emissions and near-road air pollution, we evaluated three traffic density-based indices: Major-Road Density (MRD), All-Traffic Density (ATD) and Heavy-Traffic Density (HTD) which represent the proportions of major roads, major road with annual average daily traffic (AADT), and major road with commercial annual average daily traffic (CAADT) in a buffered area, respectively. We evaluated the potential of these indices as vehicle emission-specific near-road air pollutant indicators by analyzing their correlation with black carbon (BC), a marker for mobile source air pollutants, using measurement data obtained from the Near-road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS). The average BC concentrations during a day showed variations consistent with changes in traffic volume which were classified into high, medium, and low for the morning rush hours, the evening rush hours, and the rest of the day, respectively. The average correlation coefficients between BC concentrations and MRD, ATD, and HTD, were 0.26, 0.18, and 0.48, respectively, as compared with -0.31 and 0.25 for two commonly used traffic indicators: nearest distance to a major road and total length of the major road. HTD, which includes only heavy-duty diesel vehicles in its traffic count, gives statistically significant correlation coefficients for all near-road distances (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 m) that were analyzed. Generalized linear model (GLM) analyses show that season, traffic volume, HTD, and distance from major roads are highly related to BC measurements. Our analyses indicate that

  13. A three-step vehicle detection framework for range estimation using a single camera

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kanjee, R

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes and validates a real-time onroad vehicle detection system, which uses a single camera for the purpose of intelligent driver assistance. A three-step vehicle detection framework is presented to detect and track the target vehicle...

  14. 77 FR 24560 - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Electric Vehicle Safety Technical Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... discuss safety considerations for electric vehicles powered by lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. The... Li-ion batteries and Li-ion battery-powered vehicles, as well as presentations by the Department of... technical symposium to discuss regulatory and safety considerations for lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery-powered...

  15. Information, communication and control systems for vehicle, road and traffic management. Contribution OECD Seminar on Micro-electronics for Road and Traffic Management. Tokyo, October 29 - November 2, 1984, Session V, p. 236-241.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.-l.

    1984-01-01

    The application of micro-electronics for vehicle, road and traffic management has increased rapidly in the past 10 to 15 years. The approach, however, is very often rather isolated, resulting in problems regarding consistency, continuity, uniformity and compatibility. The whole field of possible

  16. Statistical variances in traffic data

    OpenAIRE

    Krbalek, Milan; Seba, Petr

    2006-01-01

    We perform statistical analysis of the single-vehicle data measured on the Dutch freeway A9 and discussed in Ref. [2]. Using tools originating from the Random Matrix Theory we show that the significant changes in the statistics of the traffic data can be explained applying equilibrium statistical physics of interacting particles.

  17. An estimation of traffic related CO2 emissions from motor vehicles in the capital city of, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakouei Aliakbar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vehicle exhaust is a major source of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 in metropolitan cities. Popular community mode (buses and taxies and about 2.4 million private cars are the main emission sources of air pollution in Tehran. A case survey has conducted to measure CO2 in four popular vehicles, bus, taxi, private car and motorcycle, which moved in the city with respectively 7800, 82358, 560000 and 2.4 million per day in 2012. Results indicated that the contribution of CO2 emissions increased in the following order: private car, motorcycle, bus and taxi. The overall average for the contribution of CO2 emissions in the private car, motorcycle, bus, and taxi were 26372, 1648, 1433 and 374 tons per day, respectively. Our results also showed that the urban transport operation consume an estimated 178 and 4224 million liter diesel and petrol per year, respectively, that have released about 10 million tons of CO2. The average contribution of CO2 emissions of private cars in Tehran was higher (88% than other vehicles. It was concluded that high volume of traffic, transport consumption of fossil fuels and shortage of adequate public transport system are responsible for the high CO2 level in environment in Tehran. Thus, it is to be expected that CO2 as a greenhouse gas has risen in Tehran more than ever in the following years and this would be a matter of concern for the authorities to have a comprehensive plan to mitigate this phenomena.

  18. Experimental research of vehicle traction properties for reconstruction of traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudziak Marian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to broaden the database of motor vehicle traction properties in unusual conditions, the research team has performed experimental studies: on wet and snow-covered surfaces. Tests of vehicles equipped with winter tyres with non-skid snow chains have been performed on snow-covered surfaces. It has been shown that on snowy surface chains affect vehicle traction properties, mostly during acceleration. They increase the rate of acceleration up to 50% compared to a vehicle with winter tyres without chains. The results of the performed research can be the basis for the full reconstruction of road accidents under these conditions. Knowledge of traction properties of cars in difficult and unusual conditions is an important cognitive factor and serves to improve road safety.

  19. An assessment of autonomous vehicles : traffic impacts and infrastructure needs : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The project began by understanding the current state of practice and trends. NHTSAs four-level taxonomy for automated vehicles was used to classify smart driving technologies and infrastructure needs. The project used surveys to analyze and gain a...

  20. Locating replenishment stations for electric vehicles: Application to Danish traffic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Min; Laporte, Gilbert; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    2012-01-01

    Environment-friendly electric vehicles have gained substantial attention in governments, industry and universities. The deployment of a network of recharging stations is essential given their limited travel range. This paper considers the problem of locating electronic replenishment stations for ...

  1. Negotiating the Traffic: Can Cognitive Science Help Make Autonomous Vehicles a Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Nick; Misyak, Jennifer; Watson, Derrick; Griffiths, Nathan; Mouzakitis, Alex

    2018-02-01

    To drive safely among human drivers, cyclists and pedestrians, autonomous vehicles will need to mimic, or ideally improve upon, humanlike driving. Yet, driving presents us with difficult problems of joint action: 'negotiating' with other users over shared road space. We argue that autonomous driving provides a test case for computational theories of social interaction, with fundamental implications for the development of autonomous vehicles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing the ground vibrations produced by a heavy vehicle traversing a traffic obstacle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducarne, Loïc; Ainalis, Daniel; Kouroussis, Georges

    2018-01-15

    Despite advancements in alternative transport networks, road transport remains the dominant mode in many modern and developing countries. The ground-borne motions produced by the passage of a heavy vehicle over a geometric obstacle (e.g. speed hump, train tracks) pose a fundamental problem in transport annoyance in urban areas. In order to predict the ground vibrations generated by the passage of a heavy vehicle over a geometric obstacle, a two-step numerical model is developed. The first step involves simulating the dynamic loads generated by the heavy vehicle using a multibody approach, which includes the tyre-obstacle-ground interaction. The second step involves the simulation of the ground wave propagation using a three dimensional finite element model. The simulation is able to be decoupled due to the large difference in stiffness between the vehicle's tyres and the road. First, the two-step model is validated using an experimental case study available in the literature. A sensitivity analysis is then presented, examining the influence of various factors on the generated ground vibrations. Factors investigated include obstacle shape, obstacle dimensions, vehicle speed, and tyre stiffness. The developed model can be used as a tool in the early planning stages to predict the ground vibrations generated by the passage of a heavy vehicle over an obstacle in urban areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. How Might People Near National Roads Be Affected by Traffic Noise as Electric Vehicles Increase in Number? A Laboratory Study of Subjective Evaluations of Environmental Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ian; Kennedy, John; Martin, Susanna; Rice, Henry

    2016-01-01

    We face a likely shift to electric vehicles (EVs) but the environmental and human consequences of this are not yet well understood. Simulated auditory traffic scenes were synthesized from recordings of real conventional and EVs. These sounded similar to what might be heard by a person near a major national road. Versions of the simulation had 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% EVs. Participants heard the auditory scenes in random order, rating each on five perceptual dimensions such as pleasant-unpleasant and relaxing-stressful. Ratings of traffic noise were, overall, towards the negative end of these scales, but improved significantly when there were high proportions of EVs in the traffic mix, particularly when there were 80% or 100% EVs. This suggests a shift towards a high proportion of EVs is likely to improve the subjective experiences of people exposed to traffic noise from major roads. The effects were not a simple result of EVs being quieter: ratings of bandpass-filtered versions of the recordings suggested that people's perceptions of traffic noise were specifically influenced by energy in the 500-2000 Hz band. Engineering countermeasures to reduce noise in this band might be effective for improving the subjective experience of people living or working near major roads, even for conventional vehicles; energy in the 0-100 Hz band was particularly associated with people identifying sound as 'quiet' and, again, this might feed into engineering to reduce the impact of traffic noise on people.

  4. Morphological analysis of the introduction of electric vehicles in São Paulo’s urban traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Lopes Correia da Silva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Pressures of international organizations and governmental regulations have increased substantially when it comes to the reduction of dependence on fossil fuels and transport pollutants emissions. To meet these challenges, the automotive industry invests large sums in research and development on a broad portfolio of new technologies related to vehicular propulsion. Considering the alternatives under development, electric vehicles, specifically, have received increased attention both in Brazil and abroad. This study aims to contribute with the construction of future scenarios in 2020 concerning the introduction of electric vehicles in São Paulo´s urban traffic, an integral part of the CNPq/FINEP research project which is being undertaken at the University of São Paulo (USP/FEA, coordinated by Prof. James T. C. Wright. The Morphological Analysis method was adopted given the fact that it facilitates the structuring of the managerial and technological complexities of the proposed problem, with views to identifying the variables and their critical relations for the prospection of scenarios. The variables that influence an urban transport system were structured into four logical groups: scope of usage, structural architecture and propulsion system of the vehicle, road and energy supply/recharge infrastructure and finally, business models. These groups, in turn, were analysed at distinct levels, leading to other variables. Subsequently, alternative forms, which the selected variables could take on, were generated. The multidimensional matrix resulting from this set of combinatorial possibilities was then carefully verified in terms of feasibility and consistency in order to identify the basic settings of greatest interest to the scenarios prospecting effort.Key words: Prospective scenarios. Morphological analysis. Electric vehicles.

  5. A 3D Reconstruction Strategy of Vehicle Outline Based on Single-Pass Single-Polarization CSAR Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leping Chen; Daoxiang An; Xiaotao Huang; Zhimin Zhou

    2017-11-01

    In the last few years, interest in circular synthetic aperture radar (CSAR) acquisitions has arisen as a consequence of the potential achievement of 3D reconstructions over 360° azimuth angle variation. In real-world scenarios, full 3D reconstructions of arbitrary targets need multi-pass data, which makes the processing complex, money-consuming, and time expending. In this paper, we propose a processing strategy for the 3D reconstruction of vehicle, which can avoid using multi-pass data by introducing a priori information of vehicle's shape. Besides, the proposed strategy just needs the single-pass single-polarization CSAR data to perform vehicle's 3D reconstruction, which makes the processing much more economic and efficient. First, an analysis of the distribution of attributed scattering centers from vehicle facet model is presented. And the analysis results show that a smooth and continuous basic outline of vehicle could be extracted from the peak curve of a noncoherent processing image. Second, the 3D location of vehicle roofline is inferred from layover with empirical insets of the basic outline. At last, the basic line and roofline of the vehicle are used to estimate the vehicle's 3D information and constitute the vehicle's 3D outline. The simulated and measured data processing results prove the correctness and effectiveness of our proposed strategy.

  6. Queueing and traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baër, Niek

    2015-01-01

    Traffic jams are everywhere, some are caused by constructions or accidents but a large portion occurs naturally. These "natural" traffic jams are a result of variable driving speeds combined with a high number of vehicles. To prevent these traffic jams, we must understand traffic in general, and to

  7. Jamitons: Phantom Traffic Jams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowszun, Jorj

    2013-01-01

    Traffic on motorways can slow down for no apparent reason. Sudden changes in speed by one or two drivers can create a chain reaction that causes a traffic jam for the vehicles that are following. This kind of phantom traffic jam is called a "jamiton" and the article discusses some of the ways in which traffic engineers produce…

  8. Length based vehicle classification on freeways from single loop detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Roadway usage, particularly by large vehicles, is one of the fundamental factors determining the lifespan : of highway infrastructure, e.g., as evidenced by the federally mandated Highway Performance : Monitoring System (HPMS). But the complexity of ...

  9. Grid to vehicle and vehicle to grid energy transfer using single ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (PF) half-bridge boost converter and bidirectional DC-DC converter based energy transfer from electrical vehicle to grid(V2G) and grid to vehicle (G2V) is proposed with detailed analysis. The efficiency of this conversion system is high because there is only one series semiconductor on-state voltage drop at any instant.

  10. Influence of Urban Traffic Driving Conditions and Vehicle Cubic Capacity on CO and VOC Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Negoitescu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The reports regarding the global warming warn on the urgent need to reduce pollutant emissions and in particular greenhouse emissions. The performed analysis shows that cars equipped with engines operating on petrol, lead to a lower level of pollution, from the point of view of CO (carbon monoxide and VOCs (volatile organic compounds emissions at speeds above 50km/ h. Since driving in urban traffic mode involves driving with a speed up to 50km/h, it was comparatively analyzed the automobile engines operation with different cubic capacities. In conclusion, in terms of the analyzed emissions in accordance with the emission standards requirements for urban driving situations, it results that the accepted values of these emissions are recorded for automobile engines of low cubic capacities (under 1.4 l.

  11. An estimation of vehicle kilometer traveled and on-road emissions using the traffic volume and travel speed on road links in Incheon City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sungwoon; Kim, Jounghwa; Kim, Jeongsoo; Hong, Dahee; Park, Dongjoo

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the vehicle kilometer traveled (VKT) and on-road emissions using the traffic volume in urban. We estimated two VKT; one is based on registered vehicles and the other is based on traffic volumes. VKT for registered vehicles was 2.11 times greater than that of the applied traffic volumes because each VKT estimation method is different. Therefore, we had to define the inner VKT is moved VKT inner in urban to compare two values. Also, we focused on freight modes because these are discharged much air pollutant emissions. From analysis results, we found middle and large trucks registered in other regions traveled to target city in order to carry freight, target city has included many industrial and logistics areas. Freight is transferred through the harbors, large logistics centers, or via locations before being moved to the final destination. During this process, most freight is moved by middle and large trucks, and trailers rather than small trucks for freight import and export. Therefore, these trucks from other areas are inflow more than registered vehicles. Most emissions from diesel trucks had been overestimated in comparison to VKT from applied traffic volumes in target city. From these findings, VKT is essential based on traffic volume and travel speed on road links in order to estimate accurately the emissions of diesel trucks in target city. Our findings support the estimation of the effect of on-road emissions on urban air quality in Korea. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Single-Stage, Gelled Hydrazine System for Mars Ascent Vehicle Propulsion, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcosm, Inc. in cooperation with Aerojet Rocketdyne is presenting an innovative approach to the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). The single-stage monopropellant system...

  13. Single-vehicle crashes along rural mountainous highways in Malaysia: An application of random parameters negative binomial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusli, Rusdi; Haque, Md Mazharul; King, Mark; Voon, Wong Shaw

    2017-05-01

    Mountainous highways generally associate with complex driving environment because of constrained road geometries, limited cross-section elements, inappropriate roadside features, and adverse weather conditions. As a result, single-vehicle (SV) crashes are overrepresented along mountainous roads, particularly in developing countries, but little attention is known about the roadway geometric, traffic and weather factors contributing to these SV crashes. As such, the main objective of the present study is to investigate SV crashes using detailed data obtained from a rigorous site survey and existing databases. The final dataset included a total of 56 variables representing road geometries including horizontal and vertical alignment, traffic characteristics, real-time weather condition, cross-sectional elements, roadside features, and spatial characteristics. To account for structured heterogeneities resulting from multiple observations within a site and other unobserved heterogeneities, the study applied a random parameters negative binomial model. Results suggest that rainfall during the crash is positively associated with SV crashes, but real-time visibility is negatively associated. The presence of a road shoulder, particularly a bitumen shoulder or wider shoulders, along mountainous highways is associated with less SV crashes. While speeding along downgrade slopes increases the likelihood of SV crashes, proper delineation decreases the likelihood. Findings of this study have significant implications for designing safer highways in mountainous areas, particularly in the context of a developing country. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Important factors of perceiving and memorizing the city during the process of vehicle and pedestrian traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alihodžić, Rifat; Butyrin, Andrey; Makhov, Dmitry

    2017-10-01

    Moving within the city, both by vehicle and pedestrian, is a prerequisite of creating visual sequences. A variety of factors should be taken into consideration when planning cities, not only of functional nature, but also of the aesthetic one. A particular problem lies in complex cities having a compound identification matrix as a consequence of a boisterous development during long period of time. Considering that the city follows the needs of its user, inevitably moving along it, one of the most important factors required is easy orientation in the complex urban area. Some research has been carried out on the condition of easy orientation and moving in the city, and on appearance of urban elements that provide remembering of the city. This work deals with defining important factors effecting perceiving and memorizing, by inhabitants and also of those visiting it for the first time, regardless they are walking or using a vehicle. Physical structures, topography and a climate and a range of other elements are implied to create a clear idea of some urban area. Many elements were considered - not only being of fixed nature (streets, squares, topography and morphology), but also elements that make the essence of the urban image - elements that can also be some specific public transportation means, such as double-deckers in London, bicycles in Amsterdam or Beijing or gondolas in Venice. The purpose of this work is to notice the rules helping the urban planning process and contribute to reading and memorizing the image of the city.

  15. Evaluation of Environmental Impact of Biodiesel Vehicles in Real Traffic Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N.-O.; Koponen, K. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-08-15

    In 2009–2011, a comprehensive project on urban buses was carried out in cooperation with IEA’s Implementing Agreements on Alternative Motor Fuels and Bioenergy, with input from additional IEA Implementing Agreements. The objective of the project was to generate unbiased and solid data for use by policy- and decision-makers responsible for public transport using buses. The project comprised four major parts: (1) a well-to-tank (WTT) assessment of alternative fuel pathways, (2) an assessment of bus end-use (tank-to-wheel, TTW) performance, (3) combining WTT and TTW data into well-to-wheel (WTW) data and (4) a cost assessment, including indirect as well as direct costs. Experts at Argonne National Laboratory, Natural Resources Canada and VTT worked on the WTT part. The WTT emissions of various fossil fuels and biofuels were assessed by using GREET model from the United States, GHGenius model from Canada and RED methodology of the European Union. All these models follow the frame work of life cycle assessment. In the TTW part Environment Canada and VTT generated emission and fuel consumption data by running 21 different buses on chassis dynamometers, generating data for some 180 combinations of vehicle, fuel and driving cycle. The fuels covered included diesel, synthetic diesel, various types of biodiesel fuels, additive treated ethanol, methane and DME. Six different hybrid vehicles were included in the vehicle matrix. The TTW work was topped up by on-road measurements (AVL MTC) as well as some engine dynamometer work (von Thuenen Institute). Based on the findings of the project it is possible to establish the effects of various parameters on bus performance. The largest variations and also uncertainties can be found for WTW CO2eqv emissions, or in fact the WTT part of the CO2eqv emissions. The variation is especially significant for biofuels. The WTT results vary due to the differences in the assessed biofuel chains, the regions of biofuel production, the raw

  16. Single-Commodity Vehicle Routing Problem with Pickup and Delivery Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Martinovic

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel variation of the vehicle routing problem (VRP. Single commodity cargo with pickup and delivery service is considered. Customers are labeled as either cargo sink or cargo source, depending on their pickup or delivery demand. This problem is called a single commodity vehicle routing problem with pickup and delivery service (1-VRPPD. 1-VRPPD deals with multiple vehicles and is the same as the single-commodity traveling salesman problem (1-PDTSP when the number of vehicles is equal to 1. Since 1-VRPPD specializes VRP, it is hard in the strong sense. Iterative modified simulated annealing (IMSA is presented along with greedy random-based initial solution algorithm. IMSA provides a good approximation to the global optimum in a large search space. Experiment is done for the instances with different number of customers and their demands. With respect to average values of IMSA execution times, proposed method is appropriate for practical applications.

  17. SIG: Multiple Views on Safety-Critical Automation: Aircraft, Autonomous Vehicles, Air Traffic Management and Satellite Ground Segments Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Michael; Palanque, Philippe; Martinie, Célia; Tscheligi, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This SIG focuses on the engineering of automation in interactive critical systems. Automation has already been studied in a number of (sub-) disciplines and application fields: design, human factors, psychology, (software) engineering, aviation, health care, games. One distinguishing feature of the area we are focusing on is that in the field of interactive critical systems properties such as reliability, dependability, fault tolerance are as important as usability, user experience or overall acceptance issues. The SIG targets at two problem areas: first the engineering of the user interaction with (partly-) autonomous systems: how to design, build and assess autonomous behavior, especially in cases where there is a need to represent on the user interface both autonomous and interactive objects. An example of such integration is the representation of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) (where no direct interaction is possible), together with aircrafts (that have to be instructed by an air traffic controller to avoid the UAV). Second the design and engineering of user interaction in general for autonomous objects/systems (for example a cruise control in a car or an autopilot in an aircraft). The goal of the SIG is to raise interest in the CHI community on the general aspects of automation and to identify a community of researchers and practitioners interested in those increasingly prominent issues of interfaces towards (semi)-autonomous systems. The expected audience should be interested in addressing the issues of integration of mainly unconnected research domains to formulate a new joint research agenda.

  18. Multiple Views on Safety-Critical Automation: Aircraft, Autonomous Vehicles, Air Traffic Management and Satellite Ground Segments Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Michael S.; Palanque, Philippe Andre Rolan; Martinie, De Almeida; Tscheligi, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This SIG focuses on the engineering of automation in interactive critical systems. Automation has already been studied in a number of (sub-) disciplines and application fields: design, human factors, psychology, (software) engineering, aviation, health care, games. One distinguishing feature of the area we are focusing on is that in the field of interactive critical systems properties such as reliability, dependability, fault-tolerance are as important as usability, user experience or overall acceptance issues. The SIG targets at two problem areas: first the engineering of the user interaction with (partly-) autonomous systems: how to design, build and assess autonomous behavior, especially in cases where there is a need to represent on the user interface both autonomous and interactive objects. An example of such integration is the representation of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) (where no direct interaction is possible), together with aircrafts (that have to be instructed by an air traffic controller to avoid the UAV). Second the design and engineering of user interaction in general for autonomous objects systems (for example a cruise control in a car or an autopilot in an aircraft). The goal of the SIG is to raise interest in the CHI community on the general aspects of automation and to identify a community of researchers and practitioners interested in those increasingly prominent issues of interfaces towards (semi)-autonomous systems. The expected audience should be interested in addressing the issues of integration of mainly unconnected research domains to formulate a new joint research agenda.

  19. Passive Sensor Integration for Vehicle Self-Localization in Urban Traffic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlei Gu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes an accurate vehicular positioning system which can achieve lane-level performance in urban canyons. Multiple passive sensors, which include Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS receivers, onboard cameras and inertial sensors, are integrated in the proposed system. As the main source for the localization, the GNSS technique suffers from Non-Line-Of-Sight (NLOS propagation and multipath effects in urban canyons. This paper proposes to employ a novel GNSS positioning technique in the integration. The employed GNSS technique reduces the multipath and NLOS effects by using the 3D building map. In addition, the inertial sensor can describe the vehicle motion, but has a drift problem as time increases. This paper develops vision-based lane detection, which is firstly used for controlling the drift of the inertial sensor. Moreover, the lane keeping and changing behaviors are extracted from the lane detection function, and further reduce the lateral positioning error in the proposed localization system. We evaluate the integrated localization system in the challenging city urban scenario. The experiments demonstrate the proposed method has sub-meter accuracy with respect to mean positioning error.

  20. Modeling real-world fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions with high resolution for light-duty passenger vehicles in a traffic populated city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Un, Puikei; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    Modeling fuel consumption of light-duty passenger vehicles has created substantial concerns due to the uncertainty from real-world operating conditions. Macao is world-renowned for its tourism industry and high population density. An empirical model is developed to estimate real-world fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions for gasoline-powered light-duty passenger vehicles in Macao by considering local fleet configuration and operating conditions. Thanks to increasingly stringent fuel consumption limits in vehicle manufacturing countries, estimated type-approval fuel consumption for light-duty passenger vehicles in Macao by model year was reduced from 7.4 L/100 km in 1995 to 5.9 L/100 km in 2012, although a significant upsizing trend has considerably offset potential energy-saving benefit. However, lower driving speed and the air-conditioning usage tend to raise fleet-average fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emission factors, which are estimated to be 10.1 L/100 km and 240 g/km in 2010. Fleet-total fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions are modeled through registered vehicle population-based and link-level traffic demand approaches and the results satisfactorily coincide with the historical record of fuel sales in Macao. Temporal and spatial variations in fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions from light-duty passenger vehicles further highlight the importance of effective traffic management in congested areas of Macao. - Highlights: • A fuel consumption model is developed for Macao's light-duty passenger cars. • Increased vehicle size partially offset energy benefit from tightened fuel consumption standard. • Lower speed and use of air-conditioning greatly increase fuel use of Macao light-duty passenger cars. • A high resolution inventory of fuel use and carbon dioxide emissions is built with link-level traffic data. • Policy suggestions are provided to mitigate fuel use in a traffic populated city.

  1. Control of Networked Traffic Flow Distribution - A Stochastic Distribution System Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Aziz, H M Abdul [ORNL; Young, Stan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Patil, Sagar [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2017-10-01

    Networked traffic flow is a common scenario for urban transportation, where the distribution of vehicle queues either at controlled intersections or highway segments reflect the smoothness of the traffic flow in the network. At signalized intersections, the traffic queues are controlled by traffic signal control settings and effective traffic lights control would realize both smooth traffic flow and minimize fuel consumption. Funded by the Energy Efficient Mobility Systems (EEMS) program of the Vehicle Technologies Office of the US Department of Energy, we performed a preliminary investigation on the modelling and control framework in context of urban network of signalized intersections. In specific, we developed a recursive input-output traffic queueing models. The queue formation can be modeled as a stochastic process where the number of vehicles entering each intersection is a random number. Further, we proposed a preliminary B-Spline stochastic model for a one-way single-lane corridor traffic system based on theory of stochastic distribution control.. It has been shown that the developed stochastic model would provide the optimal probability density function (PDF) of the traffic queueing length as a dynamic function of the traffic signal setting parameters. Based upon such a stochastic distribution model, we have proposed a preliminary closed loop framework on stochastic distribution control for the traffic queueing system to make the traffic queueing length PDF follow a target PDF that potentially realizes the smooth traffic flow distribution in a concerned corridor.

  2. Single-vehicle and Multi-vehicle Accidents Involving Motorcycles in a Small City in China: Characteristics and Injury Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Xiong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a gap that involves examining differences between patients in single-vehicle (SV versus multi-vehicle (MV accidents involving motorcycles in Shantou, China, regarding the injury patterns and mortality the patients sustained. This study aims to address this gap and provide a basis and reference for motorcycle injury prevention. Method: Medical record data was collected between October 2002 and June 2012 on all motorcycle injury patients admitted to a hospital in the city of Shantou of the east Guangdong province in China. Comparative analysis was conducted between patients in SV accidents and patients in MV accidents regarding demographic and clinic characteristics, mortality, and injury patterns. Results: Approximately 48% (n = 1977 of patients were involved in SV accidents and 52% (n = 2119 were involved in MV accidents. The average age was 34 years. Collision of a motorcycle with a heavy vehicle/bus (4% was associated with a 34 times greater risk of death (RR: 34.32|95% CI: 17.43–67.57. Compared to patients involved in MV accidents, those involved in SV accidents were more likely to sustain a skull fracture (RR: 1.47|95% CI: 1.22–1.77, an open head wound (RR: 1.46|95% CI: 1.23–1.74, an intracranial injury (RR: 1.39|95% CI: 1.26–1.53, a superficial head injury (RR: 1.37|95% CI: 1.01–1.86, an injury to an organ (RR: 2.01|95% CI: 1.24–3.26, and a crushing injury (RR: 1.98|95% CI: 1.06–3.70 to the thorax or abdomen. However, they were less likely to sustain a spinal fracture (RR: 0.58|95% CI: 0.39–0.85, a pelvic fracture (RR: 0.22|95% CI: 0.11–0.46, an upper extremity fracture (RR: 0.75|95% CI: 0.59–0.96, or injuries to their lower extremities, except for a dislocation, sprain, or injury to a joint or ligament (RR: 0.82|95% CI: 0.49–1.36. Conclusion: The relative risk of death is higher for patients involved in multi-vehicle accidents than patients in single-vehicle accidents, especially when a

  3. Development of a vehicle emission inventory with high temporal–spatial resolution based on NRT traffic data and its impact on air pollution in Beijing – Part 1: Development and evaluation of vehicle emission inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jing

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a bottom-up methodology based on the local emission factors, complemented with the widely used emission factors of Computer Programme to Calculate Emissions from Road Transport (COPERT model and near-real-time traffic data on road segments to develop a vehicle emission inventory with high temporal–spatial resolution (HTSVE for the Beijing urban area. To simulate real-world vehicle emissions accurately, the road has been divided into segments according to the driving cycle (traffic speed on this road segment. The results show that the vehicle emissions of NOx, CO, HC and PM were 10.54  ×  104, 42.51  ×  104 and 2.13  ×  104 and 0.41  ×  104 Mg respectively. The vehicle emissions and fuel consumption estimated by the model were compared with the China Vehicle Emission Control Annual Report and fuel sales thereafter. The grid-based emissions were also compared with the vehicular emission inventory developed by the macro-scale approach. This method indicates that the bottom-up approach better estimates the levels and spatial distribution of vehicle emissions than the macro-scale method, which relies on more information. Based on the results of this study, improved air quality simulation and the contribution of vehicle emissions to ambient pollutant concentration in Beijing have been investigated in a companion paper (He et al., 2016.

  4. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 591 - Section 591.5(f) Bond for the Entry of a Single Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... VEHICLES AND EQUIPMENT SUBJECT TO FEDERAL SAFETY, BUMPER AND THEFT PREVENTION STANDARDS Pt. 591, App. A Appendix A to Part 591—Section 591.5(f) Bond for the Entry of a Single Vehicle Department of Transportation... Vehicle A Appendix A to Part 591 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1161 - Incentives for reduction in single-passenger commuter vehicle use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Affected facility means any employment facility at which 50 or more persons are employees or any... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incentives for reduction in single-passenger commuter vehicle use. 52.1161 Section 52.1161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  6. The twelfth Sir Richard Fairey memorial lecture: The annoyance due to road traffic noise, the mathematical modelling of such noise and the sound proofing of road vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamure, C.

