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Sample records for single uredinial isolates

  1. Single Cell Isolation and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Hu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that the heterogeneity of individual cells within a genetically identical population can be critical to their peculiar function and fate. Conventional cell based assays mainly analysis the average responses from a population cells, while the difference within individual cells may often be masked. The cell size, RNA transcripts and protein expression level are quite different within individual cells and these variations are key point to answer the problems in cancer, neurobiology, stem cell biology, immunology and developmental biology. To better understand the cell-to-cell variations, the single cell analysis can provide much more detailed information which may be helpful for therapeutic decisions in an increasingly personalized medicine. In this review, we will focus on the recent development in single cell analysis, including methods used in single cell isolation, analysis and some application examples. The review provides the historical background to single cell analysis, discusses limitations, and current and future possibilities in this exciting field of research.

  2. Métodos de preservação in vitro de urediniósporos de Puccinia kuehnii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Tibolla

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar métodos de preservação de urediniósporos de Puccinia kuehnii, conduziram-se dois bioensaios sendo o primeiro (B1 com diferentes métodos de desidratação e o segundo (B2, com diferentes métodos de reidratação. Em B1 foi adicionado um grânulo de sílica gel para preservação dos urediniósporos nos tubos de microcentrífuga. Foram coletadas folhas com sintomas de ferrugem alaranjada, P. kuehnii, da cultivar de cana-de-açúcar SP89 1115. Os urediniósporos do agente causal de ferugem foram extraídos das folhas com o auxílio de bomba a vácuo. Posteriormente, estes foram acondicionados em tubos de microcentrífuga. Os tratamentos para B1 foram: l- desidratação em sílica gel, liofilização e sem desidratação; ll- temperatura ambiente (20ºC, geladeira (5ºC, congelador (-20ºC e deep-freezer (-80ºC. Para B2 os tratamentos foram: l- desidratação em sílica gel e sem desidratação; ll- temperatura ambiente (20ºC, geladeira (5ºC, congelador (-20ºC e deep-freezer (-80ºC; lll- com reidratação e sem reidratação nas avaliações. Para ambos os bioensaios foi realizada a germinação inicial, outras aos 15 e 30 dias de armazenamento e posteriormente a cada 30 dias, até 180 dias. Prepararam-se suspensões de urediniósporos em água e uma alíquota de 0,1 mL foi transferida para placas de Petri contendo meio ágar-água (15g L-1. Essas permaneceram a 20ºC, no escuro. Para a avaliação da viabilidade, procedeu-se a contagem de 200 urediniósporos por placa. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância não paramétrica de Kruskal-Wallis e complementadas com o teste de Dunn. Os resultados demonstraram que a viabilidade decresceu em função do tempo, sendo que os melhores tratamentos atingiram 27,6% e 6,6% aos 30 dias, e 12,0% e 1,9% aos 60 dias, para B1 e B2, respectivamente. O método da desidratação em sílica gel seguido do armazenamento a -80ºC foi o único que apresentou uredini

  3. Technologies for Single-Cell Isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Andre; Schoendube, Jonas; Zimmermann, Stefan; Steeb, Maximilian; Zengerle, Roland; Koltay, Peter

    2015-07-24

    The handling of single cells is of great importance in applications such as cell line development or single-cell analysis, e.g., for cancer research or for emerging diagnostic methods. This review provides an overview of technologies that are currently used or in development to isolate single cells for subsequent single-cell analysis. Data from a dedicated online market survey conducted to identify the most relevant technologies, presented here for the first time, shows that FACS (fluorescence activated cell sorting) respectively Flow cytometry (33% usage), laser microdissection (17%), manual cell picking (17%), random seeding/dilution (15%), and microfluidics/lab-on-a-chip devices (12%) are currently the most frequently used technologies. These most prominent technologies are described in detail and key performance factors are discussed. The survey data indicates a further increasing interest in single-cell isolation tools for the coming years. Additionally, a worldwide patent search was performed to screen for emerging technologies that might become relevant in the future. In total 179 patents were found, out of which 25 were evaluated by screening the title and abstract to be relevant to the field.

  4. Dinâmica temporal de urediniósporos e controle da ferrugem asiática (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) da soja (Glycine max)

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Marcello Arrais

    2011-01-01

    Os objetivos do trabalho foram: (a) avaliar genótipos de soja quanto a reação à ferrugem asiática (Phakopsora pachyrhizi); (b) verificar o progresso da doença em campo de soja associados às condições ambientais, correlacionando-as à variação temporal de urediniósporos coletados no ar; (c) determinar a influência do ambiente na infecção por P. pachyrhizi; e (d) avaliar a influência da concentração de urediniósporos de P. pachyrhizi sobre a doença. Os principais resultados são a seguir apresent...

  5. Silicon Dioxide Thin Film Mediated Single Cell Nucleic Acid Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Evgeny; Dominova, Irina; Shusharina, Natalia; Botman, Stepan; Kasymov, Vitaliy; Patrushev, Maksim

    2013-01-01

    A limited amount of DNA extracted from single cells, and the development of single cell diagnostics make it necessary to create a new highly effective method for the single cells nucleic acids isolation. In this paper, we propose the DNA isolation method from biomaterials with limited DNA quantity in sample, and from samples with degradable DNA based on the use of solid-phase adsorbent silicon dioxide nanofilm deposited on the inner surface of PCR tube. PMID:23874571

  6. Germinação de urediniósporos de Phakopsora pachyrhizi em diferentes métodos de armazenamento Germination of urediniospores from Phakopsora pachyrhizi on different techniques of preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisandra Batista Zambenedetti

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes métodos de armazenamento na viabilidade de urediniósporos de P. pachyrhizi. Para isso foram armazenadas folhas herborizadas com urediniossoros (24°C; urediniósporos em dessecador (10°C + nitrogênio líquido (-196°C após 60 dias, geladeira (4°C, deep-freezer (de -60 a -80°C e nitrogênio líquido. A cada trinta dias avaliou-se à porcentagem de germinação em meio ágar-água 2% à temperatura de 25°C. Urediniósporos armazenados em nitrogênio líquido apresentaram maior porcentagem de germinação ao final das avaliações (270 dias. Urediniósporos armazenados em dessecador apresentaram 0% de germinação aos 60 dias e quando transferidos para o nitrogênio líquido voltaram a apresentar até 30% germinação. Urediniósporos armazenados nas demais condições apresentaram grande redução na germinação no primeiro mês e com 90 dias esta chegou a zero. Concluiu-se que o melhor método de armazenamento para urediniósporos de P. pachyrhizi foi o nitrogênio líquido.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different storage methods on the viability of the urediniospores of P. pachyrhizi. Urediniospores were collected and stored in five different conditions: detached dry leaves (24°C, desiccator (10°C + liquid nitrogen (-196°C after 60 days, refrigerator (4°C, deep-freezer (from -60°C to 80°C and liquid nitrogen (-196°C. The percentage of germination from stored urediniospores was evaluated every thirty days in water-agar medium. Urediniospores stored in liquid nitrogen presented the highest germination percentage after 270 days of storage. In desiccator, the germination was zero at ninety days of evaluation, and when urediniospores were transferred to and kept in liquid nitrogen, the germination was up to 30%. The urediniospores stored under others conditions presented a decline in germination at sixty days and at the ninety days the germination

  7. Isolating and moving single atoms using silicon nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2010-09-07

    A method is disclosed for isolating single atoms of an atomic species of interest by locating the atoms within silicon nanocrystals. This can be done by implanting, on the average, a single atom of the atomic species of interest into each nanocrystal, and then measuring an electrical charge distribution on the nanocrystals with scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) or electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) to identify and select those nanocrystals having exactly one atom of the atomic species of interest therein. The nanocrystals with the single atom of the atomic species of interest therein can be sorted and moved using an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip. The method is useful for forming nanoscale electronic and optical devices including quantum computers and single-photon light sources.

  8. Efeito de extratos e óleos essenciais de plantas na germinação de urediniósporos de Phakopsora pachyrhizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.I. Borges

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Métodos alternativos para o controle de doenças e pragas de plantas vêm sendo pesquisados buscando causar menores danos ao ambiente e a saúde humana. Diante disso, o objetivo deste estudo foi identificar extratos de plantas e óleos essenciais com possíveis efeitos sobre Phakopsora pachyrhizi, agente etiológico da ferrugem-asiática da soja. Assim, 61 extratos de plantas da flora nativa da região do Alto Rio Grande, Minas Gerais e cinco óleos essenciais obtidos comercialmente foram utilizados com a finalidade de testar os efeitos na germinação de urediniósporos do referido fungo. Foram utilizadas placas de Petri de 6 cm, com meio ágar-água, adicionado com 150 μL de extrato de planta ou 6 μL do óleo essencial misturado ao meio de cultura. Como testemunhas foram utilizadas 150 μL de Tween 20 a 0,7% e 150 μL de água destilada. Após, foram adicionados 50μL de uma suspensão de urediniósporos, na concentração de 2mg.5mL-1 e espalhados com alça de Drigalsky. As placas foram colocadas em BOD, a 23(±2ºC, por 4 horas. A germinação foi paralisada com adição de lactoglicerol. A avaliação da percentagem de esporos germinados foi realizada em microscópio de luz. Dentre os extratos vegetais testados, dez apresentaram percentual de germinação abaixo de 15%, tendo os extratos obtidos das plantas Pelargonium sp., Salvia officinalis, Lavandula officinalis, Mentha pulegium e M. arvensis apresentado germinação de esporos de 3,0%, 3,5%, 3,0%, 2,0% e 4,0%, respectivamente. Todos os óleos essenciais avaliados foram efetivos na inibição da germinação, com destaque para o óleo essencial de Caryophilus aromaticus, que apresentou percentagem de germinação de 5%, resultando num percentual de inibição de 50,0%.

  9. Can isolated single black holes produce X-ray novae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Tatsuya; Teraki, Yuto; Ioka, Kunihito

    2018-03-01

    Almost all black holes (BHs) and BH candidates in our Galaxy have been discovered as soft X-ray transients, so-called X-ray novae. X-ray novae are usually considered to arise from binary systems. Here, we propose that X-ray novae are also caused by isolated single BHs. We calculate the distribution of the accretion rate from interstellar matter to isolated BHs, and find that BHs in molecular clouds satisfy the condition of the hydrogen-ionization disc instability, which results in X-ray novae. The estimated event rate is consistent with the observed one. We also check an X-ray novae catalogue (Corral-Santana et al.) and find that 16/59 ˜ 0.27 of the observed X-ray novae are potentially powered by isolated BHs. The possible candidates include IGR J17454-2919, XTE J1908-094, and SAX J1711.6-3808. Near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic follow-ups can exclude companion stars for a BH census in our Galaxy.

  10. Isolated and Single Pedestrians and Pedestrian Groups on Sidewalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pinna

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Walking freedom can define the quality of an urban area, but this freedom is conditioned by various factors. The research objective is to study pedestrian behavior on sidewalks. Data are collected during on site surveys by means of concealed camcorders. For each pedestrian many factors are observed, such as gender, age, direction, distractions, transport of objects, etc., which could influence pedestrian behavior. Data processing allows the identification of mathematical models describing the average pedestrian’s behavior, subdivided for user type (isolated, single, group. In general, the mean walking pedestrian speed decreases depending on user type (in a linear manner if age class grows for isolated pedestrians, while with the square of age for other user types, of gender, and of facing type. Models obtained for the different pedestrian types were compared to understand the differences in speeds, underlining that pedestrian interferences play a significant role in defining behavior and, therefore, speed. The results support the idea that, to define a smooth pedestrian speed as an indicator of the “walkability” of a path, in addition to considering the path and user’s characteristics, it is also necessary to define the type of user for which the infrastructure is designed.

  11. Isolated EWiRaC: A New Low-Stress Single-Stage Isolated PFC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Bergendorff, Stefan Pihl; Petersen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    A new PFC-family of Efficient Wide Range Converters named EWiRaC was recently introduced. EWiRaC has a major advantage in terms of efficiency at low-line and handles challenges like inrush current limiting as an integrated part of the conversion scheme. The main objective of this paper is to inve......A new PFC-family of Efficient Wide Range Converters named EWiRaC was recently introduced. EWiRaC has a major advantage in terms of efficiency at low-line and handles challenges like inrush current limiting as an integrated part of the conversion scheme. The main objective of this paper...... is to investigate the performance of an isolated EWiRaC (I-EWiRaC) in a single-stage PFC configuration....

  12. A Single Switch Dual Output Non-Isolated Boost Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimczak, Pawel; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2008-01-01

    There are many applications for high gain dc-dc converters. In several of these applications galvanic isolation is not required, but there are some safety issues regarding missing isolation and leakage current. Usage of a half-bridge inverter and a dual dc-link may solve this issues. In this pape...

  13. Single-step isolation of extracellular vesicles by size-exclusion chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Böing, Anita N.; van der Pol, Edwin; Grootemaat, Anita E.; Coumans, Frank A. W.; Sturk, Auguste; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2014-01-01

    Background: Isolation of extracellular vesicles from plasma is a challenge due to the presence of proteins and lipoproteins. Isolation of vesicles using differential centrifugation or density-gradient ultracentrifugation results in co-isolation of contaminants such as protein aggregates and incomplete separation of vesicles from lipoproteins, respectively.Aim: To develop a single-step protocol to isolate vesicles from human body fluids.Methods: Platelet-free supernatant, derived from platelet...

  14. Rapid isolation of high molecular weight DNA from single dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANAND

    For studying genetic diversity in populations of predatory coccinellid, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri. Mulsant (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera), our attempts to isolate high quality DNA from individual adult beetle using several previously reported protocols and even modifications were quite unsuccessful as the insect size was small ...

  15. Rapid isolation of high molecular weight DNA from single dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For studying genetic diversity in populations of predatory coccinellid, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera), our attempts to isolate high quality DNA from individual adult beetle using several previously reported protocols and even modifications were quite unsuccessful as the insect size was small ...

  16. Isolation of Kupffer Cells and Hepatocytes from a Single Mouse Liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aparicio-Vergara, Marcela; Tencerova, Michaela; Morgantini, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    one viable hepatic cellular fraction from a single mouse; either parenchymal (hepatocytes) or non-parenchymal cells (i.e., Kupffer cells or hepatic stellate cells). Here, we describe a method to isolate both hepatocytes and Kupffer cells from a single mouse liver, thereby providing the unique......Liver perfusion is a common technique used to isolate parenchymal and non-parenchymal liver cells for in vitro experiments. This method allows hepatic cells to be separated based on their size and weight, by centrifugation using a density gradient. To date, other methods allow the isolation of only...... advantage of studying different liver cell types that have been isolated from the same organism....

  17. Multiflash X ray with Image Detanglement for Single Image Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-31

    conceived and developed to capture multiple flash X-rays on a single film or phosphor screen and digitally detangle the resulting image into separate images...capability was conceived and developed to capture multiple flash X-rays on a single film or phosphor screen and digitally detangle the resulting image...digital radiograph (ORAD); and 2) an appropriate averaging of the value of the pixels within the exposed region-of-interest on the ORAD needs to be

  18. Isolated paroxysmal dysarthria caused by a single demyelinating midbrain lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codeluppi, Luca; Bigliardi, Guido; Chiari, Annalisa; Meletti, Stefano

    2013-10-16

    Paroxysmal dysarthria is an unusual condition characterised by brief episodes of dysarthria with the sudden onset and frequent recurrence. It has been mainly reported in multiple sclerosis and an association with midbrain lesions has been claimed; however, most of the reported patients had multiple brain alterations so it was difficult to associate this symptom with a specific lesion site. We illustrate the cases of two patients with an isolated demyelinating midbrain lesion presenting paroxysmal dysarthria as the only symptom; both participants had oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid and an unremarkable follow-up. Both patients had benefit from carbamazepine treatment, similarly to previously reported cases. Our report confirms that a demyelinating midbrain lesion is sufficient to provoke paroxysmal dysarthria. It is noteworthy that an erroneous diagnosis of psychogenic disorders was initially made in both cases, highlighting the importance not to underestimate isolated paroxysmal symptoms in clinical practice.

  19. Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomczynski, P; Sacchi, N

    1987-04-01

    A new method of total RNA isolation by a single extraction with an acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform mixture is described. The method provides a pure preparation of undegraded RNA in high yield and can be completed within 4 h. It is particularly useful for processing large numbers of samples and for isolation of RNA from minute quantities of cells or tissue samples.

  20. Relationships among North American and Japanese Laetiporus isolates inferred from molecular phylogenetics and single-spore incompatibility reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark T. Banik; Daniel L. Lindner; Yuko Ota; Tsutomu. Hattori

    2010-01-01

    Relationships were investigated among North American and Japanese isolates of Laetiporus using phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences and single-spore isolate incompatibility. Single-spore isolate pairings revealed no significant compatibility between North American and Japanese isolates. ITS analysis revealed 12 clades within the core ...

  1. The effects of isolated single umbilical artery on first and second trimester aneuploidy screening test parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulek, Firat; Kahraman, Alper; Taskin, Salih; Ozkavukcu, Esra; Soylemez, Feride

    2015-04-01

    Reliability of first and second trimester screening tests largely depends on accurate estimation of maternal serum marker values. Reduced reliability could lead redundant invasive tests or misdiagnosis. Adjustments of serum marker values for confounding factors like insulin-dependent diabetes, maternal weight or maternal rhesus status are essential. We aimed to investigate whether isolated single umbilical artery alters first and second trimester test parameters or not. Routine detailed obstetric ultrasonographies performed were retrospectively screened for this study. Among spontaneously conceived singleton pregnancies, women who were found to have single umbilical artery without any additional structural anomalies or aneuploidies were selected. First and second trimester screening test results were accessible for 98 and 102 of the cases with isolated single umbilical artery, respectively. Among first trimester screening test parameters, PAPP-A (pregnancy-associated plasma protein A) MoMs were found significantly higher in isolated single umbilical artery group. AFP MoMs were found significantly elevated in isolated single umbilical artery group in second trimester quadruple tests. Existence of single umbilical artery could alter the estimation of MoM values of maternal serum markers. Reliability of prenatal screening tests could be improved by adjusting these parameters in accordance with isolated single umbilical artery.

  2. Dielectrophoretic immobilisation of nanoparticles as isolated singles in regular arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knigge, Xenia; Wenger, Christian; Bier, Frank F.; Hölzel, Ralph

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate the immobilisation of polystyrene nanoparticles on vertical nano-electrodes by means of dielectrophoresis. The electrodes have diameters of 500 nm or 50 nm, respectively, and are arranged in arrays of several thousand electrodes, allowing many thousands of experiments in parallel. At a frequency of 15 kHz, which is found favourable for polystyrene, several occupation patterns are observed, and both temporary and permanent immobilisation is achieved. In addition, a histogram method is applied, which allows to determine the number of particles occupying the electrodes. These results are validated with scanning electron microscopy images. Immobilising exactly one particle at each electrode tip is achieved for electrode tip diameters with half the particle size. Extension of this system down to the level of single molecules is envisaged, which will avoid ensemble averaging at still statistically large sample sizes.

  3. Single Spore Isolation as a Simple and Efficient Technique to obtain fungal pure culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noman, E.; Al-Gheethi, AA; Rahman, N. K.; Talip, B.; Mohamed, R.; H, N.; Kadir, O. A.

    2018-04-01

    The successful identification of fungi by phenotypic methods or molecular technique depends mainly on the using an advanced technique for purifying the isolates. The most efficient is the single spore technique due to the simple requirements and the efficiency in preventing the contamination by yeast, mites or bacteria. The method described in the present work is depends on the using of a light microscope to transfer one spore into a new culture medium. The present work describes a simple and efficient procedure for single spore isolation to purify of fungi recovered from the clinical wastes.

  4. Label-free isolation and deposition of single bacterial cells from heterogeneous samples for clonal culturing

    OpenAIRE

    J. Riba; T. Gleichmann; S. Zimmermann; R. Zengerle; P. Koltay

    2016-01-01

    The isolation and analysis of single prokaryotic cells down to 1??m and less in size poses a special challenge and requires micro-engineered devices to handle volumes in the picoliter to nanoliter range. Here, an advanced Single-Cell Printer (SCP) was applied for automated and label-free isolation and deposition of bacterial cells encapsulated in 35?pl droplets by inkjet-like printing. To achieve this, dispenser chips to generate micro droplets have been fabricated with nozzles 20??m in size....

  5. Single CD271 marker isolates mesenchymal stem cells from human dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Ruth; Lee, Hye-Lim; Hong, Christine; Wang, Cun-Yu

    2015-12-18

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising tool in regenerative medicine due to their capacity to differentiate into multiple lineages. In addition to MSCs isolated from bone marrow (BMSCs), adult MSCs are isolated from craniofacial tissues including dental pulp tissues (DPs) using various stem cell surface markers. However, there has been a lack of consensus on a set of surface makers that are reproducibly effective at isolating putative multipotent dental mesenchymal stem cells (DMSCs). In this study, we used different combinations of surface markers (CD51/CD140α, CD271, and STRO-1/CD146) to isolate homogeneous populations of DMSCs from heterogeneous dental pulp cells (DPCs) obtained from DP and compared their capacity to undergo multilineage differentiation. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting revealed that 27.3% of DPCs were CD51(+)/CD140α(+), 10.6% were CD271(+), and 0.3% were STRO-1(+)/CD146(+). Under odontogenic conditions, all three subsets of isolated DMSCs exhibited differentiation capacity into odontogenic lineages. Among these isolated subsets of DMSCs, CD271(+) DMSCs demonstrated the greatest odontogenic potential. While all three combinations of surface markers in this study successfully isolated DMSCs from DPCs, the single CD271 marker presents the most effective stem cell surface marker for identification of DMSCs with high odontogenic potential. Isolated CD271(+) DMSCs could potentially be utilized for future clinical applications in dentistry and regenerative medicine.

  6. Congenital heart defects in newborns with apparently isolated single gastrointestinal malformation: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierz, Ingrid Anne Mandy; Pinello, Giuseppa; Giuffrè, Mario; La Placa, Simona; Piro, Ettore; Corsello, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    Congenital gastrointestinal system malformations/abdominal wall defects (GISM) may appear as isolated defects (single or complex), or in association with multiple malformations. The high incidence of association of GISM and congenital heart defects (CHD) in patients with syndromes and malformative sequences is known, but less expected is the association of apparently isolated single GISM and CHD. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of CHD in newborns with isolated GISM, and the possibility to modify the diagnostic-therapeutic approach just before the onset of cardiac symptoms or complications. Anamnestic, clinical, and imaging data of newborns requiring abdominal surgery for GISM, between 2009 and 2014, were compared with a control group of healthy newborns. Distribution of GISM and cardiovascular abnormalities were analyzed, and risk factors for adverse outcomes were identified. Seventy-one newborns with isolated GISM were included in this study. More frequent GISM were intestinal rotation and fixation disorders. CHD were observed in 15.5% of patients, augmenting their risk for morbidity. Risk factors for morbidity related to sepsis were identified in central venous catheter, intestinal stoma, and H2-inhibitor-drugs. Moreover, 28.2% of newborns presented only functional cardiac disorders but an unexpectedly higher mortality. The high incidence of congenital heart disease in infants with apparently isolated GISM confirms the need to perform an echocardiographic study before surgery to improve perioperative management and prevent complications such as sepsis and endocarditis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Coupled dynamic analysis of a single gimbal control moment gyro cluster integrated with an isolation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qing; Li, Dongxu; Jiang, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Control moment gyros (CMGs) are widely used as actuators for attitude control in spacecraft. However, micro-vibrations produced by CMGs will degrade the pointing performance of high-sensitivity instruments on-board the spacecraft. This paper addresses dynamic modelling and performs an analysis on the micro-vibration isolation for a single gimbal CMG (SGCMG) cluster. First, an analytical model was developed to describe both the coupled SGCMG cluster and the multi-axis isolation system that can express the dynamic outputs. This analytical model accurately reflects the mass and inertia properties, the gyroscopic effects and flexible modes of the coupled system, which can be generalized for isolation applications of SGCMG clusters. Second, the analytical model was validated using MSC.NASTRAN software based on the finite element technique. The dynamic characteristics of the coupled system are affected by the mass distribution and the gyroscopic effects of the SGCMGs. The gyroscopic effects produced by the rotary flywheel will stiffen or soften several of the structural modes of the coupled system. In addition, the gyroscopic effect of each SGCMG can interact with or counteract that of others, which induce vibration modes coupled together. Finally, the performance of the passive isolation was analysed. It was demonstrated that the gyroscopic effects should be considered in isolation studies on SGCMG clusters; otherwise, the isolation performance will be underestimated if they are ignored.

  8. Improved and Reproducible Flow Cytometry Methodology for Nuclei Isolation from Single Root Meristem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Cristina Ribeiro Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Root meristems have increasingly been target of cell cycle studies by flow cytometric DNA content quantification. Moreover, roots can be an alternative source of nuclear suspension when leaves become unfeasible and for chromosome analysis and sorting. In the present paper, a protocol for intact nuclei isolation from a single root meristem was developed. This proceeding was based on excision of the meristematic region using a prototypical slide, followed by short enzymatic digestion and mechanical isolation of nuclei during homogenization with a hand mixer. Such parameters were optimized for reaching better results. Satisfactory nuclei amounts were extracted and analyzed by flow cytometry, producing histograms with reduced background noise and CVs between 3.2 and 4.1%. This improved and reproducible technique was shown to be rapid, inexpensive, and simple for nuclear extraction from a single root tip, and can be adapted for other plants and purposes.

  9. Small angle neutron scattering study of isolated single wall carbon nano tubes in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doe, Chang-Woo; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Choi, Sung-Min; Kline, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    As an effort to provide more practical approaches to a wide range of potential applications of carbon nano tubes, we report a new type of noncovalently functionalized isolated single-walled carbon nano tube(SWNT) which is easily dispersible in water by only ten minutes of mild vortex mixing. The structure and quality of dispersion have been investigated using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique

  10. Concurrent Isolation of 3 Distinct Cardiac Stem Cell Populations From a Single Human Heart Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsanto, Megan M; White, Kevin S; Kim, Taeyong; Wang, Bingyan J; Fisher, Kristina; Ilves, Kelli; Khalafalla, Farid G; Casillas, Alexandria; Broughton, Kathleen; Mohsin, Sadia; Dembitsky, Walter P; Sussman, Mark A

    2017-07-07

    The relative actions and synergism between distinct myocardial-derived stem cell populations remain obscure. Ongoing debates on optimal cell population(s) for treatment of heart failure prompted implementation of a protocol for isolation of multiple stem cell populations from a single myocardial tissue sample to develop new insights for achieving myocardial regeneration. Establish a robust cardiac stem cell isolation and culture protocol to consistently generate 3 distinct stem cell populations from a single human heart biopsy. Isolation of 3 endogenous cardiac stem cell populations was performed from human heart samples routinely discarded during implantation of a left ventricular assist device. Tissue explants were mechanically minced into 1 mm 3 pieces to minimize time exposure to collagenase digestion and preserve cell viability. Centrifugation removes large cardiomyocytes and tissue debris producing a single cell suspension that is sorted using magnetic-activated cell sorting technology. Initial sorting is based on tyrosine-protein kinase Kit (c-Kit) expression that enriches for 2 c-Kit + cell populations yielding a mixture of cardiac progenitor cells and endothelial progenitor cells. Flowthrough c-Kit - mesenchymal stem cells are positively selected by surface expression of markers CD90 and CD105. After 1 week of culture, the c-Kit + population is further enriched by selection for a CD133 + endothelial progenitor cell population. Persistence of respective cell surface markers in vitro is confirmed both by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Three distinct cardiac cell populations with individualized phenotypic properties consistent with cardiac progenitor cells, endothelial progenitor cells, and mesenchymal stem cells can be successfully concurrently isolated and expanded from a single tissue sample derived from human heart failure patients. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Specific single-cell isolation and genomic amplification of uncultured microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Thomas; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Lasken, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    We in this study describe a new method for genomic studies of individual uncultured prokaryotic organisms, which was used for the isolation and partial genome sequencing of a soil archaeon. The diversity of Archaea in a soil sample was mapped by generating a clone library using group-specific pri......We in this study describe a new method for genomic studies of individual uncultured prokaryotic organisms, which was used for the isolation and partial genome sequencing of a soil archaeon. The diversity of Archaea in a soil sample was mapped by generating a clone library using group......-specific primers in combination with a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profile. Intact cells were extracted from the environmental sample, and fluorescent in situ hybridization probing with Cy3-labeled probes designed from the clone library was subsequently used to detect the organisms...... of interest. Single cells with a bright fluorescent signal were isolated using a micromanipulator and the genome of the single isolated cells served as a template for multiple displacement amplification (MDA) using the Phi29 DNA polymerase. The generated MDA product was afterwards used for 16S rRNA gene...

  12. COMPARATIVE PRODUCTION OF SINGLE CELL PROTEIN FROM FISH PROTEIN ISOLATE WASTAGE AND ULTRA FILTERED CHEESE WHEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroush Haghighi-Manesh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish protein isolate wastage and ultra filtered cheese whey were used as substrates for fermentation by Kluyveromyces marxianus to produce single cell protein, under batch and aerobic condition in which pH and temperature were adjusted to 4.5 and 35°C. The produced biomass was analyzed for protein content in different periods of time during fermentation. About 82% and 75% of total protein was produced in the first 18 h of 96 h fermentation of ultra filtered cheese whey and protein isolate wastage respectively, which can be an indication of the exponential phase of the yeast growth. The results of biomass yield measurements during 96 h process also confirm this finding. Moreover, since ultra filtered cheese whey was higher in single cell protein yield, solubility, water holding capacity, water absorption and power of biological and chemical oxygen demand reduction, and also was lower in foam overrun and stability than fish protein isolate wastage, it was selected as the suitable substrate for single cell protein production.

  13. High step-up isolated efficient single switch DC-DC converter for renewable energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gopi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an isolated high step-up single switch DC-DC converter for renewable energy source is proposed. In the proposed converter high step-up voltage is obtained by single power switching technique that operates low duty cycle with isolated transformer inductors and switched capacitors and power diodes. The disadvantage of conventional converters is that it has high duty ratio and high voltage stress on power devices with less efficiency. The proposed converter eliminates the switching losses and recycles the leakage energy which includes reverse recovery energy of the power diode by using passive clamp circuit. To achieve high output voltage gain, the isolated transformer primary terminal and secondary terminal are connected in series during switching operation. PSIM software has been used for simulation. Simulation circuit is analyzed at 40Vdc/400Vdc, 200 W and this operation is validated by implementing in the hardware model at 12Vdc/120Vdc, 60 W.

  14. Single isolated hadron response and determination of the jet energy scale uncertainty with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Vivarelli, I; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The response of single isolated hadrons in the ATLAS calorimeter is measured in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV at the LHC. Isolated tracks with a momentum between 0.5 to 10-20 GeV are selected in the rapidity region up to 2.3. Adjacent energy deposits collected in calorimeter clusters are summed together in a cone of size R=0.2. The measured calorimeter cluster energy sum is compared to the track momentum. Data are in compared in detail to Monte Carlo simulation based on the Geant4 tool-kit and to test-beam measurements. The response to hadrons at low momenta is described by the Monte Carlo simulation with an accuracy of a few percent. Together with test-beam data the results of the single isolated hadron analysis can be used to get a first estimate of the jet energy scale uncertainty in the ATLAS detector.

  15. Wavelet methodology to improve single unit isolation in primary motor cortex cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Rosario, Alexis; Adeli, Hojjat; Buford, John A

    2015-05-15

    The proper isolation of action potentials recorded extracellularly from neural tissue is an active area of research in the fields of neuroscience and biomedical signal processing. This paper presents an isolation methodology for neural recordings using the wavelet transform (WT), a statistical thresholding scheme, and the principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm. The effectiveness of five different mother wavelets was investigated: biorthogonal, Daubachies, discrete Meyer, symmetric, and Coifman; along with three different wavelet coefficient thresholding schemes: fixed form threshold, Stein's unbiased estimate of risk, and minimax; and two different thresholding rules: soft and hard thresholding. The signal quality was evaluated using three different statistical measures: mean-squared error, root-mean squared, and signal to noise ratio. The clustering quality was evaluated using two different statistical measures: isolation distance, and L-ratio. This research shows that the selection of the mother wavelet has a strong influence on the clustering and isolation of single unit neural activity, with the Daubachies 4 wavelet and minimax thresholding scheme performing the best. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Vibration isolation systems, considered as systems with single degree of freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebilila Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research considers and analyzes vibration isolation systems, whose design schemes are single degree of freedom systems, including nonlinear elements - displacement limiter and viscous damper. Presented are calculation formulas in closed form for linear systems in operational modes (for harmonic and impulse loads, algorithms and examples of calculation of linear and nonlinear systems in operational and transient modes. The calculation method and the above dependences are written using the transfer (TF and impulse response functions (IRF of linear dynamical systems and dependencies that determine the relationship between these functions. The effectiveness of 2 options of vibration isolation systems in transient modes is analyzed. There is significant reduction of load from the equipment to the supporting structures in the starting-stopping modes by the use of displacement limiter.

  17. Isolation of dimorphic chloroplasts from the single-cell C4 species Bienertia sinuspersici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung Shiu-Cheung

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Three terrestrial plants are known to perform C4 photosynthesis without the dual-cell system by partitioning two distinct types of chloroplasts in separate cytoplasmic compartments. We report herein a protocol for isolating the dimorphic chloroplasts from Bienertia sinuspersici. Hypo-osmotically lysed protoplasts under our defined conditions released intact compartments containing the central chloroplasts and intact vacuoles with adhering peripheral chloroplasts. Following Percoll step gradient purification both chloroplast preparations demonstrated high homogeneities as evaluated from the relative abundance of respective protein markers. This protocol will open novel research directions toward understanding the mechanism of single-cell C4 photosynthesis.

  18. Shape of isolated domains in lithium tantalate single crystals at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shur, V. Ya.; Akhmatkhanov, A. R.; Baturin, I. S.; Chezganov, D. S.; Lobov, A. I.; Smirnov, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    The shape of isolated domains has been investigated in congruent lithium tantalate (CLT) single crystals at elevated temperatures and analyzed in terms of kinetic approach. The obtained temperature dependence of the growing domain shape in CLT including circular shape at temperatures above 190 °C has been attributed to increase of relative input of isotropic ionic conductivity. The observed nonstop wall motion and independent domain growth after merging in CLT as opposed to stoichiometric lithium tantalate have been attributed to difference in wall orientation. The computer simulation has confirmed applicability of the kinetic approach to the domain shape explanation

  19. Deciphering Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Evolutionary Trends in Isolates of the Cydia pomonella granulovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennmann, Jörg T; Radtke, Pit; Eberle, Karolin E; Gueli Alletti, Gianpiero; Jehle, Johannes A

    2017-08-18

    Six complete genome sequences of Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) isolates from Mexico (CpGV-M and CpGV-M1), England (CpGV-E2), Iran (CpGV-I07 and CpGV-I12), and Canada (CpGV-S) were aligned and analyzed for genetic diversity and evolutionary processes. The selected CpGV isolates represented recently identified phylogenetic lineages of CpGV, namely, the genome groups A to E. The genomes ranged from 120,816 bp to 124,269 bp. Several common differences between CpGV-M, -E2, -I07, -I12 and -S to CpGV-M1, the first sequenced and published CpGV isolate, were highlighted. Phylogenetic analysis based on the aligned genome sequences grouped CpGV-M and CpGV-I12 as the most derived lineages, followed by CpGV-E2, CpGV-S and CpGV-I07, which represent the most basal lineages. All of the genomes shared a high degree of co-linearity, with a common setup of 137 (CpGV-I07) to 142 (CpGV-M and -I12) open reading frames with no translocations. An overall trend of increasing genome size and a decrease in GC content was observed, from the most basal lineage (CpGV-I07) to the most derived (CpGV-I12). A total number of 788 positions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were determined and used to create a genome-wide SNP map of CpGV. Of the total amount of SNPs, 534 positions were specific for exactly one of either isolate CpGV-M, -E2, -I07, -I12 or -S, which allowed the SNP-based detection and identification of all known CpGV isolates.

  20. Single-step isolation of extracellular vesicles by size-exclusion chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böing, Anita N.; van der Pol, Edwin; Grootemaat, Anita E.; Coumans, Frank A. W.; Sturk, Auguste; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2014-01-01

    Background Isolation of extracellular vesicles from plasma is a challenge due to the presence of proteins and lipoproteins. Isolation of vesicles using differential centrifugation or density-gradient ultracentrifugation results in co-isolation of contaminants such as protein aggregates and incomplete separation of vesicles from lipoproteins, respectively. Aim To develop a single-step protocol to isolate vesicles from human body fluids. Methods Platelet-free supernatant, derived from platelet concentrates, was loaded on a sepharose CL-2B column to perform size-exclusion chromatography (SEC; n=3). Fractions were collected and analysed by nanoparticle tracking analysis, resistive pulse sensing, flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy. The concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and protein were measured in each fraction. Results Fractions 9–12 contained the highest concentrations of particles larger than 70 nm and platelet-derived vesicles (46%±6 and 61%±2 of totals present in all collected fractions, respectively), but less than 5% of HDL and less than 1% of protein (4.8%±1 and 0.65%±0.3, respectively). HDL was present mainly in fractions 18–20 (32%±2 of total), and protein in fractions 19–21 (36%±2 of total). Compared to the starting material, recovery of platelet-derived vesicles was 43%±23 in fractions 9–12, with an 8-fold and 70-fold enrichment compared to HDL and protein. Conclusions SEC efficiently isolates extracellular vesicles with a diameter larger than 70 nm from platelet-free supernatant of platelet concentrates. Application SEC will improve studies on the dimensional, structural and functional properties of extracellular vesicles. PMID:25279113

  1. Single-step isolation of extracellular vesicles by size-exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böing, Anita N; van der Pol, Edwin; Grootemaat, Anita E; Coumans, Frank A W; Sturk, Auguste; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2014-01-01

    Isolation of extracellular vesicles from plasma is a challenge due to the presence of proteins and lipoproteins. Isolation of vesicles using differential centrifugation or density-gradient ultracentrifugation results in co-isolation of contaminants such as protein aggregates and incomplete separation of vesicles from lipoproteins, respectively. To develop a single-step protocol to isolate vesicles from human body fluids. Platelet-free supernatant, derived from platelet concentrates, was loaded on a sepharose CL-2B column to perform size-exclusion chromatography (SEC; n=3). Fractions were collected and analysed by nanoparticle tracking analysis, resistive pulse sensing, flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy. The concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and protein were measured in each fraction. Fractions 9-12 contained the highest concentrations of particles larger than 70 nm and platelet-derived vesicles (46%±6 and 61%±2 of totals present in all collected fractions, respectively), but less than 5% of HDL and less than 1% of protein (4.8%±1 and 0.65%±0.3, respectively). HDL was present mainly in fractions 18-20 (32%±2 of total), and protein in fractions 19-21 (36%±2 of total). Compared to the starting material, recovery of platelet-derived vesicles was 43%±23 in fractions 9-12, with an 8-fold and 70-fold enrichment compared to HDL and protein. SEC efficiently isolates extracellular vesicles with a diameter larger than 70 nm from platelet-free supernatant of platelet concentrates. Application SEC will improve studies on the dimensional, structural and functional properties of extracellular vesicles.

  2. Isolation and Epitope Mapping of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B Single-Domain Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendrick B. Turner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Single-domain antibodies (sdAbs, derived from the heavy chain only antibodies found in camelids such as llamas have the potential to provide rugged detection reagents with high affinities, and the ability to refold after denaturation. We have isolated and characterized sdAbs specific to staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB which bind to two distinct epitopes and are able to function in a sandwich immunoassay for toxin detection. Characterization of these sdAbs revealed that each exhibited nanomolar binding affinities or better.  Melting temperatures for the sdAbs ranged from approximately 60 °C to over 70 °C, with each demonstrating at least partial refolding after denaturation and several were able to completely refold. A first set of sdAbs was isolated by panning the library using adsorbed antigen, all of which recognized the same epitope on SEB. Epitope mapping suggested that these sdAbs bind to a particular fragment of SEB (VKSIDQFLYFDLIYSI containing position L45 (underlined, which is involved in binding to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC. Differences in the binding affinities of the sdAbs to SEB and a less-toxic vaccine immunogen, SEBv (L45R/Y89A/Y94A were also consistent with binding to this epitope. A sandwich panning strategy was utilized to isolate sdAbs which bind a second epitope. This epitope differed from the initial one obtained or from that recognized by previously isolated anti-SEB sdAb A3. Using SEB-toxin spiked milk we demonstrated that these newly isolated sdAbs could be utilized in sandwich-assays with each other, A3, and with various monoclonal antibodies.

  3. Isolation and functional interrogation of adult human prostate epithelial stem cells at single cell resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yang Hu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Using primary cultures of normal human prostate epithelial cells, we developed a novel prostasphere-based, label-retention assay that permits identification and isolation of stem cells at a single cell level. Their bona fide stem cell nature was corroborated using in vitro and in vivo regenerative assays and documentation of symmetric/asymmetric division. Robust WNT10B and KRT13 levels without E-cadherin or KRT14 staining distinguished individual stem cells from daughter progenitors in spheroids. Following FACS to isolate label-retaining stem cells from label-free progenitors, RNA-seq identified unique gene signatures for the separate populations which may serve as useful biomarkers. Knockdown of KRT13 or PRAC1 reduced sphere formation and symmetric self-renewal highlighting their role in stem cell maintenance. Pathways analysis identified ribosome biogenesis and membrane estrogen-receptor signaling enriched in stem cells with NF-ĸB signaling enriched in progenitors; activities that were biologically confirmed. Further, bioassays identified heightened autophagy flux and reduced metabolism in stem cells relative to progenitors. These approaches similarly identified stem-like cells from prostate cancer specimens and prostate, breast and colon cancer cell lines suggesting wide applicability. Together, the present studies isolate and identify unique characteristics of normal human prostate stem cells and uncover processes that maintain stem cell homeostasis in the prostate gland.

  4. Detection of isolated protein-bound metal ions by single-particle cryo-STEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elad, Nadav; Bellapadrona, Giuliano; Houben, Lothar; Sagi, Irit; Elbaum, Michael

    2017-10-17

    Metal ions play essential roles in many aspects of biological chemistry. Detecting their presence and location in proteins and cells is important for understanding biological function. Conventional structural methods such as X-ray crystallography and cryo-transmission electron microscopy can identify metal atoms on protein only if the protein structure is solved to atomic resolution. We demonstrate here the detection of isolated atoms of Zn and Fe on ferritin, using cryogenic annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (cryo-STEM) coupled with single-particle 3D reconstructions. Zn atoms are found in a pattern that matches precisely their location at the ferroxidase sites determined earlier by X-ray crystallography. By contrast, the Fe distribution is smeared along an arc corresponding to the proposed path from the ferroxidase sites to the mineral nucleation sites along the twofold axes. In this case the single-particle reconstruction is interpreted as a probability distribution function based on the average of individual locations. These results establish conditions for detection of isolated metal atoms in the broader context of electron cryo-microscopy and tomography.

