WorldWideScience

Sample records for single vegetable samples

  1. 7 CFR 52.38c - Statistical sampling procedures for lot inspection of processed fruits and vegetables by attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1... processed fruits and vegetables by attributes. 52.38c Section 52.38c Agriculture Regulations of the... inspection of processed fruits and vegetables by attributes. (a) General. Single sampling plans shall be used...

  2. Optimal sampling schemes for vegetation and geological field visits

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The presentation made to Wits Statistics Department was on common classification methods used in the field of remote sensing, and the use of remote sensing to design optimal sampling schemes for field visits with applications in vegetation...

  3. Novel methodology to isolate microplastics from vegetal-rich samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Alicia; Garrido-Amador, Paloma; Martínez, Ico; Samper, María Dolores; López-Martínez, Juan; Gómez, May; Packard, Theodore T

    2018-04-01

    Microplastics are small plastic particles, globally distributed throughout the oceans. To properly study them, all the methodologies for their sampling, extraction, and measurement should be standardized. For heterogeneous samples containing sediments, animal tissues and zooplankton, several procedures have been described. However, definitive methodologies for samples, rich in algae and plant material, have not yet been developed. The aim of this study was to find the best extraction protocol for vegetal-rich samples by comparing the efficacies of five previously described digestion methods, and a novel density separation method. A protocol using 96% ethanol for density separation was better than the five digestion methods tested, even better than using H 2 O 2 digestion. As it was the most efficient, simple, safe and inexpensive method for isolating microplastics from vegetal rich samples, we recommend it as a standard separation method. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of nitrite, nitrate and total nitrogen in vegetable samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Kanti Deb

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Yellow diazonium cation formed by reaction of nitrite with 6-amino-1-naphthol-3-sulphonic acid is coupled with β-naphthol in strong alkaline medium to yield a pink coloured azo dye. The azo-dyes shows absorption maximum at 510 nm with molar absorptivity of 2.5 ×104 M-1 cm-1. The dye product obeys Beer's law (correlation coefficient = 0.997, in terms of nitrite concentration, up to 2.7 μg NO2 mL-1. The above colour reaction system has been applied successfully for the determination of nitrite, nitrate and total nitrogen in vegetable samples. Unreduced samples give direct measure for nitrite whilst reduction of samples by copperized-cadmium column gives total nitrogen content and their difference shows nitrate content in the samples. Variety of vegetables have been tested for their N-content (NO2-/NO3-/total-N with % RSD ranging between 1.5 to 2.5 % for nitrite determination. The effects of foreign ions in the determination of the nitrite, nitrate, and total nitrogen have been studied. Statistical comparison of the results with those of reported method shows good agreement and indicates no significant difference in precision.

  5. Rapid assessment of soil and groundwater tritium by vegetation sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    A rapid and relatively inexpensive technique for defining the extent of groundwater contamination by tritium has been investigated. The technique uses existing vegetation to sample the groundwater. Water taken up by deep rooted trees is collected by enclosing tree branches in clear plastic bags. Water evaporated from the leaves condenses on the inner surface of the bag. The water is removed from the bag with a syringe. The bags can be sampled many times. Tritium in the water is detected by liquid scintillation counting. The water collected in the bags has no color and counts as well as distilled water reference samples. The technique was used in an area of known tritium contamination and proved to be useful in defining the extent of tritium contamination

  6. On peculiarities of distribution of some elements in vegetation samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakiev, S.A.; Rakhmanov, J.; Khakimov, Z.M.; Turayev, S.

    2005-01-01

    This work is devoted to the neutron-activation analysis of medicines of vegetation origin and some herbs, vegetables, fruits and cereals, which are used in oriental medicine, in order to reveal peculiarities of distribution of studied elements in them and possible relations between this distribution and parameters of oriental medicine. The sampling involving 85 species and their preparation for analysis, as well as complex of necessary methodological studies were performed and the method of sample analysis for 14 macro- and microelements (Na, Al, Cl, K, Sc, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Br, J, La, Au) was developed. The studies carried out have enabled one to obtain data on concentrations of these elements and to reveal peculiarities of their distribution in the samples under interest. It was revealed herbs, fruits and cereals with pronounced higher concentrations (with respect to the mean values) of one or another element, which are perhaps concentrators of those elements, as well as samples with lower concentrations of elements (see table). It is indicative that in all herbs only enhanced concentrations of elements are observed, but in fruits and cereals-only lowered concentrations of elements. These results can be of interest for geochemical ecology, dietology, therapy, as well as for activities on correction of elemental content of ecosystems, including soils, and alive organisms It is suggested to continue studies with extension of range of object types and analysed elements. Mathematical analysis of the obtained results was performed with comparison of concentrations of a number of elements in the different objects with classifying parameters ('cold-hot' and 'dry-wet') of these objects according to oriental medicine. In the current stage of studies no relation between these parameters and concentrations has been found. It does not mean that there are not such relations at all, they may be revealed with extension and development of our' studies.

  7. Vegetation sampling for the screening of subsurface pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, U. G.; Petersen, M. D.; Algreen, M.; Rein, A.; Sheehan, E.; Limmer, M. A.; Burken, J. G.; Mayer, P.; Trapp, S.

    2012-04-01

    Measurement of vegetation samples has been reported as an alternative, cheap method to drilling for exploring subsurface pollution. The purpose of this presentation is to give an update on some further developments of this field method - faster sampling and improved analysis for chlorinated solvents, and application of phytomonitoring to heavy metal contamination. Rapid analysis of trees for chlorinated solvents was facilitated by employing automated headspace SPME-GC/ECD, resulting in a detection limit of 0.87 and 0.04 μg/kg fresh weight of wood for TCE and PCE, respectively, which is significantly lower than we have reported earlier, using manual injection of 1mL headspace air into a GC/MS. Technical details of the new method will be presented. As an even more direct alternative, time weighted average SPME analysis has been developed for in planta sampling of trees, using novel polydimethylsiloxane/carboxen SPME fibres designed for field application. In a different study, trees growing on a former dump site in Norway were analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn). Concentrations in wood were in averages (dw) 30 mg/kg for Zn, 2 mg/kg for Cu, and <1 mg/kg for Cd, Cr, As and Ni. For all except one case, mean concentrations from the dump site were higher than those from a unpolluted reference site, but the difference was small and not always significant. Differences between tree species were typically higher than differences between the polluted and the unpolluted site. As all these elements occur naturally, and Cu, Ni, and Zn are essential elements, all trees will have a natural background of these elements, and the occurrence alone does not indicate soil pollution. For the interpretation of the results, a comparison to wood samples from an unpolluted reference site with the same tree species and similar soil conditions is required. This makes the tree core screening method less reliable for heavy metals than, e

  8. SMEX02 Watershed Vegetation Sampling Data, Walnut Creek, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the vegetation parameters stand density, plant height, phenological stage, ground cover, green and dry biomass, row spacing, stem and leaf...

  9. Determination of total alpha and beta activities on vegetable samples by LSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Regina Apolinaria; Santos, Eliane Eugenia dos; Bakker, Alexandre Pereira; Vavassori, Giullia

    2011-01-01

    Gross alpha and beta analyses are screening techniques used for environmental radioactivity monitoring. The present study proposes to determine the gross alpha and beta activities in vegetable samples by using LSC - liquid scintillation spectrometry. The procedure was applied to vegetable foods. After ashing vegetable samples in a muffle furnace, 100 mg of ash were added to gel mixture of scintillation cocktails, Water - Instagel - Ultima Gold AB (6:10:4) ml, in polyethylene vial. Am-241 standard solution and a KCl (K-40) solution were used to determine the counting configuration, alpha/beta efficiencies and spillover

  10. Heavy metals in vegetables sampled from farm and market sites in Accra metropolis, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fordjour, Linda Addae

    2015-07-01

    This study reports for the first time in Ghana long-term monitoring of heavy metal contamination of vegetables. As reliable residue data analysis resulting from monitoring programs in foods is of great value to the general populace; this could address the possible risk of heavy metal exposure to human health. In this study, monitoring of heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in consumable vegetables was assessed for a period of 2 years, 2013-2014. In all, a total of 479 vegetables (cabbage (Brassica oleracea), carrot (Daucus carota), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), green pepper (Capsicum annuum) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa)) were purchased from farm (production) and market sites within Accra Metropolis, Ghana. Samples were subjected to acid digestion and analyzed with atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). All the vegetables studied contained at least two (2) or more metals; 18.99% of the samples had metal detections below the European Union (EU) guideline values, whereas 81% were above limits. Vegetables from Mallam Attah market and the Ghana Broadcasting Corporation (GBC) sites registered the highest percentage exceedances (100%) with the largest violation occurring in lettuce (97.41%). Elevated concentrations of these metals were also observed in vegetables from markets compared to the farms except As, Cd, Co and Fe. Ni and Cr were undetected in vegetables from farms, however their maximum concentrations (1.236 and 2.459 mg/kg) were recorded in lettuce at market sites. Additionally, the significant metal increases in vegetables from the markets could be due to atmospheric depositions and mode of handling by both farmers and buyers. On the other hand, studies of the soils from the various farm sites had varying mean concentrations of heavy metals, Fe (189.703), Mn (142.246) and As (9.145 mg/kg). However, all the metal levels in the soil were below EU limits, except As (24.2 mg/kg) found at Dzorwulu site, which exceeded the 20.0 mg/kg limit for As in

  11. Single Tree Vegetation Depth Estimation Tool for Satellite Services Link Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Hasirci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Attenuation caused by tree shadowing is an important factor for describing the propagation channel of satellite services. Thus, vegetation effects should be determined by experimental studies or empirical formulations. In this study, tree types in the Black Sea Region of Turkey are classified based on their geometrical shapes into four groups such as conic, ellipsoid, spherical and hemispherical. The variations of the vegetation depth according to different tree shapes are calculated with ray tracing method. It is showed that different geometrical shapes have different vegetation depths even if they have same foliage volume for different elevation angles. The proposed method is validated with the related literature in terms of average single tree attenuation. On the other hand, due to decrease system requirements (speed, memory usage etc. of ray tracing method, an artificial neural network is proposed as an alternative. A graphical user interface is created for the above processes in MATLAB environment named vegetation depth estimation tool (VdET.

  12. Sampling strategies to capture single-cell heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    Satwik Rajaram; Louise E. Heinrich; John D. Gordan; Jayant Avva; Kathy M. Bonness; Agnieszka K. Witkiewicz; James S. Malter; Chloe E. Atreya; Robert S. Warren; Lani F. Wu; Steven J. Altschuler

    2017-01-01

    Advances in single-cell technologies have highlighted the prevalence and biological significance of cellular heterogeneity. A critical question is how to design experiments that faithfully capture the true range of heterogeneity from samples of cellular populations. Here, we develop a data-driven approach, illustrated in the context of image data, that estimates the sampling depth required for prospective investigations of single-cell heterogeneity from an existing collection of samples. ...

  13. Production of vegetation samples containing radionuclides gamma emitters to attend the interlaboratory programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Poliana Santos de

    2016-01-01

    The production of environmental samples such as soil, sediment, water and vegetation with radionuclides for intercomparison tests is a very important contribution to environmental monitoring. Laboratories that carry out such monitoring need to demonstrate that their results are reliable. The IRD National Intercomparison Program (PNI) produces and distributes environmental samples containing radionuclides used to check the laboratories performance. This work demonstrates the feasibility of producing vegetation (grass) samples containing 60 Co, 65 Zn, 134 Cs, and 137 Cs by the spike sample method for the PNI. The preparation and the statistical tests followed the ISO guides 34 and 35 recommendations. The grass samples were dried, ground and passed through a sieve of 250 μm. 500 g of vegetation was treated in each procedure. Samples were treated by two different procedures:1) homogenizing of the radioactive solution containing vegetation by hand and drying in an oven and 2) homogenizing of the radioactive solution containing the vegetation in a rotatory evaporator and drying in an oven. The theoretical activity concentration of the radionuclides in the grass had a range of 593 Bq/kg to 683 Bq/kg. After gamma spectrometry analysis the results of both procedures were compared as accuracy, precision, homogeneity and stability. The accuracy, precision and short time stability from both methods were similar but the homogeneity test of the evaporation method was not approved for the radionuclides 60 Co and 134 Cs. Based on comparisons between procedures was chosen the manual agitation procedure for the grass sample for the PNI. The accuracy of the procedure, represented by the uncertainty and based on theoretical value had a range between -1.1 and 5.1% and the precision between 0.6 a 6.5 %. This result show is the procedure chosen for the production of grass samples for PNI. (author)

  14. Evaluation of sample preparation methods and optimization of nickel determination in vegetable tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fernando dos Santos Salazar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Nickel, although essential to plants, may be toxic to plants and animals. It is mainly assimilated by food ingestion. However, information about the average levels of elements (including Ni in edible vegetables from different regions is still scarce in Brazil. The objectives of this study were to: (a evaluate and optimize a method for preparation of vegetable tissue samples for Ni determination; (b optimize the analytical procedures for determination by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS and by Electrothermal Atomic Absorption (ETAAS in vegetable samples and (c determine the Ni concentration in vegetables consumed in the cities of Lorena and Taubaté in the Vale do Paraíba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. By means of the analytical technique for determination by ETAAS or FAAS, the results were validated by the test of analyte addition and recovery. The most viable method tested for quantification of this element was HClO4-HNO3 wet digestion. All samples but carrot tissue collected in Lorena contained Ni levels above the permitted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The most disturbing results, requiring more detailed studies, were the Ni concentrations measured in carrot samples from Taubaté, where levels were five times higher than permitted by Brazilian regulations.

  15. A sampling device for counting insect egg clusters and measuring vertical distribution of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Talerico; Robert W., Jr. Wilson

    1978-01-01

    The use of a vertical sampling pole that delineates known volumes and position is illustrated and demonstrated for counting egg clusters of N. sertifer. The pole can also be used to estimate vertical and horizontal coverage, distribution or damage of vegetation or foliage.

  16. Laboratory and Airborne BRDF Analysis of Vegetation Leaves and Soil Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Butler, James J.; King, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory-based Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) analysis of vegetation leaves, soil, and leaf litter samples is presented. The leaf litter and soil samples, numbered 1 and 2, were obtained from a site located in the savanna biome of South Africa (Skukuza: 25.0degS, 31.5degE). A third soil sample, number 3, was obtained from Etosha Pan, Namibia (19.20degS, 15.93degE, alt. 1100 m). In addition, BRDF of local fresh and dry leaves from tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera) and acacia tree (Acacia greggii) were studied. It is shown how the BRDF depends on the incident and scatter angles, sample size (i.e. crushed versus whole leaf,) soil samples fraction size, sample status (i.e. fresh versus dry leaves), vegetation species (poplar versus acacia), and vegetation s biochemical composition. As a demonstration of the application of the results of this study, airborne BRDF measurements acquired with NASA's Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) over the same general site where the soil and leaf litter samples were obtained are compared to the laboratory results. Good agreement between laboratory and airborne measured BRDF is reported.

  17. An Evaluation of Plotless Sampling Using Vegetation Simulations and Field Data from a Mangrove Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renske Hijbeek

    Full Text Available In vegetation science and forest management, tree density is often used as a variable. To determine the value of this variable, reliable field methods are necessary. When vegetation is sparse or not easily accessible, the use of sample plots is not feasible in the field. Therefore, plotless methods, like the Point Centred Quarter Method, are often used as an alternative. In this study we investigate the accuracy of different plotless sampling methods. To this end, tree densities of a mangrove forest were determined and compared with estimates provided by several plotless methods. None of these methods proved accurate across all field sites with mean underestimations up to 97% and mean overestimations up to 53% in the field. Applying the methods to different vegetation patterns shows that when random spatial distributions were used the true density was included within the 95% confidence limits of all the plotless methods tested. It was also found that, besides aggregation and regularity, density trends often found in mangroves contribute to the unreliability. This outcome raises questions about the use of plotless sampling in forest monitoring and management, as well as for estimates of density-based carbon sequestration. We give recommendations to minimize errors in vegetation surveys and recommendations for further in-depth research.

  18. Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.; Bhatt, U.S.

    2012-01-01

    increased 20-26%. • Increasing shrub growth and range extension throughout the Low Arctic are related to winter and early growing season temperature increases. Growth of other tundra plant types, including graminoids and forbs, is increasing, while growth of mosses and lichens is decreasing. • Increases...... in vegetation (including shrub tundra expansion) and thunderstorm activity, each a result of Arctic warming, have created conditions that favor a more active Arctic fire regime....

  19. Integrating field sampling, geostatistics and remote sensing to map wetland vegetation in the Pantanal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arieira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of efficient methodologies for mapping wetland vegetation is of key importance to wetland conservation. Here we propose the integration of a number of statistical techniques, in particular cluster analysis, universal kriging and error propagation modelling, to integrate observations from remote sensing and field sampling for mapping vegetation communities and estimating uncertainty. The approach results in seven vegetation communities with a known floral composition that can be mapped over large areas using remotely sensed data. The relationship between remotely sensed data and vegetation patterns, captured in four factorial axes, were described using multiple linear regression models. There were then used in a universal kriging procedure to reduce the mapping uncertainty. Cross-validation procedures and Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the uncertainty in the resulting map. Cross-validation showed that accuracy in classification varies according with the community type, as a result of sampling density and configuration. A map of uncertainty derived from Monte Carlo simulations revealed significant spatial variation in classification, but this had little impact on the proportion and arrangement of the communities observed. These results suggested that mapping improvement could be achieved by increasing the number of field observations of those communities with a scattered and small patch size distribution; or by including a larger number of digital images as explanatory variables in the model. Comparison of the resulting plant community map with a flood duration map, revealed that flooding duration is an important driver of vegetation zonation. This mapping approach is able to integrate field point data and high-resolution remote-sensing images, providing a new basis to map wetland vegetation and allow its future application in habitat management, conservation assessment and long-term ecological monitoring in wetland

  20. Vegetation Sampling for Wetland Delineation: A Review and Synthesis of Methods and Sampling Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    which trees are sampled via use of an angle gauge or basal area prism (Husch et al. 2003; Packard and Radtke 2007). Basal area data can be used to...refuges from fungal pathogens for seeds of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). Ecology 85(1): 284– 289. Packard, K. C., and P. J. Radtke . 2007. Forest

  1. Assessment of metals bioavailability to vegetables under field conditions using DGT, single extractions and multivariate statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The metals bioavailability in soils is commonly assessed by chemical extractions; however a generally accepted method is not yet established. In this study, the effectiveness of Diffusive Gradients in Thin-films (DGT) technique and single extractions in the assessment of metals bioaccumulation in vegetables, and the influence of soil parameters on phytoavailability were evaluated using multivariate statistics. Soil and plants grown in vegetable gardens from mining-affected rural areas, NW Romania, were collected and analysed. Results Pseudo-total metal content of Cu, Zn and Cd in soil ranged between 17.3-146 mg kg-1, 141–833 mg kg-1 and 0.15-2.05 mg kg-1, respectively, showing enriched contents of these elements. High degrees of metals extractability in 1M HCl and even in 1M NH4Cl were observed. Despite the relatively high total metal concentrations in soil, those found in vegetables were comparable to values typically reported for agricultural crops, probably due to the low concentrations of metals in soil solution (Csoln) and low effective concentrations (CE), assessed by DGT technique. Among the analysed vegetables, the highest metal concentrations were found in carrots roots. By applying multivariate statistics, it was found that CE, Csoln and extraction in 1M NH4Cl, were better predictors for metals bioavailability than the acid extractions applied in this study. Copper transfer to vegetables was strongly influenced by soil organic carbon (OC) and cation exchange capacity (CEC), while pH had a higher influence on Cd transfer from soil to plants. Conclusions The results showed that DGT can be used for general evaluation of the risks associated to soil contamination with Cu, Zn and Cd in field conditions. Although quantitative information on metals transfer from soil to vegetables was not observed. PMID:23079133

  2. Validation of single-sample doubly labeled water method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, M.D.; Weathers, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    We have experimentally validated a single-sample variant of the doubly labeled water method for measuring metabolic rate and water turnover in a very small passerine bird, the verdin (Auriparus flaviceps). We measured CO 2 production using the Haldane gravimetric technique and compared these values with estimates derived from isotopic data. Doubly labeled water results based on the one-sample calculations differed from Haldane values by less than 0.5% on average (range -8.3 to 11.2%, n = 9). Water flux computed by the single-sample method differed by -1.5% on average from results for the same birds based on the standard, two-sample technique (range -13.7 to 2.0%, n = 9)

  3. Tip chip : Subcellular sampling from single cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quist, Jos; Sarajlic, Edin; Lai, Stanley C.S.; Lemay, Serge G.

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the molecular content of single cells, cell lysis is typically required, yielding a snapshot of cell behavior only. To follow complex molecular profiles over time, subcellular sampling methods potentially can be used, but to date these methods involve laborious offline analysis. Here we

  4. Sequential sampling and biorational chemistries for management of lepidopteran pests of vegetable amaranth in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke-Harris, Dionne; Fleischer, Shelby J

    2003-06-01

    Although vegetable amaranth, Amaranthus viridis L. and A. dubius Mart. ex Thell., production and economic importance is increasing in diversified peri-urban farms in Jamaica, lepidopteran herbivory is common even during weekly pyrethroid applications. We developed and validated a sampling plan, and investigated insecticides with new modes of action, for a complex of five species (Pyralidae: Spoladea recurvalis (F.), Herpetogramma bipunctalis (F.), Noctuidae: Spodoptera exigua (Hubner), S. frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and S. eridania Stoll). Significant within-plant variation occurred with H. bipunctalis, and a six-leaf sample unit including leaves from the inner and outer whorl was selected to sample all species. Larval counts best fit a negative binomial distribution. We developed a sequential sampling plan using a threshold of one larva per sample unit and the fitted distribution with a k(c) of 0.645. When compared with a fixed plan of 25 plants, sequential sampling recommended the same management decision on 87.5%, additional samples on 9.4%, and gave inaccurate recommendations on 3.1% of 32 farms, while reducing sample size by 46%. Insecticide frequency was reduced 33-60% when management decisions were based on sampled data compared with grower-standards, with no effect on crop damage. Damage remained high or variable (10-46%) with pyrethroid applications. Lepidopteran control was dramatically improved with ecdysone agonists (tebufenozide) or microbial metabolites (spinosyns and emamectin benzoate). This work facilitates resistance management efforts concurrent with the introduction of newer modes of action for lepidopteran control in leafy vegetable production in the Caribbean.

  5. Genomic Sequencing of Single Microbial Cells from Environmental Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishoey, Thomas; Woyke, Tanja; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Novotny, Mark; Lasken, Roger S.

    2008-02-01

    Recently developed techniques allow genomic DNA sequencing from single microbial cells [Lasken RS: Single-cell genomic sequencing using multiple displacement amplification, Curr Opin Microbiol 2007, 10:510-516]. Here, we focus on research strategies for putting these methods into practice in the laboratory setting. An immediate consequence of single-cell sequencing is that it provides an alternative to culturing organisms as a prerequisite for genomic sequencing. The microgram amounts of DNA required as template are amplified from a single bacterium by a method called multiple displacement amplification (MDA) avoiding the need to grow cells. The ability to sequence DNA from individual cells will likely have an immense impact on microbiology considering the vast numbers of novel organisms, which have been inaccessible unless culture-independent methods could be used. However, special approaches have been necessary to work with amplified DNA. MDA may not recover the entire genome from the single copy present in most bacteria. Also, some sequence rearrangements can occur during the DNA amplification reaction. Over the past two years many research groups have begun to use MDA, and some practical approaches to single-cell sequencing have been developed. We review the consensus that is emerging on optimum methods, reliability of amplified template, and the proper interpretation of 'composite' genomes which result from the necessity of combining data from several single-cell MDA reactions in order to complete the assembly. Preferred laboratory methods are considered on the basis of experience at several large sequencing centers where >70% of genomes are now often recovered from single cells. Methods are reviewed for preparation of bacterial fractions from environmental samples, single-cell isolation, DNA amplification by MDA, and DNA sequencing.

  6. Sampling device for withdrawing a representative sample from single and multi-phase flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apley, Walter J.; Cliff, William C.; Creer, James M.

    1984-01-01

    A fluid stream sampling device has been developed for the purpose of obtaining a representative sample from a single or multi-phase fluid flow. This objective is carried out by means of a probe which may be inserted into the fluid stream. Individual samples are withdrawn from the fluid flow by sampling ports with particular spacings, and the sampling parts are coupled to various analytical systems for characterization of the physical, thermal, and chemical properties of the fluid flow as a whole and also individually.

  7. THEORETICAL MODELLING STUDY ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MULTI-FREQUENCY MICROWAVE VEGETATION INDEX AND VEGETATION PROPERTIES (OPTICAL DEPTH AND SINGLE SCATTERING ALBEDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Talebi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical study of derivation Microwave Vegetation Indices (MVIs in different pairs of frequencies using two methods. In the first method calculating MVI in different frequencies based on Matrix Doubling Model (to take in to account multi scattering effects has been done and analyzed in various soil properties. The second method was based on MVI theoretical basis and its independency to underlying soil surface signals. Comparing the results from two methods with vegetation properties (single scattering albedo and optical depth indicated partial correlation between MVI from first method and optical depth, and full correlation between MVI from second method and vegetation properties. The second method to derive MVI can be used widely in global microwave vegetation monitoring.

  8. Application of atomic absorption spectrophotometry to determine Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn,...in vegetable samples in Dalat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giang, Nguyen; Tam, Nguyen Thanh; Ngoc Trinh, Le Thi; Mai, Truong Phuong; Minh, Nguyen Van [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    2004-08-01

    Nowadays atomic absorption spectrometry has become valuable method for trace element analysis because high specificity; low detection litmus, easy to use; easy sample preparation, low investment and running costs... atomic absorption spectrometry is generally accepted as one the most suitable method for single - element analysis of trace elements in various kinds of materiel. In 2003, we applied flame - atomic absorption spectrometry for analyzing Ca, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn...in vegetables and their extracted juices were collected form 11 locations of Dalat, including two kinds of vegetables (goods and safety) in both the summer and winter. Average concentration of Ca = 240 mg/kg wet, Cd = 0.035 mg/kg wet, Cu = 0.67 mg/kg wet, Mg = 131 mg/kg wet, Fe = 8.1/kg wet, Mn = 3.1/kg wet, Na = 3266 mg/kg wet, Pb = 0.345 mg/kg wet and Zn = 3.3 mg wet. In their extracted juices: Ca = 89 mg/kg wet, Cd = 0.008 mg/kg wet, Cu = 0.19 mg/kg wet, Mg = 43 mg/kg wet, Fe = 2.3 mg/kg wet, Mn = 0.61 mg/kg wet, Na = 971 mg/kg wet, Pb = 0.107 mg/kg wet and Zn = 0.65 mg/kg wet. (author)

  9. Application of atomic absorption spectrophotometry to determine Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn,...in vegetable samples in Dalat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Giang; Nguyen Thanh Tam; Le Thi Ngoc Trinh; Truong Phuong Mai; Nguyen Van Minh

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays atomic absorption spectrometry has become valuable method for trace element analysis because high specificity; low detection litmus, easy to use; easy sample preparation, low investment and running costs... atomic absorption spectrometry is generally accepted as one the most suitable method for single - element analysis of trace elements in various kinds of materiel. In 2003, we applied flame - atomic absorption spectrometry for analyzing Ca, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn...in vegetables and their extracted juices were collected form 11 locations of Dalat, including two kinds of vegetables (goods and safety) in both the summer and winter. Average concentration of Ca = 240 mg/kg wet, Cd = 0.035 mg/kg wet, Cu = 0.67 mg/kg wet, Mg = 131 mg/kg wet, Fe = 8.1/kg wet, Mn = 3.1/kg wet, Na = 3266 mg/kg wet, Pb = 0.345 mg/kg wet and Zn = 3.3 mg wet. In their extracted juices: Ca = 89 mg/kg wet, Cd = 0.008 mg/kg wet, Cu = 0.19 mg/kg wet, Mg = 43 mg/kg wet, Fe = 2.3 mg/kg wet, Mn = 0.61 mg/kg wet, Na = 971 mg/kg wet, Pb = 0.107 mg/kg wet and Zn = 0.65 mg/kg wet. (author)

  10. Sensitive spectrophotometric methods for determination of some organophosphorus pesticides in vegetable samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAGDA A. AKL

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Three rapid, simple, reproducible and sensitive spectrophotometric methods (A, B and C are described for the determination of two organophosphorus pesticides, (malathion and dimethoate in formulations and vegetable samples. The methods A and B involve the addition of an excess of Ce4+ into sulphuric acid medium and the determination of the unreacted oxidant by decreasing the red color of chromotrope 2R (C2R at a suitable lmax = 528 nm for method A, or a decrease in the orange pink color of rhodamine 6G (Rh6G at a suitable lmax = = 525 nm. The method C is based on the oxidation of malathion or dimethoate with the slight excess of N-bromosuccinimide (NBS and the determination of unreacted oxidant by reacting it with amaranth dye (AM in hydrochloric acid medium at a suitable lmax = 520 nm. A regression analysis of Beer-Lambert plots showed a good correlation in the concentration range of 0.1-4.2 μg mL−1. The apparent molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity, the detection and quantification limits were calculated. For more accurate analysis, Ringbom optimum concentration ranges are 0.25-4.0 μg mL−1. The developed methods were successfully applied to the determination of malathion, and dimethoate in their formulations and environmental vegetable samples.

  11. {sup 137}Cs Absorption factors (Afs) some vegetable and protein samples in cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malek, M A [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Nakahara, M [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Hitachinaka City (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Full text: The human race uses fresh water for cooking, drinking and washing purposes. The source of fresh water may be radioactively contaminated by various sources of contaminants. With the increased use of radioisotopes, nuclear testing, possible nuclear warfare and terror activities, the apprehension of widespread contamination of the surface and ground water is increasing day by day. In the case of widespread contamination of freshwater sources, people may be compelled to use the contaminated water. The radionuclides in fresh water may enter the human body through two major routes: drinking and cooking food with the water. During cooking, the radionuclide present in the water may be transferred to the various ingredients of the cooked dish. The degree of contamination in the ingredients during the cooking depends on the absorption power of the individual ingredients and on the level of radionuclide present in the water. The ratio of the concentration of the radionuclide absorbed in the ingredients to the concentration in the water can be designated as the 'Absorption factor' (Af). A consumer always has the choice of eating either the whole dish or a part of the dish. The Af of every consumed ingredient can be used to predict the radionuclide absorbed by the individual ingredients cooked with contaminated water, and as such to predict the dose to the consumer. The factor can also be used to assess the dispersion of radionuclide from the water used in cooking to the ingredients in the cooked dish. A better understanding of variables in the cooking that affect the Af in various ingredients is central to deriving the contamination level of the ingredients. To the best of our knowledge, no investigation on this topic has been conducted before. In order to assess this topic and for obtaining base line data, a research project was undertaken to determine the Afs of some vegetable and protein samples, and to investigate the effects of salinity and cooling on Af

  12. A Single Platinum Microelectrode for Identifying Soft Drink Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Bueno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic voltammograms recorded with a single platinum microelectrode were used along with a non-supervised pattern recognition, namely, Principal Component Analysis, to conduct a qualitative analysis of sixteen different brands of carbonated soft drinks (Kuat, Soda Antarctica, H2OH!, Sprite 2.0, Guarana Antarctica, Guarana Antarctica Zero, Coca-Cola, Coca-Cola Zero, Coca-Cola Plus, Pepsi, Pepsi Light, Pepsi Twist, Pepsi Twist Light, Pepsi Twist 3, Schin Cola, and Classic Dillar’s. In this analysis, soft drink samples were not subjected to pre-treatment. Good differentiation among all the analysed soft drinks was achieved using the voltammetric data. An analysis of the loading plots shows that the potentials of −0.65 V, −0.4 V, 0.4 V, and 0.750 V facilitated the discrimination process. The electrochemical processes related to this potential are the reduction of hydrogen ions and inhibition of the platinum oxidation by the caffeine adsorption on the electrode surface. Additionally, the single platinum microelectrode was useful for the quality control of the soft drink samples, as it helped to identify the time at which the beverage was opened.

  13. Diagnosing phenotypes of single-sample individuals by edge biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanwei; Zeng, Tao; Liu, Xiaoping; Chen, Luonan

    2015-06-01

    Network or edge biomarkers are a reliable form to characterize phenotypes or diseases. However, obtaining edges or correlations between molecules for an individual requires measurement of multiple samples of that individual, which are generally unavailable in clinical practice. Thus, it is strongly demanded to diagnose a disease by edge or network biomarkers in one-sample-for-one-individual context. Here, we developed a new computational framework, EdgeBiomarker, to integrate edge and node biomarkers to diagnose phenotype of each single test sample. By applying the method to datasets of lung and breast cancer, it reveals new marker genes/gene-pairs and related sub-networks for distinguishing earlier and advanced cancer stages. Our method shows advantages over traditional methods: (i) edge biomarkers extracted from non-differentially expressed genes achieve better cross-validation accuracy of diagnosis than molecule or node biomarkers from differentially expressed genes, suggesting that certain pathogenic information is only present at the level of network and under-estimated by traditional methods; (ii) edge biomarkers categorize patients into low/high survival rate in a more reliable manner; (iii) edge biomarkers are significantly enriched in relevant biological functions or pathways, implying that the association changes in a network, rather than expression changes in individual molecules, tend to be causally related to cancer development. The new framework of edge biomarkers paves the way for diagnosing diseases and analyzing their molecular mechanisms by edges or networks in one-sample-for-one-individual basis. This also provides a powerful tool for precision medicine or big-data medicine. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  14. A performance comparison of sampling methods in the assessment of species composition patterns and environment–vegetation relationships in species-rich grasslands

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Swacha; Zoltán Botta-Dukát; Zygmunt Kącki; Daniel Pruchniewicz; Ludwik Żołnierz

    2017-01-01

    The influence that different sampling methods have on the results and the interpretation of vegetation analysis has been much debated, but little is yet known about how the spatial arrangement of samples affect patterns of species composition and environment–vegetation relationships within the same vegetation type. We compared three data sets of the same sample size obtained by three standard sampling methods: preferential, random, and systematic. These different sampling methods were applied...

  15. Ultrasound-assisted single-drop microextraction for the determination of cadmium in vegetable oils using high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Jorge S.; Anunciação, Taiana A.; Brandão, Geovani C.; Dantas, Alailson F.; Lemos, Valfredo A.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents an ultrasound-assisted single-drop microextraction procedure for the determination of cadmium in vegetable oils using high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Some initial tests showed that the best extraction efficiency was obtained when using ultrasound instead of mechanical agitation, indicating that acoustic cavitation improved the extraction process. Nitric, hydrochloric and acetic acids were evaluated for use in the extraction process, and HNO 3 gave the best results. A two-level full-factorial design was applied to investigate the best conditions for the extraction of Cd from the oil samples. The influences of the sonication amplitude, time and temperature of the extraction were evaluated. The results of the design revealed that all of the variables had a significant effect on the experimental results. Afterward, a Box–Behnken design was applied to determine the optimum conditions for the determination of cadmium in vegetable oil samples. According to a multivariate study, the optimum conditions were as follows: sonication amplitude of 60%, extraction time of 15 min, extraction temperature of 46 °C and 0.1 mol L −1 HNO 3 as the extractor solution. Under optimized conditions, the developed method allows for the determination of Cd in oil samples with a limit of quantification of 7.0 ng kg −1 . Addition and recovery experiments were performed in vegetable oil samples to evaluate the accuracy of the method, and the recoveries obtained varied from 90% to 115%. The samples were also analyzed after the acid digestion procedure, and the paired t-test (95% confidence level) did not show significant differences from the proposed method. - Highlights: • The determination of cadmium in vegetable oils was developed using UA-SDME. • HR-CS ET-AAS was employed as a detection technique with direct drop sampling. • The procedure allowed for a reduction in the consumption of reagents and samples

  16. Ultrasound-assisted single-drop microextraction for the determination of cadmium in vegetable oils using high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Jorge S.; Anunciação, Taiana A. [Departamento de Química Analítica, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitário de Ondina, Salvador, Bahia 40170-280 (Brazil); Brandão, Geovani C. [Departamento de Química Analítica, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitário de Ondina, Salvador, Bahia 40170-280 (Brazil); INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitário de Ondina, Salvador, Bahia 40170-280 (Brazil); Dantas, Alailson F. [Departamento de Química Analítica, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitário de Ondina, Salvador, Bahia 40170-280 (Brazil); Lemos, Valfredo A. [Laboratório de Química Analítica (LQA), Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Campus de Jequié, Jequié, Bahia 45506-191 (Brazil); and others

    2015-05-01

    This work presents an ultrasound-assisted single-drop microextraction procedure for the determination of cadmium in vegetable oils using high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Some initial tests showed that the best extraction efficiency was obtained when using ultrasound instead of mechanical agitation, indicating that acoustic cavitation improved the extraction process. Nitric, hydrochloric and acetic acids were evaluated for use in the extraction process, and HNO{sub 3} gave the best results. A two-level full-factorial design was applied to investigate the best conditions for the extraction of Cd from the oil samples. The influences of the sonication amplitude, time and temperature of the extraction were evaluated. The results of the design revealed that all of the variables had a significant effect on the experimental results. Afterward, a Box–Behnken design was applied to determine the optimum conditions for the determination of cadmium in vegetable oil samples. According to a multivariate study, the optimum conditions were as follows: sonication amplitude of 60%, extraction time of 15 min, extraction temperature of 46 °C and 0.1 mol L{sup −1} HNO{sub 3} as the extractor solution. Under optimized conditions, the developed method allows for the determination of Cd in oil samples with a limit of quantification of 7.0 ng kg{sup −1}. Addition and recovery experiments were performed in vegetable oil samples to evaluate the accuracy of the method, and the recoveries obtained varied from 90% to 115%. The samples were also analyzed after the acid digestion procedure, and the paired t-test (95% confidence level) did not show significant differences from the proposed method. - Highlights: • The determination of cadmium in vegetable oils was developed using UA-SDME. • HR-CS ET-AAS was employed as a detection technique with direct drop sampling. • The procedure allowed for a reduction in the consumption of reagents and

  17. Soil wetting patterns of vegetation and inter-patches following single and repeated wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Óscar; Malvar, Maruxa; van den Elsen, Erik; Hosseini, mohammadreza; Coelho, Celeste; Ritsema, Coen; Bautista, Susana; Keizer, Jan Jacob; Cerdà, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    Although wildfires spread in Mediterranean areas are considered a natural processes, the expected increase in fire frequency has raised concerns about the systems' future resilience (Pausas, 2004). Besides more frequent, future wildfires can become more severe and produce more pronounced changes in topsoil properties, vegetation and litter (Cerdá and Mataix-Solera, 2009). To deal with challenges, the EU funded CASCADE and RECARE projects, which are currently assessing soil threats and tipping-points for land degradation in a climatic gradient across Europe. The present research was developed in Portugal and aims to find relationships between fire frequency and soil wetting patterns following single versus repeated wildfires. In September 2012, a wildfire burnt 3000 ha. of Pine stands and shrub vegetation in the vicinity of Viseu district, North-Central Portugal. Analyses according to the available burnt-area maps (1975-2012), discriminated areas that has been burned 1x (called SD) and 4x (called D) times. In order to evaluate the post-fire soil surface moisture patterns, 6 slopes (3 in SD and 3 in D) were selected and a balanced experimental design with 72 soil moisture sensors (EC5 and GS3, from Decagon devices) was implemented under shrubs (n=18) and on bare (n=18) soil environments, at 2.5 cm and 7.5 cm soil depth each. The spatio-temporal occurrence of soil water repellence (SWR) (Keizer et al., 2008; Prats et al., 2013; Santos et al., 2014) was monthly assessed through the MED test at 2.5 cm and 7.5 cm soil depth into 5 sampling points located at regular distances along a transect running from the top to bottom of a selected slope in SD and D. Automatic and totalize rainfall gauges were also installed across the study area. Preliminary results showed that soil wetting patterns and SWR occurrence differs between SD, D sites and, between soil environment (under shrubs and on bare soil areas). SWR were more pronounced on the SD than in D, affecting soil wetting

  18. Comparison of single questions and brief questionnaire with longer validated food frequency questionnaire to assess adequate fruit and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Amelia; Roberts, Kia; O'Leary, Fiona; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret Anne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if a single question (SQ) for fruit and a SQ or five-item questionnaire for vegetable consumption (VFQ) could replace a longer food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to screen for inadequate versus adequate intakes in populations. Participants (109) completed three test screeners: fruit SQ, vegetable SQ, and a five-item VFQ followed by the reference 74-item FFQ (version 2 of the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies [DQESv2]) including 13 fruit and 25 vegetable items. The five-item VFQ asked about intake of salad vegetables, cooked vegetables, white potatoes, legumes, and vegetable juice. The screeners were compared with the reference (DQESv2 FFQ) for sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive powers (PPV, NPV) to detect intakes of two or more servings of fruit and three or more servings of vegetables. Relative validity was examined using Bland-Altman statistics. The fruit SQ showed a PPV of 56% and an NPV of 83%. The PPV for the vegetable SQ was 30% and the NPV was 89%. For the five-item VFQ, the PPV was 39% and the NPV was 85%. Bland-Altman plots and linear regression equations showed that although the screener showed good agreement for fruit (unstandardized b1 coefficient = 0.04) for vegetable intake the difference between methods increased at higher intake levels (unstandardized b1 coefficients = -0.3 for the SQ, b1 = -0.6 for five-item VFQ). The fruit SQ and the five-item VFQ are suitable replacements for longer FFQs to detect inadequate intake and assess population mean but not individual intakes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rugged single domain antibody detection elements for Bacillus anthracis spores and vegetative cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Walper

    Full Text Available Significant efforts to develop both laboratory and field-based detection assays for an array of potential biological threats started well before the anthrax attacks of 2001 and have continued with renewed urgency following. While numerous assays and methods have been explored that are suitable for laboratory utilization, detection in the field is often complicated by requirements for functionality in austere environments, where limited cold-chain facilities exist. In an effort to overcome these assay limitations for Bacillus anthracis, one of the most recognizable threats, a series of single domain antibodies (sdAbs were isolated from a phage display library prepared from immunized llamas. Characterization of target specificity, affinity, and thermal stability was conducted for six sdAb families isolated from rounds of selection against the bacterial spore. The protein target for all six sdAb families was determined to be the S-layer protein EA1, which is present in both vegetative cells and bacterial spores. All of the sdAbs examined exhibited a high degree of specificity for the target bacterium and its spore, with affinities in the nanomolar range, and the ability to refold into functional antigen-binding molecules following several rounds of thermal denaturation and refolding. This research demonstrates the capabilities of these sdAbs and their potential for integration into current and developing assays and biosensors.

  20. Results of groundwater monitoring and vegetation sampling at Everest, Kansas, in 2009 .

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-05-13

    approval. The levels in selected monitoring wells are recorded continuously, by using downhole pressure sensors equipped with automatic data loggers, and periodically are also measured manually. Groundwater level data were recovered during the current review period on September 19, 2008, and on March 25, April 25-27, and October 20, 2009. (3) Argonne experience has demonstrated that the sampling and analysis (for VOCs) of native vegetation, and particularly tree tissues, often provides a sensitive indicator of possible carbon tetrachloride contamination in the surface water or shallow groundwater within the plant rooting zone. With the approval of the CCC/USDA, on August 28, 2009, samples of tree branch tissues were therefore collected for analyses at 18 locations along the intermittent creek west (downgradient) of the former CCC/USDA facility and the Nigh property.

  1. Influence of salinity stress on the height and productivity features of durum wheat samples in different phases of vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Sikhmuradov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of salinity stress on the morphological features of durum wheat in different phases of vegetation is studied in the work. It is revealed that in earlier phases the samples have weak stability, but further salt-stability increases.

  2. Calculation of upper confidence bounds on not-sampled vegetation types using a systematic grid sample: An application to map unit definition for existing vegetation maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul L. Patterson; Mark Finco

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the information FIA data can produce regarding forest types that were not sampled and develops the equations necessary to define the upper confidence bounds on not-sampled forest types. The problem is reduced to a Bernoulli variable. This simplification allows the upper confidence bounds to be calculated based on Cochran (1977). Examples are...

  3. Measuring 226Ra and 232Th activity in soil and vegetation samples using a method of double γ-coincidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antovic, N.M.; Antovic, I.

    2010-01-01

    A coincidence method for measuring radium and thorium activity has been developed using the PRIPYAT-2M gamma-ray coincidence spectrometer, with six NaI(Tl) detectors and registration geometry close to 4π. It was tested by measuring soil samples from the Northern region of Montenegro, as well as vegetation samples from the same region. The results showed a good agreement with ones obtained by the HPGe spectrometer. (author)

  4. Lack of effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 fatty acids on intestinal peptide release and adipokines in healthy female subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingunn Naverud

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Peptides released from the small intestine and colon regulate short-term food intake by suppressing appetite and inducing satiety. Intake of marine omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids from fish and fish oils is associated with beneficial health effects, whereas the relation between intake of the vegetable n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid and diseases is less clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the postprandial effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 fatty acids with their different unsaturated fatty acid composition on intestinal peptide release and the adipose tissue. Fourteen healthy lean females consumed three test meals with different fat quality in a fixed order. The test meal consisted of three cakes enriched with coconut fat, linseed oil and a combination of linseed and cod liver oil. The test days were separated by two weeks. Fasting and postprandial blood samples at three and six hours after intake were analysed. A significant postprandial effect was observed for cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, amylin and insulin which increased, while leptin decreased postprandially independent of the fat composition in the high-fat meal. In conclusion, in healthy, young, lean females, an intake of a high-fat meal enriched with n-3 fatty acids from different origin stimulates intestinal peptide release without any difference between the different fat compositions.

  5. Development of a Single-Sampling Noninvasive Hair Snare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremner-Harrison, Samantha; Harrison, Stephen W. R.; Cypher, Brian L.

    2006-01-01

    Noninvasive hair and fecal DNA sampling provides a means of collecting information on elusive species, while causing little or no disturbance. However, current methods of hair collection do not preclude multiple sampling, thus risking sample contamination. We developed a hair snare that prevents...... multiple sampling, is cost-effective, easy to construct, and safe for target and nontarget species. Our initial field tests on endangered San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica) and swift foxes (Vulpes velox) suggest that this hair snare may be effective in collecting uncontaminated samples for DNA...

  6. Directional emission of single photons from small atomic samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miroshnychenko, Yevhen; V. Poulsen, Uffe; Mølmer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    We provide a formalism to describe deterministic emission of single photons with tailored spatial and temporal profiles from a regular array of multi-level atoms. We assume that a single collective excitation is initially shared by all the atoms in a metastable atomic state, and that this state i...... is coupled by a classical laser field to an optically excited state which rapidly decays to the ground atomic state. Our model accounts for the different field polarization components via re-absorption and emission of light by the Zeeman manifold of optically excited states.......We provide a formalism to describe deterministic emission of single photons with tailored spatial and temporal profiles from a regular array of multi-level atoms. We assume that a single collective excitation is initially shared by all the atoms in a metastable atomic state, and that this state...

  7. Ultrasound-assisted single-drop microextraction for the determination of cadmium in vegetable oils using high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Jorge S.; Anunciação, Taiana A.; Brandão, Geovani C.; Dantas, Alailson F.; Lemos, Valfredo A.; Teixeira, Leonardo S. G.

    2015-05-01

    This work presents an ultrasound-assisted single-drop microextraction procedure for the determination of cadmium in vegetable oils using high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Some initial tests showed that the best extraction efficiency was obtained when using ultrasound instead of mechanical agitation, indicating that acoustic cavitation improved the extraction process. Nitric, hydrochloric and acetic acids were evaluated for use in the extraction process, and HNO3 gave the best results. A two-level full-factorial design was applied to investigate the best conditions for the extraction of Cd from the oil samples. The influences of the sonication amplitude, time and temperature of the extraction were evaluated. The results of the design revealed that all of the variables had a significant effect on the experimental results. Afterward, a Box-Behnken design was applied to determine the optimum conditions for the determination of cadmium in vegetable oil samples. According to a multivariate study, the optimum conditions were as follows: sonication amplitude of 60%, extraction time of 15 min, extraction temperature of 46 °C and 0.1 mol L- 1 HNO3 as the extractor solution. Under optimized conditions, the developed method allows for the determination of Cd in oil samples with a limit of quantification of 7.0 ng kg- 1. Addition and recovery experiments were performed in vegetable oil samples to evaluate the accuracy of the method, and the recoveries obtained varied from 90% to 115%. The samples were also analyzed after the acid digestion procedure, and the paired t-test (95% confidence level) did not show significant differences from the proposed method.

  8. Comparison of sampling strategies for object-based classification of urban vegetation from Very High Resolution satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougier, Simon; Puissant, Anne; Stumpf, André; Lachiche, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    Vegetation monitoring is becoming a major issue in the urban environment due to the services they procure and necessitates an accurate and up to date mapping. Very High Resolution satellite images enable a detailed mapping of the urban tree and herbaceous vegetation. Several supervised classifications with statistical learning techniques have provided good results for the detection of urban vegetation but necessitate a large amount of training data. In this context, this study proposes to investigate the performances of different sampling strategies in order to reduce the number of examples needed. Two windows based active learning algorithms from state-of-art are compared to a classical stratified random sampling and a third combining active learning and stratified strategies is proposed. The efficiency of these strategies is evaluated on two medium size French cities, Strasbourg and Rennes, associated to different datasets. Results demonstrate that classical stratified random sampling can in some cases be just as effective as active learning methods and that it should be used more frequently to evaluate new active learning methods. Moreover, the active learning strategies proposed in this work enables to reduce the computational runtime by selecting multiple windows at each iteration without increasing the number of windows needed.

  9. Reliable single cell array CGH for clinical samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew T Czyż

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disseminated cancer cells (DCCs and circulating tumor cells (CTCs are extremely rare, but comprise the precursors cells of distant metastases or therapy resistant cells. The detailed molecular analysis of these cells may help to identify key events of cancer cell dissemination, metastatic colony formation and systemic therapy escape. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the Ampli1™ whole genome amplification (WGA technology and high-resolution oligonucleotide aCGH microarrays we optimized conditions for the analysis of structural copy number changes. The protocol presented here enables reliable detection of numerical genomic alterations as small as 0.1 Mb in a single cell. Analysis of single cells from well-characterized cell lines and single normal cells confirmed the stringent quantitative nature of the amplification and hybridization protocol. Importantly, fixation and staining procedures used to detect DCCs showed no significant impact on the outcome of the analysis, proving the clinical usability of our method. In a proof-of-principle study we tracked the chromosomal changes of single DCCs over a full course of high-dose chemotherapy treatment by isolating and analyzing DCCs of an individual breast cancer patient at four different time points. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The protocol enables detailed genome analysis of DCCs and thereby assessment of the clonal evolution during the natural course of the disease and under selection pressures. The results from an exemplary patient provide evidence that DCCs surviving selective therapeutic conditions may be recruited from a pool of genomically less advanced cells, which display a stable subset of specific genomic alterations.

  10. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-B-102 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (the team) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-B-102. This document presents sampling data resulting from the April 18, 1996 sampling of SST 241-B-102. Analytical results will be presented in a separate report issued by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), which supplied and analyzed the sampling media. The team, consisting of Sampling and Mobile Laboratories (SML) and Special Analytical Studies (SAS) personnel, used the vapor sampling system (VSS) to collect representative samples of the air, gases, and vapors from the headspace of SST 241-B-102 with sorbent traps and SUMMA canisters

  11. Sampling design in large-scale vegetation studies: Do not sacrifice ecological thinking to statistical purism!

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roleček, J.; Chytrý, M.; Hájek, Michal; Lvončík, S.; Tichý, L.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 42, - (2007), s. 199-208 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6163303; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0020 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB601630504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Ecological methodology * Large-scale vegetation patterns * Macroecology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.133, year: 2007

  12. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-S-106 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-S-106. This document presents In Situ vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the June 13, 1996 sampling of SST 241-S-106. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which'supplied and analyzed the sample media

  13. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-U-104 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Vapor Issue.Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-U-104. This document presents In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the July 16, 1996 sampling of SST 241-U-104. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which supplied and analyzed the sample media

  14. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-BX-110 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (the team) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-BX-110. This document presents sampling data resulting from the April 30, 1996 sampling of SST 241-BX-110. Analytical results will be presented in a separate report issued by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), which supplied and analyzed the sampling media

  15. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-S-103 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-S-103. This document presents In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the June 12, 1996 sampling of SST 241-S-103. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which supplied and analyzed the sample media

  16. Evaluating rapid ground sampling and scaling estimated plant cover using UAV imagery up to Landsat for mapping arctic vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, P.; Paradis, D. P.

    2017-12-01

    The small stature and spectral diversity of arctic plant taxa presents challenges in mapping arctic vegetation. Mapping vegetation at the appropriate scale is needed to visualize effects of disturbance, directional vegetation change or mapping of specific plant groups for other applications (eg. habitat mapping). Fine spatial grain of remotely sensed data (ca. 10 cm pixels) is often necessary to resolve patches of many arctic plant groups, such as bryophytes and lichens. These groups are also spectrally different from mineral, litter and vascular plants. We sought to explore method to generate high-resolution spatial and spectral data to explore better mapping methods for arctic vegetation. We sampled ground vegetation at seven sites north or west of tree-line in Alaska, four north of Fairbanks and three northwest of Bethel, respectively. At each site, we estimated cover of plant functional types in 1m2 quadrats spaced approximately every 10 m along a 100 m long transect. Each quadrat was also scanned using a field spectroradiometer (PSR+ Spectral Evolution, 400-2500 nm range) and photographed from multiple perspectives. We then flew our small UAV with a RGB camera over the transect and at least 50 m on either side collecting on imagery of the plot, which were used to generate a image mosaic and digital surface model of the plot. We compare plant functional group cover ocular estimated in situ to post-hoc estimation, either automated or using a human observer, using the quadrat photos. We also compare interpolated lichen cover from UAV scenes to estimated lichen cover using a statistical models using Landsat data, with focus on lichens. Light and yellow lichens are discernable in the UAV imagery but certain lichens, especially dark colored lichens or those with spectral signatures similar to graminoid litter, present challenges. Future efforts will focus on integrating UAV-upscaled ground cover estimates to hyperspectral sensors (eg. AVIRIS ng) for better combined

  17. Use of vegetation sampling and analysis to detect a problem within a portion of a prairie restoration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, Raymond; Scholes, Chad; Krabbe, Stephen

    2017-01-02

    In June 2005, the Department of Energy (DOE) began establishing the 60-ha Howell Prairie around the disposal cell at the DOE Weldon Spring Site (WSS). Prairies were historically present in the area of the site. Quantitative Cover sampling was used to quantify Total Cover, Native Grass Cover, Non-Native Grass Cover, Native Forb Cover, Non-Native Forb Cover, Warm Season (C 4 Grass), Cool Season (C 3 Grass), Perennial Cover and Annual Cover, Litter, and Bare Ground. Four permanent vegetation sampling plots were established. The first 4 years of vegetation measurements at Howell Prairie were made during above-average rainfall years on burned and unburned plots. The fifth-year (2012) vegetation measurements were made after below-average rainfall. Five years of results not only document the consistency of the restoration effort in three areas, but also demonstrate deficiencies in Grass Cover in a fourth area. The results are not only useful for Howell Prairie, but will be useful for restoration work throughout the region. Restoration work suffers from a lack of success monitoring and in this case from a lack of available reference areas. Floristic Quality Indices are used to make qualitative comparisons of the site to Konza Prairie sites.

  18. Fluoride concentrations in soils, vegetation samples and soil fauna in the direct vicinity of a pollution source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.; Ottow, J.C.G.; Breimer, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Fluoride analyses CF t = total F; F w = water soluble F and F HCI HCI-extractable F) of different soils, vegetation samples and soil fauna (Helix pomatia, Lumbricus spp., arthropodes) in a locally polluted area (for nearly 65 years) clearly revealed an F-accumulation in top soil, vegetation and animals. Based on 1N HCI-extractable fluoride, two contamination zones around the emitting industry could be identified. In the calcareous soils, leaching of fluoride seems to be insignificant because of a strong immobilization as CaF 2 . A highly significant correlation between the F HCI content of soils and Lumbricus spp. (with and without gut content) or Helix pomatia shells was found. Fluoride concentrations in washed leaves of Hedera helix and in decaying grass reached levels of 306 and 997 μgF/g respectively. Saprophagous soil arthropods contained high fluoride levels, up to 732 μgF/g in Armadillidium vulgare. (orig.)

  19. Sample Size Induced Brittle-to-Ductile Transition of Single-Crystal Aluminum Nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    ARL-RP-0528 ● AUG 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Sample Size Induced Brittle-to- Ductile Transition of Single-Crystal Aluminum...originator. ARL-RP-0528 ● AUG 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Sample Size Induced Brittle-to- Ductile Transition of Single-Crystal...Sample Size Induced Brittle-to- Ductile Transition of Single-Crystal Aluminum Nitride 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  20. Two-step microextraction combined with high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of pyrethroids in water and vegetable samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukdasai, Siriboon; Thomas, Chunpen; Srijaranai, Supalax

    2014-03-01

    Dispersive liquid microextraction (DLME) combined with dispersive µ-solid phase extraction (D-µ-SPE) has been developed as a new approach for the extraction of four pyrethroids (tetramethrin, fenpropathrin, deltamethrin and permethrin) prior to the analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection. 1-Octanol was used as the extraction solvent in DLME. Magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) functionalized with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTS) were used as the dispersive in DLME and as the adsorbent in D-µ-SPE. The extracted pyrethroids were separated within 30 min using isocratic elution with acetonitrile:water (72:28). The factors affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factors were in the range of 51-108. Linearity was obtained in the range 0.5-400 ng mL(-1) (tetramethrin) and 5-400 ng mL(-1) (fenpropathrin, deltamethrin and permethrin) with the correlation coefficients (R(2)) greater than 0.995. Detection limits were 0.05-2 ng mL(-1) (water samples) and 0.02-2.0 ng g(-1) (vegetable samples). The relative standard deviations of peak area varied from 1.8 to 2.5% (n=10). The extraction recoveries of the four pyrethroids in field water and vegetable samples were 91.7-104.5%. The proposed method has high potential for use as a sensitive method for determination of pyrethroid residues in water and vegetable samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of Carbamate and Organophosphorus Pesticides in Vegetable Samples and the Efficiency of Gamma-Radiation in Their Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Alamgir Zaman Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the residual pesticide levels were determined in eggplants (Solanum melongena (n=16, purchased from four different markets in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The carbamate and organophosphorus pesticide residual levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and the efficiency of gamma radiation on pesticide removal in three different types of vegetables was also studied. Many (50% of the samples contained pesticides, and three samples had residual levels above the maximum residue levels determined by the World Health Organisation. Three carbamates (carbaryl, carbofuran, and pirimicarb and six organophosphates (phenthoate, diazinon, parathion, dimethoate, phosphamidon, and pirimiphos-methyl were detected in eggplant samples; the highest carbofuran level detected was 1.86 mg/kg, while phenthoate was detected at 0.311 mg/kg. Gamma radiation decreased pesticide levels proportionately with increasing radiation doses. Diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and phosphamidon were reduced by 40–48%, 35–43%, and 30–45%, respectively, when a radiation strength of 0.5 kGy was utilized. However, when the radiation dose was increased to 1.0 kGy, the levels of the pesticides were reduced to 85–90%, 80–91%, and 90–95%, respectively. In summary, our study revealed that pesticide residues are present at high amounts in vegetable samples and that gamma radiation at 1.0 kGy can remove 80–95% of some pesticides.

  2. Fruit and vegetable intake in a sample of 11-year-old children in 9 European countries: The Pro Children Cross-sectional Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yngve, Agneta; Wolf, Alexandra; Poortvliet, Eric

    2005-01-01

    that the fruit and vegetable intake in amounts and choice were highly diverse in the 9 participating countries. Vegetable intake was in general lower than fruit intake, boys consumed less fruit and vegetables than girls did. The highest total intake according to the 24-hour recall was found in Austria...... samples of schools and classes. The questionnaires, including a precoded 24-hour recall component and a food frequency part, were completed in the classroom. Data were treated using common syntax files for portion sizes and for merging of vegetable types into four subgroups. RESULTS: The results show...

  3. Graphene-based solid-phase extraction combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry for a sensitive determination of trace amounts of lead in environmental water and vegetable samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yukun; Gao Shutao; Zang Xiaohuan; Li Jingci; Ma Jingjun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Graphene as a novel sorbent material in a column for solid-phase extraction (SPE). ► SPE for the determination of lead (Pb) in environment water samples and vegetable samples. ► The system can be reused for many times. ► The adsorption capacity of graphene over many other adsorbents. ► Graphene has great potentials as an excellent sorbent material. - Abstract: Graphene, a novel class of carbon nanostructures, has great promise for use as sorbent materials because of its ultrahigh specific surface area. A new method using a column packed with graphene as sorbent was developed for the preconcentration of trace amounts of lead (Pb) using dithizone as chelating reagent prior to its determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Some effective parameters on the extraction and complex formation were selected and optimized. Under optimum conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the concentration range of 10.0–600.0 μg L −1 with a detection limit of 0.61 μg L −1 . The relative standard deviation for ten replicate measurements of 20.0 and 400.0 μg L −1 of Pb were 3.56 and 3.25%, respectively. Comparative studies showed that graphene is superior to other adsorbents including C18 silica, graphitic carbon, and single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes for the extraction of Pb. The proposed method was successfully applied in the analysis of environmental water and vegetable samples. Good spiked recoveries over the range of 95.3–100.4% were obtained. This work not only proposes a useful method for sample preconcentration, but also reveals the great potential of graphene as an excellent sorbent material in analytical processes.

  4. Selecting a sampling method to aid in vegetation management decisions in loblolly pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Weise; Glenn R. Glover

    1993-01-01

    Objective methods to evaluate hardwood competition in young loblolly pine (Pinustaeda L.) plantations are not widely used in the southeastern United States. Ability of common sampling rules to accurately estimate hardwood rootstock attributes at low sampling intensities and across varying rootstock spatial distributions is unknown. Fixed area plot...

  5. Effects of sample treatments on genome recovery via single-cell genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clingenpeel, Scott [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Schwientek, Patrick [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Hugenholtz, Philip [Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Woyke, Tanja [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    2014-06-13

    It is known that single-cell genomics is a powerful tool for accessing genetic information from uncultivated microorganisms. Methods of handling samples before single-cell genomic amplification may affect the quality of the genomes obtained. Using three bacterial strains we demonstrate that, compared to cryopreservation, lower-quality single-cell genomes are recovered when the sample is preserved in ethanol or if the sample undergoes fluorescence in situ hybridization, while sample preservation in paraformaldehyde renders it completely unsuitable for sequencing.