    1981-12-01

    The paper is divided into three parts illustrating three directions in traffic noise research. Studies on the effects of noise habitually involve surveys about people living close to highways, and these are discussed in the first part. There are still many difficulties in connecting the kinds and extent of disturbance people say they experience with traffic noise, but great hopes lie in the observation of behaviour. The accuracy in the descriptions of real exposure to noise becomes increasingly significant in the analyses of sleep disturbances. The bulk of the studies carried out so far has led to the definition of indices and thresholds for daytime disturbances but progress is still required in the field of night-time disturbances. The second part is about methods of prediction of traffic noise and some principles are recalled that tend to be overlooked in the current use of Leq. The use of other indices and studies on measure-accuracy would restore their significance to statistical approaches which must follow realistic laws of distribution of vehicle intervals and also of vehicle acoustical powers. Yet too much mathematical sophistication is often useless in common cases of application. The last part ddeals with noise reduction at source. Various prototypes of quiet trucks enable us to evaluate fairly correctly the costs and additional weights entailed by reductions of emissions of about 10 dB(A) when engines are encapsulated. The range of experiments on cars is not so wide but various operations in Europe are currently aiming at designing cars that would not emit more than 73-74 dB (instead of 80 dB(A) in the present regulations). Similarly, the methods and instrumentation to study engine noise have been greatly developed over the last five years. In conclusion it can be said that traffic noise has touched off widely diversified research involving various specialities. Metrology is comparatively less important than it used to be 15 years ago.

  7. ANALYSIS OF POSSIBILITIES FOR THE INTRODUCTION OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES IN THE URBAN TRAFFIC OF SÃO PAULO CITY: AN APPROACH THROUGH THE MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Silveira Pupo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel market is facing political, economic, social and environmental problems that are fuzzing the future of fossil energy sources and in face of these facts, countries are looking for hybrid and electric vehicles as part of solution in transportation sector due to the fact of electric vehicles use few or no fossil fuel. The objective in this article was to identify options until 2020 to introduce electric vehicle in the urban traffic of São Paulo city and to develop this study the method of literature review in secondary sources was used to present electric vehicle technologies and to identify parameters that were assessed through morphological analysis technique. In morphological analysis, sets of values were defined by the author for these parameters, possible combinations were structured, clearly impractical deployment options before 2020 were discarded and some viable solutions were analyzed in details. These analyses concluded that there are viable options for actual days in São Paulo city, but important requirements regarding technology, politic, market, infrastructure and innovation in products and services still need to be addressed and it is the main reason of electric vehicle remain unnoticed by consumers as an viable option. The challenges are great and the actors who are willing to solve them will find a promising market to explore.

  8. The Ageing Effect of Mechanical Joints on the Tyre/Joint Noises Monitored by a Control Vehicle Method without Traffic Disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the ageing effect of mechanical joints reflecting from the tyre/joint impacting noise by measuring the vehicle structure-borne noise change. Field data is collected applying two measurement methods suitable for newly installed and existing old expansion joints. The measurement methodology is improved by designing and applying a trailer for equipment installation. The main advantage of this method is not to disturb existing traffic by lane closure for measurement. Field measurements were conducted regularly for a study period up to 16 months after new joint replacement to monitor the variation of the structure-borne noise change inside a test vehicle while passing through mechanical joints. Empirical relationship is developed based on the field data of the roadside airborne noise change and the vehicle structure-borne noise change. The roadside tyre/joint noises could be converted using calibrated empirical formula. Key result findings include the following. (1 The vehicle structure-borne noise change is found smallest during the 3rd–6th months even lower than that measured when a new joint is installed. The structure-borne noise change then keeps increasing afterwards till the end of the study period. (2 Similar observations are found in all study cases incorporating various mechanical joint types and test vehicle types.

  9. Assessing geochemical influence of traffic and other vehicle-related activities on heavy metal contamination in urban soils of Kerman city, using a GIS-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzeh, Mohammad Ali; Aftabi, Alijan; Mirzaee, Mohammad

    2011-12-01

    Heavy metal pollution caused by traffic activities is increasingly becoming a great threat to urban environmental quality and human health. In this paper, soils of Kerman urban and suburban areas were collected to assess the potential effects of traffic and other vehicle-related pollution by heavy metal accumulation in soils. Eighty-six samples were collected along streets and from residential and rural sectors, as well as vehicle-related workshops from depth of 0-5 and 15-20 cm and analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Sn and Zn), as well as major elements (Al, Ca, Fe and Mn). Several hot-spot areas were identified in the composite geochemical maps produced based on Geographical Information System (GIS) technology. The majority of the hot-spot areas were identified to be vehicle-related workshops, fuel stations and road junctions. The most polluted hot-spot in the study area was located in soils close to a car battery processing workshop in the southwestern part of Kerman city, with concentrations of Cd (0.32 mg/kg), Cr (169 mg/kg), Cu (250 mg/kg), Pb (5,780 mg/kg), Sn (27.2 mg/kg) and Zn (178 mg/kg) of 1, 8.5, 8.3, 230, 13.5 and 3 times more than the relevant mean concentrations in natural soils, respectively. Traffic pollution has resulted in significant accumulation of heavy metals in soils and sediments, and that level of accumulation varied remarkably among elements. Based on X-ray diffraction analysis, most parts of soils and sediments of the Kerman basement consist of calcite and clay minerals. Abundance of clay minerals and medium to alkaline pH causes low mobility of heavy metals in soils of Kerman.

  10. Overestimation of on-road air quality surveying data measured with a mobile laboratory caused by exhaust plumes of a vehicle ahead in dense traffic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sang-Hee; Kwak, Kyung-Hwan; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Chang Hyeok; Yook, Se-Jin; Jeon, Sangzin; Kwon, Sangil; Kim, Jeongsoo; Lee, Seung-Bok

    2016-11-01

    The unintended influence of exhaust plumes emitted from a vehicle ahead to on-road air quality surveying data measured with a mobile laboratory (ML) at 20-40 km h -1 in dense traffic areas was investigated by experiment and life-sized computational fluidic dynamics (CFD) simulation. The ML equipped with variable sampling inlets of five columns by four rows was used to measure the spatial distribution of CO 2 and NO x concentrations when following 5-20 m behind a sport utility vehicle (SUV) as an emitter vehicle equipped with a portable emission monitoring system (PEMS). The PEMS measured exhaust gases at the tailpipe for input data of the CFD simulations. After the CFD method was verified with experimental results of the SUV, dispersion of exhaust plumes emitted from a bus and a sedan was numerically analyzed. More dilution of the exhaust plume was observed at higher vehicle speeds, probably because of eddy diffusion that was proportional to turbulent kinetic energy and vehicle speed. The CO 2 and NO x concentrations behind the emitter vehicle showed less overestimation as both the distance between the two vehicles and their background concentrations increased. If the height of the ML inlet is lower than 2 m and the ML travels within 20 m behind a SUV and a sedan ahead at 20 km h -1 , the overestimation should be considered by as much as 200 ppb in NO x and 80 ppm in CO 2 . Following a bus should be avoided if possible, because effect of exhaust plumes from a bus ahead could not be negligible even when the distance between the bus and the ML with the inlet height of 2 m, was more than 40 m. Recommendations are provided to avoid the unintended influence of exhaust plumes from vehicles ahead of the ML during on-road measurement in urban dense traffic conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of Drivers in Traffic Accidents and Determination of Passenger Position in a Vehicle by Finger Marks

    OpenAIRE

    Trapečar, Matej; Ivan Lipičnik, Martin; Balažic, Jože

    2012-01-01

    The following paper aims to illustrate certain investigative activities in the forensic analysis and examination of the scene of traffic accidents. When a traffic accident occurs, the scene must be secured as soon as possible to enable professional and proper forensic investigation. Failure to secure the accident scene might result in losing or contaminating the traces, which makes it more difficult to prove or explain trace evidence in further procedure or even makes such evidence inadmissib...

  12. Measurement of the stress affecting drivers and passengers induced by dust and vehicle exhausts of metropolitan traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roemmelt, H.; Hoeppe, P.; Praml, G.; Schierl, R.; Zielinsky, M.

    1993-01-01

    The metropolitan traffic stresses in like manner the bus driver and the passenger by raised concentrations of traffic emissions. We will determine quantitatively the concentrations of dust, dust adsorbed elements (lead, platinum, PAH's), anorganic noxious gases (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide) and the organic poisonous gases ( a.o. benzene, toluene, xylenes) in their distribution in place and time in buses and trams. (orig.) [de

  13. Using a traffic simulation model (VISSIM) with an emissions model (MOVES) to predict emissions from vehicles on a limited-access highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Senna, Hatem; Radwan, Essam; Westerlund, Kurt; Cooper, C David

    2013-07-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that baseline global GHG emissions may increase 25-90% from 2000 to 2030, with carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions growing 40-110% over the same period. On-road vehicles are a major source of CO2 emissions in all the developed countries, and in many of the developing countries in the world. Similarly, several criteria air pollutants are associated with transportation, for example, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), and particulate matter (PM). Therefore, the need to accurately quantify transportation-related emissions from vehicles is essential. The new US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) mobile source emissions model, MOVES2010a (MOVES), can estimate vehicle emissions on a second-by-second basis, creating the opportunity to combine a microscopic traffic simulation model (such as VISSIM) with MOVES to obtain accurate results. This paper presents an examination of four different approaches to capture the environmental impacts of vehicular operations on a 10-mile stretch of Interstate 4 (I-4), an urban limited-access highway in Orlando, FL. First (at the most basic level), emissions were estimated for the entire 10-mile section "by hand" using one average traffic volume and average speed. Then three advanced levels of detail were studied using VISSIM/MOVES to analyze smaller links: average speeds and volumes (AVG), second-by-second link drive schedules (LDS), and second-by-second operating mode distributions (OPMODE). This paper analyzes how the various approaches affect predicted emissions of CO, NO(x), PM2.5, PM10, and CO2. The results demonstrate that obtaining precise and comprehensive operating mode distributions on a second-by-second basis provides more accurate emission estimates. Specifically, emission rates are highly sensitive to stop-and-go traffic and the associated driving cycles of acceleration, deceleration, and idling. Using the AVG or LDS approach may overestimate or

  14. Characteristics of Single Vehicle Crashes with a Teen Driver in South Carolina, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shults, Ruth A; Bergen, Gwen; Smith, Tracy J; Cook, Larry; Kindelberger, John; West, Bethany

    2017-09-22

    Teens' crash risk is highest in the first years of independent driving. Circumstances surrounding fatal crashes have been widely documented, but less is known about factors related to nonfatal teen driver crashes. This study describes single vehicle nonfatal crashes involving the youngest teen drivers (15-17 years), compares these crashes to single vehicle nonfatal crashes among adult drivers (35-44 years) and examines factors related to nonfatal injury producing crashes for teen drivers. Police crash data linked to hospital inpatient and emergency department data for 2005-2008 from the South Carolina Crash Outcomes Data Evaluation System (CODES) were analyzed. Nonfatal, single vehicle crashes involving passenger vehicles occurring on public roadways for teen (15-17 years) drivers were compared with those for adult (35-44 years) drivers on temporal patterns and crash risk factors per licensed driver and per vehicle miles traveled. Vehicle miles traveled by age group was estimated using data from the 2009 National Household Travel Survey. Multivariable log-linear regression analysis was conducted for teen driver crashes to determine which characteristics were related to crashes resulting in a minor/moderate injury or serious injury to at least one vehicle occupant. Compared with adult drivers, teen drivers in South Carolina had 2.5 times the single vehicle nonfatal crash rate per licensed driver and 11 times the rate per vehicle mile traveled. Teen drivers were nearly twice as likely to be speeding at the time of the crash compared with adult drivers. Teen driver crashes per licensed driver were highest during the afternoon hours of 3:00-5:59 pm and crashes per mile driven were highest during the nighttime hours of 9:00-11:59 pm. In 66% of the teen driver crashes, the driver was the only occupant. Crashes were twice as likely to result in serious injury when teen passengers were present than when the teen driver was alone. When teen drivers crashed while

  15. Firefly Optimization and Mathematical Modeling of a Vehicle Crash Test Based on Single-Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Klausen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper mathematical modeling of a vehicle crash test based on a single-mass is studied. The model under consideration consists of a single-mass coupled with a spring and/or a damper. The parameters for the spring and damper are obtained by analyzing the measured acceleration in the center of gravity of the vehicle during a crash. A model with a nonlinear spring and damper is also proposed and the parameters will be optimized with different damper and spring characteristics and optimization algorithms. The optimization algorithms used are interior-point and firefly algorithm. The objective of this paper is to compare different methods used to establish a simple model of a car crash and validate the results against real crash data.

  16. A research on the positioning technology of vehicle navigation system from single source to "ASPN"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Haizhou; Chen, Yu; Chen, Hongyue; Sun, Qian

    2017-10-01

    Due to the suddenness and complexity of modern warfare, land-based weapon systems need to have precision strike capability on roads and railways. The vehicle navigation system is one of the most important equipments for the land-based weapon systems that have precision strick capability. There are inherent shortcomings for single source navigation systems to provide continuous and stable navigation information. To overcome the shortcomings, the multi-source positioning technology is developed. The All Source Positioning and Navigaiton (ASPN) program was proposed in 2010, which seeks to enable low cost, robust, and seamless navigation solutions for military to use on any operational platform and in any environment with or without GPS. The development trend of vehicle positioning technology was reviewed in this paper. The trend indicates that the positioning technology is developed from single source and multi-source to ASPN. The data fusion techniques based on multi-source and ASPN was analyzed in detail.

  17. Simulating the Effects of Surface Roughness on Reinforced Concrete T Beam Bridge under Single and Multiple Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Kalyankar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the application of the spatial system of finite element modeling for the vehicle-bridge interaction on reinforced concrete US Girder Bridge in order to obtain the effect of surface roughness. Single vehicle and multiple vehicles on reinforced concrete T beam bridge were studied with variable surface roughness profiles. The effects of six different surface roughness profiles (very good, good, measured, average, poor, and very poor were investigated for vehicle-bridge interaction. The values of the Dynamic Amplification Factor (DAF were obtained for single and multiple vehicles on T Beam Bridge for different surface roughness profiles, along with the distances between the axles of heavy vehicle. It was observed that when the bridge has very good, good, measured, and average surface roughness, the DAF values for the single vehicle over the bridge were observed to be within acceptable limits specified by AASHTO. However, for the bridge with multiple vehicles only very good and measured surface roughness profiles showed a DAF and vehicle axle distances within the acceptable limits. From the current studies, it was observed that the spatial system showed reliable responses for predicting the behavior of the bridge under variable road surface roughness conditions and was reliable in vehicle axle detection, and therefore, it has a potential to be use for realistic simulations.

  18. Single lane traffic in Adams road (Prévessin Site)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 20th August, ST Division will be opening trenches in order to allow a number of power, control and optical fibre cables to be laid across Adams road (see plan). For the duration of the work, the road will be barred to all heavy loads/lorries and alternative arrangements will be put in place for normal traffic. Temporary lights will be installed. We kindly ask all users to respect these temporary arrangements. The work will take two weeks given favorable conditions. Thank you for your understanding in this matter. ST-EL Group Tel. 72978 - 164082

  19. Single lane traffic in Adams road (Prévessin Site)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 20th August, ST Division will be opening trenches in order to allow a number of power, control and optical fibre cables to be laid across Adams road (see plan). For the duration of the work, the road will be barred to all heavy loads/lorries and alternative arrangements will be put in place for normal traffic. Temporary lights will be installed. We kindly ask all users to respect these temporary arrangements. The work will take two weeks given favorable conditions. Thank you for your understanding in this matter. ST-EL Group Tél. 72978 - 164082

  20. Design and optimization for the occupant restraint system of vehicle based on a single freedom model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junyuan; Ma, Yue; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Yan

    2013-05-01

    Throughout the vehicle crash event, the interactions between vehicle, occupant, restraint system (VOR) are complicated and highly non-linear. CAE and physical tests are the most widely used in vehicle passive safety development, but they can only be done with the detailed 3D model or physical samples. Often some design errors and imperfections are difficult to correct at that time, and a large amount of time will be needed. A restraint system concept design approach which based on single-degree-of-freedom occupant-vehicle model (SDOF) is proposed in this paper. The interactions between the restraint system parameters and the occupant responses in a crash are studied from the view of mechanics and energy. The discrete input and the iterative algorithm method are applied to the SDOF model to get the occupant responses quickly for arbitrary excitations (impact pulse) by MATLAB. By studying the relationships between the ridedown efficiency, the restraint stiffness, and the occupant response, the design principle of the restraint stiffness aiming to reduce occupant injury level during conceptual design is represented. Higher ridedown efficiency means more occupant energy absorbed by the vehicle, but the research result shows that higher ridedown efficiency does not mean lower occupant injury level. A proper restraint system design principle depends on two aspects. On one hand, the restraint system should lead to as high ridedown efficiency as possible, and at the same time, the restraint system should maximize use of the survival space to reduce the occupant deceleration level. As an example, an optimization of a passenger vehicle restraint system is designed by the concept design method above, and the final results are validated by MADYMO, which is the most widely used software in restraint system design, and the sled test. Consequently, a guideline and method for the occupant restraint system concept design is established in this paper.

  1. Allegheny County Traffic Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Traffic sensors at over 1,200 locations in Allegheny County collect vehicle counts for the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Data included in the Health...

  2. Robust cascade control for the horizontal motion of a vehicle with single-wheel actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseberg, Jan-Erik; Roppenecker, Günter

    2015-12-01

    The article presents a cascade control for the horizontal motion of a vehicle with single-wheel actuators. The outer control loop for the longitudinal and lateral accelerations and the yaw rate ensures a desired vehicle motion. By a combination of state feedback control and observer-based disturbance feedforward the inner control loop robustly stabilises the rotating and steering motions of the wheels in spite of unknown frictions between tyres and ground. Since the three degrees of freedom of the horizontal motion are affected by eight tyre forces, the vehicle considered is an over-actuated system. Thus additional control objectives can be realised besides the desired motion trajectory as, for example, a maximum in driving safety. The corresponding analytical tyre force allocation also guarantees real-time capability because of its relatively low computational effort. Provided suitable fault detection and isolation are available, the proposed cascade control has the potential of fault-tolerance, because the force allocation is adaptable. Another benefit results from the modular control structure, because it allows a stepwise implementation. Besides, it only requires a small number of measurements for control purposes. These measurements are the rotational speeds and steering angles of the wheels, the longitudinal and lateral acceleration and the yaw rate of the vehicle.

  3. Users’ Perception And Reported Effects Of Long-term Access To In-Vehicle Traffic Information Services Mediated Through Nomadic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skoglund Tor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ICT-mediated traffic information has been argued to contribute to a more sustainable transport system through affecting drivers. Nevertheless, long-term effects of travellers having access to nomadic in-vehicle systems for traveller information are not well known. This study presents the results from a multi-national large-scale field operational test (FOT. The results show that the users in general were positive to the tested systems and that there were several effects on their driving behaviour but in many cases the effects were limited. Moreover the effects varied between system types. Positive effects were related to comfort, as well as individual and system efficiency. One could also notice that perceived effects were not as high as the participants had expected, leading to some disappointment. Most of the times this was due to the tested systems functioning in a less than optimal way.

  4. Traffic Flow Visualization and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larson, Robert

    1999-01-01

    .... Vehicle count, flow speed, headway, queue length and occupancy are some of the information that can be collected. The processed traffic data is then sent to a control center for further analysis and used by traffic operators attempting to analyze traffic on the highway.

  5. Freeway Driving Cycle Construction Based on Real-Time Traffic Information and Global Optimal Energy Management for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a freeway driving cycle (FDC construction method based on traffic information. A float car collected different type of roads in California and we built a velocity fragment database. We selected a real freeway driving cycle (RFDC and established the corresponding time traffic information tensor model by using the data in California Department of Transportation performance measure system (PeMS. The correlation of road velocity in the time dimension and spatial dimension are analyzed. According to the average velocity of road sections at different times, the kinematic fragments are stochastically selected in the velocity fragment database to construct a real-time FDC of each section. The comparison between construction freeway driving cycle (CFDC and real freeway driving cycle (RFDC show that the CFDC well reflects the RFDC characteristic parameters. Compared to its application in plug-in electric hybrid vehicle (PHEV optimal energy management based on a dynamic programming (DP algorithm, CFDC and RFDC fuel consumption are similar within approximately 5.09% error, and non-rush hour fuel economy is better than rush hour 3.51 (L/100 km at non-rush hour, 4.29 (L/km at rush hour. Moreover, the fuel consumption ratio can be up to 13.17% in the same CFDC at non-rush hour.

  6. Stochastic Model of Traffic Jam and Traffic Signal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ji-Sun; Cui, Cheng-You; Lee, Tae-Hong; Lee, Hee-Hyol

    Traffic signal control is an effective method to solve the traffic jam. and forecasting traffic density has been known as an important part of the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). The several methods of the traffic signal control are known such as random walk method, Neuron Network method, Bayesian Network method, and so on. In this paper, we propose a new method of a traffic signal control using a predicted distribution of traffic jam based on a Dynamic Bayesian Network model. First, a forecasting model to predict a probabilistic distribution of the traffic jam during each period of traffic lights is built. As the forecasting model, the Dynamic Bayesian Network is used to predict the probabilistic distribution of a density of the traffic jam. According to measurement of two crossing points for each cycle, the inflow and outflow of each direction and the number of standing vehicles at former cycle are obtained. The number of standing vehicle at k-th cycle will be calculated synchronously. Next, the probabilistic distribution of the density of standing vehicle in each cycle will be predicted using the Dynamic Bayesian Network constructed for the traffic jam. And then a control rule to adjust the split and the cycle to increase the probability between a lower limit and ceiling of the standing vehicles is deduced. As the results of the simulation using the actual traffic data of Kitakyushu city, the effectiveness of the method is shown.

  7. An efficiency improved single-phase PFC converter for electric vehicle charger applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Dexuan; Tang, Yi; Jin, Chi

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an efficiency improved single-phase power factor correction (PFC) converter with its target application to plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging systems. The proposed PFC converter features sinusoidal input current, three-level output characteristic, and wide range...... of output DC voltage. Moreover, the involved DC/DC buck conversion stage may only need to convert partial input power rather than full scale of input power, and therefore the system overall efficiency can be much improved. Through proper control of the buck converter, it is also possible to mitigate...... the double-line frequency ripple power that is inherent in a single-phase AC/DC system. Both simulation and experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of this converter....

  8. Empirical analysis of heterogeneous traffic flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambarwati, L.; Pel, A.J.; Verhaeghe, R.J.; Van Arem, B.

    2013-01-01

    Traffic flow in many developing countries is strongly mixed comprising vehicle types, such as motorcycles, cars, (mini) buses, and trucks; furthermore, traffic flow typically exhibits free inter-lane exchanges. This phenomenon causes a complex vehicle interaction, rendering most existing traffic

  9. 75 FR 22317 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... 1300 [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0054] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of..., multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, incomplete vehicles, motorcycles, and motor vehicle...

  10. Intelligent Traffic Quantification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Anita; Bhanja, Urmila; Mahapatra, Sudipta

    2017-08-01

    Currently, city traffic monitoring and controlling is a big issue in almost all cities worldwide. Vehicular ad-hoc Network (VANET) technique is an efficient tool to minimize this problem. Usually, different types of on board sensors are installed in vehicles to generate messages characterized by different vehicle parameters. In this work, an intelligent system based on fuzzy clustering technique is developed to reduce the number of individual messages by extracting important features from the messages of a vehicle. Therefore, the proposed fuzzy clustering technique reduces the traffic load of the network. The technique also reduces congestion and quantifies congestion.

  11. Physics of automated driving in framework of three-phase traffic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Boris S.

    2018-04-01

    We have revealed physical features of automated driving in the framework of the three-phase traffic theory for which there is no fixed time headway to the preceding vehicle. A comparison with the classical model approach to automated driving for which an automated driving vehicle tries to reach a fixed (desired or "optimal") time headway to the preceding vehicle has been made. It turns out that automated driving in the framework of the three-phase traffic theory can exhibit the following advantages in comparison with the classical model of automated driving: (i) The absence of string instability. (ii) Considerably smaller speed disturbances at road bottlenecks. (iii) Automated driving vehicles based on the three-phase theory can decrease the probability of traffic breakdown at the bottleneck in mixed traffic flow consisting of human driving and automated driving vehicles; on the contrary, even a single automated driving vehicle based on the classical approach can provoke traffic breakdown at the bottleneck in mixed traffic flow.

  12. Vehicle-based road dust emission measurement (III):. effect of speed, traffic volume, location, and season on PM 10 road dust emissions in the Treasure Valley, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etyemezian, V.; Kuhns, H.; Gillies, J.; Chow, J.; Hendrickson, K.; McGown, M.; Pitchford, M.

    The testing re-entrained aerosol kinetic emissions from roads (TRAKER) road dust measurement system was used to survey more than 400 km of paved roads in southwestern Idaho during 3-week sampling campaigns in winter and summer, 2001. Each data point, consisting of a 1-s measurement of particle light scattering sampled behind the front tire, was associated with a link (section of road) in the traffic demand model network for the Treasure Valley, ID. Each link was in turn associated with a number of characteristics including posted speed limit, vehicle kilometers traveled (vkt), road class (local/residential, collector, arterial, and interstate), county, and land use (urban vs. rural). Overall, the TRAKER-based emission factors based on location, setting, season, and speed spanned a narrow range from 3.6 to 8.0 g/vkt. Emission factors were higher in winter compared to summer, higher in urban areas compared to rural, and lower for roads with fast travel speeds compared to slower roads. The inherent covariance between traffic volume and traffic speed obscured the assessment of the effect of traffic volume on emission potentials. Distance-based emission factors expressed in grams per kilometer traveled (g/vkt) for roads with low travel speeds (˜11 m/s residential roads) compared to those with high travel speeds (˜25 m/s interstates) were higher (5.2 vs. 3.0 g/vkt in summer and 5.9 vs. 4.9 g/vkt in winter). However, emission potentials which characterize the amount of suspendable material on a road were substantially higher on roads with low travel speeds (0.71 vs. 0.13 g/vkt/(m/s) in summer and 0.78 vs. 0.21 g/vkt/(m/s) in winter). This suggested that while high speed roads are much cleaner (factor of 5.4 in summer), on a vehicle kilometer traveled basis, emissions from high and low speed roads are of the same order. Emission inventories based on the TRAKER method, silt loadings obtained during the field study, and US EPA's AP-42 default values of silt loading were

  13. System and method for traffic signal timing estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Dumazert, Julien

    2015-12-30

    A method and system for estimating traffic signals. The method and system can include constructing trajectories of probe vehicles from GPS data emitted by the probe vehicles, estimating traffic signal cycles, combining the estimates, and computing the traffic signal timing by maximizing a scoring function based on the estimates. Estimating traffic signal cycles can be based on transition times of the probe vehicles starting after a traffic signal turns green.

  14. 36 CFR 4.13 - Obstructing traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.13 Obstructing traffic. The following are prohibited: (a) Stopping or parking a vehicle upon a park road, except as authorized by the superintendent, or in the event of an accident or other condition beyond the control of the operator. (b) Operating a vehicle so slowly as to...

  15. Single-Phase Boost Inverter-Based Electric Vehicle Charger With Integrated Vehicle to Grid Reactive Power Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickramasinghe Abeywardana, Damith Buddika; Acuna, Pablo; Hredzak, Branislav

    2018-01-01

    Vehicle to grid (V2G) reactive power compensation using electric vehicle (EV) onboard chargers helps to ensure grid power quality by achieving unity power factor operation. However, the use of EVs for V2G reactive power compensation increases the second-order harmonic ripple current component......-side capacitor without adversely affecting the EV battery. The operation of the boost inverter-based EV charger with second-order harmonic and switching frequency ripple current reduction, the dynamic behavior of the system, the transition between different operating modes, the DC-side capacitor voltage control...

  16. Real-Time Traffic Signal Control for Optimization of Traffic Jam Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Cheng-You; Shin, Ji-Sun; Miyazaki, Michio; Lee, Hee-Hyol

    Real-time traffic signal control is an integral part of urban traffic control system. It can control traffic signals online according to variation of traffic flow. In this paper, we propose a new method for the real-time traffic signal control system. The system uses a Cellular Automaton model and a Bayesian Network model to predict probabilistic distributions of standing vehicles, and uses a Particle Swarm Optimization method to calculate optimal traffic signals. A simulation based on real traffic data was carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed real-time traffic signal control system CAPSOBN using a micro traffic simulator.

  17. A Single-Degree-of-Freedom Energy Optimization Strategy for Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoying Xia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a single-degree-of-freedom energy optimization strategy to solve the energy management problem existing in power-split hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. The proposed strategy is based on a quadratic performance index, which is innovatively designed to simultaneously restrict the fluctuation of battery state of charge (SOC and reduce fuel consumption. An extended quadratic optimal control problem is formulated by approximating the fuel consumption rate as a quadratic polynomial of engine power. The approximated optimal control law is obtained by utilizing the solution properties of the Riccati equation and adjoint equation. It is easy to implement in real-time and the engineering significance is explained in details. In order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy, the forward-facing vehicle simulation model is established based on the ADVISOR software (Version 2002, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA. The simulation results show that there is only a little fuel consumption difference between the proposed strategy and the Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP-based global optimal strategy, and the proposed strategy also exhibits good adaptability under different initial battery SOC, cargo mass and road slope conditions.

  18. Coordinated Engine-Start Control of Single-Motor P2 Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Respect to Different Driving Situations

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangyang Xu; Xiaoxiao Wu; Mick Jordan; Peng Dong; Yang Liu

    2018-01-01

    To cut down the costs caused by the additional starter, single-motor P2 hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) make use of the driving motor to propel the vehicle as well as start the engine, and accordingly the engine-start control becomes more difficult. To satisfy the passengers’ demands, this paper developed different coordinated engine-start control strategies with respect to different situations. First, a detailed model for the single-motor P2 HEVs system was built and related parameters were ...

  19. Aggregation of Single-phase Electric Vehicles for Frequency Control Provision Based on Unidirectional Charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sæmundsson, Valgeir Thor; Rezkalla, Michel M.N.; Zecchino, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    is investigated. The investigations are performed in a Pan-European interconnected grid with varying wind power penetration and different operational scenarios. Within this grid, the paper focuses on primary frequency control provision from electric vehicles and how the system behaves as the vehicles are being...... controlled within their respective areas. The investigations show that electric vehicles can be used for primary frequency control with different wind power penetration. By controlling the vehicles, the steady state frequency is improved and, since the vehicles react fast enough to the frequency changes......As the use of electric vehicles grows there is a greater possibility of using aggregated sets of electric vehicles as a large flexible unit to assist with the control of the power system. In this paper, the possibility of using electric vehicles as a flexible load for frequency control...