  5. A geometric approach for fault detection and isolation of stator short circuit failure in a single asynchronous machine

    KAUST Repository

    Khelouat, Samir

    2012-06-01

    This paper deals with the problem of detection and isolation of stator short-circuit failure in a single asynchronous machine using a geometric approach. After recalling the basis of the geometric approach for fault detection and isolation in nonlinear systems, we will study some structural properties which are fault detectability and isolation fault filter existence. We will then design filters for residual generation. We will consider two approaches: a two-filters structure and a single filter structure, both aiming at generating residuals which are sensitive to one fault and insensitive to the other faults. Some numerical tests will be presented to illustrate the efficiency of the method.

  6. An Inert Continuous Microreactor for the Isolation and Analysis of a Single Microbial Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Rosenthal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Studying biological phenomena of individual cells is enabled by matching the scales of microbes and cultivation devices. We present a versatile, chemically inert microfluidic lab-on-a-chip (LOC device for biological and chemical analyses of isolated microorganisms. It is based on the Envirostat concept and guarantees constant environmental conditions. A new manufacturing process for direct fusion bonding chips with functional microelectrodes for selective and gentle cell manipulation via negative dielectrophoresis (nDEP was generated. The resulting LOC system offered a defined surface chemistry and exceptional operational stability, maintaining its structural integrity even after harsh chemical treatment. The microelectrode structures remained fully functional after thermal bonding and were proven to be efficient for single-cell trapping via nDEP. The microfluidic network consisted solely of glass, which led to enhanced chip reusability and minimized interaction of the material with chemical and biological compounds. We validated the LOC for single-cell studies with the amino acid secreting bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum. Intracellular l-lysine production dynamics of individual bacteria were monitored based on a genetically encoded fluorescent nanosensor. The results demonstrate the applicability of the presented LOC for pioneering chemical and biological studies, where robustness and chemically inert surfaces are crucial parameters for approaching fundamental biological questions at a single-cell level.

  7. Transfer doping of single isolated nanodiamonds, studied by scanning probe microscopy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolker, Asaf; Kalish, Rafi; Saguy, Cecile

    2014-01-01

    The transfer doping of diamond surfaces has been applied in various novel two-dimensional electronic devices. Its extension to nanodiamonds (ND) is essential for ND-based applications in many fields. In particular, understanding the influence of the crystallite size on transfer doping is desirable. Here, we report the results of a detailed study of the electronic energetic band structure of single, isolated transfer-doped nanodiamonds with nanometric resolution using a combination of scanning tunneling spectroscopy and Kelvin force microscopy measurements. The results show how the band gap, the valence band maximum, the electron affinity and the work function all depend on the ND’s size and nanoparticle surface properties. The present analysis, which combines information from both scanning tunneling spectroscopy and Kelvin force microscopy, should be applicable to any nanoparticle or surface that can be measured with scanning probe techniques. (paper)

  8. New Method to Disaggregate and Analyze Single Isolated Helminthes Cells Using Flow Cytometry: Proof of Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Nava-Castro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In parasitology, particularly in helminthes studies, several methods have been used to look for the expression of specific molecules, such as RT-PCR, western blot, 2D-electrophoresis, and microscopy, among others. However, these methods require homogenization of the whole helminth parasite, preventing evaluation of individual cells or specific cell types in a given parasite tissue or organ. Also, the extremely high interaction between helminthes and host cells (particularly immune cells is an important point to be considered. It is really hard to obtain fresh parasites without host cell contamination. Then, it becomes crucial to determine that the analyzed proteins are exclusively from parasitic origin, and not a consequence of host cell contamination. Flow cytometry is a fluorescence-based technique used to evaluate the expression of extra-and intracellular proteins in different type cells, including protozoan parasites. It also allows the isolation and recovery of single-cell populations. Here, we describe a method to isolate and obtain purified helminthes cells.

  9. Genotyping of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in DNA Isolated from Serum Using Sequenom MassARRAY Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess V Clendenen

    Full Text Available Large epidemiologic studies have the potential to make valuable contributions to the assessment of gene-environment interactions because they prospectively collected detailed exposure data. Some of these studies, however, have only serum or plasma samples as a low quantity source of DNA.We examined whether DNA isolated from serum can be used to reliably and accurately genotype single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs using Sequenom multiplex SNP genotyping technology. We genotyped 81 SNPs using samples from 158 participants in the NYU Women's Health Study. Each participant had DNA from serum and at least one paired DNA sample isolated from a high quality source of DNA, i.e. clots and/or cell precipitates, for comparison.We observed that 60 of the 81 SNPs (74% had high call frequencies (≥95% using DNA from serum, only slightly lower than the 85% of SNPs with high call frequencies in DNA from clots or cell precipitates. Of the 57 SNPs with high call frequencies for serum, clot, and cell precipitate DNA, 54 (95% had highly concordant (>98% genotype calls across all three sample types. High purity was not a critical factor to successful genotyping.Our results suggest that this multiplex SNP genotyping method can be used reliably on DNA from serum in large-scale epidemiologic studies.

  10. Molecular Genetic Characterization of Individual Cancer Cells Isolated via Single-Cell Printing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Riba

    Full Text Available Intratumoral genetic heterogeneity may impact disease outcome. Gold standard for dissecting clonal heterogeneity are single-cell analyses. Here, we present an efficient workflow based on an advanced Single-Cell Printer (SCP device for the study of gene variants in single cancer cells. To allow for precise cell deposition into microwells the SCP was equipped with an automatic dispenser offset compensation, and the 384-microwell plates were electrostatically neutralized. The ejection efficiency was 99.7% for fluorescent beads (n = 2304 and 98.7% for human cells (U-2 OS or Kasumi-1 cancer cell line, acute myeloid leukemia [AML] patient; n = 150. Per fluorescence microscopy, 98.8% of beads were correctly delivered into the wells. A subset of single cells (n = 81 was subjected to whole genome amplification (WGA, which was successful in all cells. On empty droplets, a PCR on LINE1 retrotransposons yielded no product after WGA, verifying the absence of free-floating DNA in SCP-generated droplets. Representative gene variants identified in bulk specimens were sequenced in single-cell WGA DNA. In U-2 OS, 22 of 25 cells yielded results for both an SLC34A2 and TET2 mutation site, including cells harboring the SLC34A2 but not the TET2 mutation. In one cell, the TET2 mutation analysis was inconclusive due to allelic dropout, as assessed via polymorphisms located close to the mutation. Of Kasumi-1, 23 of 33 cells with data on both the KIT and TP53 mutation site harbored both mutations. In the AML patient, 21 of 23 cells were informative for a TP53 polymorphism; the identified alleles matched the loss of chromosome arm 17p. The advanced SCP allows efficient, precise and gentle isolation of individual cells for subsequent WGA and routine PCR/sequencing-based analyses of gene variants. This makes single-cell information readily accessible to a wide range of applications and can provide insights into clonal heterogeneity that were indeterminable solely by

  11. Archival Isolates Confirm a Single Topotype of West Nile Virus in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bixing Huang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus is globally wide-spread and causes significant disease in humans and animals. The evolution of West Nile virus Kunjin subtype in Australia (WNVKUN was investigated using archival samples collected over a period of 50 years. Based on the pattern of fixed amino acid substitutions and time-stamped molecular clock analyses, a single long-term lineage (or topotype was inferred. This implies that a bottleneck exists such that regional strains eventually die out and are replaced with strains from a single source. This was consistent with current hypotheses regarding the distribution of WNVKUN, whereby the virus is enzootic in northern Australia and is disseminated to southern states by water-birds or mosquitoes after flooding associated with above average rainfall. In addition, two previous amino acid changes associated with pathogenicity, an N-Y-S glycosylation motif in the envelope protein and a phenylalanine at amino acid 653 in the RNA polymerase, were both detected in all isolates collected since the 1980s. Changes primarily occurred due to stochastic drift. One fixed substitution each in NS3 and NS5, subtly changed the chemical environment of important functional groups, and may be involved in fine-tuning RNA synthesis. Understanding these evolutionary changes will help us to better understand events such as the emergence of the virulent strain in 2011.

  12. Quantitative and Isolated Measurement of Far-Field Light Scattering by a Single Nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghyeong; Jeong, Kwang-Yong; Kim, Jinhyung; Ee, Ho-Seok; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Park, Hong-Gyu; Seo, Min-Kyo

    2017-11-01

    Light scattering by nanostructures has facilitated research on various optical phenomena and applications by interfacing the near fields and free-propagating radiation. However, direct quantitative measurement of far-field scattering by a single nanostructure on the wavelength scale or less is highly challenging. Conventional back-focal-plane imaging covers only a limited solid angle determined by the numerical aperture of the objectives and suffers from optical aberration and distortion. Here, we present a quantitative measurement of the differential far-field scattering cross section of a single nanostructure over the full hemisphere. In goniometer-based far-field scanning with a high signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 27.4 dB, weak scattering signals are efficiently isolated and detected under total-internal-reflection illumination. Systematic measurements reveal that the total and differential scattering cross sections of a Au nanorod are determined by the plasmonic Fabry-Perot resonances and the phase-matching conditions to the free-propagating radiation, respectively. We believe that our angle-resolved far-field measurement scheme provides a way to investigate and evaluate the physical properties and performance of nano-optical materials and phenomena.

  13. Load dependency in force-length relations in isolated single cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribe, Gentaro; Kaneko, Toshiyuki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Naruse, Keiji

    2014-08-01

    The previously reported pressure-volume (PV) relationship in frog hearts shows that end-systolic PV relation (ESPVR) is load dependent, whereas ESPVR in canine hearts is load independent. To study intrinsic cardiac mechanics in detail, it is desirable to study mechanics in a single isolated cardiomyocyte that is free from interstitial connective tissue. Previous single cell mechanics studies used a pair of carbon fibers (CF) attached to the upper surface of opposite cell ends to stretch cells. These studies showed that end-systolic force-length (FL) relation (ESFLR) is load independent. However, the range of applicable mechanical load using the conventional technique is limited because of weak cell-CF attachment. Therefore, the behavior of ESFLR in single cells under physiologically possible conditions of greater load is not yet well known. To cover wider loading range, we contrived a new method to hold cell-ends more firmly using two pairs of CF attached to both upper and bottom surfaces of cells. The new method allowed stretching cells to 2.2 μm or more in end-diastolic sarcomere length. ESFLR virtually behaves in a load independent manner only with end-diastolic sarcomere length less than 1.95 μm. It exhibited clear load dependency with higher preload, especially with low afterload conditions. Instantaneous cellular elastance curves showed that decreasing afterload enhanced relaxation and slowed time to peak elastance, as previously reported. A simulation study of a mathematical model with detailed description of thin filament activation suggested that velocity dependent thin filament inactivation is crucial for the observed load dependent behaviors and previously reported afterload dependent change in Ca(2+) transient shape. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Linezolid minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) creep in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates at a single Japanese center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Motoyasu; Nagata, Nobuhiko; Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Matsuo, Koichi; Takata, Tohru; Tanihara, Shinichi; Kamimura, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether linezolid minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) creep occurred in Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), over a recent 5-year period at a single Japanese center. A total of 453 MRSA and 195 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates recovered from inpatients from April 1, 2008 to March 31, 2013 were analyzed. The MIC of linezolid was determined by automated Vitek-2 system. The modal MIC, MIC range, MIC50 and MIC90 (MICs required to inhibit the growth of 50% and 90% of organisms, respectively), geometric mean MIC and percentages of susceptible and resistant isolates were evaluated for each fiscal year. None of the S. aureus isolates were resistant to linezolid. Isolates with an MIC of >1 µg/mL were more common in the MSSA samples than in the MRSA samples (91.3% versus 38.2%, plinezolid geometric mean MIC increased by 0.403 µg/mL (from 1.178 in 2008 to 1.582 in 2012) in the MRSA isolates (p=0.006, r(2)=0.945 according to a linear regression analysis) over the 5-year period; however, no increase was observed in the MSSA isolates. The frequency of MRSA isolates with an MIC of 1 µg/mL decreased (from 76.3% in 2008 to 35.4% in 2012) and the isolates with MICs of >1 µg/mL increased over time (from 23.7% in 2008 to 64.6% in 2012). This report demonstrates the occurrence of linezolid MIC creep, as determined using the geometric mean MIC, in MRSA clinical isolates at a single Japanese center.

  15. Reliable genotyping of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) using DNA isolated from a single faecal pellet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedrowicz, Faye; Karsa, Mawar; Mosse, Jennifer; Hogan, Fiona E

    2013-07-01

    The koala, an Australian icon, has been added to the threatened species list. Rationale for the listing includes proposed declines in population size, threats to populations (e.g. disease) and loss and fragmentation of habitat. There is now an urgent need to obtain accurate data to assess the status of koala populations in Australia, to ensure the long-term viability of this species. Advances in genetic techniques have enabled DNA analysis to study and inform the management of wild populations; however, sampling of individual koalas is difficult in tall, often remote, eucalypt forest. The collection of faecal pellets (scats) from the forest floor presents an opportunistic sampling strategy, where DNA can be collected without capturing or even sighting an individual. Obtaining DNA via noninvasive sampling can be used to rapidly sample a large proportion of a population; however, DNA from noninvasively collected samples is often degraded. Factors influencing DNA quality and quantity include environmental exposure, diet and methods of sample collection, storage and DNA isolation. Reduced DNA quality and quantity can introduce genotyping errors and provide inaccurate DNA profiles, reducing confidence in the ability of such data to inform management/conservation strategies. Here, we present a protocol that produces a reliable individual koala genotype from a single faecal pellet and highlight the importance of optimizing DNA isolation and analysis for the species of interest. This method could readily be adapted for genetic studies of mammals other than koalas, particularly those whose diet contains high proportions of volatile materials that are likely to induce DNA damage. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. From isolated light-harvesting complexes to the thylakoid membrane: a single-molecule perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, J. Michael; Malý, Pavel; Krüger, Tjaart P. J.; Grondelle, Rienk van

    2018-01-01

    The conversion of solar radiation to chemical energy in plants and green algae takes place in the thylakoid membrane. This amphiphilic environment hosts a complex arrangement of light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes that absorb light and transfer the excitation energy to photochemically active reaction centers. This efficient light-harvesting capacity is moreover tightly regulated by a photoprotective mechanism called non-photochemical quenching to avoid the stress-induced destruction of the catalytic reaction center. In this review we provide an overview of single-molecule fluorescence measurements on plant light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) of varying sizes with the aim of bridging the gap between the smallest isolated complexes, which have been well-characterized, and the native photosystem. The smallest complexes contain only a small number (10-20) of interacting chlorophylls, while the native photosystem contains dozens of protein subunits and many hundreds of connected pigments. We discuss the functional significance of conformational dynamics, the lipid environment, and the structural arrangement of this fascinating nano-machinery. The described experimental results can be utilized to build mathematical-physical models in a bottom-up approach, which can then be tested on larger in vivo systems. The results also clearly showcase the general property of biological systems to utilize the same system properties for different purposes. In this case it is the regulated conformational flexibility that allows LHCs to switch between efficient light-harvesting and a photoprotective function.

  17. Single-step isolation of extracellular vesicles by size-exclusion chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böing, Anita N.; van der Pol, Edwin; Grootemaat, Anita E.; Coumans, Frank A. W.; Sturk, Auguste; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2014-01-01

    Isolation of extracellular vesicles from plasma is a challenge due to the presence of proteins and lipoproteins. Isolation of vesicles using differential centrifugation or density-gradient ultracentrifugation results in co-isolation of contaminants such as protein aggregates and incomplete

  18. Observation of Single Isolated Electrons of High Transverse Momentum in Events with Missing Transverse Energy at the CERN pp Collider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banner, M.; Kofoed-Hansen, O.

    1983-01-01

    We report the results of a search for single isolated electrons of high transverse momentum at the CERN collider. Above 15 GeV/c, four events are found having large missing transverse energy along a direction opposite in azimuth to that of the high-pT electron. Both the configuration of the events...

  19. Single Cystosorus Isolate Production and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Characterization of the Obligate Biotroph Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xinshun; Christ, Barbara J

    2006-10-01

    ABSTRACT Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea causes powdery scab in potatoes and is distributed worldwide. Genetic studies of this pathogen have been hampered due, in part, to its obligate parasitism and the lack of molecular markers for this pathogen. In this investigation, a single cystosorus inoculation technique was developed to produce large amounts of S. subterranea f. sp. subterranea plasmodia or zoosporangia in eastern black nightshade (Solanum ptycanthum) roots from which DNA was extracted. Cryopreservation of zoosporangia was used for long-term storage of the isolates. S. subterranea f. sp. subterranea-specific restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers were developed from randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fragments. Cystosori of S. subterranea f. sp. subterranea were used for RAPD assays and putative pathogen-specific RAPD fragments were cloned and sequenced. The fragments were screened for specificity by Southern hybridization and subsequent DNA sequence BLAST search. Four polymorphic S. subterranea f. sp. subterranea-specific probes containing repetitive elements, and one containing single copy DNA were identified. These RFLP probes were then used to analyze 24 single cystosorus isolates derived from eight geographic locations in the United States and Canada. Genetic variation was recorded among, but not within, geographic locations. Cluster analysis separated the isolates into two major groups: group I included isolates originating from western North America, with the exception of those from Colorado, and group II included isolates originating from eastern North America and from Colorado. The techniques developed in this study, i.e., production of single cystosorus isolates of S. subterranea f. sp. subterranea and development of RFLP markers for this pathogen, provide methods to further study the genetic structure of S. subterranea f. sp. subterranea.

  20. High Performance Harmonic Isolation By Means of The Single-phase Series Active Filter Employing The Waveform Reconstruction Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk; Hava, Ahmet M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes the Waveform Reconstruction Method (WRM), which is utilized in the single-phase Series Active Filter's (SAF's) control algorithm, in order to extract the load harmonic voltage component of voltage harmonic type single-phase diode rectifier loads. Employing WRM and the line...... current sampling delay reduction method (SDRM), a single-phase SAF compensated system provides higher harmonic isolation performance and higher stability margins compared to the system using conventional synchronous reference frame based methods. The analytical, simulation, and experimental studies of a 2...

  1. Fruiting Body Formation of Cordyceps militaris from Multi-Ascospore Isolates and Their Single Ascospore Progeny Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bhushan; Han, Sang-Kuk; Sung, Jae-Mo

    2012-01-01

    Interest in commercial cultivation and product development of Cordyceps species has shown a recent increase. Due to its biochemical and pharmacological effects, Cordyceps militaris, commonly known as orange caterpillar fungus, is being investigated with great interest. Cultivation of C. militaris has been practiced on a large scale in order to fulfill a demand for scientific investigation and product development. Isolates of C. militaris can be easily established from both spores and tissue. For isolation of spores, ascospores released from mature stromata are trapped in sterile medium. Multi-ascospore isolates, as well as combinations of single ascospore strains, are used for production of fruiting bodies. Progeny ascospore strains can be isolated from artificial fruiting bodies, thus, the cycle of fruiting body production can be continued for a long period of time. In this study, we examined fruiting body production from multi-ascospore isolates and their progeny strains for three generations. F1 progeny strains generally produced a larger number of fruiting bodies, compared with their mother multi-ascospore isolates; however, F2 and F3 progeny strains produced fewer fruiting bodies. Optimum preservation conditions could help to increase the vitality of the progeny strains. In order to retain the fruiting ability of the strains, further testing of various methods of preservation and different methods for isolation should be performed. PMID:22870051

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Single Outpatient Clinic in Panama City Exhibit Wide Genetic Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambrano, Dilcia; Correa, Ricardo; Almengor, Pedro; Domínguez, Amada; Vega, Silvio; Goodridge, Amador

    2014-01-01

    Understanding Mycobacterium tuberculosis biodiversity and transmission is significant for tuberculosis control. This short report aimed to determine the genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis isolates from an outpatient clinic in Panama City. A total of 62 M. tuberculosis isolates were genotyped by 12 loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) and Spoligotyping. Forty-five (72.6%) of the isolates showed unique MIRU-VNTR genotypes, and 13 (21%) of the isolates were grouped into four clusters. Four isolates showed polyclonal MIRU-VNTR genotypes. The MIRU-VNTR Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index reached 0.988. The Spoligotyping analysis revealed 16 M. tuberculosis families, including Latin American-Mediterranean, Harlem, and Beijing. These findings suggest a wide genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis isolates at one outpatient clinic. A detailed molecular epidemiology survey is now warranted, especially following second massive immigration for local Panama Canal expansion activities. PMID:24865686

  3. Single step biotransformation of corn oil phytosterols to boldenone by a newly isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Eisa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new potent Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate capable for biotransformation of corn oil phytosterol (PS to 4-androstene-3, 17-dione (AD, testosterone (T and boldenone (BOL was identified by phenotypic analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Sequential statistical strategy was used to optimize the biotransformation process mainly concerning BOL using Factorial design and response surface methodology (RSM. The production of BOL in single step microbial biotransformation from corn oil phytosterols by P. aeruginosa was not previously reported. Results showed that the pH concentration of the medium, (NH42SO4 and KH2PO4 were the most significant factors affecting BOL production. By analyzing the statistical model of three-dimensional surface plot, BOL production increased from 36.8% to 42.4% after the first step of optimization, and the overall biotransformation increased to 51.9%. After applying the second step of the sequential statistical strategy BOL production increased to 53.6%, and the overall biotransformation increased to 91.9% using the following optimized medium composition (g/l distilled water (NH42SO4, 2; KH2PO4, 4; Na2HPO4. 1; MgSO4·7H2O, 0.3; NaCl, 0.1; CaCl2·2H2O, 0.1; FeSO4·7H2O, 0.001; ammonium acetate 0.001; Tween 80, 0.05%; corn oil 0.5%; 8-hydroxyquinoline 0.016; pH 8; 200 rpm agitation speed and incubation time 36 h at 30 °C. Validation experiments proved the adequacy and accuracy of model, and the results showed the predicted value agreed well with the experimental values.

  4. Isolated single umbilical artery poses neonates at increased risk of long-term respiratory morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beharier, Ofer; Sheiner, Eyal; Sergienko, Ruslan; Landau, Daniela; Szaingurten-Solodkin, Irit; Walfisch, Asnat

    2017-12-01

    To investigate whether children born with isolated single umbilical artery (iSUA) at term are at an increased risk for long-term pediatric hospitalizations due to respiratory morbidity. Design: a population-based cohort study compared the incidence of long-term, pediatric hospitalizations due to respiratory morbidity in children born with and without iSUA at term. Soroka University Medical Center. all singleton pregnancies of women who delivered between 1991 and 2013. hospitalization due to respiratory morbidity. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to estimate cumulative incidence of respiratory morbidity. A Cox hazards model analysis was used to establish an independent association between iSUA and pediatric respiratory morbidity of the offspring while controlling for clinically relevant confounders. The study included 232,281 deliveries. 0.3% were of newborns with iSUA (n = 766). Newborns with iSUA had a significantly higher rate of long-term respiratory morbidity compared to newborns without iSUA (7.6 vs 5.5%, p = 0.01). Using a Kaplan-Meier survival curve, newborns with iSUA had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of respiratory hospitalizations (log rank = 0.006). In the Cox model, while controlling for the maternal age, gestational age, and birthweight, iSUA at term was found to be an independent risk factor for long-term respiratory morbidity (adjusted HR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.08-1.81; p = 0.012). Newborns with iSUA are at an increased risk for long-term respiratory morbidity.

  5. Isolation and characterization of anti c-met single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamsari, Elmira Safaie; Sharifzadeh, Zahra; Bagheri, Salman; Riazi-Rad, Farhad; Younesi, Vahid; Abolhassani, Mohsen; Ghaderi, Sepideh Safaei; Baradaran, Behzad; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2017-12-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Met is the cell surface receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) involved in invasive growth programs during embryogenesis and tumorgenesis. There is compelling evidence suggesting important roles for c-Met in colorectal cancer proliferation, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, and survival. Hence, a molecular inhibitor of an extracellular domain of c-Met receptor that blocks c-Met-cell surface interactions could be of great thera-peutic importance. In an attempt to develop molecular inhibitors of c-Met, single chain variable fragment (scFv) phage display libraries Tomlinson I + J against a specific synthetic oligopeptide from the extracellular domain of c-Met receptor were screened; selected scFv were then characterized using various immune techniques. Three c-Met specific scFv (ES1, ES2, and ES3) were selected following five rounds of panning procedures. The scFv showed specific binding to c-Met receptor, and significantly inhibited proliferation responses of a human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT-116). Moreover, anti- apoptotic effects of selected scFv antibodies on the HCT-116 cell line were also evaluated using Annexin V/PI assays. The results demonstrated rates of apoptotic cell death of 46.0, 25.5, and 37.8% among these cells were induced by use of ES1, ES2, and ES3, respectively. The results demonstrated ability to successfully isolate/char-acterize specific c-Met scFv that could ultimately have a great therapeutic potential in immuno-therapies against (colorectal) cancers.

  6. Isolation of a Highly Thermal Stable Lama Single Domain Antibody Specific for Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxin B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano-González Joseline

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Camelids and sharks possess a unique subclass of antibodies comprised of only heavy chains. The antigen binding fragments of these unique antibodies can be cloned and expressed as single domain antibodies (sdAbs. The ability of these small antigen-binding molecules to refold after heating to achieve their original structure, as well as their diminutive size, makes them attractive candidates for diagnostic assays. Results Here we describe the isolation of an sdAb against Staphyloccocus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB. The clone, A3, was found to have high affinity (Kd = 75 pM and good specificity for SEB, showing no cross reactivity to related molecules such as Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA, Staphylococcal enterotoxin D (SED, and Shiga toxin. Most remarkably, this anti-SEB sdAb had an extremely high Tm of 85°C and an ability to refold after heating to 95°C. The sharp Tm determined by circular dichroism, was found to contrast with the gradual decrease observed in intrinsic fluorescence. We demonstrated the utility of this sdAb as a capture and detector molecule in Luminex based assays providing limits of detection (LODs of at least 64 pg/mL. Conclusion The anti-SEB sdAb A3 was found to have a high affinity and an extraordinarily high Tm and could still refold to recover activity after heat denaturation. This combination of heat resilience and strong, specific binding make this sdAb a good candidate for use in antibody-based toxin detection technologies.

  7. Isolation of Panels of Llama Single-Domain Antibody Fragments Binding All Nine Neuraminidase Subtypes of Influenza A Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guus Koch

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza A virus comprises sixteen hemagglutinin (HA and nine neuraminidase (NA subtypes (N1–N9. To isolate llama single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs against all N subtypes, four llamas were immunized with mixtures of influenza viruses. Selections using influenza virus yielded predominantly VHHs binding to the highly immunogenic HA and nucleoprotein. However, selection using enzymatically active recombinant NA (rNA protein enabled us to isolate NA binding VHHs. Some isolated VHHs cross-reacted to other N subtypes. These were subsequently used for the capture of N subtypes that could not be produced as recombinant protein (rN6 or were enzymatically inactive (rN1, rN5 in phage display selection, yielding novel VHHs. In total we isolated 188 NA binding VHHs, 64 of which were expressed in yeast. Most VHHs specifically recognize a single N subtype, but some VHHs cross-react with other N-subtypes. At least one VHH bound to all N subtypes, except N4, identifying a conserved antigenic site. Thus, this work (1 describes methods for isolating NA binding VHHs, (2 illustrates the suitability of llama immunization with multiple antigens for retrieving many binders against different antigens and (3 describes 64 novel NA binding VHHs, including a broadly reactive VHH, which can be used in various assays for influenza virus subtyping, detection or serology.

  8. Isolation of Microarray-Grade Total RNA, MicroRNA, and DNA from a Single PAXgene Blood RNA Tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruhøffer, Mogens; Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Voss, Thorsten

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a procedure for isolation of microRNA and genomic DNA in addition to total RNA from whole blood stabilized in PAXgene Blood RNA tubes. The procedure is based on automatic extraction on a BioRobot MDx and includes isolation of DNA from a fraction of the stabilized blood......RNA was tested using spotted locked nucleic acid-based microarrays. We conclude that the yield and quality of total RNA, microRNA, and DNA from a single PAXgene blood RNA tube is sufficient for downstream microarray analysis....

  9. Characterization of viruses infecting potato plants from a single location in Shetland, an isolated scottish archipelago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, R.J.; Shen, Xinyi; Reid, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Sequence data were obtained from 29 isolates of Potato virus A (PVA), Potato virus S (PVS), Potato virus V (PVV) and Potato virus X (PVX) infecting nine tubers from Shetland, one of the most remote inhabited islands in the United Kingdom. These isolates were sequenced in the coat protein region, ...

  10. Genome sequences of thirty Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates recovered from a single dairy farm and its associated off-site heifer raising facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle are the primary reservoir of Escherichia coli O157:H7, the most frequently isolated serotype of enterohemorrhagic E. coli infections among humans in North America. To evaluate the diversity of E. coli O157:H7 isolates within a single dairy herd the genomes of 30 isolates collected over a 7-ye...

  11. Genetic differentiation of the wheat leaf rust fungus Puccinia triticina in Pakistan and genetic relationship to other worldwide populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collections of Puccinia triticina, the wheat leaf rust pathogen, were obtained from Pakistan in 2008, 2010, 2011, 2013, and 2014. Collections were also obtained from Bhutan in 2013. Single uredinial isolates were derived and tested for virulence phenotype to 20 lines of Thatcher wheat that differ fo...

  12. On-chip single-copy real-time reverse-transcription PCR in isolated picoliter droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, N R; Wheeler, E; Lee-Houghton, L; Watkins, N; Nasarabadi, S; Hebert, N; Leung, P; Arnold, D; Bailey, C; Colston, B

    2007-12-19

    The first lab-on-chip system for picoliter droplet generation and RNA isolation, followed by reverse transcription, and PCR amplification with real-time fluorescence detection in the trapped droplets has been developed. The system utilized a shearing T-junction in a fused silica device to generate a stream of monodisperse picoliter-scale droplets that were isolated from the microfluidic channel walls and each other by the oil phase carrier. An off-chip valving system stopped the droplets on-chip, allowing thermal cycling for reverse transcription and subsequent PCR amplification without droplet motion. This combination of the established real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay with digital microfluidics is ideal for isolating single-copy RNA and virions from a complex environment, and will be useful in viral discovery and gene-profiling applications.

  13. Two ITS forms co-inhabiting a single genet of an isolate of Terfezia boudieri (Ascomycotina), a desert truffle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviram, Sharon; Roth-Bejerano, Nurit; Kagan-Zur, Varda

    2004-02-01

    Two fruit-bodies of Terfezia boudieri Chatin, each exhibiting a mixture of two ITS -RFLP profiles, were found in the Negev desert of Israel. A mycelial culture obtained from glebal out-growth maintained the double profile, as did proliferating cultures established using single hyphae isolated from the original cultures. The main difference between the two ITS variants lies in a 21 bp deletion in the smaller variant. The question whether both variants are contained within a single nucleus or occupy different nuclei sharing the same cytoplasm is discussed.

  14. Brief communication genotyping of Burkholderia pseudomallei revealed high genetic variability among isolates from a single population group

    OpenAIRE

    Zueter, Abdelrahman Mohammad; Rahman, Zaidah Abdul; Yean, Chan Yean; Harun, Azian

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil dwelling Gram-negative bacteria predominates in Southeast Asia zone and the tropical part of Australia. Genetic diversity has been explored among various populations and environments worldwide. To date, little data is available on MLST profiling of clinical B. pseudomallei isolates in peninsular Malaysia. In this brief report, thirteen culture positive B. pseudomallei cases collected from a single population of Terengganu state in the Western Peninsular Mal...

  15. High-throughput de novo screening of receptor agonists with an automated single-cell analysis and isolation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Tatematsu, Kenji; Iijima, Masumi; Niimi, Tomoaki; Maturana, Andrés D; Fujii, Ikuo; Kondo, Akihiko; Tanizawa, Katsuyuki; Kuroda, Shun'ichi

    2014-02-28

    Reconstitution of signaling pathways involving single mammalian transmembrane receptors has not been accomplished in yeast cells. In this study, intact EGF receptor (EGFR) and a cell wall-anchored form of EGF were co-expressed on the yeast cell surface, which led to autophosphorylation of the EGFR in an EGF-dependent autocrine manner. After changing from EGF to a conformationally constrained peptide library, cells were fluorescently labeled with an anti-phospho-EGFR antibody. Each cell was subjected to an automated single-cell analysis and isolation system that analyzed the fluorescent intensity of each cell and automatically retrieved each cell with the highest fluorescence. In ~3.2 × 10(6) peptide library, we isolated six novel peptides with agonistic activity of the EGFR in human squamous carcinoma A431 cells. The combination of yeast cells expressing mammalian receptors, a cell wall-anchored peptide library, and an automated single-cell analysis and isolation system might facilitate a rational approach for de novo drug screening.

  16. Puccinia kuehnii urediniospores viability and its germination influenced by aqueous extracts of leaves of sugarcaneViabilidade de urediniósporos de Puccinia kuehnii e sua germinação influenciada por extratos aquosos de folhas de cana-de-açúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Tibolla

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rusts contribute to yield losses in crops of sugarcane. The present study was to evaluate the viability urediniospores of Puccinia kuehnii over time and the influence of aqueous extracts in vitro germination. Leaves with symptoms orange rust, cultivar SP89 1115 and RB72 454, were collected for the first bioassay (B1. These were stored in a humid chamber, to date evaluations. Urediniospores were collected from the leaves, and suspended in distilled water 0.1 ml was prepared they were transferred to Petri dishes containing agar-water, maintained at 20°C in the dark for 24 hours. Evaluations were made at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 days after harvest of the sheets, with five replicates for evaluation. In the second bioassay (B2 the urediniospores were collected from leaves with symptoms of orange rust cultivar SP89 1115 of sugarcane. Suspension was prepared in distilled water, aliquot of 0.1 ml were transferred to Petri dishes containing agar-water, and 1 ml of aqueous extract of leaves of sugarcane. Treatments consisted of two aqueous extracts of leaves of sugarcane: susceptible RB72 454 and resistant RB86 7515 in dilutions of 1:1, 10-1, 10-2, 10-3, with four replications. For both bioassays were evaluated germination of 200 urediniospores/plate. The results showed that B1 for variety SP89 1115 germination percentage was significantly lower than the RB72 454, respectively 26.4% and 93.1% at the time of collection of the field and 24.8% and 32.4% to 16 days after collection. In B2 the germination of urediniospores receiving the aqueous suspension of the resistant variety, was on average 7.6 percentage points lower than those who received the aqueous suspension of susceptible variety.As ferrugens contribuem para perdas de rendimentos na cultura da cana-de-açúcar. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o período de viabilidade dos urediniósporos de Puccinia kuehnii e a influência de extratos aquosos em sua germinação in vitro. Para o primeiro

  17. Isolation and characterization of a single-stranded DNA virus infecting the marine diatom Chaetoceros sp. strain SS628-11 isolated from western Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Kimura

    Full Text Available Diatoms are significant organisms for primary production in the earth's aquatic environment. Hence, their dynamics are an important focus area in current studies. Viruses are a great concern as potential factors of diatom mortality, along with other physical, chemical, and biological factors. We isolated and characterized a new diatom virus (Csp07DNAV that lyses the marine planktonic diatom Chaetoceros sp. strain SS628-11. This paper examines the physiological, morphological, and genomic characteristics of Csp07DNAV. The virus was isolated from a surface water sample that was collected at Hiroshima Bay, Japan. It was icosahedral, had a diameter of 34 nm, and accumulated in the nuclei of host cells. Rod-shaped virus particles also coexisted in the host nuclei. The latent period and burst size were estimated to be <12 h and 29 infectious units per host cell, respectively. Csp07DNAV had a closed circular single-stranded DNA genome (5,552 nucleotides, which included a double-stranded region and 3 open reading frames. The monophyly of Csp07DNAV and other Bacilladnavirus group single-stranded DNA viruses was supported by phylogenetic analysis that was based on the amino acid sequence of each virus protein. On the basis of these results, we considered Csp07DNAV to be a new member of the genus Bacilladnavirus.

  18. Evaluation of a Single Procedure Allowing the Isolation of Enteropathogenic Yersinia along with Other Bacterial Enteropathogens from Human Stools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, Cyril; Leclercq, Alexandre; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Yersinia are among the most frequent agents of human diarrhea in temperate and cold countries. However, the incidence of yersiniosis is largely underestimated because of the peculiar growth characteristics of pathogenic Yersinia, which make their isolation from poly-contaminated samples difficult. The use of specific procedures for Yersinia isolation is required, but is expensive and time consuming, and therefore is not systematically performed in clinical pathology laboratories. A means to circumvent this problem would be to use a single procedure for the isolation of all bacterial enteropathogens. Since the Statens Serum Institut enteric medium (SSI) has been reported to allow the growth at 37°C of most Gram-negative bacteria, including Yersinia, our study aimed at evaluating its performances for Yersinia isolation, as compared to the commonly used Yersinia-specific semi-selective Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin medium (CIN) incubated at 28°C. Our results show that Yersinia pseudotuberculosis growth was strongly inhibited on SSI at 37°C, and therefore that this medium is not suitable for the isolation of this species. All Yersinia enterocolitica strains tested grew on SSI, while some non-pathogenic Yersinia species were inhibited. The morphology of Y. enterocolitica colonies on SSI allowed their differentiation from various other Gram-negative bacteria commonly isolated from stool samples. However, in artificially contaminated human stools, the recovery of Y. enterocolitica colonies on SSI at 37°C was difficult and was 3 logs less sensitive than on CIN at 28°C. Therefore, despite its limitations, the use of a specific procedure (CIN incubated at 28°C) is still required for an efficient isolation of enteropathogenic Yersinia from stools. PMID:22911756

  19. Inner structural vibration isolation method for a single control moment gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingrui; Guo, Zixi; Zhang, Yao; Tang, Liang; Guan, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Assembling and manufacturing errors of control moment gyros (CMG) often generate high frequency vibrations which are detrimental to spacecrafts with high precision pointing requirement. In this paper, some design methods of vibration isolation between CMG and spacecraft is dealt with. As a first step, the dynamic model of the CMG with and without supporting isolation structures is studied and analyzed. Subsequently, the frequency domain analysis of CMG with isolation system is performed and the effectiveness of the designed system is ascertained. Based on the above studies, an adaptive design suitable with appropriate design parameters are carried out. A numerical analysis is also performed to understand the effectiveness of the system and the comparison made. The simulation results clearly indicate that when the ideal isolation structure was implemented in the spacecraft, the vibrations generated by the rotor were found to be greatly reduced, while the capacity of the output torque was not lost, which means that the isolation system will not affect the performance of attitude control.

  20. Immediate primary anastomosis for isolated oesophageal atresia: A single-centre experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Uygun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Isolated oesophageal atresia without tracheo-oesophageal fistula represents a major challenge for most paediatric surgeons. Here, we present our experience with six neonates with isolated oesophageal atresia who successfully underwent immediate primary anastomosis using multiple Livaditis circular myotomy. Materials and Methods: All six neonates were gross type A isolated oesophageal atresia (6%, from among 102 neonates with oesophageal atresia, treated between January 2009 and December 2013. Five neonates were female; one was male. The mean birth weight was 2300 (range 1700-3100 g. Results: All six neonates successfully underwent immediate primary anastomosis using multiple myotomies (mean 3; range 2-4 within 10 (median 3 days after birth. The gap under traction ranged from 6 to 7 cm. One neonate died of a major cardiac anomaly. Another neonate was lost to follow-up after being well for 3 months. Three anastomotic strictures were treated with balloon dilatation, and four anastomotic leaks were treated conservatively. The mean duration of follow-up was 33 months. Conclusions: To treat isolated oesophageal atresia, an immediate primary anastomosis can be achieved using multiple myotomies. Although, this approach is associated with high complication rates, as are other similar approaches, these complications can be overcome.

  1. The Perinatal Outcomes of Asymptomatic Isolated Single Umbilical Artery in Full-term Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chi Mu

    2008-12-01

    Conclusion: SUA is a relatively rare finding. When a SUA is identified, the routine check of karyotyping and kidney sonography for possible chromosome and associated renal anomalies may be unnecessary. According to lighter placental weight probably causing the higher incidence of small for gestational age (SGA, pregnancies with isolated SUA should be carefully monitored for evidence of fetal growth restriction.

  2. Mos1-mediated transgenesis to probe consequences of single gene mutations in variation-rich isolates of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Tarailo-Graovac

    Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans, especially the N2 isolate, is an invaluable biological model system. Numerous additional natural C. elegans isolates have been shown to have unexpected genotypic and phenotypic variations which has encouraged researchers to use next generation sequencing methodology to develop a more complete picture of genotypic variations among the isolates. To understand the phenotypic effects of a genomic variation (GV on a single gene, in a variation-rich genetic background, one should analyze that particular GV in a well understood genetic background. In C. elegans, the analysis is usually done in N2, which requires extensive crossing to bring in the GV. This can be a very time consuming procedure thus it is important to establish a fast and efficient approach to test the effect of GVs from different isolates in N2. Here we use a Mos1-mediated single-copy insertion (MosSCI method for phenotypic assessments of GVs from the variation-rich Hawaiian strain CB4856 in N2. Specifically, we investigate effects of variations identified in the CB4856 strain on tac-1 which is an essential gene that is necessary for mitotic spindle elongation and pronuclear migration. We show the usefulness of the MosSCI method by using EU1004 tac-1(or402 as a control. or402 is a temperature sensitive lethal allele within a well-conserved TACC domain (transforming acidic coiled-coil that results in a leucine to phenylalanine change at amino acid 229. CB4856 contains a variation that affects the second exon of tac-1 causing a cysteine to tryptophan change at amino acid 94 also within the TACC domain. Using the MosSCI method, we analyze tac-1 from CB4856 in the N2 background and demonstrate that the C94W change, albeit significant, does not cause any obvious decrease in viability. This MosSCI method has proven to be a rapid and efficient way to analyze GVs.

  3. Mos1-mediated transgenesis to probe consequences of single gene mutations in variation-rich isolates of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarailo-Graovac, Maja; Chen, Nansheng

    2012-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans, especially the N2 isolate, is an invaluable biological model system. Numerous additional natural C. elegans isolates have been shown to have unexpected genotypic and phenotypic variations which has encouraged researchers to use next generation sequencing methodology to develop a more complete picture of genotypic variations among the isolates. To understand the phenotypic effects of a genomic variation (GV) on a single gene, in a variation-rich genetic background, one should analyze that particular GV in a well understood genetic background. In C. elegans, the analysis is usually done in N2, which requires extensive crossing to bring in the GV. This can be a very time consuming procedure thus it is important to establish a fast and efficient approach to test the effect of GVs from different isolates in N2. Here we use a Mos1-mediated single-copy insertion (MosSCI) method for phenotypic assessments of GVs from the variation-rich Hawaiian strain CB4856 in N2. Specifically, we investigate effects of variations identified in the CB4856 strain on tac-1 which is an essential gene that is necessary for mitotic spindle elongation and pronuclear migration. We show the usefulness of the MosSCI method by using EU1004 tac-1(or402) as a control. or402 is a temperature sensitive lethal allele within a well-conserved TACC domain (transforming acidic coiled-coil) that results in a leucine to phenylalanine change at amino acid 229. CB4856 contains a variation that affects the second exon of tac-1 causing a cysteine to tryptophan change at amino acid 94 also within the TACC domain. Using the MosSCI method, we analyze tac-1 from CB4856 in the N2 background and demonstrate that the C94W change, albeit significant, does not cause any obvious decrease in viability. This MosSCI method has proven to be a rapid and efficient way to analyze GVs.