  6. A vegetation height classification approach based on texture analysis of a single VHR image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrou, Z I; Manakos, I; Stathaki, T; Tarantino, C; Adamo, M; Blonda, P

    2014-01-01

    Vegetation height is a crucial feature in various applications related to ecological mapping, enhancing the discrimination among different land cover or habitat categories and facilitating a series of environmental tasks, ranging from biodiversity monitoring and assessment to landscape characterization, disaster management and conservation planning. Primary sources of information on vegetation height include in situ measurements and data from active satellite or airborne sensors, which, however, may often be non-affordable or unavailable for certain regions. Alternative approaches on extracting height information from very high resolution (VHR) satellite imagery based on texture analysis, have recently been presented, with promising results. Following the notion that multispectral image bands may often be highly correlated, data transformation and dimensionality reduction techniques are expected to reduce redundant information, and thus, the computational cost of the approaches, without significantly compromising their accuracy. In this paper, dimensionality reduction is performed on a VHR image and textural characteristics are calculated on its reconstructed approximations, to show that their discriminatory capabilities are maintained up to a large degree. Texture analysis is also performed on the projected data to investigate whether the different height categories can be distinguished in a similar way

  7. 137Cs absorption factors (AFs) from contaminated cooking water to some vegetable and protein samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The radionuclide in contaminated freshwater may directly gain access to the human body through two major routes: drinking and cooking food with fresh water. During cooking, the radionuclide present in the water may be transferred to the various ingredients of the cooked food. The degree of contamination of food during cooking depends both on absorption power of the individual ingredients and the level of radionuclide present in the water. The ratio of the concentration of the radionuclide absorbed in the individual ingredients to the concentration in the cooking water can be designated as 'Absorption factor' (AF). AF can be used to predict the radionuclide absorbed by the ingredients cooked with contaminated water, to assess the internal radiation dose to the consumer and radionuclide transfer from the cooking water to the ingredients. A better understanding of the variables that affect the AF in various ingredients during cooking is central to deriving the contamination level of the ingredients. 10 kinds of greens and vegetable and 3 kinds of animal protein were boiled with 37 Cs contaminated freshwater and corresponding AFs were determined in both hot and cooled condition

  8. Modified Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Micro Extraction Using Green Solvent for Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Vegetable Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kin, C.M.; Shing, W.L.

    2016-01-01

    According to International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), most of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) known as genotoxic human carcinogen and mutagenic. PAHs represent as poorly degradable pollutants that exist in soils, sediments, surface water and atmosphere. A simple, rapid and sensitive extraction method termed modified Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Micro extraction (DLLME) using green solvent was developed to determine PAHs in vegetable samples namely radish, cabbage and cucumber prior to Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID). The extraction method is based on replacing chlorinated organic extraction solvent in the conventional DLLME with low toxic solvent, 1-bromo-3-methylbutane without using dispersive solvent. Several experimental factors such as type and volume of extraction solvents, extraction time, confirmation of 12 PAHs by GC-MS, recovery percentages on vegetable samples and the comparative analysis with conventional DLLME were carried out. Both DLLME were successfully extracted 12 types of PAHs. In modified DLLME, the recoveries of the analytes obtained were in a range of 72.72 - 88.07 % with RSD value below 7.5 % which is comparable to the conventional DLLME. The use of microliter of low toxic extraction solvent without addition of dispersive solvent caused the method is economic and environmental friendly which is fulfill the current requirement, green chemistry based analytical method. (author)

  9. A line-based vegetation sampling technique and its application in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    percentage cover, density and intercept frequency) and also provides plant size distributions, yet requires no more sampling effort than the line-intercept method.. A field test of the three techniques in succulent karoo, showed that the discriminating ...

  10. Establishing a routine procedure for extraction of water from vegetation samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlam, Carmen; Stefanescu, Ioan; Faurescu, Ionut; Vagner, Irina; Faurescu, Denisa

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Cryogenic Pilot is an experimental project within the nuclear energy national research program, which has the aim of developing technologies for tritium and deuterium separation by cryogenic distillation. The process, used in this installation, is based on a combined method for liquid-phase catalytic exchange (LPCE) and cryogenic distillation. There are two ways that Cryogenic Pilot can interact with the environment: by atmospheric release and by sewage. In order to establish the base line of tritium concentration in the environment around the nuclear facilities we investigated the preparation procedure for different type of samples: soil, hay, apple, grass, milk, meat and water. For azeotropic distillation of all types of samples two solvents were used, toluene and cyclohexane, and all measurements for determination of environmental tritium concentration were carry out using liquid scintillation counting (LSC), with ultra-low level liquid scintillation spectrometer Quantulus 1220 specially designed for environmental samples and low radioactivity. Sample scintillation cocktail ratio was 8:12 ml and liquid scintillation cocktail was UltimaGold LLT. The background determined for control samples prepared ranged between 0.926 Cpm and 1.002 Cpm and counting efficiency between 25.3% and 26.1%. The counting time was 1000 minutes (50 minutes/20 cycles) for each sample, and minimum detectable activity according to ISO 9698 was 8.9 TU, and 9.05 TU, respectively, with a confidence coefficient of 3. (authors)

  11. Radionuclide Concentrations in Terrestrial Vegetation and Soil Samples On and Around the Hanford Site, 1971 Through 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Mary Ann; Poston, Ted M.; Fritz, Brad G.; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2011-07-29

    Environmental monitoring is conducted on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site to comply with DOE Orders and federal and state regulations. Major objectives of the monitoring are to characterize contaminant levels in the environment and to determine site contributions to the contaminant inventory. This report focuses on surface soil and perennial vegetation samples collected between 1971 and 2008 as part of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Surface Environmental Surveillance Project performed under contract to DOE. Areas sampled under this program are located on the Hanford Site but outside facility boundaries and on public lands surrounding the Hanford Site. Additional samples were collected during the past 8 years under DOE projects that evaluated parcels of land for radiological release. These data were included because the same sampling methodology and analytical laboratory were used for the projects. The spatial and temporal trends of six radionuclides collected over a 38-year period were evaluated. The radionuclides----cobalt-60, cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239/240, and uranium (reported either as uranium-238 or total uranium)----were selected because they persist in the environment and are still being monitored routinely and reported in Hanford Site environmental reports. All these radionuclides were associated with plutonium production and waste management of activities occurring on the site. Other sources include fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, which ended in 1980, and the Chernobyl explosion in 1986. Uranium is also a natural component of the soil. This assessment of soil and vegetation data provides important information on the distribution of radionuclides in areas adjacent to industrial areas, established perimeter locations and buffer areas, and more offsite nearby and distant locations. The concentrations reflect a tendency for detection of some radionuclides close to where they were

  12. Experimental determination of aerosol deposition velocity on vegetation and on other sampling areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonas, R.; Vogt, K.J.

    1982-04-01

    The deposition velocity of aerosols with diameters between 0.4 and 17 μm, required for environmental exposure calculations, was experimentally determined in fifty-two field tests. The results of the deposition experiments on grass indicate that the deposition velocity is proportional to the friction velocity and depends on both the vegetation dry mass and on the aerosol diameter. The deposition velocity can be represented as an inverse polynominal function of the 3rd order as a function of the aerosol diameter. This demonstrated that the deposition velocity increases especially rapidly (by a factor of about 10) between diameters of 4 and 6 μm, for which turbulence deposition is characteristic, while the rise diminishes for larger particles, for which sedimentation is important. It can be assumed that in the normal operation of nuclear power stations and in the case of incidents in which radioactive substances are released in a filtered condition, a particle diameter of 3 μm is not exceeded and differences in friction velocity and dry mass are cancelled out in the temporal mean. At a mean friction velocity of 27 cm/s and a representative dry mass for grass of 0.017 g/cm 2 deposition velocities of 0.01, 0.02, 0.05, 0.42 and 4.6 cm/s resulted, corresponding to particle diameters of 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 μm. This indicates that the reference value of 0.1 cm/s, given in the 'Allgemeine Berechnungsgrundlage' for the normal operation of nuclear power stations, is sufficiently conservative. The mean deposition velocity for clover was higher by a factor of approximately 2, for artificial interfaces (smooth and structured metals, filters) and soil by a factor of approximately 3 and thus 2 lower than for grass. (orig./HP)

  13. Studies to determine the deposition velocity of aerosols on vegetation and other sampling areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonas, R.; Vogt, K.J.

    The deposition velocity of aerosols with diameters between 0.4 and 17 μm, required for environmental exposure calculations, was experimentally determined in fifty-two field tests from 1975 to 1980. The results of the deposition experiments on grass indicate that the deposition velocity is proportional to the friction velocity and depends on both the vegetation dry mass (v/sub g/ approx. D 0 8 ) and on the aerosol diameter. The deposition velocity can be represented as an inverse polynominal function of the 3rd order as a function of the aerosol diameter. This demonstrated that the deposition velocity increases especially rapidly (by a factor of about 10) between diameters of 4 and 6 μm, for which turbulence deposition is characteristic, while the rise diminishes for larger particles, for which sedimentation is important. The deposition velocity on grass can be regarded as a characteristic value for environmental exposure calculations. It can be assumed that in the normal operation of nuclear power stations and in the case of incidents in which radioactive substances are released in a filtered condition, a particle diameter of 3 μm is not exceeded and differences in friction velocity and dry mass are cancelled out in the temporal mean. At a mean friction velocity of 27 cm/s and a representative dry mass for grass of 0.017 g/cm 2 deposition velocities of 0.01, 0.02, 0.05, 0.42 and 4.6 cm/s resulted, corresponding to particle diameters of 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 μm. This indicates that the reference value of 0.1 cm/s, given in the Allgemeine Berechnungsgrundlage (general calculation basis) for the normal operation of nuclear power stations, is sufficiently conservative. The mean deposition velocity for clover was higher by a factor of approximately 2, for artificial interfaces (smooth and structured metals, filters) and soil by a factor of approximately 3 and thus 2 lower than for grass

  14. Organophosphorus and Carbamate Pesticide Residues Detected in Water Samples Collected from Paddy and Vegetable Fields of the Savar and Dhamrai Upazilas in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Karim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Several types of organophosphorous and carbamate pesticides have been used extensively by the farmers in Bangladesh during the last few decades. Twenty seven water samples collected from both paddy and vegetable fields in the Savar and Dhamrai Upazilas in Bangladesh were analyzed to determine the occurrence and distribution of organo-phosphorus (chlorpyrifos, malathion and diazinon and carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran pesticide residues. A high performance liquid chromatograph instrument equipped with a photodiode array detector was used to determine the concentrations of these pesticide residues. Diazinon and carbofuran were detected in water samples collected from Savar Upazila at 0.9 μg/L and 198.7 μg/L, respectively. Malathion was also detected in a single water sample at 105.2 μg/L from Dhamrai Upazila. Carbaryl was the most common pesticide detected in Dhamrai Upazila at 14.1 and 18.1 μg/L, while another water sample from Dhamrai Upazila was contaminated with carbofuran at 105.2 μg/L. Chlorpyrifos was not detected in any sample. Overall, the pesticide residues detected were well above the maximum acceptable levels of total and individual pesticide contamination, at 0.5 and 0.1 μg/L, respectively, in water samples recommended by the European Economic Community (Directive 98/83/EC. The presence of these pesticide residues may be attributed by their intense use by the farmers living in these areas. Proper handling of these pesticides should be ensured to avoid direct or indirect exposure to these pesticides.

  15. Standard Specification for Sampling Single-Phase Geothermal Liquid or Steam for Purposes of Chemical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1983-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers the basic requirements for equipment to be used for the collection of uncontaminated and representative samples from single-phase geothermal liquid or steam. Geopressured liquids are included. See Fig 1.

  16. Optimal sampling strategies to assess inulin clearance in children by the inulin single-injection method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, Lyonne K.; Mathot, Ron A. A.; Cransberg, Karlien; Vulto, Arnold G.

    2003-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate in patients can be determined by estimating the plasma clearance of inulin with the single-injection method. In this method, a single bolus injection of inulin is administered and several blood samples are collected. For practical and convenient application of this method

  17. Determination of lead, iron and nickel in water and vegetable samples after preconcentration with aspergillus niger loaded on silica gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baytak, Sitki [Harran University, Arts and Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Kocyigit, Abdurrahim [Harran University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Rehber Tuerker, Ali [Gazi University, Arts and Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-12-15

    A method for the determination of Fe(III), Pb(II), and Ni(II) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) after preconcentrating on a column containing Aspergillus niger loaded on silica gel 60 (Biosorbent) is described. The effect of experimental parameters such as pH, flow rate of sample solution, and volume of sample solution were investigated on the recovery of the analytes. The effect of interfering ions on the recovery of the analytes has also been investigated. Recoveries of Fe(III), Pb(II), and Ni(II) were (98 {+-} 2), (98 {+-} 3), (99 {+-} 2)% at the 95% confidence level, respectively. For the analytes, 50-fold preconcentration was obtained. The analytical detection limits for Fe(III), Pb(II), and Ni(II) were 1.7, 5.2, and 1.6 ng/mL, respectively. The proposed method was applied to the determination of trace metals in various water and vegetable samples. The analytes have been determined with relative error lower than 7%. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Preconcentration of Zn2+ and Cu2+ ions from food and vegetable samples using modified activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, M; Tavallali, H; Montazerozohori, M; Zahedi, E; Amirineko, M; Khodadoust, S; Karimipour, G

    2012-11-01

    In this work, two N/S-containing chelating agents 2-(4-methoxybenzylideneamino)thiophenol (2-4-MBAT) and 2-(4-chlorobenzylideneamino) benzenethiol (2-4-CBABT) were synthesized as new sorbents and were used for preconcentration of Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) ions in food and vegetable samples. In the proposed procedure, the trace amount of Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) ions from 250 mL of sample solution at pH = 5.0 was preconcentrated by 1 g of activated carbon (AC) loaded with 15 mg of 2-4-MBAT and 2-4-CBABT separately. The breakthrough volumes (maximum sample volume that their metal ions quantitatively can be enriched) for solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure based on the AC modified with 2-4-MBAT and 2-4-CBABT were 800 and 750 mL, respectively. The sorbed Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) ions were efficiently eluted by 8 mL of 4 mol L(-1) HNO(3) and preconcentration factor of 112.5 and 93.7 and experimental enhancement factor of 30 and 35 ions were obtained for Zn(2+) and Cu(2+), respectively. The application of this enrichment procedure allowed the extraction of trace metal ions with recoveries exceeding of 90%.

  19. A low-temperature sample orienting device for single crystal spectroscopy at the SNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherline, T E; Solomon, L; Roberts, C K II; Bruce, D; Gaulin, B; Granroth, G E, E-mail: sherlinete@ornl.gov

    2010-11-01

    A low temperature sample orientation device providing three axes of rotation has been successfully built and is in testing for use on several spectrometers at the spallation neutron source (SNS). Sample rotation about the vertical ({omega}) axis of nearly 360 deg. and out of plane tilts ({phi} and v) of from -3.4 deg. to 4.4 deg. and from -2.8 deg. to 3.5 deg., respectively, are possible. An off-the-shelf closed cycle refrigerator (CCR) is mounted on a room temperature sealed rotary flange providing {omega} rotations of the sample. Out-of-plane tilts are made possible by piezoelectric actuated angular positioning devices mounted on the low temperature head of the CCR. Novel encoding devices based on magnetoresistive sensors have been developed to measure the tilt stage angles. This combination facilitates single crystal investigations from room temperature to 3.1 K. Commissioning experiments of the rotating CCR for both powder and single crystal samples have been performed on the ARCS spectrometer at the SNS. For the powder sample this device was used to continuously rotate the sample and thus average out any partial orientation of the powder. The powder rings observed in S(Q) are presented. For the single crystal sample, the rotation was used to probe different regions of momentum transfer (Q-space). Laue patterns obtained from a single crystal sample at two rotation angles are presented.

  20. Analysis of U and Pu resin bead samples with a single stage mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.H.; Walker, R.L.; Bertram, L.K.; Carter, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Resin bead sampling enables the shipment of nanogram U and Pu quantities for analysis. Application of this sampling technique to safeguards was investigated with a single-stage mass spectrometer. Standards gave results in good agreement with NBS certified values. External precisions of +-0.5% were obtained on isotopic ratios of approx. 0.01; precisions on quantitative measurements are +-1.0%

  1. Analysis of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on DNA traces from plasma and dried blood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catsburg, Arnold; van der Zwet, Wil C.; Morre, Servaas A.; Ouburg, Sander; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.

    2007-01-01

    Reliable analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA derived from samples containing low numbers of cells or from suboptimal sources can be difficult. A new procedure to characterize multiple SNPs in traces of DNA from plasma and old dried blood samples was developed. Six SNPs in the

  2. Quantitative Single-letter Sequencing: a method for simultaneously monitoring numerous known allelic variants in single DNA samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duborjal Hervé

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathogens such as fungi, bacteria and especially viruses, are highly variable even within an individual host, intensifying the difficulty of distinguishing and accurately quantifying numerous allelic variants co-existing in a single nucleic acid sample. The majority of currently available techniques are based on real-time PCR or primer extension and often require multiplexing adjustments that impose a practical limitation of the number of alleles that can be monitored simultaneously at a single locus. Results Here, we describe a novel method that allows the simultaneous quantification of numerous allelic variants in a single reaction tube and without multiplexing. Quantitative Single-letter Sequencing (QSS begins with a single PCR amplification step using a pair of primers flanking the polymorphic region of interest. Next, PCR products are submitted to single-letter sequencing with a fluorescently-labelled primer located upstream of the polymorphic region. The resulting monochromatic electropherogram shows numerous specific diagnostic peaks, attributable to specific variants, signifying their presence/absence in the DNA sample. Moreover, peak fluorescence can be quantified and used to estimate the frequency of the corresponding variant in the DNA population. Using engineered allelic markers in the genome of Cauliflower mosaic virus, we reliably monitored six different viral genotypes in DNA extracted from infected plants. Evaluation of the intrinsic variance of this method, as applied to both artificial plasmid DNA mixes and viral genome populations, demonstrates that QSS is a robust and reliable method of detection and quantification for variants with a relative frequency of between 0.05 and 1. Conclusion This simple method is easily transferable to many other biological systems and questions, including those involving high throughput analysis, and can be performed in any laboratory since it does not require specialized

  3. Development of an indirect spectrophotometric method for determination of methamidophos insecticide in soil, water and vegetable samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Shah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid indirect spectrophotometric method for determination of methamidophos in water, soil and vegetable samples has been described. Methamidophos reacts with acid produced from p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (p-DMAB as a result of Cannizaro’s reaction. The resultant adduct undergoes condensation reaction in acidic medium forming a yellow colored product. Absorbance of the colored product was measured at 405 nm and pH 3 against a reagent blank. The Beer’s law range is obeyed in the range 1-30 µg mL-1 with molar absorptivity of 2.8 ×103 L mol-1 cm-1. The limit of detection and quantification were found to be 0.20±0.03 and 0.60±0.04 µg mL-1 respectively. The proposed method was effectively applied for determination of methamidophos in various samples with percent recoveries in the range of 96±0.08 to 102±0.06 %.

  4. Single-subject withdrawal designs in delayed matching-to-sample procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Eilifsen, Christoffer; Arntzen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    In most studies of delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS) and stimulus equivalence, the delay has remained fixed throughout a single experimental condition. We wanted to expand on the DMTS and stimulus equivalence literature by examining the effects of using titrating delays with different starting points during the establishment of conditional discriminations prerequisite for stimulus equivalence. In Experiment 1, a variation of a single-subject withdrawal design was used. Ten adults were exposed...

  5. Comparison of Single-Point and Continuous Sampling Methods for Estimating Residential Indoor Temperature and Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James D; Magnusson, Brianna M; Eggett, Dennis; Collingwood, Scott C; Bernhardt, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    Residential temperature and humidity are associated with multiple health effects. Studies commonly use single-point measures to estimate indoor temperature and humidity exposures, but there is little evidence to support this sampling strategy. This study evaluated the relationship between single-point and continuous monitoring of air temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, and absolute humidity over four exposure intervals (5-min, 30-min, 24-hr, and 12-days) in 9 northern Utah homes, from March-June 2012. Three homes were sampled twice, for a total of 12 observation periods. Continuous data-logged sampling was conducted in homes for 2-3 wks, and simultaneous single-point measures (n = 114) were collected using handheld thermo-hygrometers. Time-centered single-point measures were moderately correlated with short-term (30-min) data logger mean air temperature (r = 0.76, β = 0.74), apparent temperature (r = 0.79, β = 0.79), relative humidity (r = 0.70, β = 0.63), and absolute humidity (r = 0.80, β = 0.80). Data logger 12-day means were also moderately correlated with single-point air temperature (r = 0.64, β = 0.43) and apparent temperature (r = 0.64, β = 0.44), but were weakly correlated with single-point relative humidity (r = 0.53, β = 0.35) and absolute humidity (r = 0.52, β = 0.39). Of the single-point RH measures, 59 (51.8%) deviated more than ±5%, 21 (18.4%) deviated more than ±10%, and 6 (5.3%) deviated more than ±15% from data logger 12-day means. Where continuous indoor monitoring is not feasible, single-point sampling strategies should include multiple measures collected at prescribed time points based on local conditions.

  6. Production of vegetation samples containing radionuclides gamma emitters to attend the interlaboratory programs; Producao de amostras de vegetacao contendo radionuclideos emissores gama para participar de programas interlaboratoriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Poliana Santos de

    2016-07-01

    The production of environmental samples such as soil, sediment, water and vegetation with radionuclides for intercomparison tests is a very important contribution to environmental monitoring. Laboratories that carry out such monitoring need to demonstrate that their results are reliable. The IRD National Intercomparison Program (PNI) produces and distributes environmental samples containing radionuclides used to check the laboratories performance. This work demonstrates the feasibility of producing vegetation (grass) samples containing {sup 60}Co, {sup 65}Zn, {sup 134}Cs, and {sup 137}Cs by the spike sample method for the PNI. The preparation and the statistical tests followed the ISO guides 34 and 35 recommendations. The grass samples were dried, ground and passed through a sieve of 250 μm. 500 g of vegetation was treated in each procedure. Samples were treated by two different procedures:1) homogenizing of the radioactive solution containing vegetation by hand and drying in an oven and 2) homogenizing of the radioactive solution containing the vegetation in a rotatory evaporator and drying in an oven. The theoretical activity concentration of the radionuclides in the grass had a range of 593 Bq/kg to 683 Bq/kg. After gamma spectrometry analysis the results of both procedures were compared as accuracy, precision, homogeneity and stability. The accuracy, precision and short time stability from both methods were similar but the homogeneity test of the evaporation method was not approved for the radionuclides {sup 60}Co and {sup 134}Cs. Based on comparisons between procedures was chosen the manual agitation procedure for the grass sample for the PNI. The accuracy of the procedure, represented by the uncertainty and based on theoretical value had a range between -1.1 and 5.1% and the precision between 0.6 a 6.5 %. This result show is the procedure chosen for the production of grass samples for PNI. (author)

  7. Assessing the Validity of Single-item Life Satisfaction Measures: Results from Three Large Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Felix; Lucas, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present paper assessed the validity of single-item life satisfaction measures by comparing single-item measures to the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) - a more psychometrically established measure. Methods Two large samples from Washington (N=13,064) and Oregon (N=2,277) recruited by the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and a representative German sample (N=1,312) recruited by the Germany Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) were included in the present analyses. Single-item life satisfaction measures and the SWLS were correlated with theoretically relevant variables, such as demographics, subjective health, domain satisfaction, and affect. The correlations between the two life satisfaction measures and these variables were examined to assess the construct validity of single-item life satisfaction measures. Results Consistent across three samples, single-item life satisfaction measures demonstrated substantial degree of criterion validity with the SWLS (zero-order r = 0.62 – 0.64; disattenuated r = 0.78 – 0.80). Patterns of statistical significance for correlations with theoretically relevant variables were the same across single-item measures and the SWLS. Single-item measures did not produce systematically different correlations compared to the SWLS (average difference = 0.001 – 0.005). The average absolute difference in the magnitudes of the correlations produced by single-item measures and the SWLS were very small (average absolute difference = 0.015 −0.042). Conclusions Single-item life satisfaction measures performed very similarly compared to the multiple-item SWLS. Social scientists would get virtually identical answer to substantive questions regardless of which measure they use. PMID:24890827

  8. Assessing the validity of single-item life satisfaction measures: results from three large samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Felix; Lucas, Richard E

    2014-12-01

    The present paper assessed the validity of single-item life satisfaction measures by comparing single-item measures to the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS)-a more psychometrically established measure. Two large samples from Washington (N = 13,064) and Oregon (N = 2,277) recruited by the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and a representative German sample (N = 1,312) recruited by the Germany Socio-Economic Panel were included in the present analyses. Single-item life satisfaction measures and the SWLS were correlated with theoretically relevant variables, such as demographics, subjective health, domain satisfaction, and affect. The correlations between the two life satisfaction measures and these variables were examined to assess the construct validity of single-item life satisfaction measures. Consistent across three samples, single-item life satisfaction measures demonstrated substantial degree of criterion validity with the SWLS (zero-order r = 0.62-0.64; disattenuated r = 0.78-0.80). Patterns of statistical significance for correlations with theoretically relevant variables were the same across single-item measures and the SWLS. Single-item measures did not produce systematically different correlations compared to the SWLS (average difference = 0.001-0.005). The average absolute difference in the magnitudes of the correlations produced by single-item measures and the SWLS was very small (average absolute difference = 0.015-0.042). Single-item life satisfaction measures performed very similarly compared to the multiple-item SWLS. Social scientists would get virtually identical answer to substantive questions regardless of which measure they use.

  9. Comparison of dioxin-like PCBs in passive air and vegetation samples surrounding a metal reclamation incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucaciu, C.M.; Fayez, L.; Reiner, E.J.; Kolic, T.M.; MacPherson, K.A.; Crozier, P.W.; Emerson, R. [Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, ON (Canada); Wania, F. [Toronto Univ., Scarborough, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physical and Environmental Sciences

    2004-09-15

    In 1998 the WHO identified 12 PCBs to be dioxin-like (DLPCB). This list includes 4 coplanar: 77, 81, 126, 169 and 8 mono-ortho: 105, 114, 118, 123, 156, 157, 167 and 189 congeners. Determination of DLPCBs allows results to be converted into TEQ (toxic equivalent quantity of 2,3,7,8-TCDD) values and enables data comparison at very low (sub ppt (pg/g)) levels. Vegetation and air samples were collected from an area surrounding a metal recovery incinerator in order to assess spatial and temporal trends for DLPCBs stemming from the long term operation of the incinerator. Foliage samples were harvested in September (1999 - 2 sets, 2000 to 2003) from maple and ash trees surrounding the incinerator at varying distances. Mature tree leaves are exposed to atmospheric deposition of PCBs for about 4 months (June to September) and the levels determined in foliage are representative of DLPCBs in the atmosphere surrounding each tree. Additionally, a passive air sampling technique based on the sorption of gaseous pollutants on XAD-2 (a styrene-divinylbenzene co-polymer) resin was used for measuring long-term average gas-phase concentrations in the area surrounding the incinerator. Ten passive samplers were placed adjacent to trees previously sampled for DLPCBs at locations presented in Figure 1. The deployment period, lasting approximately 4 month (June to September 2003), corresponds to the time that mature leaves were present on the adjacent trees. Four other air samplers were placed close to a main highway in Toronto in order to compare the concentration of DLPCB in the urban area with the concentration in the rural area surrounding the incineration facility. Passive air samplers allow the characterization of the gaseous distribution of DLPCBs in the atmosphere. The advantages of using this technique are that it is independent of the atmospheric conditions (winds, precipitation, UV exposure) and can be used for sampling year round. Atmospheric deposition is expected to control

  10. High-pressure oxygenation of thin-wall YBCO single-domain samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaud, X; Savchuk, Y; Sergienko, N; Prikhna, T; Diko, P

    2008-01-01

    The oxygen annealing of ReBCO bulk material, necessary to achieve superconducting properties, usually induces micro- and macro-cracks. This leads to a crack-assisted oxygenation process that allows oxygenating large bulk samples faster than single crystals. But excellent superconducting properties are cancelled by the poor mechanical ones. More progressive oxygenation strategy has been shown to reduce drastically the oxygenation cracks. The problem then arises to keep a reasonable annealing time. The concept of bulk Y123 single-domain samples with thin-wall geometry has been introduced to bypass the inherent limitation due to a slow oxygen diffusion rate. But it is not enough. The use of a high oxygen pressure (16 MPa) enables to speed up further the process. It introduces a displacement in the equilibrium phase diagram towards higher temperatures, i.e., higher diffusion rates, to achieve a given oxygen content in the material. Remarkable results were obtained by applying such a high pressure oxygen annealing process on thin-wall single-domain samples. The trapped field of 16 mm diameter Y123 thin-wall single-domain samples was doubled (0.6T vs 0.3T at 77K) using an annealing time twice shorter (about 3 days). The initial development was made on thin bars. The advantage of thin-wall geometry is that such an annealing can be applied directly to a much larger sample

  11. National-scale vegetation change across Britain; an analysis of sample-based surveillance data from the Countryside Surveys of 1990 and 1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smart, S.M.; Clarke, R.T.; Poll, van de H.M.; Robertson, E.J.; Shield, E.R.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Maskell, L.C.

    2003-01-01

    Patterns of vegetation across Great Britain (GB) between 1990 and 1998 were quantified based on an analysis of plant species data from a total of 9596 fixed plots. Plots were established on a stratified random basis within 501 1 km sample squares located as part of the Countryside Survey of GB.

  12. Forest resources of southeast Alaska, 2000: results of a single-phase systematic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. van Hees

    2003-01-01

    A baseline assessment of forest resources in southeast Alaska was made by using a single-phase, unstratified, systematic-grid sample, with ground plots established at each grid intersection. Ratio-of-means estimators were used to develop population estimates. Forests cover an estimated 48 percent of the 22.9-million-acre southeast Alaska inventory unit. Dominant forest...

  13. Single injection 51Cr EDTA plasma clearance determination in children using capillary blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broechner-Mortensen, J.; Christoffersen, J.

    1977-01-01

    The reliability of a determination of the total 51 Cr EDTA plasma clearance (e) (and with it the glomerular filtration rate), by a simplified single injection method (injected dose: 4.5 μCi per kg b.w.) using capillary blood samples (0.2 ml), was investigated in twenty children. Clearance values determined from capillary blood samples did not differ significantly from those measured simultaneously from venous blood samples, the mean ratio+-SD being 1.02+-0.06(n = 10). The reproducibility (total day-to-day variation) of E determined from capillary blood samples was 6.7% in children with decreased renal function (n = 3) and 6.9% in children with normal renal function (n = 7). The present data indicate that the use of capillary blood samples is an accurate and very precise approach for determination of E in children. (Auth.)

  14. [Determination of 51 carbamate pesticide residues in vegetables by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based on optimization of QuEChERS sample preparation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianzhu; Zhou, Yu; Huang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Ruilong; Lin, Zixu; Chen, Yong; Wang, Dengfei; Lin, Dejuan; Xu, Dunming

    2013-12-01

    The raw extracts of six vegetables (tomato, green bean, shallot, broccoli, ginger and carrot) were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in full scan mode combined with NIST library search to confirm main matrix compounds. The effects of cleanup and adsorption mechanisms of primary secondary amine (PSA) , octadecylsilane (C18) and PSA + C18 on co-extractives were studied by the weight of evaporation residue for extracts before and after cleanup. The suitability of the two versions of QuEChERS method for sample preparation was evaluated for the extraction of 51 carbamate pesticides in the six vegetables. One of the QuEChERS methods was the original un-buffered method published in 2003, and the other was AOAC Official Method 2007.01 using acetate buffer. As a result, the best effects were obtained from using the combination of C18 and PSA for extract cleanup in vegetables. The acetate-buffered version was suitable for the determination of all pesticides except dioxacarb. Un-buffered QuEChERS method gave satisfactory results for determining dioxacarb. Based on these results, the suitable QuEChERS sample preparation method and liquid chromatography-positive electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry under the optimized conditions were applied to determine the 51 carbamate pesticide residues in six vegetables. The analytes were quantified by matrix-matched standard solution. The recoveries at three levels of 10, 20 and 100 microg/kg spiked in six vegetables ranged from 58.4% to 126% with the relative standard deviations of 3.3%-26%. The limits of quantification (LOQ, S/N > or = 10) were 0.2-10 microg/kg except that the LOQs of cartap and thiofanox were 50 microg/kg. The method is highly efficient, sensitive and suitable for monitoring the 51 carbamate pesticide residues in vegetables.

  15. Multielement determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in vegetable samples by ICP-MS and ICP-AES after acid digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hokura, Akiko; Oguri, Sachiko; Matsuura, Hirotaka; Haraguchi, Hiroki

    2000-01-01

    A multielement determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in vegetable samples was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Spinach samples (0.5 g) were digested with nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid in a Teflon beaker on a hot plate. The decomposed samples were dissolved in a 1 M ( = mol dm -3 ) HNO 3 solution containing internal standard elements (Ge, In, and Re, 10 ppb each), and were subjected to multielement analyses by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. As a result, about 40 elements were successfully determined over a wide concentration range from % to ppb level. Spinach samples grown in different production areas were also analyzed in order to understand the influences of the environmental conditions on growth. Among the major and minor elements, the values of the coefficient of variance (CV) for B, Mg, P, and K were < 20%, and those for Ca, Na, Al, and Mn were higher than 50%. On the other hand, the values of CV for trace and ultratrace elements were significantly high. Furthermore, the present analytical method was also applied to the determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in various vegetable samples (23 species in 11 families); the similarities and differences of the elemental distributions in vegetables were found in the experimental results. (author)

  16. Multielement determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in vegetable samples by ICP-MS and ICP-AES after acid digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokura, Akiko; Oguri, Sachiko; Matsuura, Hirotaka; Haraguchi, Hiroki [Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Univ. (Japan)

    2000-06-01

    A multielement determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in vegetable samples was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Spinach samples (0.5 g) were digested with nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid in a Teflon beaker on a hot plate. The decomposed samples were dissolved in a 1 M ( = mol dm{sup -3}) HNO{sub 3} solution containing internal standard elements (Ge, In, and Re, 10 ppb each), and were subjected to multielement analyses by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. As a result, about 40 elements were successfully determined over a wide concentration range from % to ppb level. Spinach samples grown in different production areas were also analyzed in order to understand the influences of the environmental conditions on growth. Among the major and minor elements, the values of the coefficient of variance (CV) for B, Mg, P, and K were < 20%, and those for Ca, Na, Al, and Mn were higher than 50%. On the other hand, the values of CV for trace and ultratrace elements were significantly high. Furthermore, the present analytical method was also applied to the determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in various vegetable samples (23 species in 11 families); the similarities and differences of the elemental distributions in vegetables were found in the experimental results. (author)

  17. Communication: Multiple atomistic force fields in a single enhanced sampling simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang Viet, Man [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8202 (United States); Derreumaux, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.derreumaux@ibpc.fr [Laboratoire de Biochimie Théorique, UPR 9080, CNRS, Université Denis Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité IBPC, 13 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Institut Universitaire de France, 103 Bvd Saint-Germain, 75005 Paris (France); Nguyen, Phuong H., E-mail: phuong.nguyen@ibpc.fr [Laboratoire de Biochimie Théorique, UPR 9080, CNRS, Université Denis Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité IBPC, 13 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France)

    2015-07-14

    The main concerns of biomolecular dynamics simulations are the convergence of the conformational sampling and the dependence of the results on the force fields. While the first issue can be addressed by employing enhanced sampling techniques such as simulated tempering or replica exchange molecular dynamics, repeating these simulations with different force fields is very time consuming. Here, we propose an automatic method that includes different force fields into a single advanced sampling simulation. Conformational sampling using three all-atom force fields is enhanced by simulated tempering and by formulating the weight parameters of the simulated tempering method in terms of the energy fluctuations, the system is able to perform random walk in both temperature and force field spaces. The method is first demonstrated on a 1D system and then validated by the folding of the 10-residue chignolin peptide in explicit water.

  18. Single- versus multiple-sample method to measure glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanaye, Pierre; Flamant, Martin; Dubourg, Laurence; Vidal-Petiot, Emmanuelle; Lemoine, Sandrine; Cavalier, Etienne; Schaeffner, Elke; Ebert, Natalie; Pottel, Hans

    2018-01-08

    There are many different ways to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using various exogenous filtration markers, each having their own strengths and limitations. However, not only the marker, but also the methodology may vary in many ways, including the use of urinary or plasma clearance, and, in the case of plasma clearance, the number of time points used to calculate the area under the concentration-time curve, ranging from only one (Jacobsson method) to eight (or more) blood samples. We collected the results obtained from 5106 plasma clearances (iohexol or 51Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)) using three to four time points, allowing GFR calculation using the slope-intercept method and the Bröchner-Mortensen correction. For each time point, the Jacobsson formula was applied to obtain the single-sample GFR. We used Bland-Altman plots to determine the accuracy of the Jacobsson method at each time point. The single-sample method showed within 10% concordances with the multiple-sample method of 66.4%, 83.6%, 91.4% and 96.0% at the time points 120, 180, 240 and ≥300 min, respectively. Concordance was poorer at lower GFR levels, and this trend is in parallel with increasing age. Results were similar in males and females. Some discordance was found in the obese subjects. Single-sample GFR is highly concordant with a multiple-sample strategy, except in the low GFR range (<30 mL/min). © The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of burial dose in incompletely bleached fluvial samples using single grains of quartz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Murray, A.S.; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    We determine the burial dose in three known-age incompletely bleached fluvial samples using single grains of quartz. Estimation of burial dose in incompletely bleached samples requires that the characteristics of the well-bleached part of the distribution are known in order to distinguish between...... well-bleached and poorly bleached grains. It is especially important to investigate if the uncertainties assigned to individual estimates of dose adequately describe the observed variability in well-bleached dose distributions. We investigate this by quantifying the overdispersion in laboratory-bleached...

  20. Investigation of applicability of extrapolation method for sample field determination in single-yoke measuring setup

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stupakov, Oleksandr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 307, - (2006), s. 279-287 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS100100508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetic measurement * open magnetic sample * surface field determination * single-yoke setup * magnetic non-destructive testing Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.212, year: 2006

  1. Chromium-51-EDTA clearance in adults with a single-plasma sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårtensson, J; Groth, S; Rehling, M; Gref, M

    1998-12-01

    In 1996, a committee on renal clearance recommended a mean sojourn time-based methodology for single-sample determination of plasma clearance of 99mTc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) to be used on adults if the patient's glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is suspected to be >30 ml/min. The main purpose of this study was to derive a mean sojourn time-based formula for calculation of 51Cr-ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) clearance in adults. Two groups of patients with 51Cr-EDTA clearance (Cl) between 16 and 172 ml/min were studied. In Group I (n = 46), reference Cl was determined as a multiplasma sample, single-injection method (ClSM). Sixteen blood samples were drawn from 0 until 5 hr after a single intravenous injection of 51Cr-EDTA. In Group II (n = 1046), reference Cl was determined by the Brøchner-Mortensen four-sample clearance method (ClBM). The plasma time-activity curves of Group I were used to derive two mean sojourn time-based formulas (Formulas 1 and 2) for calculation of a single-sample clearance. Formula 1 was derived from the entire time-activity curve, whereas the derivation of Formula 2 used only the final slope of the time-activity curve. The accuracy of the two formulas and the Christensen and Groth 99mTc-DTPA formula was tested on Group II. Chromium-51-EDTA Cl calculated by Formula 1 was almost identical to the Cl calculated by the reference Cl method (r = 0.982; SDdiff = 5.82 ml/min). Both 51Cr-EDTA Cl calculated by Formula 2 and by the 99mTc-DTPA formula showed close correlation with the reference method (r = 0.976, r = 0.985, respectively) but systematically overestimated GFR for the whole range of clearance values by 3.5 and 3.2 ml/min (ptime methodology. The determination is marginally more accurate (ptime-activity curve than from only the final slope. The single-sample formula derived for determination of 99mTc-DTPA Cl tends slightly to overestimate GFR if used to calculate 51Cr-EDTA Cl.

  2. Characterizing full matrix constants of piezoelectric single crystals with strong anisotropy using two samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liguo; Zhang, Yang; Cao, Wenwu

    2016-10-01

    Although the self-consistency of the full matrix material constants of a piezoelectric sample obtained by the resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy technique can be guaranteed because all constants come from the same sample, it is a great challenge to determine the constants of a piezoelectric sample with strong anisotropy because it might not be possible to identify enough resonance modes from the resonance spectrum. To overcome this difficulty, we developed a strategy to use two samples of similar geometries to increase the number of easy identifiable modes. Unlike the IEEE resonance methods, sample-to-sample variation here is negligible because the two samples have almost the same dimensions, cut from the same specimen and poled under the same conditions. Using this method, we have measured the full matrix constants of a [011]c poled 0.71Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 single crystal, which has 17 independent constants. The self-consistency of the obtained results is checked by comparing the calculated elastic stiffness constants c33 D , c44 D , and c55 D with those directly measured ones using the ultrasonic pulse-echo method.

  3. A simple and selective method for determination of phthalate biomarkers in vegetable samples by high pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xi; Cui, Kunyan; Zeng, Feng; Li, Shoucong; Zeng, Zunxiang

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, solid-phase extraction cartridges including silica reversed-phase Isolute C18, polymeric reversed-phase Oasis HLB and mixed-mode anion-exchange Oasis MAX, and liquid-liquid extractions with ethyl acetate, n-hexane, dichloromethane and its mixtures were compared for clean-up of phthalate monoesters from vegetable samples. Best recoveries and minimised matrix effects were achieved using ethyl acetate/n-hexane liquid-liquid extraction for these target compounds. A simple and selective method, based on sample preparation by ultrasonic extraction and liquid-liquid extraction clean-up, for the determination of phthalate monoesters in vegetable samples by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry was developed. The method detection limits for phthalate monoesters ranged from 0.013 to 0.120 ng g(-1). Good linearity (r(2)>0.991) between MQLs and 1000× MQLs was achieved. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation values were less than 11.8%. The method was successfully used to determine phthalate monoester metabolites in the vegetable samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of solid-phase micro extraction for the determination of pesticides in vegetable samples by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Mee Kin; Tan, Guan Huat; Kumari, Asha

    2008-01-01

    A solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) method has been developed for the determination of 9 pesticides in 2 vegetables -cucumber and tomato - samples, based on direct immersion mode and subsequent desorption into the injection port of a gas chromatograph with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The main factors affecting the SPME process such as extraction time and temperature, desorption time and temperature, the effect of salt addition and fiber depth into the liner were studied and optimized. The analytical procedure proposed consisted of a 30 minute ultrasonic extraction of the target compounds from 1.0 g vegetable samples with 5 mL of distilled water. Then, the samples were filtered and topped up with distilled water to 10 mL. The analytes in this aqueous extract were extracted for 15 minutes with a 100 μm thickness polydimethylsiloxane SPME fiber. Relative standard deviations for triplicate analyses of samples were less than 10 %. The recoveries of the pesticides studied in cucumber and tomato ranged from 52 % to 82 % and the RSD were below 10 %. Therefore, the proposed method is applicable in the analysis of pesticides in vegetable matrices. SPME has been shown to be a simple extraction technique, which has a number of advantages such as solvent free extraction, simplicity and compatibility with the chromatographic analytical system. (author)

  5. Microwave-assisted headspace single-drop microextration of chlorobenzenes from water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, Lorena [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, P.O. Box 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Domini, Claudia E. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, P.O. Box 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Grane, Nuria [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, P.O. Box 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Psillakis, Elefteria [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechneioupolis, GR-73100 Chania, Crete (Greece); Canals, Antonio [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, P.O. Box 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)]. E-mail: a.canals@ua.es

    2007-05-29

    A one-step and in-situ sample preparation method used for quantifying chlorobenzene compounds in water samples has been developed, coupling microwave and headspace single-drop microextraction (MW-HS-SDME). The chlorobenzenes in water samples were extracted directly onto an ionic liquid single-drop in headspace mode under the aid of microwave radiation. For optimization, a Plackett-Burman screening design was initially used, followed by a mixed-level factorial design. The factors considered were: drop volume, aqueous sample volume, stirring speed, ionic strength, extraction time, ionic liquid type, microwave power and length of the Y-shaped glass-tube. The optimum experimental conditions found from this statistical evaluation were: a 5 {mu}L microdrop of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate exposed for 20 min to the headspace of a 30 mL aqueous sample, irradiated by microwaves at 200 W and placed in a 50 mL spherical flask connected to a 25 cm Y-shaped glass-tube. Under the optimised experimental conditions, the response of a high performance liquid chromatographic system was found to be linear over the range studied and with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.9995 and 0.9999. The method showed a good level of repeatability, with relative standard deviations varying between 2.3 and 8.3% (n = 5). Detection limits were found in the low {mu}g L{sup -1} range varying between 0.016 and 0.039 {mu}g L{sup -1}. Overall, the performance of the proposed method demonstrated the favourable effect of microwave sample irradiation upon HS-SDME. Finally, recovery studies from different types of environmental water samples revealed that matrix had little effect upon extraction.

  6. Microwave-assisted headspace single-drop microextration of chlorobenzenes from water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, Lorena; Domini, Claudia E.; Grane, Nuria; Psillakis, Elefteria; Canals, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    A one-step and in-situ sample preparation method used for quantifying chlorobenzene compounds in water samples has been developed, coupling microwave and headspace single-drop microextraction (MW-HS-SDME). The chlorobenzenes in water samples were extracted directly onto an ionic liquid single-drop in headspace mode under the aid of microwave radiation. For optimization, a Plackett-Burman screening design was initially used, followed by a mixed-level factorial design. The factors considered were: drop volume, aqueous sample volume, stirring speed, ionic strength, extraction time, ionic liquid type, microwave power and length of the Y-shaped glass-tube. The optimum experimental conditions found from this statistical evaluation were: a 5 μL microdrop of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate exposed for 20 min to the headspace of a 30 mL aqueous sample, irradiated by microwaves at 200 W and placed in a 50 mL spherical flask connected to a 25 cm Y-shaped glass-tube. Under the optimised experimental conditions, the response of a high performance liquid chromatographic system was found to be linear over the range studied and with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.9995 and 0.9999. The method showed a good level of repeatability, with relative standard deviations varying between 2.3 and 8.3% (n = 5). Detection limits were found in the low μg L -1 range varying between 0.016 and 0.039 μg L -1 . Overall, the performance of the proposed method demonstrated the favourable effect of microwave sample irradiation upon HS-SDME. Finally, recovery studies from different types of environmental water samples revealed that matrix had little effect upon extraction

  7. Repeatability of riparian vegetation sampling methods: how useful are these techniques for broad-scale, long-term monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc C. Coles-Ritchie; Richard C. Henderson; Eric K. Archer; Caroline Kennedy; Jeffrey L. Kershner

    2004-01-01

    Tests were conducted to evaluate variability among observers for riparian vegetation data collection methods and data reduction techniques. The methods are used as part of a largescale monitoring program designed to detect changes in riparian resource conditions on Federal lands. Methods were evaluated using agreement matrices, the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity metric, the...

  8. A single lysis solution for the analysis of tissue samples by different proteomic technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, P.; Celis, J.E.; Gromova, I.

    2008-01-01

    -based proteomics (reverse-phase lysate arrays or direct antibody arrays), allowing the direct comparison of qualitative and quantitative data yielded by these technologies when applied to the same samples. The usefulness of the CLB1 solution for gel-based proteomics was further established by 2D PAGE analysis...... dissease, is driving scientists to increasingly use clinically relevant samples for biomarker and target discovery. Tissues are heterogeneous and as a result optimization of sample preparation is critical for generating accurate, representative, and highly reproducible quantitative data. Although a large...... number of protocols for preparation of tissue lysates has been published, so far no single recipe is able to provide a "one-size fits all" solubilization procedure that can be used to analyse the same lysate using different proteomics technologies. Here we present evidence showing that cell lysis buffer...

  9. Simple and Reproducible Sample Preparation for Single-Shot Phosphoproteomics with High Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jersie-Christensen, Rosa R.; Sultan, Abida; Olsen, Jesper V

    2016-01-01

    The traditional sample preparation workflow for mass spectrometry (MS)-based phosphoproteomics is time consuming and usually requires multiple steps, e.g., lysis, protein precipitation, reduction, alkylation, digestion, fractionation, and phosphopeptide enrichment. Each step can introduce chemical...... artifacts, in vitro protein and peptide modifications, and contaminations. Those often result in sample loss and affect the sensitivity, dynamic range and accuracy of the mass spectrometric analysis. Here we describe a simple and reproducible phosphoproteomics protocol, where lysis, denaturation, reduction......, and alkylation are performed in a single step, thus reducing sample loss and increasing reproducibility. Moreover, unlike standard cell lysis procedures the cell harvesting is performed at high temperatures (99 °C) and without detergents and subsequent need for protein precipitation. Phosphopeptides are enriched...

  10. SERE: single-parameter quality control and sample comparison for RNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Stefan K; Kanwar, Rahul; Gölzenleuchter, Meike; Therneau, Terry M; Beutler, Andreas S

    2012-10-03

    Assessing the reliability of experimental replicates (or global alterations corresponding to different experimental conditions) is a critical step in analyzing RNA-Seq data. Pearson's correlation coefficient r has been widely used in the RNA-Seq field even though its statistical characteristics may be poorly suited to the task. Here we present a single-parameter test procedure for count data, the Simple Error Ratio Estimate (SERE), that can determine whether two RNA-Seq libraries are faithful replicates or globally different. Benchmarking shows that the interpretation of SERE is unambiguous regardless of the total read count or the range of expression differences among bins (exons or genes), a score of 1 indicating faithful replication (i.e., samples are affected only by Poisson variation of individual counts), a score of 0 indicating data duplication, and scores >1 corresponding to true global differences between RNA-Seq libraries. On the contrary the interpretation of Pearson's r is generally ambiguous and highly dependent on sequencing depth and the range of expression levels inherent to the sample (difference between lowest and highest bin count). Cohen's simple Kappa results are also ambiguous and are highly dependent on the choice of bins. For quantifying global sample differences SERE performs similarly to a measure based on the negative binomial distribution yet is simpler to compute. SERE can therefore serve as a straightforward and reliable statistical procedure for the global assessment of pairs or large groups of RNA-Seq datasets by a single statistical parameter.

  11. Estimation of technetium 99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine plasma clearance by use of one single plasma sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Suur, R.; Magnusson, G.; Karolinska Inst., Stockholm; Bois-Svensson, I.; Jansson, B.

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that technetium 99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG-3) is a suitable replacement for iodine 131 or 123 hippurate in gamma-camera renography. Also, the determination of its clearance is of value, since it correlates well with that of hippurate and thus may be an indirect measure of renal plasma flow. In order to simplify the clearance method we developed formulas for the estimation of plasma clearance of MAG-3 based on a single plasma sample and compared them with the multiple sample method based on 7 plasma samples. The correlation to effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) (according to Tauxe's method, using iodine 123 hippurate), which ranged from 75 to 654 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 , was determined in these patients. Using the developed regression equations the error of estimate for the simplified clearance method was acceptably low (18-14 ml/min), when the single plasma sample was taken 44-64 min post-injection. Formulas for different sampling times at 44, 48, 52, 56, 60 and 64 min are given, and we recommend 60 min as optimal, with an error of estimate of 15.5 ml/min. The correlation between the MAG-3 clearances and ERPF was high (r=0.90). Since normal values for MAG-3 clearance are not yet available, transformation to estimated ERPF values by the regression equation (ERPF=1.86xC MAG-3 +4.6) could be of clinical value in order to compare it with the normal values for ERPF given in the literature. (orig.)

  12. Damage evolution analysis of coal samples under cyclic loading based on single-link cluster method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Wang, Enyuan; Li, Nan; Li, Xuelong; Wang, Xiaoran; Li, Zhonghui

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the acoustic emission (AE) response of coal samples under cyclic loading is measured. The results show that there is good positive relation between AE parameters and stress. The AE signal of coal samples under cyclic loading exhibits an obvious Kaiser Effect. The single-link cluster (SLC) method is applied to analyze the spatial evolution characteristics of AE events and the damage evolution process of coal samples. It is found that a subset scale of the SLC structure becomes smaller and smaller when the number of cyclic loading increases, and there is a negative linear relationship between the subset scale and the degree of damage. The spatial correlation length ξ of an SLC structure is calculated. The results show that ξ fluctuates around a certain value from the second cyclic loading process to the fifth cyclic loading process, but spatial correlation length ξ clearly increases in the sixth loading process. Based on the criterion of microcrack density, the coal sample failure process is the transformation from small-scale damage to large-scale damage, which is the reason for changes in the spatial correlation length. Through a systematic analysis, the SLC method is an effective method to research the damage evolution process of coal samples under cyclic loading, and will provide important reference values for studying coal bursts.

  13. Validation of a Method for Cylindrospermopsin Determination in Vegetables: Application to Real Samples Such as Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. Prieto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Reports on the occurrence of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN have increased worldwide because of CYN toxic effects in humans and animals. If contaminated waters are used for plant irrigation, these could represent a possible CYN exposure route for humans. For the first time, a method employing solid phase extraction and quantification by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS of CYN was optimized in vegetables matrices such as lettuce (Lactuca sativa. The validated method showed a linear range, from 5 to 500 ng CYN g−1 of fresh weight (f.w., and detection and quantitation limits (LOD and LOQ of 0.22 and 0.42 ng CYN g−1 f.w., respectively. The mean recoveries ranged between 85 and 104%, and the intermediate precision from 12.7 to 14.7%. The method showed to be robust for the three different variables tested. Moreover, it was successfully applied to quantify CYN in edible lettuce leaves exposed to CYN-contaminated water (10 µg L−1, showing that the tolerable daily intake (TDI in the case of CYN could be exceeded in elderly high consumers. The validated method showed good results in terms of sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and robustness for CYN determination in leaf vegetables such as lettuce. More studies are needed in order to prevent the risks associated with the consumption of CYN-contaminated vegetables.

  14. Validation of a Method for Cylindrospermopsin Determination in Vegetables: Application to Real Samples Such as Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Ana I; Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Díez-Quijada, Leticia; Campos, Alexandre; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Jos, Ángeles; Cameán, Ana M

    2018-02-01

    Reports on the occurrence of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) have increased worldwide because of CYN toxic effects in humans and animals. If contaminated waters are used for plant irrigation, these could represent a possible CYN exposure route for humans. For the first time, a method employing solid phase extraction and quantification by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) of CYN was optimized in vegetables matrices such as lettuce ( Lactuca sativa ). The validated method showed a linear range, from 5 to 500 ng CYN g -1 of fresh weight (f.w.), and detection and quantitation limits (LOD and LOQ) of 0.22 and 0.42 ng CYN g -1 f.w., respectively. The mean recoveries ranged between 85 and 104%, and the intermediate precision from 12.7 to 14.7%. The method showed to be robust for the three different variables tested. Moreover, it was successfully applied to quantify CYN in edible lettuce leaves exposed to CYN-contaminated water (10 µg L -1 ), showing that the tolerable daily intake (TDI) in the case of CYN could be exceeded in elderly high consumers. The validated method showed good results in terms of sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and robustness for CYN determination in leaf vegetables such as lettuce. More studies are needed in order to prevent the risks associated with the consumption of CYN-contaminated vegetables.

  15. The Impact of the Rise in Vegetable Prices on Vegetable Producer Behavior–Based on the survey of vegetable producers in Jiayu, Hubei Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the impact of the rise in prices of vegetables on vegetable producers, and to increase the revenue of vegetable producers, this paper does a survey by anonymous sampling questionnaire. Results shows that: most vegetable growers think that vegetable prices should rise and would continue to rise, and that vegetable prices would increase their revenue, thus in the coming year they would expand the planting scale of vegetable variety whose increase rate is the largest in this year. But because of the increase of logistics costs and production costs, some farmers benefit very little from the rising trend of vegetable prices. Most farmers expect too much in the trend estimation of the prices of vegetables and also lack of planning and forward-looking in production, thus the planting area of single variety is often decided by the market of previous year. According to analysis of the impact of the rise in vegetable prices on vegetable producer behavior, this paper gives the following suggestions to increase revenue of vegetable producers: change the mode of thinking, improve rural information platform, and increase capital investment for vegetable production base.

  16. Heavy metal accumulation in soils, plants, and hair samples: an assessment of heavy metal exposure risks from the consumption of vegetables grown on soils previously irrigated with wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaquoi, Lamin Daddy; Ma, Hui; Liu, Xue Hui; Han, Peng Yu; Zuo, Shu-Mei; Hua, Zhong-Xian; Liu, Dian-Wu

    2015-12-01

    It is common knowledge that soils irrigated with wastewater accumulate heavy metals more than those irrigated with cleaner water sources. However, little is known on metal concentrations in soils and cultivars after the cessation of wastewater use. This study assessed the accumulation and health risk of heavy metals 3 years post-wastewater irrigation in soils, vegetables, and farmers' hair. Soils, vegetables, and hair samples were collected from villages previously irrigating with wastewater (experimental villages) and villages with no history of wastewater irrigation (control villages). Soil samples were digested in a mixture of HCL/HNO3/HCLO4/HF. Plants and hair samples were digested in HNO3/HCLO4 mixture. Inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) was used to determine metal concentrations of digested extracts. Study results indicate a persistence of heavy metal concentration in soils and plants from farms previously irrigated with wastewater. In addition, soils previously irrigated with wastewater were severely contaminated with cadmium. Hair metal concentrations of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were significantly higher (P metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were not associated with current soil metal concentrations. The study concludes that there is a persistence of heavy metals in soils and plants previously irrigated with wastewater, but high metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers cannot be associated with current soil metal concentrations.

  17. DETERMINATION OF LEAD (Pb, IRON (Fe AND MANGANESE (Mn CONCENTRATION IN SEWAGE WATER AND VEGETABLE LEAF SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umar Hayat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Application of waste water for irrigation purposes has increased over the past years. This waste water contains high amounts of trace elements and heavy metals.Many of these are non-essential and toxic to plants, animals and human beings. The use of polluted water in the immediate surroundings of big cities in Pakistan is a common practice for growing of vegetables. When this water applied for long time in irrigation, these heavy metals may accumulate in soil and that may be toxic to plants and also cause deterioration of soil. The present study revealed that heavy metal content was above the toxicity level in leafy vegetables grown in the area of Lahore. This study showed that among the different tested plant species, the amount of heavy metals was more in leaves than fruits. Plants whose fruits grow below the soil showed higher concentration of heavy metals while other showed less concentration whose edible portion was above the ground level. Leafy vegetables (spinach, cabbage, coriander etc showed higher concentration in leaves than in fruits. The concentration of heavy metals in upper layer of soil (0 -15 cm is higher than the lower layer (15-30 cm. The reason behind is that the upper layer was receiving sewage water permanently while the penetration of sewage water below 15 cm was less. The increase in heavy metal accumulation in different plant species and their different parts is not constant and is not in proportion to the increase in heavy metal concentration in soil irrigated with sewage wastewater.

  18. A single method for recovery and concentration of enteric viruses and bacteria from fresh-cut vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, G; Elizaquível, P; Aznar, R

    2012-01-03

    Fresh-cut vegetables are prone to be contaminated with foodborne pathogens during growth, harvest, transport and further processing and handling. As most of these products are generally eaten raw or mildly treated, there is an increase in the number of outbreaks caused by viruses and bacteria associated with fresh vegetables. Foodborne pathogens are usually present at very low levels and have to be concentrated (i.e. viruses) or enriched (i.e. bacteria) to enhance their detection. With this aim, a rapid concentration method has been developed for the simultaneous recovery of hepatitis A virus (HAV), norovirus (NV), murine norovirus (MNV) as a surrogate for NV, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica. Initial experiments focused on evaluating the elution conditions suitable for virus release from vegetables. Finally, elution with buffered peptone water (BPW), using a Pulsifier, and concentration by polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation were the methods selected for the elution and concentration of both, enteric viruses and bacteria, from three different types of fresh-cut vegetables by quantitative PCR (qPCR) using specific primers. The average recoveries from inoculated parsley, spinach and salad, were ca. 9.2%, 43.5%, and 20.7% for NV, MNV, and HAV, respectively. Detection limits were 132 RT-PCR units (PCRU), 1.5 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID₅₀), and 6.6 TCID₅₀ for NV, MNV, and HAV, respectively. This protocol resulted in average recoveries of 57.4%, 64.5% and 64.6% in three vegetables for E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes and Salmonella with corresponding detection limits of 10³, 10² and 10³ CFU/g, respectively. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the procedure herein is suitable to recover, detect and quantify enteric viruses and foodborne pathogenic bacteria within 5 h and can be applied for the simultaneous detection of both types of foodborne pathogens in fresh-cut vegetables. Copyright

  19. Spatial distribution of single-nucleotide polymorphisms related to fungicide resistance and implications for sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heyden, H; Dutilleul, P; Brodeur, L; Carisse, O

    2014-06-01

    Spatial distribution of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to fungicide resistance was studied for Botrytis cinerea populations in vineyards and for B. squamosa populations in onion fields. Heterogeneity in this distribution was characterized by performing geostatistical analyses based on semivariograms and through the fitting of discrete probability distributions. Two SNPs known to be responsible for boscalid resistance (H272R and H272Y), both located on the B subunit of the succinate dehydrogenase gene, and one SNP known to be responsible for dicarboximide resistance (I365S) were chosen for B. cinerea in grape. For B. squamosa in onion, one SNP responsible for dicarboximide resistance (I365S homologous) was chosen. One onion field was sampled in 2009 and another one was sampled in 2010 for B. squamosa, and two vineyards were sampled in 2011 for B. cinerea, for a total of four sampled sites. Cluster sampling was carried on a 10-by-10 grid, each of the 100 nodes being the center of a 10-by-10-m quadrat. In each quadrat, 10 samples were collected and analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or allele specific PCR. Mean SNP incidence varied from 16 to 68%, with an overall mean incidence of 43%. In the geostatistical analyses, omnidirectional variograms showed spatial autocorrelation characterized by ranges of 21 to 1 m. Various levels of anisotropy were detected, however, with variograms computed in four directions (at 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135° from the within-row direction used as reference), indicating that spatial autocorrelation was prevalent or characterized by a longer range in one direction. For all eight data sets, the β-binomial distribution was found to fit the data better than the binomial distribution. This indicates local aggregation of fungicide resistance among sampling units, as supported by estimates of the parameter θ of the β-binomial distribution of 0.09 to 0.23 (overall median value = 0

  20. Prediction of two-sample 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid plasma clearance from single-sample method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Li; Ma Ying-Chun; Wang Mei; Zhang Chun-Li; Wang Rong-Fu; Wang Hai-Yan

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an equation to predict dual plasma sample method (DPSM) 99m Tc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid ( 99m Tc-DTPA) plasma clearance from single plasma sample method (SPSM), and to clarify the condition in which DPSM can be substituted by SPSM in measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) were selected. Watson modified Christensen and Groth equation was used to calculate 99m Tc-DTPA plasma clearance by SPSM (sGFR). The equation recommended by the Nephrourology Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine was used to calculate 99m Tc-DTPA plasma clearance by DPSM (tGFR) in each patient. The difference between sGFR and tGFR was expressed as percent of the average of these two methods, and tGFR was predicted from sGFR. Plasma creatinine was measured by the kinetic picrate method, and GFR estimated by abbreviated modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation (aGFR) and Cockcroft-Gault equation (cGFR) were evaluated as criteria in selection of DPSM and SPSM. Three hundred and sixty-nine patients with CKD were selected (208 male and 161 female). The average age and body weight were 51.4±15.5 years and 67.2±12.5 kg, respectively. The causes of CKD were glomerular disease, renal arterial stenosis, chronic tubulointerstitial disease, and other causes or causes unknown. The average tGFR was 62.9±36.5 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , ranging from 1-180 ml/min/1.73 m 2 . sGFR was significantly correlated with tGFR (r=0.9194, p 2 ; in contrast, then tGFR was±30 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , the difference was constant (-1.1%, 95% confidence interval -18.3%, 16.1%), and tGFR could be predicted from sGFR using the equation: predicted tGFR (ml/min/1.73 m 2 )=7 4244+0.7318 x sGFR+0.0022 x sGFR 2 (n=299, r 2 =0.9428, p 2 , the diagnostic sensitivity of a cut off value of aGFR=45 ml/min/1.73 m 2 was 91.8%, and recommended as a criterion in the selection of DPSM and SPSM. When GFR ≥30 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , t

  1. Variation in orgasm occurrence by sexual orientation in a sample of U.S. singles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Justin R; Lloyd, Elisabeth A; Wallen, Kim; Fisher, Helen E

    2014-11-01

    Despite recent advances in understanding orgasm variation, little is known about ways in which sexual orientation is associated with men's and women's orgasm occurrence. To assess orgasm occurrence during sexual activity across sexual orientation categories. Data were collected by Internet questionnaire from 6,151 men and women (ages 21-65+ years) as part of a nationally representative sample of single individuals in the United States. Analyses were restricted to a subsample of 2,850 singles (1,497 men, 1,353 women) who had experienced sexual activity in the past 12 months. Participants reported their sex/gender, self-identified sexual orientation (heterosexual, gay/lesbian, bisexual), and what percentage of the time they experience orgasm when having sex with a familiar partner. Mean occurrence rate for experiencing orgasm during sexual activity with a familiar partner was 62.9% among single women and 85.1% among single men, which was significantly different (F1,2848  = 370.6, P sexual orientation: heterosexual men 85.5%, gay men 84.7%, bisexual men 77.6% (F2,1494  = 2.67, P = 0.07, η(2)  = 0.004). For women, however, mean occurrence rate of orgasm varied significantly by sexual orientation: heterosexual women 61.6%, lesbian women 74.7%, bisexual women 58.0% (F2,1350  = 10.95, P sexual orientation, have less predictable, more varied orgasm experiences than do men and that for women, but not men, the likelihood of orgasm varies with sexual orientation. These findings demonstrate the need for further investigations into the comparative sexual experiences and sexual health outcomes of sexual minorities. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  2. MPLEx: a Robust and Universal Protocol for Single-Sample Integrative Proteomic, Metabolomic, and Lipidomic Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Sims, Amy C.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Kim, Young-Mo; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Shukla, Anil K.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Baric, Ralph S.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Smith, Richard D.; Metz, Thomas O.; Chia, Nicholas

    2016-05-03

    ABSTRACT

    Integrative multi-omics analyses can empower more effective investigation and complete understanding of complex biological systems. Despite recent advances in a range of omics analyses, multi-omic measurements of the same sample are still challenging and current methods have not been well evaluated in terms of reproducibility and broad applicability. Here we adapted a solvent-based method, widely applied for extracting lipids and metabolites, to add proteomics to mass spectrometry-based multi-omics measurements. Themetabolite,protein, andlipidextraction (MPLEx) protocol proved to be robust and applicable to a diverse set of sample types, including cell cultures, microbial communities, and tissues. To illustrate the utility of this protocol, an integrative multi-omics analysis was performed using a lung epithelial cell line infected with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, which showed the impact of this virus on the host glycolytic pathway and also suggested a role for lipids during infection. The MPLEx method is a simple, fast, and robust protocol that can be applied for integrative multi-omic measurements from diverse sample types (e.g., environmental,in vitro, and clinical).