  20. The impact of intelligent vehicles on a two-route system with a work zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wen; Chen, Yu-Guang; Yang, Ya-Ping; Yang, Chao

    By the cellular automaton (CA) model, traffic behaviors of an intelligent two-route system with a work zone are studied. In the model, the two-route system consists of a double-lane (DL) and a single-lane (SL). Supposing a work zone exists on DL, a big traffic jam will be formed. For improving the system traffic flow, an intelligent vehicle (IV) which can change driving strategy on the basis of received real-time information has been introduced into the model. The simulation results indicate that the traffic condition can be improved and the area of the traffic jam can be reduced effectively if there are enough IVs. Moreover, if all of the vehicles are IVs, the traffic jam may disappear, and the system will be in free flow state.

  1. Design and Analysis of a Single-Camera Omnistereo Sensor for Quadrotor Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Carlos; Valenti, Roberto G; Guo, Ling; Xiao, Jizhong

    2016-02-06

    We describe the design and 3D sensing performance of an omnidirectional stereo (omnistereo) vision system applied to Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs). The proposed omnistereo sensor employs a monocular camera that is co-axially aligned with a pair of hyperboloidal mirrors (a vertically-folded catadioptric configuration). We show that this arrangement provides a compact solution for omnidirectional 3D perception while mounted on top of propeller-based MAVs (not capable of large payloads). The theoretical single viewpoint (SVP) constraint helps us derive analytical solutions for the sensor's projective geometry and generate SVP-compliant panoramic images to compute 3D information from stereo correspondences (in a truly synchronous fashion). We perform an extensive analysis on various system characteristics such as its size, catadioptric spatial resolution, field-of-view. In addition, we pose a probabilistic model for the uncertainty estimation of 3D information from triangulation of back-projected rays. We validate the projection error of the design using both synthetic and real-life images against ground-truth data. Qualitatively, we show 3D point clouds (dense and sparse) resulting out of a single image captured from a real-life experiment. We expect the reproducibility of our sensor as its model parameters can be optimized to satisfy other catadioptric-based omnistereo vision under different circumstances.

  2. Vehicle having hydraulic and power steering systems using a single high pressure pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-06-22

    A vehicle comprises a plurality of wheels attached to a vehicle housing. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a power steering system, including a fluid flow circuit, which is operably coupled to a number of the wheels. An internal combustion engine attached to the vehicle housing is connected to a hydraulically actuated system that includes a high pressure pump. An outlet of the high pressure pump is in fluid communication with the fluid flow circuit.

  3. A Rocket Powered Single-Stage-to-Orbit Launch Vehicle With U.S. and Soviet Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacConochie, Ian O.; Stnaley, Douglas O.

    1991-01-01

    A single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle is used to assess the applicability of Soviet Energia high-pressure-hydrocarbon engine to advanced U.S. manned space transportation systems. Two of the Soviet engines are used with three Space Shuttle Main Engines. When applied to a baseline vehicle that utilized advanced hydrocarbon engines, the higher weight of the Soviet engines resulted in a 20 percent loss of payload capability and necessitated a change in the crew compartment size and location from mid-body to forebody in order to balance the vehicle. Various combinations of Soviet and Shuttle engines were evaluated for comparison purposes, including an all hydrogen system using all Space Shuttle Main Engines. Operational aspects of the baseline vehicle are also discussed. A new mass properties program entitles Weights and Moments of Inertia (WAMI) is used in the study.

  4. A rapid method for optimization of the rocket propulsion system for single-stage-to-orbit vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldred, C. H.; Gordon, S. V.

    1976-01-01

    A rapid analytical method for the optimization of rocket propulsion systems is presented for a vertical take-off, horizontal landing, single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle. This method utilizes trade-offs between propulsion characteristics affecting flight performance and engine system mass. The performance results from a point-mass trajectory optimization program are combined with a linearized sizing program to establish vehicle sizing trends caused by propulsion system variations. The linearized sizing technique was developed for the class of vehicle systems studied herein. The specific examples treated are the optimization of nozzle expansion ratio and lift-off thrust-to-weight ratio to achieve either minimum gross mass or minimum dry mass. Assumed propulsion system characteristics are high chamber pressure, liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen propellants, conventional bell nozzles, and the same fixed nozzle expansion ratio for all engines on a vehicle.

  5. A comparison of contributing factors between alcohol related single vehicle motorcycle and car crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maistros, Alexander; Schneider, William H; Savolainen, Peter T

    2014-06-01

    Alcohol related crashes have accounted for approximately 35% of fatal crashes per year since 1994 nationwide, with approximately 30% involving impairment over the legal blood alcohol content limit of 0.08%. Educational campaigns and law enforcement efforts are two components of multi-faceted programs aimed toward reducing impaired driving. It is crucial that further research be conducted to guide the implementation of enforcement and educational programs. This research attempts to provide such guidance by examining differences in alcohol-involved crashes involving motorcycles and passenger cars. Prior safety research has shown that motorcyclists follow a significantly different culture than the average passenger car operator. These cultural differences may be reflected by differences in the contributing factors affecting crashes and the severity of the resulting injuries sustained by the driver or motorcyclist. This research is focused on single-vehicle crashes only, in order to isolate modal effects from the contribution of additional vehicles. The crash data provided for this study are from the Ohio Department of Public Safety from 2009 through 2012. The injury severity data are analysed through the development of two mixed logit models, one for motorcyclists and one for passenger car drivers. The models quantify the effects of various factors, including horizontal curves, speeds, seatbelt use, and helmet use, which indicate that the required motor skills and balance needed for proper motorcycle operation compounded with a lack of mechanical protection make motorcyclists more prone to severe injuries, particularly on curves and in collisions with roadside objects. The findings of this study have been incorporated into combined motorcycle and sober driving educational safety campaigns. The results have shown to be favorable in supporting national campaign messages with local justification and backing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dual rotor single- stator axial air gap PMSM motor/generator drive for high torque vehicles applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutelea, L. N.; Deaconu, S. I.; Boldea, I.; Popa, G. N.

    2014-03-01

    The actual e - continuously variable transmission (e-CVT) solution for the parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) requires two electric machines, two inverters, and a planetary gear. A distinct electric generator and a propulsion electric motor, both with full power converters, are typical for a series HEV. In an effort to simplify the planetary-geared e-CVT for the parallel HEV or the series HEV we hereby propose to replace the basically two electric machines and their two power converters by a single, axial-air-gap, electric machine central stator, fed from a single PWM converter with dual frequency voltage output and two independent PM rotors, destined for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and military vehicles applications. The proposed topologies and the magneto-motive force analysis are the core of the paper.

  7. Media Messages and Tools to Reduce Serious Single Vehicle Run-Off-the-Road Crashes Resulting from Impaired Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The Center for Health and Safety Culture conducted research for the Idaho Transportation Department to develop media messages and tools to reduce fatalities and serious injuries related to Run-Off-the-Road, single-vehicle crashes in Idaho using the P...

  8. Design of flapping wings for application to single active degree of freedom micro air vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kelvin Thomas

    This dissertation covers an experimental program to understand how wing compliance influences the performance of flapping micro air vehicle wings. The focus is the design of a membraned flapping wing for a single active degree of freedom mechanism, looking to maximize thrust performance in hover conditions. The optimization approach is unique in that experiments were the chosen engine as opposed to a computation model; this is because of the complexity involved in hover-mode flapping aerodynamics. The flapping mechanism and manufacturing process for fabricating the wings were carefully developed. The uncertainty in the thrust measurement was identified and reduced by implementing precision machining and repeatable techniques for fabrication. This resulted in a reduction of the manufacturing coefficient of variation from 16.8% to 2.6%. Optimization was then conducted for a single objective (Maximize thrust), using a three parameter design space, finding the highest thrust performance in wings with high aspect ratio; then, a multi-objective optimization was conducted with two objectives (Thrust and Power) and a four parameter space. The research then shifted focus to identifying the stiffness and deformation characteristics of high performance wing designs. Static stiffness measurements with a simple line load suggested that high chordwise stiffness or lower spanwise stiffness would be favorable for aerodynamic performance. To explore more components of the deformation, a full-field imaging technique was used and a uniform load was substituted to engage with the membrane. It was found that there is a range of torsional compliance where the wing is most efficient especially at higher flapping frequencies. The final component of the study was the dynamic deformation measurement. The two system, four camera digital image correlation setup uses stroboscopic measurement to capture the wing deformation. The phase shift between the twist and stroke, and the tip deflection

  9. Traffic process control. Automation of road- and rail traffic; Verkehrsleittechnik. Automatisierung des Strassen- und Schienenverkehrs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnieder, Eckehard (ed.) [TU Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Verkehrssicherheit und Automatisierungstechnik

    2007-07-01

    Traffic control aims the comprehensive guidance of complex traffic flows. The book provides a solid foundation, from design to realization with highly detailed technical systems. It presents a functionally oriented traffic process control strategy as its main topic, valuable for further technology change. Four main topics treat tasks and structures of traffic process control systems: single vehicle control and information management; traffic flow control; node control; operation and network management. The book addresses students and specialists of traffic science, who already have basic knowledge of the road- and rail sector and control engineering in relation systems theory. (GL) [German] Ziel der Verkehrsleittechnik ist die Beherrschung komplexer Verkehrsstroeme des Strassen- und Schienenverkehrs. Vom Entwurf bis zur Realisierung mit technischen Einrichtungen, die eine grosse Detailfuelle aufweisen, wird eine solide Grundlage vermittelt. Das vorliegende Buch stellt dafuer eine funktional orientierte Verkehrsleittechnik in den Mittelpunkt, die ueber den Technologiewandel hinaus gilt. Vier Abschnitte behandeln die Aufgaben und Strukturen von Verkehrsleitsystemen: Einzelfahrzeugsteuerung und -informationsmanagement; Verkehrsflusssteuerung; Knotensteuerung; Betriebs- und Netzmanagement. Das Buch richtet sich an Studierende und Fachleute des Verkehrswesens. Voraussetzungen sind Kenntnisse des Strassen- und Schienenverkehrs und der Regelungstechnik bzw. Systemtheorie. (orig.)

  10. Single particle mass spectral signatures from vehicle exhaust particles and the source apportionment of on-line PM2.5by single particle aerosol mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Ma, Shexia; Gao, Bo; Li, Xiaoying; Zhang, Yanjun; Cai, Jing; Li, Mei; Yao, Ling'ai; Huang, Bo; Zheng, Mei

    2017-09-01

    In order to accurately apportion the many distinct types of individual particles observed, it is necessary to characterize fingerprints of individual particles emitted directly from known sources. In this study, single particle mass spectral signatures from vehicle exhaust particles in a tunnel were performed. These data were used to evaluate particle signatures in a real-world PM 2.5 apportionment study. The dominant chemical type originating from average positive and negative mass spectra for vehicle exhaust particles are EC species. Four distinct particle types describe the majority of particles emitted by vehicle exhaust particles in this tunnel. Each particle class is labeled according to the most significant chemical features in both average positive and negative mass spectral signatures, including ECOC, NaK, Metal and PAHs species. A single particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) was also employed during the winter of 2013 in Guangzhou to determine both the size and chemical composition of individual atmospheric particles, with vacuum aerodynamic diameter (d va ) in the size range of 0.2-2μm. A total of 487,570 particles were chemically analyzed with positive and negative ion mass spectra and a large set of single particle mass spectra was collected and analyzed in order to identify the speciation. According to the typical tracer ions from different source types and classification by the ART-2a algorithm which uses source fingerprints for apportioning ambient particles, the major sources of single particles were simulated. Coal combustion, vehicle exhaust, and secondary ion were the most abundant particle sources, contributing 28.5%, 17.8%, and 18.2%, respectively. The fraction with vehicle exhaust species particles decreased slightly with particle size in the condensation mode particles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. U18 : Traffic signal safety (phase B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Efficiently scheduling traffic, particularly heavy vehicles, remains a key challenge in transportation engineering. This project has focused on the development of a novel trafficsignal-control methodology to improve the safety of heavy vehicles on...

  12. Compliance with traffic laws by traffic police officers, non-traffic police officers, and civilian drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Tova; Pereg, Avihu; Perlman, Amotz

    2014-01-01

    The policy of a public organization, such as police, may shape the norms and the behavior of the citizens. In line with this, police officers are expected by the public to comply with traffic laws and serve as an example for the citizenry. This study used on-site observations of civilian and police driver, comparing police officers' compliance with traffic laws to that of civilians. We compared driver compliance with traffic laws for drivers in 3 groups of vehicles: traffic police cars, non-traffic police cars, and civilian cars. Four hundred sixty-six vehicles were observed and compared by vehicle type and whether a uniform was worn by the driver. We observed safety belt usage, signaling before turning, cellular phone usage, and giving way to traffic (measured by merging time). We found evidence that generally drivers in police cars use seat belts while driving more that drivers in civilian cars do. In particular, more traffic police car drivers used seat belts than non-traffic police car drivers do. In addition, drivers in civilian cars and non-traffic police cars waited longer periods of time before merging right into traffic compared to traffic police car drivers. Our findings supported the notion that on-duty police officers, and traffic police officers in particular, adhere more closely to traffic laws compared to civilian drivers. As the general public compliance with traffic laws is affected by the police perceived legitimacy, the publication of these results can both boost public cooperation with the police and encourage police officers to continue providing positive role models to the public.

  13. Traffic fatalities and economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    As countries develop death rates usually fall, especially for diseases that affect the young and result in substantial life-years lost. Deaths due to traffic accidents are a notable exception: the growth in motor vehicles that accompanies economic gr...

  14. 77 FR 69586 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2012-0155] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of..., multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, motorcycles, and motor vehicle equipment. DATES: You...

  15. Cellular automata model for traffic flow with safe driving conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lárraga María Elena; Alvarez-Icaza Luis

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a recently introduced cellular automata (CA) model is used for a statistical analysis of the inner microscopic structure of synchronized traffic flow. The analysis focuses on the formation and dissolution of clusters or platoons of vehicles, as the mechanism that causes the presence of this synchronized traffic state with a high flow. This platoon formation is one of the most interesting phenomena observed in traffic flows and plays an important role both in manual and automated highway systems (AHS). Simulation results, obtained from a single-lane system under periodic boundary conditions indicate that in the density region where the synchronized state is observed, most vehicles travel together in platoons with approximately the same speed and small spatial distances. The examination of velocity variations and individual vehicle gaps shows that the flow corresponding to the synchronized state is stable, safe and highly correlated. Moreover, results indicate that the observed platoon formation in real traffic is reproduced in simulations by the relation between vehicle headway and velocity that is embedded in the dynamics definition of the CA model. (general)

  16. Modeling highway-traffic headway distributions using superstatistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abul-Magd, A Y

    2007-11-01

    We study traffic clearance distributions (i.e., the instantaneous gap between successive vehicles) and time-headway distributions by applying the Beck and Cohen superstatistics. We model the transition from free phase to congested phase with the increase of vehicle density as a transition from the Poisson statistics to that of the random-matrix theory. We derive an analytic expression for the spacing distributions that interpolates from the Poisson distribution and Wigner's surmise and apply it to the distributions of the net distance and time gaps among the succeeding cars at different densities of traffic flow. The obtained distribution fits the experimental results for single-vehicle data of the Dutch freeway A9 and the German freeway A5.

  17. Single Stator Dual PM Rotor Synchronous Machine with two-frequency single-inverter control, for the propulsion of hybrid electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topor Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel brushless, single winding and single stator, dual PM rotor axial-air-gap machine capable to deliver independently torque at the two rotors by adequate dual vector control. The proposed topologies, the circuit model, controlled dynamics simulation and preliminary 3D FEM torque production on a case study constitute the core of the paper. The proposed dual mechanical port system should be instrumental in parallel (with planetary gears or series hybrid electric vehicles (HEV aiming at a more compact and efficient electric propulsion system solution.

  18. A Novel Vehicle Classification Using Embedded Strain Gauge Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbin; Wang, Qi; Suo, Chunguang

    2008-11-05

    This paper presents a new vehicle classification and develops a traffic monitoring detector to provide reliable vehicle classification to aid traffic management systems. The basic principle of this approach is based on measuring the dynamic strain caused by vehicles across pavement to obtain the corresponding vehicle parameters - wheelbase and number of axles - to then accurately classify the vehicle. A system prototype with five embedded strain sensors was developed to validate the accuracy and effectiveness of the classification method. According to the special arrangement of the sensors and the different time a vehicle arrived at the sensors one can estimate the vehicle's speed accurately, corresponding to the estimated vehicle wheelbase and number of axles. Because of measurement errors and vehicle characteristics, there is a lot of overlap between vehicle wheelbase patterns. Therefore, directly setting up a fixed threshold for vehicle classification often leads to low-accuracy results. Using the machine learning pattern recognition method to deal with this problem is believed as one of the most effective tools. In this study, support vector machines (SVMs) were used to integrate the classification features extracted from the strain sensors to automatically classify vehicles into five types, ranging from small vehicles to combination trucks, along the lines of the Federal Highway Administration vehicle classification guide. Test bench and field experiments will be introduced in this paper. Two support vector machines classification algorithms (one-against-all, one-against-one) are used to classify single sensor data and multiple sensor combination data. Comparison of the two classification method results shows that the classification accuracy is very close using single data or multiple data. Our results indicate that using multiclass SVM-based fusion multiple sensor data significantly improves the results of a single sensor data, which is trained on the whole

  19. A Novel Vehicle Classification Using Embedded Strain Gauge Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper presents a new vehicle classification and develops a traffic monitoring detector to provide reliable vehicle classification to aid traffic management systems. The basic principle of this approach is based on measuring the dynamic strain caused by vehicles across pavement to obtain the corresponding vehicle parameters – wheelbase and number of axles – to then accurately classify the vehicle. A system prototype with five embedded strain sensors was developed to validate the accuracy and effectiveness of the classification method. According to the special arrangement of the sensors and the different time a vehicle arrived at the sensors one can estimate the vehicle’s speed accurately, corresponding to the estimated vehicle wheelbase and number of axles. Because of measurement errors and vehicle characteristics, there is a lot of overlap between vehicle wheelbase patterns. Therefore, directly setting up a fixed threshold for vehicle classification often leads to low-accuracy results. Using the machine learning pattern recognition method to deal with this problem is believed as one of the most effective tools. In this study, support vector machines (SVMs were used to integrate the classification features extracted from the strain sensors to automatically classify vehicles into five types, ranging from small vehicles to combination trucks, along the lines of the Federal Highway Administration vehicle classification guide. Test bench and field experiments will be introduced in this paper. Two support vector machines classification algorithms (one-against-all, one-against-one are used to classify single sensor data and multiple sensor combination data. Comparison of the two classification method results shows that the classification accuracy is very close using single data or multiple data. Our results indicate that using multiclass SVM-based fusion multiple sensor data significantly improves

  20. Improving situation awareness of a single human operator interacting with multiple unmanned vehicles: first results

    OpenAIRE

    Aubert, Thomas; Corjon, Julien; Gautreault, Fabien; Laurent, Mickaël; Causse, Mickael; Dehais, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    In the context of the supervision of one or several unmanned vehicles by a human operator, the design of an adapted user interface is a major challenge. Therefore, in the context of an existing experimental set up composed of a ground station and heterogeneous unmanned ground and air vehicles we aim at redesigning the human-robot interactions to improve the operator's situation awareness. We base our new design on a classical user centered approach.

  1. Regulatory measures for traffic safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veerapur, R.D.; Bharambe, S.D.; Patnaik, S.K.; Tandle, A.K.; Sonawane, K.A.; Kumar, Rajesh; Venkat Subramanian, K.

    2017-01-01

    Traffic safety is an issue related to occupational safety not restricted alone to the transportation but extends beyond. BARC has many facilities spread across large area in Mumbai and outside Mumbai. BARC deploys large number of buses, mini buses, jeeps and cars for commuting its employees to reach BARC and for commuting within BARC premises. Additionally, trucks, fire tenders, trailers etc. are also deployed for transportation of materials. No moving vehicle is ever free of the possibility of involvement in an accident. Vehicular accidents and the fatalities on road are the result of inter-play of a number of factors. The vehicle population has been steadily increasing with the pace picking up significantly in recent past. Increase in vehicle population in the face of limited road space used by a large variety of traffic has heightened the need and urgency for a well-thought-out road safety. Therefore, existence of regulatory authority to regulate traffic and vehicles to ensure safety of its employees and vehicles is very essential. BARC Traffic Safety Committee (BTSC), which is the regulating body for traffic safety is responsible for ensuring overall traffic safety. (author)

  2. Vehicle classification using mobile sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    In this research, the feasibility of using mobile traffic sensors for binary vehicle classification on arterial roads is investigated. Features (e.g. : speed related, acceleration/deceleration related, etc.) are extracted from vehicle traces (passeng...

  3. Calculating Distribution and Intensity of Agricultural Traffic for Sustainable Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers, A.; Louwsma, M.A.; Lammeren, van R.J.A.; Kuiper, P.P.

    2016-01-01

    Land from many holdings is dispersed, which compels farmers to use public roads to access distant parcels. Agricultural traffic is different from other traffic with its large and heavy vehicles. When agricultural traffic mixes with other traffic, safety issues may arise. Another issue of

  4. 32 CFR 634.32 - Traffic violation reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic violation reports. 634.32 Section 634.32 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.32 Traffic violation...

  5. 32 CFR 634.28 - Traffic accident investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic accident investigation. 634.28 Section 634.28 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.28 Traffic...

  6. 32 CFR 634.25 - Installation traffic codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Installation traffic codes. 634.25 Section 634.25 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.25 Installation traffic...

  7. 32 CFR 634.29 - Traffic accident investigation reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic accident investigation reports. 634.29 Section 634.29 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.29 Traffic...

  8. Risk Factors of Road Traffic Accidents Associated Mortality in Northern Iran; A Single Center Experience Utilizing Oaxaca Blinder Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherafati, Faranak; Homaie-Rad, Enayatollah; Afkar, Abolhassan; Gholampoor-Sigaroodi, Ramin; Sirusbakht, Soheil

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the differences in death after receiving emergency services in traffic accidents between urban and rural regions, and decompose factors of the gap in Langerood, Northern Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Langrood, Northern Iran during a 1-year period from 2013 to 2014. The hospital data of traffic crashes were used. Data contained those patients who survived at the scene of accident. Injury severity score, time to admission, age, gender, season of crash and type of collision were variables used in this study. Oaxaca decomposition technique was used to show the amount of inequity. In addition, three regression models were used to show the reason of inequity. Overall 1520 patients with road traffic accidents were admitted to our center during the study period. The mean age of the patients was 35.45 ± 17.9 years, and there were 1158 (76.1 %) men among the victims. Motorbike accidents accounted for 869 (57.1%) injuries and 833 (54.8 %) accidents occurred in rural regions. The in-hospital mortality rate was 60 (3.9%). The results of this study showed that 95% of inequity came from factors used in this study and 2.04% disadvantages were for rural crashes. Severity of crash and time to admission had relationship with death, while the effects of time to admission was higher in rural region and severity of the accident had more effect on mortality in urban regions in comparison with rural ones. The high rate of fatal accidents could be decreased by deleting the gap of access to health care services between urban and rural regions. This study suggested that more efforts of health system are needed to reduce the gap.

  9. Traffic speed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Jovana Lj.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Speed, and vehicles themselves, affect the level of service and road safety, quality of life, noise from traffic, the environment, health, air pollution, emission of carbon dioxide, global warming, the economy and consumption of non-renewable energy such as oil. Therefore, the speed management of the traffic of multiple significance and that should be primarily to provide effective and economical conditions of the modern and preventive protection of human life as the greatest treasure and then the material resources. The way to accomplish this is by using various (different measures such as: appropriate planning and projecting roads and streets, speed control, the legislation, enforcement, campaigns, education, advanced technologies (ITS.

  10. Characterizing Traffic Conditions from the Perspective of Spatial-Temporal Heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peichao Gao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic conditions are usually characterized from the perspective of travel time or the average vehicle speed in the field of transportation, reflecting the congestion degree of a road network. This article provides a method from a new perspective to characterize traffic conditions; the perspective is based on the heterogeneity of vehicle speeds. A novel measurement, the ratio of areas (RA in a rank-size plot, is included in the proposed method to capture the heterogeneity. The proposed method can be performed from the perspective of both spatial heterogeneity and temporal heterogeneity, being able to characterize traffic conditions of not only a road network but also a single road. Compared with methods from the perspective of travel time, the proposed method can characterize traffic conditions at a higher frequency. Compared to methods from the perspective of the average vehicle speed, the proposed method takes account of the heterogeneity of vehicle speeds. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been demonstrated with real-life traffic data of Shenzhen (a coastal urban city in China, and the advantage of the proposed RA has been verified by comparisons to similar measurements such as the ht-index and the CRG index.

  11. Single-vehicle collisions in Europe: Analysis using real-world and crash-test data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naing, C.L.; Hill, J.; Thomson, R.; Fagerlind, H.; Kelkka, M.; Klootwijk, C.; Dupre, G.; Bisson, O.

    2008-01-01

    Many European road casualties result from vehicles leaving the road, often impacting roadside obstacles. As part of the European Commission-funded project RISER (Roadside Infrastructure for Safer European Roads), several activities were undertaken to collate the type of real world crash data which

  12. Altitude Control of a Single Degree of Freedom Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    NUMBER 62201F 6. AUTHOR(S) David B. Doman, Michael W. Oppenheimer, Michael A. Bolender, and David O. Sigthorsson (AFRL/ RBCA ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...NUMBER Control Design and Analysis Branch (AFRL/ RBCA ) Control Sciences Division Air Force Research Laboratory, Air Vehicles Directorate Wright

  13. Lockheed Martin Skunk Works Single Stage to Orbit/Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works has compiled an Annual Performance Report of the X-33/RLV Program. This report consists of individual reports from all industry team members, as well as NASA team centers. This portion of the report is comprised of a status report of Lockheed Martin's contribution to the program. The following is a summary of the Lockheed Martin Centers involved and work reviewed under their portion of the agreement: (1) Lockheed Martin Skunk Works - Vehicle Development, Operations Development, X-33 and RLV Systems Engineering, Manufacturing, Ground Operations, Reliability, Maintainability/Testability, Supportability, & Special Analysis Team, and X-33 Flight Assurance; (2) Lockheed Martin Technical Operations - Launch Support Systems, Ground Support Equipment, Flight Test Operations, and RLV Operations Development Support; (3) Lockheed Martin Space Operations - TAEM and A/L Guidance and Flight Control Design, Evaluation of Vehicle Configuration, TAEM and A/L Dispersion Analysis, Modeling and Simulations, Frequency Domain Analysis, Verification and Validation Activities, and Ancillary Support; (4) Lockheed Martin Astronautics-Denver - Systems Engineering, X-33 Development; (5) Sanders - A Lockheed Martin Company - Vehicle Health Management Subsystem Progress, GSS Progress; and (6) Lockheed Martin Michoud Space Systems - X-33 Liquid Oxygen (LOX) Tank, Key Challenges, Lessons Learned, X-33/RLV Composite Technology, Reusable Cyrogenic Insulation (RCI) and Vehicle Health Monitoring, Main Propulsion Systems (MPS), Structural Testing, X-33 System Integration and Analysis, and Cyrogenic Systems Operations.

  14. Performance evaluation of traffic sensing and control devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    High quality vehicle detection is essential to properly operate actuated phases at traffic signals and to facilitate effective : management of technician and engineering resources. INDOT operates over 2600 traffic signal controllers, approximately 20...

  15. 76 FR 8400 - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Mitsubishi Motors AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Grant of petition for exemption. SUMMARY: This...

  16. Economic Efficacy of Road Traffic Safety Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Gul, Ejaz

    2013-01-01

    The number of road traffic casualties is still very lofty and the trend shows a boost with each passing day. The road traffic accidents involve fatalities due to which economic resources are damaged and the productivity of the economy is correspondingly impaired. Costs resulting from traffic accidents represent the largest single part of the overall cost of traffic to the economy. Knowledge about the harm of these traffic accidents to the economy is essential if measures to reduce road traffi...

  17. Economic Evaluation of Road Traffic Safety Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Gul, Ejaz

    2013-01-01

    The number of road traffic casualties is still very lofty and the trend shows a boost with each passing day. The road traffic accidents involve fatalities due to which economic resources are damaged and the productivity of the economy is correspondingly impaired. Costs resulting from traffic accidents represent the largest single part of the overall cost of traffic to the economy. Knowledge about the harm of these traffic accidents to the economy is essential if measures to reduce road traffi...

  18. How connected vehicles work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Connected vehicles have the potential to transform the way Americans travel through the creation : of a safe, interoperable wireless communications networka system that includes cars, buses, : trucks, trains, traffic signals, cell phones, and othe...

  19. Connected vehicle standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicles have the potential to transform the way Americans travel by : allowing cars, buses, trucks, trains, traffic signals, smart phones, and other devices to : communicate through a safe, interoperable wireless network. A connected vehic...

  20. Structuring of Road Traffic Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Planko Rožić

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Systemic traffic count on the Croatian road network hasbeen carried out for more than three decades in different ways.During this period a large number of automatic traffic countershave been installed, and they operate on different principles.The traffic count has been analyzed from the aspect of vehicleclassification. The count results can be only partly comparedsince they yield different structures of traffic flows. Special analysisrefers to the classification of vehicles by automatic trafficcounters.During the research, a database has been formed with physicalelements of vehicles of over five thousand vehicle types. Theresearch results prove that the vehicle length only is not sufficientfor the classification of vehicles, the way it is used in thepresent automatic traffic counts, but rather the number of axles,the wheelbase as well as the front and rear overhangs needto be considered as well. Therefore, the detector system shouldapply also the detector of axles.The results have been presented that were obtained as partof the program TEST- Technological, research, developmentproject supported by the Minist1y of Science, Education andSport.

  1. Coordinated Engine-Start Control of Single-Motor P2 Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Respect to Different Driving Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyang Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To cut down the costs caused by the additional starter, single-motor P2 hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs make use of the driving motor to propel the vehicle as well as start the engine, and accordingly the engine-start control becomes more difficult. To satisfy the passengers’ demands, this paper developed different coordinated engine-start control strategies with respect to different situations. First, a detailed model for the single-motor P2 HEVs system was built and related parameters were presented. Then, the coordinated engine-start control architecture for the internal combustion engine (ICE, engine disconnect clutch (EDC, electric motor (EM and 8-speed automatic transmission (AT was analyzed. Considering with the different driving situations, soft start strategy and dynamical start strategy are individually proposed. Through the simulation, the above control strategies were validated in accordance with their control objectives. Last, to optimize the trade-off between driving performance and riding comfort, some key parameters were further discussed. This work not only decreases the difficulty of engine-start control in the single-motor P2 HEVs but also is helpful to improve the quality of engine-start.