  4. Paired single cell co-culture microenvironments isolated by two-phase flow with continuous nutrient renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chih; Cheng, Yu-Heng; Kim, Hong Sun; Ingram, Patrick N; Nor, Jacques E; Yoon, Euisik

    2014-08-21

    Cancer-stromal cell interactions are a critical process in tumorigenesis. Conventional dish-based assays, which simply mix two cell types, have limitations in three aspects: 1) limited control of the cell microenvironment; 2) inability to study cell behavior in a single-cell manner; and 3) have difficulties in characterizing single cell behavior within a highly heterogeneous cell population (e.g. tumor). An innovative use of microfluidic technology is for improving the spatial resolution for single cell assays. However, it is challenging to isolate the paired interacting cells while maintaining nutrient renewal. In this work, two-phase flow was used as a simple isolation method, separating the microenvironment of each individual chamber. As nutrients in an isolated chamber are consumed by cells, media exchange is required. To connect the cell culture chamber to the media exchange layer, we demonstrated a 3D microsystem integration technique using vertical connections fabricated by deep reactive-ion etching (DRIE). Compared to previous approaches, the presented process allows area reduction of vertical connections by an order of magnitude, enabling compact 3D integration. A semi-permeable membrane was sandwiched between the cell culture layer and the media exchange layer. The selectivity of the semi-permeable membrane results in the retention of the signaling proteins within the chamber while allowing free diffusion of nutrients (e.g., glucose and amino acids). Thus, paracrine signals are accumulated inside the chamber without cross-talk between cells in other chambers. Utilizing these innovations, we co-cultured UM-SCC-1 (head and neck squamous cell carcinoma) cells and endothelial cells to simulate tumor proliferation enhancement in the vascular endothelial niche.

  5. Retrospective analysis of mortality and Candida isolates of 75 patients with candidemia: a single hospital experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirano R

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ryuichi Hirano,1 Yuichi Sakamoto,2 Kumiko Kudo,1 Motoki Ohnishi31Department of Pharmacy, Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, Aomori, Japan; 2Laboratory Medicine and Blood transfusion, Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, Aomori, Japan; 3General Medicine, Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, Aomori, JapanAbstract: The mortality rate for candidemia is approximately 30%–60%. However, prognostic factors in patients with candidemia have not yet been elucidated in detail. The aim of the present study was to analyze prognostic factors for candidemia using the mortality rate and Candida isolates of patients with candidemia. Seventy-five patients with candidemia were analyzed between January 2007 and December 2013. The main outcome of this study was the 30-day mortality rate after the diagnosis of candidemia. The acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score (APACHE II score was measured in 34 patients (45.3%. Odds ratios (ORs for death due to candidemia were analyzed using a multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis. Twenty (26.6% patients died within 30 days of being diagnosed with candidemia. Non-survivors had a significantly higher APACHE II score (n=7, mean; 18.9±4.5 than that of survivors (n=27, mean; 14.0±5.0. Advanced age (OR =1.1, 95% confidence interval =1.01–1.23, P=0.04 was a significant risk factor for a high mortality rate, whereas removal of a central venous catheter (OR =0.03, 95% confidence interval =0.002–0.3, P=0.01 was associated with a lower mortality rate. Seventy-six Candida spp. were isolated from blood cultures: Candida albicans 28 (36.8%, Candida parapsilosis 23 (30.2%, Candida guilliermondii 16 (21.0%, Candida glabrata four (5.2%, Candida tropicalis two (2.6%, and Candida spp. three (3.9% that could not be identified. C. parapsilosis was the most frequently isolated species in younger patients (<65 years, whereas C. albicans was the most frequently isolated in elderly patients (≥65 years

  6. Stability of cell-free DNA from maternal plasma isolated following a single centrifugation step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Angela N; Thadani, Henna A; Laureano-Asibal, Cecille; Ponnusamy, Sukumar; Choolani, Mahesh

    2014-12-01

    Cell-free fetal DNA can be used for prenatal testing with no procedure-related risk to the fetus. However, yield of fetal DNA is low compared with maternal cell-free DNA fragments, resulting in technical challenges for some downstream applications. To maximize the fetal fraction, careful blood processing procedures are essential. We demonstrate that fetal fraction can be preserved using a single centrifugation step followed by postage of plasma to the laboratory for further processing. Digital PCR was used to quantify copies of total, maternal, and fetal DNA present in single-spun plasma at time points over a two-week period, compared with immediately processed double-spun plasma, with storage at room temperature, 4°C, and -80°C representing different postage scenarios. There was no significant change in total, maternal, or fetal DNA copy numbers when single-spun plasma samples were stored for up to 1 week at room temperature and 2 weeks at -80°C compared with plasma processed within 4 h. Following storage at 4°C no change in composition of cell-free DNA was observed. Single-spun plasma can be transported at room temperature if the journey is expected to take one week or less; shipping on dry ice is preferable for longer journeys. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Episodic release of renin from single isolated superfused rat afferent arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, O

    1986-01-01

    Doubts have been raised about the involvement of an exocytotic event in the renin release process. This motivated the development of a technique which permitted the study of renin release from one single superfused rat afferent arteriole with a time resolution of 20 seconds. By using this technique...

  8. Discontinuous genetic variation among mesophilic Naegleria isolates: further evidence that N. gruberi is not a single species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, B S; Christy, P; Hayes, S J; Dobson, P J

    1992-01-01

    Naegleria isolates which are currently placed in the type species N. gruberi display great genetic, physiological and morphological heterogeneity. There are two possible interpretations of the nature of this species--that N. gruberi is a species complex or that it is a single continuously variable species. To distinguish between these alternatives, allelic states were determined for 33 loci in 74 new isolates selected to represent wide geographic sources and diverse temperature limits for growth. The results were compared with data for culture collection strains of N. gruberi and other species in the genus. The isolates formed a discontinuous series of clusters, separated by genetic distances similar to those separating the better-characterised taxa N. fowleri, N. lovaniensis, N. jadini, N. australiensis australiensis and N. australiensis italica. Culture collection strains assigned to N. gruberi fell into six distinct clusters, while other clusters were not represented by reference strains. The data are most consistent with the interpretation that N. gruberi is a group of several distinct species, each equivalent to the recently described species in the genus. Naegleria andersoni andersoni and N. andersoni jamiesoni also formed two distinct clusters, equivalent to species. Characteristics temperature limits for growth show that the mesophilic species are ecological as well as genetic entities.

  9. Brief communication genotyping of Burkholderia pseudomallei revealed high genetic variability among isolates from a single population group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zueter, Abdelrahman Mohammad; Rahman, Zaidah Abdul; Yean, Chan Yean; Harun, Azian

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil dwelling Gram-negative bacteria predominates in Southeast Asia zone and the tropical part of Australia. Genetic diversity has been explored among various populations and environments worldwide. To date, little data is available on MLST profiling of clinical B. pseudomallei isolates in peninsular Malaysia. In this brief report, thirteen culture positive B. pseudomallei cases collected from a single population of Terengganu state in the Western Peninsular Malaysia and were confirmed by In-house TTS1-PCR. Isolates were subjected for multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to explore their genotypic diversity and to investigate for possible clonal clustering of a certain sequence type. Patient's clinical information was examined to investigate for clinical correlation among the different genotypes. In spite of small sample set, MLST results indicated predictive results; considerable genotypic diversity, predominance and novelty among B. pseudomallei collected over a single geographically-located population in Malaysia. Massive genotypic heterogeneity was observed; 8 different sequence types with predominance of sequence type 54 and discovery of two novel sequence types. However, no clear pathogenomic or organ tropism clonal relationships were predicted.

  10. Two alphapartitiviruses co-infecting a single isolate of the plant pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Ruiling; Zhang, Yi; Tang, Qing; Li, Yangyi; Cheng, Jiasen; Fu, Yanping; Chen, Tao; Jiang, Daohong; Xie, Jiatao

    2018-02-01

    Seven dsRNA segments were detected from a single Rhizoctonia solani strain HG81. From the full-length cDNA sequences of four smaller dsRNA segments, the genomes of two related partitiviruses, designated as Rhizoctonia solani partitivirus 3 (RsPV3) and RsPV4, were determined. The genomes of RsPV3 and RsPV4 are both composed of two separate dsRNA segments, with each segment possessing a single open reading frame (ORF). ORF1 from RsPV3 and RsPV4 encodes a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, while ORF2 of RsPV3 and RsPV4 encodes a putative capsid protein. RsPV3 and RsPV4 share high sequence identity with viruses classified within the genus Alphapartitivirus, family Partitiviridae.

  11. Elevation in heat shock protein 72 mRNA following contractions in isolated single skeletal muscle fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stary, Creed M; Walsh, Brandon J; Knapp, Amy E; Brafman, David; Hogan, Michael C

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was 1) to develop a stable model for measuring contraction-induced elevations in mRNA in single skeletal muscle fibers and 2) to utilize this model to investigate the response of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) mRNA following an acute bout of fatiguing contractions. Living, intact skeletal muscle fibers were microdissected from lumbrical muscle of Xenopus laevis and either electrically stimulated for 15 min of tetanic contractions (EX; n=26) or not stimulated to contract (REST; n=14). The relative mean developed tension of EX fibers decreased to 29+/-7% of initial peak tension at the stimulation end point. Following treatment, individual fibers were allowed to recover for 1 (n=9), 2 (n=8), or 4 h (n=9) prior to isolation of total cellular mRNA. HSP72, HSP60, and cardiac alpha-actin mRNA content were then assessed in individual fibers using quantitative PCR detection. Relative HSP72 mRNA content was significantly (Pelevated at the 2-h postcontraction time point relative to REST fibers when normalized to either HSP60 (18.5+/-7.5-fold) or cardiac alpha-actin (14.7+/-4.3-fold), although not at the 1- or 4-h time points. These data indicate that 1) extraction of RNA followed by relative quantification of mRNA of select genes in isolated single skeletal muscle fibers can be reliably performed, 2) HSP60 and cardiac alpha-actin are suitable endogenous normalizing genes in skeletal muscle following contractions, and 3) a significantly elevated content of HSP72 mRNA is detectable in skeletal muscle 2 h after a single bout of fatiguing contractions, despite minimal temperature changes and without influence from extracellular sources.

  12. Low Temperature Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy of isolated Mn12-Ph Single Molecule Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaves, K.; Han, P.; Iwaya, K.; Hitosugi, T.; Packwood, D.; Katzgraber, H. G.; Zhao, H.; Dunbar, K. R.; Kim, K.; Teizer, W.

    2015-03-01

    We study Mn12O12(C6H5COO)16(H2O)4 (Mn12-Ph) single-molecule magnets on a Cu(111) surface using scanning tunneling microscopy and scanning tunneling spectroscopy at cryogenic temperatures (T a strong bias voltage dependence within the molecular interior. The qualitative features of these I vs.V curves differ by spatial location in several intriguing ways (e.g. fixed junction impedance with increasing bias voltages). We explore these normalized I vs. V curves and present a phenomenological explanation for the observed behaviors, corresponding to the physical and electronic structure within the molecule. Funding from WPI-AIMR.

  13. Utilization of indigenously isolated single strain starter cultures for the production of sourdough bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saeed

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sourdoughs were prepared with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (T0 and indigenously isolated starter cultures i.e Lactobacillus brevis (T1, Lactobacillus fermentum (T2 and Lactobacillus plantarum (T3. Breads were prepared from all sourdoughs samples in triplicate and analyzed for pH, Total Titratable Acidity (TTA, loaf volume, microbial characteristics (total plate count and fungal count and sensory profile (internal and external in triplicate. The breads prepared from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (T0 exhibited the highest pH with the lowest TTA while T1 showed the lowest pH with the highest TTA. The T0 breads got the highest values for loaf volume followed by T1. The breads produced with the addition of hetero-fermentative starter cultures (T1 and T2 showed resistance against the growth of the contaminating microorganisms. In the sensory evaluation, the breads produced with T1 ranked the best for color (crust and crumb, taste, aroma, texture and overall acceptability by the panelists. 

  14. Single species biofilm-forming ability of root canal isolates on gutta-percha points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Naoki; Noiri, Yuichiro; Ehara, Atsushi; Kawahara, Takashi; Noguchi, Nobuo; Ebisu, Shigeyuki

    2004-12-01

    The participation of bacterial biofilms in the over-filled gutta-percha points associated with refractory periapical periodontitis has recently been reported. This study investigated the initial biofilm-forming ability of root canal isolates (Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus sanguis, Strep. intermedius, Strep. pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Propionibacterium acnes, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia) on gutta-percha points in vitro. Each bacterial strain was suspended in 100% cell culture medium or in culture medium containing 4.5, 45 or 90% (vol/vol) serum. The bacterial suspensions were then co-incubated anaerobically with gutta-percha points for 7 d. The gutta-percha points were processed for scanning electron microscopic observation and examined for biofilm presence and thickness. E. faecalis, Strep. sanguis, Strep. intermedius, Strep. pyogenes and Staph. aureus biofilms were generated on the surfaces of the specimens incubated in culture medium supplemented with 45 or 90% (vol/vol) serum. The E. faecalis and Strep. sanguis biofilms were significantly thicker than those of Strep. intermedius, Strep. pyogenes and Staph. aureus. No biofilms were detected on the specimens incubated with F. nucleatum, Prop. acnes, Porph. gingivalis and Prev. intermedia. These findings suggest that Gram-positive facultative anaerobes have the ability to colonize and form extracellular matrices on gutta-percha points, while serum plays a crucial role in biofilm formation. Copyright Eur J Oral Sci, 2004.

  15. Microencapsulated 3-Dimensional Sensor for the Measurement of Oxygen in Single Isolated Pancreatic Islets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Gamal; Sweet, Ian R.; Shen, Amy Q.

    2012-01-01

    Background Oxygen consumption reflects multiple processes in pancreatic islets including mechanisms contributing to insulin secretion, oxidative stress and viability, providing an important readout in studies of islet function, islet viability and drug testing. Due to the scarcity, heterogeneity, and intrinsic kinetic properties of individual islets, it would be of great benefit to detect oxygen consumption by single islets. We present a novel method we have developed to image oxygen in single islets. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a microfluidics system, individual islets and a fluorescent oxygen-sensitive dye were encased within a thin alginate polymer layer. Insulin secretion by the encapsulated islets was normal. Fluorescent signal from the encased dye, detected using a standard inverted fluorescence microscope and digital camera, was stable and proportional to the amount of oxygen in the media. When integrated into a perifusion system, the sensing system detected changes in response to metabolic substrates, mitochondrial poisons, and induced-oscillations. Glucose responses averaged 30.1±7.1% of the response to a metabolic inhibitor (cyanide), increases were observed in all cases (n = 6), and the system was able to resolve changes in oxygen consumption that had a period greater than 0.5 minutes. The sensing system operated similarly from 2–48 hours following encapsulation, and viability and function of the islets were not significantly affected by the encapsulation process. Conclusions/Significance An oxygen-dependent dye situated around and within a pancreatic islet encapsulated by a thin layer of alginate was sensitive to changes in oxygen consumption, and was not harmful to the function or viability of islets over the course of two days. The microcapsule-based sensing method is particularly suited to assessing the effects of compounds (dose responses and time courses) and chronic changes occurring over the course of days. The approach should be

  16. Peribulbar block in equine isolated heads. Development of a single needle technique and tomographic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vanessa rabbogliatti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Peribulbar block (PPB has been used in humans as a safer alternative to retrobulbar block (RBB. PBB, depends on the diffusion of anaesthetic solution into the muscle across the connective tissue and it is performed introducing the needle within the extraconal space. The advantages are fewer complications and palpebral akinesia. In Veterinary Medicine few studies describe this technique in dogs (Ahn J 2013 and cats (Shilo-Benjamini et al. 2013. Based on literature the aim of the study is to determinate, in equine specimens, feasibility of inferior PBB with single needle injection, by using contrast medium (CM, and to evaluate thought Computed Tomography (CT the distribution around the optic nerve (degrees. PBB was performed in 6 orbits. The mixture injected consisted of 20 ml of physiological solution and iodinated CM at 25%. Each periorbital area underwent three CT scans. A basal acquisition to assess the needle position before the injection, a second and third scan were performed immediately after injection, and after application of pressure on the periorbital surface area to promote CM diffusion. The needle position was measured from the tip to the optic nerve with a mean distance of 2,27 mm ± 0,28. The mean volume distribution before pressure application was 23,56 cm3 ± 2,58 and after pressure application was 27,56 cm3 ± 4,8.  The CM distribution, was defined (Nouvellon et al. 2010 “successful” in 4 orbits (>270° and “inadequate” in 2 orbits (<180°. The present study demonstrates feasibility of inferior PBB by single injection in horses for its simple and practical execution. Inferior PPB is a potential alternative to systemic administration of neuromuscular blocking agents for ophthalmic surgery. However, this approach needs to be evaluate in clinical trials to assess its feasibility and effectiveness in clinical practice for standing procedures.

  17. Single cell proteomics using frog (Xenopus laevis) blastomeres isolated from early stage embryos, which form a geometric progression in protein content

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Liangliang; Dubiak, Kyle M.; Peuchen, Elizabeth H.; Zhang, Zhenbin; Zhu, Guijie; Huber, Paul W.; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2016-01-01

    Single cell analysis is required to understand cellular heterogeneity in biological systems. We propose that single cells (blastomeres) isolated from early stage invertebrate, amphibian, or fish embryos are ideal model systems for the development of technologies for single cell analysis. For these embryos, although cell cleavage is not exactly symmetric, the content per blastomere decreases roughly by half with each cell division, creating a geometric progression in cellular content. This pro...

  18. Isolation and characterization of subgenomic DNAs encapsidated in 'single' T = 1 isometric particles of Maize streak virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casado, Carolina G.; Javier Ortiz, G.; Padron, Eric; Bean, Samantha J.; McKenna, Robert; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Boulton, Margaret I.

    2004-01-01

    'Single' T = 1 isometric particles of Maize streak virus (MSV) have been isolated from infected maize leaves. Biochemical and genetic characterizations show that these particles contain subgenomic (sg) MSV DNA encapsidated by the MSV coat protein. The largest sg DNA is 1.56 kb, slightly larger than half genome size, although sg DNAs as small as 0.2 kb were also cloned. The sg DNAs are not infectious, and they do not appear to play a role in the pathogenicity of MSV. This is the first report of sg DNAs for MSV and, to our knowledge, the first time that encapsidated sg DNAs have been characterized at the sequence level for any geminivirus. These data will assist in our investigations into the role of genomic DNA in the formation of the unique geminate capsid architecture of the Geminiviridae

  19. Single nucleotide polymorphism isolated from a novel EST dataset in garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercati, Francesco; Riccardi, Paolo; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa; Falavigna, Agostino; Sunseri, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) are abundant and evenly distributed co-dominant molecular markers in plant genomes. SSRs are valuable for marker assisted breeding and positional cloning of genes associated traits of interest. Although several high throughput platforms have been developed to identify SNP and SSR markers for analysis of segregant plant populations, breeding in garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) has been limited by a low content of such markers. In this study massively parallel GS-FLX pyro-sequencing technology (454 Life Sciences) has been used to sequence and compare transcriptome from two genotypes: a rust tolerant male (1770) and a susceptible female (G190). A total of 122,963 and 99,368 sequence reads, with an average length of 245.7bp, have been recovered from accessions 1770 and 190 respectively. A computational pipeline has been used to predict and visually inspect putative SNPs and SSR sequences. Analysis of Gene Ontology (GO) slim annotation assignments for all assembled uniscripts indicated that the 24,403 assemblies represent genes from a broad array of functions. Further, over 1800 putative SNPs and 1000 SSRs were detected. One hundred forty-four SNPs together with 60 selected SSRs were validated and used to develop a preliminary genetic map by using a large BC(1) population, derived from 1770 and G190. The abundance of SNPs and SSRs provides a foundation for the development of saturated genetic maps and their utilization in assisted asparagus breeding programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Photon scattering by isolated isotopic impurities in single crystals of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, D.T.

    1972-01-01

    Thermal conductivity measurements of oriented single crystals of hexagonal close-packed 4 He have been made in order to study the scattering of phonons by isotopic impurities. The samples, all grown at a constant pressure of 85.1 atmospheres, contained 3 He concentrations ranging from less than 10 - 6 to 2 x 10 - 5 . Apparatus and techniques have been developed which allow the growth of crystals at preferred orientations: c-axis orientations of 0 and 90 0 with respect to the direction of heat flow were chosen for this study. Quality and orientation of the sample crystals were determined from the thermal conductivity measurements themselves. In the 90 0 crystals an isotopic concentration of 2 x 10 - 5 reduces the thermal conductivity peak by a factor of 2.8. A model using the dominant phonon approximation to define an average isotope cross section for phonon scattering fits these data well. The cross section thus obtained is larger than can be explained by scattering from the mass defect alone, and provides a measure of the lattice distortion accompanying an isotopic substitution. Relevant theories are examined in the light of these results. The data for 0 0 crystals are consistent with the same cross section if samples displaying the same effective phonon mean free path in the low temperature limit are compared. Variations in this limiting mean free path are attributed to specular reflection of phonons at the sample chamber walls. At the lowest 3 He concentrations Poiseuille flow of phonons causes a peak in the effective mean free path a factor of 4.6 higher than the low temperature limit

  1. Isolation of anti-toxin single domain antibodies from a semi-synthetic spiny dogfish shark display library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldman Ellen R

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shark heavy chain antibody, also called new antigen receptor (NAR, consists of one single Variable domain (VH, containing only two complementarity-determining regions (CDRs. The antigen binding affinity and specificity are mainly determined by these two CDRs. The good solubility, excellent thermal stability and complex sequence variation of small single domain antibodies (sdAbs make them attractive alternatives to conventional antibodies. In this report, we construct and characterize a diversity enhanced semi-synthetic NAR V display library based on naturally occurring NAR V sequences. Results A semi-synthetic shark sdAb display library with a complexity close to 1e9 was constructed. This was achieved by introducing size and sequence variations in CDR3 using randomized CDR3 primers of three different lengths. Binders against three toxins, staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB, ricin, and botulinum toxin A (BoNT/A complex toxoid, were isolated from panning the display library. Soluble sdAbs from selected binders were purified and evaluated using direct binding and thermal stability assays on the Luminex 100. In addition, sandwich assays using sdAb as the reporter element were developed to demonstrate their utility for future sensor applications. Conclusion We demonstrated the utility of a newly created hyper diversified shark NAR displayed library to serve as a source of thermal stable sdAbs against a variety of toxins.

  2. Impact of a single session of intermittent pneumatic leg compressions on skeletal muscle and isolated artery gene expression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseguini, Bruno T; Arce-Esquivel, Arturo A; Newcomer, Sean C; Laughlin, M H

    2011-12-01

    Intermittent pneumatic leg compressions (IPC) have proven to be an effective noninvasive approach for treatment of patients with claudication, but the mechanisms underlying the clinical benefits remain elusive. In the present study, a rodent model of claudication produced by bilateral ligation of the femoral artery was used to investigate the acute impact of a single session of IPC (150 min) on hemodynamics, skeletal muscle (tibialis anterior), and isolated collateral artery (perforating artery) expression of a subset of genes associated with inflammation and vascular remodeling. In addition, the effect of compression frequency (15 vs. 3 compressions/min) on the expression of these factors was studied. In ligated animals, IPC evoked an increase of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 (CXCL1) mRNA (P < 0.01) and immunostaining (P < 0.05), as well as a minor increase in VEGF immunostaining in the muscle endomysium 150 min postintervention. Further, collateral arteries from these animals showed an increased expression of MCP-1 (approximately twofold, P = 0.02). These effects were most evident in the group exposed to the high-frequency protocol (15 compressions/min). In contrast, IPC in sham-operated control animals evoked a modest initial upregulation of VEGF (P = 0.01), MCP-1 (P = 0.02), and CXCL1 (P = 0.03) mRNA in the muscle without concomitant changes in protein levels. No changes in gene expression were observed in arteries isolated from sham animals. In conclusion, IPC acutely up-regulates the expression of important factors involved in vascular remodeling in the compressed muscle and collateral arteries in a model of hindlimb ischemia. These effects appear to be dependent on the compression frequency, such that a high compression frequency (15 compressions/min) evokes more consistent and robust effects compared with the frequency commonly employed clinically to treat patients with claudication (3

  3. Whole Genome and Core Genome Multilocus Sequence Typing and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Analyses of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates Associated with an Outbreak Linked to Cheese, United States, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yan; Carleton, Heather; Timme, Ruth; Melka, David; Muruvanda, Tim; Wang, Charles; Kastanis, George; Katz, Lee S.; Turner, Lauren; Fritzinger, Angela; Moore, Terence; Stones, Robert; Blankenship, Joseph; Salter, Monique; Parish, Mickey; Hammack, Thomas S.; Evans, Peter S.; Tarr, Cheryl L.; Allard, Marc W.; Strain, Errol A.; Brown, Eric W.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epidemiological findings of a listeriosis outbreak in 2013 implicated Hispanic-style cheese produced by company A, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole genome sequencing (WGS) were performed on clinical isolates and representative isolates collected from company A cheese and environmental samples during the investigation. The results strengthened the evidence for cheese as the vehicle. Surveillance sampling and WGS 3 months later revealed that the equipment purchased by company B from company A yielded an environmental isolate highly similar to all outbreak isolates. The whole genome and core genome multilocus sequence typing and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analyses results were compared to demonstrate the maximum discriminatory power obtained by using multiple analyses, which were needed to differentiate outbreak-associated isolates from a PFGE-indistinguishable isolate collected in a nonimplicated food source in 2012. This unrelated isolate differed from the outbreak isolates by only 7 to 14 SNPs, and as a result, the minimum spanning tree from the whole genome analyses and certain variant calling approach and phylogenetic algorithm for core genome-based analyses could not provide differentiation between unrelated isolates. Our data also suggest that SNP/allele counts should always be combined with WGS clustering analysis generated by phylogenetically meaningful algorithms on a sufficient number of isolates, and the SNP/allele threshold alone does not provide sufficient evidence to delineate an outbreak. The putative prophages were conserved across all the outbreak isolates. All outbreak isolates belonged to clonal complex 5 and serotype 1/2b and had an identical inlA sequence which did not have premature stop codons. IMPORTANCE In this outbreak, multiple analytical approaches were used for maximum discriminatory power. A PFGE-matched, epidemiologically unrelated isolate had high genetic similarity to the outbreak

  4. Biodegradation of benzalkonium chlorides singly and in mixtures by a Pseudomonas sp. isolated from returned activated sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Adnan Hossain, E-mail: akhan462@uwo.ca [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B9 (Canada); Topp, Edward, E-mail: Ed.Topp@AGR.GC.CA [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, London, ON N5V 4T3 (Canada); Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B7 (Canada); Scott, Andrew, E-mail: Andrew.Scott@AGR.GC.CA [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, London, ON N5V 4T3 (Canada); Sumarah, Mark, E-mail: Mark.Sumarah@agr.gc.ca [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, London, ON N5V 4T3 (Canada); Macfie, Sheila M., E-mail: smacfie@uwo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B7 (Canada); Ray, Madhumita B., E-mail: mbhowmic@uwo.ca [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Pseudomonas sp. degraded two benzalkonium chlorides: BDDA and BDTA. • Although BDTA biodegraded at low concentration, it inhibited the degradation of BDDA. • For BDDA, two transformation products indicate two sites of bacterial activity. • {sup 14}C-labelled BDDA was mineralized to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} within 300 h. - Abstract: Bactericidal cationic surfactants such as quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely detected in the environment, and found at mg kg{sup −1} concentrations in biosolids. Although individual QACs are amenable to biodegradation, it is possible that persistence is increased for mixtures of QACs with varying structure. The present study evaluated the biodegradation of benzyl dimethyl dodecyl ammonium chloride (BDDA) singly and in the presence of benzyl dimethyl tetradecyl ammonium chloride (BDTA) using Pseudomonas sp., isolated from returned activated sludge. Growth was evaluated, as was biodegradation using {sup 14}C and HPLC-MS methods. BDTA was more toxic to growth of Pseudomonas sp. compared to BDDA, and BDTA inhibited BDDA biodegradation. The benzyl ring of [U-{sup 14}C-benzyl] BDDA was readily and completely mineralized. The detection of the transformation products benzyl methyl amine and dodecyl dimethyl amine in spent culture liquid was consistent with literature. Overall, this study demonstrates the antagonistic effect of interactions on biodegradation of two widely used QACs suggesting further investigation on the degradation of mixture of QACs in wastewater effluents and biosolids.

  5. Biodegradation of benzalkonium chlorides singly and in mixtures by a Pseudomonas sp. isolated from returned activated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Adnan Hossain; Topp, Edward; Scott, Andrew; Sumarah, Mark; Macfie, Sheila M.; Ray, Madhumita B.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pseudomonas sp. degraded two benzalkonium chlorides: BDDA and BDTA. • Although BDTA biodegraded at low concentration, it inhibited the degradation of BDDA. • For BDDA, two transformation products indicate two sites of bacterial activity. • 14 C-labelled BDDA was mineralized to 14 CO 2 within 300 h. - Abstract: Bactericidal cationic surfactants such as quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely detected in the environment, and found at mg kg −1 concentrations in biosolids. Although individual QACs are amenable to biodegradation, it is possible that persistence is increased for mixtures of QACs with varying structure. The present study evaluated the biodegradation of benzyl dimethyl dodecyl ammonium chloride (BDDA) singly and in the presence of benzyl dimethyl tetradecyl ammonium chloride (BDTA) using Pseudomonas sp., isolated from returned activated sludge. Growth was evaluated, as was biodegradation using 14 C and HPLC-MS methods. BDTA was more toxic to growth of Pseudomonas sp. compared to BDDA, and BDTA inhibited BDDA biodegradation. The benzyl ring of [U- 14 C-benzyl] BDDA was readily and completely mineralized. The detection of the transformation products benzyl methyl amine and dodecyl dimethyl amine in spent culture liquid was consistent with literature. Overall, this study demonstrates the antagonistic effect of interactions on biodegradation of two widely used QACs suggesting further investigation on the degradation of mixture of QACs in wastewater effluents and biosolids.

  6. Single Cell Oil Production from Hydrolysates of Inulin by a Newly Isolated Yeast Papiliotrema laurentii AM113 for Biodiesel Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangyuan; Liu, Lin; Liang, Wenxing

    2018-01-01

    Microbial oils are among the most attractive alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production. In this study, a newly isolated yeast strain, AM113 of Papiliotrema laurentii, was identified as a potential lipid producer, which could accumulate a large amount of intracellular lipids from hydrolysates of inulin. P. laurentii AM113 was able to produce 54.6% (w/w) of intracellular oil in its cells and 18.2 g/l of dry cell mass in a fed-batch fermentation. The yields of lipid and biomass were 0.14 and 0.25 g per gram of consumed sugar, respectively. The lipid productivity was 0.092 g of oil per hour. Compositions of the fatty acids produced were C 14:0 (0.9%), C 16:0 (10.8%), C 16:1 (9.7%), C 18:0 (6.5%), C 18:1 (60.3%), and C 18:2 (11.8%). Biodiesel obtained from the extracted lipids could be burnt well. This study not only provides a promising candidate for single cell oil production, but will also probably facilitate more efficient biodiesel production.

  7. Changes in antimicrobial susceptibility and major clones of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex isolates from a single hospital in Korea over 7 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Kyoung; Jung, Sook-In; Park, Kyong-Hwa; Kim, Dae Hun; Choi, Ji Young; Kim, Su Hwan; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2012-01-01

    Acinetobacter species have emerged as opportunistic nosocomial pathogens in intensive care units. Epidemic spread and outbreaks of multidrug-resistant or carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections have been described worldwide. Species distribution, antimicrobial resistance and genotypes were investigated for Acinetobacter species isolates collected from a single institution in Korea over 7 years. Two hundred and eighty-seven Acinetobacter species isolates were collected from patients with bloodstream infections in one Korean hospital from 2003 to 2010. Most of them belonged to the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex (94.4 %). The most frequently isolated species was A. baumannii (44.2 %), followed by Acinetobacter nosocomialis (formerly Acinetobacter genomic species 13TU) (34.1 %). The proportion of A. baumannii increased significantly from 2008 to 2010 (40.4 to 50.0 %). From 2008, imipenem and meropenem resistance rates increased significantly compared with 2003-2007 (12.9 % and 20.5 %, respectively, to 41.4 % and 41.5 %, respectively). An increased carbapenem resistance rate between the two periods was identified more clearly amongst A. baumannii isolates. Polymyxin-resistant A. baumannii isolates emerged in 2008-2010, despite the availability of few isolates. The increase of carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii might be due to the substitution of main clones. Although ST92 and ST69 were the most prevalent clones amongst A. baumannii in 2003-2007 (47.8 % and 15.9 %, respectively), ST75 and ST138 had increased in 2008-2010 (39.7 % and 25.9 %, respectively). Although ST92 showed moderate resistance to carbapenems, most ST75 and ST138 isolates were resistant to carbapenems. All ST75 and ST138 isolates, but only one ST92 isolate, contained the bla(OXA-23-like) gene. Increased carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter species and A. baumannii isolates might be due to the expansion of specific carbapenem-resistant clones.

  8. Isolated single coronary artery (RII-B type presenting as an inferior wall myocardial infarction: A rare clinical entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur C. Thummar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Isolated single coronary artery without other congenital cardiac anomalies is very rare among the different variations of anomalous coronary patterns. The prognosis in patients with single coronary varies according to the anatomic distribution and associated coronary atherosclerosis. If the left main coronary artery travels between the aorta and pulmonary arteries, it may be a cause of sudden cardiac death. We present multimodality images of a single coronary artery, in which the whole coronary system originated by a single trunk from the right sinus of Valsalva with inter-arterial course of left main coronary artery. This rare type of single coronary artery was classified as RII-B type according to Lipton's scheme of classification. A significant flow-limiting lesions were found in the right coronary artery that was successfully treated with percutaneous coronary intervention.

  9. Effects of mefloquine on cardiac contractility and electrical activity in vivo, in isolated cardiac preparations, and in single ventricular myocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Susan J; Batey, Andrew J; Lightbown, Ian D; Díaz, Mary E; Eisner, David A

    2000-01-01

    To examine the possible cardiotoxicity of the antimalarial drug mefloquine, increasing doses (0.3–30 mg kg−1) were given i.v. to anaesthetized guinea-pigs. Mefloquine did not alter ECG intervals significantly but gradually increased systolic blood pressure (at 3 mg kg−1) then had a depressor effect (at 10 mg kg−1). Death due to profound hypotension, probably resulting from cardiac contractile failure or AV block, occurred after either 10 mg kg−1 (2/6) or 30 mg kg−1 (4/6) mefloquine. In isolated cardiac preparations mefloquine (3–100 μM) did not alter the effective refractory period but at the higher concentrations resting tension increased. Developed tension was reduced by 100 μM mefloquine in left atria (from 5.8±1.7 to 2.2±0.4 mN) whereas in papillary muscles although 30 μM mefloquine reduced developed tension (from 2.6±0.5 to 1.1±0.1 mN) subsequent addition of 100 μM caused a marked, but not sustained, positive inotropic effect (from 1.2±0.1 to 3.8±0.8 mN). In single ventricular myocytes, mefloquine (10 μM) shortened action potential duration (e.g. APD90 from 285±29 to 141±12 ms) and reduced the amplitude of the systolic Ca2+ transient. These effects were accompanied by a decrease in the L-type Ca2+ current. These results indicate that the main adverse effect of mefloquine on the heart is a negative inotropic action. This action can be explained by blockade of L-type Ca2+ channels. PMID:10694239

  10. Development of a simplified RT-PCR without RNA isolation for rapid detection of RNA viruses in a single small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiufang; Liu, Haoqiu; Yuan, Pingping; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Chen, Qingqing; Jiang, Xuanli; Zhou, Yijun

    2017-05-03

    The small brown planthopper (SBPH) is an important pest of cereal crops and acts as a transmission vector for multiple RNA viruses. Rapid diagnosis of virus in the vector is crucial for efficient forecast and control of viral disease. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for virus detection. The traditional RT-PCR contains a RNA isolation step and is widely used for virus detection in insect. However, using the traditional RT-PCR for detecting RNA virus in individual SBPHs becomes challenging because of the expensive reagents and laborious procedure associated with RNA isolation when processing a large number of samples. We established a simplified RT-PCR method without RNA isolation for RNA virus detection in a single SBPH. This method is achieved by grinding a single SBPH in sterile water and using the crude extract directly as the template for RT-PCR. The crude extract containing the virus RNA can be prepared in approximately two minutes. Rice stripe virus (RSV), rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) and Himetobi P virus (HiPV) were successfully detected using this simplified method. The detection results were validated by sequencing and dot immunobinding assay, indicating that this simplified method is reliable for detecting different viruses in insects. The evaluation of the sensitivity of this method showed that both RSV and HiPV can be detected when the cDNA from the crude extract was diluted up to 10 3 fold. Compared to the traditional RT-PCR with RNA isolation, the simplified RT-PCR method greatly reduces the sample processing time, decreases the detection cost, and improves the efficiency by avoiding RNA isolation. A simplified RT-PCR method is developed for rapid detection of RNA virus in a single SBPH without the laborious RNA isolation step. It offers a convenient alternative to the traditional RT-PCR method.

  11. Resistance to colistin associated with a single amino acid change in protein PmrB among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates of worldwide origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayol, Aurélie; Poirel, Laurent; Brink, Adrian; Villegas, Maria-Virginia; Yilmaz, Mesut; Nordmann, Patrice

    2014-08-01

    A series of colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates recovered from different countries was investigated in order to evaluate the involvement of the PmrA/PmrB two-component system in this resistance. Six isolates possessed a mutated PmrB protein, which is encoded by the pmrB gene, part of the pmrCAB operon involved in lipopolysaccharide modification. The same amino acid substitution (Thr157Pro) in PmrB was identified in the six isolates. The six isolates belonged to four distinct clonal groups, recovered in South Africa (sequence type 14 [ST14]), Turkey (ST101), and Colombia (ST258 and ST15). Three out of the four clones produced a carbapenemase, OXA-181, OXA-48, or KPC-3, while a single isolate did not produce any carbapenemase. Expression assays revealed an overexpression of the pmrA (70-fold), pmrB (70-fold), pmrC (170-fold), and pmrK (40-fold) genes in the pmrB-mutated isolate compared to expression of the pmrB wild-type isogenic K. pneumoniae isolate, confirming that the PmrB substitution was responsible for increased expression levels of those genes. Complementation assays leading to the expression of a wild-type PmrB protein restored the susceptibility to colistin in all isolates, confirming that the substitution in PmrB was responsible for the resistance phenotype. This study identified a key amino acid located in the PmrB protein as being responsible for the overexpression of pmrCAB and pmrHFIJKLM operons, leading to resistance to colistin. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Aspiration in head and neck cancer patients: a single centre experience of clinical profile, bacterial isolates and antibiotic sensitivity pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmaiah, K C; Sirsath, Nagesh T; Subramanyam, Jayshree R; Govind, Babu K; Lokanatha, D; Shenoy, Ashok M

    2013-07-01

    Most patients with head and neck cancer have dysphagia and are at increased risk of having aspiration and subsequent pneumonia. It can cause prolonged hospitalization, treatment delay and/or interruption and mortality in cancer patients. The treatment of these infections often relies on empirical antibiotics based on local microbiology and antibiotic sensitivity patterns. The aim of present study is to analyse respiratory tract pathogens isolated by sputum culture in head and neck cancer patients undergoing treatment at a tertiary cancer centre in South India who presented with features of aspiration. The study is carried out to establish empirical antibiotic policy for head and neck cancer patients who present with features of aspiration. This was a retrospective study. The study included sputum samples sent for culture and sensitivity from January 2011 to December 2012. Analysis of microbiologic species isolated in sputum specimen and the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the bacterial isolates was performed. A detailed study of case files of all patients was done to find out which is the most common site prone for producing aspiration. There were 47 (31.54 %) gram positive isolates and 102 (68.45 %) gram negative isolates. The most common bacterial isolates were Klebsiella pneumoniae (25.50 %), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16.77 %) and Haemophilus influenzae (15.43 %). Levofloxacin was the most effective antibiotic with excellent activity against both gram positive and gram negative isolates. Most patients with aspiration had laryngeal cancer (34.89 %). Aspiration pneumonia was present in 14 (9.39 %) patients. Gram negative bacteria are common etiologic agents in head and neck cancer patients presenting with features of aspiration. Levofloxacin should be started as empirical antibiotic in these patients while awaiting sputum culture sensitivity report. As aspiration in head and neck cancer is an underreported event such institutional antibiotic sensitivity

  13. Microfluidic device for DNA amplification of single cancer cells isolated from whole blood by self-seeding microwells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Yoon Sun; Rho, Hoon Suk; Stevens, Michiel; Tibbe, Arjan G.J.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie

    2015-01-01

    Self-seeding microwell chips can sort single cells into 6400 wells based on cell size and their identity verified by immunofluorescence staining. Here, we developed a microfluidic device in which these single cells can be placed, lysed and their DNA amplified for further interrogation. Whole blood

  14. Enhanced Emission from Single Isolated Gold Quantum Dots Investigated Using Two-Photon-Excited Fluorescence Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyasinghe, Neranga; Kumar, Santosh; Sun, Kai; Mansfield, John F; Jin, Rongchao; Goodson, Theodore

    2016-12-21

    New approaches in molecular nanoscopy are greatly desired for interrogation of biological, organic, and inorganic objects with sizes below the diffraction limit. Our current work investigates emergent monolayer-protected gold quantum dots (nanoclusters, NCs) composed of 25 Au atoms by utilizing two-photon-excited fluorescence (TPEF) near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) at single NC concentrations. Here, we demonstrate an approach to synthesize and isolate single NCs on solid glass substrates. Subsequent investigation of the NCs using TPEF NSOM reveals that, even when they are separated by distances of several tens of nanometers, we can excite and interrogate single NCs individually. Interestingly, we observe an enhanced two-photon absorption (TPA) cross section for single Au 25 NCs that can be attributed to few-atom local field effects and to local field-induced microscopic cascading, indicating their potential for use in ultrasensitive sensing, disease diagnostics, cancer cell therapy, and molecular computers. Finally, we report room-temperature aperture-based TPEF NSOM imaging of these NCs for the first time at 30 nm point resolution, which is a ∼5-fold improvement compared to the previous best result for the same technique. This report unveils the unique combination of an unusually large TPA cross section and the high photostability of Au NCs to (non-destructively) investigate stable isolated single NCs using TPEF NSOM. This is the first reported optical study of monolayer-protected single quantum clusters, opening some very promising opportunities in spectroscopy of nanosized objects, bioimaging, ultrasensitive sensing, molecular computers, and high-density data storage.