    IMPORTANCEIn systems biology studies, the integration of multiple omics measurements (i.e., genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and lipidomics) has been shown to provide a more complete and informative view of biological pathways. Thus, the prospect of extracting different types of molecules (e.g., DNAs, RNAs, proteins, and metabolites) and performing multiple omics measurements on single samples is very attractive, but such studies are challenging due to the fact that the extraction conditions differ according to the molecule type. Here, we adapted an organic solvent-based extraction method that demonstrated

  3. Diagnosing intramammary infections: evaluation of definitions based on a single milk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohoo, I R; Smith, J; Andersen, S; Kelton, D F; Godden, S

    2011-01-01

    Criteria for diagnosing intramammary infections (IMI) have been debated for many years. Factors that may be considered in making a diagnosis include the organism of interest being found on culture, the number of colonies isolated, whether or not the organism was recovered in pure or mixed culture, and whether or not concurrent evidence of inflammation existed (often measured by somatic cell count). However, research using these criteria has been hampered by the lack of a "gold standard" test (i.e., a perfect test against which the criteria can be evaluated) and the need for very large data sets of culture results to have sufficient numbers of quarters with infections with a variety of organisms. This manuscript used 2 large data sets of culture results to evaluate several definitions (sets of criteria) for classifying a quarter as having, or not having an IMI by comparing the results from a single culture to a gold standard diagnosis based on a set of 3 milk samples. The first consisted of 38,376 milk samples from which 25,886 triplicate sets of milk samples taken 1 wk apart were extracted. The second consisted of 784 quarters that were classified as infected or not based on a set of 3 milk samples collected at 2-d intervals. From these quarters, a total of 3,136 additional samples were evaluated. A total of 12 definitions (named A to L) based on combinations of the number of colonies isolated, whether or not the organism was recovered in pure or mixed culture, and the somatic cell count were evaluated for each organism (or group of organisms) with sufficient data. The sensitivity (ability of a definition to detect IMI) and the specificity (Sp; ability of a definition to correctly classify noninfected quarters) were both computed. For all species, except Staphylococcus aureus, the sensitivity of all definitions was definition A). With the exception of "any organism" and coagulase-negative staphylococci, all Sp estimates were over 94% in the daily data and over 97

  4. Molecular detection of eukaryotes in a single human stool sample from Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Hamad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microbial eukaryotes represent an important component of the human gut microbiome, with different beneficial or harmful roles; some species are commensal or mutualistic, whereas others are opportunistic or parasitic. The diversity of eukaryotes inhabiting humans remains relatively unexplored because of either the low abundance of these organisms in human gut or because they have received limited attention from a whole-community perspective. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In this study, a single fecal sample from a healthy African male was studied using both culture-dependent methods and extended molecular methods targeting the 18S rRNA and ITS sequences. Our results revealed that very few fungi, including Candida spp., Galactomyces spp., and Trichosporon asahii, could be isolated using culture-based methods. In contrast, a relatively a high number of eukaryotic species could be identified in this fecal sample when culture-independent methods based on various primer sets were used. A total of 27 species from one sample were found among the 977 analyzed clones. The clone libraries were dominated by fungi (716 clones/977, 73.3%, corresponding to 16 different species. In addition, 187 sequences out of 977 (19.2% corresponded to 9 different species of plants; 59 sequences (6% belonged to other micro-eukaryotes in the gut, including Entamoeba hartmanni and Blastocystis sp; and only 15 clones/977 (1.5% were related to human 18S rRNA sequences. CONCLUSION: Our results revealed a complex eukaryotic community in the volunteer's gut, with fungi being the most abundant species in the stool sample. Larger investigations are needed to assess the generality of these results and to understand their roles in human health and disease.

  5. Estimation of 131J-Jodohippurateclearance by a simplified method using a single plasma sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botsch, H.; Golde, G.; Kampf, D.

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical volumes calculated from the reciprocal of the plasma concentration of 131 J-Jodohippurate were compared in 95 patients with clearance values calculated by the 2-compartment-method and in 18 patients with conventional PAH-clearance. For estimating Hippurate-clearance from a single blood sampling the most favorable time is 45 min. after injection (r = 0.96; clearance 400/ml/min.: r = 0.98). Clearance values may be derived from the formula: C = 0.4 + 7.26 V - 0.021 x V 2 (V = injected activity/activity per l plasma taken 45 min. after injection). The simplicity, precision and reproducibility of the above mentioned clearance-method is emphasized. (orig.) [de

  6. Length-dependent optical properties of single-walled carbon nanotube samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, Anton V.; Tsyboulski, Dmitri A.; Bachilo, Sergei M.; Weisman, R. Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Length-independent absorption per atom in single-walled carbon nanotubes. ► Reduced fluorescence quantum yield for short nanotubes. ► Exciton quenching at nanotube ends, sidewall defects probably limits quantum yield. - Abstract: Contradictory findings have been reported on the length dependence of optical absorption cross sections and fluorescence quantum yields in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). To clarify these points, studies have been made on bulk SWCNT dispersions subjected to length fractionation by electrophoretic separation or by ultrasonication-induced scission. Fractions ranged from ca. 120 to 760 nm in mean length. Samples prepared by shear-assisted dispersion were subsequently shortened by ultrasonic processing. After accounting for processing-induced changes in the surfactant absorption background, SWCNT absorption was found constant within ±11% as average nanotube length changed by a factor of 3.8. This indicates that the absorption cross-section per carbon atom is not length dependent. By contrast, in length fractions prepared by both methods, the bulk fluorescence efficiency or average quantum yield increased with SWCNT average length and approached an apparent asymptotic limit near 1 μm. This result is interpreted as reflecting the combined contributions of exciton quenching by sidewall defects and by the ends of shorter nanotubes

  7. Single-breath-hold 3-D CINE imaging of the left ventricle using Cartesian sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzl, Jens; Schmidt, Michaela; Pontana, François; Longère, Benjamin; Lugauer, Felix; Maier, Andreas; Hornegger, Joachim; Forman, Christoph

    2018-02-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate a single-breath-hold approach for Cartesian 3-D CINE imaging of the left ventricle with a nearly isotropic resolution of [Formula: see text] and a breath-hold duration of [Formula: see text]19 s against a standard stack of 2-D CINE slices acquired in multiple breath-holds. Validation is performed with data sets from ten healthy volunteers. A Cartesian sampling pattern based on the spiral phyllotaxis and a compressed sensing reconstruction method are proposed to allow 3-D CINE imaging with high acceleration factors. The fully integrated reconstruction uses multiple graphics processing units to speed up the reconstruction. The 2-D CINE and 3-D CINE are compared based on ventricular function parameters, contrast-to-noise ratio and edge sharpness measurements. Visual comparisons of corresponding short-axis slices of 2-D and 3-D CINE show an excellent match, while 3-D CINE also allows reformatting to other orientations. Ventricular function parameters do not significantly differ from values based on 2-D CINE imaging. Reconstruction times are below 4 min. We demonstrate single-breath-hold 3-D CINE imaging in volunteers and three example patient cases, which features fast reconstruction and allows reformatting to arbitrary orientations.

  8. Single-gene prognostic signatures for advanced stage serous ovarian cancer based on 1257 patient samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Yang, Kai; Deng, Kui; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Weiwei; Xu, Huan; Rong, Zhiwei; Li, Kang

    2018-04-16

    We sought to identify stable single-gene prognostic signatures based on a large collection of advanced stage serous ovarian cancer (AS-OvCa) gene expression data and explore their functions. The empirical Bayes (EB) method was used to remove the batch effect and integrate 8 ovarian cancer datasets. Univariate Cox regression was used to evaluate the association between gene and overall survival (OS). The Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) tool was used for the functional annotation of genes for Gene Ontology (GO) terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The batch effect was removed by the EB method, and 1257 patient samples were used for further analysis. We selected 341 single-gene prognostic signatures with FDR matrix organization, focal adhesion and DNA replication which are closely associated with cancer. We used the EB method to remove the batch effect of 8 datasets, integrated these datasets and identified stable prognosis signatures for AS-OvCa.

  9. Single-phase and two-phase anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable waste: Comparison of start-up, reactor stability and process performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesh, Rangaraj; Torrijos, Michel; Sousbie, Philippe; Lugardon, Aurelien; Steyer, Jean Philippe; Delgenes, Jean Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Single-phase and two-phase systems were compared for fruit and vegetable waste digestion. • Single-phase digestion produced a methane yield of 0.45 m 3 CH 4 /kg VS and 83% VS removal. • Substrate solubilization was high in acidification conditions at 7.0 kg VS/m 3 d and pH 5.5–6.2. • Energy yield was lower by 33% for two-phase system compared to the single-phase system. • Simple and straight-forward operation favored single phase process over two-phase process. - Abstract: Single-phase and two-phase digestion of fruit and vegetable waste were studied to compare reactor start-up, reactor stability and performance (methane yield, volatile solids reduction and energy yield). The single-phase reactor (SPR) was a conventional reactor operated at a low loading rate (maximum of 3.5 kg VS/m 3 d), while the two-phase system consisted of an acidification reactor (TPAR) and a methanogenic reactor (TPMR). The TPAR was inoculated with methanogenic sludge similar to the SPR, but was operated with step-wise increase in the loading rate and with total recirculation of reactor solids to convert it into acidification sludge. Before each feeding, part of the sludge from TPAR was centrifuged, the centrifuge liquid (solubilized products) was fed to the TPMR and centrifuged solids were recycled back to the reactor. Single-phase digestion produced a methane yield of 0.45 m 3 CH 4 /kg VS fed and VS removal of 83%. The TPAR shifted to acidification mode at an OLR of 10.0 kg VS/m 3 d and then achieved stable performance at 7.0 kg VS/m 3 d and pH 5.5–6.2, with very high substrate solubilization rate and a methane yield of 0.30 m 3 CH 4 /kg COD fed. The two-phase process was capable of high VS reduction, but material and energy balance showed that the single-phase process was superior in terms of volumetric methane production and energy yield by 33%. The lower energy yield of the two-phase system was due to the loss of energy during hydrolysis in the TPAR and the

  10. Brief communication: Is variation in the cranial capacity of the Dmanisi sample too high to be from a single species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hee

    2005-07-01

    This study uses data resampling to test the null hypothesis that the degree of variation in the cranial capacity of the Dmanisi hominid sample is within the range variation of a single species. The statistical significance of the variation in the Dmanisi sample is examined using simulated distributions based on comparative samples of modern humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas. Results show that it is unlikely to find the maximum difference observed in the Dmanisi sample in distributions of female-female pairs from comparative single-species samples. Given that two sexes are represented, the difference in the Dmanisi sample is not enough to reject the null hypothesis of a single species. Results of this study suggest no compelling reason to invoke multiple taxa to explain variation in the cranial capacity of the Dmanisi hominids. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  11. Tibetan tectonics from 40Ar/39Ar analysis of a single K-feldspar sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, F.M.; Lovera, O.M.; Harrison, T.M.; Copeland, P.

    1991-01-01

    40 Ar/ 39 Ar data on an alkali feldspar sample from the Quxu pluton, Gangdese batholith, southern Tibet, allow a detailed assessment of unroofing and uplift history between 35 and 18 Ma. The 39 Ar Arrhenius plot for this sample shows departures from a linear relationship between the effective diffusion parameter, log(D/r 2 ), and reciprocal temperature, which we interpret to be the result of a distribution of distinct diffusion-domain sizes. We use an alternative way of plotting the Arrhenius data that exhibits domain size versus cumulative % 39 Ar released during step heating. The 40 Ar/ 39 Ar age spectrum of the sample has features, such as local age plateaus, that are most easily explained in terms of the distinctive closure age of particular domains. The fact that the same distribution of diffusion-domain sizes explains both the Arrhenius data and the age spectrum is an indication that the diffusion properties operating in the laboratory are those of the sample while it was in its natural environment. Modelling of the age spectrum with a distribution of domain sizes results in the recovery of a continuous cooling-history segment rather than a single time-temperature datum. We demonstrate the robustness of the cooling-curve determination by showing the large misfits to the age spectrum that arise from relatively small changes in the cooling history. The best-fit cooling curve for the Quxu sample shows a decreasing rate of cooling in the time interval 35-18 Ma, followed by a very rapid cooling beginning at about 18 Ma. We have used a thermal model for the conductive cooling of an unroofing pluton to estimate the rate of unroofing required to explain the Quxu cooling curve, and find that in the 35-20 Ma time interval, the primary control of the thermal evolution is the conductive loss of magmatic heat with little or no unroofing (unroofing rates of approximately 0.05 mm/yr) followed by a brief period (<5 Ma) of very rapid unroofing with rates of order 2 mm

  12. Canine Food Preference Assessment of Animal and Vegetable Ingredient-Based Diets Using Single-Pan Tests and Behavioral Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan C. Callon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of canine food selection is critical for both the pet food industry and dog owners, since owners want quality foods that are palatable, while fulfilling their pet’s nutritional requirements. There are two common methods for assessing canine food preference: the two-pan test and the one-pan test. Neither test fully accounts for the complexity of the canine feeding experience nor do they provide applicable representations of canine feeding behavior in the home. The objectives of this study were to (1 determine whether dogs display a preference for animal ingredient-based diets when compared with vegetable ingredient-based diets and (2 examine whether dogs experience neophobia when presented with a novel diet. Eight adult Beagles (average age = 24 months, weighing 8–12 kg were individually fed each of four novel diets in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design, with 10-d treatment periods and four dietary treatments. Data were analyzed using a mixed model with repeated measures and significance was declared when p < 0.05. The diets were: animal and vegetable ingredient-based diets, and animal- and vegetable-based ingredients diluted with anhydrous α-d-glucose. The diluted diets were used for a larger study to determine true mineral digestibility. Dogs were fed twice per day (0800 and 1300 h. Behavioral observations were made by video on the first, and last 2 days of each 10-day treatment period of both a.m. and p.m. feedings. Time to consume feed, distraction, hesitation, level of anticipation pre-consumption, and interest post-consumption were recorded. Dogs experienced initial disruptive (neophobic effects of a novel diet. Neophobia was demonstrated by a decreased (slower rate of consumption, increased distraction during consumption of the diet, and increased hesitation on the first day of each new diet (p < 0.05. The level of interest post-consumption was highest when dogs consumed the animal

  13. Chlorotrimethylsilane, a reagent for the direct quantitative analysis of fats and oils present in vegetable and meat samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eras, Jordi; Ferran, Javier; Perpiña, Belén; Canela, Ramon

    2004-08-20

    Acylglycerides present in oil seeds and meat can be transformed into volatile fatty esters using chlorotrimethylsilane (CTMS) and 1-pentanol as reagents. The volatile esters can then be analysed by GC. The method is quantitative and involves only minor sample manipulation. It often permits major recoveries of the total saponifiable lipids present in solid samples. A 40 min reaction time is enough to ensure the total conversion of saponifiable lipids to the corresponding FAPEs.

  14. Adrenal venous sampling: the learning curve of a single interventionalist with 282 consecutive procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Hugo; Farmaki, Katerina; Sakinis, Augustinas; Ehn, Olof; Johannsson, Gudmundur; Ragnarsson, Oskar

    2018-01-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a common cause of secondary hypertension. Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is the gold standard for assessing laterality of PA, which is of paramount importance to decide adequate treatment. AVS is a technically complicated procedure with success rates ranging between 30% and 96%. The aim of this study was to investigate the success rate of AVS over time, performed by a single interventionalist. This was a retrospective study based on consecutive AVS procedures performed by a single operator between September 2005 and June 2016. Data on serum concentrations of aldosterone and cortisol from right and left adrenal vein, inferior vena cava, and peripheral vein were collected and selectivity index (SI) calculated. Successful AVS was defined as SI > 5. In total, 282 AVS procedures were performed on 269 patients, 168 men (62%) and 101 women (38%), with a mean age of 55±11 years (range, 26-78 years). Out of 282 AVS procedures, 259 were successful, giving an overall success rate of 92%. The most common reason for failure was inability to localize the right adrenal vein (n=16; 76%). The success rates were 63%, 82%, and 94% during the first, second, and third years, respectively. During the last 8 years the success rate was 95%, and on average 27 procedures were performed annually. Satisfactory AVS success rate was achieved after approximately 36 procedures and satisfactory success rate was maintained by performing approximately 27 procedures annually. AVS should be limited to few operators that perform sufficiently large number of procedures to achieve, and maintain, satisfactory AVS success rate.

  15. Multivariate analysis of the heavy metal concentrations in the vegetable and soil samples-a case study from district charsadda and district mardan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrees, M.; Rahman, Z.; Bibi, S.; Shah, F.; Gulab, H.; Ali, L.

    2017-01-01

    Multivariate statistical methods like cluster analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and regression analysis were applied on the metals concentration of both the vegetables and soil samples collected from the districts Charsada and Mardan to classify them in different groups. The concentrations of seven heavy metals including Cu, Cr, Co, Ni, Ag, Pb, Sb were investigated using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) in the leaves, fruits, extracts, and soil samples of potato, colocasia, turnip, radish, cabbage, angular loofah, cucumber, bitter gourd, round melon, and pumpkin. The concentration of copper, chromium, cobalt, nickel, silver, lead and antimony were found in the range of 6.133-72.933, 32.233-92.5, 2.25-8.083, 0.366-143.53, 0.4-4.467, 11.916-157.96, 28.75-165.367 mgKg/sup -1/ respectively. (author)

  16. Assessing sustainability of a low-input single-farm vegetable box-scheme using emergy and LCA methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Kulak, M.; Østergård, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    for minimizing resource use are fuels and electricity. Substitution of these would require the use of renewable energy. However, an increase in inputs from society may imply a lower net-yield to society from the farm and would thus be less desirable. The LCA data are currently being analysed and these results......Sustainable development implies necessarily making use of renewable resources to a larger extent. Thus a sustainability assessment has to identify hotspots for reducing use of non-renewable resources and potentials for substitution of these with renewable resources. LCA as well as emergy assessment......, the emergy method lacks some of the standardization and robustness of LCA. In this study we apply both methods to the same case study. The case considered is an organic stockless vegetable farm of 7 ha in UK which distributes its products in weekly boxes to 250 local consumers. The farm has systematically...

  17. A data-driven and physics-based single-pass retrieval of active-passive microwave covariation and vegetation parameters for the SMAP mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entekhabi, D.; Jagdhuber, T.; Das, N. N.; Baur, M.; Link, M.; Piles, M.; Akbar, R.; Konings, A. G.; Mccoll, K. A.; Alemohammad, S. H.; Montzka, C.; Kunstmann, H.

    2016-12-01

    The active-passive soil moisture retrieval algorithm of NASA's SMAP mission depends on robust statistical estimation of active-passive covariation (β) and vegetation structure (Γ) parameters in order to provide reliable global measurements of soil moisture on an intermediate level (9km) compared to the native resolution of the radiometer (36km) and radar (3km) instruments. These parameters apply to the SMAP radiometer-radar combination over the period of record that was cut short with the end of the SMAP radar transmission. They also apply to the current SMAP radiometer and Sentinel 1A/B radar combination for high-resolution surface soil moisture mapping. However, the performance of the statistically-based approach is directly dependent on the selection of a representative time frame in which these parameters can be estimated assuming dynamic soil moisture and stationary soil roughness and vegetation cover. Here, we propose a novel, data-driven and physics-based single-pass retrieval of active-passive microwave covariation and vegetation parameters for the SMAP mission. The algorithm does not depend on time series analyses and can be applied using minimum one pair of an active-passive acquisition. The algorithm stems from the physical link between microwave emission and scattering via conservation of energy. The formulation of the emission radiative transfer is combined with the Distorted Born Approximation of radar scattering for vegetated land surfaces. The two formulations are simultaneously solved for the covariation and vegetation structure parameters. Preliminary results from SMAP active-passive observations (April 13th to July 7th 2015) compare well with the time-series statistical approach and confirms the capability of this method to estimate these parameters. Moreover, the method is not restricted to a given frequency (applies to both L-band and C-band combinations for the radar) or incidence angle (all angles and not just the fixed 40° incidence

  18. Single sample extraction and HPLC processing for quantification of NAD and NADH levels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sporty, J; Kabir, M M; Turteltaub, K; Ognibene, T; Lin, S; Bench, G

    2008-01-10

    A robust redox extraction protocol for quantitative and reproducible metabolite isolation and recovery has been developed for simultaneous measurement of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and its reduced form, NADH, from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Following culture in liquid media, approximately 10{sup 8} yeast cells were harvested by centrifugation and then lysed under non-oxidizing conditions by bead blasting in ice-cold, nitrogen-saturated 50-mM ammonium acetate. To enable protein denaturation, ice cold nitrogen-saturated CH{sub 3}CN + 50-mM ammonium acetate (3:1; v:v) was added to the cell lysates. After sample centrifugation to pellet precipitated proteins, organic solvent removal was performed on supernatants by chloroform extraction. The remaining aqueous phase was dried and resuspended in 50-mM ammonium acetate. NAD and NADH were separated by HPLC and quantified using UV-VIS absorbance detection. Applicability of this procedure for quantifying NAD and NADH levels was evaluated by culturing yeast under normal (2% glucose) and calorie restricted (0.5% glucose) conditions. NAD and NADH contents are similar to previously reported levels in yeast obtained using enzymatic assays performed separately on acid (for NAD) and alkali (for NADH) extracts. Results demonstrate that it is possible to perform a single preparation to reliably and robustly quantitate both NAD and NADH contents in the same sample. Robustness of the protocol suggests it will be (1) applicable to quantification of these metabolites in mammalian and bacterial cell cultures; and (2) amenable to isotope labeling strategies to determine the relative contribution of specific metabolic pathways to total NAD and NADH levels in cell cultures.

  19. Prevalence of Experiences With Consensual Nonmonogamous Relationships: Findings From Two National Samples of Single Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupert, M L; Gesselman, Amanda N; Moors, Amy C; Fisher, Helen E; Garcia, Justin R

    2017-07-04

    Although academic and popular interest in consensual nonmonogamy (CNM) is increasing, little is known about the prevalence of CNM. Using two separate U.S. Census based quota samples of single adults in the United States (Study 1: n = 3,905; Study 2: n = 4,813), the present studies show that more than one in five (21.9% in Study 1; 21.2% in Study 2) participants report engaging in CNM at some point in their lifetime. This proportion remained constant across age, education level, income, religion, region, political affiliation, and race, but varied with gender and sexual orientation. Specifically, men (compared to women) and people who identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual (compared to those who identify as heterosexual) were more likely to report previous engagement in CNM. These findings suggest that a sizable and diverse proportion of U.S. adults have experienced CNM, highlighting the need to incorporate CNM into theoretical and empirical therapy and family science work.

  20. Area G perimeter surface-soil and single-stage water sampling. Environmental surveillance for fiscal year 95. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, M.; Conrad, R.

    1997-09-01

    ESH-19 personnel collected soil and single-stage water samples around the perimeter of Area G at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) during FY 95 to characterize possible radionuclide movement out of Area G through surface water and entrained sediment runoff. Soil samples were analyzed for tritium, total uranium, isotopic plutonium, americium-241, and cesium-137. The single-stage water samples were analyzed for tritium and plutonium isotopes. All radiochemical data was compared with analogous samples collected during FY 93 and 94 and reported in LA-12986 and LA-13165-PR. Six surface soils were also submitted for metal analyses. These data were included with similar data generated for soil samples collected during FY 94 and compared with metals in background samples collected at the Area G expansion area

  1. Highly Simple Deep Eutectic Solvent Extraction of Manganese in Vegetable Samples Prior to Its ICP-OES Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bağda, Esra; Altundağ, Hüseyin; Soylak, Mustafa

    2017-10-01

    In the present work, simple and sensitive extraction methods for selective determination of manganese have been successfully developed. The methods were based on solubilization of manganese in deep eutectic solvent medium. Three deep eutectic solvents with choline chloride (vitamin B4) and tartaric/oxalic/citric acids have been prepared. Extraction parameters were optimized with using standard reference material (1573a tomato leaves). The quantitative recovery values were obtained with 1.25 g/L sample to deep eutectic solvent (DES) volume, at 95 °C for 2 h. The limit of detection was found as 0.50, 0.34, and 1.23 μg/L for DES/tartaric, DES/oxalic, and DES/citric acid, respectively. At optimum conditions, the analytical signal was linear for the range of 10-3000 μg/L for all studied DESs with the correlation coefficient >0.99. The extraction methods were applied to different real samples such as basil herb, spinach, dill, and cucumber barks. The known amount of manganese was spiked to samples, and good recovery results were obtained.

  2. Production of recombinant single chain antibodies (scFv) in vegetatively reproductive Kalanchoe pinnata by in planta transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yuchul; Rhee, Yong; Auh, Chung-Kyoon; Shim, Hyekyung; Choi, Jung-Jin; Kwon, Suk-Tae; Yang, Joo-Sung; Kim, Donggiun; Kwon, Myung-Hee; Kim, Yong-Sung; Lee, Sukchan

    2009-10-01

    We developed an asexual reproductive plant, Kalanchoe pinnata, as a new bioreactor for plant-based molecular farming using a newly developed transformation method. Leaf crenate margins were pin-pricked to infect the plant with the Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 and vacuum infiltration was also applied to introduce the target gene into the plants. Subsequently, the young mother leaf produced new clones at the leaf crenate margins without the need for time- and labor-consuming tissue culture procedures. The average transformation rates were approximately 77 and 84% for pin-prickling and vacuum-infiltration methods, respectively. To functionally characterize an introduced target protein, a nucleic acid hydrolyzing recombinant 3D8 scFv was selected and the plant based 3D8 scFv proteins were purified and analyzed. Based on abzyme analysis, the purified protein expressed with this system had catalytic activity and exhibited all of properties of the protein produced in an E. coli system. This result suggested that vegetatively reproductive K. pinnata can be a novel and potent bioreactor for bio-pharmaceutical proteins.

  3. componente vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moscovich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine environmental impact, indicators based on vegetation characteristics that would generate the forestry monoculture with the adjacent native forest, 32 sample unit were installed in an area of LIPSIA private enterprise, Esperanza Department, Misiones with those characteristics. The plots of 100 m2 were distributed systematically every 25 meters. The vegetation was divided in stratum: superior (DBH ≥ 10 cm, middle (1,6 cm ≤ DBH > 10 cm and inferior (DBH< cm. There were installed 10 plots in a logged native forest, 10 plots in a 18 years old Pinus elliottii Engelm. with approximately 400 trees/ha., 6 plots in a 10 – 25 years old Araucaria angustifolia (Bertd. Kuntze limiting area with approximately 900 trees/ha., and 6 plots located in this plantation. In the studied area were identified 150 vegetation species. In the inferior stratum there were found differences as function of various floristic diversity indexes. In all the cases the native forest showed larger diversity than plantations, followed by Pinus elliottii, Araucaria plantation and Araucaria limiting area. All the studied forest fitted to a logarithmical series of species distributions, that would indicate the incidence of a environmental factor in this distribution.

  4. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  5. UNE-EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005-accredited method for the determination of pesticide residues in fruit and vegetable samples by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino-Sánchez, F J; Zafra-Gómez, A; Oliver-Rodríguez, B; Ballesteros, O; Navalón, A; Crovetto, G; Vílchez, J L

    2010-11-01

    A rapid, simple and sensitive multi-residue method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification and confirmation of 69 pesticides in fruit and vegetables using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted following the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method known as QuEChERS. Mass spectrometric conditions were individually optimised for each analyte in order to achieve maximum sensitivity in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Using the developed chromatographic conditions, 69 pesticides can be separated in less than 17 min. Two selected reaction monitoring (SRM) assays were used for each pesticide to obtain simultaneous quantification and identification in one run. With this method in SRM mode, more than 150 pesticides can be analysed and quantified, but their confirmation is not possible in all cases according to the European regulations on pesticide residues. Nine common representative matrices (zucchini, melon, cucumber, watermelon, tomato, garlic, eggplant, lettuce and pepper) were selected to investigate the effect of different matrices on recovery and precision. Mean recoveries ranged from 70% to 120%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 20% for all the pesticides. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of more than 2000 vegetable samples from the extensive greenhouse cultivation in the province of Almeria, Spain, during one year. The methodology combines the advantages of both QuEChERS and LC-MS/MS producing a very rapid, sensitive, accurate and reliable procedure that can be applied in routine analytical laboratories. The method was validated and accredited according to UNE-EN-ISO/IEC 17025:2005 international standard (accreditation number 278/LE1027).

  6. Single-phase and two-phase anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable waste: Comparison of start-up, reactor stability and process performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesh, Rangaraj [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France); Torrijos, Michel, E-mail: michel.torrijos@supagro.inra.fr [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France); Sousbie, Philippe [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France); Lugardon, Aurelien [Naskeo Environnment, 52 rue Paul Vaillant Couturier, F-92240 Malakoff (France); Steyer, Jean Philippe; Delgenes, Jean Philippe [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Single-phase and two-phase systems were compared for fruit and vegetable waste digestion. • Single-phase digestion produced a methane yield of 0.45 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS and 83% VS removal. • Substrate solubilization was high in acidification conditions at 7.0 kg VS/m{sup 3} d and pH 5.5–6.2. • Energy yield was lower by 33% for two-phase system compared to the single-phase system. • Simple and straight-forward operation favored single phase process over two-phase process. - Abstract: Single-phase and two-phase digestion of fruit and vegetable waste were studied to compare reactor start-up, reactor stability and performance (methane yield, volatile solids reduction and energy yield). The single-phase reactor (SPR) was a conventional reactor operated at a low loading rate (maximum of 3.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d), while the two-phase system consisted of an acidification reactor (TPAR) and a methanogenic reactor (TPMR). The TPAR was inoculated with methanogenic sludge similar to the SPR, but was operated with step-wise increase in the loading rate and with total recirculation of reactor solids to convert it into acidification sludge. Before each feeding, part of the sludge from TPAR was centrifuged, the centrifuge liquid (solubilized products) was fed to the TPMR and centrifuged solids were recycled back to the reactor. Single-phase digestion produced a methane yield of 0.45 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS fed and VS removal of 83%. The TPAR shifted to acidification mode at an OLR of 10.0 kg VS/m{sup 3} d and then achieved stable performance at 7.0 kg VS/m{sup 3} d and pH 5.5–6.2, with very high substrate solubilization rate and a methane yield of 0.30 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg COD fed. The two-phase process was capable of high VS reduction, but material and energy balance showed that the single-phase process was superior in terms of volumetric methane production and energy yield by 33%. The lower energy yield of the two-phase system was due to the loss of

  7. Observations related to hydrogen in powder and single crystal samples of YB2Cu3O7-δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porath, D.; Grayevsky, A.; Kaplan, N.; Shaltiel, D.; Yaron, U.; Walker, E.

    1994-01-01

    New observations related to hydrogenation of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) are reported: (a) The effects of sample preparation on the H concentration in ''uncharged'' YBCO samples is investigated, and it is shown through nuclear magnetic resonance measurements that samples of YBCO prepared by ''standard'' solid-state reaction procedures may contain ab initio up to 0.2 atoms formula -1 of hydrogen. (b) It is demonstrated that one may introduce up to 0.3 atoms formula -1 into single crystal samples of YBCO without destroying the macroscopic crystal. The significance of the above observations is discussed briefly. (orig.)

  8. Development of a Long-term Sampling Network to Monitor Restoration Success in the Southwest Coastal Everglades: Vegetation, Hydrology, and Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction and History Hurricane Andrew, a Category 5 storm, crossed the southern Florida peninsula on the morning of August 24, 1992 (Fig. 1). Following the storm, the National Park Service conducted an environmental damage assessment to gauge the storm's impacts on the natural resources of south Florida Park Service holdings (Pimm et al., 1994). Although hurricanes have impacted Park Service lands such as the Everglades in the past (Houston and Powell, 2003), no systematic, permanent sampling scheme has been established to monitor long-term recovery (or lack thereof) following disturbance. In October 1992, vegetation monitoring plots were established in heavily damaged areas of mangrove forest on the southwest coast of the Everlgades, along the Lostmans and Broad Rivers (Smith et al., 1994, see Fig. 2). As the permanent plot network was being established, funding was awarded for the South Florida Global Climate Change project (SOFL-GCC). This led to the establishment of a network of hydrological monitoring stations (Anderson and Smith, 2004). Finally, sediment elevation tables (SETs) were installed at many locations. SETs provide the means to measure very small changes (2 mm) in the sediment surface elevation accurately over time (Cahoon et al., 2002). We also set up marker horizons to measure accretion of sediment at each site (Smith and Cahoon, 2003). Sampling sites were located along three transects extending from upstream freshwater wetlands to downstream saltwater wetlands along the Shark, Lostmans and Chatham Rivers in Everglades National Park (Fig. 2). While we were developing our sampling network for basic scientific research needs, concern mounted over the health of the Greater Everglades Ecosystem and in particular over the influence of decreased freshwater flows (Smith et al., 1989). Ecosystem restoration planning was begun, resulting in the multi-agency, $8 billion Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP). Our co-located sampling networks

  9. Oil type and cross-linking influence growth of Aureobasidium melanogenum on vegetable oils as a single carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Loes H M; Huinink, Hendrik P; Voogt, Benjamin; Adan, Olaf C G

    2018-03-12

    Aureobasidium melanogenum is the main fungus found in a spontaneously formed biofilm on a oil-treated wood. This dark colored biofilm functions as a protective coating. To better understand biofilm formation, in this study A. melanogenum was cultured on olive oil and raw linseed oil. Metabolic activity and oil conversion were measured. The results show that A. melanogenum is able to grow on linseed oil and olive oil as a single carbon source. The fungus produces the enzyme lipase to convert the oil into fatty acids and glycerol. Metabolic activity and oil conversion were equal on linseed oil and olive oil. The fungus was not able to grow on severe cross-linked linseed oil, meaning that the degree of cross-linking of the oil is important for growth of A. melanogenum. Dark coloring of the colony was seen on linseed oil, which might be a stress response on the presence of autoxidation products in linseed oil. The colony on olive oil showed delayed melanin production indicating an inhibitory effect of olive oil on melanin production. © 2018 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effect of dislocation pile-up on size-dependent yield strength in finite single-crystal micro-samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Bo; Shibutani, Yoji, E-mail: sibutani@mech.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Zhang, Xu [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, School of Aerospace, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); School of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Shang, Fulin [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, School of Aerospace, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2015-07-07

    Recent research has explained that the steeply increasing yield strength in metals depends on decreasing sample size. In this work, we derive a statistical physical model of the yield strength of finite single-crystal micro-pillars that depends on single-ended dislocation pile-up inside the micro-pillars. We show that this size effect can be explained almost completely by considering the stochastic lengths of the dislocation source and the dislocation pile-up length in the single-crystal micro-pillars. The Hall–Petch-type relation holds even in a microscale single-crystal, which is characterized by its dislocation source lengths. Our quantitative conclusions suggest that the number of dislocation sources and pile-ups are significant factors for the size effect. They also indicate that starvation of dislocation sources is another reason for the size effect. Moreover, we investigated the explicit relationship between the stacking fault energy and the dislocation “pile-up” effect inside the sample: materials with low stacking fault energy exhibit an obvious dislocation pile-up effect. Our proposed physical model predicts a sample strength that agrees well with experimental data, and our model can give a more precise prediction than the current single arm source model, especially for materials with low stacking fault energy.

  11. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  12. Column-Parallel Single Slope ADC with Digital Correlated Multiple Sampling for Low Noise CMOS Image Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Theuwissen, A.J.P.; Chae, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a low noise CMOS image sensor (CIS) using 10/12 bit configurable column-parallel single slope ADCs (SS-ADCs) and digital correlated multiple sampling (CMS). The sensor used is a conventional 4T active pixel with a pinned-photodiode as photon detector. The test sensor was

  13. Inert gases in a terra sample - Measurements in six grain-size fractions and two single particles from Lunar 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, D.; Lakatos, S.; Walton, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Review of the results of inert gas measurements performed on six grain-size fractions and two single particles from four samples of Luna 20 material. Presented and discussed data include the inert gas contents, element and isotope systematics, radiation ages, and Ar-36/Ar-40 systematics.

  14. Consuming High-Carotenoid Fruit and Vegetables Influences Skin Yellowness and Plasma Carotenoids in Young Women: A Single-Blind Randomized Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezdirc, Kristine; Hutchesson, Melinda J; Williams, Rebecca L; Rollo, Megan E; Burrows, Tracy L; Wood, Lisa G; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Collins, Clare E

    2016-08-01

    Consumption of dietary carotenoids from fruits and vegetables (F/V) leads to accumulations in human skin, altering skin yellowness. The influence of the quantity of F/V consumed on skin yellowness and plasma carotenoid concentrations has not been examined previously. To compare the influence of consuming high-carotenoid-containing F/V (HCFV) (176,425 μg beta carotene/wk) vs low-carotenoid F/V (LCFV) (2,073 μg beta carotene/wk) on skin yellowness and plasma carotenoid concentrations, over 4 weeks. A single-blind randomized controlled crossover trial from October 2013 to March 2014. Thirty women were randomized to receive 7 daily servings of HCFV or LCFV for 4 weeks. Following a 2-week washout period they followed the alternate intervention. Skin color (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage L*a*b* color space, where L* represents skin lightness and positive values of a* and b* represent degrees of redness and yellowness, respectively) was assessed by reflectance spectroscopy in both sun-exposed and nonexposed skin areas. Fasting plasma carotenoids were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, before and after each intervention period. Linear mixed models were used to determine the HCFV and LCFV response on skin color and plasma carotenoids, adjusting for intervention order, time, and interaction between baseline differences and time. There were no significant differences in mean daily fruit (P=0.42) and vegetable (P=0.17) intakes between HCFV and LCFV groups. Dietary alpha carotene, beta carotene, lutein, and beta cryptoxanthin intakes were significantly different between the two groups (Pcarotenoid concentrations were significantly higher following HCFV than LCFV over 4 weeks. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cronograma de amostragem de alface cultivada em hidroponia para ajuste de curvas de crescimento vegetativo Sampling chronology of hydroponics lettuce plants for adjusting vegetative growth curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidinei José Lopes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o cronograma de amostragem de plantas de alface hidropônica, para ajuste de curvas de crescimento durante o período vegetativo. Foram realizados dois cultivos de alface, variedade Regina, de 8/9/2004 a 19/11/2004 (primavera/verão e 22/2/2005 a 24/5/2005 (verão/outono, em estufas de plástico do Dep. de Fitotecnia, da UFSM, Santa Maria, RS. A partir do ajuste do modelo co-seno com amostragem diária, registrada como padrão, diferentes intervalos entre as amostragens foram simulados para o ajuste do mesmo modelo. A fim de se encontrar o intervalo adequado, foi comparada a variância de falta de ajuste do modelo de amostragem diária com as variâncias de falta de ajuste dos modelos com diferentes intervalos de amostragens pelo teste F. Os cronogramas de amostragens para ajuste de curvas de crescimento de plantas de alface sob hidroponia, para experimentos de primavera/verão e verão/outono, possuem intervalos iguais a dois dias, para fitomassa seca total da planta e da folha; intervalos de quatro dias, para fitomassa de raiz; e, diariamente, para área foliar.The objective of this work was to determinate a sampling chronology to adjust lettuce hidroponic growth curves during its vegetative development. The variety Regina was grown from September 8, 2004 until November 19, 2004 (spring/summer and February 22, 2005 until May 24, 2005 (summer/fall. Plants were placed inside a plastic covered greenhouse in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Based on the adjusted cosine model, daily samples were taken as standard and different sampling intervals were simulated in order to better adjust the same model. To estimate de adequate sampling interval a comparison was conducted between the variance of lack of adjustment of the daily sampling with the variance of lack of adjustment of different samplings intervals using an F test. Sampling chronograms for adjusting crop growth curves of hydroponics lettuce plants for both

  16. Optimization of single plate-serial dilution spotting (SP-SDS) with sample anchoring as an assured method for bacterial and yeast cfu enumeration and single colony isolation from diverse samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Pious; Sekhar, Aparna C; Upreti, Reshmi; Mujawar, Mohammad M; Pasha, Sadiq S

    2015-12-01

    We propose a simple technique for bacterial and yeast cfu estimations from diverse samples with no prior idea of viable counts, designated as single plate-serial dilution spotting (SP-SDS) with the prime recommendation of sample anchoring (10 0 stocks). For pure cultures, serial dilutions were prepared from 0.1 OD (10 0 ) stock and 20 μl aliquots of six dilutions (10 1 -10 6 ) were applied as 10-15 micro-drops in six sectors over agar-gelled medium in 9-cm plates. For liquid samples 10 0 -10 5 dilutions, and for colloidal suspensions and solid samples (10% w/v), 10 1 -10 6 dilutions were used. Following incubation, at least one dilution level yielded 6-60 cfu per sector comparable to the standard method involving 100 μl samples. Tested on diverse bacteria, composite samples and Saccharomyces cerevisiae , SP-SDS offered wider applicability over alternative methods like drop-plating and track-dilution for cfu estimation, single colony isolation and culture purity testing, particularly suiting low resource settings.

  17. Diameter grouping in bulk samples of single-walled carbon nanotubes from optical absorption spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golden, M.S.; Fink, J.; Dunsch, L.; Bauer, H.-D.; Reibold, M.; Knupfer, M.; Friedlein, R.; Pichler, T.; Jost, O.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of the synthesis parameters on the mean characteristics of single-wall carbon nanotubes in soot produced by the laser vaporization of graphite has been analyzed using optical absorption spectroscopy. The abundance and mean diameter of the nanotubes were found to be most influenced by

  18. Experience with Aerosol Generation During Rotary Mode Core Sampling in the Hanford Single Shell Waste Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHOFIELD, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides data on aerosol concentrations in tank head spaces, total mass of aerosols in the tank head space and mass of aerosols sent to the exhauster during Rotary Mode Core Sampling from November 1994 through April 1999

  19. A combined method for DNA analysis and radiocarbon dating from a single sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korlević, Petra; Talamo, Sahra; Meyer, Matthias

    2018-03-07

    Current protocols for ancient DNA and radiocarbon analysis of ancient bones and teeth call for multiple destructive samplings of a given specimen, thereby increasing the extent of undesirable damage to precious archaeological material. Here we present a method that makes it possible to obtain both ancient DNA sequences and radiocarbon dates from the same sample material. This is achieved by releasing DNA from the bone matrix through incubation with either EDTA or phosphate buffer prior to complete demineralization and collagen extraction utilizing the acid-base-acid-gelatinization and ultrafiltration procedure established in most radiocarbon dating laboratories. Using a set of 12 bones of different ages and preservation conditions we demonstrate that on average 89% of the DNA can be released from sample powder with minimal, or 38% without any, detectable collagen loss. We also detect no skews in radiocarbon dates compared to untreated samples. Given the different material demands for radiocarbon dating (500 mg of bone/dentine) and DNA analysis (10-100 mg), combined DNA and collagen extraction not only streamlines the sampling process but also drastically increases the amount of DNA that can be recovered from limited sample material.

  20. Single point aerosol sampling: Evaluation of mixing and probe performance in a nuclear stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, J.C.; Fairchild, C.I.; Wood, G.O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    Alternative Reference Methodologies (ARMs) have been developed for sampling of radionuclides from stacks and ducts that differ from the methods required by the U.S. EPA. The EPA methods are prescriptive in selection of sampling locations and in design of sampling probes whereas the alternative methods are performance driven. Tests were conducted in a stack at Los Alamos National Laboratory to demonstrate the efficacy of the ARMs. Coefficients of variation of the velocity tracer gas, and aerosol particle profiles were determined at three sampling locations. Results showed numerical criteria placed upon the coefficients of variation by the ARMs were met at sampling stations located 9 and 14 stack diameters from flow entrance, but not at a location that is 1.5 diameters downstream from the inlet. Experiments were conducted to characterize the transmission of 10 {mu}m aerodynamic equivalent diameter liquid aerosol particles through three types of sampling probes. The transmission ratio (ratio of aerosol concentration at the probe exit plane to the concentration in the free stream) was 107% for a 113 L/min (4-cfm) anisokinetic shrouded probe, but only 20% for an isokinetic probe that follows the EPA requirements. A specially designed isokinetic probe showed a transmission ratio of 63%. The shrouded probe performance would conform to the ARM criteria; however, the isokinetic probes would not.

  1. A novel baseline-correction method for standard addition based derivative spectra and its application to quantitative analysis of benzo(a)pyrene in vegetable oil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Li, Xiu-Ying; Zou, Zhe-Xiang; Lin, Li-Rong; Li, Yao-Qun

    2011-07-07

    In the present work, a baseline-correction method based on peak-to-derivative baseline measurement was proposed for the elimination of complex matrix interference that was mainly caused by unknown components and/or background in the analysis of derivative spectra. This novel method was applicable particularly when the matrix interfering components showed a broad spectral band, which was common in practical analysis. The derivative baseline was established by connecting two crossing points of the spectral curves obtained with a standard addition method (SAM). The applicability and reliability of the proposed method was demonstrated through both theoretical simulation and practical application. Firstly, Gaussian bands were used to simulate 'interfering' and 'analyte' bands to investigate the effect of different parameters of interfering band on the derivative baseline. This simulation analysis verified that the accuracy of the proposed method was remarkably better than other conventional methods such as peak-to-zero, tangent, and peak-to-peak measurements. Then the above proposed baseline-correction method was applied to the determination of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in vegetable oil samples by second-derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. The satisfactory results were obtained by using this new method to analyze a certified reference material (coconut oil, BCR(®)-458) with a relative error of -3.2% from the certified BaP concentration. Potentially, the proposed method can be applied to various types of derivative spectra in different fields such as UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy.

  2. Experience with Aerosol Generation During Rotary Mode Core Sampling in the Hanford Single Shell Waste Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHOFIELD, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides data on aerosol concentrations in tank head spaces, total mass of aerosols in the tank head space and mass of aerosols sent to the exhauster during Rotary Mode Core Sampling from November 1994 through June 1999. A decontamination factor for the RMCS exhauster filter housing is calculated based on operation data

  3. Quantitative in-situ TEM nanotensile testing of single crystal Ni facilitated by a new sample preparation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaeeaghmiyoni, Vahid; Idrissi, Hosni; Groten, Jonas; Schwaiger, Ruth; Schryvers, Dominique

    2017-03-01

    Twin-jet electro-polishing and Focused Ion Beam (FIB) were combined to produce small size Nickel single crystal specimens for quantitative in-situ nanotensile experiments in the transmission electron microscope. The combination of these techniques allows producing samples with nearly defect-free zones in the centre in contrast to conventional FIB-prepared samples. Since TEM investigations can be performed on the electro-polished samples prior to in-situ TEM straining, specimens with desired crystallographic orientation and initial microstructure can be prepared. The present results reveal a dislocation nucleation-controlled plasticity, in which small loops induced by FIB near the edges of the samples play a central role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A proposal for the measurement of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit interaction strengths in a single sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, Santanu K.; Sil, Shreekantha; Chakrabarti, Arunava

    2012-01-01

    We establish an exact analytical treatment for the determination of the strengths of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit interactions in a single sample by measuring persistent spin current. A hidden symmetry is exploited in the Hamiltonian to show that the spin current vanishes when the strength of the Dresselhaus interaction becomes equal to the strength of the Rashba term. The results are sustained even in the presence of disorder and thus an experiment in this regard will be challenging. -- Highlights: ► An exact analytical treatment is given for the measurement of spin–orbit interaction strengths in a single sample. ► Persistent spin current is calculated. ► Our present analysis gives us confidence to propose an experiment in this line.

  5. Comparison of measurement of 99mTc-MAG3 plasma clearance by single plasma sample and renal uptake ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushijima, Yo; Sugihara, Hiroki; Okuyama, Chio; Okitsu, Sigeyuki; Nii, Takeshi; Nishida, Takuji; Okamoto, Kunio; Maeda, Tomoho

    1997-01-01

    Measurement of 99m Tc-MAG 3 plasma clearance based on one-compartment model (MPC method) is a non-invasive method using the renal uptake ratio. We evaluated the clinical usefulness of this method, compared with effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) using 123 I-OIH and two single-plasma sample methods using 99m Tc-MAG 3 (Russell method and Bubeck method). The ratio of 99m Tc-MAG 3 clearance to ERPF was 1.00±0.26. MPC method correlated well with Russell and Bubeck methods (r=0.904, r=0.897). We conclude that MPC method is a suitable replacement for single-plasma sample method in routine clinical use. (author)

  6. Area G perimeter surface-soil and single-stage water sampling: Environmental surveillance for fiscal year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, R.; Childs, M.; Rivera-Dirks, C.; Coriz, F.

    1995-07-01

    Area G, in Technical Area 54, has been the principle facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the storage and disposal of low-level and transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes since 1957. The current environmental investigation consisted of ESH-19 personnel who collected soil and single-stage water samples around the perimeter of Area G to characterize possible contaminant movement through surface-water runoff. These samples were analyzed for tritium, total uranium, isotopic plutonium, americium-241 (soil only), and cesium 137. The metals, mercury, lead, and barium, were analyzed using x-ray fluorescence

  7. Testing the accuracy of a Bayesian central-dose model for single-grain OSL, using known-age samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerin, Guillaume; Combès, Benoit; Lahaye, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    on multi-grain OSL age estimates, these samples are presumed to have been both well-bleached at burial, and unaffected by mixing after deposition. Two ways of estimating single-grain ages are then compared: the standard approach on the one hand, consisting of applying the Central Age Model to De values...... for well-bleached samples; (ii) dose recovery experiments do not seem to be a very reliable tool to estimate the accuracy of a SAR measurement protocol for age determination....

  8. Global sampling of the seasonal changes in vegetation biophysical properties and associated carbon flux dynamics: using the synergy of information captured by spectral time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, P. K. E.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Middleton, E.; Voorhis, S.; Landis, D.

    2016-12-01

    Spatial heterogeneity and seasonal dynamics in vegetation function contribute significantly to the uncertainties in regional and global CO2 budgets. High spectral resolution imaging spectroscopy ( 10 nm, 400-2500 nm) provides an efficient tool for synoptic evaluation of the factors significantly affecting the ability of the vegetation to sequester carbon and to reflect radiation, due to changes in vegetation chemical and structural composition. EO-1 Hyperion has collected more than 15 years of repeated observations for vegetation studies, and currently Hyperion time series are available for study of vegetation carbon dynamics at a number of FLUX sites. This study presents results from the analysis of EO-1 Hyperion and FLUX seasonal composites for a range of ecosystems across the globe. Spectral differences and seasonal trends were evaluated for each vegetation type and specific phenology. Evaluating the relationships between CO2 flux parameters (e.g., Net ecosystem production - NEP; Gross Ecosystem Exchange - GEE, CO2 flux, μmol m-2 s-1) and spectral parameters for these very different ecosystems, high correlations were established to parameters associated with canopy water and chlorophyll content for deciduous, and photosynthetic function for conifers. Imaging spectrometry provided high spatial resolution maps of CO2 fluxes absorbed by vegetation, and was efficient in tracing seasonal flux dynamics. This study will present examples for key ecosystem tipes to demonstrate the ability of imaging spectrometry and EO-1 Hyperion to map and compare CO2 flux dynamics across the globe.

  9. Spatial resolution of 2D ionization chamber arrays for IMRT dose verification: single-detector size and sampling step width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppe, Bjoern; Djouguela, Armand; Blechschmidt, Arne; Willborn, Kay; Ruehmann, Antje; Harder, Dietrich

    2007-01-01

    The spatial resolution of 2D detector arrays equipped with ionization chambers or diodes, used for the dose verification of IMRT treatment plans, is limited by the size of the single detector and the centre-to-centre distance between the detectors. Optimization criteria with regard to these parameters have been developed by combining concepts of dosimetry and pattern analysis. The 2D-ARRAY Type 10024 (PTW-Freiburg, Germany), single-chamber cross section 5 x 5 mm 2 , centre-to-centre distance between chambers in each row and column 10 mm, served as an example. Additional frames of given dose distributions can be taken by shifting the whole array parallel or perpendicular to the MLC leaves by, e.g., 5 mm. The size of the single detector is characterized by its lateral response function, a trapezoid with 5 mm top width and 9 mm base width. Therefore, values measured with the 2D array are regarded as sample values from the convolution product of the accelerator generated dose distribution and this lateral response function. Consequently, the dose verification, e.g., by means of the gamma index, is performed by comparing the measured values of the 2D array with the values of the convolution product of the treatment planning system (TPS) calculated dose distribution and the single-detector lateral response function. Sufficiently small misalignments of the measured dose distributions in comparison with the calculated ones can be detected since the lateral response function is symmetric with respect to the centre of the chamber, and the change of dose gradients due to the convolution is sufficiently small. The sampling step width of the 2D array should provide a set of sample values representative of the sampled distribution, which is achieved if the highest spatial frequency contained in this function does not exceed the 'Nyquist frequency', one half of the sampling frequency. Since the convolution products of IMRT-typical dose distributions and the single

  10. Failure mode analysis in adrenal vein sampling: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trerotola, Scott O; Asmar, Melissa; Yan, Yan; Fraker, Douglas L; Cohen, Debbie L

    2014-10-01

    To analyze failure modes in a high-volume adrenal vein sampling (AVS) practice in an effort to identify preventable causes of nondiagnostic sampling. A retrospective database was constructed containing 343 AVS procedures performed over a 10-year period. Each nondiagnostic AVS procedure was reviewed for failure mode and correlated with results of any repeat AVS. Data collected included selectivity index, lateralization index, adrenalectomy outcomes if performed, and details of AVS procedure. All AVS procedures were performed after cosyntropin stimulation, using sequential technique. AVS was nondiagnostic in 12 of 343 (3.5%) primary procedures and 2 secondary procedures. Failure was right-sided in 8 (57%) procedures, left-sided in 4 (29%) procedures, bilateral in 1 procedure, and neither in 1 procedure (laboratory error). Failure modes included diluted sample from correctly identified vein (n = 7 [50%]; 3 right and 4 left), vessel misidentified as adrenal vein (n = 3 [21%]; all right), failure to locate an adrenal vein (n = 2 [14%]; both right), cosyntropin stimulation failure (n = 1 [7%]; diagnostic by nonstimulated criteria), and laboratory error (n = 1 [7%]; specimen loss). A second AVS procedure was diagnostic in three of five cases (60%), and a third AVS procedure was diagnostic in one of one case (100%). Among the eight patients in whom AVS ultimately was not diagnostic, four underwent adrenalectomy based on diluted AVS samples, and one underwent adrenalectomy based on imaging; all five experienced improvement in aldosteronism. A substantial percentage of AVS failures occur on the left, all related to dilution. Even when technically nondiagnostic per strict criteria, some "failed" AVS procedures may be sufficient to guide therapy. Repeat AVS has a good yield. Copyright © 2014 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Parasitic contamination of fresh vegetables sold at central markets in Khartoum state, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mona Ali; Siddig, Emmanuel Edwar; Elaagip, Arwa Hassan; Edris, Ali Mahmoud Mohammed; Nasr, Awad Ahmed

    2016-03-11

    Fresh vegetables are considered as vital nutrients of a healthy diet as they supply the body with essential supplements. The consumption of raw vegetables is the main way for transmission of intestinal parasitic organisms. This study was aimed at detecting the parasitic contamination in fresh vegetables sold in two central open-aired markets in Khartoum state, Sudan. In this prospective cross-sectional study, a total of 260 fresh vegetable samples and 50 water samples used to sprinkle vegetable(s) were collected from two central open-aired markets (namely; Elshaabi and Central markets) during November 2011 to May 2012. The samples were microscopically examined for detection of parasitic life forms using standardized parasitological techniques for protozoans and helminthes worms. Of the 260 fresh vegetable samples, 35 (13.5 %) were microscopically positive for intestinal parasites whereas 7/50 (14 %) of water samples used to sprinkle vegetable(s) were found positives. Remarkably, high level of contamination in fresh vegetable samples was recorded in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) 36.4 % (4/11) while cayenne pepper (Capsicum annuum) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) were not contaminated. The identified protozoans and helminthes were Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba coli, Giardia lamblia, Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis, T. trichiura and hookworms. The most predominant parasite encountered was E. histolytica/dispar (42.9 %) whereas both T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides (2.9 %) were the least detected parasites. None of the fresh vegetables had single parasitic contamination. The highest percentages found in water samples used to sprinkle vegetable(s) was for Strongyloides larvae 60 % (3/5). It is worth-mentioned that the rate of contamination in Elshaabi market was higher compared with Central market. However, there was no significant correlation between the type of vegetables and existence of parasites in both markets and a high significant

  12. Direct amplification, sequencing and profiling of Chlamydia trachomatis strains in single and mixed infection clinical samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep J Joseph

    Full Text Available Sequencing bacterial genomes from DNA isolated directly from clinical samples offers the promise of rapid and precise acquisition of informative genetic information. In the case of Chlamydia trachomatis, direct sequencing is particularly desirable because it obviates the requirement for culture in mammalian cells, saving time, cost and the possibility of missing low abundance strains. In this proof of concept study, we developed methodology that would allow genome-scale direct sequencing, using a multiplexed microdroplet PCR enrichment technology to amplify a 100 kb region of the C. trachomatis genome with 500 1.1-1.3 kb overlapping amplicons (5-fold amplicon redundancy. We integrated comparative genomic data into a pipeline to preferentially select conserved sites for amplicon design. The 100 kb target region could be amplified from clinical samples, including remnants from diagnostics tests, originating from the cervix, urethra and urine, For rapid analysis of these data, we developed a framework for whole-genome based genotyping called binstrain. We used binstrain to estimate the proportion of SNPs originating from 14 C. trachomatis reference serotype genomes in each sample. Direct DNA sequencing methods such as the one described here may have an important role in understanding the biology of C. trachomatis mixed infections and the natural genetic variation of the species within clinically relevant ecological niches.

  13. Slow positrons in single-crystal samples of Al and Al-AlxOy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, K. G.; Lutz, H.