  2. A cellular automata traffic flow model for three-phase theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yong-Sheng; Feng, Xiao; Zeng, Jun-Wei

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a newly-modified KKW model including the subdivided vehicles types, and introduces the changes for a driver's sensitivity into the speed fluctuation. By means of the numerical simulation the following conclusions are obtained herewith: 1. Velocity disturbance propagation in traffic flow is caused by the speed adaptation among vehicles. 2. In free flow phase, very fewer vehicles are affected by the velocity disturbance and the effect can be dissipated quickly thus the time of disturbance in a single vehicle is quite shorter. On the contrary, the impact duration time of the disturbance on a single vehicle is longer in synchronous flow phase, thus, it will affect more vehicles accordingly. 3. Under the free flow phase, the continuous deceleration behavior of a high speed vehicle to adapt the preceding car with slow speed can cause the reduction of the driver's sensitivity, lead to the vehicle over-deceleration and aggravate the effects of velocity perturbations While in the synchronous flow phase, though the reaction delay caused by the driver's sensitivity reduction can induce speed wave dissolving in essence, it increases the impact of disturbance on the traffic flow. 4. The large acceleration and deceleration tendency of an aggressive driver in the free flow phase always increase the influence of the velocity disturbance, while a conservative driver often weakens the influence. However, in the synchronized flow, since the high traffic density and the synchronization between vehicles is very strong, also the main factor which affects the driver's speed choice is the distance among vehicles, therefore the effect of a driver's behavior tendency to the spread of velocity perturbation is not obvious under this state.

  3. Assessment of the contribution of traffic emissions to the mobile vehicle measured PM2.5 concentration by means of WRF-CMAQ simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The Alaska adapted version of the Weather Research and Forecasting and the Community Modeling and Analysis Quality (WRF-CMAQ) modeling : systems was used to assess the contribution of traffic to the PM2.5-concentration in the Fairbanks nonattainment ...

  4. Model for traffic emissions estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, A.; Assimacopoulos, D.; Mitsoulis, E.

    A model is developed for the spatial and temporal evaluation of traffic emissions in metropolitan areas based on sparse measurements. All traffic data available are fully employed and the pollutant emissions are determined with the highest precision possible. The main roads are regarded as line sources of constant traffic parameters in the time interval considered. The method is flexible and allows for the estimation of distributed small traffic sources (non-line/area sources). The emissions from the latter are assumed to be proportional to the local population density as well as to the traffic density leading to local main arteries. The contribution of moving vehicles to air pollution in the Greater Athens Area for the period 1986-1988 is analyzed using the proposed model. Emissions and other related parameters are evaluated. Emissions from area sources were found to have a noticeable share of the overall air pollution.

  5. Advanced single permanent magnet axipolar ironless stator ac motor for electric passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, E. D.; Hadfield, J. R.; Wuertz, K. L.

    1983-01-01

    A program was conducted to design and develop an advanced-concept motor specifically created for propulsion of electric vehicles with increased range, reduced energy consumption, and reduced life-cycle costs in comparison with conventional systems. The motor developed is a brushless, dc, rare-earth cobalt, permanent magnet, axial air gap inductor machine that uses an ironless stator. Air cooling is inherent provided by the centrifugal-fan action of the rotor poles. An extensive design phase was conducted, which included analysis of the system performance versus the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle. A proof-of-principle model was developed and tested, and a functional model was developed and tested. Full generator-level testing was conducted on the functional model, recording electromagnetic, thermal, aerodynamic, and acoustic noise data. The machine demonstrated 20.3 kW output at 1466 rad/s and 160 dc. The novel ironless stator demonstated the capability to continuously operate at peak current. The projected system performance based on the use of a transistor inverter is 23.6 kW output power at 1466 rad/s and 83.3 percent efficiency. Design areas of concern regarding electric vehicle applications include the inherently high windage loss and rotor inertia.

  6. Traffic Light Detection at Night

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bornø; Philipsen, Mark Philip; Bahnsen, Chris

    2015-01-01

    of three detectors based on heuristic models and one learning-based detector. Evaluation is done on night-time data from the public LISA Traffic Light Dataset. The learning-based detector out- performs the model-based detectors in both precision and recall. The learning-based detector achieves an average......Traffic light recognition (TLR) is an integral part of any in- telligent vehicle, it must function both at day and at night. However, the majority of TLR research is focused on day-time scenarios. In this paper we will focus on detection of traffic lights at night and evalu- ate the performance...

  7. Modeling annual benzene, toluene, NO2, and soot concentrations on the basis of road traffic characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, David; Ehrenstein, Ondine von; Weiland, Stephan; Wagner, Claudia; Wellie, Oliver; Nicolai, Thomas; Mutius, Erika von

    2002-01-01

    The investigation of potential adverse health effects of urban traffic-related air pollution is hampered by difficulties encountered with exposure assessment. Usually public measuring sites are few and thereby do not adequately describe spatial variation of pollutant levels over an urban area. In turn, individual monitoring of pollution exposure among study subjects is laborious and expensive. We therefore investigated whether traffic characteristics can be used to adequately predict benzene, NO 2 , and soot concentrations at individual addresses of study subjects in the city area of Munich, Germany. For all road segments with expected traffic volumes of at least 4000 vehicles a day (n=1840), all vehicles were counted manually or a single weekday in 1995. The proportion of vehicles in 'stop-go' mode, n estimate of traffic jam, was determined. Furthermore, annual concentrations of benzene, NO 2 , and soot from 18 high-concentration sites means: 8.7, 65.8, and 12.9 μg/m 3 , respectively) and from 16 school sites with moderate concentrations (means: 2.6, 32.2, and 5.7 μg/m 3 , respectively) were measured from 1996 to 1998. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using components of two different statistical models recently used to predict air pollution levels in comparable settings. Two traffic characteristics, traffic volume and traffic jam percentage, adequately described air pollutant concentrations (R 2 : 0.76-0.80, P=0.0001). This study shows that air pollutant concentrations can be accurately predicted by two traffic characteristics and that these models compare favorably with other more complex models in the literature

  8. NOFBX Single-Stage-to-Orbit Mars Ascent Vehicle Engine, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the continuation of our research and development of a Nitrous Oxide Fuel Blend (NOFBXTM) Single-Stage-to-Orbit (SSTO) monopropellant propulsion system for...

  9. Traffic simulation for mixed traffic systems | Mbam | Global Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traffic problem is classified into single and mixed, especially in most developing countries, where motorbikes are used as the most popular transportation system. The aim of this paper is to introduce the motorbike symbol into the traffic light control system to separate cars/lorries indicator from that of motorbike. This is likely ...

  10. Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen Bundgaard

    2004-01-01

    can be obtained through cellular phone tracking or GPS systems. This information can then be used to provide individual traffic guidance as opposed to the mass information systems of today -- dynamic roadsigns and trafficradio. The goal is to achieve better usage of road and time. The main topic......When working with traffic planning or guidance it is common practice to view the vehicles as a combined mass. >From this models are employed to specify the vehicle supply and demand for each region. As the models are complex and the calculations are equally demanding the regions and the detail...

  11. Relationship between road vehicle traffic and noise pollution of Khojir National Park in the viewpoint of feasibility of fencing and soundproofing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Moshtaghie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the amount of noise pollution and traffic rates in Khojir National park and regarding that finding a suitable distance for installing fencing according to the standard level of noise pollution. Materials and Methods: Eight stations located exactly above channels have been selected. In each station, three different substations including near the road, 25, and 50 m from the road were chosen. For determining the essentiality of soundproof installation, noise levels were measured at the opening and in the middle of the channel. Traffic rates have been measured daily from 6 AM to 6 PM for two continuous weeks and noise levels were then determined in three different days according to the traffic peak. Results: Results obtained showed a significant relationship between traffic rates and noise levels in near-road stations (R 2 linear = 0.341. The relationship between interval and noise level was also significant (R 2 quadratic = 0.701, P < 0.05. Furthermore, a distance with 55 dB (A (i.e., 50 m in this study was achieved as a proper site for fencing. Conclusion: Although the amount of noise levels in the middle of channels were less than the standard level, this amount in some channel throats were higher and need to be considered for soundproof installation as well. In addition to finding an area for fencing, using solution(s for reducing either noise pollution or its impact at this area should be taken into consideration.

  12. Grid Frequency Support by Single-Phase Electric Vehicles Employing an Innovative Virtual Inertia Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezkalla, Michel M.N.; Zecchino, Antonio; Pertl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    to limit the rate of change of frequency of power systems, thus, improving frequency dynamics. Electric vehicles (EVs) can represent a reliable solution to enhance frequency stability due to their fast response and capability to provide a large amount of aggregated power. On one hand, EVs are capable...... of adjusting the battery charging process (i.e., power flow) according to pre-defined algorithms. On the other hand, in case of islanded operation (i.e., low inertia), some of the EV's technical constraints might cause oscillations. This study presents two control algorithms which show that the EVs are capable...... of providing virtual inertia support. The first controller employs a traditional droop control, while the second one is equipped with an innovative control algorithm to eliminate likely oscillations. It is shown that, the proposed innovative control algorithm compared to the traditional droop control, assures...

  13. Application of travel time information for traffic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report summarizes findings and implementations of probe vehicle data collection based on Bluetooth MAC address matching : technology. Probe vehicle travel time data are studied in the following field deployment case studies: analysis of traffic ...

  14. Physics of Traffic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L. C.

    2015-03-01

    The Texas A&M Transportation Institute estimated that traffic congestion cost the United States 121 billion in 2011 (the latest data available). The cost is due to wasted time and fuel. In addition to accidents and road construction, factors contributing to congestion include large demand, instability of high-density free flow and selfish behavior of drivers, which produces self-organized traffic bottlenecks. Extensive data collected on instrumented highways in various countries have led to a better understanding of traffic dynamics. From these measurements, Boris Kerner and colleagues developed a new theory called three-phase theory. They identified three major phases of flow observed in the data: free flow, synchronous flow and wide moving jams. The intermediate phase is called synchronous because vehicles in different lanes tend to have similar velocities. This congested phase, characterized by lower velocities yet modestly high throughput, frequently occurs near on-ramps and lane reductions. At present there are only two widely used methods of congestion mitigation: ramp metering and the display of current travel-time information to drivers. To find more effective methods to reduce congestion, researchers perform large-scale simulations using models based on the new theories. An algorithm has been proposed to realize Wardrop equilibria with real-time route information. Such equilibria have equal travel time on alternative routes between a given origin and destination. An active area of current research is the dynamics of connected vehicles, which communicate wirelessly with other vehicles and the surrounding infrastructure. These systems show great promise for improving traffic flow and safety.

  15. Connected vehicle insights : trends in roadway domain active sensing. Developments in radar, LIDAR and other sensing technologies and impact on vehicle crash avoidance/automation and active traffic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    This report analyzes the merits and limits of active sensing technologies such as radar, LIDAR, and ultrasonic detectors and how the market for these technologies is evolving and being applied to vehicles and highway infrastructure to improve...

  16. Comparison of Output Current Ripple in Single and Dual Three-Phase Inverters for Electric Vehicle Motor Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Loncarski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The standard solution for the traction system in battery powered electric vehicles (EVs is a two-level (2L inverter feeding a three-phase motor. A simple and effective way to achieve a three-level (3L inverter in battery-supplied electric vehicles consists of using two standard three-phase 2L inverters with the open-end winding connection of standard three-phase ac motors. The 3L inverter solution can be usefully adopted in EVs since it combines several benefits such as current ripple reduction, increment of phase motor voltage with limited voltage ratings of the two battery banks, improvement in system reliability, etc. The reduction in current ripple amplitude is particularly relevant since it is a source of electromagnetic interference and audio noise from the inverter-motor power connection cables and from the motor itself. By increasing the inverter switching frequency the ripple amplitude is reduced, but the drive efficiency decreases due to the proportionally increased switching losses. In this paper the peak-to-peak ripple amplitude of the dual-2L inverter is evaluated and compared with the corresponding ripple of the single-2L inverter, considering the same voltage and power motor ratings. The ripple analysis is carried out as a function of the modulation index to cover the whole modulation range of the inverter, and the theoretical results are verified with experimental tests carried out by an inverter-motor drive prototype.

  17. Implementation of Single Phase Soft Switched PFC Converter for Plug-in-Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiswariya Sekar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new soft switching boost converter with a passive snubber cell without additional active switches for battery charging systems. The proposed snubber finds its application in the front-end ac-dc converter of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV battery chargers. The proposed auxiliary snubber circuit consists of an inductor, two capacitors and two diodes. The new converter has the advantages of continuous input current, low switching stresses, high voltage gain without extreme duty cycle, minimized charger size and charging time and fewer amounts of cost and electricity drawn from the utility at higher switching frequencies. The switch is made to turn ON by Zero Current Switching (ZCS and turn OFF by Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS. The detailed steady state analysis of the novel ac-dc Zero Current- Zero Voltage Switching (ZC-ZVS boost Power Factor Correction (PFC converter is presented with its operating principle. The experimental prototype of 20 kHz, 100 W converter verifies the theoretical analysis. The power factor of the prototype circuit reaches near unity with an efficiency of 97%, at nominal output power for a ±10% variation in the input voltage and ±20% variation in the snubber component values.

  18. 36 CFR 1004.13 - Obstructing traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... road, except as authorized by the Executive Director, or in the event of an accident or other condition... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obstructing traffic. 1004.13 Section 1004.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.13...

  19. Epidemiology o.f· Traffic Accidents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accidents. An analysis of some 2 100 fatal traffic accidents gave the following results: males-79%; females-21%; a ratio of 4: 1. The high proportion of males to females killed in traffic accidents may be due to the fact that (a) more males commute daily in private and commercial vehicles;. (b) more females commute daily in ...

  20. The car following model considering traffic jerk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-Xia; Zheng, Peng-jun; Wang, Wei; Cheng, Rong-Jun

    2015-09-01

    Based on optimal velocity car following model, a new model considering traffic jerk is proposed to describe the jamming transition in traffic flow on a highway. Traffic jerk means the sudden braking and acceleration of vehicles, which has a significant impact on traffic movement. The nature of the model is researched by using linear and nonlinear analysis method. A thermodynamic theory is formulated to describe the phase transition and critical phenomenon in traffic flow. The time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) equation and the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation are derived to describe the traffic flow near the critical point and the traffic jam. In addition, the connection between the TDGL and the mKdV equations are also given.

  1. Electric vehicle - near or far

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiho, Y.

    1997-11-01

    Traffic is rapidly becoming the number one environmental problem, especially in metropolitan areas. Electric vehicles have many important advantages to offer. Air quality would be improved, since electric vehicles do not pollute the environment. The improvement obtained might be equated with that resulting from the introduction of district heat for the heating of residential buildings. Electric vehicles also present considerable potential for energy conservation

  2. 32 CFR 634.44 - The traffic point system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Records and the Traffic Point System... impartially judge driving performance of Service and DLA personnel. This system is not a disciplinary measure... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true The traffic point system. 634.44 Section 634.44...

  3. comparative analysis of mechanical and manual modes of traffic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Traffic survey was carried out to obtain data that are necessary for traffic study and evaluation. One of the most important characteristics of a traffic stream is its volume which can be defined as the number of vehicles passing through a section of a road per unit time. The road project which is approximately 75 km in length ...

  4. EVALUATION AND RETIMING OF A PRE-TIMED TRAFFIC SIGNAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates and retimes a pre-timed traffic signal using the current volume of traffic and saturation flow headway. Traffic volume count was collected by stationing technicians at each approach lane to record the flow, composition and direction of vehicles through the intersection for every 15 minutes interval from ...

  5. 32 CFR 634.40 - General off installation traffic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General off installation traffic activities. 634.40 Section 634.40 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision...

  6. User choices regarding vehicle-driving automation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchau, V.A.W.J.; Molin, E.J.E.; Heijden, R.E.C.M. van der; Breddia, C.A.; Wadhwa, L.C.

    2004-01-01

    The introduction of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) in motor vehicles is expected to improve traffic efficiency and safety significantly. These systems support the driver in controlling his vehicle applying advanced sensing, computing and controlling devices. Successful implementation of

  7. Commercial vehicle route tracking using video detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-31

    Interstate commercial vehicle traffic is a major factor in the life of any road surface. The ability to track : these vehicles and their routes through the state can provide valuable information to planning : activities. We propose a method using vid...

  8. Design comparison of single phase outer and inner-rotor hybrid excitation flux switching motor for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Mohamed Mubin Aizat; Sulaiman, Erwan; Husin, Zhafir Aizat; Othman, Syed Muhammad Naufal Syed; Khan, Faisal

    2015-05-01

    In hybrid excitation machines (HEMs), there are two main flux sources which are permanent magnet (PM) and field excitation coil (FEC). These HEMs have better features when compared with the interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (IPMSM) used in conventional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Since all flux sources including PM, FEC and armature coils are located on the stator core, the rotor becomes a single piece structure similar with switch reluctance machine (SRM). The combined flux generated by PM and FEC established more excitation fluxes that are required to produce much higher torque of the motor. In addition, variable DC FEC can control the flux capabilities of the motor, thus the machine can be applied for high-speed motor drive system. In this paper, the comparisons of single-phase 8S-4P outer and inner rotor hybrid excitation flux switching machine (HEFSM) are presented. Initially, design procedures of the HEFSM including parts drawing, materials and conditions setting, and properties setting are explained. Flux comparisons analysis is performed to investigate the flux capabilities at various current densities. Then the flux linkages of PM with DC FEC of various DC FEC current densities are examined. Finally torque performances are analyzed at various armature and FEC current densities for both designs. As a result, the outer-rotor HEFSM has higher flux linkage of PM with DC FEC and higher average torque of approximately 10% when compared with inner-rotor HEFSM.

  9. Design and Analysis of a Single-Camera Omnistereo Sensor for Quadrotor Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Carlos; Valenti, Roberto G.; Guo, Ling; Xiao, Jizhong

    2016-01-01

    We describe the design and 3D sensing performance of an omnidirectional stereo (omnistereo) vision system applied to Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs). The proposed omnistereo sensor employs a monocular camera that is co-axially aligned with a pair of hyperboloidal mirrors (a vertically-folded catadioptric configuration). We show that this arrangement provides a compact solution for omnidirectional 3D perception while mounted on top of propeller-based MAVs (not capable of large payloads). The theoretical single viewpoint (SVP) constraint helps us derive analytical solutions for the sensor’s projective geometry and generate SVP-compliant panoramic images to compute 3D information from stereo correspondences (in a truly synchronous fashion). We perform an extensive analysis on various system characteristics such as its size, catadioptric spatial resolution, field-of-view. In addition, we pose a probabilistic model for the uncertainty estimation of 3D information from triangulation of back-projected rays. We validate the projection error of the design using both synthetic and real-life images against ground-truth data. Qualitatively, we show 3D point clouds (dense and sparse) resulting out of a single image captured from a real-life experiment. We expect the reproducibility of our sensor as its model parameters can be optimized to satisfy other catadioptric-based omnistereo vision under different circumstances. PMID:26861351

  10. Indirect Matrix Converter for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Application with Three-Phase and Single-Phase Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeongsu Bak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an indirect matrix converter (IMC topology for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV application with three-phase and single-phase outputs. The HEV includes mechanical, electrical, control, and electrochemical systems among others. In the mechanical system, a traction motor and a compressor motor are used to drive the HEV. The traction motor and the compressor motor are usually operated as three-phase and single-phase motors, respectively. In this respect, a dual AC-drive system can operate the traction and the compressor motor simultaneously. Furthermore, compared to a conventional dual matrix converter system, the proposed topology can reduce the number of switches that the dual outputs share with a DC-link. The application of this system for HEV has advantages, like long lifetime and reduced volume due to the lack of a DC-link. The proposed control strategy and modulation schemes ensure the sinusoidal input and output waveforms and bidirectional power transmission. The proposed system for the HEV application is verified by simulation and experiments.

  11. 77 FR 20558 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2012-0039] RIN 2127-AJ93 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift Installations in Motor Vehicles AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... amendments to the Federal motor vehicle safety standards on platform lift systems for motor vehicles. The...

  12. Vehicle Speed Estimation and Forecasting Methods Based on Cellular Floating Vehicle Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Kuang Lai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Traffic information estimation and forecasting methods based on cellular floating vehicle data (CFVD are proposed to analyze the signals (e.g., handovers (HOs, call arrivals (CAs, normal location updates (NLUs and periodic location updates (PLUs from cellular networks. For traffic information estimation, analytic models are proposed to estimate the traffic flow in accordance with the amounts of HOs and NLUs and to estimate the traffic density in accordance with the amounts of CAs and PLUs. Then, the vehicle speeds can be estimated in accordance with the estimated traffic flows and estimated traffic densities. For vehicle speed forecasting, a back-propagation neural network algorithm is considered to predict the future vehicle speed in accordance with the current traffic information (i.e., the estimated vehicle speeds from CFVD. In the experimental environment, this study adopted the practical traffic information (i.e., traffic flow and vehicle speed from Taiwan Area National Freeway Bureau as the input characteristics of the traffic simulation program and referred to the mobile station (MS communication behaviors from Chunghwa Telecom to simulate the traffic information and communication records. The experimental results illustrated that the average accuracy of the vehicle speed forecasting method is 95.72%. Therefore, the proposed methods based on CFVD are suitable for an intelligent transportation system.

  13. Universal Safety Distance Alert Device for Road Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matic Virant

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Driving with too short of a safety distance is a common problem in road traffic, often with traffic accidents as a consequence. Research has identified a lack of vehicle-mountable devices for alerting the drivers of trailing vehicles about keeping a sufficient safe distance. The principal requirements for such a device were defined. A conceptual study was performed in order to select the components for the integration of the device. Based on the results of this study, a working prototype of a flexible, self-contained device was designed, built and tested. The device is intended to be mounted on the rear of a vehicle. It uses radar as the primary distance sensor, assisted with a GPS receiver for velocity measurement. A Raspberry Pi single-board computer is used for data acquisition and processing. The alerts are shown on an LED-matrix display mounted on the rear of the host vehicle. The device software is written in Python and provides automatic operation without requiring any user intervention. The tests have shown that the device is usable on almost any motor vehicle and performs reliably in simulated and real traffic. The open issues and possibilities for future improvements are presented in the Discussion.

  14. A new modelling approach for road traffic emissions: VERSIT+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, R.; Smokers, R.T.M.; Rabé, E.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of VERSIT+ LD is to predict traffic stream emissions for light-duty vehicles in any particular traffic situation. With respect to hot running emissions, VERSIT+ LD consists of a set of statistical models for detailed vehicle categories that have been constructed using multiple linear

  15. Traffic Light Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Mark Philip; Jensen, Morten Bornø; Møgelmose, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Traffic light recognition (TLR) is an integral part of any intelligent vehicle, which must function in the existing infrastructure. Pedestrian and sign detection have recently seen great improvements due to the introduction of learning based detectors using integral channel features. A similar push...... have not yet been seen for the detection sub-problem of TLR, where detection is dominated by methods based on heuristic models. Evaluation of existing systems is currently limited primarily to small local datasets. In order to provide a common basis for comparing future TLR research an extensive public...... database is collected based on footage from US roads. The database consists of both test and training data, totaling 46,418 frames and 112,971 annotated traffic lights, captured in continuous sequences under a varying light and weather conditions. The learning based detector achieves an AUC of 0.4 and 0...

  16. A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Integrating Hypersonic Aerodynamics, Thermal Protection Systems, and RBCC Engine Performance for Single Stage to Orbit Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas Troy; Alexander, Reginald

    1999-01-01

    Presented is a computer-based tool that connects several disciplines that are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to every other system, as is the case of SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by NASA. The deficiencies in the scramjet powered concept led to a revival of interest in Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems. An RBCC propulsion system integrates airbreathing and rocket propulsion into a single engine assembly enclosed within a cowl or duct. A typical RBCC propulsion system operates as a ducted rocket up to approximately Mach 3. At this point the transitions to a ramjet mode for supersonic-to-hypersonic acceleration. Around Mach 8 the engine transitions to a scram4jet mode. During the ramjet and scramjet modes, the integral rockets operate as fuel injectors. Around Mach 10-12 (the actual value depends on vehicle and mission requirements), the inlet is physically closed and the engine transitions to an integral rocket mode for orbit insertion. A common feature of RBCC propelled vehicles is the high degree of integration between the propulsion system and airframe. At high speeds the vehicle forebody is fundamentally part of the engine inlet, providing a compression surface for air flowing into the engine. The compressed air is mixed with fuel and burned. The combusted mixture must be expanded to an area larger than the incoming stream to provide thrust. Since a conventional nozzle would be too large, the entire lower after body of the vehicle is used as an expansion surface. Because of the high external temperatures seen during atmospheric flight, the design of an airbreathing SSTO vehicle requires delicate tradeoffs between engine design, vehicle shape, and thermal protection system (TPS) sizing in order to produce an optimum system in terms of weight (and cost) and maximum performance.

  17. European Traffic Connections and Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vuković

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The overall traffic connections within Europe are particularlyimportant from the economic point of view of eve1y Europeancountry. Therefore, the development of traffic and trafficinfrastructure in the European Union are considered with specialattention. The main aim of traffic development in the EuropeanUnion is full possible freedom of movement both fromthe technical and organisational aspect, with continuous improvementin traffic safety and environmental protection.Traffic development and connections are one of the essentieddevelopment factors of eve1y modem counlly. Every COU/1-try tends to organise traffic system in the way that suits her best.The same holds for the European Union as well. The leadingbodies in the European Union agree that the EU traffic systemneeds to be set upon such fundamentals that it can follow furtherdevelopment of the community. EU connects 15 membercountries into a single community, and it also plans soon to expandonto new members.The aims set by the Maastricht Agreement have been realisedby announcing the traffic guidelines on infrastructure projectsthat should be realised. In the Commission's proposal tothe Council and the Parliament in 1994, on the development ofTrans-European traffic networks, a ve1y efficient plan was presentedof connecting national traffic networks into a singleTrans-European network, to be realised until 2010.Overall economic and political connections of the EuropeanUnion and the countries in transition are becoming strongereve1y day. Several countries in transition are already preparingfor joining the European Union. This brings to the fore theneed for better traffic connections of EU and the countries intransition.In some sections the adopted Crete corridors pass alsothrough Croatia. Moreover, Croatia is located on the main Europeantraffic routes from the North to the South, and from theEast to the West.

  18. Review on Driverless Traffic from Management Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Tingting

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The move towards automated driving is gaining ground. This paper reviews the development process of self-driving technology and discusses the safety and efficiency advantages of autonomous vehicles. The discussion shows that the existing traffic management system, including transport infrastructures and regulations, should be changed accordingly to maximize the advantages of autonomous driving. Thus, this paper subsequently gives an insight of the traffic management from three aspects: fully self-driving traffic infrastructures, mixed traffic infrastructures and regulations. First, it is summarized in detail what should be adjusted in intersections, parking lots, pedestrian crossings, ramps, signs and markings. With the transformation of traffic infrastructures, the advantages of driverless car will be more pronounced on account of increased capacity, reduced delay and land use. Also, this paper indicates that the implementations of strict product liability for self-driving car manufacturers and no-fault tort liability for users are applicable to automated vehicle accidents.

  19. Electric and hybrid vehicles: power sources, models, sustainability, infrastructure and the market

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pistoia, G

    2010-01-01

    ... for simulation studies Velocity scheduling using traffic preview Hybrid vehicles with telematics Optimal management of hybrid vehicles with telematics Conclusions and future opportunities 1. 2. 3...

  20. Vehicle Pose Estimation for Vehicle Detection and Tracking Based on Road Direction

    OpenAIRE

    Prahara, Adhi; Azhari, Ahmad; Murinto, Murinto

    2017-01-01

    Vehicle has several types and each of them has different color, size, and shape. The appearance of vehicle also changes if viewed from different viewpoint of traffic surveillance camera. This situation can create many possibilities of vehicle poses. However, the one in common, vehicle pose usually follows road direction. Therefore, this research proposes a method to estimate the pose of vehicle for vehicle detection and tracking based on road direction. Vehicle training data are generated fro...

  1. Research on three-phase traffic flow modeling based on interaction range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jun-Wei; Yang, Xu-Gang; Qian, Yong-Sheng; Wei, Xu-Ting

    2017-12-01

    On the basis of the multiple velocity difference effect (MVDE) model and under short-range interaction, a new three-phase traffic flow model (S-MVDE) is proposed through careful consideration of the influence of the relationship between the speeds of the two adjacent cars on the running state of the rear car. The random slowing rule in the MVDE model is modified in order to emphasize the influence of vehicle interaction between two vehicles on the probability of vehicles’ deceleration. A single-lane model which without bottleneck structure under periodic boundary conditions is simulated, and it is proved that the traffic flow simulated by S-MVDE model will generate the synchronous flow of three-phase traffic theory. Under the open boundary, the model is expanded by adding an on-ramp, the congestion pattern caused by the bottleneck is simulated at different main road flow rates and on-ramp flow rates, which is compared with the traffic congestion pattern observed by Kerner et al. and it is found that the results are consistent with the congestion characteristics in the three-phase traffic flow theory.

  2. Estimation of element deposition derived from road traffic sources by using mosses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zechmeister, H.G.; Hohenwallner, D.; Riss, A.; Hanus-Illnar, A.

    2005-01-01

    Sixty moss samples were taken along transects of nine roads in Austria. The concentrations of 17 elements in four moss species were determined. There was a high correlation between several elements like Cu/Sb (0.906), Ni/Co (0.897) or Cr/V (0.898), indicating a common traffic-related source. Enrichment factors were calculated, showing highest enrichment levels for: Cr, Mo, Sb, Zn, As, Fe, V, Cu, Ni, and Co. For these elements, road traffic has to be assumed as a source, which is confirmed by a significant negative correlation of the concentrations in mosses to the distance from the road for most of these metals. The rate of decrease followed a log-shaped curve at most of the investigated transects, although the decline cannot be explained by a single model. Multiple regression analysis highlighted traffic density, distance from and elevation of the road as the most influencing factors for the deposition of the investigated elements. Heavy duty vehicles (HDVs) and light duty vehicles (LDVs) showed different patterns. A comparison of sites likely to be influenced by traffic emissions with average values for the respective regions showed no significant differences for road distances of more than 250 m. Nevertheless, at heavily frequented roads, raised deposition of some elements was found even at a distance of 1000 m. - Cr, Mo, Sb, Zn, As, Fe, V, Cu, Ni, and Co were identified as road traffic emissions and were mainly deposited within a distance of 250 m from major roads

  3. Discontinuity at edge of traffic jam induced by slowdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Ryoichi; Hanaura, Hirotoshi; Tanaka, Katsunori; Nagatani, Takashi

    2006-05-01

    We study the traffic states and jams induced by a slowdown of vehicles in a single lane highway. We use an extended one of the optimal velocity model to take into account the slowdown in a section of highway. The fundamental (flow-density) diagram is calculated. The flow (current) increases linearly with density, saturates at a critical density, and then decreases with density. When the flow saturates, the discontinuous front (stationary shock wave) appears at the end of traffic jam which begins just before the section of slowdown. The position of discontinuous front moves to the upstream with increasing density. It is found that the relationship between the densities holds before and after the discontinuity, while the flow (current) keeps the saturated value. The region map of distinct jams is shown.