  15. Vancomycin-resistant vanB-type Enterococcus faecium isolates expressing varying levels of vancomycin resistance and being highly prevalent among neonatal patients in a single ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Guido

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vancomycin-resistant isolates of E. faecalis and E. faecium are of special concern and patients at risk of acquiring a VRE colonization/infection include also intensively-cared neonates. We describe here an ongoing high prevalence of VanB type E. faecium in a neonatal ICU hardly to identify by routine diagnostics. Methods During a 10 months’ key period 71 E. faecium isolates including 67 vanB-type isolates from 61 patients were collected non-selectively. Vancomycin resistance was determined by different MIC methods (broth microdilution, Vitek® 2 including two Etest® protocols (McFarland 0.5/2.0. on Mueller-Hinton/Brain Heart Infusion agars. Performance of three chromogenic VRE agars to identify the vanB type outbreak VRE was evaluated (BrillianceTM VRE agar, chromIDTM VRE agar, CHROMagarTM VRE. Isolates were genotyped by SmaI- and CeuI-macrorestriction analysis in PFGE, plasmid profiling, vanB Southern hybridisations as well as MLST typing. Results Majority of vanB isolates (n = 56, 79% belonged to a single ST192 outbreak strain type showing an identical PFGE pattern and analyzed representative isolates revealed a chromosomal localization of a vanB2-Tn5382 cluster type. Vancomycin MICs in cation-adjusted MH broth revealed a susceptible value of ≤4 mg/L for 31 (55% of the 56 outbreak VRE isolates. Etest® vancomycin on MH and BHI agars revealed only two vanB VRE isolates with a susceptible result; in general Etest® MIC results were about 1 to 2 doubling dilutions higher than MICs assessed in broth and values after the 48 h readout were 0.5 to 1 doubling dilutions higher for vanB VRE. Of all vanB type VRE only three, three and two isolates did not grow on BrillianceTM VRE agar, chromIDTM VRE agar and CHROMagarTM VRE, respectively. Permanent cross contamination via the patients’ surrounding appeared as a possible risk factor for permanent VRE colonization/infection. Conclusions Low level expression of van

  16. Identification of the specificity of isolated phage display single-chain antibodies using yeast two-hybrid screens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Nicolaj; Ditzel, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    A method is described for the identification of the antigen recognised by an scFv isolated from an antibody phage display library using selection against a complex mixture of proteins (e.g. intact cells, purified cell surface membranes, and tissue sections). The method takes advantage of a yeast ...

  17. Synthesis of micro-sized shell-isolated 3D plasmonic superstructures for in situ single-particle SERS monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Zhao, Jingjing; Ji, Ji; Liu, Baohong

    2016-04-01

    A single-particle SERS system enabling real-time and in situ observation of Au-catalyzed reactions has been developed. Both the catalytic activity and the SERS effect are coupled into a single bi-functional 3D superstructure comprising Au nanosatellites self-assembled onto a shell-insulated Ag microflower core, which eliminates the interference from photocatalysis.A single-particle SERS system enabling real-time and in situ observation of Au-catalyzed reactions has been developed. Both the catalytic activity and the SERS effect are coupled into a single bi-functional 3D superstructure comprising Au nanosatellites self-assembled onto a shell-insulated Ag microflower core, which eliminates the interference from photocatalysis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of the synthesis and characterization of the Ag@SiO2@Au superstructures (SEM and TEM images, UV/vis and SERS spectra). See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00278a

  18. Single test isolated lupus anticoagulant positivity is associated with increased plasma levels of inflammatory markers and dyslipidemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, S A; Nybo, M; Laustrup, H

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a single positive test for lupus anticoagulant (LA) is associated with levels of inflammatory markers and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, independent of autoimmune disease, thrombophilia and occurrence of other antiphospholipid antibodies. METHODS: In a ...

  19. A simple, fast, and inexpensive CTAB-PVP-silica based method for genomic DNA isolation from single, small insect larvae and pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanca-Mamani, W; Rivera-Cabello, D; Maita-Maita, J

    2015-07-17

    In this study, we report a modified CTAB-PVP method combined with silicon dioxide (silica) treatment for the extraction of high quality genomic DNA from a single larva or pupa. This method efficiently obtains DNA from small specimens, which is difficult and challenging because of the small amount of starting tissue. Maceration with liquid nitrogen, phenol treatment, and the ethanol precipitation step are eliminated using this methodology. The A260/A280 absorbance ratios of the isolated DNA were approximately 1.8, suggesting that the DNA is pure and can be used for further molecular analysis. The quality of the isolated DNA permits molecular applications and represents a fast, cheap, and effective alternative method for laboratories with low budgets.

  20. The single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction: twenty-something years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomczynski, Piotr; Sacchi, Nicoletta

    2006-01-01

    Since its introduction, the 'single-step' method has become widely used for isolating total RNA from biological samples of different sources. The principle at the basis of the method is that RNA is separated from DNA after extraction with an acidic solution containing guanidinium thiocyanate, sodium acetate, phenol and chloroform, followed by centrifugation. Under acidic conditions, total RNA remains in the upper aqueous phase, while most of DNA and proteins remain either in the interphase or in the lower organic phase. Total RNA is then recovered by precipitation with isopropanol and can be used for several applications. The original protocol, enabling the isolation of RNA from cells and tissues in less than 4 hours, greatly advanced the analysis of gene expression in plant and animal models as well as in pathological samples, as demonstrated by the overwhelming number of citations the paper gained over 20 years.

  1. Metodologias de preparação de amostras de ferrugem para estudos morfológicos de urediniósporos por meio de microscopia eletrônica de varredura Methodologies processed of some rusts fungi by scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Larissa May-De Mio

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Amostras de urediniósporos de ferrugens das espécies Melampsora epitea Thum., Melampsora medusae Thuem., Hemileia vastatrix Berk., Uromyces appendiculatum Pers., Puccinia sorghi Schwein., Tranzschelia discolor Fuckel e Phakopsora euvitis Ono, coletadas dos hospedeiros, chorão (Salix sp., álamo (Populus deltoides Bartr. Ex. Marsh, cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L., feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L., milho (Zea mays L., pessegueiro (Prunus persicae L. e videira (Vitis vinifera L. respectivamente, foram processadas de 3 formas: a método convencional (fixação em glutaraldeído e tetróxido de ósmio, desidratação em acetona e secagem ao ponto crítico; b método do vapor de ósmio e metalização com ouro; c metalização direta de amostras (utilizado para esporos soltos. A técnica de fratura de amostra congelada em nitrogênio líquido também foi testada para o estudo do interior de pústulas da ferrugem da videira (P. euvitis. As amostras foram visualizadas em microscópio eletrônico de varredura no NAP/MEPA da ESALQ/USP. Procedeu-se à mensuração dos esporos e as imagens obtidas foram capturadas pelo software LeoUserInterface e processadas utilizando-se o programa de computador "Corel Draw". Em todos os métodos analisados obteve-se uma boa preservação da estrutura possibilitando imagens de alta qualidade. No entanto, para esporos livres (mantidos em cápsula de gelatina o método da metalização direta foi mais prático e rápido. Para observação das pústulas em tecido vegetal os dois métodos de processamento de amostras avaliados proporcionaram resultados satisfatórios. A técnica de fratura em nitrogênio líquido também permitiu perfeita visualização do interior das pústulas da ferrugem da videira.Samples from Urediniospores of some rust fungi such as Melampsora epitea, Melampsora medusae, Hemileia vastatrix, Uromyces appendiculatum, Puccinia sorghi, Tranzschelia discolor and Phakopsora euvitis respectively from Salix sp

  2. Aspiration in Head and Neck Cancer Patients: A Single Centre Experience of Clinical Profile, Bacterial Isolates and Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmaiah, K. C.; Sirsath, Nagesh T.; Subramanyam, Jayshree R.; Govind, Babu K.; Lokanatha, D.; Shenoy, Ashok M.

    2013-01-01

    Most patients with head and neck cancer have dysphagia and are at increased risk of having aspiration and subsequent pneumonia. It can cause prolonged hospitalization, treatment delay and/or interruption and mortality in cancer patients. The treatment of these infections often relies on empirical antibiotics based on local microbiology and antibiotic sensitivity patterns. The aim of present study is to analyse respiratory tract pathogens isolated by sputum culture in head and neck cancer pati...

  3. A novel tertiary prep-HPLC method for the isolation of single amino acids for AMS-radiocarbon measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ricardo; Koudelka, Tomas; Tholey, Andreas; Dreves, Alexander

    2017-07-15

    AMS-radiocarbon measurements of amino acids can potentially provide more reliable radiocarbon dates than bulk collagen analysis. Nonetheless, the applicability of such an approach is often limited by the low-throughput of existing isolation methods and difficulties in determining the contamination introduced during the separation process. A novel tertiary prep-HPLC amino acid isolation method was developed that relies on the combustion of eluted material without requiring any additional chemical steps. Amino acid separation was carried out using a gradient mix of pure water and phosphoric acid with an acetonitrile step in-between runs to remove hydrophobic molecules from the separation column. The amount of contaminant carbon and its 14 C content were determined from two-point measurements of collagen samples of known 14 C content. The amount of foreign carbon due to the isolation process was estimated at 4±1μg and its 14 C content was 0.43±0.01 F 14 C. Radiocarbon values corrected for carbon contamination have only a minor increase in uncertainties. For Holocene samples, this corresponds to an added uncertainty typically smaller than 10 14 Cyears. The developed method can be added to routine AMS measurements without implying significant operational changes and offers a level of measurement uncertainty that is suitable for many archaeological, ecological, environmental, and biological applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Isolation and individual electrical stimulation of single smooth-muscle cells from the urinary bladder of the pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Glerum (Jacobus); R. van Mastrigt (Ron); J.C. Romijn (Johannes); D.J. Griffiths (Derek)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractIn contrast to striated muscle, measurements on strips of smooth muscle cannot be uniquely interpreted in terms of an array of contractile units. Therefore scaling down to the single-cell level is necessary to gain detailed understanding of the contractile process in this type of muscle.

  5. SINGLE CHAIN VARIABLE FRAGMENTS OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST DIPHTHERIA TOXIN B-SUBUNIT ISOLATED FROM PHAGE DISPLAY HUMAN ANTIBODY LIBRARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliinyk O. S.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Diphtheria toxin is an exoantigen of Corynebacterium diphtheriae that inhibits protein synthesis and kills sensitive cells. The aim of this study was to obtain human recombinant single-chain variable fragment (scFv antibodies against receptor-binding B subunit of diphtheria toxin. 12 specific clones were selected after three rounds of a phage display naїve (unimmunized human antibody library against recombinant B-subunit. scFv DNA inserts from these 12 clones were digested with MvaI, and 6 unique restriction patterns were found. Single-chain antibodies were expressed in Escherichia coli XL1-blue. The recombinant proteins were characterized by immunoblotting of bacterial extracts and detection with an anti-E-tag antibody. The toxin B-subunit-binding function of the single-chain antibody was shown by ELISA. The affinity constants for different clones were found to be from 106 to 108 М–1. Due to the fact, that these antibody fragments recognized epitopes in the receptor-binding Bsubunit of diphtheria toxin, further studies are interesting to evaluate their toxin neutralization properties and potential for therapeutic applications. Obtained scFv-antibodies can also be used for detection and investigation of biological properties of diphtheria toxin.

  6. Detection of rifampin resistance patterns in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in Iran by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism and direct sequencing methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Nasr Isfahani

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the rpoB locus confer conformational changes leading to defective binding of rifampin (RIF to rpoB and consequently resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP was established as a rapid screening test for the detection of mutations in the rpoB gene, and direct sequencing has been unambiguously applied to characterize mutations. A total of 37 of Iranian isolates of M. tuberculosis, 16 sensitive and 21 resistant to RIF, were used in this study. A 193-bp region of the rpoB gene was amplified and PCR-SSCP patterns were determined by electrophoresis in 10% acrylamide gel and silver staining. Also, 21 samples of 193-bp rpoB amplicons with different PCR-SSCP patterns from RIFr and 10 from RIFs were sequenced. Seven distinguishable PCR-SSCP patterns were recognized in the 21 Iranian RIFr strains, while 15 out of 16 RIFs isolates demonstrated PCR-SSCP banding patterns similar to that of sensitive standard strain H37Rv. However one of the sensitive isolates demonstrated a different pattern. There were seen six different mutations in the amplified region of rpoB gene: codon 516(GAC/GTC, 523(GGG/GGT, 526(CAC/TAC, 531(TCG/TTG, 511(CTG/TTG, and 512(AGC/TCG. This study demonstrated the high specificity (93.8% and sensitivity (95.2% of PCR-SSCP method for detection of mutation in rpoB gene; 85.7% of RIFr strains showed a single mutation and 14.3% had no mutations. Three strains showed mutations caused polymorphism. Our data support the common notion that rifampin resistance genotypes are generally present mutations in codons 531 and 526, most frequently found in M. tuberculosis populations regardless of geographic origin.

  7. Increasing single and multi-antibiotic resistance in Shigella species isolated from shigellosis patients in Sana'a, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Moyed, Khaled A; Harmal, Nabil S; Al-Harasy, Abdulilah H; Al-Shamahy, Hassan A

    2006-08-01

    The epidemiology and antibiotic susceptibility of Shigella species changes over time. Updated susceptibility knowledge is necessary for appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment. Thus, this research aimed to study these changes in 2 time periods with an interval of 10 years. Two hundreds and three Shigella strains, isolated from stool samples of diarrheic patients at the Central Health Laboratory in Sana'a, Yemen in 2 time periods (1993 and 2003) with a 10-year interval, were examined for serotyping and drug resistance pattern. Resistance patterns of the strains to 12 commonly used antimicrobial agents and minimum inhibitory concentrations of the antibiotics were tested. Shigella flexneri (60%) was found to be the most common isolate of the total Shigella species, followed by Shigella dysenteriae (28.6%) and Shigella boydii (11.3%). In Shigella flexneri strains, Shigella flexneri 3 (30.5%) was the most prevalent serotype, followed by Shigella flexneri 6 (17.2%), and Shigella flexneri 1 (12.3%). All strains were found equally susceptible to cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin, but more than 80% of the strains of 2003 were resistant to tetracycline, co-trimoxazole, and 52% of the same strains were resistant to ampicillin. Resistance to chloramphenicol was found in 61%, cefuroxime in 56.2%, and cephradine, 52% of the strains. Overall, Shigella species showed statistically significant increase in resistance against tetracycline, cephradine, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid, and aztreonam (pYemen. Almost 55.2% of the strains were resistant to 4 drugs. This is one of the first studies reporting epidemiological pattern of Shigella species in Sana'a, Yemen with regard to serotypes and antibiotic resistance patterns. Based on these antibiotic resistance pattern findings, it is suggested that the commonly in use antibiotics including ampicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol should not be used for empirical

  8. Isolation of Single-Domain Antibody Fragments That Preferentially Detect Intact (146S Particles of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus for Use in Vaccine Quality Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel M. Harmsen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Intact (146S foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDVs can dissociate into specific (12S viral capsid degradation products. FMD vaccines normally consist of inactivated virions. Vaccine quality is dependent on 146S virus particles rather than 12S particles. We earlier isolated two llama single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs that specifically recognize 146S particles of FMDV strain O1 Manisa and shown their potential use in quality control of FMD vaccines during manufacturing. These 146S-specific VHHs were specific for particular O serotype strains and did not bind strains from other FMDV serotypes. Here, we describe the isolation of 146S-specific VHHs against FMDV SAT2 and Asia 1 strains by phage display selection from llama immune libraries. VHHs that bind both 12S and 146S particles were readily isolated but VHHs that bind specifically to 146S particles could only be isolated by phage display selection using prior depletion for 12S particles. We obtained one 146S-specific VHH—M332F—that binds to strain Asia 1 Shamir and several VHHs that preferentially bind 146S particles of SAT2 strain SAU/2/00, from which we selected VHH M379F for further characterization. Both M332F and M379F did not bind FMDV strains from other serotypes. In a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA employing unlabeled and biotinylated versions of the same VHH M332F showed high specificity for 146S particles but M379F showed lower 146S-specificity with some cross-reaction with 12S particles. These ELISAs could detect 146S particle concentrations as low as 2.3–4.6 µg/l. They can be used for FMD vaccine quality control and research and development, for example, to identify virion stabilizing excipients.

  9. Elevation in heat shock protein 72 mRNA following contractions in isolated single skeletal muscle fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Stary, Creed M.; Walsh, Brandon J.; Knapp, Amy E.; Brafman, David; Hogan, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was 1) to develop a stable model for measuring contraction-induced elevations in mRNA in single skeletal muscle fibers and 2) to utilize this model to investigate the response of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) mRNA following an acute bout of fatiguing contractions. Living, intact skeletal muscle fibers were microdissected from lumbrical muscle of Xenopus laevis and either electrically stimulated for 15 min of tetanic contractions (EX; n = 26) or not stimulated ...

  10. Evaluating lane-by-lane gap-out based signal control for isolated intersection under stop-line, single and multiple advance detection systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Keerthi Kancharla

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In isolated intersection’s actuated signal control, inductive loop detector layout plays a crucial role in providingthe vehicle information to the signal controller. Based on vehicle actuations at the detector, the green time is extended till a pre-defined threshold gap-out occurs. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA proposed various guidelines for detec-tor layouts on low-speed and high-speed approaches. This paper proposes single and multiple advance detection schemes for low-speed traffic movements, that utilizes vehicle actuations from advance detectors located upstream of the stop-line, which are able to detect spill-back queues. The proposed detection schemes operate with actuated signal control based on lane-by-lane gap-out criteria. The performance of the proposed schemes is compared with FHWA’s stop-line and single advance detection schemes in the VISSIM simulation tool. Results have shown that the proposed single advance detection schemes showed improved performance in reducing travel time delay and average number of stops per vehicle under low volumes while the multiple advance detection scheme performed well under high volumes.

  11. A study of single nucleotide polymorphism in the ystB gene of Yersinia enterocolitica strains isolated from various wild animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancerz-Kisiel, Agata; Szczerba-Turek, Anna; Platt-Samoraj, Aleksandra; Michalczyk, Maria; Szweda, Wojciech

    2017-03-01

    Y. enterocolitica is the causative agent of yersiniosis. The objective of the article was a study of single nucleotide polymorphism in the ystB gene of Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from various wild animal species. High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was applied to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of ystB gene fragments of 88 Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains isolated from wild boar, roe deer, red deer and wild ducks. HRM analysis revealed 14 different melting profiles - 4 of them were defined as regular genotypes (G1, G2, G3, G4), whereas 10 as variations. 24 of the examined Y. enterocolitica strains were classified as G1, 18 strains as a G2, 21 strains as a G3, and 15 strains as a G4. Nucleotide sequences classified as G1 revealed 100% similarity with the Y. enterocolitica D88145.1 sequence (NCBI). Analysis of G2 revealed one point mutation - transition T111A. One mutation was also found in G3, but SNP was placed in a different gene region - transition G193A. Two SNPs - transitions G92C and T111A - were identified in G4. Direct sequencing of 10 variations revealed 5 new variants of the ystB nucleotide sequence: V1 - transition G129A (3 strains); V2 - transitions T111A and G193A (2 strains); V3 - transitions C118T and G193A (1 strain); V4 - transitions C141A and G193A (2 strains); and V5 characterized by 19 SNPs: G83A, T93A, A109G, G114T, C116T, A123G, T134C, T142G, T144C, A150C, G162A, T165G, T170G, T174A, T177G, G178A, A179G, A184G and G193A (2 strains). The predominant genotype in isolates from wild ducks was G1; in red deer G2; in wild boar G3; in roe deer G1 and G4. The proposed HRM method could be used to analyze Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains isolated from different sources, including humans.

  12. Development of the self-learning machine for creating models of microprocessor of single-phase earth fault protection devices in networks with isolated neutral voltage above 1000 V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utegulov, B. B.; Utegulov, A. B.; Meiramova, S.

    2018-02-01

    The paper proposes the development of a self-learning machine for creating models of microprocessor-based single-phase ground fault protection devices in networks with an isolated neutral voltage higher than 1000 V. Development of a self-learning machine for creating models of microprocessor-based single-phase earth fault protection devices in networks with an isolated neutral voltage higher than 1000 V. allows to effectively implement mathematical models of automatic change of protection settings. Single-phase earth fault protection devices.

  13. Synergistic Effects of Honey and Propolis toward Drug Multi-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, Escherichia Coli and Candida Albicans Isolates in Single and Polymicrobial Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Waili, Noori; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad; Ansari, Mohammad Javed; Al-Attal, Y.; Salom, Khelod

    2012-01-01

    Background: Propolis and honey are natural bee products with wide range of biological and medicinal properties. The study investigated antimicrobial activity of ethyl alcohol extraction of propolis collected from Saudi Arabia (EEPS) and from Egypt (EEPE), and their synergistic effect when used with honey. Single and polymicrobial cultures of antibiotic resistant human pathogens were tested. Material and methods; Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus),), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Candida albicans (C.albicans) were cultured in 10-100% (v/v) honey diluted in broth, or 0.08-1.0% (weight/volume) EEPS and EEPE diluted in broth. Four types of polymicrobial cultures were prepared by culturing the isolates with each other in broth (control) and broth containing various concentrations of honey or propolis. Microbial growth was assessed on solid plate media after 24 h incubation. Results; EEPS and EEPE inhibited antibiotic resistant E.coli, and S.aureus, and C.albicans in single and polymicrobial cultures. S.aureus became more susceptible when it was cultured with E.coli or C.albicans or when all cultured together. C.albicans became more susceptible when it was cultured with S.aureus or with E.coli and S. aureus together. The presence of ethyl alcohol or honey potentiated antimicrobial effect of propolis toward entire microbes tested in single or polymicrobial cultures. EEPS had lower MIC toward E.coli and C.albicans than EEPE. When propolis was mixed with honey, EEPS showed lower MIC than EEPE. In addition, honey showed lower MIC toward entire microbes when mixed with EEPS than when it was mixed with EEPE. Conclusion; 1) propolis prevents the growth of the microorganisms in single and mixed microbial cultures, and has synergistic effect when used with honey or ethyl alcohol, 2) the antimicrobial property of propolis varies with geographical origin, and 3) this study will pave the way to isolate active ingredients from honey and propolis to be further tested individually or

  14. Isolating the Roles of Different Forcing Agents in Global Stratospheric Temperature Changes Using Model Integrations with Incrementally Added Single Forcings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, V.; Swartz, W. H.; Waugh, D. W.; Colarco, P. R.; Pawson, S.; Polvani, L. M.; Stolarski, R. S.

    2016-01-01

    Satellite instruments show a cooling of global stratospheric temperatures over the whole data record (1979-2014). This cooling is not linear and includes two descending steps in the early 1980s and mid-1990s. The 1979-1995 period is characterized by increasing concentrations of ozone depleting substances (ODS) and by the two major volcanic eruptions of El Chichon (1982) and Mount Pinatubo (1991). The 1995-present period is characterized by decreasing ODS concentrations and by the absence of major volcanic eruptions. Greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations increase over the whole time period. In order to isolate the roles of different forcing agents in the global stratospheric temperature changes, we performed a set of AMIP-style simulations using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOSCCM). We find that in our model simulations the cooling of the stratosphere from 1979 to present is mostly driven by changes in GHG concentrations in the middle and upper stratosphere and by GHG and ODS changes in the lower stratosphere. While the cooling trend caused by increasing GHGs is roughly constant over the satellite era, changing ODS concentrations cause a significant stratospheric cooling only up to the mid-1990s, when they start to decrease because of the implementation of the Montreal Protocol. Sporadic volcanic events and the solar cycle have a distinct signature in the time series of stratospheric temperature anomalies but do not play a statistically significant role in the long-term trends from 1979 to 2014. Several factors combine to produce the step-like behavior in the stratospheric temperatures: in the lower stratosphere, the flattening starting in the mid-1990s is due to the decrease in ozone-depleting substances; Mount Pinatubo and the solar cycle cause the abrupt steps through the aerosol-associated warming and the volcanically induced ozone depletion. In the middle and upper stratosphere, changes in solar irradiance are largely

  15. Characterization of isolates of Citrus tristeza virus by sequential analyses of enzyme immunoassays and capillary electrophoresis-single-strand conformation polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardello, G; Raspagliesi, D; Bar-Joseph, M; Catara, A

    2012-05-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is the causal agent of tristeza disease, which is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus crops worldwide. This paper describes a method for the rapid detection and genotyping of naturally spreading CTV isolates. This method uses ELISA or dot-blot immunological tests to detect trees infected with CTV. The reaction wells or membrane spots for which there is a positive reaction are sequentially treated by (i) washing and elution of viral RNA from the trapped samples, (ii) one-step synthesis of cDNA and PCR and (iii) automated fluorescence-based capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism (CE-SSCP) analysis of amplification products. Comparative CE-SSCP results are presented for CTV RNA extracted directly from infected leaves and ELISA plates or from membranes. In the analyses of all of these RNA samples, the p18, p27 and p23 CTV genes were targeted for amplification. Specific profiles of forward and reverse strands were obtained from a group of eight CTV isolates collected in Sicily, each with distinct biological characteristics, which were analyzed using the conventional two-step procedure (immunological detection followed by CE-SSCP molecular characterization after RNA isolation) or in a continuous process of ELISA/CE-SSCP or dot-blot/CE-SSCP starting from infected plant material. The combined method is simple, highly sensitive and reproducible, thus allowing the processing of numerous field samples for a variety of epidemiological needs. The sequential processing of an ELISA or dot-blot/ELISA followed by CE-SSCP is expected to allow the rapid detection of recent CTV infections along with the simultaneous characterization of the genetic diversity and structure of the population of newly invading CTV. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Single-nucleotide polymorphism typing analysis for molecular subtyping ofSalmonellaTennessee isolates associated with the 2007 nationwide peanut butter outbreak in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hee-Jin; Cho, Seongbeom; Boxrud, David; Rankin, Shelly; Downe, Francis; Lovchik, Judith; Gibson, Jim; Erdman, Matt; Saeed, A Mahdi

    2017-01-01

    In 2007, a nationwide Salmonella Tennessee outbreak occurred via contaminated peanut butter. Here, we developed a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-typing method for S . Tennessee to determine the clonal subtypes of S . Tennessee that were associated with the peanut butter outbreak. One seventy-six S . Tennessee isolates from various sources, including humans, animals, food, and the environment, were analyzed by using the SNP technique. Eighty-four representative SNP markers were selected by comparing the sequences of three representative S . Tennessee strains with different multi-locus sequence typing and variable number tandem repeats from our collection. The set of eighty-four SNP markers showed 100% typeability for the 176 strains, with the nucleotide diversity ranging from 0.011 to 0.107 (mean = 0.049 ± 0.018, median = 0.044) for each marker. Among the four clades and nine subtypes generated by the SNP typing, subtype 1, which comprised 142 S . Tennessee strains, was the most predominant. The dominance of single-strain clones in subtype 1 revealed that S . Tennessee is highly clonal regardless of outbreak-association, source, or period of isolation, suggesting the presence of an S . Tennessee strain prototype. Notably, a minimum 18 SNP set was able to determine clonal S . Tennessee strains with similar discrimination power, potentially allowing more rapid and economic strain genotyping for both outbreaks and sporadic cases. The SNP-typing method described here might aid the investigation of the epidemiology and microevolution of pathogenic bacteria by discriminating between outbreak-related and sporadic clinical cases. In addition, this approach enables us to understand the population structure of the bacterial subtypes involved in the outbreak.

  17. A single mask process for the realization of fully-isolated, dual-height MEMS metallic structures separated by narrow gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Kim, Minsoo; Allen, Mark G.

    2018-02-01

    Multi-height metallic structures are of importance for various MEMS applications, including master molds for creating 3D structures by nanoimprint lithography, or realizing vertically displaced electrodes for out-of-plane electrostatic actuators. Normally these types of multi-height structures require a multi-mask process with increased fabrication complexity. In this work, a fabrication technology is presented in which fully-isolated, dual-height MEMS metallic structures separated by narrow gaps can be realized using a self-aligned, single-mask process. The main scheme of this proposed process is through-mold electrodeposition, where two photoresist mold fabrication steps and two electrodeposition steps are sequentially implemented to define the thinner and thicker structures in the dual-height configuration. The process relies on two self-aligned steps enabled by the electrodeposited thinner structures: a wet-etching of the seed layer utilizing the thinner structure as an etch-mask to electrically isolate the thinner and the thicker structures, and a backside UV lithography utilizing the thinner structure as a lithographic mask to create a high-aspect-ratio mold for the thicker structure through-mold electrodeposition. The latter step requires the metallic structures to be fabricated on a transparent substrate. Test structures with differences in aspect ratio are demonstrated to showcase the capability of the process.

  18. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Regulator-Encoding Genes Have an Additive Effect on Virulence Gene Expression in a Vibrio cholerae Clinical Isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carignan, Bailey M; Brumfield, Kyle D; Son, Mike S

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is the etiological agent of the infectious disease cholera, which is characterized by vomiting and severe watery diarrhea. Recently, V. cholerae clinical isolates have demonstrated increased virulence capabilities, causing more severe symptoms with a much higher rate of disease progression than previously observed. We have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four virulence-regulatory genes (hapR, hns, luxO, and vieA) of a hypervirulent V. cholerae clinical isolate, MQ1795. Herein, all SNPs and SNP combinations of interest were introduced into the prototypical El Tor reference strain N16961, and the effects on the production of numerous virulence-related factors, including cholera toxin (CT), the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), and ToxT, were analyzed. Our data show that triple-SNP (hapR hns luxO and hns luxO vieA) and quadruple-SNP combinations produced the greatest increases in CT, TCP, and ToxT production. The hns and hns luxO SNP combinations were sufficient for increased TCP and ToxT production. Notably, the hns luxO vieA triple-SNP combination strain produced TCP and ToxT levels similar to those of MQ1795. Certain SNP combinations (hapR and hapR vieA) had the opposite effect on CT, TCP, and ToxT expression. Interestingly, the hns vieA double-SNP combination strain increased TCP production while decreasing CT production. Our findings suggest that SNPs identified in the four regulatory genes, in various combinations, are associated with increased virulence capabilities observed in V. cholerae clinical isolates. These studies provide insight into the evolution of highly virulent strains. IMPORTANCE Cholera, an infectious disease of the small intestine caused by the aquatic bacterium Vibrio cholerae, often results in vomiting and acute watery diarrhea. If left untreated or if the response is too slow, the symptoms can quickly lead to extreme dehydration and ultimately death of the patient. Recent anecdotal evidence of cholera

  19. Simultaneous isolation of emm89-type Streptococcus pyogenes strains with a wild-type or mutated covS gene from a single streptococcal toxic shock syndrome patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuno, Katsuaki; Okada, Ryo; Zhang, Yan; Isaka, Masanori; Tatsuno, Ichiro; Shibata, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tadao

    2014-04-01

    Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is a re-emerging infectious disease in many developed countries. Recent studies have suggested that mutations in CovRS, a two-component regulatory system in Streptococcus pyogenes, play important roles in the pathogenesis of STSS. However, in vivo evidence of the significance of CovRS in human infections has not been fully demonstrated. We investigated five S. pyogenes strains isolated simultaneously from the pharynx, sputum, knee joint, cerebrospinal fluid and blood of a single STSS patient. All were emm89-type strains, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis revealed that the strains of pharynx and blood were isogenic. The growth rates of the strains from pharynx and sputum were faster than those of the other strains. Protein profiles of the culture supernatants of strains from the pharynx and sputum were also different from those of the other strains. Sequence analyses revealed that strains from the knee joint, cerebrospinal fluid and blood contained a single nucleotide difference in the covS coding region, resulting in one amino acid change, compared with the other strains. Introduction of a plasmid containing the covS gene from the pharynx strain to the blood strain increased the production of SpeB protein. This suggests that the one amino acid alteration in CovS was relevant to pathogenesis. This report supports the idea that mutated CovS plays important roles in vivo in the dissemination of S. pyogenes from the upper respiratory tract of human to aseptic tissues such as blood and cerebrospinal fluid.

  20. Quantifying the effect of water activity and storage temperature on single spore lag times of three moulds isolated from spoiled bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnas, Stéphane; Gougouli, Maria; Onno, Bernard; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2017-01-02

    The inhibitory effect of water activity (a w ) and storage temperature on single spore lag times of Aspergillus niger, Eurotium repens (Aspergillus pseudoglaucus) and Penicillium corylophilum strains isolated from spoiled bakery products, was quantified. A full factorial design was set up for each strain. Data were collected at levels of a w varying from 0.80 to 0.98 and temperature from 15 to 35°C. Experiments were performed on malt agar, at pH5.5. When growth was observed, ca 20 individual growth kinetics per condition were recorded up to 35days. Radius of the colony vs time was then fitted with the Buchanan primary model. For each experimental condition, a lag time variability was observed, it was characterized by its mean, standard deviation (sd) and 5 th percentile, after a Normal distribution fit. As the environmental conditions became stressful (e.g. storage temperature and a w lower), mean and sd of single spore lag time distribution increased, indicating longer lag times and higher variability. The relationship between mean and sd followed a monotonous but not linear pattern, identical whatever the species. Next, secondary models were deployed to estimate the cardinal values (minimal, optimal and maximal temperatures, minimal water activity where no growth is observed anymore) for the three species. That enabled to confirm the observation made based on raw data analysis: concerning the temperature effect, A. niger behaviour was significantly different from E. repens and P. corylophilum: T opt of 37.4°C (standard deviation 1.4°C) instead of 27.1°C (1.4°C) and 25.2°C (1.2°C), respectively. Concerning the a w effect, from the three mould species, E. repens was the species able to grow at the lowest a w (aw min estimated to 0.74 (0.02)). Finally, results obtained with single spores were compared to findings from a previous study carried out at the population level (Dagnas et al., 2014). For short lag times (≤5days), there was no difference between lag

  1. Magnetic Material Assessment of a Novel Ultra-High Step-Up Converter with Single Semiconductor Switch and Galvanic Isolation for Fuel-Cell Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel step-up converter is proposed, which has the particular features of single semiconductor switch, ultra-high conversion ratio, galvanic isolation, and easy control. Therefore, the proposed converter is suitable for the applications of fuel-cell power system. Coupled inductors and switched capacitors are incorporated in the converter to obtain an ultra-high voltage ratio that is much higher than that of a conventional high step-up converter. Even if the turns ratio of coupled inductor and duty ratio are only to be 1 and 0.5, respectively, the converter can readily achieve a voltage gain of up to 18. Owing to this outstanding performance, it can also be applied to any other low voltage source for voltage boosting. In the power stage, only one active switch is used to handle the converter operation. In addition, the leakage energy of the two couple inductors can be totally recycled without any snubber, which simplifies the control mechanism and improves the conversion efficiency. Magnetic material dominates the conversion performance of the converter. Different types of iron cores are discussed for the possibility to serve as a coupled inductor. A 200 W prototype with 400 V output voltage is built to validate the proposed converter. In measurement, it indicates that the highest efficiency can be up to 94%.

  2. A Polymer Encapsulation Strategy to Synthesize Porous Nitrogen-Doped Carbon-Nanosphere-Supported Metal Isolated-Single-Atomic-Site Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Aijuan; Chen, Wenxing; Zhang, Shaolong; Zhang, Maolin; Han, Yunhu; Zhang, Jian; Ji, Shufang; Zheng, Lirong; Wang, Yu; Gu, Lin; Chen, Chen; Peng, Qing; Wang, Dingsheng; Li, Yadong

    2018-03-06

    A novel polymer encapsulation strategy to synthesize metal isolated-single-atomic-site (ISAS) catalysts supported by porous nitrogen-doped carbon nanospheres is reported. First, metal precursors are encapsulated in situ by polymers through polymerization; then, metal ISASs are created within the polymer-derived p-CN nanospheres by controlled pyrolysis at high temperature (200-900 °C). Transmission electron microscopy and N 2 sorption results reveal this material to exhibit a nanospheric morphology, a high surface area (≈380 m 2 g -1 ), and a porous structure (with micropores and mesopores). Characterization by aberration-corrected high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure confirms the metal to be present as metal ISASs. This methodology is applicable to both noble and nonprecious metals (M-ISAS/p-CN, M = Co, Ni, Cu, Mn, Pd, etc.). In particular, the Co-ISAS/p-CN nanospheres obtained using this method show comparable (E 1/2 = 0.838 V) electrochemical oxygen reduction activity to commercial Pt/C with 20 wt% Pt loading (E 1/2 = 0.834 V) in alkaline media, superior methanol tolerance, and outstanding stability, even after 5000 cycles. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Sequential introduction of single room isolation and hand hygiene campaign in the control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Vincent C C; Tai, Josepha W M; Chan, W M; Lau, Eric H Y; Chan, Jasper F W; To, Kelvin K W; Li, Iris W S; Ho, P L; Yuen, K Y

    2010-09-07

    After renovation of the adult intensive care unit (ICU) with installation of ten single rooms, an enhanced infection control program was conducted to control the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in our hospital. Since the ICU renovation, all patients colonized or infected with MRSA were nursed in single rooms with contact precautions. The incidence of MRSA infection in the ICU was monitored during 3 different phases: the baseline period (phase 1); after ICU renovation (phase 2) and after implementation of a hand hygiene campaign with alcohol-based hand rub (phase 3). Patients infected with extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species were chosen as controls because they were managed in open cubicles with standard precautions. Without a major change in bed occupancy rate, nursing workforce, or the protocol of environmental cleansing throughout the study period, a stepwise reduction in ICU onset nonbacteraemic MRSA infection was observed: from 3.54 (phase 1) to 2.26 (phase 2, p = 0.042) and 1.02 (phase 3, p = 0.006) per 1000-patient-days. ICU onset bacteraemic MRSA infection was significantly reduced from 1.94 (phase 1) to 0.9 (phase 2, p = 0.005) and 0.28 (phase 3, p = 0.021) per 1000-patient-days. Infection due to ESBL-producing organisms did not show a corresponding reduction. The usage density of broad-spectrum antibiotics and fluoroquinolones increased from phase 1 to 3. However a significant trend improvement of ICU onset MRSA infection by segmented regression analysis can only be demonstrated when comparison was made before and after the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic. This suggests that the deaths of fellow healthcare workers from an occupational acquired infection had an overwhelming effect on their compliance with infection control measures. Provision of single room isolation facilities and promotion of hand hygiene practice are important. However compliance with

  4. Divergence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes could be driven by the host: diversity of Borrelia strains isolated from ticks feeding on a single bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The controversy surrounding the potential impact of birds in spirochete transmission dynamics and their capacity to serve as a reservoir has existed for a long time. The majority of analyzed bird species are able to infect larval ticks with Borrelia. Dispersal of infected ticks due to bird migration is a key to the establishment of new foci of Lyme borreliosis. The dynamics of infection in birds supports the mixing of different species, the horizontal exchange of genetic information, and appearance of recombinant genotypes. Methods Four Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains were cultured from Ixodes minor larvae and four strains were isolated from Ixodes minor nymphs collected from a single Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus). A multilocus sequence analysis that included 16S rRNA, a 5S-23S intergenic spacer region, a 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer, flagellin, p66, and ospC separated 8 strains into 3 distinct groups. Additional multilocus sequence typing of 8 housekeeping genes, clpA, clpX, nifS, pepX, pyrG, recG, rplB, and uvrA was used to resolve the taxonomic status of bird-associated strains. Results Results of analysis of 14 genes confirmed that the level of divergence among strains is significantly higher than what would be expected for strains within a single species. The presence of cross-species recombination was revealed: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto housekeeping gene nifS was incorporated into homologous locus of strain, previously assigned to B. americana. Conclusions Genetically diverse Borrelia strains are often found within the same tick or same vertebrate host, presenting a wide opportunity for genetic exchange. We report the cross-species recombination that led to incorporation of a housekeeping gene from the B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strain into a homologous locus of another bird-associated strain. Our results support the hypothesis that recombination maintains a majority of sequence polymorphism within Borrelia

  5. Complete Genome Sequences of Eight Helicobacter pylori Strains with Different Virulence Factor Genotypes and Methylation Profiles, Isolated from Patients with Diverse Gastrointestinal Diseases on Okinawa Island, Japan, Determined Using PacBio Single-Molecule Real-Time Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroma, Akino; Teruya, Kuniko; Shimoji, Makiko; Nakano, Kazuma; Juan, Ayaka; Tamotsu, Hinako; Terabayashi, Yasunobu; Aoyama, Misako; Teruya, Morimi; Suzuki, Rumiko; Matsuda, Miyuki; Sekine, Akihiro; Kinjo, Nagisa; Kinjo, Fukunori; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Hirano, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequences of eight Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from patients with gastrointestinal diseases in Okinawa, Japan. Whole-genome sequencing and DNA methylation detection were performed using the PacBio platform. De novo assembly determined a single, complete contig for each strain. Furthermore, methylation analysis identified virulence factor genotype-dependent motifs. PMID:24744331

  6. Stimulation of Na+-alanine cotransport activates a voltage-dependent conductance in single proximal tubule cells isolated from frog kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, L; Hunter, M

    1999-01-01

    The swelling induced by Na+-alanine cotransport in proximal tubule cells of the frog kidney is followed by regulatory volume decrease (RVD). This RVD is inhibited by gadolinium (Gd3+), an inhibitor of stretch-activated channels, but is independent of extracellular Ca2+. In this study, the whole cell patch clamp technique was utilized to examine the effect of Na+-alanine cotransport on two previously identified volume- and Gd3+-sensitive conductances. One conductance is voltage dependent and anion selective (GVD) whilst the other is voltage independent and cation selective (GVI). Addition of 5 mM L-alanine to the bathing solution increased the whole cell conductance and gave a positive (depolarizing) shift in the reversal potential (Vrev, equivalent to the membrane potential in current-clamped cells) consistent with activation of Na+-alanine cotransport. Vrev shifted from -36 ± 4·9 to +12·9 ± 4·2 mV (n= 15). In the presence of alanine, the total whole cell conductance had several components including the cotransporter conductance and GVD and GVI. These conductances were separated using Gd3+, which inhibits both GVD and GVI, and the time dependency of GVD. Of these two volume-sensitive conductances, L-alanine elicited a specific increase in GVD, whereas GVI was unaffected. The L-alanine-induced activation of GVD was significantly reduced when cells were incubated in a hypertonic bathing solution. In summary, in single proximal tubule cells isolated from frog kidney, on stimulation of Na+-alanine cotransport GVD is activated, while GVI is unaffected. Taken with other evidence, this suggests that GVD is activated by cell swelling, consequent upon alanine entry, and may play a role as an anion efflux pathway during alanine-induced volume regulation. PMID:10226159

  7. Design and Optimization of an Efficient (96.1% and Compact (2 kW/dm3 Bidirectional Isolated Single-Phase Dual Active Bridge AC-DC Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Everts

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing attention on plug-in electric vehicles, and the associated high-performance demands, have initiated a development trend towards highly efficient and compact on-board battery chargers. These isolated ac-dc converters are most commonly realized using two conversion stages, combining a non-isolated power factor correction (PFC rectifier with an isolated dc-dc converter.This, however, involves two loss stages and a relatively high component count, limiting the achievable efficiency and power density and resulting in high costs. In this paper, a single-stage converter approach is analyzed to realize a single-phase ac-dc converter, combining all functionalities into one conversion stage and thus enabling a cost-effective efficiency and power density increase. The converter topology consists of a quasi-lossless synchronous rectifier followed by an isolated dual active bridge (DAB dc-dc converter, putting a small filter capacitor in between. To show the performance potential of this bidirectional, isolated ac-dc converter, a comprehensive design procedure and multi-objective optimization with respect to efficiency and power density is presented, using detailed loss and volume models. The models and procedures are verified by a 3.7kW hardware demonstrator, interfacing a 400Vdc-bus with the single-phase 230V,50Hz utility grid. Measurement results indicate a state-of-the-art efficiency of 96.1% and power density of 2 kW/dm3, confirming the competitiveness of the investigated single-stage DAB ac-dc converter.