    1980-11-01

    Well-characterized Al(111) and Al(100) samples were studied with monoenergetic positrons before and after exposure to oxygen. Both positronium-formation and positron-emission curves were obtained for various incident positron energies at sample temperatures ranging from 160-900 K. The orthopositronium decay signal provides a unique signature that the positron has emerged from the surface region of a clean metal. In the clean Al crystals part of the positronium formed near the surface is found to be associated with a temperature-activated process described as the thermally activated detrapping of a positron from a surface state. A simple positron diffusion model, including surface and vacancy trapping, is fitted to the positronium data and an estimate of the binding energy of the positron in this trap is made. The positron diffusion constant is found to have a negative temperature dependence before the onset of positron trapping at thermally generated monovacancies (>500 K), in reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions. The depth of the positron surface state is reduced or positronium is formed in the chemisorbed layer as oxygen is adsorbed on both Al sample surfaces, thus increasing the positronium fraction and decreasing the positron emission. At higher oxygen exposures [>500 L (1 L = 10-6 torr sec)] positron or positronium traps are generated in the overlayer and the positronium fraction is reduced. The amorphous-to-crystalline surface transition of AlxOy on Al is observed between 650 and 800 K by the change in the positronium fraction and is interpreted as the removal of trapping centers in the metal-oxide overlayer. At the higher temperatures and incident energies vacancy trapping is observed by the decrease in the positron diffusion length in both the clean and the underlying Al of the oxygen-exposed samples. Similar vacancy formation enthalpies for Al are extracted in both the clean and oxygen-covered samples by a simple model and are in good

  14. Single-drop microextraction for the determination of manganese in seafood and water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, V.A.; Vieira, U.S.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a method for single drop microextraction of manganese from fish, mollusk, and from natural waters using the reagent 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol as the complexing agent and chloroform as the fluid extractor. After extraction, the analyte was directly submitted to graphite furnace electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Once optimized, the method has a detection limit of 30 ng L -1 , a limit of quantification of 100 ng L -1 , and an enrichment factor of 16. Its accuracy was verified by applying the procedure to the following certified reference materials: apple leaves, spinach leaves, bovine liver, and mussel tissue. The procedure was also successfully applied to the determination of manganese in seafood and natural waters. (author)

  15. [Evaluation and source analysis of the mercury pollution in soils and vegetables around a large-scale zinc smelting plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Wang, Shu-Xiao; Wu, Qing-Ru; Lin, Hai

    2013-02-01

    The farming soil and vegetable samples around a large-scale zinc smelter were collected for mercury content analyses, and the single pollution index method with relevant regulations was used to evaluate the pollution status of sampled soils and vegetables. The results indicated that the surface soil and vegetables were polluted with mercury to different extent. Of the soil samples, 78% exceeded the national standard. The mercury concentration in the most severely contaminated area was 29 times higher than the background concentration, reaching the severe pollution degree. The mercury concentration in all vegetable samples exceeded the standard of non-pollution vegetables. Mercury concentration, in the most severely polluted vegetables were 64.5 times of the standard, and averagely the mercury concentration in the vegetable samples was 25.4 times of the standard. For 85% of the vegetable samples, the mercury concentration, of leaves were significantly higher than that of roots, which implies that the mercury in leaves mainly came from the atmosphere. The mercury concentrations in vegetable roots were significantly correlated with that in soils, indicating the mercury in roots was mainly from soil. The mercury emissions from the zinc smelter have obvious impacts on the surrounding soils and vegetables. Key words:zinc smelting; mercury pollution; soil; vegetable; mercury content

  16. Effect of sample thickness on 511 keV single Compton-scattered gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz-H, K. V., E-mail: kvdiazh@unal.edu.co; Cristancho, F. [Departamento de Física. Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Colombia)

    2016-07-07

    Gamma backscattering experiments were performed on metal foils varying some geometric parameters of the assembly. A collimated beam from a {sup 22}Na source impinges on aluminum sheets of dimensions 33.3×20.4×1.0 cm{sup 3} and iron sheets of (33.2×20.4×0.2) cm{sup 3}. The backscattered photons are detected by a 3″×3″ CsI scintillator detector placed at 90° to the incident beam. The experimental results show that thickness of metalic samples can be determined with a very small uncertainty.

  17. Identification of driving network of cellular differentiation from single sample time course gene expression data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ye; Wolanyk, Nathaniel; Ilker, Tunc; Gao, Shouguo; Wang, Xujing

    Methods developed based on bifurcation theory have demonstrated their potential in driving network identification for complex human diseases, including the work by Chen, et al. Recently bifurcation theory has been successfully applied to model cellular differentiation. However, there one often faces a technical challenge in driving network prediction: time course cellular differentiation study often only contains one sample at each time point, while driving network prediction typically require multiple samples at each time point to infer the variation and interaction structures of candidate genes for the driving network. In this study, we investigate several methods to identify both the critical time point and the driving network through examination of how each time point affects the autocorrelation and phase locking. We apply these methods to a high-throughput sequencing (RNA-Seq) dataset of 42 subsets of thymocytes and mature peripheral T cells at multiple time points during their differentiation (GSE48138 from GEO). We compare the predicted driving genes with known transcription regulators of cellular differentiation. We will discuss the advantages and limitations of our proposed methods, as well as potential further improvements of our methods.

  18. A single test for rejecting the null hypothesis in subgroups and in the overall sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yunzhi; Zhou, Kefei; Ganju, Jitendra

    2017-01-01

    In clinical trials, some patient subgroups are likely to demonstrate larger effect sizes than other subgroups. For example, the effect size, or informally the benefit with treatment, is often greater in patients with a moderate condition of a disease than in those with a mild condition. A limitation of the usual method of analysis is that it does not incorporate this ordering of effect size by patient subgroup. We propose a test statistic which supplements the conventional test by including this information and simultaneously tests the null hypothesis in pre-specified subgroups and in the overall sample. It results in more power than the conventional test when the differences in effect sizes across subgroups are at least moderately large; otherwise it loses power. The method involves combining p-values from models fit to pre-specified subgroups and the overall sample in a manner that assigns greater weight to subgroups in which a larger effect size is expected. Results are presented for randomized trials with two and three subgroups.

  19. Single blood-Hg samples can result in exposure misclassification: temporal monitoring within the Japanese community (United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuchiya Ami

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most prominent non-occupational source of exposure to methylmercury is the consumption of fish. In this study we examine a fish consuming population to determine the extent of temporal exposure and investigate the extent to which single time estimates of methylmercury exposure based on blood-Hg concentration can provide reliable estimates of longer-term average exposure. Methods Blood-mercury levels were obtained from a portion of the Arsenic Mercury Intake Biometric Study (AMIBS cohort. Specifically, 56 Japanese women residing in the Puget Sound area of Washington State, US were sampled on three occasions across a one-year period. Results An average of 135 days separated samples, with mean blood-mercury levels for the visits being 5.1, 6.6 and 5.0 μg/l and geometric means being 2.7, 4.5 and 3.1 μg/l. The blood-mercury levels in this group exceed national averages with geometric means for two of the visits being between the 90th and 95th percentiles of nationally observed levels and the lowest geometric mean being between the 75th and 90th percentile. Group means were not significantly different across sampling periods suggesting that exposure of combined subjects remained relatively constant. Comparing intra-individual results over time did not reveal a strong correlation among visits (r = 0.19, 0.50, 0.63 between 1st and 2nd, 2nd and 3rd, and 1st and 3rd sample results, respectively. In comparing blood-mercury levels across two sampling interval combinations (1st and 2nd, 2nd and 3rd, and 1st and 3rd visits, respectively, 58% (n = 34, 53% (n = 31 and 29% (n = 17 of the individuals had at least a 100% difference in blood-Hg levels. Conclusions Point estimates of blood-mercury, when compared with three sample averages, may not reflect temporal variability and individual exposures estimated on the basis of single blood samples should be treated with caution as indicators of long-term exposure

  20. A method for multiple sequential analyses of macrophage functions using a small single cell sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.R.F. Nascimento

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial pathogens such as bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG induce the activation of macrophages. Activated macrophages can be characterized by the increased production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen metabolites, generated via NADPH oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase, respectively, and by the increased expression of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules (MHC II. Multiple microassays have been developed to measure these parameters. Usually each assay requires 2-5 x 10(5 cells per well. In some experimental conditions the number of cells is the limiting factor for the phenotypic characterization of macrophages. Here we describe a method whereby this limitation can be circumvented. Using a single 96-well microassay and a very small number of peritoneal cells obtained from C3H/HePas mice, containing as little as <=2 x 10(5 macrophages per well, we determined sequentially the oxidative burst (H2O2, nitric oxide production and MHC II (IAk expression of BCG-activated macrophages. More specifically, with 100 µl of cell suspension it was possible to quantify H2O2 release and nitric oxide production after 1 and 48 h, respectively, and IAk expression after 48 h of cell culture. In addition, this microassay is easy to perform, highly reproducible and more economical.

  1. Sampling system for fast single pulses; Realisation d'un dispositif d'echantillonnage d'un signal bref unique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenatti, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Development of a device for the enlargement of the domain of application of classical oscilloscopes to the observation of fast single pulses by application of the sampling principle. Its principal characteristics are: Bandwidth of 700 MHz; Maximum sensibility of 50 mV; Maximum amplitude of input signal of {+-} 1 V; Number of samples of 16; Samples separation of 0,2 ns. (author) [French] Realisation d'un dispositif permettant d'elargir le domaine d'utilisation des oscilloscopes classiques en appliquant le principe de l'echantillonnage a l'observation d'un signal bref unique. Les principales caracteristiques sont les suivantes: Bande passante de 700 MHz; Sensibilite maximale de 50 mV; Amplitude maximale du signal a echantillonner de {+-} 1 V; Nombre de points d'echantillonnage de 16; Pas d'echantillonnage de 0,2 ns. (auteur)

  2. A single reagent radioimmunoassay for thyroxine in blood samples absorbed on filter paper for mass screening of neonatal hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, N.; Pillai, M.R.A.; Mani, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    A single reagent radioimmunoassay for thyroxine in blood samples absorbed on filter paper for the mass screening of neonatal hypothyroidism is described. Blood samples were collected by pricking the heel of newborn babies (3 days old) and pressing Whatman 3 filter paper against the wound. 6 mm diameter blood spots were punched out at the time of assay and incubated with 0.4 ml of a preincubated antigen-antibody complex for six hours at 37 deg C. 1 ml of 22% polyethylene glycol is used for the precipitation of antigen-antibody complex. The assay has a sensitivity of 2.2 ng/ml. 500 samples collected from newborns were analyzed in the assay and gave a mean of 117.6+-31.9 ng/ml. (author) 9 refs.; 4 figs

  3. Dispersive solid phase micro-extraction of mercury(II from environmental water and vegetable samples with ionic liquid modified graphene oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrollahpour Atefeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new dispersive solid phase micro-extraction (dispersive-SPME method for separation and preconcentration of mercury(II using ionic liquid modified magnetic reduced graphene oxide (IL-MrGO nanoparticles, prior to the measurement by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS has been developed. The IL-MrGO composite was characterized by Brunauer– Emmett–Teller method (BET for adsorption-desorption measurement, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The method is based on the sorption of mercury( II on IL-MrGO nanoparticles due to electrostatic interaction and complex formation of ionic liquid part of IL-MrGO with mercury(II. The effect of experimental parameters for preconcentration of mercury(II, such as solution type, concentration and volume of the eluent, pH, time of the sorption and desorption, amount of the sorbent and coexisting ion concentration have been optimized. Under the optimized conditions, a linear response was obtained in the concentration range of 0.08–10 ng mL-1 with a determination coefficient of 0.9995. The limit of detection (LOD of the method at a signal to noise ratio of 3 was 0.01 ng mL-1. Intra-day and inter-day precisions were obtained equal to 3.4 and 4.5 %, respectively. The dispersive solid phase micro-extraction of mercury(II on IL-MrGO nanoparticles coupled with cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry was successfully used for extraction and determination of mercury(II in water and vegetable samples.

  4. The AlSi10Mg samples produced by selective laser melting: single track, densification, microstructure and mechanical behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Pei; Wei, Zhengying; Chen, Zhen; Du, Jun; He, Yuyang; Li, Junfeng; Zhou, Yatong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The thermal behavior of AlSi10Mg molten pool was analyzed. • The SLM-processed sample with a relatively low surface roughness was obtained. • Effects of parameters on surface topography of scan track were investigated. • Effects of parameters on microstructure of parts were investigated. • Optimum processing parameters for AlSi10Mg SLM was obtained. - Abstract: This densification behavior and attendant microstructural characteristics of the selective laser melting (SLM) processed AlSi10Mg alloy affected by the processing parameters were systematically investigated. The samples with a single track were produced by SLM to study the influences of laser power and scanning speed on the surface morphologies of scan tracks. Additionally, the bulk samples were produced to investigate the influence of the laser power, scanning speed, and hatch spacing on the densification level and the resultant microstructure. The experimental results showed that the level of porosity of the SLM-processed samples was significantly governed by energy density of laser beam and the hatch spacing. The tensile properties of SLM-processed samples and the attendant fracture surface can be enhanced by decreasing the level of porosity. The microstructure of SLM-processed samples consists of supersaturated Al-rich cellular structure along with eutectic Al/Si situated at the cellular boundaries. The Si content in the cellular boundaries increases with increasing the laser power and decreasing the scanning speed. The hardness of SLM-processed samples was significantly improved by this fine microstructure compared with the cast samples. Moreover, the hardness of SLM-processed samples at overlaps was lower than the hardness observed at track cores.

  5. The AlSi10Mg samples produced by selective laser melting: single track, densification, microstructure and mechanical behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Pei; Wei, Zhengying, E-mail: zywei@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Chen, Zhen; Du, Jun; He, Yuyang; Li, Junfeng; Zhou, Yatong

    2017-06-30

    Highlights: • The thermal behavior of AlSi10Mg molten pool was analyzed. • The SLM-processed sample with a relatively low surface roughness was obtained. • Effects of parameters on surface topography of scan track were investigated. • Effects of parameters on microstructure of parts were investigated. • Optimum processing parameters for AlSi10Mg SLM was obtained. - Abstract: This densification behavior and attendant microstructural characteristics of the selective laser melting (SLM) processed AlSi10Mg alloy affected by the processing parameters were systematically investigated. The samples with a single track were produced by SLM to study the influences of laser power and scanning speed on the surface morphologies of scan tracks. Additionally, the bulk samples were produced to investigate the influence of the laser power, scanning speed, and hatch spacing on the densification level and the resultant microstructure. The experimental results showed that the level of porosity of the SLM-processed samples was significantly governed by energy density of laser beam and the hatch spacing. The tensile properties of SLM-processed samples and the attendant fracture surface can be enhanced by decreasing the level of porosity. The microstructure of SLM-processed samples consists of supersaturated Al-rich cellular structure along with eutectic Al/Si situated at the cellular boundaries. The Si content in the cellular boundaries increases with increasing the laser power and decreasing the scanning speed. The hardness of SLM-processed samples was significantly improved by this fine microstructure compared with the cast samples. Moreover, the hardness of SLM-processed samples at overlaps was lower than the hardness observed at track cores.

  6. Empirical single sample quantification of bias and variance in Q-ball imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainline, Allison E; Nath, Vishwesh; Parvathaneni, Prasanna; Blaber, Justin A; Schilling, Kurt G; Anderson, Adam W; Kang, Hakmook; Landman, Bennett A

    2018-02-06

    The bias and variance of high angular resolution diffusion imaging methods have not been thoroughly explored in the literature and may benefit from the simulation extrapolation (SIMEX) and bootstrap techniques to estimate bias and variance of high angular resolution diffusion imaging metrics. The SIMEX approach is well established in the statistics literature and uses simulation of increasingly noisy data to extrapolate back to a hypothetical case with no noise. The bias of calculated metrics can then be computed by subtracting the SIMEX estimate from the original pointwise measurement. The SIMEX technique has been studied in the context of diffusion imaging to accurately capture the bias in fractional anisotropy measurements in DTI. Herein, we extend the application of SIMEX and bootstrap approaches to characterize bias and variance in metrics obtained from a Q-ball imaging reconstruction of high angular resolution diffusion imaging data. The results demonstrate that SIMEX and bootstrap approaches provide consistent estimates of the bias and variance of generalized fractional anisotropy, respectively. The RMSE for the generalized fractional anisotropy estimates shows a 7% decrease in white matter and an 8% decrease in gray matter when compared with the observed generalized fractional anisotropy estimates. On average, the bootstrap technique results in SD estimates that are approximately 97% of the true variation in white matter, and 86% in gray matter. Both SIMEX and bootstrap methods are flexible, estimate population characteristics based on single scans, and may be extended for bias and variance estimation on a variety of high angular resolution diffusion imaging metrics. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  7. A review of single-sample-based models and other approaches for radiocarbon dating of dissolved inorganic carbon in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, L. F; Plummer, Niel

    2016-01-01

    Numerous methods have been proposed to estimate the pre-nuclear-detonation 14C content of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) recharged to groundwater that has been corrected/adjusted for geochemical processes in the absence of radioactive decay (14C0) - a quantity that is essential for estimation of radiocarbon age of DIC in groundwater. The models/approaches most commonly used are grouped as follows: (1) single-sample-based models, (2) a statistical approach based on the observed (curved) relationship between 14C and δ13C data for the aquifer, and (3) the geochemical mass-balance approach that constructs adjustment models accounting for all the geochemical reactions known to occur along a groundwater flow path. This review discusses first the geochemical processes behind each of the single-sample-based models, followed by discussions of the statistical approach and the geochemical mass-balance approach. Finally, the applications, advantages and limitations of the three groups of models/approaches are discussed.The single-sample-based models constitute the prevailing use of 14C data in hydrogeology and hydrological studies. This is in part because the models are applied to an individual water sample to estimate the 14C age, therefore the measurement data are easily available. These models have been shown to provide realistic radiocarbon ages in many studies. However, they usually are limited to simple carbonate aquifers and selection of model may have significant effects on 14C0 often resulting in a wide range of estimates of 14C ages.Of the single-sample-based models, four are recommended for the estimation of 14C0 of DIC in groundwater: Pearson's model, (Ingerson and Pearson, 1964; Pearson and White, 1967), Han & Plummer's model (Han and Plummer, 2013), the IAEA model (Gonfiantini, 1972; Salem et al., 1980), and Oeschger's model (Geyh, 2000). These four models include all processes considered in single-sample-based models, and can be used in different ranges of

  8. An in vitro tag-and-modify protein sample generation method for single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadani, Kambiz M; Howe, Jesse; Jensen, Madeleine K; Wu, Peng; Cate, Jamie H D; Marqusee, Susan

    2017-09-22

    Biomolecular systems exhibit many dynamic and biologically relevant properties, such as conformational fluctuations, multistep catalysis, transient interactions, folding, and allosteric structural transitions. These properties are challenging to detect and engineer using standard ensemble-based techniques. To address this drawback, single-molecule methods offer a way to access conformational distributions, transient states, and asynchronous dynamics inaccessible to these standard techniques. Fluorescence-based single-molecule approaches are parallelizable and compatible with multiplexed detection; to date, however, they have remained limited to serial screens of small protein libraries. This stems from the current absence of methods for generating either individual dual-labeled protein samples at high throughputs or protein libraries compatible with multiplexed screening platforms. Here, we demonstrate that by combining purified and reconstituted in vitro translation, quantitative unnatural amino acid incorporation via AUG codon reassignment, and copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, we can overcome these challenges for target proteins that are, or can be, methionine-depleted. We present an in vitro parallelizable approach that does not require laborious target-specific purification to generate dual-labeled proteins and ribosome-nascent chain libraries suitable for single-molecule FRET-based conformational phenotyping. We demonstrate the power of this approach by tracking the effects of mutations, C-terminal extensions, and ribosomal tethering on the structure and stability of three protein model systems: barnase, spectrin, and T4 lysozyme. Importantly, dual-labeled ribosome-nascent chain libraries enable single-molecule co-localization of genotypes with phenotypes, are well suited for multiplexed single-molecule screening of protein libraries, and should enable the in vitro directed evolution of proteins with designer single-molecule conformational

  9. A safety equipment list for rotary mode core sampling systems operation in single shell flammable gas tanks; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMALLEY, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    This document identifies all interim safety equipment to be used for rotary mode core sampling of single-shell flammable gas tanks utilizing Rotary Mode Core Sampling systems (RMCS). This document provides the safety equipment for RMCS trucks HO-68K-4600, HO-68K-4647, trucks three and four respectively, and associated equipment. It is not intended to replace or supersede WHC-SD-WM-SEL-023, (Kelly 1991), or WHC-SD-WM-SEL-032, (Corbett 1994), which classifies 80-68K-4344 and HO-68K-4345 respectively. The term ''safety equipment'' refers to safety class (SC) and safety significant (SS) equipment, where equipment refers to structures, systems and components (SSC's). The identification of safety equipment in this document is based on the credited design safety features and analysis contained in the Authorization Basis (AB) for rotary mode core sampling operations in single-shell flammable gas tanks. This is an interim safety classification since the AB is interim. This document will be updated to reflect the final RMCS equipment safety classification designations upon completion of a final AB which will be implemented with the release of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR)

  10. A safety equipment list for rotary mode core sampling systems operation in single shell flammable gas tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMALLEY, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    This document identifies all interim safety equipment to be used for rotary mode core sampling of single-shell flammable gas tanks utilizing Rotary Mode Core Sampling systems (RMCS). This document provides the safety equipment for RMCS trucks HO-68K-4600, HO-68K-4647, trucks three and four respectively, and associated equipment. It is not intended to replace or supersede WHC-SD-WM-SEL-023, (Kelly 1991), or WHC-SD-WM-SEL-032, (Corbett 1994), which classifies 80-68K-4344 and HO-68K-4345 respectively. The term ''safety equipment'' refers to safety class (SC) and safety significant (SS) equipment, where equipment refers to structures, systems and components (SSC's). The identification of safety equipment in this document is based on the credited design safety features and analysis contained in the Authorization Basis (AB) for rotary mode core sampling operations in single-shell flammable gas tanks. This is an interim safety classification since the AB is interim. This document will be updated to reflect the final RMCS equipment safety classification designations upon completion of a final AB which will be implemented with the release of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR)

  11. Frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms of some immune response genes in a population sample from São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Campos de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphismsof a few immune response genes in a population sample from SãoPaulo City (SP, Brazil. Methods: Data on allele frequencies ofknown polymorphisms of innate and acquired immunity genes werepresented, the majority with proven impact on gene function. Datawere gathered from a sample of healthy individuals, non-HLA identicalsiblings of bone marrow transplant recipients from the Hospital dasClínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo,obtained between 1998 and 2005. The number of samples variedfor each single nucleotide polymorphism analyzed by polymerasechain reaction followed by restriction enzyme cleavage. Results:Allele and genotype distribution of 41 different gene polymorphisms,mostly cytokines, but also including other immune response genes,were presented. Conclusion: We believe that the data presentedhere can be of great value for case-control studies, to define whichpolymorphisms are present in biologically relevant frequencies and toassess targets for therapeutic intervention in polygenic diseases witha component of immune and inflammatory responses.

  12. Investigations of the post-IR IRSL protocol applied to single K-feldspar grains from fluvial sediment samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nian, Xiaomei; Bailey, Richard M.; Zhou, Liping

    2012-01-01

    The post-IR IRSL protocol with single K-feldspar grains was applied to three samples taken from a fluvial sedimentary sequence at the archaeological site of the Dali Man, Shaanxi Province, China. K-feldspar coarse grains were extracted for measurement. Approximately 30–40% of the grains were sufficiently bright to measure, and after application of rejection criteria based on signal strength, recuperation, recycling ratio and saturation dose, ∼10–15% of the grains were used for D e calculation. The relationship of signal decay rate and form of D e (t) with the recovery dose were investigated. The dose recovery ratios of the samples after initial bleaching with the four different light sources were within uncertainties of unity. No anomalous fading was observed. The over-dispersion of the recovered dose and D e values were similar, suggesting neither incomplete resetting of the post-IR IRSL signals nor spatially heterogeneous dose rates significantly affected the natural dose estimates. The values of D e obtained with the single K-feldspar grain post-IR IRSL protocol were in the range ∼400–490 Gy. Combining all of the measured single-grain signals for each of the individual samples (into a ‘synthetic single aliquot’) increased the D e estimates to the range ∼700–900 Gy, suggesting that the grains screened-out by the rejection criteria may have the potential to cause palaeodose over-estimation, although this finding requires a more extensive investigation. Thermally transferred signals were found in the single K-feldspar grains post-IR IRSL protocol, and the proportion of thermally transferred signal to test-dose OSL signal (stimulation at 290 °C) from the natural dose was higher than from regenerative doses, and the proportion was grain- and dose-dependent. As such, TT-post-IR IRSL signals at 290 °C have the potential to cause dose underestimation, although this may be reduced by using larger test-dose irradiations. Our study demonstrates

  13. Vegetation and soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M.K.; King, S.L.; Eisenbies, M.H.; Gartner, D.

    2000-01-01

    Intro paragraph: Characterization of bottomland hardwood vegetation in relatively undisturbed forests can provide critical information for developing effective wetland creation and restoration techniques and for assessing the impacts of management and development. Classification is a useful technique in characterizing vegetation because it summarizes complex data sets, assists in hypothesis generation about factors influencing community variation, and helps refine models of community structure. Hierarchical classification of communities is particularly useful for showing relationships among samples (Gauche 1982).

  14. Evaluation of mixing downstream of tees in duct systems with respect to single point representative air sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehong; O'Neal, Dennis L; Ortiz, Carlos

    2006-09-01

    Air duct systems in nuclear facilities must be monitored with continuous sampling in case of an accidental release of airborne radionuclides. The purpose of this work is to identify the air sampling locations where the velocity and contaminant concentrations fall below the 20% coefficient of variation required by the American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society N13.1-1999. Experiments of velocity and tracer gas concentration were conducted on a generic "T" mixing system which included combinations of three sub ducts, one main duct, and air velocities from 0.5 to 2 m s (100 to 400 fpm). The experimental results suggest that turbulent mixing provides the accepted velocity coefficients of variation after 6 hydraulic diameters downstream of the T-junction. About 95% of the cases achieved coefficients of variation below 10% by 6 hydraulic diameters. However, above a velocity ratio (velocity in the sub duct/velocity in the main duct) of 2, velocity profiles were uniform in a shorter distance downstream of the T-junction as the velocity ratio went up. For the tracer gas concentration, the distance needed for the coefficients of variation to drop 20% decreased with increasing velocity ratio due to the sub duct airflow momentum. The results may apply to other duct systems with similar geometries and, ultimately, be a basis for selecting a proper sampling location under the requirements of single point representative sampling.

  15. Nigerian women reap benefits from indigenous vegetables | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-06

    Jun 6, 2016 ... Demand for fresh indigenous vegetables in Nigeria has increased ... greater returns from indigenous vegetables compared to conventional vegetables. ... In Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, monocropping of a single, non-edible variety ...

  16. Psychometric assessment of the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory in a sample of low-income single mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutenbacher, M

    2001-01-01

    The Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI) is a 32-item inventory widely used to identify adolescents and adults at risk for inadequate parenting behaviors. It includes four subscales representing the most frequent patterns associated with abusive parenting: (a) Inappropriate Expectations; (b) Lack of Empathy; (c) Parental Value of Corporal Punishment; and (d) Parent-Child Role Reversal. Although it has been used in a variety of samples, the psychometric properties of the AAPI have not been examined in low-income single mothers. The purposes of this study were to: (a) examine the reliability and validity of the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI) in a sample of 206 low-income single mothers; (b) assess the mother's risk for inadequate parenting by comparing their AAPI subscale scores with normative subscale scores on the AAPI; (c) assess the construct validity of the AAPI by testing the hypothesis that mothers with lower AAPI scores have a higher level of depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem in comparison to mothers with higher AAPI scores; and (d) determine whether the 4-factor structure proposed by Bavolek (1984) could be replicated. AAPI scores indicated these mothers were at high risk for child abuse when compared with normative data for parents with no known history of abuse. Higher risk for abusive parenting was associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms, less education, and unemployment. The subscales, Inappropriate Expectations and Parental Value of Corporal Punishment demonstrated poor internal consistency with Cronbach's alphas of .40 and .54, respectively. Hypothesis testing supported the construct validity of the AAPI. Bavolek's 4-factor structure was not supported. A 19-item modified version of the AAPI with three dimensions was identified. This modified version of the AAPI may provide a more efficacious tool for use with low-income single mothers.

  17. Development of a novel method for simultaneous concentration of viruses and protozoa from a single water sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramoto, Eiji; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Asami, Mari; Akiba, Michihiro

    2012-06-01

    A novel method, electronegative membrane-vortex (EMV) method, was developed for simultaneous concentration of viruses and protozoa from a single water sample. Viruses and protozoa in a water sample were mixed with a cation solution and adsorbed on an electronegative membrane. Concentrated virus and protozoa samples were obtained as supernatant and pellet fractions, respectively, by vigorous vortex mixing of the membrane and centrifugation of the eluted material. The highest recovery efficiencies of model microbes from river water and tap water by this EMV method were obtained using a mixed cellulose ester membrane with a pore size of 0.45 μm (Millipore) as the electronegative membrane and MgCl(2) as the cation solution. The recovery was 27.7-86.5% for poliovirus, 25.7-68.3% for coliphage Qβ, 28.0-60.0% for Cryptosporidium oocysts, and 35.0-53.0% for Giardia cysts. The EMV method detected successfully indigenous viruses and protozoa in wastewater and river water samples from the Kofu basin, Japan, showing an overall positive rate of 100% (43/43) for human adenovirus, 79% (34/43) for norovirus GI, 65% (28/43) for norovirus GII, 23% (10/43) for Cryptosporidium oocysts, and 60% (26/43) for Giardia cysts. By direct DNA sequencing, a total of four genotypes (AI, AII, B, and G) of Giardia intestinalis were identified in the water samples, indicating that the river water was contaminated with feces from various mammals, including humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Simple Fractionated Extraction Method for the Comprehensive Analysis of Metabolites, Lipids, and Proteins from a Single Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Mohamed; Bernach, Michal; Bajdzienko, Krzysztof; Giavalisco, Patrick

    2017-06-01

    Understanding of complex biological systems requires the measurement, analysis and integration of multiple compound classes of the living cell, usually determined by transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomics and lipidomic measurements. In this protocol, we introduce a simple method for the reproducible extraction of metabolites, lipids and proteins from biological tissues using a single aliquot per sample. The extraction method is based on a methyl tert-butyl ether: methanol: water system for liquid: liquid partitioning of hydrophobic and polar metabolites into two immiscible phases along with the precipitation of proteins and other macromolecules as a solid pellet. This method, therefore, provides three different fractions of specific molecular composition, which are fully compatible with common high throughput 'omics' technologies such as liquid chromatography (LC) or gas chromatography (GC) coupled to mass spectrometers. Even though the method was initially developed for the analysis of different plant tissue samples, it has proved to be fully compatible for the extraction and analysis of biological samples from systems as diverse as algae, insects, and mammalian tissues and cell cultures.

  19. Simple transmission Raman measurements using a single multivariate model for analysis of pharmaceutical samples contained in capsules of different colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeojin; Kim, Jaejin; Lee, Sanguk; Woo, Young-Ah; Chung, Hoeil

    2012-01-30

    Direct transmission Raman measurements for analysis of pharmaceuticals in capsules are advantageous since they can be used to determine active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) concentrations in a non-destructive manner and with much less fluorescence background interference from the capsules themselves compared to conventional back-scattering measurements. If a single calibration model such as developed from spectra simply collected in glass vials could be used to determine API concentrations of samples contained in capsules of different colors rather than constructing individual models for each capsule color, the utility of transmission measurements would be further enhanced. To evaluate the feasibility, transmission Raman spectra of binary mixtures of ambroxol and lactose were collected in a glass vial and a partial least squares (PLS) model for the determination of ambroxol concentration was developed. Then, the model was directly applied to determine ambroxol concentrations of samples contained in capsules of 4 different colors (blue, green, white and yellow). Although the prediction performance was slightly degraded when the samples were placed in blue or green capsules, due to the presence of weak fluorescence, accurate determination of ambroxol was generally achieved in all cases. The prediction accuracy was also investigated when the thickness of the capsule was varied. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Integrative analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms and gene expression efficiently distinguishes samples from closely related ethnic populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hsin-Chou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ancestry informative markers (AIMs are a type of genetic marker that is informative for tracing the ancestral ethnicity of individuals. Application of AIMs has gained substantial attention in population genetics, forensic sciences, and medical genetics. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, the materials of AIMs, are useful for classifying individuals from distinct continental origins but cannot discriminate individuals with subtle genetic differences from closely related ancestral lineages. Proof-of-principle studies have shown that gene expression (GE also is a heritable human variation that exhibits differential intensity distributions among ethnic groups. GE supplies ethnic information supplemental to SNPs; this motivated us to integrate SNP and GE markers to construct AIM panels with a reduced number of required markers and provide high accuracy in ancestry inference. Few studies in the literature have considered GE in this aspect, and none have integrated SNP and GE markers to aid classification of samples from closely related ethnic populations. Results We integrated a forward variable selection procedure into flexible discriminant analysis to identify key SNP and/or GE markers with the highest cross-validation prediction accuracy. By analyzing genome-wide SNP and/or GE markers in 210 independent samples from four ethnic groups in the HapMap II Project, we found that average testing accuracies for a majority of classification analyses were quite high, except for SNP-only analyses that were performed to discern study samples containing individuals from two close Asian populations. The average testing accuracies ranged from 0.53 to 0.79 for SNP-only analyses and increased to around 0.90 when GE markers were integrated together with SNP markers for the classification of samples from closely related Asian populations. Compared to GE-only analyses, integrative analyses of SNP and GE markers showed comparable testing

  1. Kuchler Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Digital version of potential natural plant communites as compiled and published on 'Map of the Natural Vegetation of California' by A. W. Kuchler, 1976. Source map...

  2. Wieslander Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Digital version of the 1945 California Vegetation Type Maps by A. E. Wieslander of the U.S. Forest Service. Source scale of maps are 1:100,000. These compiled maps...

  3. Validation of ten-minute single sample carbon-14 urea breath test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabakaran, K.; Fernandes, V.; McDonald, J.

    1996-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is traditionally diagnosed by endoscopy followed by gastric biopsy and histologic demonstration of organisms, rapid urease test and culture. The non-invasive carbon-14-urea breath test has been widely accepted now for the diagnosis of this bacterium. This study was aimed to establish and validate normal and abnormal values for an Australian population, for a single sample carbon-14-urea breath test at ten minutes. A dose of 185 kBq was used in order to achieve reasonable counting statistics. The derived values were validated with the results of the rapid urease test. This method has a high sensitivity, specificity and greater patient acceptance, and could be used in many clinical settings as the first modality for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection and for documenting response or cure after antibiotic therapy for eradication. 11 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  4. Classifying the Progression of Ductal Carcinoma from Single-Cell Sampled Data via Integer Linear Programming: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzaro, Daniele; Shackney, Stanley E; Schaffer, Alejandro A; Schwartz, Russell

    2016-01-01

    Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) is a precursor lesion of Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) of the breast. Investigating its temporal progression could provide fundamental new insights for the development of better diagnostic tools to predict which cases of DCIS will progress to IDC. We investigate the problem of reconstructing a plausible progression from single-cell sampled data of an individual with synchronous DCIS and IDC. Specifically, by using a number of assumptions derived from the observation of cellular atypia occurring in IDC, we design a possible predictive model using integer linear programming (ILP). Computational experiments carried out on a preexisting data set of 13 patients with simultaneous DCIS and IDC show that the corresponding predicted progression models are classifiable into categories having specific evolutionary characteristics. The approach provides new insights into mechanisms of clonal progression in breast cancers and helps illustrate the power of the ILP approach for similar problems in reconstructing tumor evolution scenarios under complex sets of constraints.

  5. Serum markers of bone turnover change in response to depletion and repletion of fruit and vegetable intake in adults: A 28-wk single-arm experimental feeding intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data from controlled intervention trials are lacking to support observational evidence suggesting a positive association between intake of fruit and vegetable (FV) and bone health. The objective of this study was to assess serum markers of bone turnover change in response to FV depletion and repleti...

  6. Listeria monocytogenes - Danger for health safety vegetable production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kljujev, Igor; Raicevic, Vera; Jovicic-Petrovic, Jelena; Vujovic, Bojana; Mirkovic, Milica; Rothballer, Michael

    2018-04-22

    The microbiologically contaminated vegetables represent a risk for consumers, especially vegetables without thermal processing. It is known that human pathogen bacteria, such as Listeria monocytogenes, could exist on fresh vegetables. The fresh vegetables could become Listeria-contaminated if they come in touch with contaminated soil, manure, irrigation water. The aim of this work was to investigate the presence of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in different kind of vegetables grown in field and greenhouse condition as well as surface and endophytic colonization plant roots of different vegetables species by L. monocytogenes in laboratory conditions. The detection of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in vegetable samples was done using ISO and PCR methods. The investigation of colonization vegetable roots and detection Listeria-cells inside plant root tissue was done using Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results showed that 25.58% vegetable samples were positive for Listeria spp. and only one sample (carrot) was positive for L. monocytogenes out of 43 samples in total collected from field and greenhouse. The strain L. monocytogenes EGD-E surface and endophytic colonized carrot root in highest degree while strain L. monocytogenes SV4B was the most represented at leafy vegetable plants, such at lettuce (1.68 × 10 6  cells/mm 3 absolutely dry root) and spinach (1.39 × 10 6  cells/mm 3 absolutely dry root) root surface. The cells of L. monocytogenes SV4B were visible as single cells in interior tissue of plant roots (celery and sweet corn roots) as well as in the interior of the plant root cell at sweet corn root. The cells of L. monocytogenes EGD-E bind to the surface of the plant root and they were less commonly found out on root hair. In the inner layers of the root, those bacterial cells were inhabited intercellular spaces mainly as single cells very close to the

  7. Genotyping of human parvovirus B19 in clinical samples from Brazil and Paraguay using heteroduplex mobility assay, single-stranded conformation polymorphism and nucleotide sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos César Lima de Mendonça

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Heteroduplex mobility assay, single-stranded conformation polymorphism and nucleotide sequencing were utilised to genotype human parvovirus B19 samples from Brazil and Paraguay. Ninety-seven serum samples were collected from individuals presenting with abortion or erythema infectiosum, arthropathies, severe anaemia and transient aplastic crisis; two additional skin samples were collected by biopsy. After the procedure, all clinical samples were classified as genotype 1.

  8. Vegetation - San Felipe Valley [ds172

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This Vegetation Map of the San Felipe Valley Wildlife Area in San Diego County, California is based on vegetation samples collected in the field in 2002 and 2005 and...

  9. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  10. A safety assessment of rotary mode core sampling in flammable gas single shell tanks: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, R.E.

    1996-04-15

    This safety assessment (SA) addresses each of the required elements associated with the installation, operation, and removal of a rotary-mode core sampling (RMCS) device in flammable-gas single-shell tanks (SSTs). The RMCS operations are needed in order to retrieve waste samples from SSTs with hard layers of waste for which push-mode sampling is not adequate for sampling. In this SA, potential hazards associated with the proposed action were identified and evaluated systematically. Several potential accident cases that could result in radiological or toxicological gas releases were identified and analyzed and their consequences assessed. Administrative controls, procedures and design changes required to eliminate or reduce the potential of hazards were identified. The accidents were analyzed under nine categories, four of which were burn scenarios. In SSTS, burn accidents result in unacceptable consequences because of a potential dome collapse. The accidents in which an aboveground burn propagates into the dome space were shown to be in the ``beyond extremely unlikely`` frequency category. Given the unknown nature of the gas-release behavior in the SSTS, a number of design changes and administrative controls were implemented to achieve these low frequencies. Likewise, drill string fires and dome space fires were shown to be very low frequency accidents by taking credit for the design changes, controls, and available experimental and analytical data. However, a number of Bureau of Mines (BOM) tests must be completed before some of the burn accidents can be dismissed with high confidence. Under the category of waste fires, the possibility of igniting the entrapped gases and the waste itself were analyzed. Experiments are being conducted at the BOM to demonstrate that the drill bit is not capable of igniting the trapped gas in the waste. Laboratory testing and thermal analysis demonstrated that, under normal operating conditions, the drill bit will not create high

  11. A safety assessment of rotary mode core sampling in flammable gas single shell tanks: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    This safety assessment (SA) addresses each of the required elements associated with the installation, operation, and removal of a rotary-mode core sampling (RMCS) device in flammable-gas single-shell tanks (SSTs). The RMCS operations are needed in order to retrieve waste samples from SSTs with hard layers of waste for which push-mode sampling is not adequate for sampling. In this SA, potential hazards associated with the proposed action were identified and evaluated systematically. Several potential accident cases that could result in radiological or toxicological gas releases were identified and analyzed and their consequences assessed. Administrative controls, procedures and design changes required to eliminate or reduce the potential of hazards were identified. The accidents were analyzed under nine categories, four of which were burn scenarios. In SSTS, burn accidents result in unacceptable consequences because of a potential dome collapse. The accidents in which an aboveground burn propagates into the dome space were shown to be in the ''beyond extremely unlikely'' frequency category. Given the unknown nature of the gas-release behavior in the SSTS, a number of design changes and administrative controls were implemented to achieve these low frequencies. Likewise, drill string fires and dome space fires were shown to be very low frequency accidents by taking credit for the design changes, controls, and available experimental and analytical data. However, a number of Bureau of Mines (BOM) tests must be completed before some of the burn accidents can be dismissed with high confidence. Under the category of waste fires, the possibility of igniting the entrapped gases and the waste itself were analyzed. Experiments are being conducted at the BOM to demonstrate that the drill bit is not capable of igniting the trapped gas in the waste. Laboratory testing and thermal analysis demonstrated that, under normal operating conditions, the drill bit will not create high

  12. Relishes: The new pickled vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tepić Aleksandra N.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been an increasing interest of consumers for a ide variety of pickled vegetable products worldwide. Regarding the regional vegetable supplies and relatively poor assortment of ready-to-use products, the need to broaden the offer of domestic pickled vegetables at the market came out. In this work recipes for different vegetables, spices and condiments were developed. The best graded samples were analyzed for their main chemical composition (dry matter, proteins, oils and fats, total acidity, total sugars, sucrose, starch, cellulose, pH and energy- values.

  13. Vegetative regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    George A. Schier; John R. Jones; Robert P. Winokur

    1985-01-01

    Aspen is noted for its ability to regenerate vegetatively by adventitious shoots or suckers that arise on its long lateral roots. It also produces sprouts from stumps and root collars; but they are not common. In a survey of regeneration after clearcutting mature aspen in Utah. Baker (1918b) found that 92% of the shoots originated from roots, 7% from root collars, and...

  14. Understory vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Sutherland; Todd F. Hutchinson; Jennifer L. Windus

    2003-01-01

    This chapter documents patterns of species composition and diversity within the understory vegetation layer and provides a species list for the four study areas in southern Ohio. Within each of 108 plots, we recorded the frequency of all vascular plant species in sixteen 2-m² quadrats. We recorded 297 species, including 187 forbs (176 perennials, 9 annuals, 2...

  15. A device for the application of uniaxial strain to single crystal samples for use in synchrotron radiation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gannon, L. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford Physics Department, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 ODE (United Kingdom); Bosak, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Burkovsky, R. G. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University, 29 Politekhnicheskaya, 195251, St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Nisbet, G.; Hoesch, M., E-mail: Moritz.Hoesch@diamond.ac.uk [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 ODE (United Kingdom); Petrović, A. P. [DPMC-MaNEP, Université de Genève, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 24, 1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland)

    2015-10-15

    We present the design, construction, and testing of a straining device compatible with many different synchrotron radiation techniques, in a wide range of experimental environments (including low temperature, high field and ultra-high vacuum). The device has been tested by X-ray diffraction on single crystal samples of quasi-one-dimensional Cs{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 6} and K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 6}, in which microscopic strains up to a Δc/c = 0.12% ± 0.01% change in the c lattice parameters have been achieved. We have also used the device in an inelastic X-ray scattering experiment, to probe the strain-dependent speed of sound ν along the c axis. A reduction Δν/ν of up to −3.8% was obtained at a strain of Δc/c = 0.25% in K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 6}.

  16. Microbioligical Hazard Contamination in Fermented Vegetables Sold in Local Markets in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrun, Rithy; Hosotani, Yukie; Kawasaki, Susumu; Inatsu, Yasuhiro

    2017-01-01

     Fermented vegetables are common part of Cambodian diet. The food safety status for these foods has not been investigated. This study was conducted to evaluate the microbiological hazards that contaminated fermented vegetables. A total of 68 samples of fermented vegetables were purchased randomly from five wet markets in Phnom Penh. The conventional culture methods for microbiological analysis were used. Coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli, Cronobactersakazakii, and Enterobacter spp.), opportunistic non-Entrobacteriaceae, Enterococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Listeria spp. were found in these fermented foods. The highest contamination rate of Enterococcus spp. was 34% of total fermented vegetable samples, followed by Bacillus spp. coliform bacteria and E. coli (31%, 24% and 10%, respectively). The potential foodborne pathogen, C. sakazakii, was identified in one sample. Fermented mixed vegetables showed higher contamination rate of coliform bacteria (50%) than fermented single-type vegetables (13%). The results showed that fermented vegetables sold in wet market are poor in hygiene. The stage in the processing chain where contamination occurred should be identified and basic sanitary practice should be enforced to improve the food safety of fermented vegetables in Cambodia.

  17. in Leafy Vegetable and Pharmaceutical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    successfully employed for the determination of copper (II) in leafy vegetable and pharmaceutical samples. ... Our previous studies of transition metal ions such as zinc, cobalt and ..... A new method for extractive photometric determination of.

  18. An efficient, cost effective, sensing behaviour liquid-liquid extraction and spectrophotometric determination of copper(II) incorporated with 4-(4'-chlorobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole: Analysis of food samples, leafy vegetables, fertilizers and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barache, Umesh B; Shaikh, Abdul B; Lokhande, Tukaram N; Kamble, Ganesh S; Anuse, Mansing A; Gaikwad, Shashikant H

    2018-01-15

    The aim of the present work is to develop an efficient, simple and selective moreover cost-effective method for the extractive spectrophotometric determination of copper(II) by using the Schiff base 4-(4'-chlorobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole [CBIMMT]. This chromogenic reagent forms a yellow coloured complex with copper(II) in acetate buffer at pH4.2. The copper(II) complex with ligand is instantly extracted into chloroform and shows a maximum absorbance at 414nm which remains stable for >48h. The composition of extracted complex is found to be 1:2 [copper(II): reagent] which was ascertained using Job's method of continuous variation, mole ratio method and slope ratio method. Under optimal conditions, the copper(II) complex in chloroform adheres to Beer's law up to 17.5μgmL -1 of copper(II). The optimum concentration range obtained from Ringbom's plot is from 5μgmL -1 to 17.5μgmL -1 . The molar absorptivity, Sandell's sensitivity and enrichment factor of the extracted copper(II) chelate are 0.33813×10 4 Lmol -1 cm -1 , 0.01996μgcm -2 and 2.49 respectively. In the extraction of copper(II), several affecting factors including the solution pH, ligand concentration, equilibrium time, effect of foreign ions are optimized. The interfering effects of various cations and anions were also studied and use of masking agents enhances the selectivity of the method. The chromogenic sulphur containing reagent, 4-(4'-chlorobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole has been synthesized in a single step with high purity and yield. The synthesized reagent has been successfully applied first time for determination of copper(II). The reagent forms stable chelate with copper(II) in buffer medium instantly and quantitatively extracted in chloroform within a minute. The method is successfully applied for the determination of copper(II) in various synthetic mixtures, complexes, fertilizers, environmental samples such as food samples, leafy

  19. An efficient, cost effective, sensing behaviour liquid-liquid extraction and spectrophotometric determination of copper(II) incorporated with 4-(4‧-chlorobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole: Analysis of food samples, leafy vegetables, fertilizers and environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barache, Umesh B.; Shaikh, Abdul B.; Lokhande, Tukaram N.; Kamble, Ganesh S.; Anuse, Mansing A.; Gaikwad, Shashikant H.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop an efficient, simple and selective moreover cost-effective method for the extractive spectrophotometric determination of copper(II) by using the Schiff base 4-(4‧-chlorobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole [CBIMMT]. This chromogenic reagent forms a yellow coloured complex with copper(II) in acetate buffer at pH 4.2. The copper(II) complex with ligand is instantly extracted into chloroform and shows a maximum absorbance at 414 nm which remains stable for > 48 h. The composition of extracted complex is found to be 1:2 [copper(II): reagent] which was ascertained using Job's method of continuous variation, mole ratio method and slope ratio method. Under optimal conditions, the copper(II) complex in chloroform adheres to Beer's law up to 17.5 μg mL- 1 of copper(II). The optimum concentration range obtained from Ringbom's plot is from 5 μg mL- 1 to 17.5 μg mL- 1. The molar absorptivity, Sandell's sensitivity and enrichment factor of the extracted copper(II) chelate are 0.33813 × 104 L mol- 1 cm- 1, 0.01996 μg cm- 2 and 2.49 respectively. In the extraction of copper(II), several affecting factors including the solution pH, ligand concentration, equilibrium time, effect of foreign ions are optimized. The interfering effects of various cations and anions were also studied and use of masking agents enhances the selectivity of the method. The chromogenic sulphur containing reagent, 4-(4‧-chlorobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole has been synthesized in a single step with high purity and yield. The synthesized reagent has been successfully applied first time for determination of copper(II). The reagent forms stable chelate with copper(II) in buffer medium instantly and quantitatively extracted in chloroform within a minute. The method is successfully applied for the determination of copper(II) in various synthetic mixtures, complexes, fertilizers, environmental samples such as food samples

  20. Single-sample 99mTc-diethylenetriamine penta-acetate plasma clearance in advanced renal failure by the mean sojourn time approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gref, Margareta C; Karp, Kjell H

    2009-03-01

    The single-sample Tc-diethylenetriamine penta-acetate (DTPA) clearance method by Christensen and Groth is recommended by the Radionuclides in Nephrourology Committee on Renal Clearance for use in adults with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) > or = 30 ml/min. The purpose of this study was to test a new Tc-DTPA single-sample low clearance formula for GFR lesser than 30 ml/min. Twenty-one adult patients (29 investigations) were included. Reference clearance was calculated with both Cr-EDTA and Tc-DTPA according to Brøchner-Mortensen with samples drawn between 3 and 24 h. Single-sample clearance was calculated from a 24 h sample using the low clearance formula(Equation is included in full-text article.) C(t) is the activity of the tracer in the plasma sample t minutes after the injection and Q0 is the injected amount. ECV is the extracellular volume in ml defined as the distribution volume of the tracer. ECV is estimated from the body surface area as ECV=8116.6xbody surface area-28.2. The mean difference between reference and Tc-DTPA single-sample clearance was -0.5 ml/min (SD 1.0 ml/min) for Tc-DTPA and -0.8 ml/min (SD 1.2 ml/min) for Cr-EDTA as reference clearance. In adult patients it is possible, even with GFR lesser than 30 ml/min, to get an accurate determination of Tc-DTPA plasma clearance from a single sample using the mean sojourn time approach. The blood sample should be obtained about 24 h after injection of the GFR tracer.

  1. On the preparation of as-produced and purified single-walled carbon nanotube samples for standardized X-ray diffraction characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaf, Rula M.; Rivero, Iris V.; Spearman, Shayla S.; Hope-Weeks, Louisa J.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to specify proper sample conditioning for acquiring representative X-ray diffraction (XRD) profiles for single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) samples. In doing so, a specimen preparation method for quantitative XRD characterization of as-produced and purified arc-discharge SWCNT samples has been identified. Series of powder XRD profiles were collected at different temperatures, states, and points of time to establish appropriate conditions for acquiring XRD profiles without inducing much change to the specimen. It was concluded that heating in the 300-450 deg. C range for 20 minutes, preferably vacuum-assisted, and then sealing the sample is an appropriate XRD specimen preparation technique for purified arc-discharge SWCNT samples, while raw samples do not require preconditioning for characterization. - Graphical Abstract: A sample preparation method for XRD characterization of as-produced and purified arc-discharge SWCNT samples is identified. The preparation technique seeks to acquire representative XRD profiles without inducing changes to the samples. Purified samples required 20 minutes of heating at (300-450)deg. C, while raw samples did not require preconditioning for characterization. Highlights: → Purification routines may induce adsorption onto the SWCNT samples. → Heating a SWCNT sample may result in material loss, desorption, and SWCNTs closing. → Raw arc-discharge samples do not require preparation for XRD characterization. → Heating is appropriate specimen preparation for purified and heat-treated samples. → XRD data fitting is required for structural analysis of SWCNT bundles.

  2. Determination of the technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine plasma clearance in children by means of a single blood sample: a multicentre study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepsz, A.; Gordon, I.; Hahn, K.; Kolinska, J.; Kotzerke, J.; Sixt, R.

    1993-01-01

    A multicentree European study was undertaken in order to determine a reasonable algorithm allowing the determination of overall technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine clearance using a single blood sample. Employing multiple blood sample clearance as a reference method, it was shown that an acceptable estimation of the MAG3 renal clearance could be obtained using a blood sample taken at any time between 30 and 40 min after tracer injection. After correction for body surface area comparison of clearance determined using (a) the single blood sample and (b) the multiple blood samples provided a coefficient of correlation of 0.949 and an SEE of 27 ml/min. This algorithm is valid for clearance values higher than 100 ml/min/1.73 m 2 and for children older than 1 year of age. (orig.)

  3. Being together – Exploring the modulation of affect in improvisational music therapy with a man in a persistent vegetative state – a qualitative single case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Schmid

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the role of affective expression and modulation as a means of communication in improvisational music therapy with a 44-year-old man living in a persistent vegetative state. Within a practice-based approach two vignettes from music therapy illustrate the regulation of the intensity of affect in an interpersonal relationship. Perspectives from modern attachment theory, developmental psychology, and embodiment research will be introduced and discussed, to theoretically frame and embed the practical work. It is suggested that the bodily-emotional situatedness of the man and the music therapist form the area of exchange for a non-verbal, affect-driven communication. In this way, playing with the affect is the main topic for the encounter, promoting self-organizational processes in both individuals involved.

  4. Performance enhancement of the single-phase series active filter by employing the load voltage waveform reconstruction and line current sampling delay reduction methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, O.S.; Hava, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes the waveform reconstruction method (WRM), which is utilized in the single-phase series active filter's (SAF's) control algorithm, in order to extract the load harmonic voltage component of voltage harmonic type single-phase diode rectifier loads. Employing WRM and the line...... current sampling delay reduction method, a single-phase SAF compensated system provides higher harmonic isolation performance and higher stability margins compared to the system using conventional synchronous-reference-frame-based methods. The analytical, simulation, and experimental studies of a 2.5 k...

  5. Preparation and Loading Process of Single Crystalline Samples into a Gas Environmental Cell Holder for In Situ Atomic Resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopic Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straubinger, Rainer; Beyer, Andreas; Volz, Kerstin

    2016-06-01

    A reproducible way to transfer a single crystalline sample into a gas environmental cell holder for in situ transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis is shown in this study. As in situ holders have only single-tilt capability, it is necessary to prepare the sample precisely along a specific zone axis. This can be achieved by a very accurate focused ion beam lift-out preparation. We show a step-by-step procedure to prepare the sample and transfer it into the gas environmental cell. The sample material is a GaP/Ga(NAsP)/GaP multi-quantum well structure on Si. Scanning TEM observations prove that it is possible to achieve atomic resolution at very high temperatures in a nitrogen environment of 100,000 Pa.

  6. Wetlands Research Program. Evaluation of Methods for Sampling Vegetation and Delineating Wetlands Transition Zones in Coastal West-Central Florida, January 1979-May 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    method ( Catana 1963) compensates for some of the limitations of the point-centered quarter method. A quarter is established at a sampling point and...Principal Soil Areas of Florida--A Supplement to the General Soils Map. University of Florida, in cooperation with USDA, Bulletin 717. Catana , H. J. 1963

  7. A palynological study of Polynesian and European effects on vegetation in Coromandel, New Zealand, showing the variability between four records from a single swamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrami, M.; Ogden, J.; Horrocks, M.; Deng, Y.; Shane, P.; Palmer, J.

    2002-01-01

    Seven cores were extracted from a river terrace swamp in the forested Kauaeranga valley, Coromandel Peninsula, New Zealand. High-resolution (c. 36-73 yr interval) pollen records were obtained from four of the cores and aged by radiocarbon dating and with stratigraphic reference to the 665 ± 15 14 C yr BP Kaharoa Tephra. The records span the last c. 1800 yr and show that the vegetation consisted of lowland podocarp-hardwood forest before deforestation by burning occurred. The pattern of deforestation at Kauaeranga, indicated by the abrupt dominance of Pteridium with concurrent increased charcoal, is typical of pollen records associated with early Polynesian settlement in New Zealand. Peaks of Pteridium and charcoal were also found in sediments deposited after European settlement. Different cores show marked palynological and stratigraphic differences relative to the Kaharoa Tephra, most importantly with regard to the timing of deforestation. Deforestation occurred close to the Kaharoa, at a calculated age of c. 750 BP in one core but well above the Kaharoa (c. 480 BP) in another. The stratigraphic unconformities between cores are attributed to variable fluvial processes causing an uneven deposition of sediments within the swamp. (author). 32 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Quantification of fenoxaprop-p-ethyl herbicide in soil and vegetable samples by microwave-assisted solvent extraction and HPLC method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, F.U.N.; Shah, J.; Jan, M.R.; Muhammad, M.

    2012-01-01

    A simple HPLC procedure for the determination of fenoxaprop-p-ethyl herbicide in environmental samples is described. The chromatographic analysis was carried out by HPLC, on a C18 packed capillary column (4x4 mm,4.6 X 150 mm, 5mm particle size) with 20 macro l injection volume and UV detector at 280 nm. HPLC-grade acetonitrile and methanol were used as mobile phase with flow rate of 1mL min-1. Samples were spiked with amount between 5 - 20 micro g g-1 of herbicide and were isolated from samples by applying microwave assisted extraction (MASE) at ambient temperature. Percent recoveries were improved by optimizing solvent types, solvent volume, extraction temperature and time. Calibration curve range determined by HPLC was 0.5-16 micro g mL-1. The interaction of different variables for maximum % recovery response was checked by applying factorial design and was found to be in range of 91.22+-0.01-99.32+-0.01 with good precision (< 5% ). Application of this procedure to the analysis of herbicide in ester and acid form showed the effectiveness of the proposed approach. (author)

  9. Testing single-grain quartz OSL methods using sediment samples with independent age control from the Bordes-Fitte rockshelter (Roches d'Abilly site, Central France)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Murray, Andrew Sean; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter

    2016-01-01

    We present quartz single-grain dose distributions for four well-bleached and unmixed sediment samples with independent age control (22–48 ka), from the archaeologically important Bordes-Fitte rockshelter at Roches d'Abilly, France. This site has previously been dated using 14C AMS dating and stan...

  10. Evaluation of single and two-stage adaptive sampling designs for estimation of density and abundance of freshwater mussels in a large river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.R.; Rogala, J.T.; Gray, B.R.; Zigler, S.J.; Newton, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Reliable estimates of abundance are needed to assess consequences of proposed habitat restoration and enhancement projects on freshwater mussels in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR). Although there is general guidance on sampling techniques for population assessment of freshwater mussels, the actual performance of sampling designs can depend critically on the population density and spatial distribution at the project site. To evaluate various sampling designs, we simulated sampling of populations, which varied in density and degree of spatial clustering. Because of logistics and costs of large river sampling and spatial clustering of freshwater mussels, we focused on adaptive and non-adaptive versions of single and two-stage sampling. The candidate designs performed similarly in terms of precision (CV) and probability of species detection for fixed sample size. Both CV and species detection were determined largely by density, spatial distribution and sample size. However, designs did differ in the rate that occupied quadrats were encountered. Occupied units had a higher probability of selection using adaptive designs than conventional designs. We used two measures of cost: sample size (i.e. number of quadrats) and distance travelled between the quadrats. Adaptive and two-stage designs tended to reduce distance between sampling units, and thus performed better when distance travelled was considered. Based on the comparisons, we provide general recommendations on the sampling designs for the freshwater mussels in the UMR, and presumably other large rivers.

  11. Effect of the sample annealing temperature and sample crystallographic orientation on the charge kinetics of MgO single crystals subjected to keV electron irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughariou, A; Damamme, G; Kallel, A

    2015-04-01

    This paper focuses on the effect of sample annealing temperature and crystallographic orientation on the secondary electron yield of MgO during charging by a defocused electron beam irradiation. The experimental results show that there are two regimes during the charging process that are better identified by plotting the logarithm of the secondary electron emission yield, lnσ, as function of the total trapped charge in the material QT. The impact of the annealing temperature and crystallographic orientation on the evolution of lnσ is presented here. The slope of the asymptotic regime of the curve lnσ as function of QT, expressed in cm(2) per trapped charge, is probably linked to the elementary cross section of electron-hole recombination, σhole, which controls the trapping evolution in the reach of the stationary flow regime. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  12. Sacramento Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — CDF-FRAP compiled the 'best available' land cover data into a single data layer, to support the various analyses required for the 2002 Forest and Range Assessment....

  13. Development of single step RT-PCR for detection of Kyasanur forest disease virus from clinical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouri Chaubal

    2018-02-01

    Discussion and conclusion: The previously published sensitive real time RT-PCR assay requires higher cost in terms of reagents and machine setup and technical expertise has been the primary reason for development of this assay. A single step RT-PCR is relatively easy to perform and more cost effective than real time RT-PCR in smaller setups in the absence of Biosafety Level-3 facility. This study reports the development and optimization of single step RT-PCR assay which is more sensitive and less time-consuming than nested RT-PCR and cost effective for rapid diagnosis of KFD viral RNA.

  14. Flux mapping at 77 K and local measurement at lower temperature of thin-wall YBaCuO single-domain samples oxygenated under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaud, X., E-mail: Xavier.chaud@grenoble.cnrs.f [CRETA, CNRS, 25, Avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Noudem, J. [CRISMAT/ENSICAEN, CNRS, 6 bd Marechal Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Prikhna, T.; Savchuk, Y. [ISM, National Acad. of Sciences of Ukraine, 2 Avtozavodskaya Street, Kiev, 04074 (Ukraine); Haanappel, E. [LNCMP, UMR 5147, 143 avenue de Rangueil, 31400 Toulouse (France); Diko, P. [IEP, Slovak Acad. of Sciences, Watsonova 47, 043 53, Kosice (Slovakia); Zhang, C.P. [SMRC, NIN, 96 Weiyang Road, Xi' an 710016 (China)

    2009-10-15

    YBCO single-domain samples are suitable for the production of high trapped fields in the range 20-77 K using a cryocooler or liquid nitrogen. But the oxygenation process required to actually transform the single domains into superconductors induces an extensive crack network that is limiting the material performances. Thin-wall geometry has been introduced to reduce the diffusion paths and to enable a progressive oxygenation strategy. As a consequence cracks are drastically reduced. In addition the use of a high oxygen pressure (16 MPa) speeds up further the process by displacing the oxygen-temperature equilibrium towards the higher temperature of the phase diagram. The advantage of thin-wall geometry is that such an annealing can be applied directly to a much larger sample. Remarkable results are obtained without any doping by the combination of thin walls and oxygen high pressure. While classical plain samples yield 300-400 mT, a trapped field of 840 mT has been measured at 77 K on a 16 mm diameter Y123 thin-wall single-domain sample with an annealing time as short as 3 days. Local measurements with a fixed Hall probe on top of the sample were performed at lower temperature after magnetization either in a static field or in a pulse field. The trapped field is significantly higher at lower temperature. Cryocoolers become the key to compromise between performances and cryogenic cost around 40 K.