  4. Incorporating vehicle mix in stimulus-response car-following models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saidi Siuhi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to incorporate vehicle mix in stimulus-response car-following models. Separate models were estimated for acceleration and deceleration responses to account for vehicle mix via both movement state and vehicle type. For each model, three sub-models were developed for different pairs of following vehicles including “automobile following automobile,” “automobile following truck,” and “truck following automobile.” The estimated model parameters were then validated against other data from a similar region and roadway. The results indicated that drivers' behaviors were significantly different among the different pairs of following vehicles. Also the magnitude of the estimated parameters depends on the type of vehicle being driven and/or followed. These results demonstrated the need to use separate models depending on movement state and vehicle type. The differences in parameter estimates confirmed in this paper highlight traffic safety and operational issues of mixed traffic operation on a single lane. The findings of this paper can assist transportation professionals to improve traffic simulation models used to evaluate the impact of different strategies on ameliorate safety and performance of highways. In addition, driver response time lag estimates can be used in roadway design to calculate important design parameters such as stopping sight distance on horizontal and vertical curves for both automobiles and trucks.

  5. Woodland Mapping at Single-Tree Levels Using Object-Oriented Classification of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (uav) Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenari, A.; Erfanifard, Y.; Dehghani, M.; Pourghasemi, H. R.

    2017-09-01

    Remotely sensed datasets offer a reliable means to precisely estimate biophysical characteristics of individual species sparsely distributed in open woodlands. Moreover, object-oriented classification has exhibited significant advantages over different classification methods for delineation of tree crowns and recognition of species in various types of ecosystems. However, it still is unclear if this widely-used classification method can have its advantages on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) digital images for mapping vegetation cover at single-tree levels. In this study, UAV orthoimagery was classified using object-oriented classification method for mapping a part of wild pistachio nature reserve in Zagros open woodlands, Fars Province, Iran. This research focused on recognizing two main species of the study area (i.e., wild pistachio and wild almond) and estimating their mean crown area. The orthoimage of study area was consisted of 1,076 images with spatial resolution of 3.47 cm which was georeferenced using 12 ground control points (RMSE=8 cm) gathered by real-time kinematic (RTK) method. The results showed that the UAV orthoimagery classified by object-oriented method efficiently estimated mean crown area of wild pistachios (52.09±24.67 m2) and wild almonds (3.97±1.69 m2) with no significant difference with their observed values (α=0.05). In addition, the results showed that wild pistachios (accuracy of 0.90 and precision of 0.92) and wild almonds (accuracy of 0.90 and precision of 0.89) were well recognized by image segmentation. In general, we concluded that UAV orthoimagery can efficiently produce precise biophysical data of vegetation stands at single-tree levels, which therefore is suitable for assessment and monitoring open woodlands.

  6. Heat transfer and oil flow studies on a single-stage-to-orbit control-configured winged entry vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, V. T., III; Bradley, P. F.

    1984-01-01

    Results are presented for oil flow and phase change paint heat transfer tests conducted on a 0.006 scale model of a proposed single stage to orbit control configured vehicle. The data were taken at angles of attack up to 40 deg at a free stream Mach number of 10 for Reynolds numbers based on model length of 0.5 x 10 to the 6th power, 1.0 x 10 to the 6th power and 2.0 x 10 to the 6th power. The magnitude and distribution of heating are characterized in terms of angle of attack and Reynolds number aided by an analysis of the flow data which are used to suggest the presence of various three dimensional flow structures that produce the observed heating patterns. Of particular interest are streak heating patterns that result in high localized heat transfer rates on the wing windward surface at low to moderate angles of attack. These streaks are caused by the bow-shock/wing-shock interaction and formation of the wing-shock. Embedded vorticity was found to be associated with these interactions.

  7. TRAFFIC SIMULATION FOR MIXED TRAFFIC SYSTEMS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EGETE

    2012-05-04

    2002). Description of a microscopic traffic model of an urban district and the analysis and problem solving traffic congestion based on actual data is its objective. There suggested models for a vehicular traffic flow based on partial ...

  8. Increasing accuracy of vehicle detection from conventional vehicle detectors - counts, speeds, classification, and travel time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Vehicle classification is an important traffic parameter for transportation planning and infrastructure : management. Length-based vehicle classification from dual loop detectors is among the lowest cost : technologies commonly used for collecting th...

  9. Rapid near-optimal trajectory generation and guidance law development for single-stage-to-orbit airbreathing vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calise, A. J.; Flandro, G. A.; Corban, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    General problems associated with on-board trajectory optimization, propulsion system cycle selection, and with the synthesis of guidance laws were addressed for an ascent to low-earth-orbit of an air-breathing single-stage-to-orbit vehicle. The NASA Generic Hypersonic Aerodynamic Model Example and the Langley Accelerator aerodynamic sets were acquired and implemented. Work related to the development of purely analytic aerodynamic models was also performed at a low level. A generic model of a multi-mode propulsion system was developed that includes turbojet, ramjet, scramjet, and rocket engine cycles. Provisions were made in the dynamic model for a component of thrust normal to the flight path. Computational results, which characterize the nonlinear sensitivity of scramjet performance to changes in vehicle angle of attack, were obtained and incorporated into the engine model. Additional trajectory constraints were introduced: maximum dynamic pressure; maximum aerodynamic heating rate per unit area; angle of attack and lift limits; and limits on acceleration both along and normal to the flight path. The remainder of the effort focused on required modifications to a previously derived algorithm when the model complexity cited above was added. In particular, analytic switching conditions were derived which, under appropriate assumptions, govern optimal transition from one propulsion mode to another for two cases: the case in which engine cycle operations can overlap, and the case in which engine cycle operations are mutually exclusive. The resulting guidance algorithm was implemented in software and exercised extensively. It was found that the approximations associated with the assumed time scale separation employed in this work are reasonable except over the Mach range from roughly 5 to 8. This phenomenon is due to the very large thrust capability of scramjets in this Mach regime when sized to meet the requirement for ascent to orbit. By accounting for flight path

  10. Intelligent Ambulance Traffic Assistance System

    OpenAIRE

    RONOJOY GHOSH; VIVEK SHAH; HITESH AGARWAL; ASHUTOSH BHUSHAN; PRASUN KANTI GHOSH

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in traffic road density, several causalities occur due to delay in taking a patient to the hospital in an ambulance. In this paper, we have developed an algorithm to find the shortest path to reach the required destination. As required the software will identify the present location of the vehicle and ask the user for the destination. Then it will show all the available paths, highlighting the shortest one or in several cases the most optimum one. Further we made the traffic...

  11. Traffic and Granular Flow '11

    CERN Document Server

    Buslaev, Alexander; Bugaev, Alexander; Yashina, Marina; Schadschneider, Andreas; Schreckenberg, Michael; TGF11

    2013-01-01

    This book continues the biannual series of conference proceedings, which has become a classical reference resource in traffic and granular research alike. It addresses new developments at the interface between physics, engineering and computational science. Complex systems, where many simple agents, be they vehicles or particles, give rise to surprising and fascinating phenomena.   The contributions collected in these proceedings cover several research fields, all of which deal with transport. Topics include highway, pedestrian and internet traffic, granular matter, biological transport, transport networks, data acquisition, data analysis and technological applications. Different perspectives, i.e. modeling, simulations, experiments and phenomenological observations, are considered.

  12. A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Integrated Hypersonic Aerodynamics, Thermal Protection Systems, and RBCC Engine Performance for Single Stage to Orbit Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas Troy; Alexander, Reginald; Landrum, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Presented is a computer-based tool that connects several disciplines that are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to every other system, as is the case of SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by NASA. An RBCC propulsion system integrates airbreathing and rocket propulsion into a single engine assembly enclosed within a cowl or duct. A typical RBCC propulsion system operates as a ducted rocket up to approximately Mach 3. Then there is a transition to a ramjet mode for supersonic-to-hypersonic acceleration. Around Mach 8 the engine transitions to a scramjet mode. During the ramjet and scramjet modes, the integral rockets operate as fuel injectors. Around Mach 10-12 (the actual value depends on vehicle and mission requirements), the inlet is physically closed and the engine transitions to an integral rocket mode for orbit insertion. A common feature of RBCC propelled vehicles is the high degree of integration between the propulsion system and airframe. At high speeds the vehicle forebody is fundamentally part of the engine inlet, providing a compression surface for air flowing into the engine. The compressed air is mixed with fuel and burned. The combusted mixture must be expanded to an area larger than the incoming stream to provide thrust. Since a conventional nozzle would be too large, the entire lower after body of the vehicle is used as an expansion surface. Because of the high external temperatures seen during atmospheric flight, the design of an airbreathing SSTO vehicle requires delicate tradeoffs between engine design, vehicle shape, and thermal protection system (TPS) sizing in order to produce an optimum system in terms of weight (and cost) and maximum performance. To adequately determine the performance of the engine/vehicle, the Hypersonic Flight Inlet Model (HYFIM) module was designed to interface with the RBCC

  13. TRAFFIC SIGN DETECTION BASED ON BIOLOGICALLY VISUAL MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Hu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available TSR (Traffic sign recognition is an important problem in ITS (intelligent traffic system, which is being paid more and more attention for realizing drivers assisting system and unmanned vehicle etc. TSR consists of two steps: detection and recognition, and this paper describe a new traffic sign detection method. The design principle of the traffic sign is comply with the visual attention mechanism of human, so we propose a method using visual attention mechanism to detect traffic sign ,which is reasonable. In our method, the whole scene will firstly be analyzed by visual attention model to acquire the area where traffic signs might be placed. And then, these candidate areas will be analyzed according to the shape characteristics of the traffic sign to detect traffic signs. In traffic sign detection experiments, the result shows the proposed method is effectively and robust than other existing saliency detection method.

  14. Connected variable speed limits control and vehicle acceleration control to resolve moving jams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Daamen, W.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Van Arem, B.

    2015-01-01

    The vision of intelligent vehicles traveling in road networks has prompted numerous concepts to control future traffic flow, one of which is the in-vehicle actuation of traffic control signals. The key of this concept is using intelligent vehicles as actuators for traffic control systems, replacing

  15. Effects of traffic noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottlob, D.

    1986-02-01

    One of the main sources of noise is road traffic. In 1984 there were over 25 million cars, 1.2 million lorries, 1.3 million motor cycles and 1.6 million mopeds using our roads. Opinion polls showed that 21% of the population felt that they were affected by traffic noise as a nuisance factor. An outline of the effects of this noise on the affected population is given, illustrated by diagrams. Details about noise emissions (drive-past level) of the different types of vehicles in city traffic are stated and the effects of noise described. The author goes into the nuisance effect (noise is not a physical factor, but a psychosocial one), changes in behaviour (ways of speaking, reduction of stress on households in proportion to rising income and higher educational levels) and the consequences for health (the reaction of the body to noise is primarily a consequence of the psychosomatic organisation of ow bodies). In conclusion, the author deals with the subjective efficiency of noise protection measures. (HWJ).

  16. Road traffic flow and impact on environment in Hyderabad city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, Zaheer-ud-Din; Ansari, A.K.; Memon, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    In Hyderabad city due to dramatic increase in traffic intensity on the roads, traffic flow have been much beyond the comfortable limits. High values of traffic flow density have been recorded on Court Road (34.05%), Tilak Road (19.87%), Risala Road (22.91%) and Cafe George (23.14%) of Hyderabad city. Above 80% people are found to be annoyed due to traffic congestion, noise and smoke resulting in health ailments. Slow Moving Vehicles (SMVs) comprising of animal and hand drawn vehicles (rehras) cause serious disruption in the traffic stream on city roads, which are ultimately causing traffic-jam condition resulting a serious impact on environment. No definite parking places exist for public vehicles because of encroachment on roads. Proper foot paths are not available for pedestrian, which results in increase in accidents. (author)

  17. Use of mobile data for weather-responsive traffic management models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The evolution of telecommunications and wireless technologies has brought in new sources of traffic data (particularly mobile data generated by vehicle probes), which could offer a breakthrough in the quality and extent of traffic data. This study re...

  18. Human Factors of Automated Driving : Predicting the Effects of Authority Transitions on Traffic Flow Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varotto, S.F.; Hoogendoorn, R.G.; Van Arem, B.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2014-01-01

    Automated driving potentially has a significant impact on traffic flow efficiency. Automated vehicles, which possess cooperative capabilities, are expected to reduce congestion levels for instance by increasing road capacity, by anticipating traffic conditions further downstream and also by

  19. Electronic Toll And Traffic Management Systems, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    ELECTRONIC TOLL COLLECTION OR ETC AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT OR ETTM, AUTOMATIC VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION OR AVI : ELECTRONIC TOLL COLLECTION AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT (ETTM) SYSTEMS ARE NOT A FUTURISTIC DREAM, THEY ARE OPERATING OR ARE BEING TESTED TODAY I...

  20. Mining vehicle classifications from the Columbus Metropolitan Freeway Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle classification data are used in many transportation applications, including: pavement design, : environmental impact studies, traffic control, and traffic safety. Ohio has over 200 permanent count stations, : supplemented by many more short-t...

  1. Traffic networks as information systems a viability approach

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    This authored monograph covers a viability to approach to traffic management by advising to vehicles circulated on the network the velocity they should follow for satisfying global traffic conditions;. It presents an investigation of three structural innovations: The objective is to broadcast at each instant and at each position the advised celerity to vehicles, which could be read by auxiliary speedometers or used by cruise control devices. Namely, 1. Construct regulation feedback providing at each time and position advised velocities (celerities) for minimizing congestion or other requirements. 2. Taking into account traffic constraints of different type, the first one being to remain on the roads, to stop at junctions, etc. 3. Use information provided by the probe vehicles equipped with GPS to the traffic regulator; 4. Use other global traffic measures of vehicles provided by different types of sensors; These results are based on convex analysis, intertemporal optimization and viability theory as mathemati...

  2. Assessing population exposures to motor vehicle exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Atten, Chris; Brauer, Michael; Funk, Tami; Gilbert, Nicolas L; Graham, Lisa; Kaden, Debra; Miller, Paul J; Bracho, Leonora Rojas; Wheeler, Amanda; White, Ronald H

    2005-01-01

    The need is growing for a better assessment of population exposures to motor vehicle exhaust in proximity to major roads and highways. This need is driven in part by emerging scientific evidence of adverse health effects from such exposures and policy requirements for a more targeted assessment of localized public health impacts related to road expansions and increasing commercial transportation. The momentum for improved methods in measuring local exposures is also growing in the scientific community, as well as for discerning which constituents of the vehicle exhaust mixture may exert greater public health risks for those who are exposed to a disproportionate share of roadway pollution. To help elucidate the current state-of-the-science in exposure assessments along major roadways and to help inform decision makers of research needs and trends, we provide an overview of the emerging policy requirements, along with a conceptual framework for assessing exposure to motor-vehicle exhaust that can help inform policy decisions. The framework includes the pathway from the emission of a single vehicle, traffic emissions from multiple vehicles, atmospheric transformation of emissions and interaction with topographic and meteorologic features, and contact with humans resulting in exposure that can result in adverse health impacts. We describe the individual elements within the conceptual framework for exposure assessment and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of various approaches that have been used to assess public exposures to motor vehicle exhaust.

  3. [Characteristic of the fractures of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae in the victims of a traffic accident found in the passenger compartment of a modern motor vehicle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigolkin, Iu I; Dubrovin, I A; Sedykh, E P; Mosoian, A S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study peculiar features of the injuries to three spinal regions in the victims of a head-on car collision found in the passenger compartments of modern motor vehicles equipped with seat belts and other safety means. It was shown that most frequent fatal injuries to the driver include the fractures of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae. These injuries are much less frequent in the passengers occupying the front and the right back seats. The multilayer and multiple character of the fractures in different parts of the spinal column in the car drivers is attributable to more pronounced spine flexion and extension associated with injuries of this kind. The fractures of the lower cervical vertebrae in the front seat passengers occur more frequently than injuries of a different type whereas the passengers of the back seats most frequently experience fractures of the upper cervical vertebrae. The passengers of the left back seat less frequently suffer from injuries to the thoracic spine than from the fractures of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae. The passengers of the central back seat most frequently experience fractures of the thoracic part of the vertebral column and the passengers occupying the right back seat fractures of the lumbar vertebrae.

  4. Traffic modelling validation of advanced driver assistance systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tongeren, R. van; Gietelink, O.J.; Schutter, B. de; Verhaegen, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a microscopic traffic model for the validation of advanced driver assistance systems. This model describes single-lane traffic and is calibrated with data from a field operational test. To illustrate the use of the model, a Monte Carlo simulation of single-lane traffic scenarios

  5. The impact of traffic sign deficit on road traffic accidents in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeibe, Christian; Ilo, Chukwudi; Oguonu, Chika; Ali, Alphonsus; Abada, Ifeanyi; Ezeibe, Ezinwanne; Oguonu, Chukwunonso; Abada, Felicia; Izueke, Edwin; Agbo, Humphrey

    2018-04-04

    This study assesses the impact of traffic sign deficit on road traffic accidents in Nigeria. The participants were 720 commercial vehicle drivers. While simple random sampling was used to select 6 out of 137 federal highways, stratified random sampling was used to select six categories of commercial vehicle drivers. The study used qual-dominant mixed methods approach comprising key informant interviews; group interviews; field observation; policy appraisal and secondary literature on traffic signs. Result shows that the failure of government to provide and maintain traffic signs in order to guide road users through the numerous accident black spots on the highways is the major cause of road accidents in Nigeria. The study argues that provision and maintenance of traffic signs present opportunity to promoting safety on the highways and achieving the sustainable development goals.

  6. 77 FR 30765 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems for Heavy Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems for Heavy Vehicles; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 100 / Wednesday... Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems for Heavy Vehicles AGENCY: National Highway...

  7. 78 FR 76265 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... Through 578, Except Parts 571 and 575 [Docket No. NHTSA-2013-0116] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, motorcycles, and motor vehicle...

  8. Influence of the Radial Clearance of a Squeeze Film Damper on the Vibratory Behavior of a Single Spool Gas Turbine Designed for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Creci, Geraldo; Balastrero, José Orlando; Domingues, Sidney; Torres, Luis Vanderlei; Menezes, João Carlos

    2017-01-01

    This study presents a numerical investigation using the finite element method on the vibratory behavior of a single spool gas turbine designed for unmanned aerial vehicle applications. The shaft of the rotor-bearing system is supported on a front bearing composed of a deep groove ball bearing with a vibration absorber element and a rear squeeze film damper bearing. Three radial clearances for the squeeze film damper were analyzed to determine the best geometric configuration for the rear bear...

  9. Deadlock-free traffic control with geometrical critical sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoute, Albert L.; Bouwens, Peter J.; Bouwens, P.J.; De Backer, E.

    1994-01-01

    Traffic control of vehicles on pre-planned paths may be based on critical sections where vehicles have to control their velocity mutually in order to avoid collisions. By analysing the geometry of critical sections carefully deadlock situations can be recognised and situations where vehicles may

  10. Agent Based Individual Traffic Guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen

    This thesis investigates the possibilities in applying Operations Research (OR) to autonomous vehicular traffic. The explicit difference to most other research today is that we presume that an agent is present in every vehicle - hence Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance (ABIT). The next...... evolutionary step for the in-vehicle route planners is the introduction of two-way communication. We presume that the agent is capable of exactly this. Based on this presumption we discuss the possibilities and define a taxonomy and use this to discuss the ABIT system. Based on a set of scenarios we conclude...... that the system can be divided into two separate constituents. The immediate dispersion, which is used for small areas and quick response, and the individual alleviation, which considers the longer distance decision support. Both of these require intrinsicate models and cost functions which at the beginning...

  11. Speed-Density Model of Interrupted Traffic Flow Based on Coil Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a fundamental traffic diagram, the speed-density relationship can provide a solid foundation for traffic flow analysis and efficient traffic management. Because of the change in modern travel modes, the dramatic increase in the number of vehicles and traffic density, and the impact of traffic signals and other factors, vehicles change velocity frequently, which means that a speed-density model based on uninterrupted traffic flow is not suitable for interrupted traffic flow. Based on the coil data of urban roads in Wuhan, China, a new method which can accurately describe the speed-density relation of interrupted traffic flow is proposed for speed fluctuation characteristics. The model of upper and lower bounds of critical values obtained by fitting the data of the coils on urban roads can accurately and intuitively describe the state of urban road traffic, and the physical meaning of each parameter plays an important role in the prediction and analysis of such traffic.

  12. MAS architecture and knowledge model for vehicles data communication

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel ADAM; Emmanuelle GRISLIN-LE STRUGEON; René MANDIAU

    2012-01-01

    Completely autonomous vehicles in traffic should allow to decrease the number of road accident victims greatly, and should allow gains in terms of performance and economy. Modelling the vehicles interaction, and especially knowledge sharing, is one of the main challenges to optimize traffic flow with autonomous vehicles. We propose in this paper a model of knowledge communication between mobile agents on a traffic network. The model of knowledge and of interaction enables to propagate new ...

  13. ISSUES AND RECENT TRENDS IN VEHICLE SAFETY COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadayuki TSUGAWA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys the research on the applications of inter-vehicle communications, the issues of the deployment and technology, and the current status of inter-vehicle communications projects in Europe, the United States and Japan. The inter-vehicle communications, defined here as communications between on-board ITS computers, improve road traffic safety and efficiency by expanding the horizon of the drivers and on-board sensors. One of the earliest studies on inter-vehicle communications began in Japan in the early 1980s. The inter-vehicle communications play an essential role in automated platooning and cooperative driving systems developed since the 1990's by enabling vehicles to obtain data that would be difficult or impossible to measure with on-board sensors. During these years, interest in applications for inter-vehicle communications increased in the EU, the US and Japan, resulting in many national vehicle safety communications projects such as CarTALK2000 in the EU and VSCC in the US. The technological issues include protocol and communications media. Experiments employ various kinds of protocols and typically use infrared, microwave or millimeter wave media. The situation is ready for standardization. The deployment strategy is another issue. To be feasible, deployment should begin with multiple rather than single services that would work even at a low penetration rate of the communication equipment. In addition, non-technological, legal and institutional issues remained unsolved. Although inter-vehicle communications involve many issues, such applications should be promoted because they will lead to safer and more efficient automobile traffic.

  14. Failure of classical traffic flow theories: Stochastic highway capacity and automatic driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Boris S.

    2016-05-01

    In a mini-review Kerner (2013) it has been shown that classical traffic flow theories and models failed to explain empirical traffic breakdown - a phase transition from metastable free flow to synchronized flow at highway bottlenecks. The main objective of this mini-review is to study the consequence of this failure of classical traffic-flow theories for an analysis of empirical stochastic highway capacity as well as for the effect of automatic driving vehicles and cooperative driving on traffic flow. To reach this goal, we show a deep connection between the understanding of empirical stochastic highway capacity and a reliable analysis of automatic driving vehicles in traffic flow. With the use of simulations in the framework of three-phase traffic theory, a probabilistic analysis of the effect of automatic driving vehicles on a mixture traffic flow consisting of a random distribution of automatic driving and manual driving vehicles has been made. We have found that the parameters of automatic driving vehicles can either decrease or increase the probability of the breakdown. The increase in the probability of traffic breakdown, i.e., the deterioration of the performance of the traffic system can occur already at a small percentage (about 5%) of automatic driving vehicles. The increase in the probability of traffic breakdown through automatic driving vehicles can be realized, even if any platoon of automatic driving vehicles satisfies condition for string stability.

  15. Fuzzy Logic Based Autonomous Traffic Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad ABBAS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to design and implement fuzzy logic based traffic light Control system to solve the traffic congestion issues. In this system four input parameters: Arrival, Queue, Pedestrian and Emergency Vehicle and two output parameters: Extension in Green and Pedestrian Signals are used. Using Fuzzy Rule Base, the system extends or terminates the Green Signal according to the Traffic situation at the junction. On the presence of emergency vehicle, the system decides which signal(s should be red and how much an extension should be given to Green Signal for Emergency Vehicle. The system also monitors the density of people and makes decisions accordingly. In order to verify the proposed design algorithm MATLAB simulation is adopted and results obtained show concurrency to the calculated values according to the Mamdani Model of the Fuzzy Control System.

  16. A Cooperative Traffic Control of Vehicle–Intersection (CTCVI) for the Reduction of Traffic Delays and Fuel Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinjian; Dridi, Mahjoub; El-Moudni, Abdellah

    2016-01-01

    The problem of reducing traffic delays and decreasing fuel consumption simultaneously in a network of intersections without traffic lights is solved by a cooperative traffic control algorithm, where the cooperation is executed based on the connection of Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I). This resolution of the problem contains two main steps. The first step concerns the itinerary of which intersections are chosen by vehicles to arrive at their destination from their starting point. Based on the principle of minimal travel distance, each vehicle chooses its itinerary dynamically based on the traffic loads in the adjacent intersections. The second step is related to the following proposed cooperative procedures to allow vehicles to pass through each intersection rapidly and economically: on one hand, according to the real-time information sent by vehicles via V2I in the edge of the communication zone, each intersection applies Dynamic Programming (DP) to cooperatively optimize the vehicle passing sequence with minimal traffic delays so that the vehicles may rapidly pass the intersection under the relevant safety constraints; on the other hand, after receiving this sequence, each vehicle finds the optimal speed profiles with the minimal fuel consumption by an exhaustive search. The simulation results reveal that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce both travel delays and fuel consumption compared with other papers under different traffic volumes. PMID:27999333

  17. Air pollution burden of illness from traffic in Toronto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, D.; Campbell, M.; Bassil, K.; Morgan, C.; Lalani, M.; Macfarlane, R.; Bienefeld, M.

    2007-11-01

    This paper examined the health impacts of air pollution from traffic in Toronto. The paper provided a review of scientific studies on the health effects of vehicle pollution as well as a quantitative assessment of the economic costs and the burden of illness attributed to traffic pollution in Toronto. The report also assessed air pollution and traffic trends in the city, and outlined initiatives being conducted to reduce vehicle-related pollution. The study used the new air quality benefits tool (AQBAT) which determines the burden of illness and the economic impacts of traffic-related air pollution. Air modelling specialists were consulted in order to determine the contribution of traffic-related pollutants to overall pollution levels using data on traffic counts and vehicle emissions factors. The air model also considered dispersion, transport and and the transformation of compounds emitted from vehicles. Results of the study showed that traffic pollution caused approximately 440 premature deaths and 1700 hospitalizations per year. Children in the city experienced more than 1200 acute bronchitis episodes per year as a result of air pollution from traffic. Mortality-related costs associated with traffic pollution in Toronto were estimated at $2.2 billion. It was concluded that the city must pursue the implementation of sustainable transportation policies and programs which foster and enable the expansion and use of public transport. 47 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs

  18. Fixed Point Learning Based Intelligent Traffic Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongyao, Wang; Cong, Sui; Cheng, Shao

    2017-10-01

    Fixed point learning has become an important tool to analyse large scale distributed system such as urban traffic network. This paper presents a fixed point learning based intelligence traffic network control system. The system applies convergence property of fixed point theorem to optimize the traffic flow density. The intelligence traffic control system achieves maximum road resources usage by averaging traffic flow density among the traffic network. The intelligence traffic network control system is built based on decentralized structure and intelligence cooperation. No central control is needed to manage the system. The proposed system is simple, effective and feasible for practical use. The performance of the system is tested via theoretical proof and simulations. The results demonstrate that the system can effectively solve the traffic congestion problem and increase the vehicles average speed. It also proves that the system is flexible, reliable and feasible for practical use.

  19. Traffic flow dynamics data, models and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Treiber, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This textbook provides a comprehensive and instructive coverage of vehicular traffic flow dynamics and modeling. It makes this fascinating interdisciplinary topic, which to date was only documented in parts by specialized monographs, accessible to a broad readership. Numerous figures and problems with solutions help the reader to quickly understand and practice the presented concepts. This book is targeted at students of physics and traffic engineering and, more generally, also at students and professionals in computer science, mathematics, and interdisciplinary topics. It also offers material for project work in programming and simulation at college and university level. The main part, after presenting different categories of traffic data, is devoted to a mathematical description of the dynamics of traffic flow, covering macroscopic models which describe traffic in terms of density, as well as microscopic many-particle models in which each particle corresponds to a vehicle and its driver. Focus chapters on ...

  20. Fine-Tuning ADAS Algorithm Parameters for Optimizing Traffic ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the development of the Connected Vehicle technology that facilitates wirelessly communication among vehicles and road-side infrastructure, the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) can be adopted as an effective tool for accelerating traffic safety and mobility optimization at various highway facilities. To this end, the traffic management centers identify the optimal ADAS algorithm parameter set that enables the maximum improvement of the traffic safety and mobility performance, and broadcast the optimal parameter set wirelessly to individual ADAS-equipped vehicles. After adopting the optimal parameter set, the ADAS-equipped drivers become active agents in the traffic stream that work collectively and consistently to prevent traffic conflicts, lower the intensity of traffic disturbances, and suppress the development of traffic oscillations into heavy traffic jams. Successful implementation of this objective requires the analysis capability of capturing the impact of the ADAS on driving behaviors, and measuring traffic safety and mobility performance under the influence of the ADAS. To address this challenge, this research proposes a synthetic methodology that incorporates the ADAS-affected driving behavior modeling and state-of-the-art microscopic traffic flow modeling into a virtually simulated environment. Building on such an environment, the optimal ADAS algorithm parameter set is identified through an optimization programming framework to enable th

  1. Vehicle capture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacke, Kenneth L.

    1998-12-01

    Primex Aerospace Company, under contract with the U.S. Army Armament Research Development & Engineering Center (ARDEC), has developed a portable vehicle capture system for use at vehicle checkpoints. Currently when a vehicle does not stop at a checkpoint, there are three possible reactions: let the vehicle go unchallenged, pursue the vehicle or stop the vehicle with lethal force. This system provides a non-lethal alternative that will stop and contain the vehicle. The system is completely portable with the heaviest component weighing less than 120 pounds. It can be installed with no external electrical power or permanent anchors required. In its standby mode, the system does not impede normal traffic, but on command erects a barrier in less than 1.5 seconds. System tests have been conducted using 5,100 and 8.400 pound vehicles, traveling at speeds up to 45 mph. The system is designed to minimize vehicle damage and occupant injury, typically resulting in deceleration forces of less than 2.5 gs on the vehicle. According to the drivers involved in tests at 45 mph, the stopping forces feel similar to a panic stop with the vehicle brakes locked. The system is completely reusable and be rapidly reset.