  8. Orthogonal Simulation Experiment for Flow Characteristics of Ore in Ore Drawing and Influencing Factors in a Single Funnel Under a Flexible Isolation Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingfa; Zhao, Fuyu; Chen, Qinglin; Wang, Yuding; Zhong, Yu; Niu, Wenjing

    2017-12-01

    A study on the flow characteristics of ore and factors that influence these characteristics is important to master ore flow laws. An orthogonal ore-drawing numerical model was established and the flow characteristics were explored. A weight matrix was obtained and the effect of the factors was determined. It was found that (1) the entire isolation-layer interface presents a Gaussian curve morphology and marked particles in each layer show a funnel morphology; (2) the drawing amount, Q, and the isolation layer half-width, W, are correlated positively with the fall depth, H, of the isolation layer; (3) factors that affect the characteristics sequentially include the particle friction coefficient, the interface friction coefficient, the isolation layer thickness, and the particle radius, and (4) the optimal combination is an isolation layer thickness of 0.005 m, an interface friction coefficient of 0.8, a particle friction coefficient of 0.2, and a particle radius of 0.007 m.

  9. Investigation of fimH Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (C640T and T591A in Uropathogenic E. coli Isolated from Patients with Urinary Tract Infections

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    Razieh Molaie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections are one of the most frequent health problems and Uropathogenic Escherichia coli is the major pathogen resulting UTIs. The severity of UTIs is caused by the expression of a large range of virulence factors.In this study, we evaluated the allelic frequency fimH gene, in UPECs isolated from patients with UTIs. This study also aimed to determine the roles of C640T and T591A SNPs of the fimH gene in the ability of UPEC to cause UTIs. Material and Methods: A total of 140 UPEC strains isolated from patients with UTIs were screened by PCR-RFLP for determining the prevalence of the C640T and T591A SNPs of fimH gene in UPEC strains isolated from patients referred to educational hospitals of Shahrekord. The genotyping of C640T and T591A SNPs was performed using Bme1390I and BseNI restriction enzymes, respectively through PCR-RFLP method. Results: There were no meaningful association between C640T and T591A SNPs of fimH gene and the ability of UPEC fimH variants to cause UTIs in the studied E. coli isolates. Conclusion: FimH is one of the most major virulence factors among UPECs which is confirmed in most E. coli isolates. Further studies are required to determine the association between different fimH gene SNPs of isolated UPECs from UTIs patients and the ability of UPEC fimH variants to cause UTIs.

  10. Growing vertical ZnO nanorod arrays within graphite: efficient isolation of large size and high quality single-layer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ling; E, Yifeng; Fan, Louzhen; Yang, Shihe

    2013-07-18

    We report a unique strategy for efficiently exfoliating large size and high quality single-layer graphene directly from graphite into DMF dispersions by growing ZnO nanorod arrays between the graphene layers in graphite.

  11. The 2016 revised World Health Organization definition of 'myelodysplastic syndrome with isolated del(5q)'; prognostic implications of single versus double cytogenetic abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Mark; Patnaik, Mrinal M; Hanson, Curtis A; Litzow, Mark R; Al-Kali, Aref; Ketterling, Rhett P; Tefferi, Ayalew; Gangat, Naseema

    2017-07-01

    The definition of the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) subtype 'MDS with isolated del(5q)' was expanded to include cases with one additional non-chromosome 7 based cytogenetic abnormality in the 2016 revised World Health Organization classification. This study applied the revised definition to a large primary MDS cohort, and evaluated the prognostic impact of the additional cytogenetic abnormality. Seventy-two of 1067 patients (7%) met the 'MDS with isolated del(5q)' criteria, 11 (1%) of whom had an additional cytogenetic abnormality. There was no survival difference between patients in whom del(5q) occurred alone, compared to those with one additional cytogenetic abnormality (P = 0·52). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Six-Year Retrospective Review of Hospital Data on Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Skin Infections from a Single Institution in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Stefanaki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus isolated from Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI to various antibiotics. Material and Methods: All culture-positive results for S. aureus from swabs taken from patients presenting at one Greek hospital with a skin infection between the years 2010–2015 were examined retrospectively. Bacterial cultures, identification of S. aureus and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed using the disk diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines and European Committee on Antimicrobial testing (EUCAST breakpoints. EUCAST breakpoints were applied if no CLSI were available. Results: Of 2069 S. aureus isolates identified, 1845 (88% were resistant to one or more antibiotics. The highest resistance was observed for benzylpenicillin (71.9%, followed by erythromycin (34.3%. Resistant strains to cefoxitin defined as MRSA (methicillin-resistant S. aureus represented 21% of total isolates. Interestingly, resistance to fusidic acid was 22.9% and to mupirocin as high as 12.7%. Low rates were observed for minocycline, rifampicin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT. Resistance to antibiotics remained relatively stable throughout the six-year period, with the exception of cefoxitin, fusidic acid and SXT. A high percentage of MRSA strains were resistant to erythromycin (60%, fusidic acid (46%, clindamycin (38% and tetracycline (35.5%. Conclusions: Special attention is required in prescribing appropriate antibiotic therapeutic regimens, particularly for MRSA. These data on the susceptibility of S. aureus may be useful for guiding antibiotic treatment.

  13. Impact of patient-prosthesis mismatch following aortic valve replacement on short-term survival: a retrospective single center analysis of 632 consecutive patients with isolated stented biological aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Grischa; Ogbamicael, Selam Abraham; Jochens, Arne; Frank, Derk; Lutter, Georg; Cremer, Jochen; Petzina, Rainer

    2014-09-01

    The impact of patient-prosthesis mismatch (PPM) after aortic valve replacement (AVR) on short-term and long-term mortality remains controversial. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence and severity of PPM and its impact on short-term survival in a large cohort of patients treated with isolated stented biological AVR in a single institution. We analyzed retrospectively data of 632 consecutive patients with aortic stenosis undergoing isolated stented biological AVR between January 2007 and February 2012 at our institution. PPM was defined as an indexed effective orifice area ≤ 0.85 cm(2)/m(2). Statistical analyses were performed to identify influencing variables on valve size implanted. Of the 632 patients investigated, 46% were females and mean age was 71.9 ± 10.4 years. PPM was observed in 93.8% (593 of 632 patients). In 71% of the patients, moderate (0.65-0.85 cm(2)/m(2)) PPM was present and in 22.8% severe (body mass index, and body surface area as simultaneous predictors of the valve size implanted (R(2)= 0.39). PPM had no discernable impact on short-term survival, although it was present in 93.8% of our patients following isolated stented biological AVR. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Nitric oxide augments single Ca(2+) channel currents via cGMP-dependent protein kinase in Kenyon cells isolated from the mushroom body of the cricket brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosakai, Kumiko; Tsujiuchi, Yuuki; Yoshino, Masami

    2015-07-01

    Behavioral and pharmacological studies in insects have suggested that the nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic GMP (cGMP) signaling pathway is involved in the formation of long-term memory (LTM) associated with olfactory learning. However, the target molecules of NO and the downstream signaling pathway are still not known. In this study, we investigated the action of NO on single voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels in the intrinsic neurons known as Kenyon cells within the mushroom body of the cricket brain, using the cell-attached configuration of the patch-clamp technique. Application of the NO donor S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) increased the open probability (NPO) of single Ca(2+) channel currents. This GSNO-induced increase was blocked by ODQ, a soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) inhibitor, suggesting that the NO generated by GSNO acts via sGC to raise cGMP levels. The membrane-permeable cGMP analog 8-Bro-cGMP also increased the NPO of single Ca(2+) channel currents. Pretreatment of cells with KT5823, a protein kinase G blocker, abolished the excitatory effect of GSNO. These results suggest that NO augments the activity of single Ca(2+) channels via the cGMP/PKG signaling pathway. To gain insight into the physiological role of NO, we examined the effect of GSNO on action potentials of Kenyon cells under current-clamp conditions. Application of GSNO increased the frequency of action potentials elicited by depolarizing current injections, indicating that NO acts as a modulator resulting in a stimulatory signal in Kenyon cells. We discuss the increased Ca(2+) influx through these Ca(2+) channels via the NO/cGMP signaling cascade in relation to the formation of olfactory LTM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Large Eddy Simulation of Air Escape through a Hospital Isolation Room Single Hinged Doorway--Validation by Using Tracer Gases and Simulated Smoke Videos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka E Saarinen

    Full Text Available The use of hospital isolation rooms has increased considerably in recent years due to the worldwide outbreaks of various emerging infectious diseases. However, the passage of staff through isolation room doors is suspected to be a cause of containment failure, especially in case of hinged doors. It is therefore important to minimize inadvertent contaminant airflow leakage across the doorway during such movements. To this end, it is essential to investigate the behavior of such airflows, especially the overall volume of air that can potentially leak across the doorway during door-opening and human passage. Experimental measurements using full-scale mock-ups are expensive and labour intensive. A useful alternative approach is the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD modelling using a time-resolved Large Eddy Simulation (LES method. In this study simulated air flow patterns are qualitatively compared with experimental ones, and the simulated total volume of air that escapes is compared with the experimentally measured volume. It is shown that the LES method is able to reproduce, at room scale, the complex transient airflows generated during door-opening/closing motions and the passage of a human figure through the doorway between two rooms. This was a basic test case that was performed in an isothermal environment without ventilation. However, the advantage of the CFD approach is that the addition of ventilation airflows and a temperature difference between the rooms is, in principle, a relatively simple task. A standard method to observe flow structures is dosing smoke into the flow. In this paper we introduce graphical methods to simulate smoke experiments by LES, making it very easy to compare the CFD simulation to the experiments. The results demonstrate that the transient CFD simulation is a promising tool to compare different isolation room scenarios without the need to construct full-scale experimental models. The CFD model is

  16. Four Weeks in a Single-Leg Weight-Bearing Hip Spica Cast is Sufficient Treatment for Isolated Femoral Shaft Fractures in Children Aged 1 to 3 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Sami; Sobh, Ali; Legakis, Julie E; Thomas, Ronald; Buhler, Kelsey; Jones, Eric T

    2016-01-01

    Hip spica casting regimens for the treatment of femoral shaft fractures in a pediatric population aged 1 to 3 years vary. Patient charts were reviewed to determine if there are any clinical differences between 3 and 4 weeks in an ambulatory single-leg hip spica (SLHS) cast versus 6 to 8 weeks in a standard double-leg, non-weight-bearing hip spica cast. The medical records of 109 patients with femoral shaft fractures treated with a hip spica casting from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2011 were examined. After exclusions, 94 patients were eligible for inclusion in the study. Patient records were assessed, noting age, weight, type of cast, time in cast, and complications. All casts were applied by senior pediatric orthopaedic surgeons at a single institution. Two groups were evaluated: 59 patients in the SLHS group and 35 in the double-leg hip spica group. The 2 groups were demographically similar with an average age of 2 years, 70.2% of patients were male, 45.7% were black, and 35.1% were white. The average time to cast removal was 4.1 weeks for the single-leg group and 5.3 weeks for the double-leg group (Pshaft fractures in patients less than 4 years old can be treated in a weight-bearing SLHS casts for approximately 4 weeks with fewer alignment and skin complications. Level III-clinical retrospective comparative study.

  17. Physiological functions at single-cell level of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from traditionally fermented cabbage in response to different pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewska, Magdalena A; Kocot, Aleksandra M; Łaniewska-Trokenheim, Łucja

    2015-04-20

    Changes in pH are significant environmental stresses that may be encountered by lactobacilli during fermentation processes or passage through the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we report the cell response of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from traditionally fermented cabbage subjected to acid/alkaline treatments at pH 2.5, 7.4 and 8.1, which represented pH conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. Among six isolates, four species of Lactobacillus plantarum and two of Lactobacillus brevis were identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The fluorescence-based strategy of combining carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) and propidium iodine (PI) into a dual-staining assay was used together with epifluorescence microscopy (EFM) and flow cytometry (FCM) for viability assessment. The results showed that the cells maintained esterase activity and membrane integrity at pH 8.1 and 7.4. There was also no loss of culturability as shown by plate counts. In contrast, the majority of 2.5 pH-treated cells had a low extent of esterase activity, and experienced membrane perturbation. For these samples, an extensive loss of culturability was demonstrated. Comparison of the results of an in situ assessment with that of the conventional culturing method has revealed that although part of the stressed population was unable to grow on the growth media, it was deemed viable using a CFDA/PI assay. However, there was no significant change in the cell morphology among pH-treated lactobacilli populations. These analyses are expected to be useful in understanding the cell response of Lactobacillus strains to pH stress and may facilitate future investigation into functional and industrial aspects of this response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A novel single-stranded RNA virus isolated from a phytopathogenic filamentous fungus, Rosellinia necatrix, with similarity to hypo-like viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui eZhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we report a biological and molecular characterization of a novel positive-sense RNA virus isolated from a field isolate (NW10 of a filamentous phytopathogenic fungus, the white root rot fungus that is designated as Rosellinia necatrix fusarivirus 1 (RnFV1. A recently developed technology using zinc ions allowed us to transfer RnFV1 to two mycelially incompatible Rosellinia necatrix strains. A biological comparison of the virus-free and -recipient isogenic fungal strains suggested that RnFV1 infects latently and thus has no potential as a virocontrol agent. The virus has an undivided positive-sense RNA genome of 6286 nucleotides excluding a poly (A tail. The genome possesses two non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs: a large ORF1 that encodes polypeptides with RNA replication functions and a smaller ORF2 that encodes polypeptides of unknown function. A lack of coat protein genes was suggested by the failure of virus particles from infected mycelia. No evidence was obtained by Northern analysis or classical 5'-RACE for the presence of subgenomic RNA for the downstream ORF. Sequence similarities were found in amino-acid sequence between RnFV1 putative proteins and counterparts of a previously reported mycovirus, Fusarium graminearum virus 1 (FgV1. Interestingly, several related sequences were detected by BLAST searches of independent transcriptome assembly databases one of which probably represents an entire virus genome. Phylogenetic analysis based on the conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase showed that RnFV1, FgV1, and these similar sequences are grouped in a cluster distinct from distantly related hypoviruses. It is proposed that a new taxonomic family termed Fusariviridae be created to include RnFV1and FgV1.

  19. Isolation and cloning of exendin precursor cDNAs from single samples of venom from the Mexican beaded lizard (Heloderma horridum) and the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianbao; Kwok, Hangfai; Ivanyi, Craig; Shaw, Chris

    2006-03-01

    Reptile venoms are complex cocktails of bioactive molecules, including peptides. While the drug discovery potential of most species remains unrealized, many are endangered and afforded protection under international treaties. In this study, we describe how potential clinically important bioactive peptides and their corresponding mRNAs can be structurally characterized from single, small samples of reptile venom. The potential type-2 diabetes therapeutics, exendin-3 and exendin-4, from the Mexican beaded lizard (Heloderma horridum) and the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum), respectively, have been characterized at both protein and nucleic acid levels to illustrate the efficacy of the technique and its contribution to biodiversity conservation.

  20. Single Beam Holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsuan; Ruterbusch, Paul H.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses how holography can be used as part of undergraduate physics laboratories. The authors propose a single beam technique of holography, which will reduce the recording scheme as well as relax the isolation requirements. (HM)

  1. Beat-to-Beat Variation in Periodicity of Local Calcium Releases Contributes to Intrinsic Variations of Spontaneous Cycle Length in Isolated Single Sinoatrial Node Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Monfredi

    Full Text Available Spontaneous, submembrane local Ca(2+ releases (LCRs generated by the sarcoplasmic reticulum in sinoatrial nodal cells, the cells of the primary cardiac pacemaker, activate inward Na(+/Ca(2+-exchange current to accelerate the diastolic depolarization rate, and therefore to impact on cycle length. Since LCRs are generated by Ca(2+ release channel (i.e. ryanodine receptor openings, they exhibit a degree of stochastic behavior, manifested as notable cycle-to-cycle variations in the time of their occurrence.The present study tested whether variation in LCR periodicity contributes to intrinsic (beat-to-beat cycle length variability in single sinoatrial nodal cells.We imaged single rabbit sinoatrial nodal cells using a 2D-camera to capture LCRs over the entire cell, and, in selected cells, simultaneously measured action potentials by perforated patch clamp.LCRs begin to occur on the descending part of the action potential-induced whole-cell Ca(2+ transient, at about the time of the maximum diastolic potential. Shortly after the maximum diastolic potential (mean 54±7.7 ms, n = 14, the ensemble of waxing LCR activity converts the decay of the global Ca(2+ transient into a rise, resulting in a late, whole-cell diastolic Ca(2+ elevation, accompanied by a notable acceleration in diastolic depolarization rate. On average, cells (n = 9 generate 13.2±3.7 LCRs per cycle (mean±SEM, varying in size (7.1±4.2 µm and duration (44.2±27.1 ms, with both size and duration being greater for later-occurring LCRs. While the timing of each LCR occurrence also varies, the LCR period (i.e. the time from the preceding Ca(2+ transient peak to an LCR's subsequent occurrence averaged for all LCRs in a given cycle closely predicts the time of occurrence of the next action potential, i.e. the cycle length.Intrinsic cycle length variability in single sinoatrial nodal cells is linked to beat-to-beat variations in the average period of individual LCRs each cycle.

  2. Sequence Analysis of IncA/C and IncI1 Plasmids Isolated from Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Newport Using Single-Molecule Real-Time Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guojie; Allard, Marc; Hoffmann, Maria; Muruvanda, Tim; Luo, Yan; Payne, Justin; Meng, Kevin; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick; Brown, Eric; Meng, Jianghong

    2018-04-05

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) plasmids play an important role in disseminating antimicrobial resistance genes. To elucidate the antimicrobial resistance gene compositions in A/C incompatibility complex (IncA/C) plasmids carried by animal-derived MDR Salmonella Newport, and to investigate the spread mechanism of IncA/C plasmids, this study characterizes the complete nucleotide sequences of IncA/C plasmids by comparative analysis. Complete nucleotide sequencing of plasmids and chromosomes of six MDR Salmonella Newport strains was performed using PacBio RSII. Open reading frames were assigned using prokaryotic genome annotation pipeline (PGAP). To understand genomic diversity and evolutionary relationships among Salmonella Newport IncA/C plasmids, we included three complete IncA/C plasmid sequences with similar backbones from Salmonella Newport and Escherichia coli: pSN254, pAM04528, and peH4H, and additional 200 draft chromosomes. With the exception of canine isolate CVM22462, which contained an additional IncI1 plasmid, each of the six MDR Salmonella Newport strains contained only the IncA/C plasmid. These IncA/C plasmids (including references) ranged in size from 80.1 (pCVM21538) to 176.5 kb (pSN254) and carried various resistance genes. Resistance genes floR, tetA, tetR, strA, strB, sul, and mer were identified in all IncA/C plasmids. Additionally, bla CMY-2 and sugE were present in all IncA/C plasmids, excepting pCVM21538. Plasmid pCVM22462 was capable of being transferred by conjugation. The IncI1 plasmid pCVM22462b in CVM22462 carried bla CMY-2 and sugE. Our data showed that MDR Salmonella Newport strains carrying similar IncA/C plasmids clustered together in the phylogenetic tree using chromosome sequences and the IncA/C plasmids from animal-derived Salmonella Newport contained diverse resistance genes. In the current study, we analyzed genomic diversities and phylogenetic relationships among MDR Salmonella Newport using complete plasmids and chromosome

  3. A single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP)-derived quantitative variable to monitor the virulence of a Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV) isolate during adaptation to the TC14 resistant wheat line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaunay, Agnes; Lacroix, Christelle; Morliere, Stephanie; Riault, Gerard; Chain, Florian; Trottet, Maxime; Jacquot, Emmanuel

    2010-09-01

    A standardized single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) procedure is proposed as an alternative to the time-consuming biological characterization of Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV) isolates. Using this procedure, six of 21 overlapping regions used to scan the viral genome gave patterns specific to '4E' (avirulent) or '4T' ('4E'-derived virulent) isolates. The calibration of samples and integration of SSCP patterns corresponding to the nucleotide region 1482-2023 allowed the estimation of P(T) values that reflect the proportions of a '4T'-specific band. Analysis of the biological (area under the pathogen progress curve) and molecular (P(T)) data suggested a positive linear relation between these variables. Moreover, sequence analysis of the nucleotide region 1482-2023 highlighted the presence of a nucleotide polymorphism (C/A(1835)) which can be considered as a candidate for virus-host interactions linked to the monitored virulence. According to these parameters, P(T) values associated with '4E'- and '4T'-derived populations show that: (i) long-term infection of a BYDV-PAV isolate on the 'TC14' resistant host leads to the fixation of virulent individuals in viral populations; and (ii) the introduction of susceptible hosts in successive 'TC14' infections results in the maintenance of low virulence of the populations. Thus, the presented study demonstrates that SSCP is a useful tool for monitoring viral populations during the host adaptation process. The described impact of host alternation provides new opportunities for the use of the 'TC14' resistance source in BYDV-resistant breeding programmes. This study is part of the global effort made by the scientific community to propose sustainable alternatives to the chemical control of this viral disease.

  4. Isolation, incubation, and parallel functional testing and identification by FISH of rare microbial single-copy cells from multi-species mixtures using the combination of chemistrode and stochastic confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weishan; Kim, Hyun Jung; Lucchetta, Elena M; Du, Wenbin; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2009-08-07

    This paper illustrates a plug-based microfluidic approach combining the technique of the chemistrode and the principle of stochastic confinement, which can be used to i) starting from a mixture of cells, stochastically isolate single cells into plugs, ii) incubate the plugs to grow clones of the individual cells without competition among different clones, iii) split the plugs into arrays of identical daughter plugs, where each plug contained clones of the original cell, and iv) analyze each array by an independent technique, including cellulase assays, cultivation, cryo-preservation, Gram staining, and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH). Functionally, this approach is equivalent to simultaneously assaying the clonal daughter cells by multiple killing and non-killing methods. A new protocol for single-cell FISH, a killing method, was developed to identify isolated cells of Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus in one array of daughter plugs using a 16S rRNA probe, Pc196. At the same time, live copies of P. curdlanolyticus in another array were obtained for cultivation. Among technical advances, this paper reports a chemistrode that enables sampling of nanoliter volumes directly from environmental specimens, such as soil slurries. In addition, a method for analyzing plugs is described: an array of droplets is deposited on the surface, and individual plugs are injected into the droplets of the surface array to induce a reaction and enable microscopy without distortions associated with curvature of plugs. The overall approach is attractive for identifying rare, slow growing microorganisms and would complement current methods to cultivate unculturable microbes from environmental samples.

  5. Brine and Gas Flow Patterns Between Excavated Areas and Disturbed Rock Zone in the 1996 Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for a Single Drilling Intrusion that Penetrates Repository and Castile Brine Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ECONOMY,KATHLEEN M.; HELTON,JON CRAIG; VAUGHN,PALMER

    1999-10-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is located in southeastern New Mexico, is being developed for the geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Waste disposal will take place in panels excavated in a bedded salt formation approximately 2000 ft (610 m) below the land surface. The BRAGFLO computer program which solves a system of nonlinear partial differential equations for two-phase flow, was used to investigate brine and gas flow patterns in the vicinity of the repository for the 1996 WIPP performance assessment (PA). The present study examines the implications of modeling assumptions used in conjunction with BRAGFLO in the 1996 WIPP PA that affect brine and gas flow patterns involving two waste regions in the repository (i.e., a single waste panel and the remaining nine waste panels), a disturbed rock zone (DRZ) that lies just above and below these two regions, and a borehole that penetrates the single waste panel and a brine pocket below this panel. The two waste regions are separated by a panel closure. The following insights were obtained from this study. First, the impediment to flow between the two waste regions provided by the panel closure model is reduced due to the permeable and areally extensive nature of the DRZ adopted in the 1996 WIPP PA, which results in the DRZ becoming an effective pathway for gas and brine movement around the panel closures and thus between the two waste regions. Brine and gas flow between the two waste regions via the DRZ causes pressures between the two to equilibrate rapidly, with the result that processes in the intruded waste panel are not isolated from the rest of the repository. Second, the connection between intruded and unintruded waste panels provided by the DRZ increases the time required for repository pressures to equilibrate with the overlying and/or underlying units subsequent to a drilling intrusion. Third, the large and areally extensive DRZ void volumes is a

  6. Isolated galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, Maret

    1990-01-01

    To test for the possible presence of really isolated galaxies, which form a randomly distributed population in voids, we compare the distribution of most isolated galaxies in an observed sample with distributions of the same number of random points using the nearest neighbour test. The results show that the random population of really isolated galaxies does not exist - even the most isolated galaxies are connected with systems of galaxies, forming their outlying parts. (author)

  7. Isolated electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekstrom, Ph.; Winwland, D.

    1981-08-01

    The problem of electron g-factor measurement by means of an isolated electron is considered. The technique of the experiment performed at the Washington university is described. A single electron is enclosed in a homogeneous magnetic field which is superimposed by an electric field. The electric field configuration represents a Penning trap. The trap together with the enclosed electron forms an ''atom'' of macroscopic dimensions. The electron trajectory in the trap consists of three components. The electron quickly rotates over small loops (cyclotron motion), the centre of these loops slowly moves over a large circle (magistron motion). Meanwhile the electron oscillates back and forth along the trap axis. The electron motion in the atom field is quantized and the transitions between various types of motions correspond to definite radiation frequencies. At the anomal frequency the transition with spin flip is registered and the electron g-factor is measured. The value g=2.0023193044 is obtained with a probable error less than a unit of the last decimal digit.

  8. Single step purification and characterization of a thermostable and calcium independent α-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquifaciens TSWK1-1 isolated from Tulsi Shyam hot spring reservoir, Gujarat (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikani, B A; Singh, S P

    2011-05-01

    A thermophilic bacteria, identified and designated as Bacillus amyloliquifaciens TSWK1-1 (16S rRNA gene sequence, GenBank: GQ121033), was isolated from a hot water reservoir located at Tulsi Shyam, Gujarat, India. The optimum temperature and pH for amylase production were 50 °C and 7.0, respectively. The crude enzyme was partially purified by ammonium sulphate fractionation followed by dialysis. However, single step purification was achieved on Phenyl Sepharose 6FF affinity column with 45.71% yield, 8000 U/mg specific activity and 13.33 fold purification. The molecular weight of the purified α-amylase was 43 kD. The optimal temperature and pH for amylase activity were 70 °C and 7.0, respectively; however, the purified amylase was stable at broad temperature and pH range. The purified amylase did not require Ca(++) and K(+); however, it was moderately affected by Mg(++) and Cu(++) and significantly inhibited by Na(+) and Fe(++). The amylase was highly thermostable and remained active for 24h at 60 °C, for 12h at 70 °C and up to 3h even at 90 °C. Other unique features of the enzyme were calcium independent nature and resistance against chemical denaturation by Urea and Guanidine-HCl. The data on the enzymatic stability at different levels of purity would add significantly to the knowledge of amylases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Pathogenic and genetic characterization of Algerian isolates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-two isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lentis were isolated from wilted lentil plants collected from different lentil growing areas in north-west Algeria. A pathogenicity test was performed for all isolates. Results indicated that the Fol isolates represent a single race but differ in their aggressiveness on the susceptible ...

  10. Microcystis extracts and single cells have differential impacts on the demography of cladocerans: a case study on Moina cf. micrura isolated from the Mediterranean coastal shallow lake (L'Albufera, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nandini, S.; Miracle, M. R.; Vicente, E.; Sarma, S. S. S.; Gulati, R. D.

    2017-01-01

    Cyanobacteria often have a deleterious effect on zooplankton. We hypothesized that the presence of either M. aeruginosa cells or microcystin extracts from M. aeruginosa would have a significant impact on the population growth rate, survivorship, and fecundity of Moina cf. micrura isolated from

  11. Urine bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli isolates exhibiting different resistance phenotypes/genotypes in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model simulating urine concentrations obtained after oral administration of a 400-milligram single dose of cefditoren-pivoxil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevillano, David; Aguilar, Lorenzo; Alou, Luis; Giménez, María-José; Torrico, Martha; González, Natalia; Cafini, Fabio; Relaño, María-Teresa; Coronel, Pilar; Prieto, José

    2008-03-01

    Activity of simulated cefditoren urinary concentrations was determined against seven Escherichia coli isolates. Bactericidal activity was obtained from 4 to 24 h against TEM-1 (penicillinase production/hyperproduction), TEM-34 (IRT-6), and TEM-116 (extended-spectrum beta-lactamase [ESBL]) and from 6 to 8 h against SHV/TEM-116 (ESBL) but never against SHV/TEM-1 (ESBL). Extension of bactericidal activity depended on the resistance genotype/phenotype tested.

  12. Porosity, single-phase permeability, and capillary pressure data from preliminary laboratory experiments on selected samples from Marker Bed 139 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 3 of 3: Appendices C, D, E, and F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, S.M.; Christian-Frear, T.

    1997-08-01

    This volume contains the mineralogy, porosity, and permeability results from the Marker Bed 139 anhydrite specimens evaluated by TerraTek, Inc. for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. This volume also documents the brine recipe used by RE/SPEC, Inc., the parameter package submitted to Performance Assessment based on all the data, and a memo on the mixed Brooks and Corey two-phase characteristic curves

  13. Porosity, single-phase permeability, and capillary pressure data from preliminary laboratory experiments on selected samples from Marker Bed 139 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 3 of 3: Appendices C, D, E, and F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, S.M.; Christian-Frear, T.

    1997-08-01

    This volume contains the mineralogy, porosity, and permeability results from the Marker Bed 139 anhydrite specimens evaluated by TerraTek, Inc. for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. This volume also documents the brine recipe used by RE/SPEC, Inc., the parameter package submitted to Performance Assessment based on all the data, and a memo on the mixed Brooks and Corey two-phase characteristic curves.

  14. Phylogeography of Burkholderia pseudomallei Isolates, Western Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Jay E; Gulvik, Christopher A; Elrod, Mindy G; Batra, Dhwani; Rowe, Lori A; Sheth, Mili; Hoffmaster, Alex R

    2017-07-01

    The bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei causes melioidosis, which is mainly associated with tropical areas. We analyzed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among genome sequences from isolates of B. pseudomallei that originated in the Western Hemisphere by comparing them with genome sequences of isolates that originated in the Eastern Hemisphere. Analysis indicated that isolates from the Western Hemisphere form a distinct clade, which supports the hypothesis that these isolates were derived from a constricted seeding event from Africa. Subclades have been resolved that are associated with specific regions within the Western Hemisphere and suggest that isolates might be correlated geographically with cases of melioidosis. One isolate associated with a former World War II prisoner of war was believed to represent illness 62 years after exposure in Southeast Asia. However, analysis suggested the isolate originated in Central or South America.

  15. Haematological indices in Trypanosoma brucei brucei (Federe isolate infected Nigerian donkeys (Equus asinus treated with homidium and isometamidium chloride of ciprofloxacin in broiler chickens after single intravenous and intraingluvial administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queen Nneka Oparah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of intramuscular administration of Homidium chloride (Novidium® and Isometamidium chloride (Sécuridium® in Nigerian donkeys (Equus asinus experimentally infected with T. b. brucei (Federe isolate was investigated. Changes in haematological and serum biochemical indices were evaluated using clinical haematology and biochemistry methods. Red blood cell (RBC count for the negative control group was significantly higher than for the positive control, Novidium® and Sécuridium®-treatment groups. Haemoglobin (Hb concentration significantly reduced in the infected untreated group compared with other groups. Packed cell volume (PCV was significantly different between negative and positive controls, and also between the infected untreated and treatment groups. There was significant reduction in platelet counts post-infection and post-treatment. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV increased significantly in the treatment groups while mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC significantly reduced only in the Sécuridium®-treatment group. Lymphocyte count for infected untreated was non-significantly higher than for the uninfected controls, but treatment with both trypanocides recorded further increases, which were higher compared with that of the uninfected group. Post infection and treatment, aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels increased significantly. There were non-significant differences in electrolyte ion concentrations across the groups except for chloride ion which recorded a significant reduction in the Novidium®-treatment group. This experiment revealed that Nigerian donkeys infected with T. brucei brucei (Federe isolate developed symptoms of trypanosomosis; anaemia, lymphocytosis and thrombocytopenia. Treatment with the trypanocides ameliorated effects of the infection, and results suggest that immunosuppression may not be a substantial clinical manifestation of T. brucei brucei (Federe isolate trypanosomosis in Nigerian

  16. Presence of Essential Hypertension or Diabetes Mellitus Is a Predictor of Intracranial Bleeding in Elderly Patients: A Study of 108 Patients with Isolated Thrombocytopenia from a Single Reference Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Kapoor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Thrombocytopenia poses a significant problem in the elderly. Not only are there varied causes, but it is also associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We carried out a study to learn the causes of isolated thrombocytopenia in elderly patients and to correlate the severity of thrombocytopenia and bleeding manifestations with various etiologic factors and comorbidities. METHODS: A total of 108 patients above 50 years of age presenting with isolated thrombocytopenia (platelet counts of <100x109/L with normal hemoglobin and total leukocyte counts were enrolled in the study. Detailed history and clinical examinations were carried out for each patient. Complete blood counts were analyzed by automated cell counter. Peripheral smears were examined in all cases. HbsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was done in all patients. Wherever clinically indicated, bone marrow aspiration biopsy and cytogenetic studies were done. RESULTS: Out of 108 patients, 102 (94.4% presented with bleeding tendencies. Twenty-nine (26.8% presented with serious (World Health Organization grade 3/4 bleedings. Major findings were immune thrombocytopenic purpura in 79 (73.1%, myelodysplastic syndrome in 7 (6.5%, drug-induced thrombocytopenia in 7 (6.5%, and connective tissue disorder in 4 (3.7% cases. Ten patients presented with intracranial bleedings. Upon logistic regression analysis, comorbidities in the form of essential hypertension and diabetes mellitus were significantly associated with occurrence of intracranial bleeding. There was no correlation of serious bleedings with platelet counts. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Isolated thrombocytopenia in the elderly is associated with significant morbidity. Diligent clinical and laboratory evaluation is required to elucidate the cause of thrombocytopenia in the elderly. Comorbidities in this population are associated with serious bleedings and not low platelet counts as is

  17. Microfluidics for single cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Pødenphant

    Isolation and manipulation of single cells have gained an increasing interest from researchers because of the heterogeneity of cells from the same cell culture. Single cell analysis can ensure a better understanding of differences between individual cells and potentially solve a variety of clinical...... problems. In this thesis lab on a chip systems for rare single cell analysis are investigated. The focus was to develop a commercial, disposable device for circulating tumour cell (CTC) analysis. Such a device must be able to separate rare cells from blood samples and subsequently capture the specific...... cells, and simultaneously be fabricated and operated at low costs and be user-friendly. These challenges were addressed through development of two microfluidic devices, one for rare cell isolation based on pinched flow fractionation (PFF) and one for single cell capture based on hydrodynamic trapping...

  18. Allographic Agraphia for Single letters

    OpenAIRE

    Menichelli, Alina; Machetta, Francesca; Zadini, Antonella; Semenza, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    The case is reported of a patient (PS) who, following acute encephalitis with residual occipito-temporal damage, showed a selective deficit in writing cursive letters in isolation, but no difficulty to write cursive-case words and non-words. Notably, he was able to recognize the same allographs he could not write and to produce both single letters and words in print. In addition to this selective single letter writing difficulty, the patient demonstrated an inability to correctly perform a se...

  19. Seismic isolation of nuclear power plants using sliding isolation bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish

    Nuclear power plants (NPP) are designed for earthquake shaking with very long return periods. Seismic isolation is a viable strategy to protect NPPs from extreme earthquake shaking because it filters a significant fraction of earthquake input energy. This study addresses the seismic isolation of NPPs using sliding bearings, with a focus on the single concave Friction Pendulum(TM) (FP) bearing. Friction at the sliding surface of an FP bearing changes continuously during an earthquake as a function of sliding velocity, axial pressure and temperature at the sliding surface. The temperature at the sliding surface, in turn, is a function of the histories of coefficient of friction, sliding velocity and axial pressure, and the travel path of the slider. A simple model to describe the complex interdependence of the coefficient of friction, axial pressure, sliding velocity and temperature at the sliding surface is proposed, and then verified and validated. Seismic hazard for a seismically isolated nuclear power plant is defined in the United States using a uniform hazard response spectrum (UHRS) at mean annual frequencies of exceedance (MAFE) of 10-4 and 10 -5. A key design parameter is the clearance to the hard stop (CHS), which is influenced substantially by the definition of the seismic hazard. Four alternate representations of seismic hazard are studied, which incorporate different variabilities and uncertainties. Response-history analyses performed on single FP-bearing isolation systems using ground motions consistent with the four representations at the two shaking levels indicate that the CHS is influenced primarily by whether the observed difference between the two horizontal components of ground motions in a given set is accounted for. The UHRS at the MAFE of 10-4 is increased by a design factor (≥ 1) for conventional (fixed base) nuclear structure to achieve a target annual frequency of unacceptable performance. Risk oriented calculations are performed for

  20. A hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccine comprising envelope glycoproteins gpE1/gpE2 derived from a single isolate elicits broad cross-genotype neutralizing antibodies in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Law, John Lok Man; Chen, Chao; Wong, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Although a cure for HCV is on the near horizon, emerging drug cocktails will be expensive, associated with side-effects and resistance making a global vaccine an urgent priority given the estimated high incidence of infection around the world. Due to the highly heterogeneous nature of HCV...... genotypes. Although observed in only a minority of vaccinees, our results prove the key concept that a vaccine derived from a single strain of HCV can elicit broad cross-neutralizing antibodies against all known major genotypes of HCV and provide considerable encouragement for the further development......, an effective HCV vaccine which could elicit broadly cross-neutralizing antibodies has represented a major challenge. In this study, we tested for the presence of cross-neutralizing antibodies in human volunteers who were immunized with recombinant glycoproteins gpE1/gpE2 derived from a single HCV strain (HCV1...

  1. Homogenous, real-time duplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification using a single fluorophore-labeled primer and an intercalator dye: Its application to the simultaneous detection of Shiga toxin genes 1 and 2 in Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouguchi, Yoshihiro; Fujiwara, Takako; Teramoto, Miki; Kuramoto, Mika

    2010-08-01

    We developed a completely homogeneous duplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method. The present LAMP method employed a combination of a 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM)-labeled primer (donor) for one target gene, a non-labeled primer for the other, and an intercalator ethidium bromide (EtBr) dye (acceptor) on the basis of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the FAM donor and EtBr acceptor. Measuring changes in fluorescence of FAM enabled the LAMP method to detect two different genes simultaneously. This method was used to detect Shiga toxin genes in Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli isolates, demonstrating simultaneous detection of two different genes with rapidity and accuracy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ureaplasma canigenitalium sp. nov., isolated from dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasawa, R; Imada, Y; Kotani, H; Koshimizu, K; Barile, M F

    1993-10-01

    Ureaplasma strains isolated from dogs (Canis familiaris) were characterized and compared with the type strains of five previously described species of the genus Ureaplasma, Ureaplasma urealyticum (isolated from humans), Ureaplasma diversum (isolated from cattle), Ureaplasma gallorale (isolated from chickens), Ureaplasma cati (isolated from cats), and Ureaplasma felinum (isolated from cats). The canine strains hydrolyzed urea but not arginine or glucose, were membrane bound, lacked a cell wall, passed through 450-nm-pore-size membrane filters, required cholesterol for growth, and formed minute colonies (diameter, 20 to 140 microns) on agar medium. These canine ureaplasma strains have been reported to be members of four serovars. The four serovars of canine strains fell into a single group on the basis of their genomic properties, as determined by DNA-DNA hybridization. On the basis of these findings, we propose that ureaplasmas with these characteristics belong to a new species, Ureaplasma canigenitalium, with strain D6P-C (= ATCC 51252) as the type strain.

  3. IRF6 rs2235375 single nucleotide polymorphism is associated with isolated non-syndromic cleft palate but not with cleft lip with or without palate in south Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurramkonda, Venkatesh Babu; Syed, Altaf Hussain; Murthy, Jyotsna; Lakkakula, Bhaskar V K S

    2017-06-26

    Transcription factors are very diverse family of proteins involved in activating or repressing the transcription of a gene at a given time. Several studies using animal models demonstrated the role of transcription factor genes in craniofacial development. We aimed to investigate the association of IRF6 intron-6 polymorphism in the non-syndromic cleft lip with or without Palate in a south Indian population. 173 unrelated nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without Palate patients and 176 controls without clefts patients were genotyped for IRF6 rs2235375 variant by allele-specific amplification using the KASPar single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping system. The association between interferon regulatory factor-6 gene intron-6 dbSNP208032210:g.G>C (rs2235375) single nucleotide polymorphism and non-syndromic cleft lip with or without palate risk was investigated by chi-square test. There were significant differences in genotype or allele frequencies of rs2235375 single nucleotide polymorphism between controls and cases with non-syndromic cleft lip with or without palate. IRF6 rs2235375 variant was significantly associated with increased risk of non-syndromic cleft lip with or without palate in co-dominant, dominant (OR: 1.19; 95% CI 1.03-2.51; p=0.034) and allelic models (OR: 1.40; 95% CI 1.04-1.90; p=0.028). When subset analysis was applied significantly increased risk was observed in cleft palate only group (OR dominant: 4.33; 95% CI 1.44-12.97; p=0.005). These results suggest that IRF6 rs2235375 SNP play a major role in the pathogenesis and risk of developing non-syndromic cleft lip with or without palate. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Micromechanical bending of single collagen fibrils using atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Lanti; van der Werf, Kees O; Koopman, Bart F J M; Subramaniam, Vinod; Bennink, Martin L; Dijkstra, Pieter J; Feijen, Jan

    A new micromechanical technique was developed to study the mechanical properties of single collagen fibrils. Single collagen fibrils, the basic components of the collagen fiber, have a characteristic highly organized structure. Fibrils were isolated from collagenous materials and their mechanical

  5. Bovine papillomavirus isolation by ultracentrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araldi, R P; Giovanni, D N S; Melo, T C; Diniz, N; Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, J; Sant'Ana, T A; Carvalho, R F; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2014-11-01

    The bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is the etiological agent of bovine papillomatosis, which causes significant economic losses to livestock, characterized by the presence of papillomas that regress spontaneously or persist and progress to malignancy. Currently, there are 13 types of BPVs described in the literature as well as 32 putative new types. This study aimed to isolate viral particles of BPV from skin papillomas, using a novel viral isolation method. The virus types were previously identified with new primers designed. 77 cutaneous papilloma samples of 27 animals, Simmental breed, were surgically removed. The DNA was extracted and subjected to PCR using Delta-Epsilon and Xi primers. The bands were purified and sequenced. The sequences were analyzed using software and compared to the GenBank database, by BLAST tool. The viral typing showed a prevalence of BPV-2 in 81.81% of samples. It was also detected the presence of the putative new virus type BR/UEL2 in one sample. Virus isolation was performed by ultracentrifugation in a single density of cesium chloride. The method of virus isolation is less laborious than those previously described, allowing the isolation of complete virus particles of BPV-2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Criteria: waste tank isolation and stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, W.P.; Ogren, W.E.