  15. Hot topic: Bovine milk samples yielding negative or nonspecific results in bacterial culturing--the possible role of PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism in mastitis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, K; Wimmer, M; Huber-Schlenstedt, R; Fehlings, K; Hölzel, C S; Bauer, J

    2012-01-01

    A large proportion of mastitis milk samples yield negative or nonspecific results (i.e., no mastitis pathogen can be identified) in bacterial culturing. Therefore, the culture-independent PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism method was applied to the investigation of bovine mastitis milk samples. In addition to the known mastitis pathogens, the method was suitable for the detection of fastidious bacteria such as Mycoplasma spp., which are often missed by conventional culturing methods. The detection of Helcococcus ovis in 4 samples might indicate an involvement of this species in pathogenesis of bovine mastitis. In conclusion, PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism is a promising tool for gaining new insights into the bacteriological etiology of mastitis. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel Single-Stranded DNA Virus Genomes Recovered from Chimpanzee Feces Sampled from the Mambilla Plateau in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Matthew; Bawuro, Musa; Christopher, Alfred; Knight, Alexander; Kraberger, Simona; Stainton, Daisy; Chapman, Hazel

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Metagenomic approaches are rapidly expanding our knowledge of the diversity of viruses. In the fecal matter of Nigerian chimpanzees we recovered three gokushovirus genomes, one circular replication-associated protein encoding single-stranded DNA virus (CRESS), and a CRESS DNA molecule. PMID:28254982

  17. Sample preparation for semivolatile organics analysis of Hanford single-shell tank waste with high nitrate/nitrite and water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromatt, R.W.; Hoppe, E.W.; Steele, M.J.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes research work carried out to solve sample preparation problems associated with applying gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS) to the analysis of single shell tank (SST) samples from Hanford for semivolatile organic compounds. Poor performance was found when applying the procedures based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Contract Laboratory Program, Statement of Work (CLP SOW). Analysis work was carried out on simulated drainable liquid modeled after the SST core samples which had evidenced analysis problems. Some work was also conducted on true SST samples. It was found that the pH range was too broad in the original procedure. It was also found that by decreasing the amount of methanol used in the extraction process, problems associated with the formation of an azeotrope phase could be avoided. The authors suggest a new procedure, whose eventual application to a wide array of SST samples will lend itself to better quality control limits

  18. Determination of Acyclovir in Human Plasma Samples by HPLC Method with UV Detection: Application to Single-Dose Pharmacokinetic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragica Zendelovska

    2015-03-01

    CONCLUSION: Good precision, accuracy, simplicity, sensitivity and shorter time of analysis of the method makes it particularly useful for processing of multiple samples in a limited period of time for pharmacokinetic study of acyclovir.

  19. Extreme Ultraviolet to Visible Dispersed Single Photon Detection for Highly Sensitive Sensing of Fundamental Processes in Diverse Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hans

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The detection of a single photon is the most sensitive method for sensing of photon emission. A common technique for single photon detection uses microchannel plate arrays combined with photocathodes and position sensitive anodes. Here, we report on the combination of such detectors with grating diffraction spectrometers, constituting a low-noise wavelength resolving photon spectroscopy apparatus with versatile applicability. We recapitulate the operation principle of such detectors and present the details of the experimental set-up, which we use to investigate fundamental mechanisms in atomic and molecular systems after excitation with tuneable synchrotron radiation. Extensions for time and polarization resolved measurements are described and examples of recent applications in current research are given.

  20. A novel method for single sample multi-axial nanoindentation of hydrated heterogeneous tissues based on testing great white shark jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Toni L; Boughton, Philip; Slavich, Eve; Wroe, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Nanomechanical testing methods that are suitable for a range of hydrated tissues are crucial for understanding biological systems. Nanoindentation of tissues can provide valuable insights into biology, tissue engineering and biomimetic design. However, testing hydrated biological samples still remains a significant challenge. Shark jaw cartilage is an ideal substrate for developing a method to test hydrated tissues because it is a unique heterogeneous composite of both mineralized (hard) and non-mineralized (soft) layers and possesses a jaw geometry that is challenging to test mechanically. The aim of this study is to develop a novel method for obtaining multidirectional nanomechanical properties for both layers of jaw cartilage from a single sample, taken from the great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias). A method for obtaining multidirectional data from a single sample is necessary for examining tissue mechanics in this shark because it is a protected species and hence samples may be difficult to obtain. Results show that this method maintains hydration of samples that would otherwise rapidly dehydrate. Our study is the first analysis of nanomechanical properties of great white shark jaw cartilage. Variation in nanomechanical properties were detected in different orthogonal directions for both layers of jaw cartilage in this species. The data further suggest that the mineralized layer of shark jaw cartilage is less stiff than previously posited. Our method allows multidirectional nanomechanical properties to be obtained from a single, small, hydrated heterogeneous sample. Our technique is therefore suitable for use when specimens are rare, valuable or limited in quantity, such as samples obtained from endangered species or pathological tissues. We also outline a method for tip-to-optic calibration that facilitates nanoindentation of soft biological tissues. Our technique may help address the critical need for a nanomechanical testing method that is applicable

  1. A novel method for single sample multi-axial nanoindentation of hydrated heterogeneous tissues based on testing great white shark jaws.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni L Ferrara

    Full Text Available Nanomechanical testing methods that are suitable for a range of hydrated tissues are crucial for understanding biological systems. Nanoindentation of tissues can provide valuable insights into biology, tissue engineering and biomimetic design. However, testing hydrated biological samples still remains a significant challenge. Shark jaw cartilage is an ideal substrate for developing a method to test hydrated tissues because it is a unique heterogeneous composite of both mineralized (hard and non-mineralized (soft layers and possesses a jaw geometry that is challenging to test mechanically. The aim of this study is to develop a novel method for obtaining multidirectional nanomechanical properties for both layers of jaw cartilage from a single sample, taken from the great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias. A method for obtaining multidirectional data from a single sample is necessary for examining tissue mechanics in this shark because it is a protected species and hence samples may be difficult to obtain. Results show that this method maintains hydration of samples that would otherwise rapidly dehydrate. Our study is the first analysis of nanomechanical properties of great white shark jaw cartilage. Variation in nanomechanical properties were detected in different orthogonal directions for both layers of jaw cartilage in this species. The data further suggest that the mineralized layer of shark jaw cartilage is less stiff than previously posited. Our method allows multidirectional nanomechanical properties to be obtained from a single, small, hydrated heterogeneous sample. Our technique is therefore suitable for use when specimens are rare, valuable or limited in quantity, such as samples obtained from endangered species or pathological tissues. We also outline a method for tip-to-optic calibration that facilitates nanoindentation of soft biological tissues. Our technique may help address the critical need for a nanomechanical testing method

  2. Electrospun UiO-66/polyacrylonitrile nanofibers as efficient sorbent for pipette tip solid phase extraction of phytohormones in vegetable samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhiming; Wu, Mei; Hu, Biqing; Yao, Minna; Zhang, Lan; Lu, Qiaomei; Pang, Jie

    2018-03-23

    In this work, metal-organic framework particles incorporated fibers (UiO-66/PAN nanofibers) were used as adsorbent in pipette tip solid phase extraction (PT-SPE) for the first time. The UiO-66/PAN nanofibers were fabricated by a facile electrospinning method and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption-desorption experiments. The UiO-66/PAN nanofibers were applied to assemble a novel PT-SPE cartridge for determination of four phytohormones followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Several experimental parameters such as kinds of UiO-66/PAN nanofibers, the amount of UiO-66/PAN nanofibers, the effect of solution pH, ionic strength and desorption conditions were intensively investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the linear ranges of the phytohormones were in the range of 0.06-60 ng/mL with correlation coefficients above 0.992. The limits of detection were between 0.01 ng/mL to 0.02 ng/mL. The interday and intraday precision (RSD) for three replicate extractions of the four phytohormones (15 ng/mL for each) was in the range of 1.5-5.6%. The established method was successfully applied for the determination of phytohormones in watermelon and mung bean sprouts samples. The results showed that the electrostatic interaction between the positively charged UiO-66 and anionic forms of phytohormones played an important role in the extraction of the phytohormones. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Towards diffractive imaging with single pulses of FEL radiation. Dynamics within irradiatied samples and their influence on the analysis of imaging data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Fenglin

    2010-08-15

    3D single particle coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) of bioparticles (such as proteins, macromolecules and viruses) is one of the main possible applications of the new generation of light sources: free-electron lasers (FELs), which are now available at FLASH (Hamburg, Germany) and LCLS (Stanford, U.S.A.). The extremely bright and ultrashort FEL pulses potentially enable CDI to achieve high resolution down to subnanometer length scale. However, intense FEL pulses cause serious radiation damage in bioparticles, even during single shots, which may set the resolution limits for CDI with FELs. Currently, since the signal-to-noise ratio is very low for small biological particles, direct experimental study of radiation damage in the single particle imaging is fairly difficult. Single atomic (noble gas) clusters become good objects to reveal effects of radiation damage processes on CDI with FEL radiation. This thesis studies three aspects of the radiation damage problem, which are treated in three independent chapters: (1) Molecular Dynamics simulations to quantitively describe radiation damage processes within irradiated atomic clusters during single pulses; (2) reconstruction analysis of single-shot CDI diffraction patterns of atomic clusters, which may potentially help to understand the radiation damage occurring in biological samples; and (3) testing the effects of coating water layers in CDI, which is supposed to minimize the radiation damage in irradiated bioparticles. (orig.)

  4. Intensified Sampling in Response to a Salmonella Heidelberg Outbreak Associated with Multiple Establishments Within a Single Poultry Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Alice; Defibaugh-Chavez, Stephanie; Douris, Aphrodite; Vetter, Danah; Atkinson, Richard; Kissler, Bonnie; Khroustalev, Allison; Robertson, Kis; Sharma, Yudhbir; Becker, Karen; Dessai, Uday; Antoine, Nisha; Allen, Latasha; Holt, Kristin; Gieraltowski, Laura; Wise, Matthew; Schwensohn, Colin

    2018-03-01

    On June 28, 2013, the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) was notified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of an investigation of a multistate cluster of illnesses of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg. Since case-patients in the cluster reported consumption of a variety of chicken products, FSIS used a simple likelihood-based approach using traceback information to focus on intensified sampling efforts. This article describes the multiphased product sampling approach taken by FSIS when epidemiologic evidence implicated chicken products from multiple establishments operating under one corporation. The objectives of sampling were to (1) assess process control of chicken slaughter and further processing and (2) determine whether outbreak strains were present in products from these implicated establishments. As part of the sample collection process, data collected by FSIS personnel to characterize product included category (whole chicken and type of chicken parts), brand, organic or conventional product, injection with salt solutions or flavorings, and whether product was skinless or skin-on. From the period September 9, 2013, through October 31, 2014, 3164 samples were taken as part of this effort. Salmonella percent positive declined from 19.7% to 5.3% during this timeframe as a result of regulatory and company efforts. The results of intensified sampling for this outbreak investigation informed an FSIS regulatory response and corrective actions taken by the implicated establishments. The company noted that a multihurdle approach to reduce Salmonella in products was taken, including on-farm efforts such as environmental testing, depopulation of affected flocks, disinfection of affected houses, vaccination, and use of various interventions within the establishments over the course of several months.

  5. Determination of the thermal neutron absorption cross section for rock samples by a single measurement of the time decay constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krynicka, E.

    1993-01-01

    A calibration method for the determination of the thermal neutron macroscopic mass absorption cross section for rock samples is presented. The standard deviation of the final results is discussed in detail. A big advantage of the presented method is that the calibration curves have been found using the results obtained for a variety of natural rock samples of different stratigraphies and lithologies measured by Czubek's methods. An important part of the paper is a through analysis of the standard deviation of the final result. (author). 13 refs, 11 figs, 5 tabs

  6. Photopolarimetric properties of leaf and vegetation covers over a wide range of measurement directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhongqiu; Peng, Zhiyan; Wu, Di; Lv, Yunfeng

    2018-02-01

    The optical scattering property of the target is the essential signal for passive remote sensing applications. To deepen our understanding of the light reflected from vegetation, we present results of photopolarimetric laboratory measurements from single leaf and two vegetation covers (planophile and erectophile) over a wide range of viewing directions. The bidirectional polarized reflectance factor (BPRF) was used to characterize the polarization property of our samples. We observed positive and negative polarization (-BPRFQ) of all samples in the forward scattering and backward scattering directions, respectively. Based on the comparison of the BPRF among single leaf, planophile vegetation and erectophile vegetation, our measurements demonstrate that the orientation of the leaf is a key factor in describing the amount of polarization in the forward scattering direction. Our measurements also validated certain model results stating that (1) specular reflection generates a portion of polarization in the forward scattering direction and diffuses scattering of polarized light in all hemisphere directions, (2) BPRFU is anti-symmetric in the principal plane from a recent study in which the authors simulated the polarized reflectance of vegetation cover using the vector radiative transfer theory. These photopolarimetric measurement results, which can be completely explained by the theoretical results, are useful in remote sensing applications to vegetation.

  7. Prediction of the systemic exposure to oral 9-amino-20(S)-camptothecin using single-sample analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparreboom, A.; de Jonge, M. J.; Punt, C. J.; Loos, W. J.; Nooter, K.; Stoter, G.; Porro, M. G.; Verweij, J.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate limited-sampling strategies for prediction of the area under the plasma-concentration time curves (AUCs) of the lactone and total (i. e., lactone plus carboxylate) forms of the novel topoisomerase-I inhibitor 9-amino-20(S)-camptothecin (9-AC).

  8. Prediction of the systemic exposure to oral 9-amino-20(S)-camptothecin using single-sample analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Sparreboom (Alex); M.J.A. de Jonge (Maja); C.J.A. Punt (Cornelis); W.J. Loos (Walter); K. Nooter (Kees); G. Stoter (Gerrit); M.G. Porro; J. Verweij (Jaap)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this study was to develop and validate limited-sampling strategies for prediction of the area under the plasma-concentration time curves (AUCs) of the lactone and total (i. e., lactone plus carboxylate) forms of the novel topoisomerase-I

  9. Area G perimeter surface-soil and single-stage water sampling: Environmental surveillance for fiscal year 94, Group ESH-19. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, R.; Childs, M.; Lyons, C.R.; Coriz, F.

    1996-08-01

    ESH-19 personnel collected soil and single-stage water samples around the perimeter of Area G at Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY94 to characterize possible contaminant movement out of Area G through surface-water and sediment runoff. These samples were analyzed for tritium, total uranium, isotopic plutonium, americium-241, and cesium-137. Ten metals were also analyzed on selected soils using analytical laboratory techniques. All radiochemical data are compared with analogous samples collected during FY 93 and reported in LA-12986. Baseline concentrations for future disposal operations were established for metals and radionuclides by a sampling program in the proposed Area G Expansion Area. Considering the amount of radioactive waste that has been disposed at Area G, there is evidence of only low concentrations of radionuclides on perimeter surface soils. Consequently, little radioactivity is leaving the confines of Area G via the surface water runoff pathway

  10. Screening of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Populations with Single-Cell Resolution by Using a High-Throughput Microscale Sample Preparation for Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krismer, Jasmin; Sobek, Jens; Steinhoff, Robert F; Fagerer, Stephan R; Pabst, Martin; Zenobi, Renato

    2015-08-15

    The consequences of cellular heterogeneity, such as biocide persistence, can only be tackled by studying each individual in a cell population. Fluorescent tags provide tools for the high-throughput analysis of genomes, RNA transcripts, or proteins on the single-cell level. However, the analysis of lower-molecular-weight compounds that elude tagging is still a great challenge. Here, we describe a novel high-throughput microscale sample preparation technique for single cells that allows a mass spectrum to be obtained for each individual cell within a microbial population. The approach presented includes spotting Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells, using a noncontact microarrayer, onto a specialized slide and controlled lysis of cells separated on the slide. Throughout the sample preparation, analytes were traced and individual steps optimized using autofluorescence detection of chlorophyll. The lysates of isolated cells are subjected to a direct, label-free analysis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Thus, we were able to differentiate individual cells of two Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strains based on single-cell mass spectra. Furthermore, we showed that only population profiles with real single-cell resolution render a nondistorted picture of the phenotypes contained in a population. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. A study on identification of bacteria in environmental samples using single-cell Raman spectroscopy: feasibility and reference libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baritaux, Jean-Charles; Simon, Anne-Catherine; Schultz, Emmanuelle; Emain, C; Laurent, P; Dinten, Jean-Marc

    2016-05-01

    We report on our recent efforts towards identifying bacteria in environmental samples by means of Raman spectroscopy. We established a database of Raman spectra from bacteria submitted to various environmental conditions. This dataset was used to verify that Raman typing is possible from measurements performed in non-ideal conditions. Starting from the same dataset, we then varied the phenotype and matrix diversity content included in the reference library used to train the statistical model. The results show that it is possible to obtain models with an extended coverage of spectral variabilities, compared to environment-specific models trained on spectra from a restricted set of conditions. Broad coverage models are desirable for environmental samples since the exact conditions of the bacteria cannot be controlled.

  12. Optimal sample size for predicting viability of cabbage and radish seeds based on near infrared spectra of single seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Nisha; Min, Tai-Gi; Gislum, René

    2011-01-01

    The effects of the number of seeds in a training sample set on the ability to predict the viability of cabbage or radish seeds are presented and discussed. The supervised classification method extended canonical variates analysis (ECVA) was used to develop a classification model. Calibration sub......-sets of different sizes were chosen randomly with several iterations and using the spectral-based sample selection algorithms DUPLEX and CADEX. An independent test set was used to validate the developed classification models. The results showed that 200 seeds were optimal in a calibration set for both cabbage...... using all 600 seeds in the calibration set. Thus, the number of seeds in the calibration set can be reduced by up to 67% without significant loss of classification accuracy, which will effectively enhance the cost-effectiveness of NIR spectral analysis. Wavelength regions important...

  13. Determination of the optional time for taking blood samples by single intravenous injection of 3H-leucine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Delian; Yao Junhu; Lu Jinyin; Wu Xiaobin; Liu Jun

    2003-01-01

    Twenty four young hens (1.5 kg of body weight, BW) were randomly divided into 4 groups. Every group was diet free (FAS) or force-fed a nitrogen-free diet (NFD) or the diet with 20% crude protein in which soybean meal or cotton seed meal was the sole nitrogen source (30 g DM/kg BW). 30 μCi 3 H-Leu/kg BW was intravenously injected into all birds just after force-fed or on fasting. Venous blood samples were taken at 5, 30 min, 4,24,36 and 48h after injection. The excreta during the whole period of 48h after injection was collected. Special radioactivities of nonprotein plasma at every time point and excreta were measured. The optional time of taking blood samples was 20-24 hours after injected 3 H-Leu

  14. Forensic Sampling and Analysis from a Single Substrate: Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Followed by Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedick, Patrick W; Bills, Brandon J; Manicke, Nicholas E; Cooks, R Graham

    2017-10-17

    Sample preparation is the most common bottleneck in the analysis and processing of forensic evidence. Time-consuming steps in many forensic tests involve complex separations, such as liquid and gas chromatography or various types of extraction techniques, typically coupled with mass spectrometry (e.g., LC-MS). Ambient ionization ameliorates these slow steps by reducing or even eliminating sample preparation. While some ambient ionization techniques have been adopted by the forensic community, there is significant resistance to discarding chromatography as most forensic analyses require both an identification and a confirmation technique. Here, we describe the use of a paper substrate, the surface of which has been inkjet printed with silver nanoparticles, for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The same substrate can also act as the paper substrate for paper spray mass spectrometry. The coupling of SERS and paper spray ionization creates a quick, forensically feasible combination.

  15. Rapid Treponema pallidum clearance from blood and ulcer samples following single dose benzathine penicillin treatment of early syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, Craig; Jones, Rachael; McClure, Myra; Taylor, Graham

    2015-02-01

    Currently, the efficacy of syphilis treatment is measured with anti-lipid antibody tests. These can take months to indicate cure and, as a result, syphilis treatment trials require long periods of follow-up. The causative organism, Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum), is detectable in the infectious lesions of early syphilis using DNA amplification. Bacteraemia can likewise be identified, typically in more active disease. We hypothesise that bacterial clearance from blood and ulcers will predict early the standard serology-measured treatment response and have developed a qPCR assay that could monitor this clearance directly in patients with infectious syphilis. Patients with early syphilis were given an intramuscular dose of benzathine penicillin. To investigate the appropriate sampling timeframe samples of blood and ulcer exudate were collected intensively for T. pallidum DNA (tpp047 gene) and RNA (16S rRNA) quantification. Sampling ended when two consecutive PCRs were negative. Four males were recruited. The mean peak level of T. pallidum DNA was 1626 copies/ml whole blood and the mean clearance half-life was 5.7 hours (std. dev. 0.53). The mean peak of 16S rRNA was 8879 copies/ml whole blood with a clearance half-life of 3.9 hours (std. dev. 0.84). From an ulcer, pre-treatment, 67,400 T. pallidum DNA copies and 7.08 x 107 16S rRNA copies were detected per absorbance strip and the clearance half-lives were 3.2 and 4.1 hours, respectively. Overall, T. pallidum nucleic acids were not detected in any sample collected more than 56 hours (range 20-56) after treatment. All patients achieved serologic cure. In patients with active early syphilis, measuring T. pallidum levels in blood and ulcer exudate may be a useful measure of treatment success in therapeutic trials. These laboratory findings need confirmation on a larger scale and in patients receiving different therapies.

  16. Cyclodextrin-based miniaturized solid phase extraction for biopesticides analysis in water and vegetable juices samples analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Li-Qing; Ye, Li-Hong; Cao, Jun; Chang, Yan-Xu; Li, Qin; An, Mingrui; Tan, Zhijing; Xu, Jing-Jing

    2017-07-01

    A cyclodextrin-based miniaturized solid-phase extraction was developed to extract biopesticides from water and vegetable juices. The analytes were detected by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. In the solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure, the liquid sample solution is passed through a packed column filled with 40mg of HP-β-CD, and then the target analytes are absorbed and finally eluted with methanol-acetic acid (90:10, v/v) into a collection tube. The limits of quantification ranged from 3.73 to 16.51ng/mL for a water matrix, from 2.62 to 13.23ng/mL for an orange juice matrix and from 1.76 to 10.35ng/mL for a tomato juice matrix, respectively. The average recovery values were in the range of 88.3-95.9% for the spiked samples. The established methodology was successfully applied to analyze sanguinarine, berberine, rotenone and osthole in water, orange juice and tomato juice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lake Bathymetric Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...

  18. Specific features of direct formation of graphite-like microstructures in polycarbonate samples by single femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganin, D V; Lapshin, K E; Obidin, A Z; Vartapetov, S K [Physics Instrumentation Center, A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-30

    We present the result of the experiments on producing graphite-like cylindrical microstructures by focusing single femtosecond laser pulses into the bulk of a transparent polymer (polycarbonate). The microstructures are embedded in a cladding with a modified refractive index, possessing waveguide properties. In the experiments with nontransparent screens and diaphragms, placed in the laser beam in front of the entrance pupil of the objective with a large numerical aperture, we have found that the paraxial rays are blocked by the peripheral ones, which reduces the length of the destruction region in the pre-focal zone. In the experiments with transparent screens and diaphragms, introducing optical delays τ{sub d} between the paraxial and peripheral rays, the quantitative dependence of the destruction region length in the pre-focal zone on the value of τ{sub d} is determined. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  19. Multifaceted empathy of healthy volunteers after single doses of MDMA: A pooled sample of placebo-controlled studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuypers, Kim Pc; Dolder, Patrick C; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Liechti, Matthias E

    2017-05-01

    Previous placebo-controlled experimental studies have shown that a single dose of MDMA can increase emotional empathy in the multifaceted empathy test (MET) without affecting cognitive empathy. Although sufficiently powered to detect main effects of MDMA, these studies were generally underpowered to also validly assess contributions of additional parameters, such as sex, drug use history, trait empathy and MDMA or oxytocin plasma concentrations. The present study examined the robustness of the MDMA effect on empathy and investigated the moderating role of these additional parameters. Participants ( n = 118) from six placebo-controlled within-subject studies and two laboratories were included in the present pooled analysis. Empathy (MET), MDMA and oxytocin plasma concentrations were assessed after oral administration of MDMA (single dose, 75 or 125 mg). Trait empathy was assessed using the interpersonal reactivity index. We confirmed that MDMA increased emotional empathy at both doses without affecting cognitive empathy. This MDMA-related increase in empathy was most pronounced during presentation of positive emotions as compared with negative emotions. MDMA-induced empathy enhancement was positively related to MDMA blood concentrations measured before the test, but independent of sex, drug use history and trait empathy. Oxytocin concentrations increased after MDMA administration but were not associated with behavioral effects. The MDMA effects on emotional empathy were stable across laboratories and doses. Sex did not play a moderating role in this effect, and oxytocin levels, trait empathy and drug use history were also unrelated. Acute drug exposure was of significant relevance in the MDMA-induced emotional empathy elevation.

  20. Efficient sampling of reversible cross-linking polymers: Self-assembly of single-chain polymeric nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, Bernardo; Mognetti, Bortolo Matteo

    2018-03-01

    We present a new simulation technique to study systems of polymers functionalized by reactive sites that bind/unbind forming reversible linkages. Functionalized polymers feature self-assembly and responsive properties that are unmatched by the systems lacking selective interactions. The scales at which the functional properties of these materials emerge are difficult to model, especially in the reversible regime where such properties result from many binding/unbinding events. This difficulty is related to large entropic barriers associated with the formation of intra-molecular loops. In this work, we present a simulation scheme that sidesteps configurational costs by dedicated Monte Carlo moves capable of binding/unbinding reactive sites in a single step. Cross-linking reactions are implemented by trial moves that reconstruct chain sections attempting, at the same time, a dimerization reaction between pairs of reactive sites. The model is parametrized by the reaction equilibrium constant of the reactive species free in solution. This quantity can be obtained by means of experiments or atomistic/quantum simulations. We use the proposed methodology to study the self-assembly of single-chain polymeric nanoparticles, starting from flexible precursors carrying regularly or randomly distributed reactive sites. We focus on understanding differences in the morphology of chain nanoparticles when linkages are reversible as compared to the well-studied case of irreversible reactions. Intriguingly, we find that the size of regularly functionalized chains, in good solvent conditions, is non-monotonous as a function of the degree of functionalization. We clarify how this result follows from excluded volume interactions and is peculiar of reversible linkages and regular functionalizations.

  1. Rapid Treponema pallidum clearance from blood and ulcer samples following single dose benzathine penicillin treatment of early syphilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Tipple

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the efficacy of syphilis treatment is measured with anti-lipid antibody tests. These can take months to indicate cure and, as a result, syphilis treatment trials require long periods of follow-up. The causative organism, Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum, is detectable in the infectious lesions of early syphilis using DNA amplification. Bacteraemia can likewise be identified, typically in more active disease. We hypothesise that bacterial clearance from blood and ulcers will predict early the standard serology-measured treatment response and have developed a qPCR assay that could monitor this clearance directly in patients with infectious syphilis. Patients with early syphilis were given an intramuscular dose of benzathine penicillin. To investigate the appropriate sampling timeframe samples of blood and ulcer exudate were collected intensively for T. pallidum DNA (tpp047 gene and RNA (16S rRNA quantification. Sampling ended when two consecutive PCRs were negative. Four males were recruited. The mean peak level of T. pallidum DNA was 1626 copies/ml whole blood and the mean clearance half-life was 5.7 hours (std. dev. 0.53. The mean peak of 16S rRNA was 8879 copies/ml whole blood with a clearance half-life of 3.9 hours (std. dev. 0.84. From an ulcer, pre-treatment, 67,400 T. pallidum DNA copies and 7.08 x 107 16S rRNA copies were detected per absorbance strip and the clearance half-lives were 3.2 and 4.1 hours, respectively. Overall, T. pallidum nucleic acids were not detected in any sample collected more than 56 hours (range 20-56 after treatment. All patients achieved serologic cure. In patients with active early syphilis, measuring T. pallidum levels in blood and ulcer exudate may be a useful measure of treatment success in therapeutic trials. These laboratory findings need confirmation on a larger scale and in patients receiving different therapies.

  2. Single-particle characterization of ice-nucleating particles and ice particles residuals sampled by three different techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Konrad; Worringen, Annette; Benker, Nathalie; Dirsch, Thomas; Mertes, Stephan; Schenk, Ludwig; Kästner, Udo; Frank, Fabian; Nillius, Björn; Bundke, Ulrich; Rose, Diana; Curtius, Joachim; Kupiszewski, Piotr; Weingartner, Ernest; Vochezer, Paul; Schneider, Johannes; Schmidt, Susan; Weinbruch, Stephan; Ebert, Martin

    2015-04-01

    During January/February 2013, at the High Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch a measurement campaign was carried out, which was centered on atmospheric ice-nucleating particles (INP) and ice particle residuals (IPR). Three different techniques for separation of INP and IPR from the non-ice-active particles are compared. The Ice Selective Inlet (ISI) and the Ice Counterflow Virtual Impactor (Ice-CVI) sample ice particles from mixed phase clouds and allow for the analysis of the residuals. The combination of the Fast Ice Nucleus Chamber (FINCH) and the Ice Nuclei Pumped Counterflow Virtual Impactor (IN-PCVI) provides ice-activating conditions to aerosol particles and extracts the activated INP for analysis. Collected particles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis to determine size, chemical composition and mixing state. All INP/IPR-separating techniques had considerable abundances (median 20 - 70 %) of instrumental contamination artifacts (ISI: Si-O spheres, probably calibration aerosol; Ice-CVI: Al-O particles; FINCH+IN-PCVI: steel particles). Also, potential sampling artifacts (e.g., pure soluble material) occurred with a median abundance of separated by all three techniques. Soot was a minor contributor. Lead was detected in less than 10 % of the particles, of which the majority were internal mixtures with other particle types. Sea-salt and sulfates were identified by all three methods as INP/IPR. Most samples showed a maximum of the INP/IPR size distribution at 400 nm geometric diameter. In a few cases, a second super-micron maximum was identified. Soot/carbonaceous material and metal oxides were present mainly in the submicron range. ISI and FINCH yielded silicates and Ca-rich particles mainly with diameters above 1 µm, while the Ice-CVI also separated many submicron IPR. As strictly parallel sampling could not be performed, a part of the discrepancies between the different techniques may result from

  3. Rapid determination of strontium-90 in environmental samples by single Cerenkov counting using two different colour quench curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, J.M.; Garcia, J.F.; Llaurado, M.; Rauret, G. [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Analitica

    1996-11-01

    The validation of the Cerenkov radiation measurement of {sup 90}Y to determine the activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr in environmental samples is described. Liquid-liquid extraction with di-2-ethyhexylphosphoric acid in toluene was used to separate {sup 90}Y from {sup 90}Sr. Optimum conditions for Cerenkov counting (low-level counting option, counting windows, mass of solution to be measured) were established. The need for a counting efficiency correction by using a colour quench curve is stated to be essential, otherwise a significant error may occur. Two different colour quench curves (counting efficiency versus the channel ratio or spectral index parameter) were used and the results were compared. The method was applied to 12 environmental matrices: sea-water, algae, carobs, milk, almonds, hake, honey, shellfish, lamb meat, sardine, pork meat and shore sand. No significant differences were observed on using either of the two colour quench curves for any of these environmental matrices. In order to validate the proposed method, a certified soil reference material (CRM IAEA-375) was used, together with participation in an interlaboratory exercise to determine {sup 90}Sr in a natural water sample. Again, efficiency correction was performed by using either of the two colour quench curves and in both instances the calculated {sup 90}Sr activity concentration was in good agreement with the known values. (Author).

  4. Single-particle characterization of ice-nucleating particles and ice particle residuals sampled by three different techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worringen, A.; Kandler, K.; Benker, N.; Dirsch, T.; Mertes, S.; Schenk, L.; Kästner, U.; Frank, F.; Nillius, B.; Bundke, U.; Rose, D.; Curtius, J.; Kupiszewski, P.; Weingartner, E.; Vochezer, P.; Schneider, J.; Schmidt, S.; Weinbruch, S.; Ebert, M.

    2015-04-01

    In the present work, three different techniques to separate ice-nucleating particles (INPs) as well as ice particle residuals (IPRs) from non-ice-active particles are compared. The Ice Selective Inlet (ISI) and the Ice Counterflow Virtual Impactor (Ice-CVI) sample ice particles from mixed-phase clouds and allow after evaporation in the instrument for the analysis of the residuals. The Fast Ice Nucleus Chamber (FINCH) coupled with the Ice Nuclei Pumped Counterflow Virtual Impactor (IN-PCVI) provides ice-activating conditions to aerosol particles and extracts the activated particles for analysis. The instruments were run during a joint field campaign which took place in January and February 2013 at the High Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch (Switzerland). INPs and IPRs were analyzed offline by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis to determine their size, chemical composition and mixing state. Online analysis of the size and chemical composition of INP activated in FINCH was performed by laser ablation mass spectrometry. With all three INP/IPR separation techniques high abundances (median 20-70%) of instrumental contamination artifacts were observed (ISI: Si-O spheres, probably calibration aerosol; Ice-CVI: Al-O particles; FINCH + IN-PCVI: steel particles). After removal of the instrumental contamination particles, silicates, Ca-rich particles, carbonaceous material and metal oxides were the major INP/IPR particle types obtained by all three techniques. In addition, considerable amounts (median abundance mostly a few percent) of soluble material (e.g., sea salt, sulfates) were observed. As these soluble particles are often not expected to act as INP/IPR, we consider them as potential measurement artifacts. Minor types of INP/IPR include soot and Pb-bearing particles. The Pb-bearing particles are mainly present as an internal mixture with other particle types. Most samples showed a maximum of the INP/IPR size distribution at 200

  5. MOLECULAR MARKERS FOR VEGETABLE PEA SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Anokhina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research on the presence in genomes of pea hybrid materials of the DNA regions complementary to the primers that are associated with the biochemical characteristics and resistance to powdery mildew.

  6. A survey on lifestyle and attitudes on fruit and vegetable consumption and participation in physical activity in a sample of secondary school and university students from Palermo, Western Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enza Sidoti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Fruit and vegetable (F&V consumption, and physical activity (PA, are thought to be some of the most important protective factors that can improve long-term health quality of life. Many epidemiological studies indicate, in fact, that F&V consumption and PA are health-promoting and are correlated with the beneficial effects and positive outcomes such as preventing some chronic diseases. Evidence, however, indicates that large proportions of adolescents are not consuming the minimum servings of F&V as recommended by experts and a high percentage of them have sedentary habits.

    Objective and method: The purpose of this research was to investigate knowledge and behaviors in a sample of secondary school, (250, and university students, (200, referred to F&V consumption and PA. The instrument used for the survey was a questionnaire containing 19 items with multiple choice answers. Data were codified, descriptive analysis and ÷2 tests were computed through Openstat and Statistica software.

    Results: Only 24,2% of the individuals identified welfare as including healthy eating, and this attitude seemed to be associated with the students’ families educational level. Educational level was also positively associated with the awareness of the importance of a healthy diet for well-being and with PA practice. The percentage of students having knowledge of the expert recommendations on PA and eating guidelines about F&V consumption was about one third of the entire population. Students who met the expert recommendation for daily servings of fruit and vegetables were 27,8%, while only 17,8% practiced regular PA. The principal source of information was university/school, (48,0% and 57,0%.

    Conclusions: Healthy dietary and PA habits are far from the optimal in our sample of students. Because of the importance for the prevention of many diseases and long term health

  7. Sampling system for fast single pulses; Realisation d'un dispositif d'echantillonnage d'un signal bref unique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenatti, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Development of a device for the enlargement of the domain of application of classical oscilloscopes to the observation of fast single pulses by application of the sampling principle. Its principal characteristics are: Bandwidth of 700 MHz; Maximum sensibility of 50 mV; Maximum amplitude of input signal of {+-} 1 V; Number of samples of 16; Samples separation of 0,2 ns. (author) [French] Realisation d'un dispositif permettant d'elargir le domaine d'utilisation des oscilloscopes classiques en appliquant le principe de l'echantillonnage a l'observation d'un signal bref unique. Les principales caracteristiques sont les suivantes: Bande passante de 700 MHz; Sensibilite maximale de 50 mV; Amplitude maximale du signal a echantillonner de {+-} 1 V; Nombre de points d'echantillonnage de 16; Pas d'echantillonnage de 0,2 ns. (auteur)

  8. Evaluation of a single-tube fluorogenic RT-PCR assay for detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in clinical samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hakhverdyan, Mikhayil; Hägglund, Sara; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2005-01-01

    understanding of the virus. In this study, a BRSV fluorogenic reverse transcription PCR (fRT-PCR) assay, based on TaqMan principle, was developed and evaluated on a large number of clinical samples, representing various cases of natural and experimental BRSV infections. By using a single-step closed-tube format......, the turn-around time was shortened drastically and results were obtained with minimal risk for cross-contamination. According to comparative analyses, the detection limit of the fRT-PCR was on the same level as that of a nested PCR and the sensitivity relatively higher than that of a conventional PCR......, antigen ELISA (Ag-ELISA) and virus isolation (VI). Interspersed negative control samples, samples from healthy animals and eight symptomatically or genetically related viruses were all negative, confirming a high specificity of the assay. Taken together, the data indicated that the fRT-PCR assay can...

  9. Parasitic contamination of leafy vegetables: a function of the leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was undertaken to determine the degree of contamination of some stable vegetables and their surrounding soils by parasites in Uyo, Nigeria. Out of the 780 leaves from six vegetables and 50 soil samples screened, 498 (63.9%) of vegetables and 36 (72%) of the soil samples were positive for parasite ova, larvae ...

  10. Comparison of sample digestion techniques for the determination of trace and residual catalyst metal content in single-wall carbon nanotubes by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinberg, Patricia, E-mail: patricia.grinberg@nrc.ca [Measurement Science and Standards, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Sturgeon, Ralph E. [Measurement Science and Standards, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Diehl, Liange de O.; Bizzi, Cezar A. [Measurement Science and Standards, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Chemistry Department, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria (Brazil); Flores, Erico M.M. [Chemistry Department, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria (Brazil)

    2015-03-01

    A single-wall carbon nanotube material produced by laser ablation of renewable biochar in the presence of Ni and Co catalyst was characterized for residual catalyst (Co and Ni) as well as trace metal impurity content (Fe, Mo, Cr, Pb and Hg) by isotope dilution ICP-MS following sample digestion. Several matrix destruction procedures were evaluated, including a multi-step microwave-assisted acid digestion, dry ashing at 450 °C and microwave-induced combustion with oxygen. Results were benchmarked against those derived from neutron activation analysis and also supported by solid sampling continuum source GF-AAS for several of the elements. Although laborious to execute, the multi-step microwave-assisted acid digestion proved to be most reliable for recovery of the majority of the analytes, although content of Cr remained biased low for each approach, likely due to its presence as refractory carbide. - Highlights: • Determination of trace and residual catalyst metal content in Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. • Comparative study of digestion methodology combined with high precision isotope dilution ICP-MS for quantitation of elements of toxicologic relevance. • Results were benchmarked against those derived from neutron activation analysis and also supported by solid sampling continuum source GF-AAS for several of the elements.

  11. A Simple Vortex-Assisted Magnetic Dispersive Solid Phase Microextraction System for Preconcentration and Separation of Triazine Herbicides from Environmental Water and Vegetable Samples Using Fe₃O₄@MIL-100(Fe) Sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrollahpour, Atefe; Moradi, Seyyed Ershad

    2018-04-04

    A vortex-assisted magnetic dispersive solid phase microextraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed for the extraction and determination of triazine herbicides by using magnetic metal organic frameworks [Fe₃O₄@MIL-100(Fe)] in environmental water and vegetable samples. The Fe₃O₄@MIL-100(Fe) composite has been characterized by using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, tunneling electron microscopy, thermogravimetric measurement, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis. The method is based on the sorption of triazine herbicides on Fe₃O₄@MIL-100(Fe) because of the complex formation between iron oxide nanoparticles and triazine herbicides beside π-π interactions between organic parts of Fe₃O₄@MIL-100(Fe) and triazine herbicides. The experimental parameters for the preconcentration of triazine herbicides, such as the type and volume of the eluent, pH, time of the sorption and desorption, and the amount of the sorbent, were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the method was linear over the concentration range of 0.0061 to 70 ng/mL for each triazine herbicide, and the correlation coefficients ranged from 0.9988 to 0.9997. The limit of detection of the method at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 was 2.0 to 5.3 ng/mL. The relative standard deviations for inter- and intraday assays were in the range of 5.8 to 10.2% and 3.8 to 6.3%, respectively.

  12. Availability and consumption of fruits and vegetables in nine regions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    children studied did not eat vegetable and fruit in the week preceding the survey, respectively. .... refer to households who never saw a single fruit/ vegetable, even once ..... did not eat vegetables even once, let alone three times in a week is.

  13. Using Food Grade Lye “omushelekha” in the Formulation of Health Products from Commonly Consumed African Indigenous Vegetables and Vegetable Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence O Habwe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lye, sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide has been used over the years in food preparation including the preparation of vegetables and dried meat products, washing or chemical peeling of fruits and vegetables, cocoa processing, caramel production, poultry scalding and cooking among others. Lye is believed to improve the organoleptic properties and also enhances the nutritional value to the products.Objective: To assess the effect of food grade lye on the levels of copper and iron in the raw, boiled and boiled-fried single vegetables and vegetable combinations treated with and without food grade lye.Methods: Single vegetables, Crotalaria occroleuca, Solanum scabrum, Vigna unguiculata and Amaranthus blitum and their combinations were cooled and kept in the fridge at 4oCs. Elemental analysis was done for the raw, boiled and boiled-fried samples using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS under standard conditions using wavelengths of 248.3nm for iron and 324.2nm for copper. Paired t-test was used to compare the iron and copper levels of the boiled and boiled-fried vegetables while the independent t-test was done to assess the levels of iron and copper in the raw, boiled and boiled fried samples.Results: Boiled-fried samples recorded higher content of iron and copper than the boiled ones. A combination of Amaranthus blitum-Crotolaria occloreuca boiled without lye boiled-fried with lye, and boiled-fried without lye had the highest copper contents of 1.66mg/100gram, 4.56mg/100gram, and 4.56mg/100gram respectively, compared to Amaranthus blitum aloneFunctional Foods in Heals and Disease 2011; 5:189-197(3.48mg/100gram and Crotolaria occloreuca (0.42mg/100gram. A combination of Amaranthus blitum-Crotolaria occloreuca boiled in non-lye water, and those boiled-fried with and without lye had the highest extractable iron of 557mg/100g, 859.2mg/100g, and 859.2mg/100g respectively. Iron content was high in the Solanum scabrum (281.1mg/100g

  14. Technical efficiency of irrigated vegetable production among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to analyse the technical efficiency of irrigated vegetable production among smallholder farmers in the guinea savannah, Nigeria, and determine the cost and returns on irrigated vegetable production. Two-stage sampling technique was used, purposive selection of two states and three Local ...

  15. Classification and mapping of rangeland vegetation physiognomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plot vegetation species growth form, cover and height data were collected from 450 sampling sites based on eight spectral strata generated using unsupervised image classification. Field data were grouped at four levels of seven, six, three and two vegetation physiognomic classes which were subjected to both ML and ...

  16. A precise evaluation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in two plasma samples following a single administration of 57Co-B12 vitamin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, E.E.; Rockmann, R.L.; Barreto, T.M.; Eston, T.E.; Papaleo Netto, M.; Carvalho, N.

    1974-01-01

    Through a logarithmic regression performed with the contings of 4 plasma samples withdrawn at 20,40,60 and 80 minutes after a venous injection of vitamin B 12 - 57 Co, the glomerular filtration-rate(GFR) in 11 patients, performing simultaneously the same study with EDTA- 51 Cr in 3 of them, is evaluated. The values obtained through the regression straight line are compared with those given by only 2 points, in the 6 possible combinations: 20 and 40 minutes, 20 and 60 minutes, 20 and 80 minutes, 40 and 60 minutes, 40 and 80 minutes, 60 and 80 minutes. The pair of points obtained at 20 and 80 minutes determined the straight line most similar to the logarithmic regression and as a simplification of the method, the withdraw of only 2 plasma samples, at and 80 minutes after a single injection of vitamin B 12 -57 Co is proposed [pt

  17. Comparison of the suitability of alkaline or enzymatic sample pre-treatment for characterization of silver nanoparticles in human tissue by single particle ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidmar, Janja; Buerki-Thurnherr, Tina; Löschner, Katrin

    2018-01-01

    and their size are required for studying NP accumulation in placental tissue. In the present study, we applied and compared two sample preparation techniques, alkaline and enzymatic treatment, followed by single particle ICP-MS (spICP-MS) analysis, for characterizing AgNPs spiked to human placental tissue. Both...... sample preparation approaches are currently used for AgNPs in biological tissues but have not been directly compared yet. We showed that the method using enzymatic tissue treatment followed by spICP-MS is efficient for determination of mass and number concentration and size distribution of AgNPs in human...... placental tissues. Properties of the AgNPs were preserved during enzymatic digestion and comparable with the primary particles. The matrix effect on the determination of Ag sensitivity and transport efficiency in spICP-MS analysis was systematically evaluated as well. The method was applied to human...

  18. Fruits and vegetables dehydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ita, A; Flores, G; Franco, F

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different

  19. Fruits and vegetables dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ita, A.; Flores, G.; Franco, F.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different.

  20. Wetland vegetation establishment in L-Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, S.R.

    1990-07-01

    Wetland vegetation was transplanted from PAR Pond to L-Lake between January and August, 1987. Approximately 100,000 individual plants representing over 40 species were transplanted along the southern shoreline. Three zones of vegetation were created: (1) submersed/floating-leaved, (2) emergent, (3) upper emergent/shrub. During the summers of 1987, 1988, 1989, the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory sampled the vegetation in 54 permanent transects located in planted (N=32) and unplanted areas (N=22). The 1989 vegetation data from L-Lake were compared to 1985 data from PAR Pond

  1. Reversed-phase single drop microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection for the quantification of synthetic phenolic antioxidants in edible oil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajmand, Bahman; Esteki, Mahnaz; Koohpour, Elham; Salmani, Vahid

    2017-04-01

    The reversed-phase mode of single drop microextraction has been used as a preparation method for the extraction of some phenolic antioxidants from edible oil samples. Butylated hydroxyl anisole, tert-butylhydroquinone and butylated hydroxytoluene were employed as target compounds for this study. High-performance liquid chromatography followed by fluorescence detection was applied for final determination of target compounds. The most interesting feature of this study is the application of a disposable insulin syringe with some modification for microextraction procedure that efficiently improved the volume and stability of the solvent microdrop. Different parameters such as the type and volume of solvent, sample stirring rate, extraction temperature, and time were investigated and optimized. Analytical performances of the method were evaluated under optimized conditions. Under the optimal conditions, relative standard deviations were between 4.4 and 10.2%. Linear dynamic ranges were 20-10 000 to 2-1000 μg/g (depending on the analytes). Detection limits were 5-670 ng/g. Finally, the proposed method was successfully used for quantification of the antioxidants in some edible oil samples prepared from market. Relative recoveries were achieved from 88 to 111%. The proposed method had a simplicity of operation, low cost, and successful application for real samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Development and validation of the AmpFℓSTR® Identifiler® Direct PCR Amplification Kit: a multiplex assay for the direct amplification of single-source samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dennis Y; Chang, Chien-Wei; Lagacé, Robert E; Oldroyd, Nicola J; Hennessy, Lori K

    2011-07-01

    The AmpFℓSTR(®) Identifiler(®) Direct PCR Amplification Kit is a new short tandem repeat multiplex assay optimized to allow the direct amplification of single-source blood and buccal samples on FTA(®) card without the need for sample purification and quantification. This multiplex assay has been validated according to the FBI/National Standards and SWGDAM guidelines. Validation results revealed that slight variations in primer concentration, master mix component concentration, and thermal cycling parameters did not affect the performance of the chemistry. The assay's sensitivity was demonstrated by amplifying known amounts of white blood cells spotted onto FTA(®) cards, and the assay's specificity was verified by establishing minimal cross-reactivity with nonhuman DNA. No effect on the age of the sample stored on the FTA(®) substrate was observed and full concordance was established in the population study. These findings of the validation study support the use of the Identifiler(®) Direct Kit for forensic standards and database samples genotyping. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Relationship between single and multiple perpetrator rape perpetration in South Africa: A comparison of risk factors in a population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R, Jewkes; Y, Sikweyiya; K, Dunkle; R, Morrell

    2015-07-07

    Studies of rape of women seldom distinguish between men's participation in acts of single and multiple perpetrator rape. Multiple perpetrator rape (MPR) occurs globally with serious consequences for women. In South Africa it is a cultural practice with defined circumstances in which it commonly occurs. Prevention requires an understanding of whether it is a context specific intensification of single perpetrator rape, or a distinctly different practice of different men. This paper aims to address this question. We conducted a cross-sectional household study with a multi-stage, randomly selected sample of 1686 men aged 18-49 who completed a questionnaire administered using an Audio-enhanced Personal Digital Assistant. We attempted to fit an ordered logistic regression model for factors associated with rape perpetration. 27.6 % of men had raped and 8.8 % had perpetrated multiple perpetrator rape (MPR). Thus 31.9 % of men who had ever raped had done so with other perpetrators. An ordered regression model was fitted, showing that the same associated factors, albeit at higher prevalence, are associated with SPR and MPR. Multiple perpetrator rape appears as an intensified form of single perpetrator rape, rather than a different form of rape. Prevention approaches need to be mainstreamed among young men.

  4. Replica exchange enveloping distribution sampling (RE-EDS): A robust method to estimate multiple free-energy differences from a single simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidler, Dominik; Schwaninger, Arthur; Riniker, Sereina

    2016-10-21

    In molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, free-energy differences are often calculated using free energy perturbation or thermodynamic integration (TI) methods. However, both techniques are only suited to calculate free-energy differences between two end states. Enveloping distribution sampling (EDS) presents an attractive alternative that allows to calculate multiple free-energy differences in a single simulation. In EDS, a reference state is simulated which "envelopes" the end states. The challenge of this methodology is the determination of optimal reference-state parameters to ensure equal sampling of all end states. Currently, the automatic determination of the reference-state parameters for multiple end states is an unsolved issue that limits the application of the methodology. To resolve this, we have generalised the replica-exchange EDS (RE-EDS) approach, introduced by Lee et al. [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 2738 (2014)] for constant-pH MD simulations. By exchanging configurations between replicas with different reference-state parameters, the complexity of the parameter-choice problem can be substantially reduced. A new robust scheme to estimate the reference-state parameters from a short initial RE-EDS simulation with default parameters was developed, which allowed the calculation of 36 free-energy differences between nine small-molecule inhibitors of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase from a single simulation. The resulting free-energy differences were in excellent agreement with values obtained previously by TI and two-state EDS simulations.

  5. Current sharing temperature of NbTi SULTAN samples compared to prediction using a single pinning mechanism parametrization for NbTi strand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pong, Ian; Vostner, Alexander; Devred, Arnaud; Bessette, Denis; Mitchell, Neil; Bordini, Bernardo; Bottura, Luca; Jewell, Matthew; Long Feng; Wu Yu

    2012-01-01

    NbTi strands to be used in four of the six ITER poloidal field (PF) coils, all the correction coils (CC) and all the superconducting feeder busbars are being produced in China. Short full-size qualification conductor (cabled and jacketed) samples have been developed at ASIPP and tested at CRPP. Single pinning mechanism parametrization for this Chinese strand (type S2) has been obtained using the Bottura scaling law. The determination of the scaling parameters using a Kramer-type regression method will be described. A comparison between the critical temperature at the operating current and field of a single strand as determined by the parametrization and the current sharing temperature (T CS ) of a few conductor samples tested at the SULTAN facility will be made. The validity and limitation of the estimation will be discussed. The estimated T CS dependence on various (superconducting critical as well as geometric and volumetric) parameters will be assessed using the modelled critical surface. Errors propagated from critical current (I c ) measurements of the strands and parameter fitting, and other uncertainties, will be quantified. (paper)

  6. Comparison of Time-of-flight and Multicollector ICP Mass Spectrometers for Measuring Actinides in Small Samples using single shot Laser Ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.S. Houk; D.B. Aeschliman; S.J. Bajic; D. Baldwin

    2005-01-01

    The objective of these experiments is to evaluate the performance of two types of ICP-MS device for measurement of actinide isotopes by laser ablation (LA) ICP-MS. The key advantage of ICP-MS compared to monitoring of radioactive decay is that the element need not decay during the measurement time. Hence ICP-MS is much faster for long-lived radionuclides. The LA process yields a transient signal. When spatially resolved analysis is required for small samples, the laser ablation sample pulse lasts only ∼10 seconds. It is difficult to measure signals at several isotopes with analyzers that are scanned for such a short sample transient. In this work, a time-of-flight (TOF) ICP-MS device, the GBC Optimass 8000 (Figure 1) is one instrument used. Strictly speaking, ions at different m/z values are not measured simultaneously in TOF. However, they are measured in very rapid sequence with little or no compromise between the number of m/z values monitored and the performance. Ions can be measured throughout the m/z range in single sample transients by TOF. The other ICP-MS instrument used is a magnetic sector multicollector MS, the NU Plasma 1700 (Figure 2). Up to 8 adjacent m/z values can be monitored at one setting of the magnetic field and accelerating voltage. Three of these m/z values can be measured with an electron multiplier. This device is usually used for high precision isotope ratio measurements with the Faraday cup detectors. The electron multipliers have much higher sensitivity. In our experience with the scanning magnetic sector instrument in Ames, these devices have the highest sensitivity and lowest background of any ICP-MS device. The ability to monitor several ions simultaneously, or nearly so, should make these devices valuable for the intended application: measurement of actinide isotopes at low concentrations in very small samples for nonproliferation purposes. The primary sample analyzed was an urban dust pellet reference material, NIST 1648. The

  7. Vegetation dynamics and dynamic vegetation science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Maarel, E

    1996-01-01

    his contribution presents a review of the development of the study of vegetation dynamics since 1979, in the framework of a jubilee meeting on progress in the study of vegetation. However, an exhaustive review is both impossible and unnecessary. It is impossible within the few pages available

  8. Environmental sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puckett, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental Sampling (ES) is a technology option that can have application in transparency in nuclear nonproliferation. The basic process is to take a sample from the environment, e.g., soil, water, vegetation, or dust and debris from a surface, and through very careful sample preparation and analysis, determine the types, elemental concentration, and isotopic composition of actinides in the sample. The sample is prepared and the analysis performed in a clean chemistry laboratory (CCL). This ES capability is part of the IAEA Strengthened Safeguards System. Such a Laboratory is planned to be built by JAERI at Tokai and will give Japan an intrinsic ES capability. This paper presents options for the use of ES as a transparency measure for nuclear nonproliferation

  9. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals. ...

  10. Vegetable Production System (Veggie)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Vegetable Production System (Veggie) was developed to be a simple, easily stowed, high growth volume, low resource facility capable of producing fresh vegetables...

  11. Comparison of Pasture Vegetation in LFA Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Kecseiová

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare pasture vegetation in LFA areas located in two different altitudes. Pasture vegetation sampling was performed 1 month on two different farms (Těšov, Vlčí Jámy. The selected places were marked by three representative places at 10 m2. Dried samples were weighed and chemically analyzed by standard methods ÚKZÚZ.

  12. European Vegetation Archive (EVA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytrý, Milan; Hennekens, S.M.; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Haveman, Rense; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and

  13. High throughput and accurate serum proteome profiling by integrated sample preparation technology and single-run data independent mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Zheng, Jiaxin; Yu, Quan; Chen, Wendong; Xing, Jinchun; Chen, Chenxi; Tian, Ruijun

    2018-03-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based serum proteome analysis is extremely challenging due to its high complexity and dynamic range of protein abundances. Developing high throughput and accurate serum proteomic profiling approach capable of analyzing large cohorts is urgently needed for biomarker discovery. Herein, we report a streamlined workflow for fast and accurate proteomic profiling from 1μL of blood serum. The workflow combined an integrated technique for highly sensitive and reproducible sample preparation and a new data-independent acquisition (DIA)-based MS method. Comparing with standard data dependent acquisition (DDA) approach, the optimized DIA method doubled the number of detected peptides and proteins with better reproducibility. Without protein immunodepletion and prefractionation, the single-run DIA analysis enables quantitative profiling of over 300 proteins with 50min gradient time. The quantified proteins span more than five orders of magnitude of abundance range and contain over 50 FDA-approved disease markers. The workflow allowed us to analyze 20 serum samples per day, with about 358 protein groups per sample being identified. A proof-of-concept study on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) serum samples confirmed the feasibility of the workflow for large scale serum proteomic profiling and disease-related biomarker discovery. Blood serum or plasma is the predominant specimen for clinical proteomic studies while the analysis is extremely challenging for its high complexity. Many efforts had been made in the past for serum proteomics for maximizing protein identifications, whereas few have been concerned with throughput and reproducibility. Here, we establish a rapid, robust and high reproducible DIA-based workflow for streamlined serum proteomic profiling from 1μL serum. The workflow doesn't need protein depletion and pre-fractionation, while still being able to detect disease-relevant proteins accurately. The workflow is promising in clinical application

  14. Stability and reproducibility of a single-sample urinary C-peptide/creatinine ratio and its correlation with 24-h urinary C-peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Tim J; Knight, Bridget A; Shields, Beverley M; Bowman, Pamela; Salzmann, Maurice B; Hattersley, Andrew T

    2009-11-01

    C-peptide measurement in blood or 24-h urine samples provides useful information regarding endogenous insulin secretion, but problems related to the rapid degradation of C-peptide in blood and difficulty of 24-h urine collection have limited widespread routine clinical use of this test. We assessed the feasibility of measuring urinary C-peptide (UCP) with correction for creatinine concentration in single urine samples. We analyzed UCP using a routine electrochemiluminescence immunoassay in samples from 21 healthy volunteers. We investigated the stability of UCP with different preservatives and storage conditions and compared the reproducibility of urinary C-peptide/creatinine ratio (UCPCR) in first- and second-void fasting urines, then assessed correlations with 24-h collections. UCPCR was unchanged at room temperature for 24 h and at 4 degrees C for 72 h even in the absence of preservative. UCPCR collected in boric acid was stable at room temperature for 72 h. UCPCR remained stable after 7 freeze-thaw cycles but decreased with freezer storage time and dropped to 82%-84% of baseline by 90 days at -20 degrees C. Second-void fasting UCPCRs were lower than first-void (median 0.78 vs 1.31, P = 0.0003) and showed less variation (CV 33% vs 52%), as second-void UCPCRs were not influenced by evening food-related insulin secretion. Second-void fasting UCPCR was highly correlated with 24-h UCP (r = 0.8, P = 0.00006). Second-void fasting UCPCR is a reproducible measure that correlates well with 24-h UCP in normal samples. The 3-day stability of UCPCR at room temperature greatly increases its potential clinical utility.

  15. Integration of GC-MSD and ER-Calux® assay into a single protocol for determining steroid estrogens in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avberšek, Miha; Žegura, Bojana; Filipič, Metka; Heath, Ester

    2011-11-01

    There are many published studies that use either chemical or biological methods to investigate steroid estrogens in the aquatic environment, but rarer are those that combine both. In this study, gas chromatography with mass selective detection (GC-MSD) and the ER-Calux(®) estrogenicity assay were integrated into a single protocol for simultaneous determination of natural (estrone--E1, 17β-estradiol--E2, estriol--E3) and synthetic (17α-ethinylestradiol--EE2) steroid estrogens concentrations and the total estrogenic potential of environmental samples. For integration purposes, several solvents were investigated and the commonly used dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) in the ER-Calux(®) assay was replaced by ethyl acetate, which is more compatible with gas chromatography and enables the same sample to be analysed by both GC-MSD and the ER-Calux(®) assay. The integrated protocol was initially tested using a standard mixture of estrogens. The results for pure standards showed that the estrogenicity calculated on the basis of GC-MSD and the ER-Calux(®) assay exhibited good correlation (r(2)=0.96; α=0.94). The result remained the same when spiked waste water extracts were tested (r(2)=0.92, α=1.02). When applied to real waste water influent and effluent samples the results proved (r(2)=0.93; α=0.99) the applicability of the protocol. The main advantages of this newly developed protocol are simple sample handling for both methods, and reduced material consumption and labour. In addition, it can be applied as either a complete or sequential analysis where the ER-Calux(®) assay is used as a pre-screening method prior to the chemical analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Order-disorder-reorder process in thermally treated dolomite samples: a combined powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchini, A.; Comodi, P.; Katerinopoulou, A.; Balic-Zunic, T.; McCammon, C.; Frondini, F.

    2012-04-01

    A combined powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of dolomite [CaMg(CO3)2] heated to 1,200°C at 3 GPa was made to study the order-disorder-reorder process. The order/disorder transition is inferred to start below 1,100°C, and complete disorder is attained at approximately 1,200°C. Twinned crystals characterized by high internal order were found in samples annealed over 1,100°C, and their fraction was found to increase with temperature. Evidences of twinning domains combined with probable remaining disordered portions of the structure imply that reordering processes occur during the quench. Twin domains are hereby proposed as a witness to thermally induced intra-layer-type cation disordering.

  17. Amostragem por larva-única na vigilância de Aedes aegypti Single-larva sampling for Aedes aegypti surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Bracco

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de testar a metodologia de amostragem por larva-única na vigilância entomológica do Aedes aegypti, foram pesquisados domicílios do Município de Araraquara, SP (Brasil. Nos criadouros que continham larvas de Aedes uma delas foi coletada. Como controle, após a coleta da larva-única, todas as larvas foram coletadas para identificação posterior. Esse processo foi repetido no laboratório. Dos 447 domicílios visitados, apenas 12 foram considerados positivos e 20 criadouros foram identificados; destes, 13 continham larvas de Aedes; 5, larvas de Aedes e Culex e 2, larvas de Culex. Os resultados mostram o reconhecimento correto, no campo, de todos os criadouros, evidenciando que o método poderia ser utilizado na vigilância entomológica de municípios sem infestação domiciliar ou infestados apenas com uma única espécie de Aedes.Buildings in Araraquara city, Southeastern Brazil, were searched during a year for the presence of Aedes larvae using single larva sampling in order to check the single-larva methodology. In those breeding places in wich Aedes larvae were found, one of them was collected. As a control, after the single larva had been collected, all the larvae from the breeding place were collected for later identification. This process was repeated in the laboratory. Of the 447 domiciles searched, 12 were considered positive and 20 breeding places were found. Of the breeding places, 13 contained Aedes larvae, 5 both Aedes and Culex larvae and 2 Culex larvae only. The results show that all the breeding places in the field were properly recognited showing the method may be used for Aedes surveillance in cities infested with one species only or without any domiciliary infestation.

  18. Assessment of nutritional quality of cooked Swazi leafy vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brassica oleracea and Spinacia oleracea were also analysed and compared with other vegetables. Sampled vegetables were divided into two categories. All vegetables in category one were cooked without any additives. In category two Hibiscus escolentus and Corchorius olitorus were cooked with bicarbonate of soda ...