  2. Fair and efficient prices in traffic. Propositions on price policy for the sustainable development of traffic in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maibach, M.; Ott, W.; Schreyer, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    Fair and efficient prices are a central topic in traffic policy, both at the EU level and in Switzerland. They should allow the efficient use of the infrastructure, set up fair terms of competition between road and rail traffic and reduce traffic loading. At the same time, they should also make it possible to finance traffic in a sustainable manner. One of the main directions of attack is letting those responsible pay the external costs which result from traffic jams, accidents and environmental pollution. With the planned introduction of the usage-dependent heavy traffic levy, Switzerland has made an important step in the direction of true cost-allocation for goods vehicles. As for the rest of road traffic, however, considerable external costs are still not covered. On the other hand, rail traffic is not able to cover its infrastructure costs itself in spite of compensation it receives for the provision of public services

  3. Fair and efficient prices in traffic. Propositions on price policy for the sustainable development of traffic in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maibach, M.; Ott, W.; Schreyer, Ch.

    1999-01-01

    Fair and efficient prices are a central topic in traffic policy, both at the European Union level and in Switzerland. They should allow the efficient use of the infrastructure, set up fair terms of competition between road and rail traffic and reduce traffic loading. At the same time, they should also make it possible to finance traffic in a sustainable manner. One of the main directions of attack is letting those responsible pay the external costs which result from traffic jams, accidents and environmental pollution. With the planned introduction of the usage-dependent heavy traffic levy, Switzerland has made an important step in the direction of true cost-allocation for goods vehicles. As for the rest of road traffic, however, considerable external costs are still not covered. On the other hand, rail traffic is not able to cover its infrastructure costs itself in spite of compensation it receives for the provision of public services [de

  4. Study on Reverse Reconstruction Method of Vehicle Group Situation in Urban Road Network Based on Driver-Vehicle Feature Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyuan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle group situation is the status and situation of dynamic permutation which is composed of target vehicle and neighboring traffic entities. It is a concept which is frequently involved in the research of traffic flow theory, especially the active vehicle security. Studying vehicle group situation in depth is of great significance for traffic safety. Three-lane condition was taken as an example; the characteristics of target vehicle and its neighboring vehicles were synthetically considered to restructure the vehicle group situation in this paper. The Gamma distribution theory was used to identify the vehicle group situation when target vehicle arrived at the end of the study area. From the perspective of driver-vehicle feature evolution, the reverse reconstruction method of vehicle group situation in the urban road network was proposed. Results of actual driving, virtual driving, and simulation experiments showed that the model established in this paper was reasonable and feasible.

  5. The bicycle: a developmental toy versus a vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agran, P F; Winn, D G

    1993-04-01

    This study was designed to compare bicycle-motor vehicle collisions involving those children using the bicycle for play vs those using it for transportation. Data were obtained from a multihospital-based monitoring system of traffic-related injuries among children aged 0 through 14 years, including the coroner's office, in a single urban county. The sample consisted of 289 children through 14 years of age; 123 (43%) were playing; 166 (57%) were on a purposeful trip. Those playing were younger; closer to home; on residential streets with fewer traffic lanes, lower posted speed limits, and lighter traffic; and more frequently with other children. Those using the bicycle for transportation or for a purposeful trip were more commonly 10 to 14 years of age, riding on multilane streets, and riding alone. Forty-five percent of these children were en route to/from school. There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to number, severity, or distribution of injuries. Extremity and head injuries were predominant. This study demonstrates that motor vehicle-bicycle injuries among young children bicycling in their own neighborhood are just as severe as those in older children who are using the bicycle as a means of transportation. Recommendations for interventions include establishing an appropriate age at which children are permitted to bicycle in the street, separating bicyclists from traffic, teaching bicyclists the rules of the road, consideration of licensure, and use of helmets.

  6. Research on the Method of Traffic Organization and Optimization Based on Dynamic Traffic Flow Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-bin Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern transportation system is becoming sluggish by traffic jams, so much so that it can harm the economic and society in our country. One of the reasons is the surging vehicles day by day. Another reason is the shortage of the traffic supply seriously. But the most important reason is that the traffic organization and optimization hardly met the conditions of modern transport development. In this paper, the practical method of the traffic organization and optimization used in regional area is explored by the dynamic traffic network analysis method. Firstly, the operational states of the regional traffic network are obtained by simulation method based on the self-developed traffic simulation software DynaCHINA, in which the improved traffic flow simulation model was proposed in order to be more suitable for actual domestic urban transport situation. Then the appropriated optimization model and algorithm were proposed according to different optimized content and organization goals, and the traffic simulation processes more suitable to regional optimization were designed exactly. Finally, a regional network in Tai’an city was selected as an example. The simulation results show that the proposed method is effective and feasible. It can provide strong scientific and technological support for the traffic management department.

  7. TrafficTurk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This report summarizes a project undertaken by the University of Illinois on behalf of the Illinois Department of : Transportation to evaluate a smartphone application called TrafficTurk for traffic safety and traffic monitoring : applications. Traff...

  8. Grid Frequency Support by Single-Phase Electric Vehicles: Fast Primary Control Enhanced by a Stabilizer Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zecchino, Antonio; Rezkalla, Michel M.N.; Marinelli, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    ancillary services for supporting the power grid. This paper presents modeling and analysis of the benefits of primary frequency regulation by electric vehicles in a microgrid. An innovative control logic algorithm is introduced, with the purpose of curtailing the number of current set-point variations...

  9. Monitoring road traffic congestion using a macroscopic traffic model and a statistical monitoring scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Zeroual, Abdelhafid

    2017-08-19

    Monitoring vehicle traffic flow plays a central role in enhancing traffic management, transportation safety and cost savings. In this paper, we propose an innovative approach for detection of traffic congestion. Specifically, we combine the flexibility and simplicity of a piecewise switched linear (PWSL) macroscopic traffic model and the greater capacity of the exponentially-weighted moving average (EWMA) monitoring chart. Macroscopic models, which have few, easily calibrated parameters, are employed to describe a free traffic flow at the macroscopic level. Then, we apply the EWMA monitoring chart to the uncorrelated residuals obtained from the constructed PWSL model to detect congested situations. In this strategy, wavelet-based multiscale filtering of data has been used before the application of the EWMA scheme to improve further the robustness of this method to measurement noise and reduce the false alarms due to modeling errors. The performance of the PWSL-EWMA approach is successfully tested on traffic data from the three lane highway portion of the Interstate 210 (I-210) highway of the west of California and the four lane highway portion of the State Route 60 (SR60) highway from the east of California, provided by the Caltrans Performance Measurement System (PeMS). Results show the ability of the PWSL-EWMA approach to monitor vehicle traffic, confirming the promising application of this statistical tool to the supervision of traffic flow congestion.

  10. Study on Detection and Localization Algorithm of Traffic Signs from Natural Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Zhong Han

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Automatic detection and location of traffic signs is an important part of intelligent transportation, especially for unmanned vehicle technology research. For the morphological feature of China road traffic signs, we propose a traffic sign detection method based on color segmentation and shape analysis. Firstly, in order to solve the problems of traffic signs color cast, distortion, and cross-color in natural scenes, the images are processed by white balance, Retinex color enhancement, and affine transformation. Then, the type of traffic signs is discriminated and detected, according to the color and shape characteristics of traffic signs. The experimental results show that this method can effectively detect and recognize traffic signs.

  11. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Fuel System Integrity Research : Electrical Isolation Test Procedure Development and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) establish minimum levels for vehicle safety, and manufacturers of motor vehicle and equipment items must comply with these standards. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) contra...

  12. 77 FR 55605 - Early Warning Reporting, Foreign Defect Reporting, and Motor Vehicle and Equipment Recall...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... vehicle equipment; and manufacturers of replacement motor vehicle equipment other than child restraint... Reporting, and Motor Vehicle and Equipment Recall Regulations; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... and Equipment Recall Regulations AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA...

  13. An evaluation of school zone traffic control strategies : phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Throughout the past six decades, the predominant mode of student transport has shifted from walkingto riding in a school bus or personal vehicle which has impacted both the safety and efficiency of school zone traffic control strategies. In order to ...

  14. Pocket facts 2009 : Swedish Road Administration, roads and traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This publication offers an overall picture of the road transport : system. Here you will find a selection of brief facts about roads, : road transports, vehicles and people in traffic. In addition, it : includes an overview of SRA tasks and organisat...

  15. Pocket facts 2008 : Swedish Road Administration, roads and traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Pocket Facts offers an overall picture of the road : transport system. Here you will find a selection of : brief facts about roads, road transports, vehicles and : people in traffic. In addition, it presents the functions : and organisation at the SR...

  16. STRAW - An Integrated Mobility and Traffic Model for VANETs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Choffnes, David R; Bustamante, Fabian E

    2005-01-01

    Ad-hoc wireless communication among highly dynamic, mobile nodes in a urban network is a critical capability for a wide range of important applications including automated vehicles, real-time traffic...

  17. 7 CFR 502.12 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and directions of the security staff and all posted traffic signs; (b) The blocking of entrances..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURE RESEARCH CENTER PROPERTY, BELTSVILLE, MARYLAND.... (d) The operation of unlicensed gasoline powered vehicles is prohibited. ...

  18. Performance evaluation of traffic sensing and control devices : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    High quality sensing and control systems are essential for providing efficient signalized arterial operations. INDOT operates over 2600 traffic signal controllers, approximately 2000 of which use some form of vehicle detection. The private sector con...

  19. Intelligent transportation systems in improving traffic flow in tourism destinations

    OpenAIRE

    Mrnjavac, Edna; Marsanic, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The rapid growth and development of motorisation combined with relatively small investments made to improving transportation infrastructure in cities, as well as in tourism destinations, has led to serious problems in the unobstructed movement of vehicles in public traffic areas. Traffic congestion on roadways, in ferryboat ports and at state borders during the summer months and year-round lines of cars going to or returning from work are a regular presence in traffic in most urban and touris...

  20. Real-World Carbon Dioxide Impacts of Traffic Congestion

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Matthew; Boriboonsomsin, Kanok

    2010-01-01

    Transportation plays a significant role in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, accounting for approximately a third of the U.S. inventory. To reduce CO2 emissions in the future, transportation policy makers are planning on making vehicles more efficient and increasing the use of carbon-neutral alternative fuels. In addition, CO2 emissions can be lowered by improving traffic operations, specifically through the reduction of traffic congestion. Traffic congestion and its impact on CO2 emissions wer...

  1. Vehicle Emissions Risk Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahem, L.G.

    2004-01-01

    Vehicle emissions are considered as a main source for air pollution. Emissions regulation is now well developed in most countries to meet cleaner air quality. Reducing emissions by using cleaner fuels, which meet certain specification, is not enough to get cleaner air, yet the vehicle technology is not improved. Here we will outline the following: - development in fuel specification and emissions regulation. main facts linking vehicle emissions, fuel properties and air quality. catalytic converter technology. Emissions sources: In modem cities, vehicle traffic is potentially a major source of emissions. However sometimes other sources of emissions from industry and other stationary sources can be equally important and include emissions that are of greater toxicity than those from vehicles

  2. 32 CFR 634.26 - Traffic law enforcement principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic law enforcement principles. 634.26 Section 634.26 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... law enforcement principles. (a) Traffic law enforcement should motivate drivers to operate vehicles...

  3. Road lighting and traffic safety : a functional approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1970-01-01

    Requirements to be made on the traffic facilities in order to reduce the number of night-time accidents are covered. Traffic facilities include apart from public lighting and road lighting by means of headlamps of vehicles, also road markings and signs, marker lights, catadioptric devices and

  4. Data parallelism in traffic control tables with arrival information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrera, J.F.R.; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Casado, L.G.; Haijema, R.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic lights can be controlled dynamically through rules reacting on the number of waiting vehicles at each light. A rule can be captured by a so-called Traffic Control Table (TCT). The Value Iteration method from Stochastic Dynamic Programming has been used for simple networks to derive a TCT.

  5. 32 CFR 636.13 - Traffic accident investigation reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....29 of this subchapter: (a) Military Police at Fort Stewart/Hunter Army Airfield installations will record traffic accident investigations on DA Form 3946 (Military Police Traffic Accident Report) and DA Form 3975 (Military Police Report). (b) All privately owned motor vehicle accidents on Fort Stewart or...

  6. Epidemiology of Traffic Accidents | Ferguson | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The epidemiology of traffic accidents is studied. Various factors include the nature of fatal injuries, the racial, sex and age distribution, the scene of accident, the weather and the time, the different categories of commuters and the trip purpose, the types of vehicles and motorways involved. The establishment of a traffic ...

  7. Traffic planning for non-homogeneous traffic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2.3c Data summary The summarization of the density data based on videotape obser- vations is in table 1 which shows average, 30-second, sampled densities. Using the non- homogeneous traffic continuity equation of (2), the resultant traffic concentrations appear in table 2. Comparing the traffic concentrations in table 1 to ...

  8. Automated Announcements of Approaching Emergency Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Aaron; Foster, Conrad

    2006-01-01

    Street intersections that are equipped with traffic lights would also be equipped with means for generating audible announcements of approaching emergency vehicles, according to a proposal. The means to generate the announcements would be implemented in the intersection- based subsystems of emergency traffic-light-preemption systems like those described in the two immediately preceding articles and in "Systems Would Preempt Traffic Lights for Emergency Vehicles" (NPO-30573), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 10 (October 2004), page 36. Preempting traffic lights is not, by itself, sufficient to warn pedestrians at affected intersections that emergency vehicles are approaching. Automated visual displays that warn of approaching emergency vehicles can be helpful as a supplement to preemption of traffic lights, but experience teaches that for a variety of reasons, pedestrians often do not see such displays. Moreover, in noisy and crowded urban settings, the lights and sirens on emergency vehicles are often not noticed until a few seconds before the vehicles arrive. According to the proposal, the traffic-light preemption subsystem at each intersection would generate an audible announcement for example, emergency vehicle approaching, please clear intersection whenever a preemption was triggered. The subsystem would estimate the time of arrival of an approaching emergency vehicle by use of vehicle identity, position, and time data from one or more sources that could include units connected to traffic loops and/or transponders connected to diagnostic and navigation systems in participating emergency vehicles. The intersection-based subsystem would then start the announcement far enough in advance to enable pedestrians to leave the roadway before any emergency vehicles arrive.

  9. Traffic Noise Assessment at Residential Areas in Skudai, Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, F. S.; Darus, N.; Mashros, N.; Haron, Z.; Yahya, K.

    2018-03-01

    Vehicles passing by on roadways in residential areas may produce unpleasant traffic noise that affects the residents. This paper presents the traffic noise assessment of three selected residential areas located in Skudai, Johor. The objectives of this study are to evaluate traffic characteristics at selected residential areas, determine related noise indices, and assess impact of traffic noise. Traffic characteristics such as daily traffic volume and vehicle speed were evaluated using automatic traffic counter (ATC). Meanwhile, noise indices like equivalent continuous sound pressure level (LAeq), noise level exceeded 10% (L10) and 90% (L90) of measurement time were determined using sound level meter (SLM). Besides that, traffic noise index (TNI) and noise pollution level (LNP) were calculated based on the measured noise indices. The results showed an increase in noise level of 60 to 70 dBA maximum due to increase in traffic volume. There was also a significant change in noise level of more than 70 dBA even though average vehicle speed did not vary significantly. Nevertheless, LAeq, TNI, and LNP values for all sites during daytime were lower than the maximum recommended levels. Thus, residents in the three studied areas were not affected in terms of quality of life and health.

  10. The physics of traffic jams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2002-09-01

    Traffic flow is a kind of many-body system of strongly interacting vehicles. Traffic jams are a typical signature of the complex behaviour of vehicular traffic. Various models are presented to understand the rich variety of physical phenomena exhibited by traffic. Analytical and numerical techniques are applied to study these models. Particularly, we present detailed results obtained mainly from the microscopic car-following models. A typical phenomenon is the dynamical jamming transition from the free traffic (FT) at low density to the congested traffic at high density. The jamming transition exhibits the phase diagram similar to a conventional gas-liquid phase transition: the FT and congested traffic correspond to the gas and liquid phases, respectively. The dynamical transition is described by the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation for the phase transition. The jamming transition curve is given by the spinodal line. The metastability exists in the region between the spinodal and phase separation lines. The jams in the congested traffic reveal various density waves. Some of these density waves show typical nonlinear waves such as soliton, triangular shock and kink. The density waves are described by the nonlinear wave equations: the Korteweg-de-Vries (KdV) equation, the Burgers equation and the Modified KdV equation. Subjects like the traffic flow such as bus-route system and pedestrian flow are touched as well. The bus-route system with many buses exhibits the bunching transition where buses bunch together with proceeding ahead. Such dynamic models as the car-following model are proposed to investigate the bunching transition and bus delay. A recurrent bus exhibits the dynamical transition between the delay and schedule-time phases. The delay transition is described in terms of the nonlinear map. The pedestrian flow also reveals the jamming transition from the free flow at low density to the clogging at high density. Some models are presented to study the

  11. Modeling mechanical restriction differences between car and heavy truck in two-lane cellular automata traffic flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Li, Xingang; Xiao, Yao; Jia, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Real traffic is heterogeneous with car and truck. Due to mechanical restrictions, the car and the truck have different limited deceleration capabilities, which are important factors in safety driving. This paper extends the single lane safety driving (SD) model with limited deceleration capability to two-lane SD model, in which car-truck heterogeneous traffic is considered. A car has a larger limited deceleration capability while a heavy truck has a smaller limited deceleration capability as a result of loaded goods. Then the safety driving conditions are different as the types of the following and the leading vehicles vary. In order to eliminate the well-known plug in heterogeneous two-lane traffic, it is assumed that heavy truck has active deceleration behavior when the heavy truck perceives the forming plug. The lane-changing decisions are also determined by the safety driving conditions. The fundamental diagram, spatiotemporal diagram, and lane-changing frequency were investigated to show the effect of mechanical restriction on heterogeneous traffic flow. It was shown that there would be still three traffic phases in heterogeneous traffic condition; the active deceleration of the heavy truck could well eliminate the plug; the lane-changing frequency was low in synchronized flow; the flow and velocity would decrease as the proportion of heavy truck grows or the limited deceleration capability of heavy truck drops; and the flow could be improved with lane control measures.

  12. Pedestrian traffic injuries among school children in Kawempe, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Traffic injuries are an important problem in low income countries. In Uganda road traffic is the largest single cause of injury in Kampala; pedestrians, and children are most affected. Pedestrian injury affects school children in Uganda. Objective: To determine the overall risk of pedestrian traffic injury among ...

  13. Apparatus, system, and method for traffic monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.

    2016-08-25

    An apparatus, system, and method for traffic monitory can have a Lagrangian inertial measurement unit. The Lagrangian inertial measurement unit can have a processor, an accelerometer, a gyroscope, and/or a wireless transmitter. The processor can have an integrated direction cosine matrix. The accelerometer can be configured to measure linear accelerations of a vehicle and/or can communicate measured linear acceleration to the processor. The gyroscope can be configured to measure rotational accelerations of the vehicle and/or can communicate measured rotational acceleration to the processor. The processor can be configured to calculate estimated vehicle speed and/or estimated vehicle attitude. The wireless transmitter can be configured to wirelessly transmit estimated vehicle speed and/or estimated vehicle attitude. The apparatus, system, and method can be integrated with a wireless sensor network.

  14. AN AUTOMATED RAILWAY STATION TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of accidents experienced with railway transportation involve collision with automobiles or other vehicles and collision with other trains. These collisions can be averted by putting safety measures in place. Part of the measures can be achieved by using computerized railway station traffic control systems that use ...

  15. South Carolina traffic collision fact book, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The number of traffic fatalities decreased from 921 in 2008 to 894 in : 2009, a 2.9% decrease. There was also a decrease in the mileage : death rate (MDR) as well. It fell to an all time low of 1.84 deaths per : hundred million vehicle miles of trave...

  16. Traffic Safety through Driver Assistance and Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiner Bubb

    2011-05-01

    BMW, Daimler, Audi, Citroen, Lexus, VW, Opel, Peugeot, Renault, Chevrolet, Saab and Bosch. Both the contributions of research work concerning driving behavior analysis and driver assistance systems have to be aligned with a permanently updated interaction within the system of driver, vehicle and road traffic environment.

  17. Commercial application of integrated robotic vehicle drivers and guidance systems for autonomous vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chase H.

    1995-01-01

    While there is a lot of recent development in the entire IVHS field, very few have had the opportunity to combine the many areas of development into a single integrated `intelligent' vehicle. This is the story of a currently deployed, commercially developed and sold, integrated autonomous automobile. This system was developed specifically to serve a major automobile manufacturer's need for an automated vehicle chassis durability test facility. Due to the severity of the road surface human drivers could not be used. A totally automated robotic vehicle driver and guidance system was necessary. The goals of the project were to create a combination of robotic vehicle driver systems and a base traffic control system, that was capable of testing up to 20 vehicles at a time on a 1.3 mile oval test track at speeds up to 50 MPH or greater. As a fixed price commercial project, system and component costs were of paramount importance. As a result, the greater part of the design effort was not technology development, but evaluation, modification, and integration of proven, existing technology in new and often novel ways.

  18. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. 541.5... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. (a) Each passenger motor vehicle subject to...

  19. Arizona motor vehicle crash facts, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This publication is an annual statistical review of the motor vehicle crashes in the State of Arizona for the calendar year 2014. The : results are compiled from Arizona Traffic Accident Reports submitted to the Arizona Department of Transportation b...

  20. Arizona motor vehicle crash facts, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-25

    This publication is an annual statistical review of the motor vehicle crashes in the State of Arizona for the calendar year 2008. : The results are compiled from Arizona Traffic Accident Reports submitted to the Arizona Department of Transportation b...

  1. 2006 motor vehicle occupant protection facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has produced this booklet to explain the need for legislation, enforcement, education, and public awareness campaigns about protecting children, youth, and young adults in motor vehicles. collectivel...

  2. Arizona motor vehicle crash facts, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-22

    This publication is an annual statistical review of the motor vehicle crashes in the State of Arizona for the calendar year 2010. The results are compiled from Arizona Traffic Accident Reports submitted to the Arizona Department of Transportation by ...

  3. Arizona motor vehicle crash facts, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-17

    This publication is an annual statistical review of the motor vehicle crashes in the State of Arizona for the calendar year 2007. : The results are compiled from Arizona Traffic Accident Reports submitted to the Arizona Department of Transportation b...

  4. Arizona motor vehicle crash facts, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-29

    This publication is a statistical review of the motor vehicle crashes in the State of Arizona for calendar year 2009. The results are compiled from Arizona Traffic Accident Reports submitted to the Arizona Department of Transportation by state, count...

  5. Factors involved in fatal vehicle crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This report examines factors that contribute to fatal crashes involving a motor vehicle (e.g., car, truck, or bus). Accident level data was obtained from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administrations (NHTSAs) Fatality Analysis Reporting S...

  6. Accommodating oversize/overweight vehicles at roundabouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Safety and traffic operational benefits of roundabouts for the typical vehicle fleet (automobiles and small trucks) have been well documented. Although roundabouts have been in widespread use in other countries for many years, their general use in th...

  7. 75 FR 76692 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ..., 510, 511, 512, 520, 523, 525, 526, and 571 [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0159] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... that specifically relate to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers...

  8. Impacts of Traffic Noise and Traffic Volume on Birds of Roadside Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten M. Parris

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Roadside habitats are important for a range of taxa including plants, insects, mammals, and birds, particularly in developed countries in which large expanses of native vegetation have been cleared for agriculture or urban development. Although roadside vegetation may provide suitable habitat for many species, resident animals can be exposed to high levels of traffic noise, visual disturbance from passing vehicles, and the risk of collision with cars and trucks. Traffic noise can reduce the distance over which acoustic signals such as song can be detected, an effect known as acoustic interference or masking. Studies from the northern hemisphere show that the singing behavior of birds changes in the presence of traffic noise. We investigated the impact of traffic noise and traffic volume on two species of birds, the Grey Shrike-thrush (Colluricincla harmonica and the Grey Fantail (Rhipidura fuliginosa, at 58 roadside sites on the Mornington Peninsula, southeastern Australia. The lower singing Grey Shrike-thrush sang at a higher frequency in the presence of traffic noise, with a predicted increase in dominant frequency of 5.8 Hz/dB of traffic noise, and a total effect size of 209 Hz. In contrast, the higher singing Grey Fantail did not appear to change its song in traffic noise. The probability of detecting each species on a visit to a site declined substantially with increasing traffic noise and traffic volume, with several lines of evidence supporting a larger effect of traffic noise. Traffic noise could hamper detection of song by conspecifics, making it more difficult for birds to establish and maintain territories, attract mates and maintain pair bonds, and possibly leading to reduced breeding success in noisy roadside habitats. Closing key roads during the breeding season is a potential, but untested, management strategy to protect threatened bird species from traffic noise and collision with vehicles at the time of year when they are most

  9. Evaluating the safety impact of adaptive cruise control in traffic oscillations on freeways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Li, Zhibin; Wang, Hao; Wang, Wei; Xing, Lu

    2017-07-01

    Adaptive cruise control (ACC) has been considered one of the critical components of automated driving. ACC adjusts vehicle speeds automatically by measuring the status of the ego-vehicle and leading vehicle. Current commercial ACCs are designed to be comfortable and convenient driving systems. Little attention is paid to the safety impacts of ACC, especially in traffic oscillations when crash risks are the highest. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impacts of ACC parameter settings on rear-end collisions on freeways. First, the occurrence of a rear-end collision in a stop-and-go wave was analyzed. A car-following model in an integrated ACC was developed for a simulation analysis. The time-to-collision based factors were calculated as surrogate safety measures of the collision risk. We also evaluated different market penetration rates considering that the application of ACC will be a gradual process. The results showed that the safety impacts of ACC were largely affected by the parameters. Smaller time delays and larger time gaps improved safety performance, but inappropriate parameter settings increased the collision risks and caused traffic disturbances. A higher reduction of the collision risk was achieved as the ACC vehicle penetration rate increased, especially in the initial stage with penetration rates of less than 30%. This study also showed that in the initial stage, the combination of ACC and a variable speed limit achieved better safety improvements on congested freeways than each single technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Management of Traffic Congestion in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilibald Premzl

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of road vehicles is increasing, the benefits they affordhave been progressively diminished by external costs.Whereas traffic increases as we approach the centre, the roadand open space decreases. The greater specialisation allows thecity growth in size and in traffic attraction. In this way urbangrowth feeds itself !mer-urban transp011 facilities also becomemore extensive. Growth in size of the city generates greateramounts of traffic and can eventually give rise to agglomerationdiseconomies. Higher transport costs, offices and shops, attractedby the accessibility of central locations, gradually replaceresidential uses, people being forced to seek housing inthe suburbs. As the urban area expands and offices in the citycentre are built denser and highe1; traffic congestion increases.This may result in the fall in centra/land values, since accessibilitydiminishes with the saturation of transport network. Increasedpollution takes various forms as noise, smoke andovercrowded housing in the centre, urban decay in the transitionalzone as commercial development is anticipated.

  11. Crowding effects in vehicular traffic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Samuel L Combinido

    Full Text Available While the impact of crowding on the diffusive transport of molecules within a cell is widely studied in biology, it has thus far been neglected in traffic systems where bulk behavior is the main concern. Here, we study the effects of crowding due to car density and driving fluctuations on the transport of vehicles. Using a microscopic model for traffic, we found that crowding can push car movement from a superballistic down to a subdiffusive state. The transition is also associated with a change in the shape of the probability distribution of positions from a negatively-skewed normal to an exponential distribution. Moreover, crowding broadens the distribution of cars' trap times and cluster sizes. At steady state, the subdiffusive state persists only when there is a large variability in car speeds. We further relate our work to prior findings from random walk models of transport in cellular systems.

  12. IRVIN - Intelligent Road and Vehicle test INfrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.T.; Hogema, J.A.; Huiskamp, W.; Papp, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Simulation, or rather virtual testing, is a good instrument for study and design of traffic management concepts, traffic safety, vehicle safety and ergonomics. Simulation facilitates the evaluation of the design at an early stage and reduces the costs of making prototypes. The Dutch research

  13. Contribution to intelligent vehicle platoon control

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao , Jin

    2010-01-01

    This PhD thesis is dedicated to the control strategies for intelligent vehicle platoon in highway with the main aims of alleviating traffic congestion and improving traffic safety. After a review of the different existing automated driving systems, the vehicle longitudinal and lateral dynamic models are derived. Then, the longitudinal control and lateral control strategies are studied respectively. At first, the longitudinal control system is designed to be hierarchical with an upper level co...

  14. System And Method For Monitoring Traffic While Preserving Personal Privacy

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward

    2015-08-06

    A traffic monitoring system and method for mapping traffic speed and density while preserving privacy. The system can include fixed stations that make up a network and mobile probes that are associated with vehicles. The system and method do not gather, store, or transmit any unique or identifying information, and thereby preserves the privacy of members of traffic. The system and method provide real-time traffic density and speed mapping. The system and method can further be integrated with a complementary flood monitoring system and method.

  15. Analysis of the equilibrium trip cost accounting for the fuel cost in a single-lane traffic system without late arrival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Wang, Tao; Chen, Liang; Huang, Hai-Jun

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the fuel cost into each commuter's trip cost, define a new trip cost without late arrival and its corresponding equilibrium state, and use a car-following model to explore the impacts of the fuel cost on each commuter's departure time, departure interval, arrival time, arrival interval, traveling time, early arrival time and trip cost at the above equilibrium state. The numerical results show that considering the fuel cost in each commuter's trip cost has positive impacts on his trip cost and fuel cost, and the traffic situation in the system without late arrival, i.e., each commuter should explicitly consider the fuel cost in his trip cost.

  16. Connected variable speed limits control and car-following control with vehicle-infrastructure communication to resolve stop-and-go waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Daamen, W.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; van Arem, B.