    1976-09-01

    The crystallized Hanford high-level wastes stored in single-shell underground tanks consist of sludges and salt cakes covered with supernatural liquor. Purpose of stabilization and isolation is to reduce the releases and losses as a result of a loss of tank integrity. The tanks will be modified so that no inadvertent liquid additions can be made. Criteria for the isolation and stabilization are given and discussed briefly

  7. Criteria: waste tank isolation and stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, W.P.; Ogren, W.E.

    1976-09-01

    The crystallized Hanford high-level wastes stored in single-shell underground tanks consist of sludges and salt cakes covered with supernatural liquor. Purpose of stabilization and isolation is to reduce the releases and losses as a result of a loss of tank integrity. The tanks will be modified so that no inadvertent liquid additions can be made. Criteria for the isolation and stabilization are given and discussed briefly. (DLC)

  8. Frequency and Distribution of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms within mprF in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Isolates and Their Role in Cross-Resistance to Daptomycin and Host Defense Antimicrobial Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Arnold S; Mishra, Nagendra N; Chen, Liang; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Rubio, Aileen; Yang, Soo-Jin

    2015-08-01

    MprF is responsible for the lysinylation of phosphatidylglycerol (PG) to synthesize the positively charged phospholipid (PL) species, lysyl-PG (L-PG). It has been proposed that the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the mprF open reading frame (ORF) are associated with a gain-in-function phenotype in terms of daptomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. (Note that although the official term is daptomycin nonsusceptibility, we use the term daptomycin resistance in this paper for ease of presentation.) Using 22 daptomycin-susceptible (DAP(s))/daptomycin-resistant (DAP(r)) clinical methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain pairs, we assessed (i) the frequencies and distribution of putative mprF gain-in-function SNPs, (ii) the relationships of the SNPs to both daptomycin resistance and cross-resistance to the prototypical endovascular host defense peptide (HDP) thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein (tPMP), and (iii) the impact of mprF SNPs on positive surface charge phenotype and modifications of membrane PL profiles. Most of the mprF SNPs identified in our DAP(r) strains were clustered within the two MprF loci, (i) the central bifunctional domain and (ii) the C-terminal synthase domain. Moreover, we were able to correlate the presence and location of mprF SNPs in DAP(r) strains with HDP cross-resistance, positive surface charge, and L-PG profiles. Although DAP(r) strains with mprF SNPs in the bifunctional domain showed higher resistance to tPMPs than DAP(r) strains with SNPs in the synthase domain, this relationship was not observed in positive surface charge assays. These results demonstrated that both charge-mediated and -unrelated mechanisms are involved in DAP resistance and HDP cross-resistance in S. aureus. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Single-cell technologies in environmental omics

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2015-10-22

    Environmental studies are primarily done by culturing isolated microorganisms or by amplifying and sequencing conserved genes. Difficulties understanding the complexity of large numbers of various microorganisms in an environment led to the development of techniques to enrich specific microorganisms for upstream analysis, ultimately leading to single-cell isolation and analyses. We discuss the significance of single-cell technologies in omics studies with focus on metagenomics and metatranscriptomics. We propose that by reducing sample heterogeneity using single-cell genomics, metaomic studies can be simplified.

  10. Single conversion stage amplifier - SICAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.

    2005-12-15

    This Ph.D. thesis presents a thorough analysis of the so called SICAM - SIngle Converter stage AMplifier approach to building direct energy conversion audio power amplifiers. The mainstream approach for building isolated audio power amplifiers today consists of isolated DC power supply and Class D amplifier, which essentially represents a two stage solution, where each of the components can be viewed as separate and independent part. The proposed SICAM solution strives for direct energy conversion from the mains to the audio output, by dedicating the operation of the components one to another and integrating their functions, so that the final audio power amplifier represents a single-stage topology with higher efficiency, lower volume, less board space, lower component count and subsequently lower cost. The SICAM approach is both applicable to non-isolated and isolated audio power amplifiers, but the problems encountered in these two cases are different. Non-isolated SICAM solutions are intended for both AC mains-connected and battery-powered devices. In non-isolated mains-connected SICAMs the main idea is to simplify the power supply or even provide integrated power factor correction (PFC) functions, while still maintaining low component stress and good audio performance by generally decreasing the input voltage level to the Class D audio power amplifier. On the other hand, non-isolated battery-powered SICAMs have to cope with the ever changing battery voltage and provide output voltage levels which are both lower and higher than the battery voltage, while still being simple and single-stage energy conversion solutions. In isolated SICAMs the isolation transformer adjusts the voltage level on the secondary side to the desired level, so the main challenges here are decreasing the size of the magnetic core and reducing the number and size of bulky reactive components as much as possible. The main focus of this thesis is directed towards the isolated SICAMs and

  11. Isolate domination in graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sahul Hamid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A set D of vertices of a graph G is called a dominating set of G if every vertex in V(G−D is adjacent to a vertex in D. A dominating set S such that the subgraph 〈S〉 induced by S has at least one isolated vertex is called an isolate dominating set. An isolate dominating set none of whose proper subset is an isolate dominating set is a minimal isolate dominating set. The minimum and maximum cardinality of a minimal isolate dominating set are called the isolate domination number γ0 and the upper isolate domination number Γ0 respectively. In this paper we initiate a study on these parameters.

  12. Analog signal isolation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beadle, E.R.

    1992-12-31

    This paper discusses several techniques for isolating analog signals in an accelerator environment. The techniques presented here encompass isolation amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters (VIFCs), transformers, optocouplers, discrete fiber optics, and commercial fiber optic links. Included within the presentation of each method are the design issues that must be considered when selecting the isolation method for a specific application.

  13. Analog signal isolation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beadle, E.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses several techniques for isolating analog signals in an accelerator environment. The techniques presented here encompass isolation amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters (VIFCs), transformers, optocouplers, discrete fiber optics, and commercial fiber optic links. Included within the presentation of each method are the design issues that must be considered when selecting the isolation method for a specific application.

  14. Experiments on seismic isolation in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonacina, G.; Bettinali, F.; Martelli, A.; Olivieri, M.

    1992-01-01

    Static and dynamic tests have been performed in Italy on high damping steel-laminated elastomer bearings in various scales, rubber specimens and structures isolated by means of such bearings, in the framework of studies in progress to support seismic isolation development. Tests on rubber specimens and bearings have already provided important data (vertical and horizontal stiffness, damping, creep, temperature, aging and scale effects, etc.), necessary for the development and validation of numerical models, comparison with the test results of isolated structure mockups and actual buildings, and improvement of design guidelines. Dynamic experiments of structures concerned both full-scale and scaled isolated structure mock-ups and actual isolated buildings (one of those forming the SIP Administration Center at Ancona, an isolated house at Squillace, Calabria). Both snap-back tests and forced excitation experiments were performed, to rather large displacements. The latter were both sinusoidal and (on a 1/4 scale mock-up) seismic, with one- and multidirectional simultaneous excitations. Test results have already demonstrated the adequacy of seismic isolation and have provided data useful for the comparison with single bearing test results and validation of numerical models for the analysis of isolated structures. This paper reports the main features and results of tests performed or in progress. Further tests planned have been mentioned in the Status Report. Numerical analysis of measured data and guidelines development have been discussed in separate technical papers. (author)

  15. Responses of an isolation system with distinct multiple frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ting-shu; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Base isolation systems are generally designed with a single natural frequency. A major concern for these isolation systems is that, if the dominant frequency of a future earthquake is equal or close to the system's natural frequency, the ground motion will be greatly amplified because of resonance,and the superstructure would suffer severe damages. This paper present an isolation system designed with two distinct frequencies. Its responses to different ground motions, including a harmonic motion, show that no excessive amplification will occur. Adoption of this isolation system would greatly enhance the safety of an isolated superstructure against future strong earthquakes. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Occurrence, isolation and DNA identification of Streptococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... Streptococcus thermophilus isolates from traditional butter 'Smen', a fermented product from cow's ... temperature of milk. The fresh butter is removed manually in a single lump called 'Zebda' which is trans- formed into 'Smen' by washing with salt ... Egyptian artisanal butter 'zabady' was reported recently.

  17. Decoherence in Nearly-Isolated Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folk, J.; M. Marcus, C.; Harris jr, J.

    2000-01-01

    Decoherence in nearly-isolated GaAs quantum dots is investigated using the change in average Coulomb blockade peak height upon breaking time-reversal symmetry. The normalized change in average peak height approaches the predicted universal value of 1/4 at temperatures well below the single...

  18. isolation and characterisation of cryptococcus neoformans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-01

    Aug 1, 2014 ... 91 No. 8 August 2014. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS AND CRYPTOCOCCUS GATTII. FROM ENVIRONMENTAL .... parts and a single colony was seeded onto each part, it was covered with sterile .... cryptococcosis in Thailand. Yeast. 2004;21:809-12.

  19. Sexual Compatibility among Different Host-Originated Isolates of Aphelenchoides besseyi and the Inheritance of the Parasitism

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Shu-Hua; Lin, Chun-Ju; Chen, Peichen

    2012-01-01

    Nine isolates of Aphelenchoides besseyi from two different hosts were studied. The isolates were identified at the species level according to morphometrics and fine structures observed under a scanning electron microscope. Two fern-originated isolates, Fu, and Fm, one rice-originated isolate, Rl, were not able to reproduce from a single juvenile, based on at least 50 replicates. The other six isolates were able to develop into a small population when inoculated with a single juvenile, demonst...

  20. Single-cycle Optical Pulses and Isolated Attosecond Pulse Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    A. H. Curtis, S. P. Meehan, and J . J . Rocca , “Demonstration of all-diode-pumped soft x-ray laser,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3352 (2009). 40. K.-H. Hong, J ...Feb. 2012): <Journal paper> 1) J . Moses, C. Manzoni, S-W Huang, G.Cerullo, and F. X. Kärtner, “Temporal Optimization of Ultrabroadband High-Energy...OPCPA,” Opt. Express 17, 5540 (Mar, 2009). 2) J . Moses, S.-W. Huang, K.-H. Hong, O. D. Mücke, E. L. Falcão-Filho, A. Benedick, F. Ö. Ilday, A

  1. Nano-manipulation of single DNA molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jun; Shanghai Jiaotong Univ., Shanghai; Lv Junhong; Wang Guohua; Wang Ying; Li Minqian; Zhang Yi; Li Bin; Li Haikuo; An Hongjie

    2004-01-01

    Nano-manipulation of single atoms and molecules is a critical technique in nanoscience and nanotechnology. This review paper will focus on the recent development of the manipulation of single DNA molecules based on atomic force microscopy (AFM). Precise manipulation has been realized including varied manipulating modes such as 'cutting', 'pushing', 'folding', 'kneading', 'picking up', 'dipping', etc. The cutting accuracy is dominated by the size of the AFM tip, which is usually 10 nm or less. Single DNA fragments can be cut and picked up and then amplified by single molecule PCR. Thus positioning isolation and sequencing can be performed. (authors)

  2. Allographic agraphia for single letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichelli, Alina; Machetta, Francesca; Zadini, Antonella; Semenza, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    The case is reported of a patient (PS) who, following acute encephalitis with residual occipito-temporal damage, showed a selective deficit in writing cursive letters in isolation, but no difficulty to write cursive-case words and non-words. Notably, he was able to recognize the same allographs he could not write and to produce both single letters and words in print. In addition to this selective single letter writing difficulty, the patient demonstrated an inability to correctly perform a series of imagery tasks for cursive letters. PS's performance may indicate that single letter production requires explicit imagery. Explicit imagery may not be required, instead, when letters have to be produced in the context of a word: letter production in this case may rely on implicit retrieval of well learned scripts in a procedural way.

  3. Isolation and screening of arsenic resistant rhizobacteria of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ludwigia octovalvis was characterized for its potential in arsenic phytoremediation. Epiphyte rhizobacteria from the roots of L. octovalvis were isolated in five different arsenic concentrations (4, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg kg-1) and control after single exposure for 35 days. Results show that 109 colonies were isolated which were ...

  4. Single-Cell Genomic Analysis in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxuan Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Individual cells in an organism are variable, which strongly impacts cellular processes. Advances in sequencing technologies have enabled single-cell genomic analysis to become widespread, addressing shortcomings of analyses conducted on populations of bulk cells. While the field of single-cell plant genomics is in its infancy, there is great potential to gain insights into cell lineage and functional cell types to help understand complex cellular interactions in plants. In this review, we discuss current approaches for single-cell plant genomic analysis, with a focus on single-cell isolation, DNA amplification, next-generation sequencing, and bioinformatics analysis. We outline the technical challenges of analysing material from a single plant cell, and then examine applications of single-cell genomics and the integration of this approach with genome editing. Finally, we indicate future directions we expect in the rapidly developing field of plant single-cell genomic analysis.

  5. Are Isolated Indigenous Populations Headed toward Extinction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Walker

    Full Text Available At least 50 indigenous groups spread across lowland South America remain isolated and have only intermittent and mostly hostile interactions with the outside world. Except in emergency situations, the current policy of governments in Brazil, Colombia, and Peru towards isolated tribes is a "leave them alone" strategy, in which isolated groups are left uncontacted. However, these no-contact policies are based on the assumption that isolated populations are healthy and capable of persisting in the face of mounting external threats, and that they can maintain population viability in the long-term. Here, we test this assumption by tracking the sizes and movements of cleared horticultural areas made by 8 isolated groups over the last 10-14 years. We used deforestation data derived from remote sensing Landsat satellite sensors to identify clearings, and those were then validated and assessed with high-resolution imagery. We found only a single example of a relatively large and growing population (c. 50 cleared ha and 400 people, whereas all of the other 7 groups exhibited much smaller villages and gardens with no sizable growth through time. These results indicated that the smaller groups are critically endangered, and it prompts an urgent re-thinking of policies toward isolated populations, including plans for well-organized contacts that may help save lives and rescue isolated indigenous populations from imminent extinction.

  6. Are Isolated Indigenous Populations Headed toward Extinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert S; Kesler, Dylan C; Hill, Kim R

    2016-01-01

    At least 50 indigenous groups spread across lowland South America remain isolated and have only intermittent and mostly hostile interactions with the outside world. Except in emergency situations, the current policy of governments in Brazil, Colombia, and Peru towards isolated tribes is a "leave them alone" strategy, in which isolated groups are left uncontacted. However, these no-contact policies are based on the assumption that isolated populations are healthy and capable of persisting in the face of mounting external threats, and that they can maintain population viability in the long-term. Here, we test this assumption by tracking the sizes and movements of cleared horticultural areas made by 8 isolated groups over the last 10-14 years. We used deforestation data derived from remote sensing Landsat satellite sensors to identify clearings, and those were then validated and assessed with high-resolution imagery. We found only a single example of a relatively large and growing population (c. 50 cleared ha and 400 people), whereas all of the other 7 groups exhibited much smaller villages and gardens with no sizable growth through time. These results indicated that the smaller groups are critically endangered, and it prompts an urgent re-thinking of policies toward isolated populations, including plans for well-organized contacts that may help save lives and rescue isolated indigenous populations from imminent extinction.

  7. 6DOF active microtremor isolation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Kazuyoki; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Murai, Nobuyoshi; Naganou, Masatake

    1990-01-01

    The present article outlines an effort at research and development of a 6DOF (degree of freedom) active microtremor isolation system, and the vibration isolation characteristic of this active vibration system is discussed on the basis of analytical and experimental results. The SDOF (single degree of freedom) active vibration control system is described focusing on the isolation characteristics of an ideal vibration control system, transient response of an ideal vibration control system, and experimental results with a SDOF active vibration control system. A SDOF active vibration isolation system as shown in Fig. 1 is formulated by integrating the passive isolation elements and an actuator. The second half of the paper discusses features of the 6DOF active microtremor isolation system, focusing on a prototype system for experiments and experimental results obtained with a 6DOF active microtremor isolation system. For electron and positron accelerators, a constant environment should be maintained in order to improve the reproducibility of experiments. In order to achieve the super microvibration environment, it is necessary to introduce new type microvibration control techniques. (N.K.)

  8. Browsing Isolated Population Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manias Teresa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our studies of genetically isolated populations in a remote mountain area in the center of Sardinia (Italy, we found that 80–85% of the inhabitants of each village belong to a single huge pedigree with families strictly connected to each other through hundreds of loops. Moreover, intermarriages between villages join pedigrees of different villages through links that make family trees even more complicated. Unfortunately, none of the commonly used pedigree drawing tools are able to draw the complete pedigree, whereas it is commonly accepted that the visual representation of families is very important as it helps researchers in identifying clusters of inherited traits and genotypes. We had a representation issue that compels researchers to work with subsets extracted from the overall genealogy, causing a serious loss of information on familiar relationships. To visually explore such complex pedigrees, we developed PedNavigator, a browser for genealogical databases properly suited for genetic studies. Results The PedNavigator is useful for genealogical research due to its capacity to represent family relations between persons and to make a visual verification of the links during family history reconstruction. As for genetic studies, it is helpful to follow propagation of a specific set of genetic markers (haplotype, or to select people for linkage analysis, showing relations between various branch of a family tree of affected subjects. Availability PedNavigator is an application integrated into a Framework designed to handle data for human genetic studies based on the Oracle platform. To allow the use of PedNavigator also to people not owning the same required informatics infrastructure or systems, we developed PedNavigator Lite with mainly the same features of the integrated one, based on MySQL database server. This version is free for academic users, and it is available for download from our site http://www.shardna.com.

  9. Physics in isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    In late May, about 330 physicists made their way up to isolated and beautiful Lake Louise high in the Canadian Rockies about 100 miles west of Calgary in a second effort to increase interactions between particle and nuclear physicists. The conference series aims to foster exciting and diverse physics by bringing the different physicists together somewhere which is so isolated that they must interact with each other. The formula worked very well and isolated Lake Louise was a huge success

  10. The complete genome sequences of two isolates of potato black ringspot virus and their relationship to other isolates and nepoviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza Richards, R.; Adams, I.P.; Kreuze, J.F.; Souza, de J.; Cuellar, W.; Dullemans, A.M.; Vlugt, van der R.A.A.; Glover, R.; Hany, U.; Dickinson, M.; Boonham, N.

    2014-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of RNA 1 and RNA 2 of the nepovirus potato black ringspot virus (PBRSV) from two different isolates were determined, as well as partial sequences from two additional isolates. RNA1 is 7,579-7,598 nucleotides long and contains one single open reading frame (ORF),

  11. Isolated optic nerve pseudotumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patankar, T.; Prasad, S.; Krishnan, A.; Laxminarayan, R.

    2000-01-01

    Isolated optic nerve involvement by the idiopathic inflammatory process is a rare finding and very few reports are available. Here a case of an isolated optic nerve inflammatory pseudotumour presenting with gradually progressive unilateral loss of vision is described. It showed dramatic response to a trial of steroids and its differential diagnoses are discussed. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  12. Isolated central vestibular syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Hee; Park, Seong-Ho; Kim, Hyo-Jung; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2015-04-01

    Isolated vestibular syndrome may occur all along the vestibular pathways from the peripheral labyrinth to the brain. By virtue of recent developments in clinical neurotology and neuroimaging, however, diagnosis of isolated central vestibulopathy is increasing. Here, we review five distinct syndromes of isolated central vestibular syndrome from lesions restricted to the vestibular nuclei, the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi, the flocculus, the tonsil, and the nodulus, and introduce a new vestibular syndrome from isolated involvement of the inferior cerebellar peduncle. Decreased responses to head impulses do not exclude a central lesion as a cause of isolated vestibular syndrome. Brain imaging, including diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), may be falsely negative during the acute phase in patients with isolated vestibular syndrome because of a stroke. Central signs should be sought carefully in patients with isolated vertigo, even when the patients show the features of peripheral vestibulopathy and negative MRIs. Recognition of these isolated central vestibular syndromes would aid in defining the lesions responsible for various vestibular manifestations in central vestibulopathy. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Alternativ isolering i bygninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T.; Skibstrup Eriksen, S.

    Denne SBI-meddelelse beskriver resultaterne af en undersøgelse af bygninger, hvor der er anvendt alternativ isolering. Undersøgelsen omfatter termografering og fugtmåling af udvendige bygningsdele isoleret med alternativ isolering. Endvidere rapporteres resultaterne af målinger af indholdet af tu...

  14. Serological comparison of selected isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. Salmonicida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnel, G.B.; Gould, R.W.; Boatman, E.S.

    1983-01-01

    Eight isolates of Acronionus salmonicida ssp. salmonicida were collected during furunculosis epizootics in North American Pacific coast states and provinces. Both virulent and avirulent forms of each isolate, confirmed by challenge and electron microscopy, were examined. Serological comparisons by cross-absorption agglutination tests revealed no serological differences between isolates. Using the double diffusion precipitin test, a single band was observed when antigen from a sonicated virulent strain was reacted with antiserum against a sonicated, virulent strain absorbed with homologous, avirulent strain. The presence of the single band was eliminated by excess sonication.

  15. Antibacterial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from burns and wounds of cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman A. Alharbi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study 540 burns and wound swabs were collected from cancer patients of some Egyptian hospitals. The single infection was detected from 210, and 70 cases among wounded and burned patients, while mixed infection was 30 and 45, respectively. We recovered where 60 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 60 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, 7 isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis, 4 isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes, 25 isolates of Escherichia coli, 23 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 27 isolates of Proteus vulgaris from 355 burn and surgical wound infections . All bacterial isolates showed high resistance to the commonly used β-lactams (amoxycillin, cefaclor, ampicillin, vancomycin, amoxicillin/clavulonic, and low resistance to imepenim and ciprofloxacin. Plasmid analysis of six multidrug resistant and two susceptible bacterial isolates revealed the same plasmid pattern. This indicated that R-factor is not responsible for the resistance phenomenon among the isolated opportunistic bacteria. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on the isolated bacteria was studied.

  16. Molecular typing of Chinese Streptococcus pyogenes isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yuanhai; Wang, Haibin; Bi, Zhenwang; Walker, Mark; Peng, Xianhui; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Haijian; Song, Yanyan; Tao, Xiaoxia; Kou, Zengqiang; Meng, Fanliang; Zhang, Menghan; Bi, Zhenqiang; Luo, Fengji; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2015-06-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes causes human infections ranging from mild pharyngitis and impetigo to serious diseases including necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The objective of this study was to compare molecular emm typing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) for genotyping of Chinese S. pyogenes isolates. Molecular emm typing and PFGE were performed using standard protocols. Seven variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci reported in a previous study were used to genotype 169 S. pyogenes geographically-diverse isolates from China isolated from a variety of disease syndromes. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis provided greater discrimination between isolates when compared to emm typing and PFGE. Removal of a single VNTR locus (Spy2) reduced the sensitivity by only 0.7%, which suggests that Spy2 was not informative for the isolates screened. The results presented support the use of MLVA as a powerful epidemiological tool for genotyping S. pyogenes clinical isolates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Design experience on seismically isolated buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliani, G.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the practical problems associated with the structural design of seismically isolated buildings now under construction in Ancona, Italy. These structures are the first seismically isolated buildings in Italy. The Ancona region is in zone 2 of the Italian Seismic Code. It has a design acceleration of 0.07 g which corresponds to a ground surface acceleration of 0.25 g. The last significant earthquake was recorded on June 14, 1972, having a single shock-type wave with a peak acceleration of 0.53 g. Taking into account the aforesaid earthquake, the structural design of these new buildings was performed according to an acceleration spectrum which was different from the zone 2 seismic code and which provided protection for stronger ground motions. To minimize the cost of the structure, the buildings used ribbed plate decks, thus reducing the amount of material and the mass of the structures to be isolated. The design requirements, dynamic analysis performed, structural design, and practical engineering employed are reported in this paper. A comparison between the costs of a conventionally designed and a base-isolated structure is also reported. It shows a net savings of 7% for the base-isolated structure. The tests undertaken for certifying the mechanical properties of the isolators for both static and dynamic loads are also described, as is the full-scale dynamic test which is scheduled for next year (1990) for one of the completed buildings. (orig.)

  18. Genetic diversity of Gallibacterium anatis isolates from different chicken flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, A.M.; Torpdahl, Mia; Christensen, H.

    2003-01-01

    of chickens from an organic, egg-producing flock and a layer parent flock. A subset of strains was also characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and biotyping. The organic flock isolates were characterized by more than 94% genetic similarity, indicating that only a single clone was apparent...... in the flock. The layer parent flock isolates were grouped into two subclusters, each with similarity above 90%. One subcluster contained only tracheal isolates, while the other primarily included cloacal isolates. In conclusion, we show that AFLP analysis enables fingerprinting of G. anatis, which seems...

  19. A Note on Isolate Domination

    OpenAIRE

    Sahul Hamid, Ismail; Balamurugan, S; Navaneethakrishnan, A

    2016-01-01

    A set $S$ of vertices of a graph $G$ such that $\\left\\langle S\\right\\rangle$ has an isolated vertex is called an \\emph{isolate set} of $G$. The minimum and maximum cardinality of a maximal isolate set are called the \\emph{isolate number} $i_0(G)$ and the \\emph{upper isolate number} $I_0(G)$ respectively. An isolate set that is also a dominating set (an irredundant set) is an $\\emph{isolate dominating set} \\ (\\emph{an isolate irredundant set})$. The \\emph{isolate domination number} $\\gamma_0(G...

  20. Isolates of Ureplasma diversum genotyped by single-enzyme amplified length polymorphism Tipagem genotípica de estirpes de Ureplasma diversum por meio da amplificação de fragmentos polimórficos com única enzima (SE-AFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Buzinhani

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Isolates of Ureaplasma diversum recovered from bovines with reproductive disorders and healthy ones of four premises were compared by SE-AFLP. Twenty-eight SE-AFLP profiles without monomorphic fragments were obtained. The ureaplasma studied were divided in clusters A and B. Cluster A was divided in subclusters A1 and A2, while A1 was divided in subclusters A1a and A1b. Cluster B grouped only the reference strains. The clusters obtained were not associated with the reproductive disorders. The dendrogram obtained showed high heterogeneity among the studied ureaplasmas and indicated a low genomic stability as detected in other species of microorganisms of class Mollicutes.Cepas de referência e 30 estirpes de Ureaplasma diversum isoladas do muco vaginal de bovinos apresentando ou não distúrbios reprodutivos, de quatro diferentes propriedades, foram comparadas por meio da metodologia da SE-AFLP (single-enzyme amplified fragment length polymorphism. Foram obtidos 28 perfis, com ausência de fragmentos monomórficos. No dendrograma, as amostras foram divididas em grupos A e B. O grupo A foi subdividido em A1 e A2 e o A1 dividiu-se em A1a e A1b. As amostras de referência formaram o grupo B. Não houve diferenciação entre as estirpes isoladas de animais doentes ou sadios. Evidenciou-se grande heterogeneidade entre os ureaplasmas estudados indicando baixa estabilidade genômica, como detectado em outras espécies dos microrganismos da classe Mollicutes.

  1. MOX Fabrication Isolation Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric L. Shaber; Bradley J Schrader

    2005-08-01

    This document provides a technical position on the preferred level of isolation to fabricate demonstration quantities of mixed oxide transmutation fuels. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative should design and construct automated glovebox fabrication lines for this purpose. This level of isolation adequately protects the health and safety of workers and the general public for all mixed oxide (and other transmutation fuel) manufacturing efforts while retaining flexibility, allowing parallel development and setup, and minimizing capital expense. The basis regulations, issues, and advantages/disadvantages of five potential forms of isolation are summarized here as justification for selection of the preferred technical position.

  2. Isolation, propagation, and titration of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from peripheral blood of infected individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Kootstra, Neeltje A.

    2005-01-01

    HIV-1 can be isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and is easily propagated on primary cells in vitro. Here we describe the method for bulk isolation of the HIV-1 quasispecies and a limiting dilution virus isolation protocol by which single coexisting clones can be obtained. In addition,

  3. Base isolation: Fresh insight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shustov, V.

    1993-07-15

    The objective of the research is a further development of the engineering concept of seismic isolation. Neglecting the transient stage of seismic loading results in a widespread misjudgement: The force of resistance associated with velocity is mostly conceived as a source of damping vibrations, though it is an active force at the same time, during an earthquake type excitation. For very pliant systems such as base isolated structures with relatively low bearing stiffness and with artificially added heavy damping mechanism, the so called `damping`` force may occur even the main pushing force at an earthquake. Thus, one of the two basic pillars of the common seismic isolation philosophy, namely, the doctrine of usefulness and necessity of a strong damping mechanism, is turning out to be a self-deception, sometimes even jeopardizing the safety of structures and discrediting the very idea of seismic isolation. There is a way out: breaking with damping dependancy.

  4. Passive Shock Isolation Utilising Dry Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ikmal Ismail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel shock isolation strategy for base excited system is presented by introducing a two-degree-of-freedom model with passive friction, where the friction is applied to an attached mass instead of directly to the primary isolated mass. The model is evaluated against the benchmark case of single-degree-of-freedom system with friction applied directly to the primary isolated mass. The performances of the models are compared in terms of the maximum displacement response and the acceleration during the application of the shock input for the case when the shock input duration is approximately equal to the natural period of the system (amplification region. From the results, the two-degree-of-freedom model can produce both maximum displacement reduction and smoother acceleration at the point of motion transition. An experimental rig was built to validate the theoretical results against the experimental results; it is found that the experimental results closely match the theoretical predictions.

  5. Transformer Isolated Buck-Boost Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry W. Williams

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Of the single-switch dc-to-dc converters, those with the buck-boost voltage transfer function offer most potential for transformer coupling, hence isolation, at the kilowatt level. This paper highlights the limitations of the traditional magnetic coupled, buck-boost topology. Then four split-capacitor transformer-coupled topologies (specifically the Cuk, sepic, zeta, and a new, converters with a common ac equivalent circuit are explored, that do not temporarily store core magnetic energy as does the traditional isolated buck-boost converter nor have a core dc magnetizing current bias, as with the sepic and zeta transformer coupled topologies. Core dc bias capacitive voltage compensation is a practical design constraint in three of the four topologies, while all four must cater for stray and leakage inductance effects. Simulations and experimental results for the new converter at 408W support the transformer-coupled, single-switch dc-to-dc converter concepts investigated.

  6. Isolated sleep paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sawant, Neena S.; Parkar, Shubhangi R.; Tambe, Ravindra

    2005-01-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) is a cardinal symptom of narcolepsy. However, little is available in the literature about isolated sleep paralysis. This report discusses the case of a patient with isolated sleep paralysis who progressed from mild to severe SP over 8 years. He also restarted drinking alcohol to be able to fall asleep and allay his anxiety symptoms. The patient was taught relaxation techniques and he showed complete remission of the symptoms of SP on follow up after 8 months.

  7. Heterogeneity in pepper isolates of cucumber mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Alvarado, G.; Kurath, G.; Dodds, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-four cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) field isolates from pepper crops in Cali-fornia were characterized and compared by nucleic acid hybridization subgrouping, virion electrophoresis, and biological effects in several hosts. Isolates, belonging to subgroup I or subgroup II, were found that induced severe symptoms in mechanically inoculated bell pep-pers. Only two isolates, both from subgroup II, were mild. A group of 19 isolates collected from a single field were all in subgroup II and appeared identical by virion electrophoresis, but they exhibited varying degrees of symptom severity in peppers. As a more detailed indicator of heterogeneity, these 19 isolates were examined by RNase protection assays to delect sequence variation in the coat protein gene region of their genomes. The patterns of bands observed were complex and a high degree of genomic heterogeneity was detected between isolates, with no apparent correlation to symptomatology in bell pepper.

  8. Genetic diversity of Actinobacillus lignieresii isolates from different hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisgaard Magne

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic diversity detected by analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs of 54 Actinobacilus lignieresii isolates from different hosts and geographic localities is described. On the basis of variances in AFLP profiles, the strains were grouped in two major clusters; one comprising strains isolated from horses and infected wounds of humans bitten by horses and another consisting of strains isolated from bovine and ovine hosts. The present data indicate a comparatively higher degree of genetic diversity among strains isolated from equine hosts and confirm the existence of a separate genomospecies for A. lignieresi-like isolates from horses. Among the isolates from bovine and ovine hosts some clonal lines appear to be genetically stable over time and could be detected at very distant geographic localities. Although all ovine strains investigated grouped in a single cluster, the existence of distinct genetic lineages that have evolved specificity for ovine hosts is not obvious and needs to be confirmed in other studies.

  9. Fault isolability conditions for linear systems with additive faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we shall show that an unlimited number of additive single faults can be isolated under mild conditions if a general isolation scheme is applied. Multiple faults are also covered. The approach is algebraic and is based on a set representation of faults, where all faults within a set...... can occur simultaneously, whereas faults belonging to different fault sets appear disjoint in time. The proposed fault detection and isolation (FDI) scheme consists of three steps. A fault detection (FD) step is followed by a fault set isolation (FSI) step. Here the fault set is isolated wherein...... the faults have occurred. The last step is a fault isolation (FI) of the faults occurring in a specific fault set, i.e. equivalent with the standard FI step....

  10. Active vibration isolation of high precision machines

    CERN Document Server

    Collette, C; Artoos, K; Hauviller, C

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a review of active control strategies used to isolate high precisionmachines (e.g. telescopes, particle colliders, interferometers, lithography machines or atomic force microscopes) from external disturbances. The objective of this review is to provide tools to develop the best strategy for a given application. Firstly, the main strategies are presented and compared, using single degree of freedom models. Secondly, the case of huge structures constituted of a large number of elements, like particle colliders or segmented telescopes, is considered.

  11. Isolated laryngeal myasthenia gravis for 26 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Dimitri; Hedayat, Amir; Gagnard, Corinne

    2015-02-01

    Laryngeal myasthenia gravis is a relatively rare variant of myasthenia gravis. A vast portion of patients with initial laryngeal myasthenia gravis develop involvement of ocular and/or extra-ocular muscles during the years after symptom onset although a minority of laryngeal myasthenia gravis patients continues to have isolated laryngeal muscle involvement for several years. We present a 58-year-old woman with recurrent episodic isolated dysphonia (associated with diffuse bilateral vocal cord paresis on laryngoscopy) since the age of 32. Dysphonia became permanent since 6 months. A diagnosis of laryngeal myasthenia gravis was made based on abnormal single-fiber electromyography and spectacular response to pyridostigmine treatment. Repetitive nerve stimulation was normal and anti-acetylcholine receptor and anti-muscle specific tyrosine kinase antibodies were absent. This case shows that laryngeal myasthenia gravis can be isolated during 26 years of follow-up. We propose that even when myasthenia gravis seems unlikely as underlying mechanism of isolated dysphonia (because of lack of antibodies, normal repetitive nerve stimulation, and absence of extra-laryngeal involvement after years of follow-up), single-fiber electromyography should be performed and myasthenia gravis treatment should be tried. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular characterization of pneumococcal isolates from pets and laboratory animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark van der Linden

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Between 1986 and 2008 Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated from 41 pets/zoo animals (guinea pigs (n = 17, cats (n = 12, horses (n = 4, dogs (n = 3, dolphins (n = 2, rat (n = 2, gorilla (n = 1 treated in medical veterinary laboratories and zoos, and 44 laboratory animals (mastomys (multimammate mice; n = 32, mice (n = 6, rats (n = 4, guinea pigs (n = 2 during routine health monitoring in an animal facility. S. pneumoniae was isolated from nose, lung and respiratory tract, eye, ear and other sites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Carriage of the same isolate of S. pneumoniae over a period of up to 22 weeks was shown for four mastomys. Forty-one animals showed disease symptoms. Pneumococcal isolates were characterized by optochin sensitivity, bile solubility, DNA hybridization, pneumolysin PCR, serotyping and multilocus sequence typing. Eighteen of the 32 mastomys isolates (56% were optochin resistant, all other isolates were optochin susceptible. All mastomys isolates were serotype 14, all guinea pig isolates serotype 19F, all horse isolates serotype 3. Rats had serotypes 14 or 19A, mice 33A or 33F. Dolphins had serotype 23F, the gorilla serotype 14. Cats and dogs had many different serotypes. Four isolates were resistant to macrolides, three isolates also to clindamycin and tetracycline. Mastomys isolates were sequence type (ST 15 (serotype 14, an ST/serotype combination commonly found in human isolates. Cats, dogs, pet rats, gorilla and dolphins showed various human ST/serotype combinations. Lab rats and lab mice showed single locus variants (SLV of human STs, in human ST/serotype combinations. All guinea pig isolates showed the same completely new combination of known alleles. The horse isolates showed an unknown allele combination and three new alleles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The isolates found in mastomys, mice, rats, cats, dogs, gorilla and dolphins are most likely identical to human pneumococcal isolates. Isolates from

  13. A half mode inkjet printed tunable ferrite isolator

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2017-10-24

    A novel half mode waveguide based ferrite isolator design is presented in this work. For the first time, tunability of the isolation band is demonstrated for a ferrite isolator. Instead of using the conventional antisymmetric bias the isolator requires a single direction of the magnetic bias field due to the half mode operation. Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) is used as the substrate for the device. The metallic walls of the waveguide are realized using inkjet printing. The magnetic biasing applied to the waveguide causes the RF waves to experience negative permeability in one direction of propagation hence providing isolation for this direction. For an applied bias of 3000 Oe, the device provides a maximum isolation figure of merit of 76.7 dB at 7.5 GHz. The isolation band can be controlled by changing the applied magnetostatic bias. As the bias is varied from 1500 Oe to 3500 Oe the center frequency of the isolation band varies from 4.45 GHz to 9 GHz. The measured response of the isolator shows that it can be integrated in any RF system requiring lower cost and good isolation.

  14. Experimental infection of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus isolates from European marine and farmed fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Slierendrecht, W.J.; King, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    The susceptibility of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to infection with various isolates of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was examined. A total of 8 experiments with rainbow trout ranging from 0.6 to 6.2 g was conducted for 139 isolates originating from wild marine fishes...... in European waters (115 isolates), farmed turbot from Scotland and Ireland (2 isolates), and farmed rainbow trout (22 isolates). The isolates were tested by immersion and/or intraperitoneal injection either as pooled or single isolates. The isolates from wild marine fishes did not cause mortality by immersion...... while some of the isolates caused mortality when injected. All VHSV isolates from farmed rainbow trout caused significant mortality by immersion. Currently, pathogenicity trials are the only way to differentiate VHSV isolates from wild marine fishes and farmed rainbow trout. The 2 farmed turbot isolates...

  15. Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells Guided by the Single-Chain Fv of a Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Specifically and Effectively Eradicate Virus Reactivated from Latency in CD4+ T Lymphocytes Isolated from HIV-1-Infected Individuals Receiving Suppressive Combined Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingfeng; Zou, Fan; Lu, Lijuan; Chen, Cancan; He, Dalian; Zhang, Xu; Tang, Xiaoping; Liu, Chao; Li, Linghua; Zhang, Hui

    2016-11-01

    Despite the advent of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), the persistence of viral reservoirs remains a major barrier to curing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Recently, the shock and kill strategy, by which such reservoirs are eradicated following reactivation of latent HIV-1 by latency-reversing agents (LRAs), has been extensively practiced. It is important to reestablish virus-specific and reliable immune surveillance to eradicate the reactivated virus-harboring cells. In this report, we attempted to reach this goal by using newly developed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell technology. To generate anti-HIV-1 CAR-T cells, we connected the single-chain variable fragment of the broadly neutralizing HIV-1-specific antibody VRC01 to a third-generation CAR moiety as the extracellular and intracellular domains and subsequently transduced this into primary CD8 + T lymphocytes. We demonstrated that the resulting VC-CAR-T cells induced T cell-mediated cytolysis of cells expressing HIV-1 Env proteins and significantly inhibited HIV-1 rebound after removal of antiviral inhibitors in a viral infectivity model in cell culture that mimics the termination of the cART in the clinic. Importantly, the VC-CAR-T cells also effectively induced the cytolysis of LRA-reactivated HIV-1-infected CD4 + T lymphocytes isolated from infected individuals receiving suppressive cART. Our data demonstrate that the special features of genetically engineered CAR-T cells make them a particularly suitable candidate for therapeutic application in efforts to reach a functional HIV cure. The presence of latently infected cells remains a key obstacle to the development of a functional HIV-1 cure. Reactivation of dormant viruses is possible with latency-reversing agents, but the effectiveness of these compounds and the subsequent immune response require optimization if the eradication of HIV-1-infected cells is to be achieved. Here, we describe the use of a chimeric antigen

  16. Isolated Optic Disc Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Ahmad M.; Tabbara, Khalid F.; Tabbarah, Zuhair

    2015-01-01

    We present a healthy male subject who developed progressive visual loss in the left eye initially diagnosed as optic neuritis. Upon suspicion of infectious etiology, testing was positive for tuberculosis. There were no signs or symptoms of active systemic tuberculosis infection. The patient responded swiftly to antimycobacterial therapy with return of vision and resolution of disc swelling. Positive purified protein derivative skin test, negative chest radiograph, negative systemic workup, negative workup for other causes of unilateral optic neuritis and quick response to mycobacterial therapy reaffirm the entity of isolated optic disc tuberculosis similar to isolated choroidal tuberculosis without systemic manifestation. PMID:26483675

  17. Isolated Optic Disc Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Mansour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a healthy male subject who developed progressive visual loss in the left eye initially diagnosed as optic neuritis. Upon suspicion of infectious etiology, testing was positive for tuberculosis. There were no signs or symptoms of active systemic tuberculosis infection. The patient responded swiftly to antimycobacterial therapy with return of vision and resolution of disc swelling. Positive purified protein derivative skin test, negative chest radiograph, negative systemic workup, negative workup for other causes of unilateral optic neuritis and quick response to mycobacterial therapy reaffirm the entity of isolated optic disc tuberculosis similar to isolated choroidal tuberculosis without systemic manifestation.

  18. Isolated Fallopian Tube Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kardakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated torsion of the Fallopian tube is a rare gynecological cause of acute lower abdominal pain, and diagnosis is difficult. There are no pathognomonic symptoms; clinical, imaging, or laboratory findings. A preoperative ultrasound showing tubular adnexal masses of heterogeneous echogenicity with cystic component is often present. Diagnosis can rarely be made before operation, and laparoscopy is necessary to establish the diagnosis. Unfortunately, surgery often is performed too late for tube conservation. Isolated Fallopian tube torsion should be suspected in case of acute pelvic pain, and prompt intervention is necessary.

  19. Simultaneous vibration isolation and pointing control of flexure jointed hexapods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaochun; Hamann, Jerry C.; McInroy, John E.