  19. At last! The single-crystal X-ray structure of a naturally occurring sample of the ilmenite-type oxide FeCrO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cruz, María Ana; Elizalde-González, María de la Paz; Escudero, Roberto; Bernès, Sylvain; Silva-González, Rutilo; Reyes-Ortega, Yasmi

    2015-10-01

    A natural single crystal of the ferrimagnetic oxide FeCrO3, which was found in an opencast mine situated in the San Luis Potosí State in Mexico, has been characterized in order to elucidate some outstanding issues about the actual structure of this material. The single-crystal X-ray analysis unambiguously shows that transition metal cations are segregated in alternating layers normal to the threefold crystallographic axis, affording a structure isomorphous to that of ilmenite (FeTiO3), in the space group R3̅. The possible occurrence of cation antisite and vacancy defects is below the limit of detection available from X-ray data. Structural and magnetic results are in agreement with the coherent slow intergrowth of magnetic phases provided by the two antiferromagnetic corundum-type parent oxides Fe2O3 (hematite) and Cr2O3 (eskolaite). Our results are consistent with the most recent density functional theory (DFT) studies carried out on digital FeCrO3 [Sadat Nabi & Pentcheva (2011). Phys. Rev. B, 83, 214424], and suggest that synthetic samples of FeCrO3 might present a cation distribution different to that of the ilmenite structural type.

  20. Determination of {sup 236}U in environmental samples by single extraction chromatography coupled to triple-quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Guosheng [Department of Radiation Chemistry, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori, 036-8564 (Japan); Division of Nuclear Technology and Applications, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Radiographic Techniques and Equipment, Beijing, 100049 (China); Tazoe, Hirofumi [Department of Radiation Chemistry, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori, 036-8564 (Japan); Yamada, Masatoshi, E-mail: myamada@hirosaki-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Chemistry, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori, 036-8564 (Japan)

    2016-11-09

    In order to measure trace {sup 236}U and {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U in environmental samples with a high matrix effect, a novel and simple method was developed that makes the digestion and purification procedures compatible with advanced triple-quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. A total dissolution of sample with HF + HNO{sub 3} + HClO{sub 4} was followed by chromatographic separation with a single resin column containing normal type DGA resin (N,N,N′,N’-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide) as the extractant system. The analytical accuracy and precision of {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U ratios, measured as {sup 236}U{sup 16}O{sup +}/{sup 238}U{sup 16}O{sup +}, were examined by using the reference materials IAEA-135, IAEA-385, IAEA-447, and JSAC 0471. The low method detection limit (3.50 × 10{sup −6} Bq kg{sup −1}) makes it possible to perform routine monitoring of environmental {sup 236}U due to global fallout combined with the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident fallout (>10{sup −5} Bq kg{sup −1}). Finally, the developed method was successfully applied to measure {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U ratios and {sup 236}U activities in soil samples contaminated by the accident. The low {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U atom ratios ((1.50–13.5) × 10{sup −8}) and {sup 236}U activities ((2.25–14.1) × 10{sup −2} mBq kg{sup −1}) indicate {sup 236}U contamination was mainly derived from global fallout in the examined samples. - Highlights: • A simple {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U analytical method has been developed. • The separation required just one DGA column chromatography. • {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U atom ratios in soil were measured by ICP-MS/MS. • {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U atom ratios of (1.50–13.5) × 10{sup −8} were observed in Japanese samples. • {sup 236}U activities of (2.25–14.1) × 10{sup −2} mBq kg{sup −1} were found in Japanese samples.

  1. Ionic liquid-based single-drop microextraction followed by liquid chromatography-ultraviolet spectrophotometry detection to determine typical UV filters in surface water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Lorena; Chisvert, Alberto; Canals, Antonio; Salvador, Amparo

    2010-04-15

    A user-friendly and inexpensive ionic liquid-based single-drop microextraction (IL-SDME) procedure has been developed to preconcentrate trace amounts of six typical UV filters extensively used in cosmetic products (i.e., 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, isoamyl 4-methoxycinnamate, 3-(4'-methylbenzylidene)camphor, 2-ethylhexyl 2-cyano-3,3-diphenylacrylate, 2-ethylhexyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate and 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate) from surface water samples prior to analysis by liquid chromatography-ultraviolet spectrophotometry detection (LC-UV). A two-stage multivariate optimization approach was developed by means of a Plackett-Burman design for screening and selecting the significant variables involved in the SDME procedure, which were later optimized by means of a circumscribed central composite design. The studied variables were drop volume, sample volume, agitation speed, ionic strength, extraction time and ethanol quantity. Owing to particularities, ionic liquid type and pH of the sample were optimized separately. Under optimized experimental conditions (i.e., 10 microL of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, 20 mL of sample containing 1% (v/v) ethanol and NaCl free adjusted to pH 2, 37 min extraction time and 1300 rpm agitation speed) enrichment factors up to ca. 100-fold were obtained depending on the target analyte. The method gave good levels of repeatability with relative standard deviations varying between 2.8 and 8.8% (n=6). Limits of detection were found in the low microg L(-1) range, varying between 0.06 and 3.0 microg L(-1) depending on the target analyte. Recovery studies from different types of surface water samples collected during the winter period, which were analysed and confirmed free of all target analytes, ranged between 92 and 115%, showing that the matrix had a negligible effect upon extraction. Finally, the proposed method was applied to the analysis of different water samples (taken from two beaches, two swimming pools and a

  2. Determinação dos teores de zinco em diferentes extratos de hortaliças dos tipos A e B Determination of zinc in different extracts in samples of A and B vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édira Castello Branco de Andrade

    2005-06-01

    in the bioavailability. It isn't possible to measure how much of the metal is absorbed, even if one knows its total intake. However, through metal's speciation technique, which is defined as the determination of the concentration of different physicochemical forms of the elements that together represent the total amount of this in the sample, we can have new data to foresee metal's absorption. Solid samples require a selective or sequential extraction method to assess metals' speciation. In that way, total contents of zinc were analysed in samples of A and B vegetables through atomic flame the absorption spectroscopy and sequential extraction made by the following extractors: CaCl2 1M solution; Acetic acid 0.1M solution; Acetic acid solution 0.5M/Ammonium acetate 5% [pH=5.0]; NaOH 0.1M solution and HCl 0.5M solution. Grubbs test was used to reject results. For 8 samples, the amount of zinc extracted was complete, 6 samples showed at least 75%, 5 samples extracted 50%, a sample of okra extracted 27% and a sample of beet only 3% . For the majority of samples, zinc was found in at least six different chemical species. Future studies which may identify these species will surely help to evaluate the bioavailability of this metal.

  3. Fungal communities in soils along a vegetative ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karst, Justine; Piculell, Bridget; Brigham, Christy; Booth, Michael; Hoeksema, Jason D

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the community composition and diversity of soil fungi along a sharp vegetative ecotone between coastal sage scrub (CSS) and nonnative annual grassland habitat at two sites in coastal California. USA- We pooled soil samples across 29 m transects on either side of the ecotone at each of the two sites, and. using clone libraries of fungal ribosomal DNA, we identified 280 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from a total 40 g soil. We combined information from partial LSU and ITS sequences and found that the majority of OTUs belonged to the phylum Ascomycota, followed by Basidiomycota. Within the Ascomycota. a quarter of OTUs were Sordariomycetes. 17% were Leotiomycet.es, 16% were Dothideomycetes and the remaining OTUs were distributed among the classes Eurotiomycetes, Pezizomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, Orbiliomycetes and Arthoniomycetes. Within the Basidiomycota. all OTUs but one belonged to the subphylum Agaricomycotina. We also sampled plant communities at the same sites to offer a point of comparison for patterns in richness of fungal communities. Fungal communities had higher alpha and beta diversity than plant communities; fungal communities were approximately 20 times as rich as plant communities and the majority of OTUs were found in single soil samples. Soils harbored a unique mycoflora that did not reveal vegetative boundaries or site differences. High alpha and beta diversity and possible sampling artifacts necessitate extensive sampling to reveal differentiation in these fungal communities.

  4. Analytical performances of laser-induced micro-plasma of Al samples with single and double ultrashort pulses in air and with Ar-jet: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerok, A.; Dutouquet, C.

    2014-01-01

    Ultrashort pulse laser microablation coupled with optical emission spectroscopy was under study to obtain several micro-LIBS analytical features (shot-to-shot reproducibility, spectral line intensity and lifetime, calibration curves, detection limits). Laser microablation of Al matrix samples with known Cu- and Mg-concentrations was performed by single and double pulses of 50 fs and 1 ps pulse duration in air and with Ar-jet. The micro-LIBS analytical features obtained under different experimental conditions were characterized and compared. The highest shot-to-shot reproducibility and gain in plasma spectral line intensity were obtained with double pulses with Ar-jet for both 50 fs and 1 ps pulse durations. The best calibration curves were obtained with 1 ps pulse duration with Ar-jet. Micro-LIBS with ultrashort double pulses may find its effective application for surface elemental microcartography. - Highlights: • Analytical performances of micro-LIBS with ultrashort double pulses were studied. • The maximal line intensity gain of 20 was obtained with double pulses and Ar-jet. • LIBS gain was obtained without additional ablation of a sample by the second pulse. • LIBS properties were almost the same for both 50 fs and 1 ps pulses. • The micro-LIBS detection limit was around 35 ppm

  5. Thermal transfer and apparent-dose distributions in poorly bleached mortar samples: results from single grains and small aliquots of quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, M.; Thomsen, K.J.; Boetter-Jensen, L.; Urray, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    In the assessment of doses received from a nuclear accident, considerable attention has been paid to retrospective dosimetry using the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of heated materials such as bricks and tiles. quartz extracted from these artefacts was heated during manufacture; this process releases all the prior trapped charge and simultaneously sensitises he quartz. Unfortunately unheated materials such as mortar and concrete are ore common in industrial sites and particularly in nuclear installations. These materials are usually exposed to daylight during quarrying and construction, but in general this exposure is insufficient to completely empty (bleach) any geological trapped charge. This leads to a distribution of apparent doses in the sample at the time of construction with only some (if ny) grains exposed to sufficient light to be considered well bleached for SL dosimetry. The challenge in using such materials as retrospective dosemeters is in identifying these well-bleached grains when an accident dose as been superimposed on the original dose distribution. We investigate here, sing OSL, the background dose in three different mortar samples: render, whitewash and inner wall plaster from a building built in 1964. These samples re found to be both poorly bleached and weakly sensitive (only 0.3% of rains giving a detectable dose response). We study thermal transfer in ingle grains of quartz, investigate the grain-size dependence of bleaching n the size range 90-300 μm and compare the dose-distributions obtained rom small aliquots and single-grain procedures. A comparison of three different methods viz. (a) first 5%, (b) probability plot and (c) comparison f internal and external uncertainties, is made for equivalent dose estimation. The results have implications for accident dosimetry, archaeological studies and dating of poorly bleached sediments

  6. Spectroelectrochemical Sensing Based on Multimode Selectivity simultaneously Achievable in a Single Device. 11. Design and Evaluation of a Small Portable Sensor for the Determination of Ferrocyanide in Hanford Waste Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegemiller, Michael L.; Heineman, William R.; Seliskar, Carl J.; Ridgway, Thomas H.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Sell, Richard L.

    2003-01-01

    Spectroelectrochemical sensing based on multimode selectivity simultaneously achievable in a single device. 11. Design and evaluation of a small portable sensor for the determination of ferrocyanide in Hanford waste samples

  7. Métodos para la detección de Agrobacterium a partir de muestras de material vegetal, suelo y agua Methods for the detection of Agrobacterium from plant, soil and water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana M Alippi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El género Agrobacterium incluye especies ftopatógenas que inducen la formación de agallas en el cuello o la proliferación de raíces en cabellera en más de 600 especies de dicotiledóneas, y especies no patógenas cuyo hábitat natural es el suelo. Como no es posible erradicar a las especies patógenas y habida cuenta de que más del 80 % de las infecciones puede provenir de viveros, es importante evitar la diseminación de la enfermedad. Por ello, el objetivo de este trabajo ha sido desarrollar técnicas sensibles y precisas que, aisladamente o combinadas, permitan detectar la presencia de especies y biovares de Agrobacterium a partir de muestras de material vegetal, suelo y agua. Se comprobó que con la estrategia combinada de realizar aislamientos en los medios semiselectivos D1, D1-M y YEM-RCT; PCR multiplex sobre el gen 23S ADNr; PCR específca sobre los genes virC1 y virC2 y bioensayos en plántulas de pimiento cv. California Wonder y en hojas cortadas de kalanchoe, se reduce la posibilidad de obtener falsos negativos y/o falsos positivos. Por lo expuesto, esta combinación de técnicas constituye una herramienta adecuada para el diagnóstico de cepas patógenas de Agrobacterium a partir de distintos tipos de muestras.The genus Agrobacterium includes phytopathogenic bacteria that induce the development of root crown galls and/or aerial galls at the base of the stem or hairy roots on more than 600 species of plants belonging to 90 dicotyledonous families and non-pathogenic species. These bacteria being natural soil inhabitants are particularly diffcult to eradicate, which is a problem in nurseries where more than 80% of infections occur. Since early detection is crucial to avoid the inadvertent spread of the disease, the aim of this work was to develop sensitive and precise identifcation techniques by using a set of semi-selective and differential culture media in combination with a specifc PCR to amplify a partial sequence derived

  8. ‘N-of-1-pathways’ unveils personal deregulated mechanisms from a single pair of RNA-Seq samples: towards precision medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardeux, Vincent; Achour, Ikbel; Li, Jianrong; Maienschein-Cline, Mark; Li, Haiquan; Pesce, Lorenzo; Parinandi, Gurunadh; Bahroos, Neil; Winn, Robert; Foster, Ian; Garcia, Joe G N; Lussier, Yves A

    2014-01-01

    Background The emergence of precision medicine allowed the incorporation of individual molecular data into patient care. Indeed, DNA sequencing predicts somatic mutations in individual patients. However, these genetic features overlook dynamic epigenetic and phenotypic response to therapy. Meanwhile, accurate personal transcriptome interpretation remains an unmet challenge. Further, N-of-1 (single-subject) efficacy trials are increasingly pursued, but are underpowered for molecular marker discovery. Method ‘N-of-1-pathways’ is a global framework relying on three principles: (i) the statistical universe is a single patient; (ii) significance is derived from geneset/biomodules powered by paired samples from the same patient; and (iii) similarity between genesets/biomodules assesses commonality and differences, within-study and cross-studies. Thus, patient gene-level profiles are transformed into deregulated pathways. From RNA-Seq of 55 lung adenocarcinoma patients, N-of-1-pathways predicts the deregulated pathways of each patient. Results Cross-patient N-of-1-pathways obtains comparable results with conventional genesets enrichment analysis (GSEA) and differentially expressed gene (DEG) enrichment, validated in three external evaluations. Moreover, heatmap and star plots highlight both individual and shared mechanisms ranging from molecular to organ-systems levels (eg, DNA repair, signaling, immune response). Patients were ranked based on the similarity of their deregulated mechanisms to those of an independent gold standard, generating unsupervised clusters of diametric extreme survival phenotypes (p=0.03). Conclusions The N-of-1-pathways framework provides a robust statistical and relevant biological interpretation of individual disease-free survival that is often overlooked in conventional cross-patient studies. It enables mechanism-level classifiers with smaller cohorts as well as N-of-1 studies. Software http://lussierlab.org/publications/N-of-1-pathways

  9. Irradiation of dehydrated vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esterhuyse, A; Esterhuizen, T.

    1985-01-01

    The reason for radurization was to decreased the microbial count of dehydrated vegetables. The average absorbed irradiation dose range between 2kGy and 15kGy. The product catagories include a) Green vegetables b) White vegetables c) Powders of a) and b). The microbiological aspects were: Declining curves for the different products of T.P.C., Coliforms, E. Coli, Stap. areus, Yeast + Mold at different doses. The organoleptical aspects were: change in taste, flavour, texture, colour and moisture. The aim is the marketing of irradiated dehydrated vegetables national and international basis

  10. Applying meta-pathway analyses through metagenomics to identify the functional properties of the major bacterial communities of a single spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation process sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illeghems, Koen; Weckx, Stefan; De Vuyst, Luc

    2015-09-01

    A high-resolution functional metagenomic analysis of a representative single sample of a Brazilian spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation process was carried out to gain insight into its bacterial community functioning. By reconstruction of microbial meta-pathways based on metagenomic data, the current knowledge about the metabolic capabilities of bacterial members involved in the cocoa bean fermentation ecosystem was extended. Functional meta-pathway analysis revealed the distribution of the metabolic pathways between the bacterial members involved. The metabolic capabilities of the lactic acid bacteria present were most associated with the heterolactic fermentation and citrate assimilation pathways. The role of Enterobacteriaceae in the conversion of substrates was shown through the use of the mixed-acid fermentation and methylglyoxal detoxification pathways. Furthermore, several other potential functional roles for Enterobacteriaceae were indicated, such as pectinolysis and citrate assimilation. Concerning acetic acid bacteria, metabolic pathways were partially reconstructed, in particular those related to responses toward stress, explaining their metabolic activities during cocoa bean fermentation processes. Further, the in-depth metagenomic analysis unveiled functionalities involved in bacterial competitiveness, such as the occurrence of CRISPRs and potential bacteriocin production. Finally, comparative analysis of the metagenomic data with bacterial genomes of cocoa bean fermentation isolates revealed the applicability of the selected strains as functional starter cultures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Feasibility of a Humor Training to Promote Humor and Decrease Stress in a Subclinical Sample: A Single-Arm Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nektaria Tagalidou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the feasibility of a humor training for a subclinical sample suffering from increased stress, depressiveness, or anxiety. Based on diagnostic interviews, 35 people were invited to participate in a 7-week humor training. Evaluation measures were filled in prior training, after training, and at a 1-month follow-up including humor related outcomes (coping humor and cheerfulness and mental health-related outcomes (perceived stress, depressiveness, anxiety, and well-being. Outcomes were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVAs. Within-group comparisons of intention-to-treat analysis showed main effects of time with large effect sizes on all outcomes. Post hoc tests showed medium to large effect sizes on all outcomes from pre to post and results remained stable until follow-up. Satisfaction with the training was high, attrition rate low (17.1%, and participants would highly recommend the training. Summarizing the results, the pilot study showed promising effects for people suffering from subclinical symptoms. All outcomes were positively influenced and showed stability over time. Humor trainings could be integrated more into mental health care as an innovative program to reduce stress whilst promoting also positive emotions. However, as this study was a single-arm pilot study, further research (including also randomized controlled trials is still needed to evaluate the effects more profoundly.

  12. European Vegetation Archive (EVA): an integrated database of European vegetation plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chytrý, M; Hennekens, S M; Jiménez-Alfaro, B

    2015-01-01

    vegetation- plot databases on a single software platform. Data storage in EVA does not affect on-going independent development of the contributing databases, which remain the property of the data contributors. EVA uses a prototype of the database management software TURBOVEG 3 developed for joint management......The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and regional...... data source for large-scale analyses of European vegetation diversity both for fundamental research and nature conservation applications. Updated information on EVA is available online at http://euroveg.org/eva-database....

  13. Vegetation Parameter Extraction Using Dual Baseline Polarimetric SAR Interferometry Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Wang, C.; Chen, X.; Tang, Y.

    2009-04-01

    For vegetation parameter inversion, the single baseline polarimetric SAR interferometry (POLinSAR) technique, such as the three-stage method and the ESPRIT algorithm, is limited by the observed data with the minimum ground to volume amplitude ration, which effects the estimation of the effective phase center for the vegetation canopy or the surface, and thus results in the underestimated vegetation height. In order to remove this effect of the single baseline inversion techniques in some extend, another baseline POLinSAR data is added on vegetation parameter estimation in this paper, and a dual baseline POLinSAR technique for the extraction of the vegetation parameter is investigated and improved to reduce the dynamic bias for the vegetation parameter estimation. Finally, the simulated data and real data are used to validate this dual baseline technique.

  14. Balkan Vegetation Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassilev, Kiril; Pedashenko, Hristo; Alexandrova, Alexandra; Tashev, Alexandar; Ganeva, Anna; Gavrilova, Anna; Gradevska, Asya; Assenov, Assen; Vitkova, Antonina; Grigorov, Borislav; Gussev, Chavdar; Filipova, Eva; Aneva, Ina; Knollová, Ilona; Nikolov, Ivaylo; Georgiev, Georgi; Gogushev, Georgi; Tinchev, Georgi; Pachedjieva, Kalina; Koev, Koycho; Lyubenova, Mariyana; Dimitrov, Marius; Apostolova-Stoyanova, Nadezhda; Velev, Nikolay; Zhelev, Petar; Glogov, Plamen; Natcheva, Rayna; Tzonev, Rossen; Boch, Steffen; Hennekens, Stephan M.; Georgiev, Stoyan; Stoyanov, Stoyan; Karakiev, Todor; Kalníková, Veronika; Shivarov, Veselin; Russakova, Veska; Vulchev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The Balkan Vegetation Database (BVD; GIVD ID: EU-00-019; http://www.givd.info/ID/EU-00- 019) is a regional database that consists of phytosociological relevés from different vegetation types from six countries on the Balkan Peninsula (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Kosovo, Montenegro

  15. Minimally processed vegetable salads: microbial quality evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröder, Hans; Martins, Cecília Geraldes; De Souza, Katia Leani Oliveira; Landgraf, Mariza; Franco, Bernadette D G M; Destro, Maria Teresa

    2007-05-01

    The increasing demand for fresh fruits and vegetables and for convenience foods is causing an expansion of the market share for minimally processed vegetables. Among the more common pathogenic microorganisms that can be transmitted to humans by these products are Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of a selection of minimally processed vegetables. A total of 181 samples of minimally processed leafy salads were collected from retailers in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Counts of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, psychrotrophic microorganisms, and Salmonella were conducted for 133 samples. L. monocytogenes was assessed in 181 samples using the BAX System and by plating the enrichment broth onto Palcam and Oxford agars. Suspected Listeria colonies were submitted to classical biochemical tests. Populations of psychrotrophic microorganisms >10(6) CFU/g were found in 51% of the 133 samples, and Enterobacteriaceae populations between 10(5) and 106 CFU/g were found in 42% of the samples. Fecal coliform concentrations higher than 10(2) CFU/g (Brazilian standard) were found in 97 (73%) of the samples, and Salmonella was detected in 4 (3%) of the samples. Two of the Salmonella-positive samples had minimally processed vegetables had poor microbiological quality, and these products could be a vehicle for pathogens such as Salmonella and L. monocytogenes.

  16. Parasitic Contamination of Raw Vegetables in Zanjan Markets, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Torabi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Complex surface of vegetables facilitate attachment and transmission of several pathogens. No previous study has been conducted in survey of parasitic contamination of vegetables in Zanjan. This study aimed to detect the parasitic contamination in common raw vegetables in Zanjan markets. Methods: A total of 352 raw vegetable samples, including leek, parsley, basil, mint, radish, cress and dill were collected from grocery stores using cluster sampling in different regions of the city during 2014. The edible parts of vegetables were separated and immersed in normal saline solution. Floating vegetables were removed and the solution was allowed to sediment at room temperature for 24 hours. The pellet was examined following sedimentation and floatation methods. Results:Various Organisms were detected in 54% (190 of the 352 samples, but only 2.8% of samples had pathogenic parasites including; Trichostrongylus eggs (3, Hookworm eggs (2, Eimeria oocysts (2, Sarcocystis oocyst (1, Strongyloides larvae (1, and Fasciola eggs (1. The contamination rate of vegetables was highest (90.4% in the fall (p˂0.05. Conclusion: Vegetable contamination with parasitic organisms in this area was low, maybe due to irrigation of vegetables with sources other than sewage water, but it is still necessary to improve sanitary conditions of vegetables.

  17. Method of producing vegetable puree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A process for producing a vegetable puree, comprising the sequential steps of: a)crushing, chopping or slicing the vegetable into pieces of 1 to 30 mm; b) blanching the vegetable pieces at a temperature of 60 to 90°C; c) contacted the blanched vegetable pieces with a macerating enzyme activity; d......) blending the macerated vegetable pieces and obtaining a puree....

  18. Vegetation survey: a new focus for Applied Vegetation Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytry, M.; Schaminee, J.H.J.; Schwabe, A.

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation survey is an important research agenda in vegetation science. It defines vegetation types and helps understand differences among them, which is essential for both basic ecological research and applications in biodiversity conservation and environmental monitoring. In this editorial, we

  19. Incidence of geohelminths on fruits and vegetable farms in Owena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geohelminths are soil-transmitted parasitic nematodes which present a potential public health hazard in Nigeria. The present study examined soil samples for the incidence of geohelminths on fruits and vegetable farms in Owena Community. Two hundred (200) soil samples were collected from five vegetable and fruits ...

  20. Robustness of two single-item self-esteem measures: cross-validation with a measure of stigma in a sample of psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Christopher

    2005-08-01

    Robins' Single-item Self-esteem Inventory was compared with a single item from the Coopersmith Self-esteem. Although a new scoring format was used, there was good evidence of cross-validation in 83 current and former psychiatric patients who completed Harvey's adapted measure of stigma felt and experienced by users of mental health services. Scores on the two single-item self-esteem measures correlated .76 (p self-esteem in users of mental health services.

  1. Re-vegetation of block-cut and milled peatlands: an Estonian example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Triisberg

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The re-vegetation of mined peatlands after abandonment is often a long-lasting process. The aim of this study was to clarify the factors influencing the re-vegetation of abandoned block-cut, milled and fertilised peat areas in Estonia by investigating and comparing their present vegetation. The analysis is based on 285 quadrat samples where plant species composition and cover were assessed, and the pH and electrical conductivity of bog water were measured. Whereas re-vegetation in the block-cut area was quite fast and progressive, in milled peat areas it was slow and irregular because of the absence of viable propagules and the unfavourable conditions for plant growth. The course of re-vegetation depends considerably upon the peat extraction method, the area and surface microtopography of the mined area, the pH and electrical conductivity of the bog water, and the density at which trees have established on the cutover surface. Plant species richness was most affected by the density of tree saplings, litter cover, former treatment and microtopography. A single application of fertiliser ca 25 years ago did not have a long-term effect on the total number of plant species, but did increase plant cover and the mean number of species per quadrat. On milled peatlands, neither the sowing of Oxycoccus palustris seeds nor the planting of Rubus chamaemorus had the desired effect unless growth conditions for the plants were improved.

  2. Extraction and preconcentration of trace Al and Cr from vegetable samples by vortex-assisted ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction prior to atomic absorption spectrometric determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunay, Nail; Yıldırım, Emre; Gürkan, Ramazan

    2018-04-15

    In the study, a simple, and efficient microextraction approach, which is termed as vortex-assisted ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (VA-IL-DLLME), was developed for flame atomic absorption spectrometric analysis of aluminum (Al) and chromium (Cr) in vegetables. The method is based on the formation of anionic chelate complexes of Al(III) and Cr(VI) with o-hydroxy azo dye, at pH 6.5, and then extraction of the hydrophobic ternary complexes formed in presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) into a 125 μL volume of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluorosulfonyl)imide [C 4 mim][Tf 2 N]) as extraction solvent. Under optimum conditions, the detection limits were 0.02 µg L -1 in linear working range of 0.07-100 µg L -1 for Al(III), and 0.05 µg L -1 in linear working range of 0.2-80 µg L -1 for Cr(VI). After the validation by analysis of a certified reference material (CRM), the method was successfully applied to the determination of Al and Cr in vegetables using standard addition method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determinação dos teores de cobre em diferentes extratos de hortaliças do tipo A e B Determination of copper in differents extracts in samples of A and B vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édira Castello Branco de Andrade

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Amostras de hortaliças dos tipos A e B foram analisadas quanto ao teor total de cobre através de espectroscopia de absorção atômica em chama, e o método de extração seqüencial foi aplicado com os seguintes extratores: solução de CaCl(21,0M; solução de ácido acético 0,1M; solução de ácido acético 0,5M / acetato de amônio 5% [pH=5,0]; solução de NaOH 0,1M e solução de HCl 0,5M. Na análise da rejeição de resultados foi aplicado o teste de Grubbs e na comparação dos dados o teste t de Student foi utilizado. Em média 25,4% do teor total de cobre foram extraídos com solução de CaCl2 1,0M, sendo o máximo de 50,5% e o mínimo de 8,3%. Em média 14,8% do teor total de cobre, sendo que 32,6% e 6,4%, máximo e mínimo respectivamente, foram extraídos com solução de ácido acético 0,1M. Com relação ao uso de solução de ácido acético 0,5M / acetato de amônio 5% [pH=5,0], o mínimo extraído obteve valor de 6,2% e o máximo 27,6%, com média de 13,7%. O extrator de NaOH 0,1M foi o que teve menor extração, cerca de 10,5% e com extrator de HCl 0,5M a extração foi em média de 12,6%. A fração extraída de cobre nas amostras foi de no mínimo 34,5% e no máximo 100%. Observa-se que para a maioria das amostras, o cobre se encontra sob a forma de, no mínimo, 6 espécies químicas distintas.Total copper content analysed in samples of A and B vegetables through atomic flame absorption spectroscopy and sequential extraction were performed by using the following extractants: CaCl(21.0M solution; acetic acid 0.1M; acetic acic 0.5M / ammonium acetate 5% solution [pH = 5.0]; NaOH 0.1M solution and HCl 0.5M solution. For evaluation of the results Grubbs test and Student test were used. On average 25.4% of total copper were extracted in CaCl2 1.0M solution with a maximum extraction of 50.5% and a minimum of 8.3%. On average 14.8% of the total amount of copper, a maximum of 32.6% and a minimum of 64% were extracted in

  4. Vegetation Identification With LIDAR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Helt, Michael F

    2005-01-01

    .... The specific terrain element of interest is vegetation, and in particular, tree type. Data taken on April 12th, 2005, were taken over a 10 km 20 km region which is mixed use agriculture and wetlands...

  5. Diesel fuel from vegetable oil via transesterification and soap pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, A.

    2002-09-15

    Transesterifications of 6 vegetable oil samples in supercritical methanol (SC MeOH) were studied without using any catalyst. Methyl esters of vegetable oils have several outstanding advantages among other new-renewable and clean engine fuel alternatives. The variables affecting the methyl ester yielded during the transesterification reaction, such as the molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil and reaction temperature, were investigated. Compared to No. 2 diesel fuel, all of the vegetable oils are much more viscous, while methyl esters of vegetable oils are the slightly more viscous. The methyl esters are more volatile than those of the vegetable oils. The soaps obtained from the vegetable oils can be pyrolyzed into hydrocarbon-rich products. (author)

  6. Management of Vegetation by Alternative Practices in Fields and Roadsides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen V. Barker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In attempts to reduce the amounts of conventional herbicides used, alternative practices are sought in the management of roadside vegetation. In this investigation, alternative herbicides (citric-acetic acids, clove oil, corn gluten meal, limonene, and pelargonic acid, flaming, and mulching were assessed in management of annual and perennial, herbaceous vegetation in field and roadside plots. Several formulations of alternative herbicides applied singly or repeatedly during the growing season were evaluated and compared with conventional herbicides (glyphosate and glufosinate ammonium or with flaming or mulching. Citric-acetic acid formulations, clove oil, limonene, or pelargonic acid applied as foliar sprays immediately desiccated foliage, but the efficacy lasted for no longer than five weeks. Repeated applications were better than single applications of these herbicides in suppressing plant vegetative growth. Corn gluten meal imparted little or no early control and stimulated late-season growth of vegetation. A single flaming of vegetation gave no better control than the alternative herbicides, but repeated flaming strongly restricted growth. Mulching with wood chips or bark gave season-long suppression of vegetation. Glyphosate gave season-long inhibition of vegetation, but the efficacy of glufosinate ammonium waned as the growing season progressed. For season-long suppression of vegetation with alternative herbicides or flaming repeated applications will be required.

  7. Interaction of z component of magnetic field between two samples of GO material in the round rotational single sheet tester (RRSST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorican, Viktor; Hamler, Anton; Jesenik, Marko; Stumberger, Bojan; Trlep, Mladen

    2006-01-01

    The magnetic properties of two grain-oriented (GO) samples of the same grade were measured under alternating and rotational magnetic flux conditions. Two samples were measured separately and then together in different arrangement to each other. The interaction of magnetic field between two samples were measured by using a coil, which was placed in between. The results show that the H z component influence measured magnetic properties in the x-y plane

  8. Uranium content in soils, vegetables, cereals and fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frindik, O.

    1988-01-01

    As compared to other vegetable samples, parsley leaves showed a much higher uranium content, presumably due to tightly adhering dust which could not be removed by washing. Uranium transfer factors from the soil to the plants were calculated; these factors always include the total uranium concentration and not only the 'soluble' uranium. As compared to U-238 the activity of U-234 is nearly always higher in vegetable samples, but lower in soil samples. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Quantitative indicators of fruit and vegetable consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Kozelová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative research of the market is often based on surveys and questionnaires which are finding out the behavior of customers in observed areas. Before purchasing process consumers consider where they will buy fruit and vegetables, what kind to choose and in what quantity of goods. Consumers' behavior is affected by the factors as: regional gastronomic traditions, price, product appearance, aroma, place of buying, own experience and knowledge, taste preferences as well as specific health issues of consumers and others. The consumption of fruit and vegetables brings into the human body biological active substances that favorably affect the health of consumers. In the presented research study we were interested in differences of consumers' behavior in the consumption of fruit and vegetables according to the place of residence and gender. In the survey 200 respondents has participated; their place of residence was city or village. The existence of dependences and statistical significance were examined by selected statistical testing methods. Firstly we analyzed the responses via statistical F-test whether observed random samples have the same variance. Then we applied two-sample unpaired t-test with equal variance and χ2-test of statistical independence. The statistical significance was tested by corresponding p values. Correlations were proved by the Cramer's V coefficient. We found that place of residence has no impact on the respondents' consumption of fruit. The gender of respondents does not affect their consumption of fruit. Equally, the gender does not affect the respondents' consumption of vegetables. Only in one observed case the significant differences proved that the place of respondent residence has impact on the consumption of vegetables. Higher consumption of vegetables is due to the fact that the majority of citizens, who live in villages, have a possibility to grow their own vegetables and, thus, the demand for it in village

  10. Concurrent Validity and Sensitivity to Change of Direct Behavior Rating Single-Item Scales (DBR-SIS) within an Elementary Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rhonda L.; Eklund, Katie; Kilgus, Stephen P.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concurrent validity, sensitivity to change, and teacher acceptability of Direct Behavior Rating single-item scales (DBR-SIS), a brief progress monitoring measure designed to assess student behavioral change in response to intervention. Twenty-four elementary teacher-student dyads implemented a daily…

  11. Characteristics and Sampling Efficiencies of Two Impactor Bioaerosol Samplers: MAS-100(Registered) (Microbial Air Monitoring System) and Single-Stage Andersen Viable Microbial Samplers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hottell, K

    2004-01-01

    .... A petri dish with agar is used as the impaction surface for these samplers. The MAS-l00 is a single-stage impactor that aspirates air through a 400-hole perforated entry plate onto an agar plate at an airflow rate of 100 L/min...

  12. Vegetable Consumption patterns in Yaounde, Cameroon | Kamga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted in August and September 2008 in Yaoundé, Cameroon to assess vegetable consumption attitudes, constraints and factors that stimulate households' consumption. Stratified sample based on district size, socioeconomic status and ethnics groups were used. Three hundred households were ...

  13. The Vegetables Turned:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2009-01-01

    in the relationship between creative artists and the Anglo-American popular music industry in the mid-1960s. Finally, and in retrospect, the figure of the vegetable cast into relief the counter-culture's utopian and dystopian dynamics as manifested in these song-writers' personal lives, now rendered as contemporary...... lyricist Van Dyke Parks, the incongruous, semantically complex figure of the vegetable came to illuminate aspects of psychedelic consciousness and - part by design, part by accident - the link between LSD and Anglo-American popular music. It threw light, too, on the scope and limits of changes...

  14. Parasitic contamination of fresh vegetables sold at central markets in Khartoum state, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Mona Ali; Siddig, Emmanuel Edwar; Elaagip, Arwa Hassan; Edris, Ali Mahmoud Mohammed; Nasr, Awad Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background Fresh vegetables are considered as vital nutrients of a healthy diet as they supply the body with essential supplements. The consumption of raw vegetables is the main way for transmission of intestinal parasitic organisms. This study was aimed at detecting the parasitic contamination in fresh vegetables sold in two central open-aired markets in Khartoum state, Sudan. Methods In this prospective cross-sectional study, a total of 260 fresh vegetable samples and 50 water samples used ...

  15. Use of alkaline or enzymatic sample pretreatment prior to characterization of gold nanoparticles in animal tissue by single-particle ICPMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löschner, Katrin; Brabrand, Myung Suk Jung; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    , not much is known about the applicability of spICPMS for determination of NPs in complex matrices such as biological tissues. In the present study, alkaline and enzymatic treatments were applied to solubilize spleen samples from rats, which had been administered 60-nm gold nanoparticles (Au......NPs) intravenously. The results showed that similar size distributions of AuNPs were obtained independent of the sample preparation method used. Furthermore, the quantitative results for AuNP mass concentration obtained with spICPMS following alkaline sample pretreatment coincided with results for total gold...... concentration obtained by conventional ICPMS analysis of acid-digested tissue. The recovery of AuNPs from enzymatically digested tissue, however, was approximately four times lower. Spiking experiments of blank spleen samples with AuNPs showed that the lower recovery was caused by an inferior transport...

  16. Copper and lead levels in two popular leafy vegetables grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to determine the levels of two heavy metals, Lead (Pb) and Copper (Cu), in two popular leafy vegetables grown around Morogoro Municipality in Tanzania. Vegetable samples of Pumpkin leaves ( Cucurbita moschata) and Chinese cabbage ( Brassica chinensis) were collected from three sites and ...

  17. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in vegetables sold in major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were carried out in Ibadan City, South-West Nigeria between March and June 2011, to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in vegetables sold in various markets within the city. Fifty samples each of 5 different vegetable types, Cabbage (Brassica deracea), Lettuce (Lactus sativa), Carrot (Daucus carota), ...

  18. Parasitic Contamination of Fruits and Vegetables Sold at Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The safety of fruits and vegetables sold in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria for consumption was assessed with respect to their contamination by Ova and Cysts of parasites. Out of 320 samples of seven (7) varieties of vegetables and fruits examined from three different markets in Kaduna metropolis, 45 (14.00%) were positive ...

  19. Organic and conventional vegetables: Comparison of the physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five representative samples of conventional vegetables, certified organic and non-certified organic vegetables were gotten from farms and supermarkets in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The result shows that the organic carrot showed higher acidity (0.11 g % citric acid) and total sugar (5.68 g %) than those found in standard ...

  20. Investigation of NPK in fertilized and unfertilized vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeba, F.; Butt, M.T.; Iqubal, K.; Shafiq, T.

    2010-01-01

    Contents of selected minerals and moisture in Ridge Gourd, Gourd and Brinjal vegetables, collected from house and market of different localities, were determined. In house vegetables from kitchen garden of PCSIR colony the moisture contents were high (90%) as compared to market vegetables of Taj Bagh, Railway workshop Mandy and Singpura Lahore Mandy was 87%, 86.5% and 87.5% respectively. Regarding nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, sodium and potassium was high in market vegetables as compared to house samples due to the accumulation of nutrients in soil and crop. (author)

  1. A method for using unmanned aerial vehicles for emergency investigation of single geo-hazards and sample applications of this method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haifeng; Long, Jingjing; Yi, Wu; Yi, Qinglin; Zhang, Guodong; Lei, Bangjun

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become widely used in emergency investigations of major natural hazards over large areas; however, UAVs are less commonly employed to investigate single geo-hazards. Based on a number of successful investigations in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China, a complete UAV-based method for performing emergency investigations of single geo-hazards is described. First, a customized UAV system that consists of a multi-rotor UAV subsystem, an aerial photography subsystem, a ground control subsystem and a ground surveillance subsystem is described in detail. The implementation process, which includes four steps, i.e., indoor preparation, site investigation, on-site fast processing and application, and indoor comprehensive processing and application, is then elaborated, and two investigation schemes, automatic and manual, that are used in the site investigation step are put forward. Moreover, some key techniques and methods - e.g., the layout and measurement of ground control points (GCPs), route planning, flight control and image collection, and the Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetry processing - are explained. Finally, three applications are given. Experience has shown that using UAVs for emergency investigation of single geo-hazards greatly reduces the time, intensity and risks associated with on-site work and provides valuable, high-accuracy, high-resolution information that supports emergency responses.

  2. Limited Sampling Strategy for the Prediction of Area Under the Curve (AUC) of Statins: Reliability of a Single Time Point for AUC Prediction for Pravastatin and Simvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, N R

    2016-02-01

    Statins are widely prescribed medicines and are also available in fixed dose combinations with other drugs to treat several chronic ailments. Given the safety issues associated with statins it may be important to assess feasibility of a single time concentration strategy for prediction of exposure (area under the curve; AUC). The peak concentration (Cmax) was used to establish relationship with AUC separately for pravastatin and simvastatin using published pharmacokinetic data. The regression equations generated for statins were used to predict the AUC values from various literature references. The fold difference of the observed divided by predicted values along with correlation coefficient (r) were used to judge the feasibility of the single time point approach. Both pravastatin and simvastatin showed excellent correlation of Cmax vs. AUC values with r value ≥ 0.9638 (pAUC predictions and >81% of the predicted values were in a narrower range of >0.75-fold but AUC values showed excellent correlation for pravastatin (r=0.9708, n=115; pAUC predictions. On the basis of the present work, it is feasible to develop a single concentration time point strategy that coincides with Cmax occurrence for both pravastatin and simvastatin from a therapeutic drug monitoring perspective. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Ultrasonic characterization of vegetable oil product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidek Hj Abd Aziz; Chow Sai Pew; Abdul Halim Shaari; Nor Azizah Shaari

    1992-01-01

    The ultrasonic wave velocity and attenuation of a number vegetable oil products were measured using an ultrasonic pulse echo overlap technique from room temperature up to 90 0 C. Among the liquid samples studied were refined bleach deodorized (RED) palm oil, palm olein, coconut oil, corn oil and soya bean oil. The velocity of sound in vegetable oil products varies from about 1200 to 200 ms-1 and decrease linearly as the temperature increases. The ultrasonic properties of the oil are much dependent on their viscosity, density, relaxation effect and vibrational anharmonicity

  4. Multispectral Imaging of Wok-Fried Vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Dissing, Bjørn Skovlund; Hyldig, Grethe

    2012-01-01

    Quality control in the food industry is often performed by measuring various chemical compounds in the food involved. The authors propose an imaging concept for acquiring high-quality multispectral images to evaluate optical reflection changes in carrots and celeriac over a period of 14 days....... For comparison, sensory analysis was performed on the same samples. Prior to multispectral image recording, the vegetables were prefried and frozen at -30 °C for 4 months. During the 14 days of image recording, the vegetables were kept at +5 °C. In this period, surface changes and thereby reflectance properties...

  5. Optimum time of blood sampling for determination of glomerular filtration rate by single-injection [51Cr]EDTA plasma clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broechner-Mortensen, J.; Roedbro, P.

    1976-01-01

    We have investigated the influence on reproducibility of total [ 51 Cr]EDTA plasma clearance (E) of various times and numbers of blood samples in patients with normal (13 patients) and low (14 patients) renal function. The study aims at fixing a clinically useful procedure suitable for all levels of renal function. Six different types of E were evaluated with time periods for blood sampling between 3 and 5 h after tracer injection, and the variation from counting radioactivity, s 1 , was determined as part of the total variation, s 2 . Optimum mean time, t(E), for blood sampling was calculated as a function of E, as the mean time giving the least change in E for a given change in the 'final slope' of the plasma curve. For patients with normal E, s 1 did not contribute significantly to s 2 , and t(E) was about 2h. For patients with low renal function s 1 contributed significantly to s 2 , and t(E) increased steeply with decreasing E. The relative error in s 1 from fixed Etypes was calculated for all levels of renal function. The results indicate that blood sampling individualized according to predicted E values is not necessary. A sufficient precision of E can be achieved for all function levels from three blood samples drawn at 180, 240, and 300 min after injection. (Auth.)

  6. leafy vegetable, Gnetum africanum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prerequisite for successful in vitro culture is the establishment of an aseptic technique, thus the experiment was to investigate suitable sterilization regimes for the leaf explants of Gnetum africanum, an endangered green leafy vegetable. Three sterilization regimes were tested to establish the best regime using three to four ...

  7. Parasitic Contamination of Raw Vegetables in Shahroud, Semnan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Nazemi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Given the importance of healthy vegetables, the present study was conducted to determine parasitic infection of vegetable consumed in Shahroud.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study has been conducted on 92 samples of various vegetables collected from 16 vegetable growing farms and 1 vegetable process workshop. Results: Sixty two percent of tested vegetables lacked parasites and the highest amount of parasites observed (34.78% was related to Giardia lamblia. A significant relationship was observed between parasite and having toilets in the farms as well as the extent of farms.Conclusion: safety of fertilizers consumed by farms and healthy fruits can have an effective role in reducing the parasitic infections.

  8. Contribution of chlorophyll fluorescence to the apparent vegetation reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, P.K. Entcheva; Middleton, E.M.; Corp, L.A.; Kim, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Current strategies for monitoring the physiologic status of terrestrial vegetation rely on remote sensing reflectance data, which provide estimates of vigor based primarily on chlorophyll content. Chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) measurements offer a non-destructive alternative and a more direct approach for diagnosis of vegetation stress before a significant reduction in chlorophyll content has occurred. Thus, technology based on ChlF may allow more accurate carbon sequestration estimates and earlier stress detection than is possible when using reflectance data alone. However, the observed apparent vegetation reflectance (Ra) in reality includes contributions from both the reflected and fluoresced radiation. The aim of this study is to determine the relative contributions of reflectance and ChlF fractions to Ra in the red to near-infrared region (650-800 nm) of the spectrum. The practical objectives of the study are to: 1) evaluate the relationship between ChlF and reflectance at the foliar level for corn, soybean and maple; and 2) for corn, determine if the relationship established for healthy vegetation changes under nitrogen (N) deficiency. To obtain generally applicable results, experimental measurements were conducted on unrelated crop and tree species (corn, soybean and maple) under controlled conditions and a gradient of inorganic N fertilization levels. Optical reflectance spectra and actively induced ChlF emissions were collected on the same foliar samples, in conjunction with measurements of photosynthetic function, pigment levels, and carbon (C) and N content. The spectral trends were examined for similarities. On average, 10-20% of Ra at 685 nm was actually due to ChlF. The spectral trends in steady state and maximum fluorescence varied significantly, with steady state fluorescence (especially red, 685 nm) showing higher ability for species and treatment separation. The relative contribution of ChlF to Ra varied significantly among species, with maple

  9. Canopy Modeling of Aquatic Vegetation: Construction of Submerged Vegetation Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Z.; Zhou, G.

    2018-04-01

    The unique spectral characteristics of submerged vegetation in wetlands determine that the conventional terrestrial vegetation index cannot be directly employed to species identification and parameter inversion of submerged vegetation. Based on the Aquatic Vegetation Radiative Transfer model (AVRT), this paper attempts to construct an index suitable for submerged vegetation, the model simulated data and a scene of Sentinel-2A image in Taihu Lake, China are utilized for assessing the performance of the newly constructed indices and the existent vegetation indices. The results show that the angle index composed by 525 nm, 555 nm and 670 nm can resist the effects of water columns and is more sensitive to vegetation parameters such as LAI. Furthermore, it makes a well discrimination between submerged vegetation and water bodies in the satellite data. We hope that the new index will provide a theoretical basis for future research.

  10. Identification of vegetable oil botanical speciation in refined vegetable oil blends using an innovative combination of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Maria Teresa; Haughey, Simon A; Elliott, Christopher T; Koidis, Anastasios

    2015-12-15

    European Regulation 1169/2011 requires producers of foods that contain refined vegetable oils to label the oil types. A novel rapid and staged methodology has been developed for the first time to identify common oil species in oil blends. The qualitative method consists of a combination of a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to profile the oils and fatty acid chromatographic analysis to confirm the composition of the oils when required. Calibration models and specific classification criteria were developed and all data were fused into a simple decision-making system. The single lab validation of the method demonstrated the very good performance (96% correct classification, 100% specificity, 4% false positive rate). Only a small fraction of the samples needed to be confirmed with the majority of oils identified rapidly using only the spectroscopic procedure. The results demonstrate the huge potential of the methodology for a wide range of oil authenticity work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of Posa and Posa-like virus genomes in fecal samples from humans, pigs, rats, and bats collected from a single location in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Munnink, Bas B.; Phan, My V. T.; Simmonds, Peter; Koopmans, Marion P. G.; Kellam, Paul; van der Hoek, Lia; Cotten, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Porcine stool-associated RNA virus (posavirus), and Human stool-associated RNA virus (husavirus) are viruses in the order Picornavirales recently described in porcine and human fecal samples. The tentative group (Posa and Posa-like viruses: PPLVs) also includes fish stool-associated RNA virus

  12. A single-centre experience of the implementation of adrenal vein sampling procedure: the impact on the diagnostic work-up in primary aldosteronism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadziela, J.; Prejbisz, A.; Michalowska, I.; Kolodziejczyk-Kruk, S.; Schultze Kool, L.J.; Kabat, M.; Janaszek-Sitkowska, H.; Toutounchi, S.; Galazka, Z.; Ambroziak, U.; Bednarczuk, T.; Ptasinska-Wnuk, D.; Hoffmann, M.; Januszewicz, M.; Januszewicz, A.; Witkowski, A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary aldosteronism is one of the most common causes of secondary hypertension. Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) remains a "gold standard" procedure in differentiation between unilateral (adenoma) and bilateral (hyperplasia) disease. AIM: The aim of this study was to present our

  13. Environmental behavior of technetium in soil and vegetation: implications for radiological impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, F.O.

    1982-04-01

    Significant radiological exposures have been estimated for hypothetical atmospheric releases of Tc-99 from gaseous diffusion facilities when vegetation-to-soil concentration ratios representative of laboratory experiments are substituted for generic default values assumed in current regulatory models. To test the relevancy of these laboratory ratios, field investigations were conducted to obtain measurements of the vegetation-to-soil concentration ratio for Tc-99 in samples collected near operating gaseous diffusion facilities and to observe the dynamic behavior of technetium in soil and vegetation following a single application of a sprayed solution of /sup 95m/TcO 4 - Comparison of observed field concentration ratios and calculated steady-state concentration ratios with ratios obtained from previous laboratory experiments indicates that concentration ratios obtained from field data are one to two orders of magnitude less than those obtained from the laboratory. Furthermore, a substantial accumulation of technetium in soil and vegetation may not occur over long periods of time, since concentrations of technetium in both environmental media were observed to decrease with time subsequent to initial application of /sup 95m/TcO 4 -

  14. Flavonoids as fruit and vegetable intake biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz

    of fruit and vegetable intakes. In Paper I, the urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids in morning spot urine (i.e. all urine voids from midnight including the first morning void) was also found to respond to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables. However, the association was somewhat...... weaker than in 24h urine samples, indicating that the 24h urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids is a stronger biomarker of the intake of fruit and vegetables than the urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids in morning spot urine. In Paper II, the biokinetic profiles of some of the most important dietary......-individual variation in the absorption and urinary recovery of the flavonoids, and this makes it very difficult to separate individuals according to intake by use of the flavonoid biomarker in urine. The intra-individual variation was on the contrary low, and Paper II therefore supports the assumption, that 24h...

  15. Flavonoids as fruit and vegetable intake biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz

    calculation of the bivariate correlation coefficients is the common approach when using only one reference method. Back in 2002, a strictly controlled dietary intervention study indicated that the sum of 7 different flavonoid aglycones excreted in 24h urine samples potentially could be used as a biomarker...... and cohort studies. The Ph.D. thesis contains four scientific papers. Paper I provides evidence that the sum of 7 flavonoids in 24h urine respond in a linear and sensitive manner to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables, and thus consolidates that the flavonoids are a valid biomarker...... of fruit and vegetable intakes. In Paper I, the urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids in morning spot urine (i.e. all urine voids from midnight including the first morning void) was also found to respond to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables. However, the association was somewhat...

  16. Impact of maternal BMI and sampling strategy on the concentration of leptin, insulin, ghrelin and resistin in breast milk across a single feed: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Nicholas J; Hyde, Matthew J; Herbert, Bronwen R; Jeffries, Suzan; Santhakumaran, Shalini; Mandalia, Sundhiya; Holmes, Elaine; Modi, Neena

    2016-07-07

    We tested the hypothesis that there is a positive association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and the concentration of appetite-regulating hormones leptin, insulin, ghrelin and resistin in breast milk. We also aimed to describe the change in breast milk hormone concentration within each feed, and over time. Mothers were recruited from the postpartum ward at a university hospital in London. Breast milk samples were collected at the participants' homes. We recruited 120 healthy, primiparous, breastfeeding mothers, aged over 18 years. Mothers who smoked, had multiple births or had diabetes were excluded. Foremilk and hindmilk samples were collected from 105 women at 1 week postpartum and 92 women at 3 months postpartum. We recorded maternal and infant anthropometric measurements at each sample collection and measured hormone concentrations using a multiplex assay. The concentration of leptin in foremilk correlated with maternal BMI at the time of sample collection, at 7 days (r=0.31, p=0.02) and 3 months postpartum (r=0.30, p=milk ghrelin and resistin were not correlated with maternal BMI. Ghrelin concentrations at 3 months postpartum were increased in foremilk compared with hindmilk (p=0.01). Concentrations of ghrelin were increased in hindmilk collected at 1  week postpartum compared with samples collected at 3 months postpartum (p=0.03). A trend towards decreased insulin concentrations in hindmilk was noted. Concentrations of leptin and resistin were not seen to alter over a feed. A positive correlation between maternal BMI and foremilk leptin concentration at both time points studied, and foremilk insulin at 3 months postpartum was observed. This may have implications for infant appetite regulation and obesity risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Increasing fruit and vegetable intake among male university students in an ad libitum buffet setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsbak, Ida; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Køpke Nielsen, Brit

    2016-01-01

    one-day lunch meal study was conducted in a FoodScape Laboratory where an Intelligent Buffet was used to register the exact weight of each meal component self-served by each participant. A convenience sample of 65 men was divided to a control group (n= 32) and an intervention group (n= 33). The choice......-served fruit and vegetables and decrease consumption of other meal components among male university students. Such simple choice architecture interventions could be used as a supplement to already existing strategies in the promotion of healthy eating....... due to the complexity of determinants for food choices and more research is therefore needed. This study assessed the of a choice architectural intervention aimed at reducing energy density of meals consumed by male university students, by proportionally increasing their vegetable consumption.A single...

  18. Qualitative screening method for pesticide residues detection in fruits and vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Mauricio Huérfano Barco

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the importance of developing methodologies that allow agricultural residues analysis, a rapid screening qualitative method for the determination of pesticides residues in fruits and vegetables was validated. The methodology was based on the European QuEChERS extraction method with an additional cleaning step by gel permeation chromatography (GPC, which helped to reduce the number of matrix components in the final extract. The analysis was carried out by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with a single quadrupole analyzer. The methodology was appropriate for the qualitative analysis of 31 pesticides at their respective maximum residue limits. Consistent results were obtained with respect to a quantitative routine methodology in the analysis of real samples, hence the methodology was proven to be a good alternative for the fast analysis of these contaminants in fruits and vegetables.

  19. Review of Vegetable Market Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaoping; LUO; Yuandong; NI; Qiong; ZHAI

    2013-01-01

    This paper has reviewed vegetable market development from vegetable circulation system, the develop history of the liberalize vegetable market and the growth of the vegetable wholesale market in China. From the development of vegetables market in China and its characteristics: the development of vegetable market in China is related to vegetable market system, the change of institution, some technology development and infrastructure. this paper has put forward some related measures to perfect the vegetable market and improve the vegetable circulation efficiency in China.

  20. Risk elements in selected types of vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľuboš Harangozo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable has an important role in human nutrition. Various parts of the plants have been part of the human diet since the beginning. Vegetables have a number of properties that make its consumption very healthful. It not only is a good source of vitamins, minerals and fiber but also contains protective components so called phytonutrients, has an antioxidant and antimicrobial effects. Daily intake of vegetables offers many health benefits, helps to improve health for example the function of digestive and immune system, reduces the risk of various diseases and so we should take care to its regular consumption. It is widely used, except that it is the basic raw material for the preparation of foods and is also an important raw material for the processing industry. Nowadays has become environmental pollution by heavy metals as a big problem. The contamination of water, soil as well as air pollution by heavy metals negatively affects agricultural production and production of non-harmful to health, safe and quality food, which may be adverse effects on human health. Therefore, it is important that we devote this issue more attention. The aim of this work was to identify and determine content of heavy metals in selected vegetables. Defined objectives have been achieved by analyzing of selected species samples of root from brassica vegetables: carrot (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus, parsley (Petroselinum hortesne HOFFM conv. radicosum, kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea L. var. gongylodes, celery (Apium graveolens L. var. rapaceum and beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. var. conditiva ssp. vulgaris. The crops were bought in local market. The obtained results were compared with the results obtained from analyzes of vegetables that were grown in home conditions respectively from markets of local growers. All crops were grown in Slovak Republic. By using Varian AA 240FS and AAS method were analyzed the contents of risk metals in selected vegetables. It was confirmed that

  1. Heavy metal pollution of vegetable crops irrigated with wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    144) and edible parts of both exotic and traditional vegetables (samples = 240) irrigated with wastewater from some parts of Accra were studied. The concentrations of heavy metals in mg/l were quantified in wastewater from Accra and ...

  2. Knowledge and Intake of Fruit and Vegetables Consumption among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    This study therefore aimed at assessing the knowledge and intake of vegetables .... made of the list of the 17 LGA in Plateau State, by simple random sampling by ... Quantitative data were presented using, mean and standard deviation while ...

  3. Monitoring Plan for Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The power point presentation has as objective of the study is monitoring in fruits and vegetables species, chemical submit higher risk for the consumer and for the purpose of establishing an order of priority in the products sampled

  4. Detection of viruses in seeds of some vegetables by reverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    my mord

    samples for each vegetable obtained from various foundations and farmers were tested ... 3892 Afr. J. Biotechnol. ... reduction in yield and germination, changes in shape and ... incubated for 4 h at 37°C. After this period, plates were washed.

  5. Cruciferous Vegetables and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... case-control studies have found that people who ate greater amounts of cruciferous vegetables had a lower ... Professionals’ Follow-up Study—showed that women who ate more than 5 servings of cruciferous vegetables per ...

  6. [Detection of Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis in cyst samples using a novel single tube multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Hüseyin; İnceboz, Tonay; Caner, Ayşe; Atalay Şahar, Esra; Karakavuk, Muhammet; Döşkaya, Mert; Çelebi, Fehmi; Değirmenci Döşkaya, Aysu; Gülçe İz, Sultan; Gürüz, Yüksel; Korkmaz, Metin

    2016-04-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis, respectively, are important helminthic diseases worldwide as well as in our country. Epidemiological studies conducted in Turkey showed that the prevalence of CE is 291-585/100.000. It has also been showed that the seroprevalence of AE is 3.5%. For the diagnosis of CE and AE, radiological (ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance) and serological methods, in addition to clinical findings, are being used. The definitive diagnosis relies on pathological examination When the hydatid cysts are sterile or does not contain protoscolex, problems may occur during pathological discrimination of E.granulosus and E.multilocularis species. In this study, we aimed to develop a novel multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (M-RT-PCR) targeting mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene of E.granulosus and E.multilocularis using Echi S (5'-TTTATGAATATTGTGACCCTGAGAT-3') and Echi A (5'-GGTCTTAACTCAACTCATGGAG-3') primers and three different probes; Anchor Ech (5'-GTTTGCCACCTCGATGTTGACTTAG-fluoroscein-3'), Granulosus (5'-LC640-CTAAGGTTTTGGTGTAGTAATTGATATTTT-phosphate-3') and Multilocularis (5'-LC705-CTGTGATCTTGGTGTAGTAGTTGAGATT-phosphate-3') that will enable the diagnosis of CE and AE in same assay. During M-RTR-PCR, plasmids containing E.granulosus (GenBank: AF297617.1) and E.multilocularis (GenBank: NC_000928.2) mitochondrial 12S rRNA regions were used as positive controls. Cysts samples of patients which were pathologically confirmed to be CE (n: 10) and AE (n: 15) and healthy human DNA samples (n: 25) as negative control as well as DNA samples of 12 different parasites (Taenia saginata, Hymenolepis nana, Trichuris trichiura, Fasciola hepatica, Enterobius vermicularis, Toxoplasma gondii, Pneumocystis jirovecii, Trichomonas vaginalis, Cryptosporidium hominis, Strongyloides stercoralis, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax) were used to develop M

  7. Comparison of vegetation roughness descriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Huthoff, Freek; van Velzen, E.H.; Altinakar, M.S.; Kokpinar, M.A.; Aydin, I.; Cokgor, S.; Kirkgoz, S.

    2008-01-01

    Vegetation roughness is an important parameter in describing flow through river systems. Vegetation impedes the flow, which affects the stage-discharge curve and may increase flood risks. Roughness is often used as a calibration parameter in river models, however when vegetation is allowed to

  8. Polyol-enhanced dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography and nitrogen phosphorous detection for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides from aqueous samples, fruit juices, and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Afshar Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza; Alizadeh Nabil, Ali Akbar

    2015-12-01

    Polyol-enhanced dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction has been proposed for the extraction and preconcentration of some organophosphorus pesticides from different samples. In the present study, a high volume of an aqueous phase containing a polyol (sorbitol) is prepared and then a disperser solvent along with an extraction solvent is rapidly injected into it. Sorbitol showed the best results and it was more effective on the extraction recoveries of the analytes than inorganic salts such as sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and sodium sulfate. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the method showed low limits of detection and quantification within the ranges of 12-56 and 44-162 pg/mL, respectively. Enrichment factors and extraction recoveries were in the ranges of 2799-3033 and 84-92%, respectively. The method precision was evaluated at a concentration of 10 ng/mL of each analyte, and relative standard deviations were found to be less than 5.9% for intraday (n = 6) and less than 7.8% for interday (n = 4). Finally, some aqueous samples were successfully analyzed using the proposed method and four analytes (diazinon, dimethoate, chlorpyrifos, and phosalone) were determined, some of them at ng/mL level. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Single-step reinforced microextraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil samples using an inside needle capillary adsorption trap with electropolymerized aniline/multi-walled carbon nanotube sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasvand, Ali Reza; Yazdankhah, Fatemeh

    2017-03-03

    A polyaniline/multi-wall carbon nanotubes (PANI/MWCNT) composite was electrodeposited on the interior surface of a platinized stainless steel capillary needle and used to prepare an inside needle capillary adsorption trap (INCAT) device. The platinization expanded the interior adsorbing surface of the needle and made it more porous and cohesive for nanocomposite film. The nanocomposite was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The fabricated INCAT was fixed into a cooling capsule to fabricate a cooling-assisted INCAT (CA-INCAT) system. The CA-INCAT device was used to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from solid samples followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) determination. To obtain the best extraction efficiency, the important experimental variables were studied and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) for the studied PAHs were in the range of 0.002-0.02ngg -1 . Linear dynamic ranges (LDRs) for the calibration curves were found to be 0.1-30,000ngg -1 . Relative standard deviations (RSDs%) for six replicated analysis of 1ngg -1 PAHs were obtained 7.7-11%. The CA-INCAT-GC-FID method was successfully applied for the extraction and determination of PAHs in contaminated soil samples. The results were in agreement with those obtained by a validated ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction (UA-SE) method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Foodborne pathogens and their risk exposure factors associated with farm vegetables in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ssemanda, James Noah; Reij, Martine W.; Middendorp, van Gerrieke; Bouw, El; Plaats, van der Rozemarijn; Franz, Eelco; Muvunyi, Claude Mambo; Bagabe, Mark Cyubahiro; Zwietering, Marcel H.; Joosten, Han

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we tested farm vegetables and agricultural water for the presence of foodborne pathogens, and evaluated farming practices of vegetable farms in Rwanda. Farm vegetable samples were found to be contaminated with foodborne pathogens at considerably high rate (overall 15/99 = 15%).