    2016-01-01

    The vision of intelligent vehicles traveling in road networks has prompted numerous concepts to control future traffic flow, one of which is the in-vehicle actuation of traffic control commands. The key of this concept is using intelligent vehicles as actuators for traffic control systems. Under

  17. Traffic Congestion Detection and Avoidance using Vehicular Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Narendrabhai Upadhyaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a serious problem in big cities. With the number of vehicles increasing rapidly, especially in cities whose economy is booming, the situation is getting even worse. Drivers, unaware of congestion ahead eventually join it and increase the severity of it. The ability of a driver to know the traffic conditions on the roads ahead enables him/her to seek alternate routes through which time and fuel can be saved. Due to recent advancements in vehicular technologies, vehicular communication has emerged. The objective of this work is to check feasibility of using infrastructure based vehicular communication for detecting and avoiding traffic congestion. In this paper we propose a Signal Agent (SA and Car Agent(CAbased approach for detecting and avoiding traffic congestion. We analyze performance of the proposed approach for two different road network scenarios using simulations: structured grid network (like Gandhinagar City of Gujarat, India and apart of typical city road network ( Tiwan city. With the proposed approach we get reduction of 10.05% in trip duration of vehicles, reduction of 10.08% in number of vehicles in entire traffic road network and 9.82% in heavy traffic area. In an accident scenario, about 72.63% vehicles changed their route due to awareness of congestion. Error in trip time estimation and vehicle count estimation is observed to be less than 1%.

  18. An application to model traffic intensity of agricultural machinery at field scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Katja; Kuhwald, Michael; Duttmann, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    Several soil-pressure-models deal with the impact of agricultural machines on soils. In many cases, these models were used for single spots and consider a static machine configuration. Therefore, a statement about the spatial distribution of soil compaction risk for entire working processes is limited. The aim of the study is the development of an application for the spatial modelling of traffic lanes from agricultural vehicles including wheel load, ground pressure and wheel passages at the field scale. The application is based on Open Source software, application and data formats, using python programming language. Minimum input parameters are GPS-positions, vehicles and tires (producer and model) and the tire inflation pressure. Five working processes were distinguished: soil tillage, manuring, plant protection, sowing and harvest. Currently, two different models (Diserens 2009, Rücknagel et al. 2015) were implemented to calculate the soil pressure. The application was tested at a study site in Lower Saxony, Germany. Since 2015, field traffic were recorded by RTK-GPS and used machine set ups were noted. Using these input information the traffic lanes, wheel load and soil pressure were calculated for all working processes. For instance, the maize harvest in 2016 with a crop chopper and one transport vehicle crossed about 55 % of the total field area. At some places the machines rolled over up to 46 times. Approximately 35 % of the total area was affected by wheel loads over 7 tons and soil pressures between 163 and 193 kPa. With the information about the spatial distribution of wheel passages, wheel load and soil pressure it is possible to identify hot spots of intensive field traffic. Additionally, the use of the application enables the analysis of soil compaction risk induced by agricultural machines for long- and short-term periods.

  19. Basic characteristics of road traffic deaths in china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujun; Yao, Hongyan; Hu, Guoqing; Cui, Mengjing; Gu, Yue; Xiang, Huiyun

    2013-01-01

    This study is to report characteristics of people killed in road traffic crashes and to describe major patterns of traffic crashes in China. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were conducted. Road traffic death national data, population denominator data and motor vehicles data of 2009 were obtained from the Bureau of Traffic Management at Ministry of Public Security and National Bureau of Statistics. The association between the fatalities from road traffic crashes and selected demographic factors, the time distribution, crash patterns, crash causes, and road user category were assessed in χ(2) analyses. ROAD TRAFFIC CRASHES IN CHINA DISPROPORTIONABLY AFFECTED THE FOLLOWING POPULATIONS: males, persons 21-65 yr of age and adults aged more than 65 yr, persons living in rural areas, pedestrians, passengers, motorcyclists and bicyclists. Approximately 50% of fatalities of road traffic crash occurred in Eastern regions. The number of road traffic deaths was higher in daytime than in nighttime. Road traffic deaths in frontal crashes, side-to-side crash and crashes with an object or a person were more common than in rear-end crashes. In about 92% of road traffic deaths, auto drivers were believed to be responsible for the fatal crash. Major crash causing factors were speeding, careless driving, driving without a license, driving in the wrong lane, and driving after drinking alcohol. Road traffic deaths accounted for about 70,000 premature deaths in China which should be taken into account.

  20. A Deep Learning Approach to the Prediction of Short-term Traffic Accident Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Honglei; Song, You; Liu, JingXin; Hu, Yucheng; Lei, Jinzhi

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of urbanization, the boom of vehicle numbers has resulted in serious traffic accidents, which led to casualties and huge economic losses. The ability to predict the risk of traffic accident is important in the prevention of the occurrence of accidents and to reduce the damages caused by accidents in a proactive way. However, traffic accident risk prediction with high spatiotemporal resolution is difficult, mainly due to the complex traffic environment, human behavio...

  1. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Artuñedo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller (TLC network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks.

  2. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artuñedo, Antonio; Del Toro, Raúl M; Haber, Rodolfo E

    2017-04-26

    Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller ( TLC ) network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks.

  3. Traffic planning and air pollution - The Bordeaux example. I - The GERTRUDE traffic plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franceries, Mr.

    1980-01-01

    The GERTRUDE global traffic plan intended for the simultaneous improvement of resident mobility and air quality in the city of Bordeaux is presented. The plan is designed to meet road user requirements of safety, public transportation efficiency and improved general traffic flow and passenger comfort, by making use of a master traffic plan, a good representation of traffic patterns in the center of the city, including bottleneck areas, and an automatic traffic light control system, operating on the basis of traffic flow measurements at strategic intersections. Provisions are also included for the expedited passage of emergency vehicles and public transportation. Operation of the system has led to nearly 50 percent increase in mean traffic flow rates through the major arteries of the city center, with considerable decreases in mean transit time and accident rates and a significant improvement in automobile pollution levels. The Bordeaux traffic system has also been applied to the direct reduction of automobile pollution using CO and noise probes, and the utilization of meteorological data as additional system inputs is planned.

  4. Traffic jam and discontinuity induced by slowdown in two-stage optimal-velocity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsunori; Nagai, Ryoichi; Nagatani, Takashi

    2006-10-01

    We study the traffic states and jams induced by a slowdown of vehicles in a single-lane highway. The two-stage optimal velocity model is used in which the optimal velocity function has two turning points. The fundamental (flow-density) diagrams are calculated. At low density, the flow (current) increases linearly with density, while it saturates at some values of intermediate density. When the flow saturates, the discontinuous front (stationary shock wave) appears before or within the section of slowdown. The values of saturated flow are determined by the extreme values of theoretical current curves. The relationship between the densities is derived before and after the discontinuity.

  5. Behavioral aspects of automatic vehicle guidance : relationship between headway and driver comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Automation of road traffic has the potential to greatly improve the performance of traffic systems. The acceptance of automated driving may play an important role in the feasibility of automated vehicle guidance (AVG), comparable to automated highway...

  6. Mining vehicle classifications from the Columbus Metropolitan Freeway Management System : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle classification data are used in many transportation applications, including: pavement design, : environmental impact studies, traffic control, and traffic safety. Ohio has over 200 permanent count : stations, supplemented by many more short-t...

  7. A Survey on Urban Traffic Management System Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapileswar Nellore

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the number of vehicles has increased exponentially, but the bedrock capacities of roads and transportation systems have not developed in an equivalent way to efficiently cope with the number of vehicles traveling on them. Due to this, road jamming and traffic correlated pollution have increased with the associated adverse societal and financial effect on different markets worldwide. A static control system may block emergency vehicles due to traffic jams. Wireless Sensor networks (WSNs have gained increasing attention in traffic detection and avoiding road congestion. WSNs are very trendy due to their faster transfer of information, easy installation, less maintenance, compactness and for being less expensive compared to other network options. There has been significant research on Traffic Management Systems using WSNs to avoid congestion, ensure priority for emergency vehicles and cut the Average Waiting Time (AWT of vehicles at intersections. In recent decades, researchers have started to monitor real-time traffic using WSNs, RFIDs, ZigBee, VANETs, Bluetooth devices, cameras and infrared signals. This paper presents a survey of current urban traffic management schemes for priority-based signalling, and reducing congestion and the AWT of vehicles. The main objective of this survey is to provide a taxonomy of different traffic management schemes used for avoiding congestion. Existing urban traffic management schemes for the avoidance of congestion and providing priority to emergency vehicles are considered and set the foundation for further research.

  8. Driving with Sharks: Rethinking Connected Vehicles with Vehicle Cyber Security

    OpenAIRE

    Hashem Eiza, Mahmoud; Ni, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    In a public service announcement on March 17, 2016, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) jointly with the Department of Transportation and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, released a warning over the increasing vulnerability of motor vehicles to remote exploits . Engine shutdown, disable brakes and door locks are few examples of the possible vehicle cyber security attacks. Modern cars grow into a new target for cyberattacks as they become increasingly connected. While ...

  9. Synchronization of Traffic Light Systems for Maximum Efficiency along Jalan Bukit Gambier, Penang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rafidi M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The synchronization of traffic light systems is one of the best solutions in order to avoid problematic traffic jams. Traffic timing is a major concern when it comes to traffic management. One of the common causes of traffic jams is because of nonsynchronized traffic light systems. Once a light turns green, traffic begins to move, but by the time the moving traffic reaches the next light, the signal is still red. This will disrupt the continuity of the traffic flow, especially for large main roads. The smooth flow of traffic on main routes is important to clear dense traffic in a given time. This study examined the density of vehicles on Jalan Bukit Gambier and also the traffic timing was documented in order to plan out proper re-timing for traffic lights along the studied road. The outcomes of this study support the hypothesis that retiming traffic lights to create a synchronized traffic light system for main roads will greatly improve traffic flow.

  10. A Real-Time Method to Detect and Track Moving Objects (DATMO from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs Using a Single Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce MacDonald

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We develop a real-time method to detect and track moving objects (DATMO from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs using a single camera. To address the challenging characteristics of these vehicles, such as continuous unrestricted pose variation and low-frequency vibrations, new approaches must be developed. The main concept proposed in this work is to create an artificial optical flow field by estimating the camera motion between two subsequent video frames. The core of the methodology consists of comparing this artificial flow with the real optical flow directly calculated from the video feed. The motion of the UAV between frames is estimated with available parallel tracking and mapping techniques that identify good static features in the images and follow them between frames. By comparing the two optical flows, a list of dynamic pixels is obtained and then grouped into dynamic objects. Tracking these dynamic objects through time and space provides a filtering procedure to eliminate spurious events and misdetections. The algorithms have been tested with a quadrotor platform using a commercial camera.

  11. Traffic signs recognition for driving assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Sangram Reddy, Yatham; Karthik, Devareddy; Rana, Nikunj; Jasmine Pemeena Priyadarsini, M.; Rajini, G. K.; Naseera, Shaik

    2017-11-01

    In the current circumstances with the innovative headway, we must be able to provide assistance to the driving in recognising the traffic signs on the roads. At present time, many reviews are being directed moving in the direction of the usage of a keen Traffic Systems. One field of this exploration is driving support systems, and many reviews are being directed to create frameworks which distinguish and perceive street signs in front of the vehicle, and afterward utilize the data to advise the driver or to even control the vehicle by implementing this system on self-driving vehicles. In this paper we propose a method to detect the traffic sign board in a frame using HAAR cascading and then identifying the sign on it. The output may be either given out in voice or can be displayed as per the driver’s convenience. Each of the Traffic Sign is recognised using a database of images of symbols used to train the KNN classifier using open CV libraries.

  12. Solution of the Traffic Jam Problem through Fuzzy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Shery

    2010-11-01

    The major hurdle of a city planning council is to handle the traffic jam problem. The number of vehicles on roads increases day by day. Also the number of vehicles is directly proportional to the width of the road (including that of parallel roads). But it is not always possible to make roads or to increase width of the road corresponding to the increase in the number of vehicles. Also we cannot tell a person not to buy a vehicle. So trying to minimise the traffic jam is the only possible way to overcome this hurdle. Here we try to develop a method to avoid traffic jam through a mathematical approach (through fuzzy applications). This method helps to find a suitable route from an origin to a destination with lesser time than other routes.

  13. A method for using unmanned aerial vehicles for emergency investigation of single geo-hazards and sample applications of this method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haifeng; Long, Jingjing; Yi, Wu; Yi, Qinglin; Zhang, Guodong; Lei, Bangjun

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become widely used in emergency investigations of major natural hazards over large areas; however, UAVs are less commonly employed to investigate single geo-hazards. Based on a number of successful investigations in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China, a complete UAV-based method for performing emergency investigations of single geo-hazards is described. First, a customized UAV system that consists of a multi-rotor UAV subsystem, an aerial photography subsystem, a ground control subsystem and a ground surveillance subsystem is described in detail. The implementation process, which includes four steps, i.e., indoor preparation, site investigation, on-site fast processing and application, and indoor comprehensive processing and application, is then elaborated, and two investigation schemes, automatic and manual, that are used in the site investigation step are put forward. Moreover, some key techniques and methods - e.g., the layout and measurement of ground control points (GCPs), route planning, flight control and image collection, and the Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetry processing - are explained. Finally, three applications are given. Experience has shown that using UAVs for emergency investigation of single geo-hazards greatly reduces the time, intensity and risks associated with on-site work and provides valuable, high-accuracy, high-resolution information that supports emergency responses.

  14. An extended macro traffic flow model accounting for multiple optimal velocity functions with different probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rongjun; Ge, Hongxia; Wang, Jufeng

    2017-08-01

    Due to the maximum velocity and safe headway distance of the different vehicles are not exactly the same, an extended macro model of traffic flow with the consideration of multiple optimal velocity functions with probabilities is proposed in this paper. By means of linear stability theory, the new model's linear stability condition considering multiple probabilities optimal velocity is obtained. The KdV-Burgers equation is derived to describe the propagating behavior of traffic density wave near the neutral stability line through nonlinear analysis. The numerical simulations of influences of multiple maximum velocities and multiple safety distances on model's stability and traffic capacity are carried out. The cases of two different kinds of maximum speeds with same safe headway distance, two different types of safe headway distances with same maximum speed and two different max velocities and two different time-gaps are all explored by numerical simulations. First cases demonstrate that when the proportion of vehicles with a larger vmax increase, the traffic tends to unstable, which also means that jerk and brakes is not conducive to traffic stability and easier to result in stop and go phenomenon. Second cases show that when the proportion of vehicles with greater safety spacing increases, the traffic tends to be unstable, which also means that too cautious assumptions or weak driving skill is not conducive to traffic stability. Last cases indicate that increase of maximum speed is not conducive to traffic stability, while reduction of the safe headway distance is conducive to traffic stability. Numerical simulation manifests that the mixed driving and traffic diversion does not have effect on the traffic capacity when traffic density is low or heavy. Numerical results also show that mixed driving should be chosen to increase the traffic capacity when the traffic density is lower, while the traffic diversion should be chosen to increase the traffic capacity when

  15. Logistics of International Express Shipping and Air Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Pašagić Škrinjar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the relations between logistics of international express shipments and air traffic analysing the basic characteristics of international express shipments that are carried by combined transport, usually road vehicles and aircraft. The paper indicates the possibility of optimising individual technological processes in the logistic chain of express shipments distribution. It analyses the forms for the calculation of time slots in single logistic chain hubs of collecting and delivery of express shipments. It has been shown that the international distribution chains in the air express sector, related to the globalisation process, change the traditional functions of combined ground-air transport. Here, the increased investment into automation plays the crucial role in the development strategies of companies and in the operationalization of the quality policy of numerous carriers of express shipments by air.

  16. Dissolution of traffic jam via additional local interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Keun; Kim, Beom Jun

    2011-11-01

    We use a cellular automata approach to numerically investigate traffic flow patterns on a single lane. The free-flow phase (F), the synchronized phase (S), and the jam phase (J) are observed and the transitions among them are studied as the vehicular density ρ is slowly varied. If ρ is decreased from well inside the J phase, the flux Φ follows the lower branch of the hysteresis loop, implying that the adiabatic decrease of ρ is not an efficient way to put the system back into S or F phases. We propose a simple way to help the system to escape out of J phase, which is based on the local information of the velocities of downstream vehicles.

  17. Public transportation development and traffic accident prevention in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutanto Soehodho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents have long been known as an iceberg for comprehending the discrepancies of traffic management and entire transportation systems. Figures detailing traffic accidents in Indonesia, as is the case in many other countries, show significantly high numbers and severity levels; these types of totals are also evident in Jakarta, the highest-populated city in the country. While the common consensus recognizes that traffic accidents are the results of three different factor types, namely, human factors, vehicle factors, and external factors (including road conditions, human factors have the strongest influence—and figures on a worldwide scale corroborate that assertion. We, however, try to pinpoint the issues of non-human factors in light of increasing traffic accidents in Indonesia, where motorbike accidents account for the majority of incidents. We then consider three important pillars of action: the development of public transportation, improvement of the road ratio, and traffic management measures.

  18. Long-range correlation analysis of urban traffic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Sheng; Jun-Feng, Wang; Shu-Long, Zhao; Tie-Qiao, Tang

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates urban traffic data by analysing the long-range correlation with detrended fluctuation analysis. Through a large number of real data collected by the travel time detection system in Beijing, the variation of flow in different time periods and intersections is studied. According to the long-range correlation in different time scales, it mainly discusses the effect of intersection location in road net, people activity customs and special traffic controls on urban traffic flow. As demonstrated by the obtained results, the urban traffic flow represents three-phase characters similar to highway traffic. Moreover, compared by the two groups of data obtained before and after the special traffic restrictions (vehicles with special numbered plates only run in a special workday) enforcement, it indicates that the rules not only reduce the flow but also avoid irregular fluctuation. (general)

  19. Traffic management simulation development : summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, Florida traffic is monitored electronically by components of the Intelligent Traffic System (ITS), which send data to regional traffic management centers and assist management of traffic flows and incident response using software called...

  20. National guidelines for traffic calming

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schermers, G

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available This document serves as a comprehensive national traffic calming guideline, compiled to assist traffic engineering practitioners and road authorities with the implementation of traffic calming. It outlines the different objectives of traffic calming...

  1. Traffic management simulation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    Microscopic simulation can provide significant support to traffic management center (TMC) operations. However, traffic simulation applications require data that are expensive and time-consuming to collect. Data collected by TMCs can be used as a prim...

  2. Traffic signal timing manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    This report serves as a comprehensive guide to traffic signal timing and documents the tasks completed in association with its development. The focus of this document is on traffic signal control principles, practices, and procedures. It describes th...

  3. An intelligent traffic controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Advances in computing sciences have not been applied to traffic control. This paper describes the development of an intelligent controller. A controller with advanced control logic can significantly improve traffic flows at intersections. In this vei...

  4. Phase Balancing by Means of Electric Vehicles Single-Phase Connection Shifting in a Low Voltage Danish Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lico, Pasqualino; Marinelli, Mattia; Knezovic, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    In Denmark, household consumers are supplied with three phase with neutral cable. In addition, the distribution service operator cannot decide to which phase electrical appliance are connected. The technician who realizes the installation connects the loads according to his technical expertise...... stations are equipped with single-phase converters. According to the designed control strategy, the charging spot can select the phase to be used for the charge. The selection is done according to a phase voltage measurement....

  5. Formation and Propagation of Local Traffic Jam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-sheng Qi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Large scale traffic congestion often stems from local traffic jam in single road or intersection. In this paper, macroscopic method was used to explore the formation and propagation of local traffic jam. It is found that (1 the propagation of traffic jam can be seen as the propagation of traffic signal parameters, that is, virtual split and virtual green time; (2 for a road with endogenous flow, entrance location influences the jam propagation. With the same demand (upstream links flow and entrance flow, the upstream got more influence; (3 when a one-lane road is thoroughly congested, virtual signal parameters everywhere are the same as that at stop line; for a basic road, the virtual signals work in a cooperative manner; (4 phase sequence is one important parameter that influences traffic performances during peak hour where spill back of channelization takes place. The same phase plan for left-turn flow and through flow would be preferred; (5 signal coordination plays an important role in traffic jam propagation and hence effective network signal parameters should be designed to prevent jam from propagation to the whole network. These findings would serve as a basis for future network traffic congestion control.

  6. Physics of Autonomous Driving based on Three-Phase Traffic Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Kerner, Boris S.

    2017-01-01

    We have revealed physical features of autonomous driving in the framework of the three-phase traffic theory for which there is no fixed time headway to the preceding vehicle. A comparison with the classical model approach to autonomous driving for which an autonomous driving vehicle tries to reach a fixed (desired or "optimal") time headway to the preceding vehicle has been made. It turns out that autonomous driving in the framework of the three-phase traffic theory exhibits the following adv...

  7. Optimising Signalised Intersection Using Wireless Vehicle Detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjin, Daniel Michael Okwabi; Torkudzor, Moses; Asare, Jack

    Traffic congestion on roads wastes travel times. In this paper, we developed a vehicular traffic model to optimise a signalised intersection in Accra, using wireless vehicle detectors. Traffic volume gathered was extrapolated to cover 2011 and 2016 and were analysed to obtain the peak hour traffic...... volume causing congestion. The intersection was modelled and simulated in Synchro7 as an actuated signalised model using results from the analysed data. The model for morning peak periods gave optimal cycle lengths of 100s and 150s with corresponding intersection delay of 48.9s and 90.6s in 2011 and 2016...

  8. Traffic noise in Hyderabad city, part-II. vehicular contribution to road traffic noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, G.H.

    2001-01-01

    The results of a road traffic noise survey carried out in Hyderabad city showed that the levels of traffic noise in the City are alarmingly high and much beyond the comfortable limits. There, in order to investigate the level of the noise emitted by different types of vehicles plying on the city roads and to assess their individual contribution to high level traffic noise, studies have been carried out on the measurement of noise emitted by motorcycles, buses, auto-rickshaws, and motor vehicle horns as they normally move on the city roads. The data collected has been analyzed for L/sub v99/, L/sub v90/, L/sub v50/, L/sub v10/ and L/sub v1/ and results are discussed with reference to the existing motor vehicle rules in Pakistan and motor vehicle noise emission limits set by the EEC and other developed countries. Some suggestion have also been made to limit high level traffic noise. (author)

  9. Examining Road Traffic Mortality Status in China: A Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Helai; Yin, Qingyi; Schwebel, David C; Li, Li; Hu, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    Data from the Chinese police service suggest substantial reductions in road traffic injuries since 2002, but critics have questioned the accuracy of those data, especially considering conflicting data reported by the health department. To address the gap between police and health department data and to determine which may be more accurate, we conducted a simulation study based on the modified Smeed equation, which delineates a non-linear relation between road traffic mortality and the level of motorization in a country or region. Our goal was to simulate trends in road traffic mortality in China and compare performances in road traffic safety management between China and 13 other countries. Chinese police data indicate a peak in road traffic mortalities in 2002 and a significant and a gradual decrease in population-based road traffic mortality since 2002. Health department data show the road traffic mortality peaked in 2012. In addition, police data suggest China's road traffic mortality peaked at a much lower motorization level (0.061 motor vehicles per person) in 2002, followed by a reduction in mortality to a level comparable to that of developed countries. Simulation results based on health department data suggest high road traffic mortality, with a mortality peak in 2012 at a moderate motorization level (0.174 motor vehicles per person). Comparisons to the other 13 countries suggest the health data from China may be more valid than the police data. Our simulation data indicate China is still at a stage of high road traffic mortality, as suggested by health data, rather than a stage of low road traffic mortality, as suggested by police data. More efforts are needed to integrate safety into road design, improve road traffic management, improve data quality, and alter unsafe behaviors of pedestrians, drivers and passengers in China.

  10. Traffic jam driving with NMV avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanés, Vicente; Alonso, Luciano; Villagrá, Jorge; Godoy, Jorge; de Pedro, Teresa; Oria, Juan P.

    2012-08-01

    In recent years, the development of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) - mainly based on lidar and cameras - has considerably improved the safety of driving in urban environments. These systems provide warning signals for the driver in the case that any unexpected traffic circumstance is detected. The next step is to develop systems capable not only of warning the driver but also of taking over control of the car to avoid a potential collision. In the present communication, a system capable of autonomously avoiding collisions in traffic jam situations is presented. First, a perception system was developed for urban situations—in which not only vehicles have to be considered, but also pedestrians and other non-motor-vehicles (NMV). It comprises a differential global positioning system (DGPS) and wireless communication for vehicle detection, and an ultrasound sensor for NMV detection. Then, the vehicle's actuators - brake and throttle pedals - were modified to permit autonomous control. Finally, a fuzzy logic controller was implemented capable of analyzing the information provided by the perception system and of sending control commands to the vehicle's actuators so as to avoid accidents. The feasibility of the integrated system was tested by mounting it in a commercial vehicle, with the results being encouraging.

  11. Strategic Framework of Air Traffic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Steiner

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper elaborates the past development of air traffic inEurope from the aspect of its economic benefits and ecologicallack of sustainability of conventional technology. The mainguidelines of the strategic development are related to the implementationof the global ecological standard and actual reformationprocesses of the air traffic management system postulatedby A TM 2000+ Strategy and the "Single European Sky"standard. The paper studies the wider aspects of integrated trafficdevelopment at the regional level and the factors influencingfurther development of the European air traffic.

  12. The SYOEKSY research project. Electrically-powered vehicles in ring rail line feeder traffic and short-distance travel; Saehkoeiset ajoneuvot kehaeradan syoettoe- ja asiointiliikenteessae. SYOEKSY-tutkimushankkeen loppuraportti 21.9.2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    The research report is divided into three sections: a general description of the project, separate reports on each of the themes investigated and a summary of the research results and recommendations. Section 2 deals with themes such as: Low-emissions-technology solutions for traffic and their technical prerequisites in an urban environment and the results obtained from pilot projects. New service models based on electrically-powered traffic technology with an assessment of their feasibility and their effect on urban infrastructure and levels of CO{sub 2} emissions. User needs in new feeder traffic, short-distance travel and other journeys on personal business together with proposals for planning measures which will promote sustainable mobility in new residential areas. The prerequisites for electrically-powered feeder traffic and short-distance travel are therefore handled in a wide-ranging manner. A condensed version of the project conclusions and recommendations is provided in Section 3. A list of the data sources and publications resulting from project work can be found at the end of the report

  13. Optimizing Traffic Operation in Designing Specific Upgrades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Sangsefidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transport forms one of the primary needs in all categories of the population in modern society; it is of paramount concern for traffic engineers, transport planners, and policy makers to understand and evaluate the quality of service being provided by the transport facilities designed by them. This paper presents an investigation in profile geometric design and traffic flow operation on two-lane two-way highways and provides analyses that will help in a better understanding of traffic operation on these facilities to select the optimum profile configuration. The effects of influencing parameters consisting of grade, length of grade, traffic composition, and traffic volume are evaluated and finally a systematic procedure to evaluate flow rate under the base condition is presented. Finally, based on these achievements an algorithm is introduced to select optimum Finished Ground of profile view. Results show that the percentage of heavy vehicles has a contributing effect on traffic operation so that the optimum profile configuration is incredibly affected by this factor. Source data have been obtained from Highway Capacity Manual (HCM as a pioneer document in respect of quantifying the concept of capacity for a transport facility.

  14. Competitive Traffic Assignment in Road Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krylatov Alexander Y.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently in-vehicle route guidance and information systems are rapidly developing. Such systems are expected to reduce congestion in an urban traffic area. This social benefit is believed to be reached by imposing the route choices on the network users that lead to the system optimum traffic assignment. However, guidance service could be offered by different competitive business companies. Then route choices of different mutually independent groups of users may reject traffic assignment from the system optimum state. In this paper, a game theoretic approach is shown to be very efficient to formalize competitive traffic assignment problem with various groups of users in the form of non-cooperative network game with the Nash equilibrium search. The relationships between the Wardrop’s system optimum associated with the traffic assignment problem and the Nash equilibrium associated with the competitive traffic assignment problem are investigated. Moreover, some related aspects of the Nash equilibrium and the Wardrop’s user equilibrium assignments are also discussed.

  15. Traffic flow wide-area surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgood, Glenn O.; Ferrell, Regina K.; Kercel, Stephen W.; Abston, Ruth A.

    1995-01-01

    Traffic management can be thought of as a stochastic queuing process where the serving time at one of its control points is dynamically linked to the global traffic pattern, which is, in turn, dynamically linked to the control point. For this closed-loop system to be effective, the traffic management system must sense and interpret a large spatial projection of data originating from multiple sensor suites. This concept is the basis for the development of a traffic flow wide-area surveillance (TFWAS) system. This paper presents the results of a study by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to define the operational specifications and characteristics, to determine the constraints, and to examine the state of technology of a TFWAS system in terms of traffic management and control. In doing so, the functions and attributes of a TFWAS system are mapped into an operational structure consistent with the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) concept and the existing highway infrastructure. This mapping includes identifying candidate sensor suites and establishing criteria, requirements, and performance measures by which these systems can be graded in their ability and practicality to meet the operational requirements of a TFWAS system. In light of this, issues such as system integration, applicable technologies, impact on traffic management and control, and public acceptance are addressed.

  16. A cellular automata model of traffic flow with variable probability of randomization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Wei-Fan; Zhang Ji-Ye

    2015-01-01

    Research on the stochastic behavior of traffic flow is important to understand the intrinsic evolution rules of a traffic system. By introducing an interactional potential of vehicles into the randomization step, an improved cellular automata traffic flow model with variable probability of randomization is proposed in this paper. In the proposed model, the driver is affected by the interactional potential of vehicles before him, and his decision-making process is related to the interactional potential. Compared with the traditional cellular automata model, the modeling is more suitable for the driver’s random decision-making process based on the vehicle and traffic situations in front of him in actual traffic. From the improved model, the fundamental diagram (flow–density relationship) is obtained, and the detailed high-density traffic phenomenon is reproduced through numerical simulation. (paper)

  17. World modeling for cooperative intelligent vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papp, Z.; Brown, C.; Bartels, C.

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative intelligent vehicle systems constitute a promising way to improving traffic throughput, safety and comfort. The state-of-the-art intelligent-vehicle applications usually can be described as a collection of interacting, highly autonomous, complex dynamical systems (the individual

  18. Traffic intensity monitoring using multiple object detection with traffic surveillance cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, H. G. Muhammad; Khalifah, O. O.

    2017-11-01

    Object detection and tracking is a field of research that has many applications in the current generation with increasing number of cameras on the streets and lower cost for Internet of Things(IoT). In this paper, a traffic intensity monitoring system is implemented based on the Macroscopic Urban Traffic model is proposed using computer vision as its source. The input of this program is extracted from a traffic surveillance camera which has another program running a neural network classification which can identify and differentiate the vehicle type is implanted. The neural network toolbox is trained with positive and negative input to increase accuracy. The accuracy of the program is compared to other related works done and the trends of the traffic intensity from a road is also calculated. relevant articles in literature searches, great care should be taken in constructing both. Lastly the limitation and the future work is concluded.