    2001-08-01

    Vibration isolation and precision pointing problems using hexapods have been separately investigated by several groups of researchers. Since many applications require simultaneous vibration isolation and precision pointing (e.g., telescopes, laser communication, and laser weapons), it is particularly useful to do both with a single device. A simultaneous control scheme is developed in this paper using acceleration feedback to provide high-frequency vibration isolation, while Cartesian pointing feedback provides low-frequency pointing. The compensation is divided by frequency because pointing sensors often have a low bandwidth, while acceleration sensors often have a poor low-frequency response. Methods for unifying these finite bandwidth joint and Cartesian controls to perform simultaneous pointing and vibration isolation on a single platform are developed and verified. Experiments on the University of Wyoming hexapods show that this scheme provides a viable control bandwidth.

  20. A note on isolate domination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Sahul Hamid

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A set $S$ of vertices of a graph $G$ such that $\\left\\langle S\\right\\rangle$ has an isolated vertex is called an \\emph{isolate set} of $G$. The minimum and maximum cardinality of a maximal isolate set are called the \\emph{isolate number} $i_0(G$ and the \\emph{upper isolate number} $I_0(G$ respectively. An isolate set that is also a dominating set (an irredundant set is an $\\emph{isolate dominating set} \\ (\\emph{an isolate irredundant set}$. The \\emph{isolate domination number} $\\gamma_0(G$ and the \\emph{upper isolate domination number} $\\Gamma_0(G$ are respectively the minimum and maximum cardinality of a minimal isolate dominating set while the \\emph{isolate irredundance number} $ir_0(G$ and the \\emph{upper isolate irredundance number} $IR_0(G$ are the minimum and maximum cardinality of a maximal isolate irredundant set of $G$. The notion of isolate domination was introduced in \\cite{sb} and the remaining were introduced in \\cite{isrn}. This paper further extends a study of these parameters.   

  1. Long-term evolution of isolated N-body sytems

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgardt, Holger; Hut, Piet; Heggie, Douglas C.

    2002-01-01

    We report results of N-body simulations of isolated star clusters, performed up to the point where the clusters are nearly completely dissolved. Our main focus is on the post-collapse evolution of these clusters. We find that after core collapse, isolated clusters evolve along nearly a single sequence of models whose properties are independent of the initial density profile and particle number. Due to the slower expansion of high-N clusters, relaxation times become almost independent of the p...

  2. Broadband Faraday Isolator

    OpenAIRE

    Berent, Michal; Rangelov, Andon A.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2012-01-01

    Driving on an analogy with the technique of composite pulses in quantum physics, we propose a broadband Faraday rotator and thus a broadband optical isolator, which is composed of sequences of ordinary Faraday rotators and achromatic quarter-wave plates rotated at the predetermined angles.

  3. Islandscapes: isolation and pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renes, J.

    2014-01-01

    Islands are interesting subjects for study, with their frequent fluctuations in population size and economic activities, and their propensity for being at once both isolated fromand dependent on the outside world. They are often seen as metaphors-for human societies faced with environmental dangers

  4. A Matrix Isolation Infrared

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The elusive ≡C-H· · ·O complex in the hydrogen bonded systems of Phenylacetylene: A Matrix Isolation Infrared and Ab Initio Study ... A comparison of the spectral shifts observed in the features of PhAc-MeOH and PhAc-DEE would therefore independently confirm the existence or not of n-σ* complex in both these systems.

  5. Isolated fructose malabsorption.

    OpenAIRE

    Wales, J K; Primhak, R A; Rattenbury, J; Taylor, C J

    1990-01-01

    A patient with isolated fructose malabsorption presented with diarrhoea and colic during the first year of life and subsequently responded to a fructose free diet. Fructose malabsorption has been implicated in some cases of irritable bowel syndrome in adults and may also be an infrequently recognised cause of gastrointestinal symptoms in children.

  6. Isolated fructose malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, J K; Primhak, R A; Rattenbury, J; Taylor, C J

    1990-01-01

    A patient with isolated fructose malabsorption presented with diarrhoea and colic during the first year of life and subsequently responded to a fructose free diet. Fructose malabsorption has been implicated in some cases of irritable bowel syndrome in adults and may also be an infrequently recognised cause of gastrointestinal symptoms in children. PMID:2317071

  7. Isolated limb perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Rosalyn; Chantier, Nariane

    1994-12-08

    Growing concern over the rising incidence of malignant melanoma has brought about a need for information on this disorder and the treatment available. Isolated limb perfusion is a relatively new technique used in only a few hospitals. An increased knowledge base will lead to a better understanding of the nursing care required and to a more in-depth care plan.

  8. Emotion regulation during isolation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Šolcová, Iva

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, Suppl. 1 (2012) ISSN 0020-7594. [International Congress of Psychology /30./. 22.07.2012-27.07.2012, Cape Town] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2226 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : emotion regulation * isolation * Mars500 Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  9. ISOLATED MOLECULES IN METALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, some results obtained on the formation of isolated molecules of composition SnOx in silver and SnFx in copper-are reviewed. Hyperfine interaction and ion beam interaction techniques were used for the identification of these molecules.

  10. Broadband Faraday isolator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Michał; Rangelov, Andon A; Vitanov, Nikolay V

    2013-01-01

    Driving on an analogy with the technique of composite pulses in quantum physics, we theoretically propose a broadband Faraday rotator and thus a broadband optical isolator, which is composed of sequences of ordinary Faraday rotators and achromatic quarter-wave plates rotated at the predetermined angles.

  11. Proteoglycan isolation and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, A; Couchman, J R

    2001-01-01

    Proteoglycans can be difficult molecules to isolate and analyze due to large mass, charge, and tendency to aggregate or form macromolecular complexes. This unit describes detailed methods for purification of matrix, cell surface, and cytoskeleton-linked proteoglycans. Methods for analysis...

  12. Fetal genetic risk of isolated cleft lip only versus isolated cleft lip and palate: A subphenotype analysis using two population-based studies of orofacial clefts in scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jugessur, Astanand; Shi, Min; Gjessing, Håkon Kristian

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cleft lip only (CLO) and cleft lip and palate (CLP) are commonly regarded as variants of the same defect and are traditionally combined to form the single group of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) prior to analysis. However, recent data have suggested that at least...... a subgroup of isolated CLO may be etiologically distinct from isolated CLP. METHODS: To explore fetal genetic risk of isolated CLO separately from isolated CLP, we performed a subphenotype analysis using two population-based studies of clefts in Scandinavia. One hundred twenty-one isolated CLO, 190 isolated...... CLP, and 592 control triads were available from Norway (1996-2001), and a further 76 isolated CLO and 107 isolated CLP triads were available from Denmark (1991-2001). Genotypes for 1315 SNPs in 334 autosomal cleft candidate genes were analyzed using two complementary statistical methods, Triad Multi...

  13. Analyses of genetic and pathogenic variability among Botrytis cinerea isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sarita; Tayal, Pamil; Sharma, Esha; Kapoor, Rupam

    2014-11-01

    Seventy nine isolates of Botrytis cinerea were collected from different host plants and different locations of India and Nepal. All the isolates were identified as B. cinerea based on morphological features and were confirmed using B. cinerea specific primers. Differentiation among the isolates was assessed using morphological, genetic and biochemical approaches. To analyze morphological variability, differences in conidial size, presence or absence of sclerotia and their arrangement were observed. Genetic variability was characterized using RAPD analysis, presence or absence of transposons and mating type genes. Cluster analysis based on RAPD markers was used for defining groups on the basis of geographical region and host. The biochemical approach included determining differences in concentration of oxalic acid and activity of lytic enzymes. All the isolates were categorized into different pathogenic groups on the basis their variable reaction towards chickpea plants. Isolates with higher concentration of oxalic acid and greater activity of lytic enzymes were generally more pathogenic. Pathogenicity was also correlated to transposons. Isolates containing transposa group showed some degree of correlation with pathogenic behavior. However, isolates could not be grouped on the basis of a single approach which provides evidence of their wide diversity and high evolution potential. Sensitivity of sampled isolates was also tested against five botryticides. Most of the isolates from same region were inhibited by a particular fungicide. This feature provided interesting cues and would assist in devising novel and more effective measures for managing the disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Mouse sperm chromatin proteins: quantitative isolation and partial characterization. [Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balhorn, R.; Gledhill, B.L.; Wyrobek, A.J.

    1977-09-06

    Conditions are described that permit the quantitative extraction of chromatin proteins from the epididymal sperm of the mouse. These proteins have been isolated free of contaminating tail proteins following removal of the tails with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Without this treatment, numerous acid-soluble tail proteins coextract with the nuclear proteins isolated from partially purified heads. The proteins isolated in this manner do not require prior modification with iodoacetamide and show no evidence of proteolytic degradation. In acid-urea polyacrylamide gels, 99% of the sperm protein migrates as one electrophoretic band. Evidence is presented that suggests that this single band contains two protamine-like proteins.

  15. Epigenetics reloaded: the single-cell revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bheda, Poonam; Schneider, Robert

    2014-11-01

    Mechanistically, how epigenetic states are inherited through cellular divisions remains an important open question in the chromatin field and beyond. Defining the heritability of epigenetic states and the underlying chromatin-based mechanisms within a population of cells is complicated due to cell heterogeneity combined with varying levels of stability of these states; thus, efforts must be focused toward single-cell analyses. The approaches presented here constitute the forefront of epigenetics research at the single-cell level using classic and innovative methods to dissect epigenetics mechanisms from the limited material available in a single cell. This review further outlines exciting future avenues of research to address the significance of epigenetic heterogeneity and the contributions of microfluidics technologies to single-cell isolation and analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Numerical activities on seismic isolation in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettinali, F.; Martelli, A.; Bonacina, G.; Olivieri, M.

    1992-01-01

    The numerical activities which are in progress in Italy in the framework of the seismic isolation studies mainly concern the definition of models for bearings and isolated structures, and their use for test design and the analysis of experimental results. Simple bearing models have been set up, and the development of finite-element (f.e.) three-dimensional (3D) and 2D axisymmetric models is in progress. simple models have been based on the results of single bearing tests: models formed by a spring in parallel to a viscous damper, where both horizontal stiffness and viscous damping vary with displacements, have been developed by ENEA. Models based on hysteretic damping have also been developed by DISP and ISMES. Detailed bearing models include separate elements for the rubber and steel plates. A 3D model has been implemented by ENEA in the ABAQUS code. Linear elastic calculations have been performed with this model. The implementation of an elastic-plastic model for steel is also being completed, together with that of a hyper elastic model of the rubber, based on tests on specimens. Detailed models will be validated based on measured data. They will be used for bearing design and analysis of the effects of defects: some bearings with artificial defects have been fabricated to this purpose. As to the isolated structures, finite-difference programs were set up for the analysis of such structures in the case that they can be represented by sets of one-degree-of-freedom oscillators. The program ISOLA includes the aforementioned simple bearing model of ENEA, where both stiffness and damping depend on displacement and the effects of viscous creep are accounted for. A similar program has been based on the bearing model developed at ISMES. These models have been successfully used to analyse the experimental results concerning both isolated structure mock-ups and actual isolated buildings, based on the single bearing test data for both horizontal stiffness and damping (see a

  17. Single Audit: Single Audit Act Effectiveness Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Sally

    2002-01-01

    As discussed in the report we are releasing today, our work to review agency actions to ensure that recipients take timely and appropriate corrective actions to fix audit findings contained in single...

  18. Single photon from a single trapped atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingjan, J.; Jones, M.P.A.; Beugnon, J.; Darquiee, B.; Bergamini, S.; Browaeys, A.; Messin, G.; Grangier, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A quantum treatment of the interaction between atoms and light usually begins with the simplest model system: a two-level atom interacting with a monochromatic light wave. Here we demonstrate an elegant experimental realization of this system using an optically trapped single rubidium atom illuminated by resonant light pulses. We observe Rabi oscillations, and show that this system can be used as a highly efficient triggered source of single photons with a well-defined polarisation. In contrast to other sources based on neutral atoms and trapped ions, no optical cavity is required. We achieved a flux of single photons of about 10 4 s -1 at the detector, and observe complete antibunching. This source has potential applications for distributed atom-atom entanglement using single photons. (author)

  19. Coherent manipulation of single spins in semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Ronald; Awschalom, David D

    2008-06-19

    During the past few years, researchers have gained unprecedented control over spins in the solid state. What was considered almost impossible a decade ago, in both conceptual and practical terms, is now a reality: single spins can be isolated, initialized, coherently manipulated and read out using both electrical and optical techniques. Progress has been made towards full control of the quantum states of single and coupled spins in a variety of semiconductors and nanostructures, and towards understanding the mechanisms through which spins lose coherence in these systems. These abilities will allow pioneering investigations of fundamental quantum-mechanical processes and provide pathways towards applications in quantum information processing.

  20. Bacillus odysseyi isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri (Inventor); La Duc, Myron Thomas (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to discovery and isolation of a biologically pure culture of a Bacillus odysseyi isolate with high adherence and sterilization resistant properties. B. odysseyi is a round spore forming Bacillus species that produces an exosporium. This novel species has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus and the type strain is 34hs-1.sup.T (=ATCC PTA-4993.sup.T=NRRL B-30641.sup.T=NBRC 100172.sup.T). The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of strain 34hs-1.sup.T is AF526913.

  1. Search for single top production at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, G.

    2008-01-01

    A search for single top production in e p collisions using the complete high-energy data from HERA is presented. This search is based on the analysis of events containing isolated leptons (electronic or muons) and missing transverse momentum P T miss . In the absence of a signal, an upper limit on the top production cross-section σ ep→etX tuγ T miss and the measurements of W boson polarisation fractions.

  2. Isolated Inguinal Bladder Hernia

    OpenAIRE

    BAYSAL, Tamer; SOYLU, Ahmet; ERDOĞAN, Özgül

    2010-01-01

    Isolated urinary bladder herniation into the inguinal canal is rare. It is often diagnosed intraoperatively during surgery or is identified after intraoperative injury. Early diagnosis with radiologic imaging is important to avoid complications during repair surgery. Computed tomography seems the best imaging choice to outline the details of herniation. We report an incidentally discovered case of inguinal bladder herniation with intravenous pyelography and computed tomography findings. ...

  3. Mechanical beam isolator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.; Vann, C.S.

    1996-10-01

    Back-reflections from a target, lenses, etc. can gain energy passing backwards through a laser just like the main beam gains energy passing forwards. Unless something blocks these back-reflections early in their path, they can seriously damage the laser. A Mechanical Beam Isolator is a device that blocks back-reflections early, relatively inexpensively, and without introducing aberrations to the laser beam

  4. Aircraft EMP Isolation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    technology are to be seen in the insulated column structures of modern Van de Graaff accelerators. These columns are plane assemblies of glass or...reviewed by the Public Affairs Office and is releasable to the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). At NTIS, it will be available to the general ...the aircraft tail and the high-energy, high-voltage impulse generator . 23 The recommended means of isolation consist of: (1) short dielectric columns on

  5. Isolated Coccygeal Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Do Un; Kim, Seok Won; Ju, Chang IL

    2012-01-01

    Isolated tuberculosis of the coccyx is extremely rare. A 35-year-old man presented with a 3-month history of coccygeal and gluteal pain. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed osseous destruction and a large enhancing mass involving the coccyx with anterior and posterior extension. Pathologic examination of the surgical specimen revealed necrosis, chronic granulomatous inflammation, and multinucleated giant cells consistent with tuberculosis. This case highlights the impo...

  6. Isolation, identification and molecular characterisation of an isolate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nucleotide sequence analysis of the partial coat protein gene of the ZYMV isolate from KZN revealed 95−98% sequence identity with isolates occurring in central Europe and the Indian subcontinent, and 90−93% identity with isolates from Singapore and Taiwan. These high levels of sequence identity indicate that the KZN ...

  7. Single frequency intracavity SRO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abitan, Haim; Buchhave, Preben

    2000-01-01

    Summary form only given. A single resonance optical parametric oscillator (SRO) is inserted intracavity to a CW high power, single frequency, and ring Nd:YVO4 laser. We obtain a stable single frequency CW SRO with output at 1.7-1.9 μm (idler) and a resonating signal at 2.3-2.6 μm. The behavior...

  8. Miniature Optical Isolator, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for compact optical isolators, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to continue the development of a new Miniature Optical Isolator...

  9. DRUG TRANSPORT, VIABILITY AND MORPHOLOGY OF ISOLATED RAT HEPATOCYTES PRESERVED FOR 24 HOURS IN UNIVERSITY-OF-WISCONSIN SOLUTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SANDKER, GW; SLOOFF, MJH; GROOTHUIS, GMM

    1992-01-01

    Isolated hepatocytes are a valuable tool to study liver functions. Suitable methods to preserve the isolated cells with good maintenance of viability and functions are crucial to extend experiments with hepatocytes from a single isolation over 2 or more consecutive days. We investigated whether

  10. Evidence of isolate-specificity in non-hypersensitive resistance in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) to wheat leaf rust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qamar, Maqsood; Niks, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    Isolate-specific aspect of non-hypersensitive resistance in wheat to wheat leaf rust was studied at seedling stage in the green house. Isolate-specific response of non-hypersensitive resistance was assessed from latency period (LP) and infection frequency (IF) of two single-pustule isolates of

  11. Dirofilaria immitis JYD-34 isolate: whole genome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourguinat, Catherine; Lefebvre, Francois; Sandoval, Johanna; Bondesen, Brenda; Moreno, Yovany; Prichard, Roger K

    2017-11-09

    Macrocyclic lactone (ML) anthelmintics are used for chemoprophylaxis for heartworm infection in dogs and cats. Cases of dogs becoming infected with heartworms, despite apparent compliance to recommended chemoprophylaxis with approved preventives, has led to such cases being considered as suspected lack of efficacy (LOE). Recently, microfilariae collected from a small number of LOE isolates were used as a source of infection of new host dogs and confirmed to have reduced susceptibility to ML in controlled efficacy studies using L3 challenge in dogs. A specific Dirofilaria immitis laboratory isolate named JYD-34 has also been confirmed to have less than 100% susceptibility to ML-based preventives. For preventive claims against heartworm disease, evidence of 100% efficacy is required by FDA-CVM. It was therefore of interest to determine whether JYD-34 has a genetic profile similar to other documented LOE and confirmed reduced susceptibility isolates or has a genetic profile similar to known ML-susceptible isolates. In this study, the 90Mbp whole genome of the JYD-34 strain was sequenced. This genome was compared using bioinformatics tools to pooled whole genomes of four well-characterized susceptible D. immitis populations, one susceptible Missouri laboratory isolate, as well as the pooled whole genomes of four LOE D. immitis populations. Fixation indexes (F ST ), which allow the genetic structure of each population (isolate) to be compared at the level of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) across the genome, have been calculated. Forty-one previously reported SNP, that appeared to differentiate between susceptible and LOE and confirmed reduced susceptibility isolates, were also investigated in the JYD-34 isolate. The F ST analysis, and the analysis of the 41 SNP that appeared to differentiate reduced susceptibility from fully susceptible isolates, confirmed that the JYD-34 isolate has a genome similar to previously investigated LOE isolates, and isolates confirmed

  12. Proteogenomic Investigation of Strain Variation in Clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates

    KAUST Repository

    Heunis, Tiaan

    2017-08-18

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis consists of a large number of different strains that display unique virulence characteristics. Whole-genome sequencing has revealed substantial genetic diversity among clinical M. tuberculosis isolates, and elucidating the phenotypic variation encoded by this genetic diversity will be of utmost importance to fully understand M. tuberculosis biology and pathogenicity. In this study we integrated whole-genome sequencing and mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS) to reveal strain-specific characteristics in the proteomes of two clinical M. tuberculosis Latin American-Mediterranean isolates. Using this approach we identified 59 peptides containing single amino acid variants, which covered ~9% of all total coding nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants detected by whole-genome sequencing. Furthermore, we identified 29 distinct peptides that mapped to a hypothetical protein not present in the M. tuberculosis H37Rv reference proteome. Here we provide evidence for the expression of this protein in the clinical M. tuberculosis SAWC3651 isolate. The strain-specific databases enabled confirmation of genomic differences (i.e. large genomic regions of difference and nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants) in these two clinical M. tuberculosis isolates and allowed strain differentiation at the proteome level. Our results contribute to the growing field of clinical microbial proteogenomics and can improve our understanding of phenotypic variation in clinical M. tuberculosis isolates.

  13. Diabetes in population isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Moltke, Ida; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an increasing health problem worldwide with particularly high occurrence in specific subpopulations and ancestry groups. The high prevalence of T2D is caused both by changes in lifestyle and genetic predisposition. A large number of studies have sought to identify...... on glucose-stimulated plasma glucose, serum insulin levels, and T2D. The variant defines a specific subtype of non-autoimmune diabetes characterized by decreased post-prandial glucose uptake and muscular insulin resistance. These and other recent findings in population isolates illustrate the value...

  14. Isolation of RNP granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønson, Lars; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Christiansen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The post-transcriptional operon provides a means of synexpression of mRNAs encoding interrelated proteins. The coordination of gene expression may be achieved by a trans-acting RNA-binding protein attaching to similar cis-elements in different, yet functionally clustered, mRNAs. The RNP granule can...... be regarded as a supramolecular assembly of RNA and protein, probably representing several overlapping post-transcriptional operons. The present protocol describes how RNP granules may be isolated by the transgenic expression of a 3X FLAG version of an RNA-binding protein under tetracycline control via...

  15. Waste isolation: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1982-12-01

    This bibliography contains information on waste isolation included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from Janurary 1981 through November 1982. The abstracts are grouped by subject category as shown in the table of contents. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject, e.g., Radioactive Waste Disposal/Salt Deposits. Within each category the arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  16. Yeast Isolation for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EKA RURIANI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We have isolated 12 yeast isolates from five different rotten fruits by using a yeast glucose chloramphenicol agar (YGCA medium supplemented with tetracycline. From pre-screening assay, four isolates exhibited higher substrate (glucose-xylose consumption efficiency in the reaction tube fermentation compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae dan Saccharomyces ellipsoids as the reference strains. Based on the fermentation process in gooseneck flasks, we observed that two isolates (K and SB showed high fermentation efficiency both in sole glucose and mixed glucose-xylose substrate. Moreover, isolates K and SB produced relatively identical level of ethanol concentration compared to the reference strains. Isolates H and MP could only produce high levels of ethanol in glucose fermentation, while only half of that amount of ethanol was detected in glucose-xylose fermentation. Isolate K and SB were identified as Pichia kudriavzeevii (100% based on large sub unit (LSU ribosomal DNA D1/D2 region.

  17. A Circo-Like Virus Isolated from Penaeus monodon Shrimps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hanh T; Yu, Qian; Boisvert, Maude; Van, Hanh T; Bergoin, Max; Tijssen, Peter

    2014-01-16

    A virus with a circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) (CRESS-DNA) genome (PmCV-1) was isolated from Penaeus monodon shrimps in Vietnam. The gene structure of the 1,777-nucleotide (nt) genome was similar to that of circoviruses and cycloviruses, but the nucleic acid and protein sequence identities to these viruses were very low.

  18. Isolation and characterization of an AGAMOUS homolog from Fraxinus pennsylvanica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningxia Du; Paula M. Pijut

    2010-01-01

    An AGAMOUS homolog (FpAG) was isolated from green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) using a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction method. Southern blot analysis indicated that FpAG was present as a single-copy sequence in the genome of green ash. RNA accumulated in the reproductive tissues (female...

  19. Prevalence of Various Microbial Organisms Isolated from Dairy Goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six- hundred and thirty (630) apparently normal milk samples from dairy goats in Nyeri district (Kenya) were examined over a three-month period to determine the prevalence of bacterial organisms. Bacteria were isolated in 28.7% of milk samples (181/630) either as a single bacterial organism (92.8%) or mixed bacterial ...

  20. First report of Gallibacterium isolation from layer chickens in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ataei, S.; Bojesen, A. M.; Amininajafi, F.

    2017-01-01

    caused by Gallibacterium result in decreased egg-production and increased mortality. Gallibacterium is the most common single bacterial infection in egg-laying farms with reproductive disorders. During a microbiological survey on bacterial infectious agents of reproductive tract of layers, some isolates...

  1. Power generation using photovoltaic induction in an isolated power network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalantar, M.; Jiang, J.

    2001-01-01

    Owing to increased emphasis on renewable resources, the development of suitable isolated power generators driven by energy sources, the development of suitable isolated power generators driven by energy sources such as photovoltaic, wind, small hydroelectric, biogas and etc. has recently assumed greater significance. A single phase capacitor self excited induction generator has emerged as a suitable candidate of isolated power sources. This paper presents performance analysis of a single phase self-excited induction generator driven by photovoltaic (P V) system for low power isolated stand-alone applications. A single phase induction machine can work as a self-excited induction generator when its rotor is driven at suitable speed by an photovoltaic powered do motor. Its excitation is provided by connecting a single phase capacitor bank at a stator terminals. Either to augment grid power or to get uninterrupted power during grid failure stand-alone low capacity ac generators are used. These are driven by photovoltaic, wind power or I C engines using kerosene, diesel, petrol or biogas as fuel. Self-excitation with capacitors at the stator terminals of the stator terminals of the induction machines is well demonstrated experimentally on a P V powered dc motor-induction machine set. The parameters and the excitation requirements of the induction machine run in self-excited induction generator mode are determined. The effects of variations in prime mover speed,terminal capacitance and load power factor on the machine terminal voltage are studied

  2. Schizosaccharomyces isolation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the optimization of a selective and differential medium which would facilitate the isolation of Schizosaccharomyces (a genus with a low incidence compared to other microorganisms to select individuals from this genus for industrial purposes, especially in light of the recent recommendation of the use of yeasts from this genus in the wine industry by the International Organisation of Vine and Wine, or to detect the presence of such yeasts, for those many authors who consider them food spoilers. To this end, we studied various selective differential agents based on the main physiological characteristics of these species, such as their high resistances to high concentrations of sugar, sulfur dioxide, sorbic acid, benzoic acid, acetic acid or malo ethanolic fermentation. This selective medium is based on the genus resistance to the antibiotic actidione and its high resistance to inhibitory agents such as benzoic acid. Malic acid was used as a differential factor due to the ability of this genus to metabolise it to ethanol, which allows detecting of the degradation of this compound. Lastly, the medium was successfully used to isolate strains of Schizosaccharomyces pombe from honey and honeycombs.

  3. Characterisation of invasive clinical Haemophilus influenzae isolates in Queensland, Australia using whole-genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, M; Graham, R M A; Jennison, A V

    2017-06-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is an important aetiological organism of both adult and child respiratory disease. The number of non-typeable (NTHi) invasive H. influenzae isolates referred to the Queensland (QLD) Public Health Microbiology laboratory has increased notably year-by-year. In this study we used whole-genome sequencing to molecularly characterise 100 referred invasive H. influenzae, including 74 NTHi isolates over a 15-year period, observing the carriage of capsular and putative virulence genes, including the major adhesins, antimicrobial resistance genes and population diversity. Encapsulated isolates were largely clonal, however NTHi isolates displayed high genetic variability by MLST and single nucleotide polymorphism typing with no dominant clone observed. The only mechanism for β-lactam resistance identified in the QLD isolates was β-lactamase production. No single set of virulence determinants was conclusively associated with invasive QLD NTHi isolates.

  4. Single ventricle cardiac defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eren, B.; Turkmen, N.; Fedakar, R.; Cetin, V.

    2010-01-01

    Single ventricle heart is defined as a rare cardiac abnormality with a single ventricle chamber involving diverse functional and physiological defects. Our case is of a ten month-old baby boy who died shortly after admission to the hospital due to vomiting and diarrhoea. Autopsy findings revealed cyanosis of finger nails and ears. Internal examination revealed; large heart, weighing 60 grams, single ventricle, without a septum and upper membranous part. Single ventricle is a rare pathology, hence, this paper aims to discuss this case from a medico-legal point of view. (author)

  5. Genomic variation among contemporary Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from chronically infected cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jade C S; Becq, Jennifer; Fraser, Louise; Schulz-Trieglaff, Ole; Bond, Nicholas J; Foweraker, Juliet; Bruce, Kenneth D; Smith, Geoffrey P; Welch, Martin

    2012-09-01

    The airways of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) often become chronically infected with unique strains of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Several lines of evidence suggest that the infecting P. aeruginosa lineage diversifies in the CF lung niche, yet so far this contemporary diversity has not been investigated at a genomic level. In this work, we sequenced the genomes of pairs of randomly selected contemporary isolates sampled from the expectorated sputum of three chronically infected adult CF patients. Each patient was infected by a distinct strain of P. aeruginosa. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions/deletions (indels) were identified in the DNA common to the paired isolates from different patients. The paired isolates from one patient differed due to just 1 SNP and 8 indels. The paired isolates from a second patient differed due to 54 SNPs and 38 indels. The pair of isolates from the third patient both contained a mutS mutation, which conferred a hypermutator phenotype; these isolates cumulatively differed due to 344 SNPs and 93 indels. In two of the pairs of isolates, a different accessory genome composition, specifically integrated prophage, was identified in one but not the other isolate of each pair. We conclude that contemporary isolates from a single sputum sample can differ at the SNP, indel, and accessory genome levels and that the cross-sectional genomic variation among coeval pairs of P. aeruginosa CF isolates can be comparable to the variation previously reported to differentiate between paired longitudinally sampled isolates.

  6. A comparative study of coastal and clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, A.V.; Joseph, N.; Krishna, K.; Sneha, K.G.; Tom, N.; Jangid, K.; Nair S.

    on their fatty acid methyl ester profiles A low Euclidian distance value (< 2.5) obtained from chemotaxonomic analysis suggested that all the environmental (coastal and marine) isolates originated from a single species While UPGMA analyses of AP...

  7. Mycelial compatibility and aggressiveness of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates from Brazil and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimara Junko Koga

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic diversity among Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates from Brazil and the USA, assess their aggressiveness variability, and verify the existence of an isolate-cultivar interaction. Isolate variability was determined by mycelial compatibility grouping (MCG, and isolate aggressiveness by cut-stem inoculations of soybean cultivars. Two experiments for MCGs and two for aggressiveness were conducted with two sets of isolates. The first set included nine isolates from the same soybean field in Brazil and nine from the Midwest region of the USA. The second set included 16 isolates from several regions of Brazil and one from the USA. In the first set, 18 isolates formed 12 different MCGs. In the second set, 81% of the isolates from Brazil grouped into a single MCG. No common MCGs were observed among isolates from Brazil and the USA. The isolates showed aggressiveness differences in the first set, but not in the second. Although aggressiveness differed in the first set, soybean cultivars and isolates did not interact significantly. Cultivar rank remained the same, regardless of the genetic diversity, aggressiveness difference, and region or country of origin of the isolate. Results from screening of soybean cultivars, performed by the cut-stem method in the USA, can be used as reference for researchers in Brazil.

  8. Isolation of Cryptococcus gattii from a Castanopsis argyrophylla tree hollow (Mai-Kaw), Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayhan, Kantarawee; Hagen, Ferry; Norkaew, Treepradab; Puengchan, Tanpalang; Boekhout, Teun; Sriburee, Pojana

    2017-04-01

    The pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus gattii was isolated from a tree hollow of a Castanopsis argyrophylla King ex Hook.f. (Fagaceae) in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Molecular characterization with amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis and multi-locus sequence typing showed that this isolate belonged to genotype AFLP4/VGI representing C. gattii sensu stricto. Subsequent comparison of the environmental isolate with those from clinical samples from Thailand showed that they grouped closely together in a single cluster.

  9. Beyond insulation and isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie Koldkjær

    2016-01-01

    Most research on the acoustic environment in the modern Western hospital identifies raised noise levels as the main causal explanation for ranking noise as a critical stressor for patients, relatives and staff. Therefore, the most widely used strategies to tackle the problem in practice are insul......Most research on the acoustic environment in the modern Western hospital identifies raised noise levels as the main causal explanation for ranking noise as a critical stressor for patients, relatives and staff. Therefore, the most widely used strategies to tackle the problem in practice...... are insulation and isolation strategies to reduce measurable and perceptual noise levels. However, these strategies do not actively support the need to feel like an integral part of the shared hospital environment, which is a key element in creating healing environments, according to the paradigm of Evidence...

  10. Host ranges of North American isolates of Penicillium causing blue mold of bulb crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single isolates of four Penicillium species belonging to series Corymbifera (Penicillium allii, P. hirsutum, P. tulipae, P. venetum) plus an isolate of P. polonicum, all from North American sources, were inoculated individually into Crocus sativus, Allium sativum (garlic), A. cepa (onion), Iris holl...

  11. Isolation and genetic characterization of a tembusu virus strain isolated from mosquitoes in Shandong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y; Diao, Y; Chen, H; Ou, Q; Liu, X; Gao, X; Yu, C; Wang, L

    2015-04-01

    Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a flavivirus, presumed to be a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Ntaya virus subgroup. To date, however, there have been no reports indicating that mosquitoes are involved in the spread of TMUV. In this study, we report the first isolation of TMUV from Culex mosquitoes. We describe the isolation and characterization of a field strain of TMUV from mosquitoes collected in Shandong Province, China. The virus isolate, named TMUV-SDMS, grows well in mosquito cell line C6/36, in Vero and duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cell lines, and causes significant cytopathic effects in these cell cultures. The TMUV-SDMS genome is a single-stranded RNA, 10 989 nt in length, consisting of a single open reading frame encoding a polyprotein of 3410 amino acids, with 5' and 3' untranslated regions of 142 and 617 nt, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the E and NS5 genes revealed that the TMUV-SDMS is closely related to the TMUV YY5 and BYD strains which cause severe egg-drop in ducks. The 3'NTR of TMUV-SDMS contains two pairs of tandem repeat CS and one non-duplicate CS, which have sequence similarities to the same repeats in the YY5 and BYD strains. Our findings indicate that mosquitoes carrying the TMUV may play an important role in the spread of this virus and in disease outbreak. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Isolated Tracklet Linking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weryk, Robert J.; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Williams, Gareth

    2017-10-01

    We discuss our on-going work to reduce the size of the Isolated Tracklet File (ITF) : a database hosted by the Minor Planet Center (MPC) containing 14+ million unlinked detections of asteroids. The ITF is dominated by observations from Pan-STARRS1 (F51), the Catalina Sky Survey (G96), and the Spacewatch Project (691).Survey telescopes are dependent on the follow-up capabilities of other telescopes, but many of their detected objects are not linked to already known objects, are are either not posted to the NEO Confirmation Page and/or are not followed up sufficiently, and therefore have their astrometry relegated to the ITF. While many of these asteroids may have in fact been previously observed sufficiently over longer timescales (enough to become designated objects), the linking of their astrometry can pose a challenge.We have developed a search method capable of finding and linking these isolated detections for distinct types of orbit classes, including main-belt and Hungaria objects (which often appear on the NEOCP due to their apparent motion). We use a brute-force technique which compares tracklets having motion which suggests they are the same object. Suspected linkages are further tested by searching for additional tracklets over multiple oppositions.So far, we have linked a significant portion of the ITF and have submitted these linkages to the MPC. We are confident in being able to link even more tracklets. Our method can even associate these new linkages with already designated objects, which will eventually lead to them becoming numbered objects. We hope to improve the efficiency of all asteroid surveys as future detections can be batch submitted without manual review, and more objects which are well known will not be posted to the NEOCP.

  13. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    GENERAL ARTICLE. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy. Every Molecule is Different! Kankan Bhattacharyya. Keywords. Single-molecule spectroscopy. (SMS), confocal microscopy,. FCS, sm-FRET, FLIM. 1 High-resolution spectrum re- fers to a spectrum consisting of very sharp lines. The sharp lines clearly display transitions to ...

  14. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    RESONANCE. February 2015. GENERAL ARTICLE. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy. Every Molecule is Different! Kankan Bhattacharyya. Keywords. Single-molecule ..... Resonance Energy. Transfer (FRET) is an elegant technique to measure the distance between a donor and an acceptor molecule. FRET refers to the.

  15. Single photon and nonlocality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    critical analysis of the concept of hidden variable used by the authors of [1] shows that the reasoning is not correct. Keywords. Nonlocality; single particle; hidden variables. PACS Nos 03.67.Ba; 03.65.Ta; 32.80.Lg; 07.79.Fc. 1. Introduction. Quantum nonlocality [2] for single particle is a subject of debate since the origin.

  16. Single gaze gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Lilholm, Martin; Gail, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines gaze gestures and their applicability as a generic selection method for gaze-only controlled interfaces. The method explored here is the Single Gaze Gesture (SGG), i.e. gestures consisting of a single point-to-point eye movement. Horizontal and vertical, long and short SGGs were...

  17. Understanding Single Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Peter J.

    The life styles and life chances of the unmarried include elements of choices. Singles may be grouped and characterized according to whether their status may be considered stable or temporary. A life cycle, or continuum model of singlehood is reviewed, including its different factors, or phases. A new model for singles is proposed--a life spiral…

  18. Single-sided NMR

    CERN Document Server

    Casanova, Federico; Blümich, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Single-Sided NMR describes the design of the first functioning single-sided tomograph, the related measurement methods, and a number of applications. One of the key advantages to this method is the speed at which the images are obtained.

  19. Single molecules and nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Horst

    2007-01-01

    This book focuses on recent advances in the rapidly evolving field of single molecule research. These advances are of importance for the investigation of biopolymers and cellular biochemical reactions, and are essential to the development of quantitative biology. Written by leading experts in the field, the articles cover a broad range of topics, including: quantum photonics of organic dyes and inorganic nanoparticles their use in detecting properties of single molecules the monitoring of single molecule (enzymatic) reactions single protein (un)folding in nanometer-sized confined volumes the dynamics of molecular interactions in biological cells The book is written for advanced students and scientists who wish to survey the concepts, techniques and results of single molecule research and assess them for their own scientific activities.

  20. Single Nanoparticle Plasmonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sriram

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of plasmonic nanomaterials in optical sensors, coupled with the advances in detection techniques, has opened the way for biosensing with single plasmonic particles. Single nanoparticle sensors offer the potential to analyse biochemical interactions at a single-molecule level, thereby allowing us to capture even more information than ensemble measurements. We introduce the concepts behind single nanoparticle sensing and how the localised surface plasmon resonances of these nanoparticles are dependent upon their materials, shape and size. Then we outline the different synthetic approaches, like citrate reduction, seed-mediated and seedless growth, that enable the synthesis of gold and silver nanospheres, nanorods, nanostars, nanoprisms and other nanostructures with tunable sizes. Further, we go into the aspects related to purification and functionalisation of nanoparticles, prior to the fabrication of sensing surfaces. Finally, the recent developments in single nanoparticle detection, spectroscopy and sensing applications are discussed.

  1. Single-photon imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Seitz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition and interpretation of images is a central capability in almost all scientific and technological domains. In particular, the acquisition of electromagnetic radiation, in the form of visible light, UV, infrared, X-ray, etc. is of enormous practical importance. The ultimate sensitivity in electronic imaging is the detection of individual photons. With this book, the first comprehensive review of all aspects of single-photon electronic imaging has been created. Topics include theoretical basics, semiconductor fabrication, single-photon detection principles, imager design and applications of different spectral domains. Today, the solid-state fabrication capabilities for several types of image sensors has advanced to a point, where uncoooled single-photon electronic imaging will soon become a consumer product. This book is giving a specialist´s view from different domains to the forthcoming “single-photon imaging” revolution. The various aspects of single-photon imaging are treated by internati...

  2. Single-Phase PLLs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    Single-phase phase-locked loops (PLLs) are popular for the synchronization and control of single-phase gridconnected converters. They are also widely used for monitoring and diagnostic purposes in the power and energy areas. In recent years, a large number of single-phase PLLs with different...... structures and properties have been proposed in the literature. The main aim of this paper is to provide a review of these PLLs. To this end, the single-phase PLLs are first classified into two major categories: 1) power-based PLLs (pPLLs), and 2) quadrature signal generation-based PLLs (QSG......-PLLs). The members of each category are then described and their pros and cons are discussed. This work provides a deep insight into characteristics of different single-phase PLLs and, therefore, can be considered as a reference for researchers and engineers....

  3. Isolation and synthesis of curcumin

    OpenAIRE

    Zetterström, Susanna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to evaluate pre-existing methods for isolation and synthesis of curcumin. Two different isolation methods were used, where only the extraction step differs from each other. To obtain pure curcumin, column chromatography was needed to separate the compound from its analogues. As for the isolation the synthesis was also carried out by two different methods, the first in a conventional way and the second one by using irradiation of microwaves. The result of the experim...

  4. Miniature Optical Isolator, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for miniature optical isolators in atom interferometry applications, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a miniature optical...

  5. Single Policy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronsell, Annica; Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses the r...... Policy (CSDP). The examples are illustrative of how single policy studies can be designed to use different approaches in the analysis: multiple streams approach to policy-making; a comparative hypothesis testing; and feminist institutional theory.......Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses...... the relevance of single policy studies in EU research and give examples of how such research can be designed and carried out. The chapter reviews three examples of single policy studies using different methods based on EU environmental policy, the EU biofuels directive, and the EU Common Security and Defence...

  6. Single neuron computation

    CERN Document Server

    McKenna, Thomas M; Zornetzer, Steven F

    1992-01-01

    This book contains twenty-two original contributions that provide a comprehensive overview of computational approaches to understanding a single neuron structure. The focus on cellular-level processes is twofold. From a computational neuroscience perspective, a thorough understanding of the information processing performed by single neurons leads to an understanding of circuit- and systems-level activity. From the standpoint of artificial neural networks (ANNs), a single real neuron is as complex an operational unit as an entire ANN, and formalizing the complex computations performed by real n

  7. Single photon ECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Toshio; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tada, Akira; Bunko, Hisashi; Koizumi, Kiyoshi

    1982-01-01

    The detectability of lesions located deep in a body or overlapped with a physiologically increased activity improve with the help of single photon ECT. In some cases, the ECT is superior to the conventional gamma camera images and X-ray CT scans in the evaluation of the location and size of lesion. The single photon ECT of the brain compares favorably with the contrast enhansed X-ray CT scans. The most important adaptation of the single photon ECT are the detection of recurrent brain tumors after craniotomy and the evaluation of ischemic heart diseases. (author)

  8. Single Electron Tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Steven T.

    2005-01-01

    Financial support for this project has led to advances in the science of single-electron phenomena. Our group reported the first observation of the so-called ''Coulomb Staircase'', which was produced by tunneling into ultra-small metal particles. This work showed well-defined tunneling voltage steps of width e/C and height e/RC, demonstrating tunneling quantized on the single-electron level. This work was published in a now well-cited Physical Review Letter. Single-electron physics is now a major sub-field of condensed-matter physics, and fundamental work in the area continues to be conducted by tunneling in ultra-small metal particles. In addition, there are now single-electron transistors that add a controlling gate to modulate the charge on ultra-small photolithographically defined capacitive elements. Single-electron transistors are now at the heart of at least one experimental quantum-computer element, and single-electron transistor pumps may soon be used to define fundamental quantities such as the farad (capacitance) and the ampere (current). Novel computer technology based on single-electron quantum dots is also being developed. In related work, our group played the leading role in the explanation of experimental results observed during the initial phases of tunneling experiments with the high-temperature superconductors. When so-called ''multiple-gap'' tunneling was reported, the phenomenon was correctly identified by our group as single-electron tunneling in small grains in the material. The main focus throughout this project has been to explore single electron phenomena both in traditional tunneling formats of the type metal/insulator/particles/insulator/metal and using scanning tunneling microscopy to probe few-particle systems. This has been done under varying conditions of temperature, applied magnetic field, and with different materials systems. These have included metals, semi-metals, and superconductors. Amongst a number of results, we have

  9. Optimization of genetic analysis for single cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hussein mouawia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The molecular genetic analysis of microdissected cells by laser, a method for selecting a starting material of pure DNA or RNA uncontaminated. Our study focuses on technical pre-PCR (polymerase chain reaction for the amplification of DNA from a single cell (leukocyte isolated from human blood after laser microdissection and aims to optimize the yield of DNA extracted of this cell to be amplified without errors and provide reliable genetic analyzes. This study has allowed us to reduce the duration of cell lysis in order to perform the step of expanding genomic PEP (primer extension preamplification directly after lysis the same day and the quality of genomic amplification and eliminate purification step of the product PEP, step with a risk of contamination and risk of loss of genetic material related to manipulation. This approach has shown that the combination of at least 3 STR (short tandem repeat markers for genetic analysis of single cell improves the efficiency and accuracy of PCR and minimizes the loss of allele (allele drop out; ADO. This protocol can be applied to large scale and an effective means suitable for genetic testing for molecular diagnostic from isolated single cell (cancerous - fetal.