  11. Variation in herbaceous vegetation and soil moisture under treated and untreated oneseed juniper trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector Ramirez; Alexander Fernald; Andres Cibils; Michelle Morris; Shad Cox; Michael Rubio

    2008-01-01

    Clearing oneseed juniper (Juniperus monosperma) may make more water available for aquifer recharge or herbaceous vegetation growth, but the effects of tree treatment on soil moisture dynamics are not fully understood. This study investigated juniper treatment effects on understory herbaceous vegetation concurrently with soil moisture dynamics using vegetation sampling...

  12. Be-7 concentration in garden and wild vegetables in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobuhiko Ito; Iwao Kunugijama; Yoshinori Furukawa.

    1996-01-01

    Beryllium-7 is a natural radionuclide produced by cosmic rays. Be-7 is found vividly in the atmosphere, so the concentrations in airborne particles were analyzed by many investigators. It is known that airborne particles with Be-7 in the atmosphere fall slowly to the ground and adhere to plant surface. However, Be-7 concentrations of foods were not measured too much. So we measured Be-7 concentrations of garden vegetables, wild vegetables, grasses, beef and milk, and calculated internal exposure dose from Be-7. Beryllium-7 concentrations of plant samples are shown. Beryllium-7 concentrations of garden vegetables were from 0.2 to 25.3 Bq/kg, and concentrations of wild vegetables were from 0.8 to 23.5 Bq/kg. There is no difference in Be-7 concentrations between garden vegetables and wild vegetables. Leaf vegetables have almost higher concentration of Be-7. Though Matteuccia Struthiopteris and Pteridium aquilinum are ferns, their eatable stages are sprouts. The relationship between surface area and Be-7 concentration in some vegetable leaves gathered simultaneously at the same farm is shown. Beryllium-7 concentrations of leaves correlate significantly with the surface area/weight ratios. What high concentration vegetables have proportionately broad leaves suggests that atmospheric Be-7 particles adhere to surface of leaves. (author)

  13. An evaluation of a single-step extraction chromatography separation method for Sm-Nd isotope analysis of micro-samples of silicate rocks by high-sensitivity thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chaofeng; Li Xianhua; Li Qiuli; Guo Jinghui; Li Xianghui; Liu Tao

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Distribution curve of all eluting fractions for a BCR-2 (1-2-3.5-7 mg) on LN column using HCl and HF as eluting reagent. Highlights: → This analytical protocol affords a simple and rapid analysis for Sm and Nd isotope in minor rock samples. → The single-step separation method exhibits satisfactory separation effect for complex silicate samples. → Corrected 143 Nd/ 144 Nd data show excellent accuracy even if the 140 Ce 16 O + / 144 Nd 16 O + ratio reached to 0.03. - Abstract: A single-step separation scheme is presented for Sm-Nd radiogenic isotope system on very small samples (1-3 mg) of silicate rock. This method is based on Eichrom LN Spec chromatographic material and affords a straightforward separation of Sm-Nd from complex matrix with good purity and satisfactory blank levels, suitable for thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). This technique, characterized by high efficiency (single-step Sm-Nd separation) and high sensitivity (TIMS on NdO + ion beam), is able to process rapidly (3-4 h), with low procedure blanks ( 143 Nd/ 144 Nd ratios and Sm-Nd concentrations are presented for eleven international silicate rock reference materials, spanning a wide range of Sm-Nd contents and bulk compositions. The analytical results show a good agreement with recommended values within ±0.004% for the 143 Nd/ 144 Nd isotopic ratio and ±2% for Sm-Nd quantification at the 95% confidence level. It is noted that the uncertainty of this method is about 3 times larger than typical precision achievable with two-stage full separation followed by state-of-the-art conventional TIMS using Nd + ion beams which require much larger amounts of Nd. Hence, our single-step separation followed by NdO + ion beam technique is preferred to the analysis for microsamples.

  14. Concurrent validity and sensitivity to change of Direct Behavior Rating Single-Item Scales (DBR-SIS) within an elementary sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rhonda L; Eklund, Katie; Kilgus, Stephen P

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concurrent validity, sensitivity to change, and teacher acceptability of Direct Behavior Rating single-item scales (DBR-SIS), a brief progress monitoring measure designed to assess student behavioral change in response to intervention. Twenty-four elementary teacher-student dyads implemented a daily report card intervention to promote positive student behavior during prespecified classroom activities. During both baseline and intervention, teachers completed DBR-SIS ratings of 2 target behaviors (i.e., Academic Engagement, Disruptive Behavior) whereas research assistants collected systematic direct observation (SDO) data in relation to the same behaviors. Five change metrics (i.e., absolute change, percent of change from baseline, improvement rate difference, Tau-U, and standardized mean difference; Gresham, 2005) were calculated for both DBR-SIS and SDO data, yielding estimates of the change in student behavior in response to intervention. Mean DBR-SIS scores were predominantly moderately to highly correlated with SDO data within both baseline and intervention, demonstrating evidence of the former's concurrent validity. DBR-SIS change metrics were also significantly correlated with SDO change metrics for both Disruptive Behavior and Academic Engagement, yielding evidence of the former's sensitivity to change. In addition, teacher Usage Rating Profile-Assessment (URP-A) ratings indicated they found DBR-SIS to be acceptable and usable. Implications for practice, study limitations, and areas of future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Association between a disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) single nucleotide polymorphism and schizophrenia in a combined Scandinavian case-control sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saetre, Peter; Agartz, Ingrid; De Franciscis, Alessandra

    2008-01-01

    Disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 (DISC1), located on chromosome 1q42.1, is linked to rare familial schizophrenia in a large Scottish family. The chromosomal translocation that segregates with the disease results in a truncated protein that impairs neurite outgrowth and proper development...... of the cerebral cortex, suggesting that lost DISC1 function may underlie neurodevelopmental dysfunction in schizophrenia. DISC1 has been associated with schizophrenia in multiple populations, but there is little evidence of convergence across populations. In the present case-control study three Scandinavian...... after correction for multiple testing. However, the minor allele of rs3737597 (frequency 2%) in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR), previously identified as a risk allele in Finnish families, was significantly and consistently associated with the disorder across the three samples, (p-value corrected...

  16. Métodos de extração e qualidade da fração lipídica de matérias-primas de origem vegetal e animal Extraction methods and quality of the lipid fraction of vegetable and animal samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aelson Aloir Santana Brum

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Methodologies of extraction of lipids from chicken breast and oats flakes were evaluated: Soxhlet, Folch et al., Bligh & Dyer and Hara & Radin. For chicken breast, the methods Soxhlet, Folch et al. and Bligh & Dyer presented the highest yields in total lipids. With oat flakes, the methods Soxhlet and Bligh & Dyer presented higher yields than the Hara & Radin and Folch et al. The Soxhlet method affected the quality of the lipid fraction in both samples. Extracted lipid components were separated by thin layer chromatography, the chloroform-methanol based was more efficient to extract the neutral and polar lipids.

  17. Porosity, single-phase permeability, and capillary pressure data from preliminary laboratory experiments on selected samples from Marker Bed 139 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 1 of 3: Main report, appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, S.M.; Christian-Frear, T.

    1997-08-01

    Three groups of core samples from Marker Bed 139 of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were analyzed to provide data to support the development of numerical models used to predict the long-term hydrologic and structural response of the WIPP repository. These laboratory experiments, part of the FY93 Experimental Scoping Activities of the Salado Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program, were designed to (1) generate WIPP-specific porosity and single-phase permeability data, (2) provide information needed to design and implement planned tests to measure two-phase flow properties, including threshold pressure, capillary pressure, and relative permeability, and (3) evaluate the suitability of using analog correlations for the Salado Formation to assess the long-term performance of the WIPP. This report contains a description of the boreholes core samples, the core preparation techniques used, sample sizes, testing procedures, test conditions, and results of porosity and single-phase permeability tests performed at three laboratories: TerraTek, Inc. (Salt Lake City, UT), RE/SPEC, Inc. (Rapid City, SD), and Core Laboratories-Special Core Analysis Laboratory (Carrollton, TX) for Rock Physics Associates. In addition, this report contains the only WIPP-specific two-phase-flow capillary-pressure data for twelve core samples. The WIPP-specific data generated in this laboratory study and in WIPP field-test programs and information from suitable analogs will form the basis for specification of single- and two-phase flow parameters for anhydrite markers beds for WIPP performance assessment calculations.

  18. Porosity, single-phase permeability, and capillary pressure data from preliminary laboratory experiments on selected samples from Marker Bed 139 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 1 of 3: Main report, appendix A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, S.M.; Christian-Frear, T.

    1997-08-01

    Three groups of core samples from Marker Bed 139 of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were analyzed to provide data to support the development of numerical models used to predict the long-term hydrologic and structural response of the WIPP repository. These laboratory experiments, part of the FY93 Experimental Scoping Activities of the Salado Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program, were designed to (1) generate WIPP-specific porosity and single-phase permeability data, (2) provide information needed to design and implement planned tests to measure two-phase flow properties, including threshold pressure, capillary pressure, and relative permeability, and (3) evaluate the suitability of using analog correlations for the Salado Formation to assess the long-term performance of the WIPP. This report contains a description of the boreholes core samples, the core preparation techniques used, sample sizes, testing procedures, test conditions, and results of porosity and single-phase permeability tests performed at three laboratories: TerraTek, Inc. (Salt Lake City, UT), RE/SPEC, Inc. (Rapid City, SD), and Core Laboratories-Special Core Analysis Laboratory (Carrollton, TX) for Rock Physics Associates. In addition, this report contains the only WIPP-specific two-phase-flow capillary-pressure data for twelve core samples. The WIPP-specific data generated in this laboratory study and in WIPP field-test programs and information from suitable analogs will form the basis for specification of single- and two-phase flow parameters for anhydrite markers beds for WIPP performance assessment calculations

  19. DOES FRUIT AND VEGETABLE INTAKE DIFFER IN ADULT FEMALES AND MALES IN ISFAHAN?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Mohammadifard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractINTRODUCTION: Adequate intake of fruits and vegetables (at least five servings a day isrecommended as a nutritional behavior of great importance in prevention of chronicdiseases. This study aimed to compare the intake of fruits and vegetables in adult malesand females of Isfahan and to assess its association with personal and demographic factors,as well as seasons.METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed on 123 healthy adults (64 malesand 59 females during the cold season (fall and winter and warm seasons (spring andsummer. Study samples were aged 30 to 60 years and were residents of Isfahan. Fruit andvegetable consumption was assessed using a 110-item semi-quantitative food frequencyquestionnaire on fruits and vegetables. Validity of the questionnaire was evaluated in a pilotstudy through comparison with two 24-hour food recalls and four food diaries. Meanconsumption of fruits and vegetables was analyzed in males and females, as well as in ageand educational groups. The relationship between the amount of fruit and vegetableconsumption and different factors including age, sex, level of education and occupation wasdetermined through stepwise linear regression.RESULTS: Mean fruit consumption in men and women in cold seasons was 275.3±100.8and 234.5±116.5 grams per day, respectively (P<0.05, and in warm seasons 217.6±95.5and 185.3±77.1 grams per day, respectively (P<0.05. Vegetable consumption in men andwomen in cold seasons was 291.5±93.5 and 245.7±76.6 grams per day, respectively(P<0.05 and in warm season 197±76.3 and 166.4±60.7 grams per day, respectively(P<0.05. The proportion of men who consumed more than 5 servings of fruits andvegetables in a day was significantly greater than women (P<0.05. Fruit and vegetableintake in men educated below junior school and high school was significantly higher than intheir female counterparts (P<0.05. Fruit and vegetable intake in single men wassignificantly lower than in their female

  20. Detection of 17 β-Estradiol in Environmental Samples and for Health Care Using a Single-Use, Cost-Effective Biosensor Based on Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yifan; Liu, Chung Chiun

    2017-03-29

    Environmental estrogen pollution and estrogen effects on the female reproductive system are well recognized scientifically. Among the estrogens, 17 β-estradiol is a priority in environmental estrogen pollution, and it is also a major contributor to estrogen which regulates the female reproductive system. 17 β-estradiol is carcinogenic and has a tumor promotion effect relating to breast cancer, lung cancer and others. It also affects psychological well-being such as depression, fatigue and others. Thus, a simple method of detecting 17 β-estradiol will be important for both environmental estrogen pollution and health care. This study demonstrates a single-use, cost-effective 17 β-estradiol biosensor system which can be used for both environmental and health care applications. The bio-recognition mechanism is based on the influence of the redox couple, K₃Fe(CN)₆/K₄Fe(CN)₆ by the interaction between 17 β-estradiol antigen and its α-receptor (ER-α; α-estrogen antibody). The transduction mechanism is an electrochemical analytical technique, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The levels of 17 β-estradiol antigen studied were between 2.25 pg/mL and 2250 pg/mL; Phosphate buffered saline (PBS), tap water from the Cleveland regional water district, and simulated urine were used as the test media covering the potential application areas for 17 β-estradiol detection. An interference study by testosterone, which has a similar chemical structure and molecular weight as those of 17 β-estradiol, was carried out, and this 17 β-estradiol biosensor showed excellent specificity without any interference by similar chemicals.

  1. Biological effects of fruit and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragsted, Lars O; Krath, Britta; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Vogel, Ulla B; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Bo Jensen, Per; Loft, Steffen; Rasmussen, Salka E; Sandstrom, The late BrittMarie; Pedersen, Anette

    2006-02-01

    A strong and persistent effect of plant-derived foods on the prevention of lifestyle diseases has emerged from observational studies. Several groups of constituents in plants have been identified as potentially health promoting in animal studies, including cholesterol-lowering factors, antioxidants, enzyme inducers, apoptosis inducers etc. In human intervention studies the dose levels achieved tend to be lower than the levels found to be effective in animals and sampling from target organs is often not possible. A controlled dietary human intervention study was performed with forty-three volunteers, providing 600 g fruit and vegetables/d or in the controls a carbohydrate-rich drink to balance energy intake. Surrogate markers of oxidative damage to DNA, protein and lipids, enzymic defence and lipid metabolism were determined in blood and urine. It was found that a high intake of fruit and vegetables tends to increase the stability of lipids towards oxidative damage. Markers of oxidative enzymes indicate a steady increase in glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) activity in erythrocytes during intervention with fruit and vegetables but there is no effect on GPX1 transcription levels in leucocytes. No change occurs in glutathione-conjugating or -reducing enzyme activities in erythrocytes or plasma, and there are no effects on the transcription of genes involved in phase 2 enzyme induction or DNA repair in leucocytes. Fruit and vegetable intake decreases the level of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, but does not affect sex hormones. In conclusion, it has been shown that total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, markers of peripheral lipid oxidation, and erythrocyte GPX1 activity are affected by high intakes of fruit and vegetables. This finding provides support for a protective role of dietary fruit and vegetables against CVD.

  2. P35 and P22 Toxoplasma gondii antigens abbreviate regions to diagnose acquired toxoplasmosis during pregnancy: toward single-sample assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Juan G; Peretti, Leandro E; García, Valeria S; Peverengo, Luz; González, Verónica D G; Gugliotta, Luis M; Dalla Fontana, Maria L; Lagier, Claudia M; Marcipar, Iván S

    2017-03-01

    P35 and P22 Toxoplasma gondii proteins are recognized by specific IgG at the early infection stage, making them ideal for acute toxoplasmosis pregnancy control. Both proteins have been studied to discriminate between acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. However, results were hardly comparable because different protein obtainment procedures led to different antigens, the reference panels used were not optimally typified, and avidity tests were either not performed or narrowly examined. We bioinformatically predicted P35 and P22 regions with the highest density of epitopes, and expressed them in pET32/BL21DE3 alternative expression system, obtaining the soluble proteins rP35a and rP22a. We assessed their diagnostic performance using pregnant woman serum samples typified as: not infected, NI (IgG-, IgM-), typical-chronic, TC (IgM-, IgG+), presumably acute, A (IgG+, IgM+, low-avidity IgG), and recently chronic, RC (IgG+, IgM+, high-avidity IgG). rP35a performed better than rP22a to differentiate A from RC, the areas under the curve (AUC) being 0.911 and 0.818, respectively. They, however, performed similarly to differentiate A from TC+RC (AUC: 0.915 and 0.907, respectively). rP35a and rP22a evaluation by avidity ELISA to discriminate A from RC rendered AUC values of 0.974 and 0.921, respectively. The indirect ELISA and avidity ELISA results analyzed in tandem were consistent with those obtained using commercial kits. rP35a and rP22a features suggest that, with complementary use, they could replace parasite lysate for toxoplasmosis infection screening and for acute toxoplasmosis diagnosis. Our proposal should be validated by a longitudinal study and may lead to a reliable toxoplasmosis pregnancy control, performing tests in only one serum sample.

  3. Universal nucleic acids sample preparation method for cells, spores and their mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavykin, Sergei [Darien, IL

    2011-01-18

    The present invention relates to a method for extracting nucleic acids from biological samples. More specifically the invention relates to a universal method for extracting nucleic acids from unidentified biological samples. An advantage of the presently invented method is its ability to effectively and efficiently extract nucleic acids from a variety of different cell types including but not limited to prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells and/or recalcitrant organisms (i.e. spores). Unlike prior art methods which are focused on extracting nucleic acids from vegetative cell or spores, the present invention effectively extracts nucleic acids from spores, multiple cell types or mixtures thereof using a single method. Important that the invented method has demonstrated an ability to extract nucleic acids from spores and vegetative bacterial cells with similar levels effectiveness. The invented method employs a multi-step protocol which erodes the cell structure of the biological sample, isolates, labels, fragments nucleic acids and purifies labeled samples from the excess of dye.

  4. Thermal transfer and apparent-dose distributions in poorly bleached mortar samples: Results from single grains and small aliquots of quartz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, M.; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    2004-01-01

    In the assessment of doses received from a nuclear accident, considerable attention has been paid to retrospective dosimetry using the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of heated materials such as bricks and tiles. Quartz extracted from these artefacts was heated during manufacture;, this p......In the assessment of doses received from a nuclear accident, considerable attention has been paid to retrospective dosimetry using the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of heated materials such as bricks and tiles. Quartz extracted from these artefacts was heated during manufacture......;, this process releases all the prior trapped charge and simultaneously sensitises the quartz. Unfortunately unheated materials such as mortar and concrete are more common in industrial sites and particularly in nuclear installations. These materials are usually exposed to daylight during quarrying...... dosimetry. The challenge in using such materials as retrospective dosemeters, is in identifying these well-bleached grains when an accident dose has been superimposed on the original dose distribution. We investigate here, using OSL, the background dose in three different mortar samples: render, whitewash...

  5. Phenolation of vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN S. PETROVIĆ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel bio-based compounds containing phenols suitable for the syn­thesis of polyurethanes were prepared. The direct alkylation of phenols with different vegetable oils in the presence of superacids (HBF4, triflic acid as ca­talysts was studied. The reaction kinetics was followed by monitoring the de­crease of the double bond content (iodine value with time. In order to under­stand the mechanism of the reaction, phenol was alkylated with model com­pounds. The model compounds containing one internal double bond were 9-oc­tadecene and methyl oleate and those with three double bonds were triolein and high oleic safflower oil (82 % oleic acid. It was shown that the best structures for phenol alkylation are fatty acids with only one double bond (oleic acid. Fatty acids with two double bonds (linoleic acid and three double bonds (lino­lenic acid lead to polymerized oils by a Diels–Alder reaction, and to a lesser extent to phenol alkylated products. The reaction product of direct alkylation of phenol with vegetable oils is a complex mixture of phenol alkylated with poly­merized oil (30–60 %, phenyl esters formed by transesterification of phenol with triglyceride ester bonds (<10 % and unreacted oil (30 %. The phenolated vegetable oils are new aromatic–aliphatic bio-based raw materials suitable for the preparation of polyols (by propoxylation, ethoxylation, Mannich reactions for the preparation of polyurethanes, as intermediates for phenolic resins or as bio-based antioxidants.

  6. Synthesis and characterisation of nano structure lead (II) ion-imprinted polymer as a new sorbent for selective extraction and preconcentration of ultra trace amounts of lead ions from vegetables, rice, and fish samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, Mohammad; Bagheri, Akbar; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Salarian, Mani; Sadeghi, Omid; Adlnasab, Laleh; Jalali, Kobra

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes the preparation of new Pb(II)-imprinted polymeric particles using 2-vinylpyridine as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, 2,2'- azobisisobutyronitrile as the initiator, diphenylcarbazone as the ligand, acetonitril as the solvent, and Pb(NO(3))(2) as the template ion, through bulk polymerisation technique. The imprinted lead ions were removed from the polymeric matrix using 5 mL of HCl (2 mol.L(-1)) as the eluting solvent. The lead ion concentration was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Optimum pH for maximum sorption was obtained at 6.0. Sorption and desorption of Pb(II) ions on the IIP particles were quite fast and achieved fully over 5 min. In the proposed method, the maximum sorbent capacity of the ion-imprinted polymer was calculated to be 75.4 mg g(-1). The preconcentration factor, relative standard deviation, and limit of detection of the method were found to be 245, 2.1%, and 0.42 ng mL(-1), respectively. The prepared ion-imprinted polymer particles have an increased selectivity toward Pb(II) ions over a range of competing metal ions with the same charge and similar ionic radius. This ion-imprinted polymer is an efficient solid phase for extraction and preconcentration of lead ions in complex matrixes. For proving that the proposed method is reliable, a wide range of food samples with different and complex matrixes was used. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoglobulin G avidity techniques for screening of anti: Toxoplasma antibodies among single serum sample pregnant women in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrangiz Rajaii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital toxoplasmosis is that pregnant women acquire the infection during gestation; diagnosis of the acute infection during pregnancy is a complex subject of maternal toxoplasmosis. Thus, the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG and/or IgM Toxoplasma antibodies in a single serum sample drawn during gestation cannot be used to define whether the infection was recently acquired or chronic. Materials and Methods: At this cross-sectional descriptive study, sera of 391 pregnant women examined and compared. They were in an age range of 21-35 years, referred by gynecologists and infectious disease specialists, during March 2012-April 2013. They have referred, 215 (54.98%, 102 (26%, 74 (18.92% in the first, second and third trimesters of gestation, respectively. For each of them, a questionnaire was completed and serum samples were prepared in an equal condition, examined according to the procedures of indirect immunofluorescence (IIF, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and IgG Avidity techniques. Results: We have found 111 (28.38% seronegative and 280 (71.61% seropositive cases by IIF and 124 (31.70% seronegative, 267 (68.28% seropositive cases by ELISA. The IgG avidity test confirmed 45 (69.23% and 7 (10.76% doubtful cases of IgM test in IIF and ELISA techniques. Conclusions: This study highlights how to manage pregnant women with toxoplasmosis, especially in a single serum sample condition.

  8. CT-guided transgluteal biopsy for systematic sampling of the prostate in patients without rectal access: a 13-year single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Michael C; Atwell, Thomas D; Mynderse, Lance A; King, Bernard F; Welch, Timothy; Goenka, Ajit H

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the safety and diagnostic utility of transgluteal CT-guided prostate biopsy for prostate sampling in patients without rectal access. Seventy-three biopsies were performed in 65 patients over a 13-year period (2002-2015). Mean prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at biopsy was 7.8 ng/mL (range 0.37-31.5). Electronic medical records were reviewed for procedural details and complications. Mean PSA and number of cores in malignant and benign cohorts were compared with Student's t test. Technical success rate was 97.3% (71/73; mean cores 8, range 3-28). Of these, 43.6% (31/71) yielded malignancy (mean Gleason score 7, range 6-10) and 56.3% (40/71) yielded benign tissue. The only complication was an asymptomatic periprostatic hematoma (1/73; 1.4%). In 14 patients who underwent surgery, Gleason scores were concordant in 71.4% (10/14) and discordant in 28.6% (4/14; Gleason 6 on biopsy but Gleason 7 on surgical specimen). Mean effective radiation dose was 18.5 mSv (median 15.0, range 4.4-86.2). There was no significant difference in either mean PSA (p = 0.06) or number of core specimens (p = 0.33) between malignant and benign cohorts. CT-guided transgluteal prostate biopsy is highly safe and reliable for the detection of prostate cancer in men without rectal access. • Prostate cancer detection in men without rectal access is challenging. • CT-guided transgluteal prostate biopsy is safe and effective in these patients. • CT-guided biopsy may be particularly effective in diagnosing high-grade prostate cancer. • Unilateral CT-guided biopsy may be effective in patients with focal lesions. • The radiation exposure with this technique is acceptable.

  9. CT-guided transgluteal biopsy for systematic sampling of the prostate in patients without rectal access: a 13-year single-center experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Michael C.; Atwell, Thomas D.; King, Bernard F.; Welch, Timothy; Goenka, Ajit H. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Mynderse, Lance A. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Urology, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2017-08-15

    The purpose of our study was to examine the safety and diagnostic utility of transgluteal CT-guided prostate biopsy for prostate sampling in patients without rectal access. Seventy-three biopsies were performed in 65 patients over a 13-year period (2002-2015). Mean prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at biopsy was 7.8 ng/mL (range 0.37-31.5). Electronic medical records were reviewed for procedural details and complications. Mean PSA and number of cores in malignant and benign cohorts were compared with Student's t test. Technical success rate was 97.3% (71/73; mean cores 8, range 3-28). Of these, 43.6% (31/71) yielded malignancy (mean Gleason score 7, range 6-10) and 56.3% (40/71) yielded benign tissue. The only complication was an asymptomatic periprostatic hematoma (1/73; 1.4%). In 14 patients who underwent surgery, Gleason scores were concordant in 71.4% (10/14) and discordant in 28.6% (4/14; Gleason 6 on biopsy but Gleason 7 on surgical specimen). Mean effective radiation dose was 18.5 mSv (median 15.0, range 4.4-86.2). There was no significant difference in either mean PSA (p = 0.06) or number of core specimens (p = 0.33) between malignant and benign cohorts. CT-guided transgluteal prostate biopsy is highly safe and reliable for the detection of prostate cancer in men without rectal access. (orig.)

  10. The Influence of Labeling the Vegetable Content of Snack Food on Children's Taste Preferences: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Lizzy; Wolf, Randi L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined whether informing children of the presence of vegetables in select snack food items alters taste preference. Methods: A random sample of 68 elementary and middle school children tasted identical pairs of 3 snack food items containing vegetables. In each pair, 1 sample's label included the food's vegetable (eg,…

  11. Heavy metal and microbial loads in sewage irrigated vegetables of Kabul, Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Buerkert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the heavy metal and microbial contamination of vegetables produced in Central Asian cities. We therefore measured the concentration of cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, and zinc (Zn and of faecal pathogens (Coliform bacteria, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Ascaris lubricoides, Entamoeba sp. and pinworms [Oxyuris vermicularis syn. Enterobius vermicularis] in soil, irrigation water, and marketed vegetables of Kabul City, Afghanistan. Leaf Pb and Zn concentrations of leafy vegetables were with 1–5 and 33–160 mg kg^{-1} dry weight (DW several-fold above respective international thresholds of 0.3 mg Pb kg^{-1} and 50 mg Zn kg^{-1}. The tissue concentration of Cu was below threshold limits in all samples except for spinach in one farm. Above-threshold loads of microbes and parasites on vegetables were found in five out of six gardens with coliforms ranging from 0.5–2 × 10^7 cells 100g^{-1} fresh weight (FW, but no Salmonella and Shigella were found. Contamination with 0.2 × 10^7 eggs 100g^{-1} FW of Ascaris was detected on produce of three farms and critical concentrations of Entamoeba in a single case, while Oxyuris vermicularis, and Enterobius vermicularis were found on produce of three and four farms, respectively. Irrigation water had Ascaris, Coliforms, Salmonella, Shigella, Entamoeba, and Oxyuris vermicularis syn. Enterobius vermicularis ranging from 0.35 × 10^7 to 2 × 10^7 cells l^{-1}. The heavy metal and microbial loads on fresh UPA vegetables are likely the result of contamination from rising traffic, residues of the past decades of war and lacking treatment of sewage which needs urgent attention.

  12. Ecosystem engineering varies spatially: a test of the vegetation modification paradigm for prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Bruce W.; Augustine, David J.; Sedgwick, James A.; Lubow, Bruce C.

    2013-01-01

    Colonial, burrowing herbivores can be engineers of grassland and shrubland ecosystems worldwide. Spatial variation in landscapes suggests caution when extrapolating single-place studies of single species, but lack of data and the need to generalize often leads to ‘model system’ thinking and application of results beyond appropriate statistical inference. Generalizations about the engineering effects of prairie dogs (Cynomys sp.) developed largely from intensive study at a single complex of black-tailed prairie dogs C. ludovicianus in northern mixed prairie, but have been extrapolated to other ecoregions and prairie dog species in North America, and other colonial, burrowing herbivores. We tested the paradigm that prairie dogs decrease vegetation volume and the cover of grasses and tall shrubs, and increase bare ground and forb cover. We sampled vegetation on and off 279 colonies at 13 complexes of 3 prairie dog species widely distributed across 5 ecoregions in North America. The paradigm was generally supported at 7 black-tailed prairie dog complexes in northern mixed prairie, where vegetation volume, grass cover, and tall shrub cover were lower, and bare ground and forb cover were higher, on colonies than at paired off-colony sites. Outside the northern mixed prairie, all 3 prairie dog species consistently reduced vegetation volume, but their effects on cover of plant functional groups varied with prairie dog species and the grazing tolerance of dominant perennial grasses. White-tailed prairie dogs C. leucurus in sagebrush steppe did not reduce shrub cover, whereas black-tailed prairie dogs suppressed shrub cover at all complexes with tall shrubs in the surrounding habitat matrix. Black-tailed prairie dogs in shortgrass steppe and Gunnison's prairie dogs C. gunnisoni in Colorado Plateau grassland both had relatively minor effects on grass cover, which may reflect the dominance of grazing-tolerant shortgrasses at both complexes. Variation in modification of

  13. Suppression of vegetation in LANDSAT ETM+ remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Le; Porwal, Alok; Holden, Eun-Jung; Dentith, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Vegetation cover is an impediment to the interpretation of multispectral remote sensing images for geological applications, especially in densely vegetated terrains. In order to enhance the underlying geological information in such terrains, it is desirable to suppress the reflectance component of vegetation. One form of spectral unmixing that has been successfully used for vegetation reflectance suppression in multispectral images is called "forced invariance". It is based on segregating components of the reflectance spectrum that are invariant with respect to a specific spectral index such as the NDVI. The forced invariance method uses algorithms such as software defoliation. However, the outputs of software defoliation are single channel data, which are not amenable to geological interpretations. Crippen and Blom (2001) proposed a new forced invariance algorithm that utilizes band statistics, rather than band ratios. The authors demonstrated the effectiveness of their algorithms on a LANDSAT TM scene from Nevada, USA, especially in open canopy areas in mixed and semi-arid terrains. In this presentation, we report the results of our experimentation with this algorithm on a densely to sparsely vegetated Landsat ETM+ scene. We selected a scene (Path 119, Row 39) acquired on 18th July, 2004. Two study areas located around the city of Hangzhou, eastern China were tested. One of them covers uninhabited hilly terrain characterized by low rugged topography, parts of the hills are densely vegetated; another one covers both inhabited urban areas and uninhabited hilly terrain, which is densely vegetated. Crippen and Blom's algorithm is implemented in the following sequential steps: (1) dark pixel correction; (2) vegetation index calculation; (3) estimation of statistical relationship between vegetation index and digital number (DN) values for each band; (4) calculation of a smooth best-fit curve for the above relationships; and finally, (5) selection of a target average DN

  14. A method for climate and vegetation reconstruction through the inversion of a dynamic vegetation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garreta, Vincent; Guiot, Joel; Hely, Christelle [CEREGE, UMR 6635, CNRS, Universite Aix-Marseille, Europole de l' Arbois, Aix-en-Provence (France); Miller, Paul A.; Sykes, Martin T. [Lund University, Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Geobiosphere Science Centre, Lund (Sweden); Brewer, Simon [Universite de Liege, Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Liege (Belgium); Litt, Thomas [University of Bonn, Paleontological Institute, Bonn (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Climate reconstructions from data sensitive to past climates provide estimates of what these climates were like. Comparing these reconstructions with simulations from climate models allows to validate the models used for future climate prediction. It has been shown that for fossil pollen data, gaining estimates by inverting a vegetation model allows inclusion of past changes in carbon dioxide values. As a new generation of dynamic vegetation model is available we have developed an inversion method for one model, LPJ-GUESS. When this novel method is used with high-resolution sediment it allows us to bypass the classic assumptions of (1) climate and pollen independence between samples and (2) equilibrium between the vegetation, represented as pollen, and climate. Our dynamic inversion method is based on a statistical model to describe the links among climate, simulated vegetation and pollen samples. The inversion is realised thanks to a particle filter algorithm. We perform a validation on 30 modern European sites and then apply the method to the sediment core of Meerfelder Maar (Germany), which covers the Holocene at a temporal resolution of approximately one sample per 30 years. We demonstrate that reconstructed temperatures are constrained. The reconstructed precipitation is less well constrained, due to the dimension considered (one precipitation by season), and the low sensitivity of LPJ-GUESS to precipitation changes. (orig.)

  15. Effects of metals on vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Press, N P

    1972-01-01

    Prospectors have long known that abnormal concentrations of metals in the soil overlying an ore deposit can affect the vegetation rooting in this soil; mineral deposits have even been discovered because of such vegetation changes. Recently, many people have become interested in the possibility of remote sensing such vegetation changes, and perhaps using the results in conjunction with airborne geophysics and photogeological interpretation in integrated prospecting programs.

  16. Vegetation and acidification, Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. DeWalle; James N. Kochenderfer; Mary Beth Adams; Gary W. Miller

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter, the impact of watershed acidification treatments on WS3 at the Fernow Experimental Forest (FEF) and at WS9 on vegetation is presented and summarized in a comprehensive way for the first time. WS7 is used as a vegetative reference basin for WS3, while untreated plots within WS9 are used as a vegetative reference for WS9. Bioindicators of acidification...

  17. Internalisation of microbes in vegetables: microbial load of Ghanaian vegetables and the relationship with different water sources of irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkor, Eric S; Lanyo, R; Kayang, Boniface B; Quaye, Jonathan; Edoh, Dominic A

    2010-09-01

    The occurrence of pathogens in the internal parts of vegetables is usually associated with irrigation water or contaminated soil and could pose risk to consumers as the internalised pathogens are unaffected by external washing. This study was carried out to assess the rate of internalisation of microbes in common Ghanaian vegetables. Standard microbiological methods were employed in microbial enumeration of vegetables collected at the market and farm levels, as well as irrigation water and soil samples. The overall mean counts of vegetables were 4.0 x 10(3) cfu g(-1); 8.1 x 10(2) cfu g(-1); 2.0 x 10(2) cfu g(-1); 3.5 x 10(2) cfu g(-1) for total bacteria, coliform counts, faecal coliform counts and yeast counts, respectively. The rate of internalisation of coliforms in vegetables irrigated with stream/well water was 2.7 times higher than those irrigated with pipe water. The mean coliform counts (4.7 x 10(7) cfu g(-1)) and faecal coliform counts (1.8 x 10(6) cfu g(-1)) of soil samples were similar to those of stream water suggesting both sources exerted similar contamination rates on the vegetables. Generally, there were no significant variations between the rates of internalisation of microbes at the market and farm levels at p vegetables mainly occurred at the farm level. The study has shown that microbial contamination of vegetables in Ghana is not limited to the external surface, but internal vegetable parts could harbour high microbial loads and pose risk to consumers. Safety practices associated with the commodity should therefore not be limited to external washing only. There is the additional need of heating vegetables to eliminate microbes both externally and internally before consumption.

  18. Crestridge Vegetation Map [ds211

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This layer represents vegetation communities in the Department of Fish and Game's Crestridge Ecological Reserve. The County of San Diego, the Conservation Biology...

  19. Encouraging children to eat vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Buh, Alenka

    2014-01-01

    It is important for children to maintain a healthy and balanced diet throughout their childhood and youth. Children tend to skip vegetables in their meals as they are not much liked; the tastes of vegetables are also highly specific and each individual has to get used to them by repeated tasting. The aim of this undergraduate thesis was to analyse how often children eat vegetables, which types of vegetables they like and which they do not, to determine if the executed method of pedagogica...

  20. Central Coast Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — CDF-FRAP compiled the 'best available' land cover data into a single data layer, to support the various analyses required for the 2002 Forest and Range Assessment....

  1. Colorado Desert Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — CDF-FRAP compiled the 'best available' land cover data into a single data layer, to support the various analyses required for the 2002 Forest and Range Assessment....

  2. THE HEAVY METALS CONNTENT IN VEGETABLES FROM MIDDLE SPIŠ AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Slávik,Tomáš Tóth; Július Árvay; Miriama Kopernická; Luboš Harangozo; Radovan Stanovič; Pavol Trebichalský; Petra Kavalcová

    2014-01-01

    In the middle area of Spiš, it is significantly burden by heavy metals what is documented by radical content of Hg in soil from Rudňany 58.583645 mg.kg -1. On the content of heavy metals in vegetables grown in this soil it has the same effect. 61.5% samples exceeded the limit value of heavy metals. The most dangerous vegetables were Lactuca sativa L. The limit value was exceed in all determine heavy metals - Hg, Cd, Pb and Cu in this vegetables. In the case of Hg, the limit value exceed 93.86...

  3. Measurement of 210Po in vegetables of Gudalore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvasekarapandian, S.; Sivakumar, R.; Mugunthamanikandan, N.; Ragunath, V.M.; Meenashisundaram, V.

    1999-01-01

    Intake of 210 Po with food was determined for the population in Gudalore taluka of Nilgiri district. The content of 210 Po in different vegetable samples was determined. The annual intake of 210 Po due different vegetables was estimated on the basis of their average annual consumption. The intake of 210 Po varied from 0.056 to 11.97 Bq/kg. The largest intake of 210 Po was with tapioca. From the intake annual effective dose was calculated. Effective dose equivalent due to polonium in different vegetables varied between 0.0121 to 2.872 μSv/Y. (author)

  4. The Parasitic Contamination of Farm Vegetables in Asadabad City, West of Iran, in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables is a basic component of a healthy diet. Thus, the consumption of vegetables can have an important role in public health. Objectives Because of this concern, a prevalence study of parasitic contamination was carried out on raw vegetables to estimate the human risk of parasitic infections in Asadabad city, west of Iran. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 383 samples of different vegetables were obtained randomly from 12 vegetable farms in and around Asadabad. These samples included 10 types of seasonal vegetables: coriander, radish, spring onion, leek, parsley, tarragon, savory, basil, mint, and cress. The samples were examined by two parasitological methods: sedimentation and floatation techniques. Results Parasitic contaminations were detected in 34 (8.4% vegetable samples, including five pathogenic and two non-pathogenic parasites. The parasites identified were Giardia intestinalis (1.6%, Entamoeba coli (2.6%, Toxocara spp. (0.8%, Fasciola spp. (0.5%, Taenia spp. (0.3%, Dicrocoelium dendriticum (0.3%, and free-living larvae (2.3%. Among the infested samples, coriander was the most contaminated vegetable (15.8%. The relationship between contamination of vegetables and untreated water used on farms was significant (P < 0.001. Conclusions The results implicate the importance of consumption of vegetables in the spread of parasitic diseases in the studied region. Thus, some basic hygiene measures should be carried out to improve public health and reduce infectious disease rates.

  5. A vegetal Geiger counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    In order to study the Chernobyl accident impact on ecosystems, Ukrainian and Swiss scientists have used a plant: the Arabidopsis thaliana. They have introduced in its genome a gene coding an enzyme called β-glucuronidase. This substance, when it is expressed, colours vegetal cells blue. In fact the introduced gene is divided between 2 paired chromosomes. When the plant is placed on a nuclear contaminated soil, radiation damaged chromosomes exchange fragments and the 2 parts of the enzyme gene may recombine, the enzyme can then be expressed. For low and medium contamination ( 2 ) biologists have found a correlation between the number of blue spots on the plant and the irradiation rate. (A.C.)

  6. Genetic improvement of vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo Vasquez, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    Some genetic bases of the improvement of vegetables are given. The objectives of the genetic improvement and the fundamental stages of this process are done. The sources of genetic variation are indicated and they are related the reproduction systems of the main horticultural species. It is analyzed the concept of genetic inheritance like base to determine the procedures more appropriate of improvement. The approaches are discussed, has more than enough phenotypic value, genetic action and genotypic variance; Equally the heredability concepts and value of improvement. The conventional methods of improvement are described, like they are: the introduction of species or varieties, the selection, the pure line, the pedigree method, the selection for families, the recurrent selection, the selection for unique seed, the haploids method, the selection for heterosis and the synthetic varieties

  7. Heavy metals in green vegetables and soils from vegetable gardens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edible portions of five varieties of green vegetables, namely amaranth, chinese cabbage, cowpea leaves, leafy cabbage and pumpkin leaves, collected from several areas in Dar es Salaam, were analyzed for lead, cadmium, chromium, zinc, nickel and copper. Except for zinc, the levels of heavy metals in the vegetables ...

  8. Accumulation of fluoride by plants and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njenga, L.W.; Kariuki, D.N.

    1994-01-01

    Fluoride in plant and vegetable samples has been determined using ion selective electrode. The analysis was carried out after ashing the sample on an open flame, adding perchloric acid and allowing the hydrogen fluoride to diffuse into sodium hydroxide layer.The results obtained show that kale and pumpkins can accumulate more than ten times their normal values of fluoride while plants were found to accumulate upto 100μg/g fluoride when exposed to highlevels of fluoride in water or soil. (author)

  9. Spatial heterogeneity study of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijuan; Zhong, Bo; Guo, Liyu; Zhao, Xiangwei

    2014-11-01

    Spatial heterogeneity of the animal-landscape system has three major components: heterogeneity of resource distributions in the physical environment, heterogeneity of plant tissue chemistry, heterogeneity of movement modes by the animal. Furthermore, all three different types of heterogeneity interact each other and can either reinforce or offset one another, thereby affecting system stability and dynamics. In previous studies, the study areas are investigated by field sampling, which costs a large amount of manpower. In addition, uncertain in sampling affects the quality of field data, which leads to unsatisfactory results during the entire study. In this study, remote sensing data is used to guide the sampling for research on heterogeneity of vegetation coverage to avoid errors caused by randomness of field sampling. Semi-variance and fractal dimension analysis are used to analyze the spatial heterogeneity of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin. The spherical model with nugget is used to fit the semivariogram of vegetation coverage. Based on the experiment above, it is found, (1)there is a strong correlation between vegetation coverage and distance of vegetation populations within the range of 0-28051.3188m at Heihe River Basin, but the correlation loses suddenly when the distance greater than 28051.3188m. (2)The degree of spatial heterogeneity of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin is medium. (3)Spatial distribution variability of vegetation occurs mainly on small scales. (4)The degree of spatial autocorrelation is 72.29% between 25% and 75%, which means that spatial correlation of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin is medium high.

  10. Vegetable Genetic Resources in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping WANG

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available China is recognized as an important region for plant biodiversity based on its vast and historical collection of vegetable germplasm. The aim of this review is to describe the exploration status of vegetable genetic resources in China, including their collection, preservation, evaluation, and utilization. China has established a number of national-level vegetable genetic resources preservation units, including the National Mid-term Genebank for Vegetable Germplasm Resources, the National Germplasm Repository for Vegetatively-Propagated Vegetables, and the National Germplasm Repository for Aquatic Vegetables. In 2015, at least 36 000 accessions were collected and preserved in these units. In the past decade, 44 descriptors and data standards for different species have been published, and most accessions have been evaluated for screening the germplasms for specific important traits such as morphological characteristics, disease resistance, pest resistance, and stress tolerance. Moreover, the genetic diversity and evolution of some vegetable germplasms have been evaluated at the molecular level. Recently, more than 1 000 accessions were distributed to researchers and breeders each year by various means for vegetable research and production. However, additional wild-relative and abroad germplasms from other regions need to be collected and preserved in the units to expand genetic diversity. Furthermore, there is a need to utilize advanced techniques to better understand the background and genetic diversity of a wide range of vegetable genetic resources. This review will provide agricultural scientists’ insights into the genetic diversity in China and provide information on the distribution and potential utilization of these valuable genetic resources. Keywords: vegetable, genetic resource, preservation, evaluation, utilization

  11. Dry deposition of radionuclides on leafy vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuberger, H.; Tschiersch, J.; Shinonaga, T.; Bunzl, K.; Pliml, A.; Dietl, F.; Keusch, M.

    2004-01-01

    The dry deposition of gaseous elemental radio-iodine and particulate radio-caesium on mature leafy vegetable was studied in chamber experiments. The simultaneous exposition of endive, head lettuce, red oak leaf lettuce and spinach (spring leafy vegetable) rsp. curly kale, white cabbage and spinach (summer leafy vegetable) was performed under homogeneous and controlled conditions. The sample collective of each species was such large that for the expected variation of the results a statistically firm analysis was possible. Significant differences were observed for the 131 I deposition on spring vegetable: the deposition on spinach was roughly 3times that on leaf lettuce, 4times that on endive and 9times that on head lettuce. For 134 Cs, there was no significant difference between spinach and leaf lettuce, about twice the amount was deposited on both species as on endive and 3times as on head lettuce. All summer vegetables showed differences in deposition. For lodine, the deposition on spinach was roughly 3times (6times) that on curly kale and 35times (100times) that on white cabbage in the 2 experiments. For caesium, the deposition to curly kale was highest, about twice that on spinach and 35times (80times) that on white cabbage. The deposition velocity could be estimated, in average it was about 8times higher for 131 I than for 134 Cs. The influence of the particle size on the deposition velocity was small in the considered size range. Washing could reduce the contamination by about 10% for 131 I and 45% for 134 Cs. (orig.)

  12. Parasitic Contamination in Commonly- Consumed Vegetables in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Sharif

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Raw (fresh vegetables are an important ingredient of healthy diet. Many enteric bacterial, parasitic and viral pathogens could be transmitted by vegetables. Mazandaran province is located in northern Iran with a coastal area and extensive fields for vegetable cultivation. The current study is designed to evaluate the parasitic contamination of fresh vegetables. Methods: A total of 150 samples of fresh vegetables obtained from markets were examined for parasitic infections using standard methods. Results: Out of 104 samples (60.3% were contaminated with parasites. Parsley and radish with prevalence rates of 90% (18/20 and 39.1% (9/23 were the most and least contaminated vegetables. Free living larva and Trichostrongylus were the most and least common parasites in our results. Conclusion: It can be concluded that parasitological contamination of raw vegetables may be a health threat to consumers of such products.

  13. Occurrence of Cronobacter spp. in Dried Foods, Fresh Vegetables and Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Shigeko

    2017-01-01

     The present study surveyed the occurrence of Cronobacter spp. in dried foods including milk powder, spices and herbs and others, and fresh vegetables commercially available in markets, and ground soil materials for the agriculture. Cronobacter spp. were isolated from 15% of 33 spice and herb samples and 3% of 36 taste foods, and these were C. turicensis, C. malonaticus, C. sakazakii and C. dubliensis. Cronobacter spp. from fresh vegetables were detected in 12% of field vegetables and 13% of hydroponic vegetables. C. turicensis was prevalent in field vegetables, and C. malonaticus was in hydroponic ones. And, Cronobacter spp. in shredded vegetables were detected from 44% of 9 samples, and these were C. dubliensis, C. turicensis and C. sakazakii. Also, Cronobacter spp. in soil from rice field, vegetable field and sandpits were predominantly C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus.

  14. Characterizing the dependence of vegetation model parameters on crop structure, incidence angle, and polarization at L-band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigneron, J-P.; Pardé, M.; Waldteufel, P.

    2004-01-01

    To retrieve soil moisture over vegetation-covered areas from microwave radiometry, it is necessary to account for vegetation effects. At L-band, many retrieval approaches are based on a simple model that relies on two vegetation parameters: the optical depth (tau) and the single-scattering albedo......, wheat, grass, and alfalfa) based on L-band experimental datasets. The results should be useful for developing more accurate forward modeling and retrieval methods over mixed pixels including a variety of vegetation types....

  15. Toxicología Vegetal

    OpenAIRE

    García Fernández, Antonio Juan

    2010-01-01

    Presentaciones de clase de los temas de Toxicología Vegetal de la licenciatura de Veterinaria de la Universidad de Murcia del curso 2011/12. Presentaciones de Toxicología Vegetal de la asignatura de Toxicología de la Licenciatura de Veterinaria del curso 2011/12

  16. Assessment on the Contamination Status of Heavy Metals in Some Vegetables Growing Areas of Guangdong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Fo-jiao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We detected lead and cadmium in 1 465 vegetable samples of 18 vegetable species collected from 516 vegetable planting bases in Guangdong Province. The results showed that the highest average contents of lead from water spinach(Ipomoeaaquaticswas 0.11 mg·kg -1 in all species of vegetable samples. The highest average contents of cadmium from water cress(Nasturtium officinale R.Br.was 0.060 mg·kg -1 in all species of vegetable samples. The qualified rate of lead in all samples was 97.0%. The qualified rate of cadmium in all samples was 98.9%.The average pollution indexes of lead and cadmium in these species of vegetable were less than 0.7. The heavy metal security status of all veg-etables from these bases in Guangdong Province were at the excellent level.

  17. The contribution of vegetation to riverbed morphology (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, W.; Gurnell, A. M.

    2010-12-01

    The occurrence, form and species composition of riparian and aquatic vegetation are all strongly affected by the flow energy regime, sediment calibre and dimensions of river systems. In this paper, we build on field examples to conceptualise how interactions between vegetation and fluvial processes may affect river form across a gradient of river types from high-energy gravel-bed braided rivers to lowland single-thread silt-bed rivers. We explore how different vegetation types (e.g. riparian trees, shrubs, emergent macrophytes), and in some cases particular plant species, can produce similar impacts on the bed topography of rivers of different size, because of their effect on sediment transport flux and sediment cohesion, and a resultant positive feedback that increases the bar or bank height. We illustrate these concepts using two case studies representing extremes of river size and energy. Field and remotely sensed data are used to identify and quantify impacts of vegetation density on the bed morphology of the >1km wide, gravel-bed, braided Tagliamento River (Italy). Analysis of airborne LiDAR data is used to compute a highly detailed digital elevation model, along with data on tree height and density. The comparison between reaches with different tree height and density clearly shows the active role of vegetation in determining river pattern and form, with tree growth rate being the main parameter determining the vegetation effect. Analysis of field measurements of flow patterns and mechanical properties of emergent aquatic macrophytes on the <10m wide, silt-bed, single-thread River Blackwater (England) illustrate the close correspondence of the bed topography with vegetation structures, with position along an energy gradient dictating changes in the structure of the vegetation-bed morphology interaction.

  18. Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizes a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.

  19. Radioactivity in Scottish soils and grassy vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.R.; Horrill, A.D.; Thomson, A.J.; Howson, G.

    1989-05-01

    In June 1987, soil and graminoid vegetation samples were collected from 159 randomly selected Scottish sites and analysed for radioactivity due to potassium-40, caesium-134 and caesium-137. Activity due to plutonium-238 and plutonium-239/240 was also measured in soils from 47 of the sites. The main aims of this survey were to determine: (a) the geographic distribution of radiocaesium activity due to fallout from the Chernobyl reactor disaster, (b) the pattern of radiation due to the naturally occurring isotope potassium-40, (c) the activity attributable to caesium-137 fallout from nuclear weapons testing prior to the Chernobyl deposition, (d) the uptake of caesium-137 by vegetation from different soil types. (author)

  20. Dry deposition to vegetated surfaces: parametric dependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, B.Y.

    1987-12-01

    The dry deposition velocity of airborne pollutants to vegetated surfaces depends on the physico-chemical form of the pollutant, on meteorological conditions (windspeed, atmospheric stability) and on characteristics of the surface cover. This report examines these dependencies, drawing on experimental data and on information from theoretical analyses. A canopy model is outlined which uses first-order closure of the equations for turbulent transport of momentum (or matter), with losses of momentum (or matter) to individual canopy elements parameterised in terms of the mean windspeed: the model has previously been tested against experimental data on an artificial 'grass' canopy. The model is used to elucidate the features of the dependence of deposition velocity on windspeed and on whether the pollutant is in gaseous or particulate form: in the former case, the dependence on the molecular diffusivity of the gas is shown; in the latter case, dependencies on particle diameter and density are deduced. The predictions are related to available measurements. Additional hypotheses are introduced to treat the influence of atmospheric stability on deposition, and the analysis is used to shed light on the somewhat confusing picture that has emerged from past experimental studies. In considering the dependence of deposition velocity on the structural properties of the vegetation, it is established that more parameters than the single one conventionally used -aerodynamic roughness length - are needed to characterise the surface cover. Some indications of the extent of variation in deposition velocity from one type of vegetation to another are elicited from the model. (author)

  1. Changes in Microbial Community Structure and Soil Biological Properties in Mined Dune Areas During Re-vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Indra Elena C; Santos, Vilma M; da Silva, Danielle Karla A; Fernandes, Marcelo F; Cavalcante, Uided Maaze T; Maia, Leonor C

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the impact of re-vegetation on the restoration of microbial community structure and soil microbiological properties in sand dunes that had been affected by mining activity. Soil samples were collected during the dry and rainy seasons from a chronosequence (1, 9, 21 years) of re-vegetated dunes using a single preserved dune as a reference. The composition of the fatty acid methyl esters and soil microbial properties were evaluated. The results showed that the changes in microbial community structure were related to seasonal variations: biomarkers of Gram-positive bacteria were higher than Gram-negative bacteria during the dry season, showing that this group of organisms is more tolerant to these stressful conditions. The microbial community structure in the natural dune was less affected by seasonal variation compared to the re-vegetated areas, whereas the opposite was observed for microbiological properties. Thus, in general, the proportion of saprobic fungi was higher in the natural dune, whereas Gram-negative bacteria were proportionally more common in the younger areas. Although over time the re-vegetation allows the recovery of the microbial community and the soil functions, these communities and functions are different from those found in the undisturbed areas.

  2. 3D imaging using X-Ray tomography and SEM combined FIB to study non isothermal creep damage of (111) oriented samples of γ / γ ′ nickel base single crystal superalloy MC2

    KAUST Repository

    Jouiad, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    An unprecedented investigation consisting of the association of X-Ray tomography and Scanning Electron Microscopy combined with Focus Ion Beam (SEM-FIB) is conducted to perform a 3D reconstruction imaging. These techniques are applied to study the non-isothermal creep behavior of close (111) oriented samples of MC2 nickel base superalloys single crystal. The issue here is to develop a strategy to come out with the 3D rafting of γ\\' particles and its interaction whether with dislocation structures or/and with the preexisting voids. This characterization is uncommonly performed away from the conventional studied orientation [001] in order to feed the viscoplastic modeling leading to its improvement by taking into account the crystal anisotropy. The creep tests were performed at two different conditions: classical isothermal tests at 1050°C under 140 MPa and a non isothermal creep test consisting of one overheating at 1200°C and 30 seconds dwell time during the isothermal creep life. The X-Ray tomography shows a great deformation heterogeneity that is pronounced for the non-isothermal tested samples. This deformation localization seems to be linked to the preexisting voids. Nevertheless, for both tested samples, the voids coalescence is the precursor of the observed damage leading to failure. SEM-FIB investigation by means of slice and view technique gives 3D views of the rafted γ\\' particles and shows that γ corridors evolution seems to be the main creep rate controlling parameter. © 2012 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

  3. Analysis of Brand Preference for Vegetable Oil in Abia State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the consumer brand preference for vegetable oil in Abia State. It specifically focused on the determining factors that influenced consumer preference between branded and unbranded vegetable oil. This study adopted multistage sampling technique in the selection of a total sample of 150 respondents.

  4. Herbaceous vegetation in thinned and defoliated forest stands in north central West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. L. C. Fosbroke; D. Feicht; R. M. Muzika

    1995-01-01

    Herbaceous vegetation was inventoried in 1992 and 1993 in eight Appalachian mixed hardwood stands ( 50% basal area/acre in oak species) in north central West Virginia. Vegetation was sampled on 20 6-foot radius plots per stand twice each growing season (once during late spring to sample spring ephemeral...

  5. Studies on the characteristics of vegetation and soil on mount sejila, tibet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, X.; Hu, Z.; Xin, G.

    2014-01-01

    In order to better understand the ecosystems of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, we studied the characteristics of the vegetation and soil on Mount Sejila in Tibet, at altitudes ranging from 3700m to 4700m was studied. Eleven sampling areas were examined, and the vegetation composition, species diversity, plant biomass and soil properties were measured in each one. Representatives of 99 different plant species from 26 families were identified, and the plant communities exhibited a clear degree of altitude dependence: some species were found in all samples while others were only present in a single sampling area. Plant aboveground biomass correlated negatively with altitude, but the species diversity (based on the Shannon-Wiener and Simpson diversity indices as well as evenness and species richness measurements) were not altitude dependent. Community similarity decreased as the difference in altitude between sites increased. The measured soil properties had significant effects on plant characteristics, especially the soil nitrogen, soil moisture and temperature. The results presented herein provide a solid foundation for a more comprehensive study of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau's ecosystems and will be useful in drawing up biodiversity and ecosystem preservation schemes. (author)

  6. Detection of heavy metal Cd in polluted fresh leafy vegetables by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mingyin; Yang, Hui; Huang, Lin; Chen, Tianbing; Rao, Gangfu; Liu, Muhua

    2017-05-10

    In seeking a novel method with the ability of green analysis in monitoring toxic heavy metals residue in fresh leafy vegetables, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to prove its capability in performing this work. The spectra of fresh vegetable samples polluted in the lab were collected by optimized LIBS experimental setup, and the reference concentrations of cadmium (Cd) from samples were obtained by conventional atomic absorption spectroscopy after wet digestion. The direct calibration employing intensity of single Cd line and Cd concentration exposed the weakness of this calibration method. Furthermore, the accuracy of linear calibration can be improved a little by triple Cd lines as characteristic variables, especially after the spectra were pretreated. However, it is not enough in predicting Cd in samples. Therefore, partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was utilized to enhance the robustness of quantitative analysis. The results of the PLSR model showed that the prediction accuracy of the Cd target can meet the requirement of determination in food safety. This investigation presented that LIBS is a promising and emerging method in analyzing toxic compositions in agricultural products, especially combined with suitable chemometrics.

  7. Hepatitis B virus DNA quantification with the three-in-one (3io) method allows accurate single-step differentiation of total HBV DNA and cccDNA in biopsy-size liver samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranta, Andrzej; Tien Sy, Bui; Zacher, Behrend Johan; Rogalska-Taranta, Magdalena; Manns, Michael Peter; Bock, Claus Thomas; Wursthorn, Karsten

    2014-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) replicates via reverse transcription converting its partially double stranded genome into the covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). The long-lasting cccDNA serves as a replication intermediate in the nuclei of hepatocytes. It is an excellent, though evasive, parameter for monitoring the course of liver disease and treatment efficiency. To develop and test a new approach for HBV DNA quantification in serum and small-size liver samples. The p3io plasmid contains an HBV fragment and human β-actin gene (hACTB) as a standard. Respective TaqMan probes were labeled with different fluorescent dyes. A triplex real-time PCR for simultaneous quantification of total HBV DNA, cccDNA and hACTB could be established. Three-in-one method allows simultaneous analysis of 3 targets with a lower limit of quantification of 48 copies per 20 μl PCR reaction and a wide range of linearity (R(2)>0.99, pDNA samples from HBV infected patients. Total HBV DNA and cccDNA could be quantified in 32 and 22 of 33 FFPE preserved liver specimens, respectively. Total HBV DNA concentrations quantified by the 3io method remained comparable with Cobas TaqMan HBV Test v2.0. The three-in-one protocol allows the single step quantification of viral DNA in samples from different sources. Therefore lower sample input, faster data acquisition, a lowered error and significantly lower costs are the advantages of the method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Special study on vegetative covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    This report describes the findings of a special study on the use of vegetative covers to stabilize tailings piles for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The principal rationale for using plants would be to establish a dynamic system for controlling water balance. Specifically, vegetation would be used to intercept and transpire precipitation to the atmosphere, rather than allowing water to drain into the tailings and mobilize contaminants. This would facilitate compliance with groundwater standards proposed for the UMTRA Project by the Environmental Protection Agency. The goals of the study were to evaluate the feasibility of using vegetative covers on UMTRA Project piles, define the advantages and disadvantages of vegetative covers, and develop general guidelines for their use when such use seems reasonable. The principal method for the study was to analyze and apply to the UMTRA Project the results of research programs on vegetative covers at other US Department of Energy (DOE) waste management facilities. The study also relied upon observations made of existing stabilized piles at UMTRA Project sites where natural vegetation is growing on the rock-covered surfaces. Water balance and erosion models were also used to quantify the long-term performance of vegetative covers planned for the topslopes of stabilized piles at Grand Junction and Durango, Colorado, two UMTRA Project sites where the decision was made during the course of this special study to use vegetative covers. Elements in the design and construction of the vegetative covers at these two sites are discussed in the report, with explanations of the differing features that reflect differing environmental conditions. 28 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs

  9. Determining Characteristic Vegetation Areas by Terrestrial Laser Scanning for Floodplain Flow Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Jalonen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed modeling of floodplain flows and associated processes requires data on mixed, heterogeneous vegetation at river reach scale, though the collection of vegetation data is typically limited in resolution or lack spatial information. This study investigates physically-based characterization of mixed floodplain vegetation by means of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS. The work aimed at developing an approach for deriving the characteristic reference areas of herbaceous and foliated woody vegetation, and estimating the vertical distribution of woody vegetation. Detailed experimental data on vegetation properties were gathered both in a floodplain site for herbaceous vegetation, and under laboratory conditions for 2–3 m tall trees. The total plant area (Atot of woody vegetation correlated linearly with the TLS-based voxel count, whereas the Atot of herbaceous vegetation showed a linear correlation with TLS-based vegetation mean height. For woody vegetation, 1 cm voxel size was found suitable for estimating both the Atot and its vertical distribution. A new concept was proposed for deriving Atot for larger areas from the point cloud attributes of small sub-areas. The results indicated that the relationships between the TLS attributes and Atot of the sub-areas can be derived either by mm resolution TLS or by manual vegetation sampling.