  19. A Comparison of Traffic Operations among Beijing and Several International Megacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhou Yang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available High-Efficient traffic system is very important for economy and society of cities. Previous studies on the traffic comparison mostly took a city as a whole, but ignored the differences among areas inside the city. But in fact, the traffic congestion in different areas with a city is mostly different. Taking typical mega cities like Beijing, London, New York, and Tokyo as objects, this paper makes cross-comparison in the traffic operation and performance based on intelligent algorithm. Transportation infrastructure and travel demand data are discussed and unbalanced transport system is found in Beijing because of the conflict between too much traffic demand and defect road networks. From the aspects of traffic load, operational efficiency and safety, indexes including traffic v/c ratio, average vehicle speed and accident rate are selected to assess the performance of road traffic. It is concluded that road networks of Beijing have the worst performance compared with other three mega-cities and the primary reasons are the inappropriate distribution of utilization rate among the freeways, arterials, and local streets, and the high traffic concentration in urban area. So, several measures are recommended to improve the operation efficiency of traffic in Beijing especially for the green intelligent traffic system. Keywords: Traffic operation; Operational efficiency; Intelligent traffic system (ITS; Traffic load; traffic safety; Intelligent algorithm.

  20. Electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles: what in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggetto, G.; Van Mierlo, J. [Vrije Universiteit, Brussel (Belgium)

    2000-07-01

    In urban area, due to their beneficial effect on environment, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles are an important factor for improvement of traffic and more particular for a healthier environment. Moreover, the need for alternative energy source is growing and the price competition of alternatives against oil is becoming more and more realistic. Electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles are offering the best possibility for the use of new energy sources, because electricity can result from a transformation with high efficiency of these sources and is always used with the highest possible efficiency in systems with electric drives or components. Some basic considerations about the situation today and in a mid and long-term perspective, are presented together with the infrastructure developments.

  1. A model of jam formation in congested traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzarova, N. Zh; Pesheva, N. C.; Priezzhev, V. B.; Brankov, J. G.

    2017-12-01

    We study a model of irreversible jam formation in congested vehicular traffic on an open segment of a single-lane road. The vehicles obey a stochastic discrete-time dynamics which is a limiting case of the generalized Totally Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process. Its characteristic features are: (a) the existing clusters of jammed cars cannot break into parts; (b) when the leading vehicle of a cluster hops to the right, the whole cluster follows it deterministically, and (c) any two clusters of vehicles, occupying consecutive positions on the chain, may become nearest-neighbors and merge irreversibly into a single cluster. The above dynamics was used in a one-dimensional model of irreversible aggregation by Bunzarova and Pesheva [Phys. Rev. E 95, 052105 (2017)]. The model has three stationary non-equilibrium phases, depending on the probabilities of injection (α), ejection (β), and hopping (p) of particles: a many-particle one, MP, a completely jammed phase CF, and a mixed MP+CF phase. An exact expression for the stationary probability P(1) of a completely jammed configuration in the mixed MP+CF phase is obtained. The gap distribution between neighboring clusters of jammed cars at large lengths L of the road is studied. Three regimes of evolution of the width of a single gap are found: (i) growing gaps with length of the order O(L) when β > p; (ii) shrinking gaps with length of the order O(1) when β < p; and (iii) critical gaps at β = p, of the order O(L 1/2). These results are supported by extensive Monte Carlo calculations.

  2. Intelligent Traffic Information System a Real-Time Traffic Information System on the Shiraz Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sodagaran Amir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Real-time traffic information system is an Intelligent Transportation System (ITS that allows commuters to make their traveling plan better. In this regard, an intelligent and real-time traffic information system was developed based on the video detection and an image processing algorithm was applied to measure traffic-flow according to the average speed of vehicles. Then, traffic status of each pass way is broadcasted to the electronic boards installed on all decision making entrance / exit. Different levels of congestion related to the routes ahead are shown on the boards with different colors in order to assist commuters. This system was implemented on the Shiraz Dry River’s bypasses which account as vital routes to moderate traffic of city center. Experimental results are promising due to the proximity of determined traffic status by the system compared to the detection done by traffic experts. Average speed improvement is another result of using this system. This intelligent system developed and implemented in Shiraz city for the first time in Iran.s.

  3. Numerical study of traffic flow considering the probability density distribution of the traffic density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L. M.; Zhu, H. B.; Zhang, N. X.

    The probability density distribution of the traffic density is analyzed based on the empirical data. It is found that the beta distribution can fit the result obtained from the measured traffic density perfectly. Then a modified traffic model is proposed to simulate the microscopic traffic flow, in which the probability density distribution of the traffic density is taken into account. The model also contains the behavior of drivers’ speed adaptation by taking into account the driving behavior difference and the dynamic headway. Accompanied by presenting the flux-density diagrams, the velocity evolution diagrams and the spatial-temporal profiles of vehicles are also given. The synchronized flow phase and the wide moving jam phase are indicated, which is the challenge for the cellular automata traffic model. Furthermore the phenomenon of the high speed car-following is exhibited, which has been observed in the measured data previously. The results set demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model in detecting the complicated dynamic phenomena of the traffic flow.

  4. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... 2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  5. Desain Sistem Kontrol Traffic Light Adaptif Pada Persimpangan Empat Berbasis PLC Siemens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfikar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, traffic lights are using a fixed time as on-off light signal controller. However this system has many disadveantages, such as vehicles have to queue long time in certain road section (lane at rush hour. As a consequence, it reguires a traffic light control system that can prioritize a more dense lane. Adaptive traffic light control detects the number of queues of vehicles on the lane. Sensors detect the vehicle queue’s length. There are three sensors that will detect queues’s length of vehicles on each lane. When the queue of vehicles reached the first sensor, the green light will be on longer 5 seconds compare to the normal traffic. When the queue of vehicles reaches the second sensor, the green light provide 10 seconds more compare to the normal traffic and if the queue of vehicles reaches the third sensor, the green light will be longer which is about 20 seconds compare. In this adaptive traffic light control system, there are two jam sensors installed in the middle of the intersection that will turn on all the red lights when there is an unexpected problems happened. This adaptive traffic light control system will provide the longest queuing time 92 seconds, when all sensors on all lanes active and the fastest time is 47 seconds which is the time when the normal system.

  6. A Marine Traffic Flow Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsz Leung Yip

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A model is developed for studying marine traffic flow through classical traffic flow theories, which can provide us with a better understanding of the phenomenon of traffic flow of ships. On one hand, marine traffic has its special features and is fundamentally different from highway, air and pedestrian traffic. The existing traffic models cannot be simply extended to marine traffic without addressing marine traffic features. On the other hand, existing literature on marine traffic focuses on one ship or two ships but does not address the issues in marine traffic flow.

  7. Advanced Tracking of Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Li, K.-J.; Pakalnis, Stardas

    2005-01-01

    With the continued advances in wireless communications, geo-location technologies, and consumer electronics, it is becoming possible to accurately track the time-varying location of each vehicle in a population of vehicles. This paper reports on ongoing research that has as it objective to develop...... efficient tracking techniques. More specifically, while almost all commercially available tracking solutions simply offer time-based sampling of positions, this paper's techniques aim to offer a guaranteed tracking accuracy for each vehicle at the lowest possible costs, in terms of network traffic...... and server-side updates. This is achieved by designing, prototyping, and testing novel tracking techniques that exploit knowledge of the road network and past movement. These resulting tracking techniques are to support mobile services that rely on the existence of a central server that continuously tracks...

  8. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 591 - Section 591.5(f) Bond for the Entry of More Than a Single Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) IMPORTATION OF VEHICLES AND EQUIPMENT SUBJECT TO FEDERAL SAFETY, BUMPER AND THEFT PREVENTION STANDARDS Pt. 591... Federal motor vehicle safety, or bumper, or theft prevention standards; and WHEREAS, pursuant to 49 CFR... to conform to the Federal motor vehicle safety, bumper, and theft prevention standards; and WHEREAS...

  9. Analysis of the Effects of Connected–Automated Vehicle Technologies on Travel Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auld, Joshua [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439; Sokolov, Vadim [Department of Systems Engineering and Operations Research, Volgenau School of Engineering, George Mason University, MS 4A6, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030; Stephens, Thomas S. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439

    2017-01-01

    Connected–automated vehicle (CAV) technologies are likely to have significant effects not only on how vehicles operate in the transportation system, but also on how individuals behave and use their vehicles. While many CAV technologies—such as connected adaptive cruise control and ecosignals—have the potential to increase network throughput and efficiency, many of these same technologies have a secondary effect of reducing driver burden, which can drive changes in travel behavior. Such changes in travel behavior—in effect, lowering the cost of driving—have the potential to increase greatly the utilization of the transportation system with concurrent negative externalities, such as congestion, energy use, and emissions, working against the positive effects on the transportation system resulting from increased capacity. To date, few studies have analyzed the potential effects on CAV technologies from a systems perspective; studies often focus on gains and losses to an individual vehicle, at a single intersection, or along a corridor. However, travel demand and traffic flow constitute a complex, adaptive, nonlinear system. Therefore, in this study, an advanced transportation systems simulation model—POLARIS—was used. POLARIS includes cosimulation of travel behavior and traffic flow to study the potential effects of several CAV technologies at the regional level. Various technology penetration levels and changes in travel time sensitivity have been analyzed to determine a potential range of effects on vehicle miles traveled from various CAV technologies.

  10. Traffic planning for non-homogeneous traffic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Traffic on Indian roads (both urban and inter-urban) consists of a variety of vehicles. These vehicles have widely different static and dynamic characteristics. The traffic is also very different from homogeneous traffic which primarily consists of motorized vehicles. Homogeneous traffic follows strict lane discipline as compared ...

  11. Exactly solvable cellular automaton traffic jam model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Michael J

    2006-12-01

    A detailed study is undertaken of the v{max}=1 limit of the cellular automaton traffic model proposed by Nagel and Paczuski [Phys. Rev. E 51, 2909 (1995)]. The model allows one to analyze the behavior of a traffic jam initiated in an otherwise freely flowing stream of traffic. By mapping onto a discrete-time queueing system, itself related to various problems encountered in lattice combinatorics, exact results are presented in relation to the jam lifetime, the maximum jam length, and the jam mass (the space-time cluster size or integrated vehicle waiting time), both in terms of the critical and the off-critical behavior. This sets existing scaling results in their natural context and also provides several other interesting results in addition.

  12. Exactly solvable cellular automaton traffic jam model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Michael J.

    2006-12-01

    A detailed study is undertaken of the vmax=1 limit of the cellular automaton traffic model proposed by Nagel and Paczuski [Phys. Rev. E 51, 2909 (1995)]. The model allows one to analyze the behavior of a traffic jam initiated in an otherwise freely flowing stream of traffic. By mapping onto a discrete-time queueing system, itself related to various problems encountered in lattice combinatorics, exact results are presented in relation to the jam lifetime, the maximum jam length, and the jam mass (the space-time cluster size or integrated vehicle waiting time), both in terms of the critical and the off-critical behavior. This sets existing scaling results in their natural context and also provides several other interesting results in addition.

  13. In Traffic Jam ITS Using Bluetooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Akihiko; Dermawan, Candra

    At present, in the Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) field, research continues In-Vehicle Communication (VC), Inter-Vehicle Communication (IVC), Road-to-Vehicle Communication (RVC), etc. All information communications technology, especially radio-communications technology, was applied. For example, wireless 1394 is used in VC, millimeter-wave communication is used in IVC, and Radio on Fiber (ROF) communication technology is used in RVC. However, it is actually very difficult to design for and accommodate all of these systems. This research, to simplify a design, equipment, structure, cost down of production of VC, IVC, and RVC, utilizes a wireless Bluetooth technology system. In this paper, since the whole system is connected to the Internet backbone, provided some access point area, the Internet can be accessed from inside the vehicle and information, such as news and weather information, can be downloaded. It is also possible to know traffic information for each access point area by accessing a home memory (data base server.

  14. Octa-ammonium POSS-conjugated single-walled carbon nanotubes as vehicles for targeted delivery of paclitaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Naderi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have unique physical and chemical properties. Furthermore, novel properties can be developed by attachment or encapsulation of functional groups. These unique properties facilitate the use of CNTs in drug delivery. We developed a new nanomedicine consisting of a nanocarrier, cell-targeting molecule, and chemotherapeutic drug and assessed its efficacy in vitro. Methods: The efficacy of a single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-based nanoconjugate system is assessed in the targeted delivery of paclitaxel (PTX to cancer cells. SWCNTs were oxidized and reacted with octa-ammonium polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (octa-ammonium POSS to render them biocompatible and water dispersable. The functionalized SWCNTs were loaded with PTX, a chemotherapeutic agent toxic to cancer cells, and Tn218 antibodies for cancer cell targeting. The nanohybrid composites were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, and ultraviolet–visible–near-infrared (UV–Vis–NIR. Additionally, their cytotoxic effects on Colon cancer cell (HT-29 and Breast cancer cell (MCF-7 lines were assessed in vitro. Results: TEM, FTIR, and UV–Vis–NIR studies confirmed side-wall functionalization of SWCNT with COOH-groups, PTX, POSS, and antibodies. Increased cell death was observed with PTX–POSS–SWCNT, PTX–POSS–Ab–SWCNT, and free PTX compared to functionalized-SWCNT (f-SWCNT, POSS–SWCNT, and cell-only controls at 48 and 72 h time intervals in both cell lines. At all time intervals, there was no significant cell death in the POSS–SWCNT samples compared to cell-only controls. Conclusion: The PTX-based nanocomposites were shown to be as cytotoxic as free PTX. This important finding indicates successful release of PTX from the nanocomposites and further reiterates the potential of SWCNTs to deliver drugs directly to targeted cells and tissues.

  15. Imitation dynamics in a game of traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paissan, Gabriel; Abramson, Guillermo

    2013-04-01

    We study a model of traffic where drivers adopt different behavioral strategies. These can be cooperative or defective according to a driver abiding or not by a traffic rule. Drivers can change their strategy by imitating the majority, with a rule that depends on the strategies with which they have interacted. These interactions occur at intersections, where vehicles pay a temporal cost according to their strategy. We analyze the conditions under which different strategy compositions represent an advantage in the system velocity. We found that the cooperators' mean speed is higher than the defectors' even when the vehicle density is large. However, defectors can obtain benefits in their mean speed when they are a minority in an essentially cooperative population. The presence of a core of educated drivers, who persist firmly in a cooperative behavior, optimizes the speed in the system, especially for intermediate values of vehicular density and higher temporal costs.

  16. 76 FR 51120 - Denial of Motor Vehicle Defect Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... tests. FMVSS 208 All new passenger cars and lights trucks must comply with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... Vehicle Defect Petition AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of Transportation. ACTION: Denial of motor vehicle defect petition. SUMMARY: This document denies a March 2, 2010...

  17. Assessing the roll stability of heavy vehicles in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Benade, R

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available of these crashes involve heavy vehicle rollover. The regulations in the National Road Traffic Act of South Africa that govern heavy vehicle design do not directly address the roll stability of heavy vehicles. The internationally accepted method of regulating roll...

  18. 32 CFR 634.20 - Privately owned vehicle operation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Privately owned vehicle operation requirements. 634.20 Section 634.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Motor Vehicle...

  19. 32 CFR 634.53 - Disposition of vehicles after impoundment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposition of vehicles after impoundment. 634.53 Section 634.53 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Impounding Privately Owned Vehicles...

  20. Pedestrian Safety in Road Traffic in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Mackun, Tomasz

    2017-10-01

    Every third road accident in Poland involves a pedestrian as a participant or, most of the time, a casualty. Pedestrian accidents are usually the result of complex situations and the outcome of a number of factors related to driver and pedestrian behaviour and road infrastructure. Safety depends largely on how well the traffic condition is perceived and on visibility in traffic. The paper presents the results of analyses of methodologies for systematic studies of pedestrian behaviour and pedestrian-driver relations. The effects of the location of the site, type of cross-section and other selected parameters on pedestrian and driver behaviour are demonstrated. The analyses showed that pedestrians are most often put at risk by too long pedestrian crossings, vehicles going too fast around pedestrian crossings, lack of proper sight distance and poorly lit or unlit pedestrian crossings. The reason for such defective infrastructure is that planners, designers, contractors and maintenance services are not receiving any support from design, marking and maintenance regulations for pedestrian traffic. In addition, the Road Traffic Law is not restrictive enough when it comes to drivers’ obligations towards pedestrian safety. Polish design regulations allow long pedestrian crossings up to four lanes in one direction or three lanes in two directions irrespective of traffic control and speed limits. Pedestrian crossings should be kept at a maximum of three lanes. There is nothing in the design regulations about the required driver-pedestrian sight distance. Neither does the Road Traffic Law help engineers with that. It is legal to park vehicles within 10 m of a pedestrian crossing which does not guarantee the necessary sight distance. Drivers must be able to see a pedestrian waiting or stepping onto the crossing from a distance that will help them come to a stop safely. It is safer to follow the principle of providing adequate pedestrian sight distance. Recommendations for

  1. A First Look at Modern Enterprise Traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Ruoming; Mark Allman, Mark; Bennett, Mike; Lee, Jason; Paxson, Vern; Tierney, Brian

    2005-06-01

    While wide-area Internet traffic has been heavily studied for many years, the characteristics of traffic inside Internet enterprises remain almost wholly unexplored. Nearly all of the studies of enterprise traffic available in the literature are well over a decade old and focus on individual LANs rather than whole sites. In this paper we present a broad overview of internal enterprise traffic recorded at a medium-sized site. The packet traces span more than 100 hours, over which activity from a total of several thousand internal hosts appears. This wealth of data--which we are publicly releasing in anonymized form--spans a wide range of dimensions. While we cannot form general conclusions using data from a single site, and clearly this sort of data merits additional in-depth study in a number of ways, in this work we endeavor to characterize a number of the most salient aspects of the traffic. Our goal is to provide a first sense of ways in which modern enterprise traffic is similar to wide-area Internet traffic, and ways in which it is quite different.

  2. Vehicle Detection with Occlusion Handling, Tracking, and OC-SVM Classification: A High Performance Vision-Based System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez-Pupo, Roxana; Sierra-Romero, Alberto; Torres-Roman, Deni; Shkvarko, Yuriy V.; Romero-Delgado, Misael

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a high performance vision-based system with a single static camera for traffic surveillance, for moving vehicle detection with occlusion handling, tracking, counting, and One Class Support Vector Machine (OC-SVM) classification. In this approach, moving objects are first segmented from the background using the adaptive Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). After that, several geometric features are extracted, such as vehicle area, height, width, centroid, and bounding box. As occlusion is present, an algorithm was implemented to reduce it. The tracking is performed with adaptive Kalman filter. Finally, the selected geometric features: estimated area, height, and width are used by different classifiers in order to sort vehicles into three classes: small, midsize, and large. Extensive experimental results in eight real traffic videos with more than 4000 ground truth vehicles have shown that the improved system can run in real time under an occlusion index of 0.312 and classify vehicles with a global detection rate or recall, precision, and F-measure of up to 98.190%, and an F-measure of up to 99.051% for midsize vehicles. PMID:29382078

  3. A Traffic Jam Theory of Recessions

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer La'O

    2013-01-01

    I construct a dynamic economy in which agents are interconnected: the output produced by one agent is the consumption good of another. I show that this economy can generate recessions which resemble traffic jams. At the micro level, each individual agent waits for his own income to increase before he increases his spending. However, his spending behavior affects the income of another agent. Thus, the spending behavior of agents during recessions resembles the stop-and-go behavior of vehicles ...

  4. Intelligent traffic lights based on MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ying

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, I describes the traffic lights system and it has some. Through analysis, I used MATLAB technology, transformed the camera photographs into digital signals. Than divided the road vehicle is into three methods: very congestion, congestion, a little congestion. Through the MCU programming, solved the different roads have different delay time, and Used this method, saving time and resources, so as to reduce road congestion.

  5. Effect Analysis of Early Warning for Abandoned Object on Highway Based on Internet-of-Vehicles CA Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Bao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An early warning on the highway will effectively reduce traffic accidents. Considering the influence of an abandoned object on driving behavior, a Visual-based Asymmetric Two-lane Cellular Automata model with Abandoned Object (V-ATCA-AO and an Internet-of-Vehicles-based Asymmetric Two-lane Cellular Automata model with Abandoned Object (IoV-ATCA-AO are proposed. Based on the two models, two types of traffic accidents caused by an abandoned object are analyzed: rear-end collision caused by the abandoned object ahead and collision of the vehicle with the abandoned object. Simulation results show the following: (1 the accidents occur when the road density is smaller, while the accidents will not occur when the density is larger. The results are different from the rear-end collision rate curve without abandoned object in a single lane. (2 Compared with the visual-based avoidance pattern in V-ATCA-AO, the Internet-of-Vehicles-based avoidance pattern in IoV-ATCA-AO can create an early warning for the abandoned object and tell the vehicle to make an earlier lane change and decelerate in advance, thereby significantly reducing the accident rate. (3 Spatiotemporal characteristics in front of the abandoned object directly affect the accident rate: the less the “stability” of a traffic jam in front of the abandoned object, the higher the accident rate.

  6. Discrete event simulation of Maglev transport considering traffic waves

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Moo Hyun; Mun, Duhwan

    2014-01-01

    A magnetically levitated vehicle (Maglev) system is under commercialization as a new transportation system in Korea. The Maglev is operated by an unmanned automatic control system. Therefore, the plan of train operation should be carefully established and validated in advance. In general, when making a train operation plan, statistically predicted traffic data is used. However, a traffic wave often occurs in real train service, and demand-driven simulation technology is required to review a t...

  7. Optimal charging scheduler for electric vehicles on the Florida turnpike : final research project report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This project developed a methodology to simulate and analyze roadway traffic patterns : and expected penetration and timing of electric vehicles (EVs) with application directed : toward the requirements for electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) si...

  8. Expanded research and development of an enhanced rear signaling system for commercial motor vehicles : [technology brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    In 2010, the National Highway Traffic Safety : Administration (NHTSA) found that heavy trucks were : three times more likely than other vehicles to be struck : from behind during two-vehicle fatal crashes. The : Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administr...

  9. Evaluation of sounds for hybrid and electric vehicles operating at low speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    Electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), operated at low speeds may reduce auditory cues used by pedestrians to assess the state of nearby traffic creating a safety issue. This field study compares the auditory detectability of num...

  10. Heavy vehicle performance during recovery from forced-flow urban freeway conditions due to incidents, work zones and recurring congestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Information contained in the Highway Capacity Manual on the influence heavy vehicles have on freeway traffic : operations has been based on few field data collection efforts and relied mostly on traffic simulation efforts. In the : 2010 Manual heavy ...

  11. Android-based E-Traffic law enforcement system in Surakarta City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianto, Budi; Setiono

    2018-03-01

    The urban advancement is always overpowered by the increasing number of vehicles as the need for movement of people and goods. This can lead to traffic problems if there is no effort on the implementation of traffic management and engineering, and traffic law enforcement. In this case, the Government of Surakarta City has implemented various policies and regulations related to traffic management and engineering in order to run traffic in an orderly, safe and comfortable manner according to the applicable law. However, conditions in the field shows that traffic violations still occurred frequently due to the weakness of traffic law enforcement in terms of human resources and the system. In this connection, a tool is needed to support traffic law enforcement, especially in relation to the reporting system of traffic violations. This study aims to develop an Android-based traffic violations reporting application (E-Traffic Law Enforcement) as part of the traffic law enforcement system in Surakarta City. The Android-apps records the location and time of the traffic violations incident along with the visual evidence of the infringement. This information will be connected to the database system to detect offenders and to do the traffic law enforcement process.

  12. Ultrasonic Sensors in Urban Traffic Driving-Aid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa de Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, vehicles are often equipped with active safety systems to reduce the risk of accidents, most of which occur in urban environments. The most prominent include Antilock Braking Systems (ABS, Traction Control and Stability Control. All these systems use different kinds of sensors to constantly monitor the conditions of the vehicle, and act in an emergency. In this paper the use of ultrasonic sensors in active safety systems for urban traffic is proposed, and the advantages and disadvantages when compared to other sensors are discussed. Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC for urban traffic based on ultrasounds is presented as an application example. The proposed system has been implemented in a fully-automated prototype vehicle and has been tested under real traffic conditions. The results confirm the good performance of ultrasonic sensors in these systems.

  13. Vehicle to Vehicle Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk

    2008-01-01

    As computing devices, sensors, and actuators pervade our surroundings, new applications emerge with accompanying research challenges. In the transportation domain vehicles are being linked by wireless communication and equipped with an array of sensors and actuators that make is possible to provide...... location aware infotainment, increase safety, and lessen environmental strain. This dissertation is about service oriented architecture for pervasive computing with an emphasis on vehicle to vehicle applications. If devices are exposed as services, applications can be created by composing a set of services......, mobility, and availability of services. The dissertation consists of two parts. Part I gives an overview of service oriented architecture for pervasive computing systems and describes the contributions of the publications listed in part II. We investigate architecture for vehicular technology applications...

  14. Analysis of factors temporarily impacting traffic sign readability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Khalilikhah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Traffic sign readability can be affected by the existence of dirt on traffic sign faces. However, among damaged signs, dirty traffic signs are unique since their damage is not permanent and they just can be cleaned instead of replaced. This study aimed to identify the most important factors contributing to traffic sign dirt. To do so, a large number of traffic signs in Utah were measured by deploying a vehicle instrumented with mobile LiDAR imaging and digital photolog technologies. Each individual daytime digital image was inspected for dirt. Location and climate observations obtained from official sources were compiled using ArcGIS throughout the process. To identify contributing factors to traffic sign dirt, the chi-square test was employed. To analyze the data and rank all of the factors based on their importance to the sign dirt, Random forests statistical model was utilized. After analyzing the data, it can be concluded that ground elevation, sign mount height, and air pollution had the highest effect on making traffic signs dirty. The findings of this investigation assist transportation agencies in determining traffic signs with a higher likelihood of sign dirt. In this way, agencies would schedule to clean such traffic signs more frequently.

  15. Costs of traffic injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the socioeconomic costs of traffic injuries in Denmark, notably the healthcare costs and the productivity costs related to traffic injuries, in a bottom-up, register-based perspective. METHOD: Traffic injury victims were identified using national...... emergency room data and police records. Victims were matched with five controls per case by means of propensity score, nearest-neighbour matching. In the cohort, consisting of the 52 526 individuals that experienced a traffic injury in 2000 and 262 630 matched controls, attributable healthcare costs were...... assessed using Danish national healthcare registers. Productivity costs were computed using duration analysis (Cox regression models). In a subanalysis, cost per severe traffic injury was computed for the 12 995 individuals that experienced a severe injury. RESULTS: The socioeconomic cost of a traffic...

  16. Modeling Left-Turn Driving Behavior at Signalized Intersections with Mixed Traffic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, mixed traffic is the most common type of urban transportation; traffic of this type faces many major problems in traffic engineering, such as conflicts, inefficiency, and security issues. This paper focuses on the traffic engineering concerns on the driving behavior of left-turning vehicles caused by different degrees of pedestrian violations. The traffic characteristics of left-turning vehicles and pedestrians in the affected region at a signalized intersection were analyzed and a cellular-automata-based “following-conflict” driving behavior model that mainly addresses four basic behavior modes was proposed to study the conflict and behavior mechanisms of left-turning vehicles by mathematic methodologies. Four basic driving behavior modes were reproduced in computer simulations, and a logit model of the behavior mode choice was also developed to analyze the relative share of each behavior mode. Finally, the microscopic characteristics of driving behaviors and the macroscopic parameters of traffic flow in the affected region were all determined. These data are important reference for geometry and capacity design for signalized intersections. The simulation results show that the proposed models are valid and can be used to represent the behavior of left-turning vehicles in the case of conflicts with illegally crossing pedestrians. These results will have potential applications on improving traffic safety and traffic capacity at signalized intersections with mixed traffic conditions.

  17. Heterogeneous traffic flow modelling using second-order macroscopic continuum model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Ranju; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    Modelling heterogeneous traffic flow lacking in lane discipline is one of the emerging research areas in the past few years. The two main challenges in modelling are: capturing the effect of varying size of vehicles, and the lack in lane discipline, both of which together lead to the 'gap filling' behaviour of vehicles. The same section length of the road can be occupied by different types of vehicles at the same time, and the conventional measure of traffic concentration, density (vehicles per lane per unit length), is not a good measure for heterogeneous traffic modelling. First aim of this paper is to have a parsimonious model of heterogeneous traffic that can capture the unique phenomena of gap filling. Second aim is to emphasize the suitability of higher-order models for modelling heterogeneous traffic. Third, the paper aims to suggest area occupancy as concentration measure of heterogeneous traffic lacking in lane discipline. The above mentioned two main challenges of heterogeneous traffic flow are addressed by extending an existing second-order continuum model of traffic flow, using area occupancy for traffic concentration instead of density. The extended model is calibrated and validated with field data from an arterial road in Chennai city, and the results are compared with those from few existing generalized multi-class models.

  18. Lane Changing Control to Reduce Traffic Load Effect on Long-Span Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Caprani, Colin C; Enright, Bernard; Carey, Colm

    2012-01-01

    Long span bridges are critical parts of a nation’s infrastructure network and congested traffic loading is the governing form of traffic loading. Groups of trucks travelling in conveys are created when fast-er moving vehicles, such as cars, change lane. In this research the authors investigate how the control of these lane-changing events can help reduce the traffic load effects on long span bridges. Real traffic data is used to simulate a traffic stream on a virtual road and bridge using a m...

  19. The design method and research status of vehicle detection system based on geomagnetic detection principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. H.; Bai, R.; Qian, Z. H.

    2018-03-01

    Vehicle detection systems are applied to obtain real-time information of vehicles, realize traffic control and reduce traffic pressure. This paper reviews geomagnetic sensors as well as the research status of the vehicle detection system. Presented in the paper are also our work on the vehicle detection system, including detection algorithms and experimental results. It is found that the GMR based vehicle detection system has a detection accuracy up to 98% with a high potential for application in the road traffic control area.

  20. Traffic Signs Inventory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ružbarský

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on practical application of Cambridge Correlator. The goal is to propose a traffic signs inventory system by using excellent characteristics of correlator in the rapid optical correlation. The proposal of this inventory system includes obtaining of traffic signs to create the database either collecting the GPS coordinates. It is necessary to know the traffic signs position and also to document the entire surface route for later evaluation in offline mode.