  10. Radiation and the vegetable industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1984-01-01

    The possible uses of irradiation in the vegetable industry are considered. Interest has been increasing because of possible bans on chemical fumigants and clearance of irradiation as an acceptable process, up to certain dose limits, by Codex Alimentarius and the US FDA. Inhibition of sprouting in potatoes and onions would be one possibility for exploitation. However, the main incentive for vegetable irradiation would be as a quarantine treatment for exported products. The shelf-life of a few vegetables could also be increased by combining radiation with heat treatments. Costs in New Zealand and consumer attitudes are briefly considered

  11. Consumer behavior and knowledge on organic vegetables in Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysargyris, A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the awareness, knowledge and consumers’ behavior towards organic vegetables in Cyprus. For this study, a deliberate sampling technique was used in order to identify a sample group of 180 consumers over the age of 18 years who indented or made purchases from 1 grocery stores; 2 street market; and, 3 supermarkets. A questionnaire was used for data collection across the country. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. The results revealed that 99% of Cypriot consumers were aware of organic vegetables but only 69% and 49% of them consume or have knowledge of organically cultivated vegetables, respectively. According to Cypriots, organic vegetables are healthier, fresher and tastier than conventional vegetables. On the other hand, there appears to be a lack of knowledge about the stipulations of organic farming but consumers show great willingness not only to get properly informed via different means but to pay higher for organic vegetables. Concluding, consumers, organic farm holders and distributors should work together to create well-established strategies what will provide a better place in the market for organic products.

  12. THE HEAVY METALS CONNTENT IN VEGETABLES FROM MIDDLE SPIŠ AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Slávik,Tomáš Tóth

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the middle area of Spiš, it is significantly burden by heavy metals what is documented by radical content of Hg in soil from Rudňany 58.583645 mg.kg -1. On the content of heavy metals in vegetables grown in this soil it has the same effect. 61.5% samples exceeded the limit value of heavy metals. The most dangerous vegetables were Lactuca sativa L. The limit value was exceed in all determine heavy metals - Hg, Cd, Pb and Cu in this vegetables. In the case of Hg, the limit value exceed 93.86 times. For relatively safety is growing of Pisum sativum L., where there was no exceed any limits values. The root vegetables are dangerous, where the sample of Raphanus sativus L. exceed 6.71978 times the limit values for Pb although the content of lead in the soil was under hygienic limits. Transfer of heavy metals into consume parts of vegetables was no limited by high content of humus into soil. Transfer of heavy metals into consume parts of vegetables was no limited by weakly alkaline soil reaction. These factors are considered for factors limited mobility and input heavy metals into plants. We determined heavy metals by AAS method on a Varian 240 FS and method AMA 254.

  13. Two phase sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Zahoor; Hanif, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    The development of estimators of population parameters based on two-phase sampling schemes has seen a dramatic increase in the past decade. Various authors have developed estimators of population using either one or two auxiliary variables. The present volume is a comprehensive collection of estimators available in single and two phase sampling. The book covers estimators which utilize information on single, two and multiple auxiliary variables of both quantitative and qualitative nature. Th...

  14. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L E

    1992-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. Samples for radiological analyses include Air-Particulate Filter, gases and vapor; Water/Columbia River, Onsite Pond, Spring, Irrigation, and Drinking; Foodstuffs/Animal Products including Whole Milk, Poultry and Eggs, and Beef; Foodstuffs/Produce including Leafy Vegetables, Vegetables, and Fruit; Foodstuffs/Farm Products including Wine, Wheat and Alfalfa; Wildlife; Soil; Vegetation; and Sediment. Direct Radiation Measurements include Terrestrial Locations, Columbia River Shoreline Locations, and Onsite Roadway, Railway and Aerial, Radiation Surveys.

  15. Vegetation - McKenzie Preserve [ds703

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The California Native Plant Society (CNPS) Vegetation Program produced a vegetation map and classification for approximately 11,600 acres primarily within Millerton...

  16. Benthic algal vegetation in Isfjorden, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Fredriksen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Benthic algal vegetation was investigated at 10 sites in Isfjorden, Svalbard. Five sites were visited during summer 2010 and five during summer 2012. Both the littoral and sublittoral vegetation were sampled, the littoral by hand-picking and use of a throwable rake and the sublittoral using a triangular dredge. A total of 88 different taxa were registered, comprising 17 Chlorophyta, 40 Ochrophyta, 30 Rhodophyta and the Xantophyceae Vaucheria sp. The green algae Ulvaria splendens (Ruprecht Vinogradova was recorded in Svalbard for the first time. Most of the sites consisted of hard bottom substrate, but one site, Kapp Wijk, consisted of loose-lying calcareous red algae (rhodoliths and had species not recorded elsewhere. The sublittoral at the other sites was dominated by kelp. Molecular analysis confirmed the presence of the red alga Ceramium virgatum and a dwarf form of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus. This study provides a baseline for future studies investigating changes in the vegetation due to environmental changes.

  17. Role of vegetation type on hydraulic conductivity in urban rain gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, K.; Balster, N. J.; Johnston, M. R.

    2009-12-01

    Although case studies report improved control of urban stormwater within residential rain gardens, the extent to which vegetation type (shrub, turf, prairie) affects the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) of these depressions has yet to be investigated in a controlled experiment. We hypothesized that there would be significant differences in hydraulic conductivity by vegetation type due to differences in soil physical characteristics and rooting dynamics such that Ksat of shrub gardens would exceed that of prairie, followed by turf. To test this hypothesis, we measured changes in Ksat relative to the above vegetation types as well as non-vegetative controls, each of which were replicated three times for a total of 12 rain gardens. Ksat was calculated using a published method for curve-fitting to single-ring infiltration with a two-head approach where the shape factor is independent of ponding depth. Constant-head infiltration rates were measured at two alternating ponding depths within each garden twice over the growing season. Root core samples were also taken to qualify belowground characteristics including soil bulk density and rooting dynamics relative to differences in Ksat. We found the control and shrub gardens had the lowest mean Ksat of 3.56 (SE = 0.96) and 3.73 (1.22) cm3 hr-1, respectively. Prairie gardens had the next highest mean Ksat of 12.18 (2.26) cm3 hr-1, and turf had the highest mean value of 23.63 (1.81) cm3 hr-1. These data suggest that a denser rooting network near the soil surface may influence saturated hydraulic conductivity. We applied our observed flow rates to a Glover solution model for 3-dimensional flow, which revealed considerably larger discrepancies in turf gardens than beneath prairie or shrub. This indicated that lateral flow conditions in the turf plots could be the explanation for our observed infiltration rates.

  18. Enteric Viruses in Raw Vegetables and Groundwater Used for Irrigation in South Korea▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Sooryun; Lee, Cheonghoon; Song, Sung Won; Choi, Weon Cheon; Lee, Chan Hee; Kim, Sang-Jong

    2009-01-01

    Raw vegetables irrigated with groundwater that may contain enteric viruses can be associated with food-borne viral disease outbreaks. In this study, we performed reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and cell culture-PCR to monitor the occurrence of enteric viruses in groundwater samples and in raw vegetables that were cultivated using that groundwater in South Korea. Samples were collected 10 times from three farms located in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. RT-PCR and cell culture-PCR were performed to detect adenoviruses (AdVs), enteroviruses (EVs), noroviruses (NoVs), and rotaviruses, followed by sequence analyses of the detected strains. Of the 29 groundwater samples and the 30 vegetable samples, five (17%) and three (10%) were positive for enteric viruses, respectively. AdVs were the most frequently detected viruses in four groundwater and three vegetable samples. EVs and NoVs were detected in only one groundwater sample and one spinach sample, respectively. The occurrence of enteric viruses in groundwater and vegetable samples was not correlated with the water temperature and the levels of indicator bacteria, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that most of the detected AdVs were temporally distributed, irrespective of sample type. Our results indicate that raw vegetables may be contaminated with a broad range of enteric viruses, which may originate from virus-infected farmers and virus-contaminated irrigation water, and these vegetables may act as a potential vector of food-borne viral transmission. PMID:19854919

  19. Determination of pesticide residue in selected fruits and vegetable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabbasum, R.; Aman, A.

    2005-01-01

    Food contamination due to indiscriminate use of pesticides has become a serious problem. Fruits samples of tomato, grapes, musk melon, parsimen and vegetable samples of potato, pea, spinach, cabbage and pumpkin ere collected from local market of Peshawar, coming from different regions. All samples were extracted, purified and analyzed for the commonly used pesticides. Dichlorovas, BHC, Atrazine, Daizinon, Methadiathion and Cypermethrin were detected by Gas Chromatography. These pesticides were detected in vegetable samples Id Atrazine were found in potato sample and not detected in other samples. Large concentration of Cypermethrin (44.6) was detected in the pea sample. All the vegetables samples have maximum concentration of pesticides, which is higher than their MRLs, but in pumpkin no one of the above pesticides were detected. In fruits samples, dichlorovas, atrazine, diazinon, methadiathion. Cypermethrin were detected. BHC was not present in fruits samples. All these pesticides were above the MRLs. The study concluded that agriculture crops are highly contaminated due to the uncontrolled use of pesticides in project area and suggested that pesticides should be applied in calculated dose to avoid resistance and persistence due to over and under dose application. (author)

  20. Vegetation - Lassen Foothills [ds564

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — In 2007 Aerial Information Systems, Inc. (AIS) was contracted by the California Native Plant Society (CNPS) to produce a vegetation map for approximately 100,000...

  1. Buffers and vegetative filter strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Helmers; Thomas M. Isenhart; Michael G. Dosskey; Seth M. Dabney

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of buffers and vegetative filter strips relative to water quality. In particular, we primarily discuss the herbaceous components of the following NRCS Conservation Practice Standards.

  2. Effect of x-rays on edible vegetable oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agba, E.H.; Chile, S.T.; Sombo, T.

    2009-01-01

    X-irradiated and non-irradiated vegetable oil sample were investigated by assessing the effect of the radiation on peroxide and fatty acid values on Turkey oil, Groundnut oil and Soya bean oil samples. The result of the investigation showed a rise in peroxide value by 99% for Turkey oil, 61% for Groundnut oil and 52% for Soya bean oil, while the acid value increased by as much as 58% for Turkey oil, 21% for Groundnut oil and 50% for Soya bean oil. These results show that X-irradiation has an adverse effect on the quality of edible vegetable oils

  3. Hygienic-sanitary conditions of vegetables and irrigation water from kitchen gardens in the municipality of Campinas, SP

    OpenAIRE

    Simões,Marise; Pisani,Beatriz; Marques,Eneida Gonçalves Lemes; Prandi,Maria Angela Garnica; Martini,Maria Helena; Chiarini,Paulo Flávio Teixeira; Antunes,José Leopoldo Ferreira; Nogueira,Ana Paula

    2001-01-01

    We examined samples of irrigation water and vegetables from kitchen gardens in Campinas, Brazil. The bacterial analysis condemned 22.3% of the vegetable samples, and the parasitological examination condemned 14.5%. The criteria established by the Brazilian legislation condemned 11.8% of the irrigation water samples. Parasites were significantly more frequent in vegetables in the rainy season, while excessive fecal coliforms were more frequent in the dry season. A proper monitoring of the irri...

  4. CHARACTERISING VEGETATED SURFACES USING MODIS MULTIANGULAR SATELLITE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. McCamley

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDF seek to represent variations in surface reflectance resulting from changes in a satellite's view and solar illumination angles. BRDF representations have been widely used to assist in the characterisation of vegetation. However BRDF effects are often noisy, difficult to interpret and are the spatial integral of all the individual surface features present in a pixel. This paper describes the results of an approach to understanding how BRDF effects can be used to characterise vegetation. The implementation of the Ross Thick Li Sparse BRDF model using MODIS is a stable, mature data product with a 10 year history and is a ready data source. Using this dataset, a geometric optical model is proposed that seeks to interpret the BRDF effects in terms of Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and a height-to-width ratio of the vegetation components. The height-to-width ratio derived from this model seeks to represent the dependence of NDVI to changes in view zenith angle as a single numeric value. The model proposed within this paper has been applied to MODIS pixels in central Australia for areas in excess of 18,000 km2. The study area is predominantly arid and sparsely vegetated which provides a level of temporal and spatial homogeneity. The selected study area also minimises the effects associated with mutual obscuration of vegetation which is not considered by the model. The results are represented as a map and compared to NDVI derived from MODIS and NDVI derived from Landsat mosaics developed for Australia's National Carbon Accounting System (NCAS. The model reveals additional information not obvious in reflectance data. For example, the height-to-width ratio is able to reveal vegetation features in arid areas that do not have an accompanying significant increase in NDVI derived from MODIS, i.e. the height-to-width ratio reveals vegetation which is otherwise only apparent in NDVI derived

  5. Levels of lead, cadmium and zinc in vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, G.; Haegglund, J.; Jorhem, L.

    1976-01-01

    The concentrations of lead, cadmium and zinc have been determined in 455 samples of fresh fruit, vegetables and mushrooms by dry ashing and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The lead content in all samples was in the range < 0.001-0.288 mg/kg, the mean being 0.02 mg/kg. Leaf vegetables (lettuce and spinach) showed higher values, mean 0.04 mg/kg. The mean values of the cadmium content in fruit, green vegetables, potatoes and root vegetables were 0.003, 0.013, 0.016 and 0.038 mg/kg respectively. The zinc contents were in the ppm range. The ratio Zn/Cd was also determined in some samples. All values concern edible parts and are calculated on wet weight basis. The fruit and vegetables were estimated to constitute about 2 percent and 8 percent respectively of the provisional tolerable weekly intake of these metals recommended by an FAO/WHO Expert Committee.

  6. Investigating Strategies for Sustainable Vegetable Food Crop System in Three Agro Ecological Zones of the Humid Tropics Area of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    TATA NGOME, Precillia Ijang; AFARI-SEFA, Victor; NTSOMBOH-NTSEFONG, Godswill; OKOLLE, Justin; BILLA, Samuel Fru; MOMA, Crescence; ATEMKENG FONJI, Maureen; NGOME, Ajebesone Francis

    2018-01-01

    Vegetable cultivation remains an essential component of local people’s livelihoods. However, marked trend shifts in the varieties of vegetables due to large-scale commercial vegetable farming of exotic varieties in the broader market economy have resulted in the gradual disappearance of biodiversity involving vital species. The present study examined the situation of vegetable crop farming in three agro-ecological zones of Cameroon. Data were collected from a random sample of 235 respondents ...

  7. Heavy Metals in the Vegetables Collected from Production Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Taghipour

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination of vegetable crops (as an important part of people's diet with heavy metals is a health concern. Therefore, monitoring levels of heavy metals in vegetables can provide useful information for promoting food safety. The present study was carried out in north-west of Iran (Tabriz on the content of heavy metals in vegetable crops. Methods: Samples of vegetables including kurrat (n=20 (Allium ampeloprasumssp. Persicum, onion (n=20 (Allium cepa and tomato (n=18 (Lycopersiconesculentum var. esculentum, were collected from production sites in west of Tabriz and analyzed for presence of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS after extraction by aqua regia method (drying, grounding and acid digestion. Results: Mean ± SD (mg/kg DW concentrations of Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni and Zn were 0.32 ± 0.58, 28.86 ± 28.79, 1.75 ± 2.05, 6.37± 5.61 and 58.01 ± 27.45, respectively. Cr, Cu and Zn were present in all the samples and the highest concentrations were observed in kurrat (leek. Levels of Cd, Cr and Cu were higher than the acceptable limits. There was significant difference in levels of Cr (P<0.05 and Zn (P<0.001 among the studied vegetables. Positive correlation was observed between Cd:Cu (R=0.659, P<0.001 Cr:Ni (R=0.326, P<0.05 and Cr:Zn (R=0.308, P<0.05. Conclusion: Level of heavy metals in some of the analyzed vegetables, especially kurrat samples, was higher than the standard levels. Considering the possible health outcomes due to the consumption of contaminated vegetables, it is required to take proper actions for avoiding people's chronic exposure.

  8. Phosphate fertilizer influence on {sup 238} U content in vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauria D, C.; Rodrigues S, J.I. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, F.C.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/CNEN) Av. Prof. Luiz Freire 200 Cidade Universitaria Recife-PE (Brazil)]. e-mail: dejanira@ird.gov.br

    2006-07-01

    Uranium is a naturally radioactive element, which is usually found in soils, superficial and ground water, vegetables and animals. After ingestion by human beings, most is excreted in few days by feces and urine, without reaching the bloodstream. However, a small part circulates through the body, being accumulated in the soft tissues, as kidneys. A minor fraction can remain in bones per some years, being able through the radioactive decay to irradiate adjacent tissues. Phosphate fertilizers used in conventional crop management can present variable amounts of uranium. In accordance with origin and use, the fertilizer can raise the content of this element in vegetables, and consequently to increase the human exposure for radiation due the consumption of vegetables. It is estimated that the use of phosphate fertilizer has at least doubled the prolonged exposure of humans from ingestion of food. This work aims to evaluate the contribution of organic and chemical fertilizer on the concentration of {sup 238} U in vegetable samples. An experiment with black beans (a very important vegetable for Brazilian people) was conducted in a field which soil has never been fertilized with any sort of fertilizer, located near to the Rio de Janeiro city. On the organic management, bovine manure was used, while on conventional management urea, potassium chloride and superphosphate were used. Simultaneously, black bean samples from not fertilized management were collected. In addition, lettuce and carrot samples from organic and conventional managements were collected in Nova Friburgo farms (the most important vegetable supplier of Rio de Janeiro city market). The analyses of {sup 238} U have been carried out by conventional fluorimetric method. The geometric mean of {sup 238} U concentrations in the carrot and lettuce samples from conventional management were similar with those from organic management, while for beans the conventional samples had higher values than those ones found in

  9. Phosphate fertilizer influence on 238 U content in vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauria D, C.; Rodrigues S, J.I.; Ribeiro, F.C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Uranium is a naturally radioactive element, which is usually found in soils, superficial and ground water, vegetables and animals. After ingestion by human beings, most is excreted in few days by feces and urine, without reaching the bloodstream. However, a small part circulates through the body, being accumulated in the soft tissues, as kidneys. A minor fraction can remain in bones per some years, being able through the radioactive decay to irradiate adjacent tissues. Phosphate fertilizers used in conventional crop management can present variable amounts of uranium. In accordance with origin and use, the fertilizer can raise the content of this element in vegetables, and consequently to increase the human exposure for radiation due the consumption of vegetables. It is estimated that the use of phosphate fertilizer has at least doubled the prolonged exposure of humans from ingestion of food. This work aims to evaluate the contribution of organic and chemical fertilizer on the concentration of 238 U in vegetable samples. An experiment with black beans (a very important vegetable for Brazilian people) was conducted in a field which soil has never been fertilized with any sort of fertilizer, located near to the Rio de Janeiro city. On the organic management, bovine manure was used, while on conventional management urea, potassium chloride and superphosphate were used. Simultaneously, black bean samples from not fertilized management were collected. In addition, lettuce and carrot samples from organic and conventional managements were collected in Nova Friburgo farms (the most important vegetable supplier of Rio de Janeiro city market). The analyses of 238 U have been carried out by conventional fluorimetric method. The geometric mean of 238 U concentrations in the carrot and lettuce samples from conventional management were similar with those from organic management, while for beans the conventional samples had higher values than those ones found in organic management

  10. Genetic resources of cultivated and volunteer vegetables in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Branka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Number of plant species and populations in the diet and agriculture, and knowledge about them, their cultivation and use, represent the biological, cultural and social heritage of the humankind. Due to favourable geographic, soil, and climate conditions, and large diversity of flora in Serbia, there is a rich tradition of vegetable use in the diet, cultivated and volunteer, autochthonous. More than 70 botanical vegetable species that are accepted for long-term preservation are mentioned nowadays in Serbia. Besides that, some plant species that are classified as industrial, medicinal and aromatic plants are being used as vegetables. Vegetables include legumes used as stewing vegetables. Serbia has three vegetable regions: lowlands (along the rivers Danube, Tisa and Sava, Moravian (along three Morava Rivers and their tributaries and mountainous (Eastern, South-eastern and Western areas, Kosovo and Metohija. In these regions, genetic resources of vegetables should be looked for in cultivated and volunteering flora of different domestic and domesticated populations developed due to adaptation to the specific abiotic and biotic factors, including breeders' selection. International and national projects have been organised in the field of preserving genetic resources of vegetables in the past, as well as nowadays in Serbia. Collected samples are stored in Plant Gene Bank of Serbia and in gene banks all over the world. Significant part is located in the collections of national institutes and faculties. Samples are described with passport data, while those in collections even in more detail. However, none of this is sufficient. In the last decades in Serbia, many populations and vegetable species have threatened to disappear. Many villages are disappearing, there are few growers of vegetables, and extinction of numerous valuable genotypes is accelerated by unfavourable weather conditions. Large number of cultivars and vegetable species that were

  11. Halogenated and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetables: Levels, dietary intakes, and health risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Li, Chunmei; Jiao, Bining; Li, Qiwan; Su, Hang; Wang, Jing; Jin, Fen

    2018-03-01

    Halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HPAHs) are attracting increasing concern because of their greater toxicity than their corresponding parent PAHs. However, human exposure to HPAHs via food consumption is not fully understood. In this study, daily intake via vegetable ingestion of 11 HPAHs and 16 PAHs and subsequent cancer risk were assessed for population in Beijing. A total of 80 vegetable samples were purchased from markets, including five leafy vegetables and three root vegetables. The concentrations of total HPAHs (∑HPAHs) were 0.357-0.874ng/g in all vegetables, lower than that of total PAHs (∑PAHs, 10.6-47.4ng/g). ∑HPAHs and ∑PAHs concentrations in leafy vegetables were higher than those in root vegetables, suggesting that the atmospheric deposition might be the dominant source of PAHs and HPAHs in leafy vegetables. Among the HPAH congeners, 2-BrFle and 9-ClFle were the predominant compounds and frequently detected in the vegetable samples. HPAHs and PAHs were also found in certificated vegetables at the concentrations of 0.466-0.751ng/g and 10.6-38.9ng/g, respectively, which were lower than those in non-certificated vegetables except for spinach. For leafy vegetables from local farms, the ∑PAHs and ∑HPAHs levels in the rape and Chinese cabbage samples significantly decreased with increasing the distance away from the incineration plant. The incremental lifetime cancer risks of HPAHs were below the acceptable risk level (10 -6 ), suggesting that there might be little or no risk to consumers from these compounds in vegetables. For all population groups, children were the most sensitive population to PAHs and HPAHs, and their health issues should be paid more attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of the effect of washing and boiling on the levels of pesticide residues in vegetables cultivated in Akuapem North Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opare-Boafo, Maame Serwa

    2016-07-01

    Vegetables play an important role in human nutrition and health. Pesticides are extensively used by vegetable farmers in crop production and this may contaminate the crop. Traditional method of washing vegetables prior to consumption has been assumed to reduce pesticide residues. The study seeks to assess the effect of washing with various solutions and with boiling on the concentration of pesticide residues in vegetables and to estimate the potential human health risk associated with pesticide ingestion via vegetable diet using the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method. Results of the study indicated that the farmers involved in vegetable farming in the Akwapim North Municipality are in the middle age group and use pesticides in their farming activities. Majority (65%) of them have no formal training in pesticide usage and apply pesticides in mixtures made of combinations of up to four (4) pesticides in a single tank mixture. The farmers do not use any protective clothing and stores agrochemicals in multipurpose storage structures together with food containers and farm implements. As a result of pesticide exposure, 67% of farmers experienced various kinds of discomfort including headache, tingling or burning of skin, irritation of eyes or skin. Chloropyrifos residue was the only pesticide residue that gave positive detection in the analysed vegetable samples. The raw (non-spiked) vegetable samples (cabbage, lettuce and squash) had 0.29 mg kg -1 , 0.19 mg kg -1 and 0.14 mg kg -1 of Chloropyrifos residue in cabbage, squash and lettuce respectively. The level of chloropyrifos residues detected in raw cabbage samples from the study area was below the maximum permissible limit (MPLs) of 1 mg/kg (Codex, 2003) but the residues found in raw squash was above the maximum permissible limit of 0.01 mg/kg and that of lettuce was also above the maximum permissible limit (0.05mg/kg). Washing of vegetables vigorously in water for 2 minutes before

  13. Handling Procedures of Vegetable Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele; French, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working towards future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit. The duration of these missions may be as long as 2.5 years and will likely include a stay on a lunar or planetary surface. The primary goal of the Advanced Food System in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious, and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. Vegetable crops can provide the crew with added nutrition and variety. These crops do not require any cooking or food processing prior to consumption. The vegetable crops, unlike prepackaged foods, will provide bright colors, textures (crispy), and fresh aromas. Ten vegetable crops have been identified for possible use in long duration missions. They are lettuce, spinach, carrot, tomato, green onion, radish, bell pepper, strawberries, fresh herbs, and cabbage. Whether these crops are grown on a transit vehicle (e.g., International Space Station) or on the lunar or planetary surface, it will be necessary to determine how to safely handle the vegetables while maintaining acceptability. Since hydrogen peroxide degrades into water and oxygen and is generally recognized as safe (GRAS), hydrogen peroxide has been recommended as the sanitizer. The objective of th is research is to determine the required effective concentration of hydrogen peroxide. In addition, it will be determined whether the use of hydrogen peroxide, although a viable sanitizer, adversely affects the quality of the vegetables. Vegetables will be dipped in 1 % hydrogen peroxide, 3% hydrogen peroxide, or 5% hydrogen peroxide. Treated produce and controls will be stored in plastic bags at 5 C for up to 14 days. Sensory, color, texture, and total plate count will be measured. The effect on several vegetables including lettuce, radish, tomato and strawberries has been completed. Although each vegetable reacts to hydrogen peroxide differently, the

  14. Boat sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citanovic, M.; Bezlaj, H.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation describes essential boat sampling activities: on site boat sampling process optimization and qualification; boat sampling of base material (beltline region); boat sampling of weld material (weld No. 4); problems accompanied with weld crown varieties, RPV shell inner radius tolerance, local corrosion pitting and water clarity. The equipment used for boat sampling is described too. 7 pictures

  15. Graph sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, L.-C.; Patone, M.

    2017-01-01

    We synthesise the existing theory of graph sampling. We propose a formal definition of sampling in finite graphs, and provide a classification of potential graph parameters. We develop a general approach of Horvitz–Thompson estimation to T-stage snowball sampling, and present various reformulations of some common network sampling methods in the literature in terms of the outlined graph sampling theory.

  16. Effect of the chlorinated washing of minimally processed vegetables on the generation of haloacetic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardador, Maria Jose; Gallego, Mercedes

    2012-07-25

    Chlorine solutions are usually used to sanitize fruit and vegetables in the fresh-cut industry due to their efficacy, low cost, and simple use. However, disinfection byproducts such as haloacetic acids (HAAs) can be formed during this process, which can remain on minimally processed vegetables (MPVs). These compounds are toxic and/or carcinogenic and have been associated with human health risks; therefore, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has set a maximum contaminant level for five HAAs at 60 μg/L in drinking water. This paper describes the first method to determine the nine HAAs that can be present in MPV samples, with static headspace coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry where the leaching and derivatization of the HAAs are carried out in a single step. The proposed method is sensitive, with limits of detection between 0.1 and 2.4 μg/kg and an average relative standard deviation of ∼8%. From the samples analyzed, we can conclude that about 23% of them contain at least two HAAs (<0.4-24 μg/kg), which showed that these compounds are formed during washing and then remain on the final product.

  17. Dietary risk assessment of pesticides from vegetables and drinking water in gardening areas in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Edouard; Turrero, Nuria; Kolia, Marius; Konaté, Yacouba; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe

    2017-12-01

    Vegetables and water samples have been collected around the lake of Loumbila in Burkina Faso. Pesticides residues in food commodities were analyzed using a modified QuEChERS extraction method prior analysis on GC-MS and UPLC-MS/MS of 31 pesticides. Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) were exceeded in 36% of the samples for seven pesticides: acetamiprid, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, lambda-cyhalothrin, dieldrin, imidacloprid and profenofos. Exceedance of MRLs suggests a risk for the consumers and limits the opportunities of exportation. In order to define estimated daily intake, dietary surveys were conducted on 126 gardeners using a 24hours recall method. Single pesticide and cumulative exposure risks were assessed for children and adults. Risk was identified for: chlorpyrifos and lambda-cyhalothrin in acute and chronic exposure scenarios. Hazardous chronic exposure to the endocrine disruptor and probable carcinogen dieldrin was also detected. In the studied population, cumulative dietary exposure presented a risk (acute and chronic) for children and adults in respectively >17% and 4% of the cases when considering the worst case scenarios. Processing factor largely influenced the risk of occurrence suggesting that simple washing of vegetables with water considerably reduced the risk of hazardous exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Quality determination of vegetable oils used as an addition to fermented meat products with different starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Šulcerová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There were developed samples of fermented meat products of „Mettwurst" with an addition of a starter culture pentosacceus AS-3/100 or probiotic culture Lactobacillus casei Lc-01 and its combinations for this thesis. A part of animal fat was replaced with vegetable oils - sunflower oil and rapeseed oil. For comparison, there was also used a sample without an addition of vegetable oil. There were determined the characteristics of fats in samples: saponification value, acidity value, esteric, iodine and peroxide value. The samples were determined on the day of production and always once a week in a period of three following weeks. Every single sample was hereby determined 3 times. According to the results, it is more advantageous to use the samples with sunflower oil with an addition of specific cultures Lactobacillus casei Lc-01 and Pediococcus pentosaceus AS-3/100. The saponification value when adding sunflower oil detects that the quality of fat remains stable till the 14th day of storage (p <0.05. The comparison of acid value detects that a sample with sunflower oil and culture Pediococcus pentosaceus AS-3/100 is more advantageous due to fast acidification in the first half of storage period. Good results of iodine and peroxide value had the variation of a sample with sunflower oil and a combination of both cultures. The variation of peroxide value maintained the lowest values. By using the samples with sunflower oil and unispecific cultures L. casei Lc-01 and P. pentosaceus AS-3/100, the culture P. pentosaceus AS-3/100, which remained stable till the 14th day of production, reached the best values of peroxide value. The sunflower oil is in spite of high content of PUFA more stable to which also contributes the increased content of vitamin E that works as an antioxidant here. The disadvantage of rapeseed oil is its higher susceptibility to oxidation. For reasons of faster decomposition of vegetable oils would be essential to cut down on the

  19. Influence of soil and agricultural technique in metal absorption by vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, K. Dias da; Cazicava, J.; Coelho, M.; Dalia, K.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work is to verify the influence of soil and agricultural techniques in the metal absorption by the vegetables. Metal concentrations were evaluated in soil and vegetable samples from different regions and cultivated by different agricultural techniques. PIXE, 252 Cf-PDMS and Radiochemical techniques were applied. Si, Zr, Ce, Th and Pb, identified in soil samples, were not biologically available. Ga, Ge, As and Br, identified in tubercles, show that spray pesticides used on the vegetable leaves were absorbed by them. 232 Th and 238 U, presented in the soil, were not absorbed by the vegetables. Airborne particles from anthropogenic sources (CFn, VCn) were absorbed by the vegetables. Compounds from mineral sources, presented in soil, (V + , VCO 3 , HPO 4 , Cr + , CrOH + Mn + , FeH, Fe(OH) n ) and bioorganic compounds (N + , Ca(CN) n +, CnH + ) were identified in the vegetables. Metal absorbed by the vegetables is not dependent on metal concentration in soil. Different tubercles cultivated in the same soil show similar metal absorption. The exogenous contributions, such as the elements presented in water irrigation, pesticides, fertilizers and airborne particles deposited on leaves can be absorbed by the vegetables. Absorption by the roots depends on the chemical compound of the elements. Pesticide sprays and air pollution can cause more contamination in the vegetables than in the soil. The use of this methodology allows the identification of possible sources of metals in soils and in vegetables and metal speciation. (author)

  20. Explaining Vegetable Consumption among Young Adults: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Menozzi, Davide; Sogari, Giovanni; Mora, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Although fruit and vegetable consumption is highly recommended for a healthy and balanced daily diet, several European countries do not meet these recommendations. In Italy, only 45% of young people are consuming at least one portion of vegetables per day. Therefore, this paper aims to understand the main determinants of vegetables consumption among young adults to suggest possible intervention strategies. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a samples of Italian students (n = 751), usin...

  1. Status of compost usage and its performance on vegetable production in Monga areas of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    G.K.M.M. Rahman

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the existing status of compost usage on vegetable production and determine the overall effect of household waste compost (HWC) on growth and yield of vegetables and enhancement of soil fertility in the monga areas of Bangladesh. A field survey was conducted on 152 sampled farmers during 2010 to 2011. Questionnaire containing both closed and open-ended questions were used to assess existing production practices of vegetables using compost in both hom...

  2. East African Cenozoic vegetation history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Hans Peter

    2017-11-01

    The modern vegetation of East Africa is a complex mosaic of rainforest patches; small islands of tropic-alpine vegetation; extensive savannas, ranging from almost pure grassland to wooded savannas; thickets; and montane grassland and forest. Here I trace the evolution of these vegetation types through the Cenozoic. Paleogene East Africa was most likely geomorphologically subdued and, as the few Eocene fossil sites suggest, a woodland in a seasonal climate. Woodland rather than rainforest may well have been the regional vegetation. Mountain building started with the Oligocene trap lava flows in Ethiopia, on which rainforest developed, with little evidence of grass and none of montane forests. The uplift of the East African Plateau took place during the middle Miocene. Fossil sites indicate the presence of rainforest, montane forest and thicket, and wooded grassland, often in close juxtaposition, from 17 to 10 Ma. By 10 Ma, marine deposits indicate extensive grassland in the region and isotope analysis indicates that this was a C 3 grassland. In the later Miocene rifting, first of the western Albertine Rift and then of the eastern Gregory Rift, added to the complexity of the environment. The building of the high strato-volcanos during the later Mio-Pliocene added environments suitable for tropic-alpine vegetation. During this time, the C 3 grassland was replaced by C 4 savannas, although overall the extent of grassland was reduced from the mid-Miocene high to the current low level. Lake-level fluctuations during the Quaternary indicate substantial variation in rainfall, presumably as a result of movements in the intertropical convergence zone and the Congo air boundary, but the impact of these fluctuations on the vegetation is still speculative. I argue that, overall, there was an increase in the complexity of East African vegetation complexity during the Neogene, largely as a result of orogeny. The impact of Quaternary climatic fluctuation is still poorly understood

  3. Which Food Security Determinants Predict Adequate Vegetable Consumption among Rural Western Australian Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godrich, Stephanie L; Lo, Johnny; Davies, Christina R; Darby, Jill; Devine, Amanda

    2017-01-03

    Improving the suboptimal vegetable consumption among the majority of Australian children is imperative in reducing chronic disease risk. The objective of this research was to determine whether there was a relationship between food security determinants (FSD) (i.e., food availability, access, and utilisation dimensions) and adequate vegetable consumption among children living in regional and remote Western Australia (WA). Caregiver-child dyads ( n = 256) living in non-metropolitan/rural WA completed cross-sectional surveys that included questions on FSD, demographics and usual vegetable intake. A total of 187 dyads were included in analyses, which included descriptive and logistic regression analyses via IBM SPSS (version 23). A total of 13.4% of children in this sample had adequate vegetable intake. FSD that met inclusion criteria ( p ≤ 0.20) for multivariable regression analyses included price; promotion; quality; location of food outlets; variety of vegetable types; financial resources; and transport to outlets. After adjustment for potential demographic confounders, the FSD that predicted adequate vegetable consumption were, variety of vegetable types consumed ( p = 0.007), promotion ( p = 0.017), location of food outlets ( p = 0.027), and price ( p = 0.043). Food retail outlets should ensure that adequate varieties of vegetable types (i.e., fresh, frozen, tinned) are available, vegetable messages should be promoted through food retail outlets and in community settings, towns should include a range of vegetable purchasing options, increase their reliance on a local food supply and increase transport options to enable affordable vegetable purchasing.

  4. Chapter 3: Status and trends of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Guldin; Frank R. Thompson; Lynda L. Richards; Kyra C. Harper

    1999-01-01

    This chapter provides information about the vegetation cover of the Assessment area. The types and areal extent of vegetation in the Highlands are of interest for many reasons. Vegetation cover largely determines the availability of habitat for terrestrial animals, plants, and other organisms. Vegetation cover strongly influences what uses {e.g., timber, forage,...

  5. Vegetables and other core food groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, Astrid A.M.; Delahunty, Conor M.; Graaf, de Kees

    2017-01-01

    Vegetables are the food category least liked by children. This research investigated the sensory properties of vegetables vis-a-vis other core foods that comprise children's diets, to determine to what degree low acceptance of vegetables can be attributed to sensory properties. Vegetables (n =

  6. 18 CFR 1304.203 - Vegetation management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetation management...-Owned Residential Access Shoreland § 1304.203 Vegetation management. No vegetation management shall be approved on TVA-owned Residential Access Shoreland until a Vegetation Management Plan meeting the...

  7. 7 CFR 75.18 - Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sampling. 75.18 Section 75.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections... CERTIFICATION OF QUALITY OF AGRICULTURAL AND VEGETABLE SEEDS Inspection § 75.18 Sampling. Sampling, when...

  8. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Samples are routinely collected and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, ground water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  9. Effects of culinary preparation on radionuclide levels in vegetable foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, B.T.; Bradley, E.J.; Dodd, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    Vegetables contaminated by fall-out from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident have been used to investigate how simple culinary methods can affect the levels of various radionuclides in the portion consumed by man. Only ..gamma.. ray emitting radionuclides were investigated. Those parts of vegetables normally considered inedible, for example coarse outer leaves, foliage or roots, can account for between 50% and 97% of the total radionuclide content. Washing of the edible parts of vegetables can reduce the levels still further, although the efficacy is dependent on both the radionuclide and the vegetable type. These normal domestic procedures can reduce intakes of recently deposited radionuclides on vegetables by about an order of magnitude. The results have implications for the scope of monitoring programmes that might follow any future accidental release. They also reinforce very strongly the requirement for measurements on edible parts rather than whole samples as a direct input to dose evaluation. These results further suggest that there is no need to revise the general assumptions made in accident consequence models regarding losses of activity between harvest and consumption. However, more rigorous assessments of dose should take account of vegetable type and probable means of preparation.

  10. Assessment of heavy metal contents of green leafy vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Jena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables are rich sources of vitamins, minerals, and fibers, and have beneficial antioxidative effects. Ingestion of vegetables containing heavy metals is one of the main routes through which these elements enter the human body. Slowly released into the body, however, heavy metals can cause an array of diseases. In this study we investigated the concentrations of copper, chromium, zinc, and lead in the most frequently consumed vegetables including Pimpinella anisum, Spinacia oleracea, Amaranthus viridis, Coriandrum sativum, and Trigonella foenum graecum in various sites in Raipur city, India. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to estimate the levels of these metals in vegetables. The mean concentration for each heavy metal in the samples was calculated and compared with the permissible levels set by the Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization. The intake of heavy metals in the human diet was also calculated to estimate the risk to human health. Our findings indicated the presence of heavy metals in vegetables in the order of Cr > Zn > Cu > Pb. Based on these findings, we conclude that the vegetables grown in this region are a health hazard for human consumption.

  11. Effect of Phosphate levels on vegetables irrigated with wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladeji, S. O.; Saeed, M. D.

    2018-04-01

    This study examined accumulation of phosphate ions in wastewater and vegetables through man-made activities. Phosphate level was determined in wastewater and vegetables collected on seasonal basis along Kubanni stream in Zaria using UV/Visible and Smart Spectro Spectrophotometers for their analyses. Results obtained show that phosphate concentrations ranged from 3.85 – 42.33 mg/L in the first year and 15.60 – 72.80 mg/L in the second year for wastewater whereas the vegetable had levels of 3.80 – 23.65 mg/kg in the year I and 7.48 – 27.15 mg/kg in the year II. Further statistical tests indicated no significant difference in phosphate levels across the locations and seasons for wastewater and vegetables evaluated. Correlation results for these two years indicated negative (r = -0.062) relationship for wastewater while low (r = 0.339) relationship noticed for vegetables planted in year I to that of year II. Phosphate concentrations obtained in this study was higher than Maximum Contaminant Levels set by Standard Organization such as WHO and FAO for wastewater whereas vegetables of the sampling sites were not contaminated with phosphate ions. Irrigating farmland with untreated wastewater has negative consequence on the crops grown with it.

  12. Rapid determination of {sup 135}Cs and precise {sup 135}Cs/{sup 137}Cs atomic ratio in environmental samples by single-column chromatography coupled to triple-quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Guosheng [Department of Radiation Chemistry, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8564 (Japan); Division of Nuclear Technology and Applications, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Radiographic Techniques and Equipment, Beijing 100049 (China); Tazoe, Hirofumi [Department of Radiation Chemistry, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8564 (Japan); Yamada, Masatoshi, E-mail: myamada@hirosaki-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Chemistry, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8564 (Japan)

    2016-02-18

    For source identification, measurement of {sup 135}Cs/{sup 137}Cs atomic ratio not only provides information apart from the detection of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs, but it can also overcome the application limit that measurement of the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio has due to the short half-life of {sup 134}Cs (2.06 y). With the recent advancement of ICP-MS, it is necessary to improve the corresponding separation method for rapid and precise {sup 135}Cs/{sup 137}Cs atomic ratio analysis. A novel separation and purification technique was developed for the new generation of triple-quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS). The simple chemical separation, incorporating ammonium molybdophosphate selective adsorption of Cs and subsequent single cation-exchange chromatography, removes the majority of isobaric and polyatomic interference elements. Subsequently, the ICP-MS/MS removes residual interference elements and eliminates the peak tailing effect of stable {sup 133}Cs, at m/z 134, 135, and 137. The developed analytical method was successfully applied to measure {sup 135}Cs/{sup 137}Cs atomic ratios and {sup 135}Cs activities in environmental samples (soil and sediment) for radiocesium source identification. - Highlights: • A simple {sup 135}Cs/{sup 137}Cs analytical method was developed. • The separation procedure was based on AMP adsorption and one column chromatography. • {sup 135}Cs/{sup 137}Cs was measured by ICP-MS/MS. • Decontamination factors for Ba, Mo, Sb, and Sn were improved. • {sup 135}Cs/{sup 137}Cs atomic ratios of 0.341–0.351 were found in Japanese soil samples.

  13. Mutation breeding in vegetable crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Takashi

    1984-03-01

    Vegetables breed by seeds and vegetative organs. In main vegetables, the differentiation of clopping types, the adoption of monoculture and year-round production and shipment are carried out, adapting to various socio-economic and cultivation conditions. Protected agriculture has advanced mainly for fruit vegetables, and the seeds for sale have become almost hybrid varieties. Reflecting this situation, the demand for breeding is diversified and characteristic. The present status of mutation breeding of vegetables is not yet well under way, but reports of about 40 raised varieties have been published in the world. The characters introduced by induced mutation and irradiation are compact form, harvesting aptitude, the forms and properties of stems and leaves, anti-lodging property, the size, form and uniformity of fruits, male sterility and so on. The radiation sources used were mostly gamma ray or X-ray, but sometimes, combined irradiation was used. Results obtained in Japan include: burdocks as an example to gamma ray irradiation of seeds; tomatoes as an example of inducing compound resistance against disease injury; and lettuce as an example of internal beta irradiation. (Kako, I.).

  14. Mutation breeding in vegetable crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Takashi

    1984-01-01

    Vegetables breed by seeds and vegetative organs. In main vegetables, the differentiation of clopping types, the adoption of monoculture and year-round production and shipment are carried out, adapting to various socio-economic and cultivation conditions. Protected agriculture has advanced mainly for fruit vegetables, and the seeds for sale have become almost hybrid varieties. Reflecting the situation like this, the demand for breeding is diversified and characteristic, and the case of applying mutation breeding seems to be many. The present status of the mutation breeding of vegetables is not yet well under way, but about 40 raised varieties have been published in the world. The characters introduced by induced mutation and irradiation were compact form, harvesting aptitude, the forms and properties of stems and leaves, anti-lodging property, the size, form and uniformity of fruits, male sterility and so on. The radiation sources used were mostly gamma ray or X-ray, but sometimes, combined irradiation was used. As the results obtained in Japan, burdocks as an example of gamma ray irradiation to seeds, tomatoes as an example of inducing the compound resistance against disease injury and lettuces as an example of internal beta irradiation are reported. (Kako, I.)

  15. MONITORING PHENOLOGY OF FLOODPLAIN GRASSLAND AND HERBACEOUS VEGETATION WITH UAV IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. K. van Iersel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available River restoration projects, which aim at improved flood safety and increased ecological value, have resulted in more heterogeneous vegetation. However, they also resulted in increasing hydraulic roughness, which leads to higher flood water levels during peak discharges. Due to allowance of vegetation development and succession, both ecological and hydraulic characteristics of the floodplain change more rapidly over time. Monitoring of floodplain vegetation has become essential to document and evaluate the changing floodplain characteristics and associated functioning. Extraction of characteristics of low vegetation using single-epoch remote sensing data, however, remains challenging. The aim of this study was to (1 evaluate the performance of multi-temporal, high-spatial-resolution UAV imagery for extracting temporal vegetation height profiles of grassland and herbaceous vegetation in floodplains and (2 to assess the relation between height development and NDVI changes. Vegetation height was measured six times during one year in 28 field plots within a single floodplain. UAV true-colour and false-colour imagery of the floodplain were recorded coincidently with each field survey. We found that: (1 the vertical accuracy of UAV normalized digital surface models (nDSMs is sufficiently high to obtain temporal height profiles of low vegetation over a growing season, (2 vegetation height can be estimated from the time series of nDSMs, with the highest accuracy found for combined imagery from February and November (RMSE = 29-42 cm, (3 temporal relations between NDVI and observed vegetation height show different hysteresis behaviour for grassland and herbaceous vegetation. These results show the high potential of using UAV imagery for increasing grassland and herbaceous vegetation classification accuracy.

  16. The technology of fish-vegetable feed production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukatova M. D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Perspective direction of the Volga-Caspian basin fisheries is increasing the productivity of aquaculture production which requires the availability of sufficient quantities of feed. The cutting waste of carp and crucian carp, crayfish processing (cephalothorax, wheat bran, soy isolate, freshwater plants – pondweed perfoliate, fish-vegetable ration, produced feeding staffs have been investigated. In researching samples of manufactured pelleted feeds the standard methods adopted in the animal feed industry have been used. The number of nitrogen-free extractives and energy value has been determined by calculation. The composition of fish-vegetable ration has been worked out. Some manufacturing inspection of fish-vegetable feed technology using proofing process has been carried out. The possibility of manufacturing on the basis of crushed fish waste of the company LLC "VES" and dry ingredients of fish-vegetable feed has been determined; the output of feed at water content of not more than 10 % is 43 % of feed mix based on the mass of directed waste equal to 84 %. The pilot batch of dry fish-vegetable feed has been investigated to establish quality indicators. It has been determined that fish-vegetable feed meets the requirements of GOST 10385–2014 "Combined feeding staffs for fishes. General specifications" as for main quality indicators and refers to economic grower for catfish and carp fish weighing more than 50 g. This reveals good palatability of the experimental batch of floating feed by carp fish species and African catfish. Thus, fish-vegetable feed manufacturing technology can be implemented in the production for processing secondary raw materials: waste from butchering fish by grinding, cooking, mixing with selected vegetable fillings which is waste of flour or grain processing industries and freshwater plants mowed annually during the reclamation works on the Volga delta.

  17. Vegetation of the Hantam-Tanqua-Roggeveld subregion, South Africa Part 2: Succulent Karoo Biome related vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga van der Merwe

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Hantam-Tanqua-Roggeveld subregion lies within the Succulent Karoo Hotspot that stretches along the western side of the Republic of South Africa and Namibia. This project, carried out to document the botanical diversity in the Hantam-Tanqua-Roggeveld subregion, was part of a project identified as a priority during the SKEP (Succulent Karoo Ecosystem Programme initiative in this Hotspot. Botanical surveys were conducted in an area covering over three million hectares. Satellite images of the area and topocadastral, land type and geology maps were used to stratify the area into relatively homogeneous units. An analysis of the floristic data of 390 sample plots identified two major floristic units, i.e. the Fynbos Biome related vegetation and the Succulent Karoo Biome related vegetation. A description of the vegetation related to the Succulent Karoo Biome is presented in this article. Seven associations, 16 subassociations and several mosaic vegetation units, consisting of more than one vegetation unit, were identified and mapped. Various threats to the vegetation in the region were identified during the survey and are briefly discussed.

  18. An automated image analysis framework for segmentation and division plane detection of single live Staphylococcus aureus cells which can operate at millisecond sampling time scales using bespoke Slimfield microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollman, Adam J. M.; Miller, Helen; Foster, Simon; Leake, Mark C.

    2016-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen, giving rise to antimicrobial resistance in cell strains such as Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Here we report an image analysis framework for automated detection and image segmentation of cells in S. aureus cell clusters, and explicit identification of their cell division planes. We use a new combination of several existing analytical tools of image analysis to detect cellular and subcellular morphological features relevant to cell division from millisecond time scale sampled images of live pathogens at a detection precision of single molecules. We demonstrate this approach using a fluorescent reporter GFP fused to the protein EzrA that localises to a mid-cell plane during division and is involved in regulation of cell size and division. This image analysis framework presents a valuable platform from which to study candidate new antimicrobials which target the cell division machinery, but may also have more general application in detecting morphologically complex structures of fluorescently labelled proteins present in clusters of other types of cells.

  19. Sampling and estimating recreational use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy G. Gregoire; Gregory J. Buhyoff

    1999-01-01

    Probability sampling methods applicable to estimate recreational use are presented. Both single- and multiple-access recreation sites are considered. One- and two-stage sampling methods are presented. Estimation of recreational use is presented in a series of examples.

  20. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  1. Critical thickness ratio for buckled and wrinkled fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hui-Hui; Liu, Yang

    2014-11-01

    This work aims at establishing the geometrical constraint for buckled and wrinkled shapes by modeling a fruit/vegetable with exocarp and sarcocarp as a hyperelastic layer-substrate structure subjected to uniaxial compression. A careful analysis on the derived bifurcation condition leads to the finding of a critical thickness ratio which separates the buckling and wrinkling modes, and remarkably, which is independent of the material stiffnesses. More specifically, it is found that if the thickness ratio is smaller than this critical value a fruit/vegetable should be in a buckled shape (under a sufficient stress); if a fruit/vegetable is in a wrinkled shape the thickness ratio is always larger than this critical value. To verify the theoretical prediction, we consider four types of buckled fruits/vegetables and four types of wrinkled fruits/vegetables with three samples in each type. The geometrical parameters for the 24 samples are measured and it is found that indeed all the data fall into the theoretically predicted buckling or wrinkling domains.

  2. Vegetation studies on Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hickson, Diana E.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1988-01-01

    Vandenburg Air Force Base, located in coastal central California with an area of 98,400 ac, contains resources of considerable biological significance. Available information on the vegetation and flora of Vandenburg is summarized and new data collected in this project are presented. A bibliography of 621 references dealing with vegetation and related topics related to Vanderburg was compiled from computer and manual literature searches and a review of past studies of the base. A preliminary floristic list of 642 taxa representing 311 genera and 80 families was compiled from past studies and plants identified in the vegetation sampling conducted in this project. Fifty-two special interest plant species are known to occur or were suggested to occur. Vegetation was sampled using permanent plots and transects in all major plant communities including chaparral, Bishop pine forest, tanbark oak forest, annual grassland, oak woodland, coastal sage scrub, purple sage scrub, coastal dune scrub, coastal dunes, box elder riparian woodland, will riparian woodland, freshwater marsh, salt marsh, and seasonal wetlands. Comparison of the new vegetation data to the compostie San Diego State University data does not indicate major changes in most communities since the original study. Recommendations are made for additional studies needed to maintain and extend the environmental data base and for management actions to improve resource protection.

  3. Temporal reflectance changes in vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, Bjørn Skovlund; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2009-01-01

    Quality control in the food industry is often performed by measuring various chemical compounds of the food involved. We propose an imaging concept for acquiring high quality multispectral images to evaluate changes of carrots and celeriac over a period of 14 days. Properties originating...... in the surface chemistry of vegetables may be captured in an integrating sphere illumination which enables the creation of detailed surface chemistry maps with a good combination of spectral and spatial resolutions. Prior to multispectral image recording, the vegetables were prefried and frozen at -30Â......°C for four months. During the 14 days of image recording, the vegetables were kept at +5°C in refrigeration. In this period, surface changes and thereby reflectance properties were very subtle. To describe this small variation we employed advanced statistical techniques to search a large featurespace...

  4. ROOT VEGETABLES, BREEDING TRENDS, RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fedorova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main advantage of root vegetables is their unique specificity and high economic importance. The benefits and medicinal properties of root vegetables being highly demanded by the market requirements to the commodity are highlighted in the article. The main directions of breeding program for root vegetable crops, including species of Apiaceae family with carrot, parsnips; Chenopodioideae family with red beet; Brassicaceae family with radish, Daikon, Raphanus sativus L. var. lobo Sazonova & Stank, turnip and rutabaga. Initial breeding accessions of carrot, red beet, radish, Daikon, Raphanus sativus L. var. lobo Sazonova & Stank, turnip and rutabaga have been selected out to be used for breeding program for heterosis. The mf and ms breeding lines were developed, and with the use of them the new gene pool was created. Variety supporting breeding program and methods were also proposed. 

  5. Ionizing energy treatment of fruit and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigney, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The potential of ionising energy treatment of fresh fruit and vegetables may be considered within four major use areas. The shelf life of such fruits as bananas, mangoes and pawpaws can be extended by a direct physiological effect on the fruit. This treatment renders the fruit less sensitive to ethylene, a natural senescence-promoting chemical, and retards the onset of the climactric rise in respiration which is associated with fruit ripening. Postharvest decay caused by radio-sensitive organisms can also be controlled by low irradiation treatments, although this is only applicable in cases where the host fruit is less sensitive to the treatment than the decay causing organism. The sprouting of onions and potatoes can be controlled by a single low dose treatment which has a direct effect on the meristematic tissue. By killing insects of quarantine significance the interstate and export marketing of Australian fresh fruit may be expanded, with a consequent expansion of these horticultural industries. Ionising energy treatment of fruit and vegetables is therefore a valuable postharvest tool to improve the quality of fresh produce on local and export markets

  6. Carbonaceous aerosol particles from common vegetation in the Grand Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallock, K.A.; Mazurek, M.A.; Cass, G.R.

    1992-05-01

    The problem of visibility reduction in the Grand Canyon due to fine organic aerosol particles in the atmosphere has become an area of increased environmental concern. Aerosol particles can be derived from many emission sources. In this report, we focus on identifying organic aerosols derived from common vegetation in the Grand Canyon. These aerosols are expected to be significant contributors to the total atmospheric organic aerosol content. Aerosol samples from living vegetation were collected by resuspension of surface wax and resin components liberated from the leaves of vegetation common to areas of the Grand Canyon. The samples were analyzed using high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Probable identification of compounds was made by comparison of sample spectra with National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) mass spectral references and positive identification of compounds was made when possible by comparison with authentic standards as well as NIST references. Using these references, we have been able to positively identify the presence of n-alkane and n-alkanoic acid homolog series in the surface waxes of the vegetation sampled. Several monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes were identified also as possible biogenic aerosols which may contribute to the total organic aerosol abundance leading to visibility reduction in the Grand Canyon

  7. Geohelminth contamination of fruits and vegetables cultivated on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) was the most contaminated 65 (41.1%) and the least was Solanum macrocarpon (garden egg) 4 (2.5%). The samples were to some extent contaminated with either helminth ova, larvae or both, with the vegetables being more contaminated ...

  8. Farmers' Perception towards Organic-based Vegetable Produc-tion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well established that organic farming is a production system that sustain the health of the soils, ecosystems and people. This study assessed the small-scale farmers' perception towards organic based vegetable production in Ilaro agricultural zone of Ogun state, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used in the ...

  9. Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Urban Community Gardeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaimo, Katherine; Packnett, Elizabeth; Miles, Richard A.; Kruger, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association between household participation in a community garden and fruit and vegetable consumption among urban adults. Design: Data were analyzed from a cross-sectional random phone survey conducted in 2003. A quota sampling strategy was used to ensure that all census tracts within the city were represented. Setting:…

  10. Anatomical and histochemical analysis of vegetative organs of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of V. ferruginea vegetative organs were collected and submitted to the usual plant anatomy and histochemical techniques. The leaves are anfihipoestomática with anomocytic stomata; have tector and glandular trichomes that store essential oils. The stem has collateral-type vascular bundles arranged in a eustele ...

  11. Influence of flood variation on seasonal floodplain vegetation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the influence of flooding variation on floodplain vegetation in the Nxaraga Lagoon seasonal floodplains by sampling community composition and soil nutrient content in 1997, when flood levels were unusually low, and again in 2010 when flood levels were unusually high. In each of the eight ...

  12. Measuring Tree Seedlings and Associated Understory Vegetation in Pennsylvania's Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. McWilliams; Todd W. Bowersox; Patrick H. Brose; Daniel A. Devlin; James C. Finley; Kurt W. Gottschalk; Steve Horsley; Susan L. King; Brian M. LaPoint; Tonya W. Lister; Larry H. McCormick; Gary W. Miller; Charles T. Scott; Harry Steele; Kim C. Steiner; Susan L. Stout; James A. Westfall; Robert L. White

    2005-01-01

    The Northeastern Research Station's Forest Inventory and Analysis (NE-FIA) unit is conducting the Pennsylvania Regeneration Study (PRS) to evaluate composition and abundance of tree seedlings and associated vegetation. Sampling methods for the PRS were tested and developed in a pilot study to determine the appropriate number of 2-m microplots needed to capture...

  13. Influence of microtopography on soil chemistry and understory riparian vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irene M. Unger; Rose-Marie Muzika

    2008-01-01

    The success of riparian forest restoration efforts depends in part on an understanding of the relationship between soil characteristics and vegetation patterns and how these change with site conditions. To examine these relationships for floodplains in northern Missouri, we chose three unchannelized streams as study areas. A sampling grid was established at two plots...

  14. Ensemble Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiuyuan; Van Roy, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Thompson sampling has emerged as an effective heuristic for a broad range of online decision problems. In its basic form, the algorithm requires computing and sampling from a posterior distribution over models, which is tractable only for simple special cases. This paper develops ensemble sampling, which aims to approximate Thompson sampling while maintaining tractability even in the face of complex models such as neural networks. Ensemble sampling dramatically expands on the range of applica...

  15. The associations of vegetable consumption with food mavenism, personal values, food knowledge and demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farragher, Tahlia; Wang, Wei C; Worsley, Anthony

    2016-02-01

    Poor dietary choices, in particular low consumption of fruits and vegetables are associated with the prevalence of diet related diseases. Ways to increase consumption are urgently required. This paper examines the associations of demographic, psychographic and food knowledge variables with reported vegetable consumption. An online questionnaire was administered in late 2012 to a national sample 2146 Australians who were selected to represent the Australian population in terms of age, sex, education and location of residence. It was divided into sections which assessed food knowledge, food involvement, food mavenism, personal values and personality factors, demographic characteristics and reported consumption of 13 vegetables and the total number of servings of vegetables per day. Principal components analyses of the individual vegetable consumption ratings derived three forms of vegetable consumption scores. These and total serving per day were used as dependent variables in a structural equation model to identify pathways between them and their likely antecedents. Three types of vegetable consumption were formed:Salad vegetables (onion, tomato and lettuce);Dinner vegetables (carrot, peas and beans); and'Green' vegetables (cabbage, spinach broccoli and cauliflower). Food mavenism, food knowledge, food involvement and equality-universalist values mediated the relationships between demographics and conscientiousness and the vegetable consumption variables. The three types of vegetable consumption and total servings per day were associated with different antecedent pathways. The mediating roles of food mavenism, food knowledge, food involvement and equality-universalist values may present opportunities for health promotion and the horticultural industry to increase population vegetable intake. Further research is required to test these associations via experimental and longitudinal studies and qualitative investigation of the meaning and place of the three forms of

  16. Local vegetables in Cameroon: Corchorus species used as a vegetable.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westphal-Stevels, J.M.C.

    1986-01-01

    An agro-botanical study of local vegetables in Cameroon is in preparation, including the taxonomy, identity, morphology, agronomy and nutritional value of about 70 species. Corchorus olitorius L. and other edible species of the genus Corchorus L. (Tiliaceae) are part of this study. The wide

  17. Occurrence of parasites on fruits and vegetables in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, L J; Gjerde, B

    2001-11-01

    Between August 1999 and January 2001, samples of various fruits and vegetables obtained within Norway were analyzed by published methods for parasite contamination. Neither Cyclospora oocysts nor Ascaris (or other helminth) eggs were detected on any of the samples examined for these parasites. However, of the 475 samples examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts, 29 (6%) were found to be positive. No samples were positive for both parasites. Of the 19 Cryptosporidium-positive samples. 5 (26%) were in lettuce, and 14 (74%) in mung bean sprouts. Of the 10 Giardia-positive samples, 2 (20%) were in dill, 2 (20%) in lettuce, 3 (30%) in mung bean sprouts, 1 (10%) in radish sprouts, and 2 (20%) in strawberries. Mung bean sprouts were significantly more likely to be contaminated with Cryptosporidium oocysts or Giardia cysts than the other fruits and vegetables. Concentrations of Cryptosporidium and Giardia detected were generally low (mean of approximately 3 [oo]cysts per 100 g produce). Although some of the contaminated produce was imported (the majority, if sprouted seeds are excluded), there was no association between imported produce and detection of parasites. Crvptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were also detected in water samples concerned with field irrigation and production of bean sprouts within Norway. This is the first time that parasites have been detected on vegetables and fruit obtained in a highly developed. wealthy country, without there being an outbreak situation. These findings may have important implications for global food safety.

  18. Level of gross margin among vegetable farmers in Iwo Zone of Osun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the level of gross margin in vegetable farmers' production in Iwo zone of Osun State Agricultural Development Programme (ADP). Data for the study was collected through structured interview schedule with 150 vegetable farmers selected through multistage sampling technique. These data were ...

  19. Indicator microorganisms in fresh vegetables from “farm to fork” in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ssemanda, James Noah; Reij, Martine; Muvunyi, Claude Mambo; Joosten, Han; Zwietering, Marcel H.

    2017-01-01

    Microbial safety of ready-to-eat vegetables is currently a global concern. We studied indicator microorganisms in fresh vegetables from “farm to fork” in Rwanda, to identify possible trends in microbial counts along the supply chain in a developing country. A total of 453 samples were taken across

  20. A survey on parasitic contamination of leafy vegetables in Ihiala LGA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to assess the degree of parasitic contamination of vegetables sold in some selected markets in Ihiala Local Government Area, Anambra State Nigeria between January and June 2014. Vegetable samples which includes Amaranthus spp (green leaf), Telfara Occidentalis (pumpkin leaf), Talinium ...