  10. Acute unilateral isolated ptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Court, Jennifer Helen; Janicek, David

    2015-01-05

    A 64-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of acute onset painless left ptosis. He had no other symptoms; importantly pupils were equal and reactive and eye movements were full. There was no palpable mass or swelling. He was systemically well with no headache, other focal neurological signs, or symptoms of fatigue. CT imaging showed swelling of the levator palpebrae superioris suggestive of myositis. After showing no improvement over 5 days the patient started oral prednisolone 30 mg reducing over 12 weeks. The ptosis resolved quickly and the patient remains symptom free at 6 months follow-up. Acute ptosis may indicate serious pathology. Differential diagnoses include a posterior communicating artery aneurysm causing a partial or complete third nerve palsy, Horner's syndrome, and myasthenia gravis. A careful history and examination must be taken. Orbital myositis typically involves the extraocular muscles causing pain and diplopia. Isolated levator myositis is rare. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  11. Stresses of Single Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Stresses of Single Parenting Page Content Article Body What are some ways ... way. Check your local library for books on parenting. Local hospitals, the YMCA, and church groups often ...

  12. A Single Atom Antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinter, Florian; Williams, Joshua B; Weller, Miriam; Waitz, Markus; Pitzer, Martin; Voigtsberger, Jörg; Schober, Carl; Kastirke, Gregor; Müller, Christian; Goihl, Christoph; Burzynski, Phillip; Wiegandt, Florian; Wallauer, Robert; Kalinin, Anton; Schmidt, Lothar Ph H; Schöffler, Markus S; Jahnke, Till; Dörner, Reinhard; Chiang, Ying-Chih; Gokhberg, Kirill

    2015-01-01

    Here we demonstrate the smallest possible implementation of an antenna-receiver complex which consists of a single (helium) atom acting as the antenna and a second (neon) atom acting as a receiver. (paper)

  13. METHICILLIN RESISTANCE IN STAPHYLOCOCCAL ISOLATES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the importance of Staphylococcus aureus as a urinary pathogen and the incidence of multidrug resistant (MDR), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A total of 86 staphylococcal isolates made up of 50 clinical isolates from urine samples submitted to the Medical Microbiology Laboratory ...

  14. Isolated Amoebic Abscess of Spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Amoebic liver abscess is the most common extraintestinal manifestation of amoebiasis. Extrahepatic amoebic abscesses have occasionally been described in the lung, brain, and skin and presumably result from hematogenous spread. Isolated amoebic abscess of spleen has been reported scarcely in literature. We report here a case of isolated amoebic abscess of spleen.

  15. Intramuscular and epimuscular microstimulation of single motor units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griep, P.A.M.; Pool, C.W.; Lammerlée, G.C.; Wallinga, W.; Seeder, T.; Donselaar, Yvonne C.

    1980-01-01

    A new epimuscular method for stimulating single motor units (m.u.'s) in free prepared muscle is described. Unit isolation is stable and can be continued for long periods. The method is compared with an intramuscular stimulation technique and histological evidence is presented to confirm the validity

  16. The influence of abrasive body dimensions on single asperity wear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldman, M.; van der Heide, Emile; Tinga, Tiedo; Masen, Marc Arthur

    2013-01-01

    This work focuses on the relation between the properties of abrasive bodies and the wear they cause. By performing single asperity scratch tests to simulate abrasive wear, the wear process takes place in a controlled environment, allowing the properties of the abrasive body to be isolated and

  17. Search for anomalous Wtb couplings in single top quark production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abazov, V.M.; et al., [Unknown; de Jong, S.J.; Demarteau, M.; Houben, P.; van den Berg, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    In 0.9 fb(-1) of p(p)over-bar collisions, the D0 Collaboration presented evidence for single top quark production in events with an isolated lepton, missing transverse momentum, and two to four jets. We examine these data to study the Lorentz structure of the Wtb coupling. The standard model

  18. Effects of single and combined inoculations of selected Trichoderma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of single and combined inoculations of selected Trichoderma and Bacillus isolates on growth of dry bean and biological control of Rhizoctonia solani damping-off. ... Greenhouse trials showed that combined inoculations of T. atroviride strain 6 and B. subtilis B69 gave the highest growth promotion of bean in terms of ...

  19. Elderly Single Room Occupancy (SRO) Hotel Tenants: Still Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Paul A.

    1991-01-01

    Conducted study of single room occupancy (SRO) hotels in Chicago, Illinois and collected data on everyday experiences of 53 elderly tenants. Findings showed that hotel environments offered anything but independence. Residents were trapped in situation that exacerbated isolation and withdrawal from society and were in desperate need of social…

  20. A single phase photovoltaic inverter control for grid connected system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents a control scheme for single phase grid connected photovoltaic (PV) system operating under both grid connected and isolated grid mode. The control techniques include voltage and current control of grid-tie PV inverter. During grid connected mode, grid controls the amplitude and frequency of the PV ...

  1. Dynamic isolation technologies in negative pressure isolation wards

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zhonglin

    2017-01-01

    This book presents novel design principles and technologies for dynamic isolation based on experimental studies. These approaches have now become the local standard in Beijing and are currently being promoted for use nationwide. Further, the book provides details of measures and guidelines for the design process. Departing from the traditional understanding that isolation wards should be designed with high negative pressure, airtight doors and fresh air, it establishes the basis for designing biological clean rooms, including isolation wards, using a simple and convenient scientific approach. This book is intended for designers, engineers, researchers, hospital management staff and graduate students in heating ventilation air conditioning (HVAC), air cleaning technologies and related areas.

  2. Molecular mechanism of fluoroquinolones resistance in Mycoplasma hominis clinical isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Dong-Ya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the molecular mechanism of fluoroquinolones resistance in Mycoplasma hominis (MH clinical strains isolated from urogenital specimens. 15 MH clinical isolates with different phenotypes of resistance to fluoroquinolones antibiotics were screened for mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs of DNA gyrase (gyrA and gyrB and topoisomerase IV (parC and parE in comparison with the reference strain PG21, which is susceptible to fluoroquinolones antibiotics. 15 MH isolates with three kinds of quinolone resistance phenotypes were obtained. Thirteen out of these quinolone-resistant isolates were found to carry nucleotide substitutions in either gyrA or parC. There were no alterations in gyrB and no mutations were found in the isolates with a phenotype of resistance to Ofloxacin (OFX, intermediate resistant to Levofloxacin (LVX and Sparfloxacin (SFX, and those susceptible to all three tested antibiotics. The molecular mechanism of fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of MH was reported in this study. The single amino acid mutation in ParC of MH may relate to the resistance to OFX and LVX and the high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones for MH is likely associated with mutations in both DNA gyrase and the ParC subunit of topoisomerase IV.

  3. Molecular mechanism of fluoroquinolones resistance in Mycoplasma hominis clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Dong-Ya; Sun, Chang-Jian; Yu, Jing-Bo; Ma, Jun; Xue, Wen-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the molecular mechanism of fluoroquinolones resistance in Mycoplasma hominis (MH) clinical strains isolated from urogenital specimens. 15 MH clinical isolates with different phenotypes of resistance to fluoroquinolones antibiotics were screened for mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of DNA gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and topoisomerase IV (parC and parE) in comparison with the reference strain PG21, which is susceptible to fluoroquinolones antibiotics. 15 MH isolates with three kinds of quinolone resistance phenotypes were obtained. Thirteen out of these quinolone-resistant isolates were found to carry nucleotide substitutions in either gyrA or parC. There were no alterations in gyrB and no mutations were found in the isolates with a phenotype of resistance to Ofloxacin (OFX), intermediate resistant to Levofloxacin (LVX) and Sparfloxacin (SFX), and those susceptible to all three tested antibiotics. The molecular mechanism of fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of MH was reported in this study. The single amino acid mutation in ParC of MH may relate to the resistance to OFX and LVX and the high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones for MH is likely associated with mutations in both DNA gyrase and the ParC subunit of topoisomerase IV.

  4. Fault isolability with different forms of the faults–symptoms relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kóscielny Jan Maciej

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The definitions and conditions for fault isolability of single faults for various forms of the diagnostic relation are reviewed. Fault isolability and unisolability on the basis of a binary diagnostic matrix are analyzed. Definitions for conditional and unconditional isolability and unisolability on the basis of a fault information system (FIS, symptom sequences and directional residuals are formulated. General definitions for conditional and unconditional isolability and unisolability in the cases of simultaneous evaluation of diagnostic signal values and a sequence of symptoms are provided. A comprehensive example is discussed.

  5. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Hospital-Associated Pseudomonas putida Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Mustapha M; Marsh, Jane W; Ezeonwuka, Chinelo D; Pasculle, Anthony W; Pacey, Marissa P; Querry, Ashley M; Muto, Carlene A; Harrison, Lee H

    2016-09-29

    We present here the draft genome sequences of four Pseudomonas putida isolates belonging to a single clone suspected for nosocomial transmission between patients and a bronchoscope in a tertiary hospital. The four genome sequences belong to a single lineage but contain differences in their mobile genetic elements. Copyright © 2016 Mustapha et al.

  6. BIOGEOGRAPHY OF CLADOPHOROPSIS-MEMBRANACEA (SIPHONOCLADALES, CHLOROPHYTA) AS REVEALED BY SINGLE COPY DNA DISTANCES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOOISTRA, WHCF; BOELEBOS, SA; STAM, WT; VANDENHOEK, C

    Single copy DNA measurements were determined among isolates of Cladophoropsis membranacea from the Caribbean, Mauritania, the Canary Islands and the Red Sea using DNA-DNA hybridization. The genotypic relationships found amongst the Atlantic isolates demonstrate that the present day distribution

  7. Single-Mode VCSELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Anders; Gustavsson, Johan S.

    The only active transverse mode in a truly single-mode VCSEL is the fundamental mode with a near Gaussian field distribution. A single-mode VCSEL produces a light beam of higher spectral purity, higher degree of coherence and lower divergence than a multimode VCSEL and the beam can be more precisely shaped and focused to a smaller spot. Such beam properties are required in many applications. In this chapter, after discussing applications of single-mode VCSELs, we introduce the basics of fields and modes in VCSELs and review designs implemented for single-mode emission from VCSELs in different materials and at different wavelengths. This includes VCSELs that are inherently single-mode as well as inherently multimode VCSELs where higher-order modes are suppressed by mode selective gain or loss. In each case we present the current state-of-the-art and discuss pros and cons. At the end, a specific example with experimental results is provided and, as a summary, the most promising designs based on current technologies are identified.

  8. GOES-R Dual Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freesland, Doug; Carter, Delano; Chapel, Jim; Clapp, Brian; Howat, John; Krimchansky, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R Series (GOES-R) is the first of the next generation geostationary weather satellites, scheduled for delivery in late 2015. GOES-R represents a quantum increase in Earth and solar weather observation capabilities, with 4 times the resolution, 5 times the observation rate, and 3 times the number of spectral bands for Earth observations. With the improved resolution, comes the instrument suite's increased sensitive to disturbances over a broad spectrum 0-512 Hz. Sources of disturbance include reaction wheels, thruster firings for station keeping and momentum management, gimbal motion, and internal instrument disturbances. To minimize the impact of these disturbances, the baseline design includes an Earth Pointed Platform (EPP), a stiff optical bench to which the two nadir pointed instruments are collocated together with the Guidance Navigation & Control (GN&C) star trackers and Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs). The EPP is passively isolated from the spacecraft bus with Honeywell D-Strut isolators providing attenuation for frequencies above approximately 5 Hz in all six degrees-of-freedom. A change in Reaction Wheel Assembly (RWA) vendors occurred very late in the program. To reduce the risk of RWA disturbances impacting performance, a secondary passive isolation system manufactured by Moog CSA Engineering was incorporated under each of the six 160 Nms RWAs, tuned to provide attenuation at frequencies above approximately 50 Hz. Integrated wheel and isolator testing was performed on a Kistler table at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. High fidelity simulations were conducted to evaluate jitter performance for four topologies: 1) hard mounted no isolation, 2) EPP isolation only, 2) RWA isolation only, and 4) dual isolation. Simulation results demonstrate excellent performance relative to the pointing stability requirements, with dual isolated Line of Sight (LOS) jitter less than 1 micron rad.

  9. Patients experience of source isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kamilla; Pedersen, Didde; Kragbak, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Patients´ experience of source isolation - a literature review Title: Patients experience of source isolation – a literature review Authors: Nina Kragbak*, Didde Pedersen*, Kamilla Johansen* and Peter E. Jensen** *students, **lecturer, bachelor in science and Ph.D., at VIA University College....... Physical environment: Some patients felt lonely and imprison, while other patients enjoyed time alone and not having to worry about other patients. A view to the life outside the physical boundaries of the isolation helped to avoid boredom. Importance of relatives: Relatives were a major source of comfort...

  10. Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to discovery and isolation of a biologically pure culture of a Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate with UV sterilization resistant properties. This novel strain has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus. The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of the Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate is AY167879.

  11. Cloning of Plasmodium falciparum by single-cell sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jun; Li, Xiaolian; Cui, Liwang

    2010-01-01

    Malaria parasite cloning is traditionally carried out mainly by using the limiting dilution method, which is laborious, imprecise, and unable to distinguish multiply-infected RBCs. In this study, we used a parasite engineered to express green fluorescent protein (GFP) to evaluate a single-cell sorting method for rapidly cloning Plasmodium falciparum. By dividing a two dimensional scattergram from a cell sorter into 17 gates, we determined the parameters for isolating singly-infected erythrocytes and sorted them into individual cultures. Pre-gating of the engineered parasites for GFP allowed the isolation of almost 100% GFP-positive clones. Compared with the limiting dilution method, the number of parasite clones obtained by single-cell sorting was much higher. Molecular analyses showed that parasite isolates obtained by single-cell sorting were highly homogenous. This highly efficient single-cell sorting method should prove very useful for cloning both P. falciparum laboratory populations from genetic manipulation experiments and clinical samples. PMID:20435038

  12. Single-Photon Optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnenkamp, A.; Børkje, K.; Girvin, S. M.

    2011-08-01

    Optomechanics experiments are rapidly approaching the regime where the radiation pressure of a single photon displaces the mechanical oscillator by more than its zero-point uncertainty. We show that in this limit the power spectrum has multiple sidebands and that the cavity response has several resonances in the resolved-sideband limit. Using master-equation simulations, we also study the crossover from the weak-coupling many-photon to the single-photon strong-coupling regime. Finally, we find non-Gaussian steady states of the mechanical oscillator when multiphoton transitions are resonant. Our study provides the tools to detect and take advantage of this novel regime of optomechanics.

  13. Single well techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drost, W.

    1983-01-01

    The single well technique method includes measurement of parameters of groundwater flow in saturated rock. For determination of filtration velocity the dilution of radioactive tracer is measured, for direction logging the collimeter is rotated in the probe linked with the compass. The limiting factor for measurement of high filtration velocities is the occurrence of turbulent flow. The single well technique is used in civil engineering projects, water works and subsurface drainage of liquid waste from disposal sites. The radioactive tracer method for logging the vertical fluid movement in bore-holes is broadly used in groundwater survey and exploitation. (author)

  14. Biocatalytic Single Enzyme Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grate, Jay W.; Kim, Jungbae

    2004-03-31

    As an innovative way of enzyme stabilization, we recently developed a new enzyme composite of nano-meter scale that we call "single-enzyme nanoparticles (SENs)" (9). Each enzyme molecule is surrounded with a porous composite organic/inorganic network of less than a few nanometers think. This approach represents a new type of enzyme-containing nanostructure. In experiments with perotease (chymotrypsin, CT), the activity of single enzyme nanoparticle form of the enzyme was greatly stabilized compared to the free form, without imposing a serious mass transfer limitation of substrates. In this chapter we will describe the synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of the new SENs.

  15. Single port laparoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Henrik; Istre, Olav

    2012-01-01

    potential benefits. Theoretically, cosmetic outcomes, postoperative pain and complication rates could be improved with use of single site surgery. This study describes introduction of the method in a private hospital in Denmark, in which 40 patients have been treated for benign gynecologic conditions......LESS, or laparo-endoscopic single site surgery, is a promising new method in minimally invasive surgery. An increasing number of surgical procedures are being performed using this technique, however, its large-scale adoption awaits results of prospective randomized controlled studies confirming...

  16. [Study of cerebellar infarction with isolated vertigo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsumi, Ai; Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Kaoru; Kimura, Yu; Koizuka, Izumi; Tsukuda, Mamoru

    2010-07-01

    Isolated vertigo is generally attributed to labyrinthine disease, but may also signal otherwise asymptomatic cerebellar infarction. Of 309 subjects admitted between April 2004 and March 2009 for the single symptom of acute vertigo initially thought to be labyrinthine, four were found to have cerebellar infarction of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery area (PICA). All were over 60 years old and had risk factors including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, arrhythmia, and/or hyperlipidemia. Two had trunk ataxia, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showing infarction within a few days. The other two could walk without apparent trunk ataxia, however, it took 4 to 7 days to find the infarction, mainly through neurological, neurootological, and MRI findings. Neurologically, astasia, dysbasia or trunk ataxia were important signs. Neurootologically, nystagmus and electronystagmographic testing involving eye tracking, saccade, and optokinetic patttens were useful.

  17. Pickering irradiated fuel transfer conveyor isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koivisto, D.J.; Eijsermans, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    Pickering A NGS has been in operation for 25 years and is one of the longest in service CANDU stations. Some underwater fuel handling equipment, notably the conveyor stops, have been without maintenance throughout that time. This paper describes the concept of a conveyor isolation system that permits draining of a single or multiple elevator columns and also the early stages of a development program for the elastomeric sealing element. The prototype seal element has been proven in lab tests to be capable of limiting leakage to 0.5 IGPM (imperial gallons per minute) at the design pressure of 6.5 psi. The design of a sealing element is particularly interesting because the conveyor tube is a square cross-section which contains an additional obstruction , a conveyor drive cable. A seal delivery, actuating and positioning system has been conceptually laid out and the design is proceeding, with projected implementation in 1998. (author). 8 figs

  18. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Douglas James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-27

    The mission of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound, cost effective, permanent disposal of Transuranic (TRU) waste left from production of nuclear weapons.

  19. Isolation of microbial natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterner, Olov

    2012-01-01

    In principle, the isolation of secondary metabolites from microbes does not differ from their isolation from other organisms. The extraction procedure may of course be quite different, especially if it is carried out in an industrial scale, but when an extract containing the metabolites of interest is at hand, it is the same palette of adsorbents and chromatographic techniques that provide the major tools for the fractionation and eventual isolation of the pure compounds. Compared to plants, in which one is sure to find secondary metabolites of certain types, e.g., flavonoids, microbes can be expected to produce virtually anything and it is important to go about the fractionation procedure with an open mind. This chapter presents an overview of preparation of extracts from microbial sources, and various methods and strategies involved in the isolation and characterization of microbial natural products.

  20. Seismic isolation in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, R.I.; Robinson, W.H.; McVerry, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Bridges, buildings, and industrial equipment can be given increased protection from earthquake damage by limiting the earthquake attack through seismic isolation. A broad summary of the seismic responses of base-isolated structures is of considerable assistance for their preliminary design. Seismic isolation as already used in New Zealand consists of a flexible base or support combined with some form of energy-dissipating device, usually involving the hysteretic working of steel or lead. This paper presents examples of the New Zealand experience, where seismic isolation has been used for 42 bridges, 3 buildings, a tall chimney, and high-voltage capacitor banks. Additional seismic response factors, which may be important for nuclear power plants, are also discussed briefly

  1. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF METHANOTROPHIC BACTERIA FROM RICE FIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMAN RUSMANA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Methane is a greenhouse gas capable of depleting the ozone layer. Rice fields are significant sources of atmospheric methane. The application of chemical fertilizer in rice fields increases the methane emission. Methanotrophic bacteria has a unique ability as it can utilize methane as a source of carbon and energy. This research was able to isolate and characterize successfully the methanotrophic bacteria from rice fields in Bogor and Sukabumi, in West Java, Indonesia. Methane oxidation was determined through Gas Chromatography and it shows that all isolates performed methane oxidation activity. The highest methane oxidation activity was performed by BGM 9 isolate. And the DNA amplification of BGM 9 genome was performed by a single band of mmoX in the size of 500 bp and three bands of pmoA in the size of 1000, 750 and 500 bp respectively

  2. Whole genome sequencing of Mycobacterium bovis to obtain molecular fingerprints in human and cattle isolates from Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Azuara, Sarai Estrella; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Perea-Jacobo, Ricardo; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Perera-Ortiz, Alejandro; López-Valencia, Gilberto; Bravo, Doris M; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Miranda-Guzmán, Daniela; Flores-López, Carlos Alberto; Zenteno-Cuevas, Roberto; Laniado-Laborín, Rafael; de la Cruz, Fabiola Lafarga; Stuber, Tod P

    2017-10-01

    To determine genetic diversity by comparing the whole genome sequences of cattle and human Mycobacterium bovis isolates from Baja California. A whole genome sequencing strategy was used to obtain the molecular fingerprints of 172 isolates of M. bovis obtained from Baja California, Mexico; 155 isolates were from cattle and 17 isolates were from humans. Spoligotypes were characterized in silico and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) differences between the isolates were evaluated. A total of 12 M. bovis spoligotype patterns were identified in cattle and humans. Two predominant spoligotypes patterns were seen in both cattle and humans: SB0145 and SB1040. The SB0145 spoligotype represented 59% of cattle isolates (n=91) and 65% of human isolates (n=11), while the SB1040 spoligotype represented 30% of cattle isolates (n=47) and 30% of human isolates (n=5). When evaluating SNP differences, the human isolates were intimately intertwined with the cattle isolates. All isolates from humans had spoligotype patterns that matched those observed in the cattle isolates, and all human isolates shared common ancestors with cattle in Baja California based on SNP analysis. This suggests that most human tuberculosis caused by M. bovis in Baja California is derived from M. bovis circulating in Baja California cattle. These results reinforce the importance of bovine tuberculosis surveillance and control in this region. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. NSAIDs acutely inhibit TRPC channels in freshly isolated rat glomeruli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilatovskaya, Daria V. [Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Institute of Cytology RAS, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Levchenko, Vladislav; Ryan, Robert P.; Cowley, Allen W. [Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Staruschenko, Alexander, E-mail: Staruschenko@mcw.edu [Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2011-05-06

    Highlights: {yields} We have established a unique approach to search for physiologically relevant mechanisms of TRPC channels in podocytes. {yields} This study describes endogenous TRPC channels in the isolated decapsulated glomeruli preparation. {yields} We report for the first time that NSAIDs inhibit TRPC channels in podocytes. -- Abstract: Using a novel approach for analysis of TRPC channel activity, we report here that NSAIDs are involved into regulation of TRPC channels in the podocytes of the freshly isolated decapsulated glomeruli. Fluorescence and electron microscopy techniques confirmed the integrity of podocytes in the glomeruli. Western blotting showed that TRPC1, 3 and 6 are highly expressed in the glomeruli. Single-channel patch clamp analysis revealed cation currents with distinct TRPC properties. This is the first report describing single TRPC-like currents in glomerular podocytes. Furthermore, our data provide a novel mechanism of NSAIDs regulation of TRPC channels, which might be implicated in maintaining the glomerular filtration barrier.

  4. Electrospray deposition of isolated chemically synthesized magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, Pierre; Meffre, Anca; Lacroix, Lise-Marie; Ugnati, Damien [Université de Toulouse (France); INSA, UPS, CNRS, Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie des Nano-objets (LPCNO) (France); Ondarçuhu, Thierry [Centre d’Elaboration de Matériaux et d’Etudes Structurales (CEMES-CNRS) (France); Respaud, Marc; Lassagne, Benjamin, E-mail: lassagne@insa-toulouse.fr [Université de Toulouse (France); INSA, UPS, CNRS, Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie des Nano-objets (LPCNO) (France)

    2016-01-15

    The deposition of isolated magnetic nanoparticles onto a substrate was performed using electrohydrodynamic spraying. Two kinds of nanoparticles were sprayed, 11 nm CoFe carbide nanospheres and 10.5 nm Fe nanocubes. By studying carefully the evolution of the sprayed charged droplets and the mechanism of nanoparticle dispersion in them, we could optimize the nanoparticle concentration within the initial nanoparticle solution (i) to reduce the magnetic interaction and therefore prevent agglomeration and (ii) to obtain in a relatively short period (1 h) a deposit of isolated magnetic nanoparticles with a density of up to 400 nanoparticles per µm{sup 2}. These results open great perspectives for magnetic measurements on single objects using advanced magnetometry techniques as long as spintronics applications based on single chemically synthesized magnetic nanoparticles.

  5. Isolated Systolic Hypertension: A Health Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isolated systolic hypertension: A health concern? Is having a high top number (systolic) blood pressure, but a normal bottom number (diastolic) ... mm Hg, you have a common type of high blood pressure called isolated systolic hypertension. Isolated systolic hypertension can ...

  6. Chronic polyarthritis as isolated manifestation of toxocariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Gabriela R; Giacomin, Maria Fernanda A; França, Camila M P; Sallum, Adriana M E; Jacob, Cristina M A; Silva, Clovis A

    2016-01-01

    Human toxocariasis is a parasitic zoonosis mainly caused by Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati and is acquired by ingestion of the parasite's embryonated eggs. Arthralgia and/or arthritis were reported in up to 17% of the cases, generally with acute duration (less than 6 weeks). However, to our knowledge, chronic polyarthritis, as the isolated presentation of Toxocara infection, was not reported. One of the 5809 patients that was followed up at our service (0.017%) had chronic polyarthritis as the single manifestation of toxocariasis and was described herein. A 3-year-old girl was referred to our service with severe painful chronic polyarthritis for a period longer than 10 weeks and morning stiffness of 30min. Dog contact exposure history in the recreational areas of neighborhood was reported. Her exams showed high levels of eosinophils in peripheral blood (29%), bone marrow aspirate revealed marked eosinophilia (32%) and Toxocara enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa) was positive (1:1280). She was treated with paracetamol (40mg/kg/day) and thiabendazole (25mg/kg/day) for 10 days, and all manifestations reduced. After eight months of follow-up, she was on clinical and laboratorial remission. In conclusion, we described a case of chronic polyarthritis, as isolated manifestation of toxocariasis, mimicking juvenile idiopathic arthritis and leukemia. Importantly, this zoonosis should be considered in patients with arthritis and eosinophilia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Gametic isolation in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, A M; Magurran, A E

    2006-10-07

    Post-mating reproductive isolating mechanisms may be among the earliest reproductive barriers to emerge among incipient species. Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata, populations in the Caroni and Oropouche drainages in Northern Trinidad exhibit marked genetic divergence and provide an ideal system in which to search for these barriers. We inseminated virgin females with equal amounts of sperm from two males, a 'native' male from the female's own population and a 'foreign' male from the other drainage. Artificial insemination ensured that mating order and mate choice did not affect the outcome. Paternities were assigned to the resulting broods using microsatellite markers. As predicted, sperm from native males had precedence over foreign sperm. Moreover, this effect was symmetrical for both drainages. In contrast, we detected no native sperm precedence in controls, in which females received sperm from the same and another population within the same drainage. Our results show that gametic isolation can arise between geographically proximate, though genetically divergent, populations of a single species and highlight the potential role of this process in speciation.

  8. Market study: Biological isolation garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The biological isolation garment was originally designed for Apollo astronauts to wear upon their return to earth from the moon to avoid the possibility of their contaminating the environment. The concept has been adapted for medical use to protect certain patients from environmental contamination and the risk of infection. The nature and size of the anticipated market are examined with certain findings and conclusions relative to clinical acceptability and potential commercial viability of the biological isolation garment.

  9. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 2. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy: Every Molecule is Different! Kankan Bhattacharyya. General Article Volume 20 Issue 2 February 2015 pp 151-164. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  10. Single Item Inventory Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Bazsa-Oldenkamp; P. den Iseger

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis paper extends a fundamental result about single-item inventory systems. This approach allows more general performance measures, demand processes and order policies, and leads to easier analysis and implementation, than prior research. We obtain closed form expressions for the

  11. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Pereira, Vania; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg

    2014-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent DNA sequence variations in the genome. They have been studied extensively in the last decade with various purposes in mind. In this chapter, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using SNPs for human identification...

  12. Single Value Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mader, Angelika H.; Dertien, Edwin Christian; Reidsma, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    We live in a world of continuous information overflow, but the quality of information and communication is suffering. Single value devices contribute to the information and communication quality by fo- cussing on one explicit, relevant piece of information. The information is decoupled from a

  13. Single Value Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mader, Angelika H.; Dertien, Edwin Christian; Reidsma, Dennis; Camurri, Antonio; Costa, Cristina

    We live in a world of continuous information overflow, but the quality of information and communication is suffering. Single value devices contribute to information and communication quality by focussing on one explicit, relevant piece of information. The information is decoupled from a computer and

  14. Single Value Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mader, Angelika H.; Reidsma, Dennis; Dertien, Edwin Christian; Volpe, G; Kolkmeier, Jan; Camurri, A.; Kolkmeier, Jan; Nijholt, Antinus

    2015-01-01

    We live in a world of continuous information overflow, but the quality of information and communication is suffering. Single value devices contribute to the information and communication quality by focussing on one explicit, relevant piece of information. The information is decoupled from a computer

  15. Beware the single hit!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The first time that single particle effects from cosmic rays on electronics were observed was in 1991, when one of the instruments aboard an ESA satellite broke down after only five days in space. On 5 July, the TS-LEA group will have completed the installation of monitors that will help to reduce similar dangerous effects on LHC electronics.

  16. Single reusable spacecraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Design of a my single person reusable spacecraft. It can carry one person and it has to be dropped from an aircraft at an altitude of 40,000 - 45,000 feet. Can be...

  17. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 2. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy: Every Molecule is Different! ... Author Affiliations. Kankan Bhattacharyya1. Department of Physical Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 India.

  18. Single photon and nonlocality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a paper by Home and Agarwal [1], it is claimed that quantum nonlocality can be revealed in a simple interferometry experiment using only single particles. A critical analysis of the concept of hidden variable used by the authors of [1] shows that the reasoning is not correct.

  19. Beyond the Single Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Yekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Teachers of world literature have the opportunity to help students explore the more complex reality behind the stereotypes that they often see in the media. If we don't encourage students to challenge one-dimensional "single stories" that characterize an entire people--whether Muslims, Russians, Mexicans, African Americans, Chinese,…

  20. The Exosome Total Isolation Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Vermesh, Ophir; Mani, Vigneshwaran; Ge, Tianjia J; Madsen, Steven J; Sabour, Andrew; Hsu, En-Chi; Gowrishankar, Gayatri; Kanada, Masamitsu; Jokerst, Jesse V; Sierra, Raymond G; Chang, Edwin; Lau, Kenneth; Sridhar, Kaushik; Bermudez, Abel; Pitteri, Sharon J; Stoyanova, Tanya; Sinclair, Robert; Nair, Viswam S; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Demirci, Utkan

    2017-11-28

    Circulating tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as a promising source for identifying cancer biomarkers for early cancer detection. However, the clinical utility of EVs has thus far been limited by the fact that most EV isolation methods are tedious, nonstandardized, and require bulky instrumentation such as ultracentrifugation (UC). Here, we report a size-based EV isolation tool called ExoTIC (exosome total isolation chip), which is simple, easy-to-use, modular, and facilitates high-yield and high-purity EV isolation from biofluids. ExoTIC achieves an EV yield ∼4-1000-fold higher than that with UC, and EV-derived protein and microRNA levels are well-correlated between the two methods. Moreover, we demonstrate that ExoTIC is a modular platform that can sort a heterogeneous population of cancer cell line EVs based on size. Further, we utilize ExoTIC to isolate EVs from cancer patient clinical samples, including plasma, urine, and lavage, demonstrating the device's broad applicability to cancers and other diseases. Finally, the ability of ExoTIC to efficiently isolate EVs from small sample volumes opens up avenues for preclinical studies in small animal tumor models and for point-of-care EV-based clinical testing from fingerprick quantities (10-100 μL) of blood.

  1. Design and test of a novel isolator with negative resistance electromagnetic shunt damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Bo; Zhang, Xinong; Niu, Hongpan

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a negative resistance electromagnetic shunt damping vibration isolator and investigates the effectiveness of the isolator. The isolator consists of a shunt circuit and a pair of electromagnet and permanent magnets that are pasted onto a box-shaped spring. A kind of negative resistance shunt impedance is proposed to cancel the inherent resistance of the electromagnet. The electromechanical coupling coefficient and the electromagnetic damping force calculation formula are obtained by Biot–Savart’s law and Ampère’s law, respectively. A single degree of freedom system is employed to verify the performance of the proposed isolator. The governing equation is established. The performance of the proposed isolator under a half-cycle sine pulse is investigated and discussed. Experiments were carried out and the results agreed well with the numerical predictions. Both the results demonstrate that the negative resistance electromagnetic shunt damping vibration isolator could suppress vibration transmitted to the structure effectively. (paper)

  2. Simultaneous infection of human host with genetically distinct isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Júnior

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first report on genetic differences between isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from a single patient. We describe a simultaneous infection with genetically distinct isolates of P. brasiliensis in a patient with chronic paracoccidioidomycosis. The clinical isolates were obtained from lesions in different anatomical sites and were characterised by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis. The RAPD technique can be helpful for distinguishing between clinical isolates. Different random primers were used to characterise these clinical isolates. The RAPD patterns allowed for differentiation between isolates and the construction of a phenetic tree, which showed more than 28% genetic variability in this fungal species, opening new possibilities for clinical studies of P. brasiliensis. Based on these results and preliminary clinical findings, we suggest that different genotypes of P. brasiliensis might infect the same patient, inducing the active form of the disease.

  3. Identification of factors that influence the stiffness of high-damping elastomer seismic isolation bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, R.F.; Hughes, T.H.

    1994-01-01

    During the past decade, high-damping elastomer, steel-laminated seismic isolation bearings have gained acceptance as a device for isolating large buildings and structures from earthquake damage. In the United States, architectural engineering firms custom design isolators for each project and ten have the isolators manufactured by one of less than a hand-full of manufactures. The stiffness of the bearing is the single most important design parameter that the molded bearing must meet because it determines the fundamental frequency of the isolation system. This paper reports on recent research that examined several factors that cause real and potential variations to the stiffness of the bearing. The resulting changes to the fundamental frequency of the isolated structure are quantified for each factor. The following were examined: (1) dimensional tolerances, (2) frequency effects, (3) temperature effects, (4) cyclical effects, and (5) aging effects. It was found that geometric variations barely affect the stiffness whereas temperature variations greatly affect the stiffness

  4. Identification of factors that influence the stiffness of high-damping elastomer seismic isolation bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulak, R.F.; Hughes, T.H.

    1994-06-01

    During the past decade, high-damping elastomer, steel-laminated seismic isolation bearings have gained acceptance as a device for isolating large buildings and structures from earthquake damage. In the United States, architectural engineering firms custom design isolators for each project and ten have the isolators manufactured by one of less than a hand-full of manufactures. The stiffness of the bearing is the single most important design parameter that the molded bearing must meet because it determines the fundamental frequency of the isolation system. This paper reports on recent research that examined several factors that cause real and potential variations to the stiffness of the bearing. The resulting changes to the fundamental frequency of the isolated structure are quantified for each factor. The following were examined: (1) dimensional tolerances, (2) frequency effects, (3) temperature effects, (4) cyclical effects, and (5) aging effects. It was found that geometric variations barely affect the stiffness whereas temperature variations greatly affect the stiffness.

  5. Experimental studies of the seismic response of structures incorporating base-isolation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, J.M.; Aiken, I.D. (University of California, Berkeley, CA (USA))

    1991-06-01

    This paper reviews some of the achievements of the Earthquake Engineering Research Center (EERC) at the University of California at Berkeley in the last few years. Component tests on single isolators are described. Tests on plain and high-damping natural-rubber bearings, lead-rubber bearings, sliding bearings, and bearings incorporating uplift resistance mechanisms have been performed. High-shear strain tests on large (up to full scale) elastomeric bearings have been conducted to determine the stability characteristics and limit states of the isolators. Performance evaluation studies using the earthquake simulator to test large-scale model isolated structures have been carried out for a variety of isolation systems and structures. Uplift studies of slender base-isolated buildings and investigation of the behavior of base-isolated skew bridge decks have been studied. This paper aims to highlight those areas where progress has been made. (orig./HP).

  6. Microfluidics-Enabled Enzyme Activity Measurement in Single Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesauro, Cinzia; Frøhlich, Rikke; Stougaard, Magnus; Ho, Yi-Ping; Knudsen, Birgitta R

    2015-01-01

    Cellular heterogeneity has presented a significant challenge in the studies of biology. While most of our understanding is based on the analysis of ensemble average, individual cells may process information and respond to perturbations very differently. Presented here is a highly sensitive platform capable of measuring enzymatic activity at the single-cell level. The strategy innovatively combines a rolling circle-enhanced enzyme activity detection (REEAD) assay with droplet microfluidics. The single-molecule sensitivity of REEAD allows highly sensitive detection of enzymatic activities, i.e. at the single catalytic event level, whereas the microfluidics enables isolation of single cells. Further, confined reactions in picoliter-sized droplets significantly improve enzyme extraction from human cells or microorganisms and result in faster reaction kinetics. Taken together, the described protocol is expected to open up new possibilities in the single-cell research, particularly for the elucidation of heterogeneity in a population of cells.

  7. Protein biosynthesis in isolated human scalp hair follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermorken, A J; Weterings, P J; Bloemendal, H

    1979-02-15

    The present study demonstrates that protein biosynthesis can be studied in single isolated human scalp hair follicles. The matrix and the sheath are the main regions where amino acids are built in. Incorporation is linear for at least five hours. The newly synthesized proteins can be separated into a water-soluble, a urea-soluble and a urea-insoluble fraction. Product analysis has been performed on the first two fractions, revealing different protein patterns.

  8. Isolation of Dermatophilus congolensis from a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, O; Kirkan, S; Unal, B

    2000-03-01

    Dermatophilus congolensis was isolated from a cat with dermatitis. The isolate was sensitive to oxytetracyclin, streptomycin and penicillin but resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamycin and cefoperazone.

  9. Geomorphology of Minnesota - Isolated Landform Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Geomorphology of Minnesota - Isolated Landform Structures are essentially cartographic arcs representing isolated glacial features that were mapped in conjunction...

  10. Overcrowding of false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) leads to the isolation of five new Cryptophlebia leucotreta granulovirus (CrleGV-SA) isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opoku-Debrah, John K; Hill, Martin P; Knox, Caroline; Moore, Sean D

    2013-03-01

    False codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) is a serious pest of economic importance to the South African fruit industry. As part of sustainable efforts to control this pest, biological control options that involve the application of baculovirus-based biopesticides such as Cryptogran and Cryptex (both formulated with a South African isolate of Cryptophlebia leucotreta granulovirus, CrleGV-SA) are popularly used by farmers. In order to safeguard the integrity of these biopesticides as well as protect against any future development of resistance in the host, we conducted a study to bioprospect for additional CrleGV isolates as alternatives to existing ones. Using overcrowding as an induction method for latent infection, we recovered five new CrleGV isolates (CrleGV-SA Ado, CrleGV-SA Mbl, CrleGV-SA Cit, CrleGV-SA MixC and CrleGV-SA Nels). Single restriction endonuclease (REN) analysis of viral genomic DNA extracted from purified occlusion bodies showed that isolates differed in their DNA profiles. Partial sequencing of granulin and egt genes from the different isolates and multiple alignments of nucleotide sequences revealed the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), some of which resulted in amino acid substitutions in the protein sequence. Based on these findings as well as comparisons with other documented CrleGV isolates, we propose two phylogenetic groups for CrleGV-SA isolates recovered in this study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterisation of successive Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from a deceased haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeon Jin; Kil, Min Cheol; Choi, Ji-Young; Kim, Sun Ju; Park, Ki-Sup; Kim, Yae-Jean; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2017-01-01

    In this study, 38 Acinetobacter baumannii isolates successively isolated from blood, skin swabs and tracheal aspirates from a single patient who died from haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis were investigated. The isolates were collected between March 2012 and August 2012. A. baumannii genotypes were determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and colistin heteroresistance and persistence were evaluated. The structure of AbaR resistance islands was explored, and serum sensitivity was determined. Based on MLST analysis, all 38 A. baumannii isolates showed the same sequence type (ST138). However, PFGE analysis showed that isolates from blood samples belonged to different genotypes depending on the isolation time: whilst blood isolates obtained at the early stages showed restriction patterns similar to those of isolates from other sources, isolates obtained at later stages exhibited a distinct pattern. All isolates were resistant to imipenem, cefepime, ciprofloxacin and piperacillin/tazobactam. Five isolates from tracheal aspirates and one from a skin swab were resistant to polymyxins, and two isolates from skin swabs and one from another source were non-susceptible to tigecycline. All colistin-susceptible isolates showed heteroresistance to colistin, and four were persisters. Isolates from blood showed higher survival rates against human serum than those from other sources. This study shows that the patient was infected with more than one A. baumannii strain. Heteroresistance, persistence or evasion of the innate immune response may explain the failure of antimicrobial treatments in this patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  12. Single sheet iron oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Zhou

    activity. LDH single sheets have been reported to be effective sorbents, catalysts in electrochemical and photochemical reactions, and building thin films together with other nanomaterials for designing new functionalities. Here we focus on the delamination of FeII-FeIII LDHs into single sheet iron oxide...... was rapid compared to other iron oxides, reaching equilibrium within 60 minutes. Arsenic sorption and acid-base titration data could be successfully described with a 1pk Basic Stern Model (BSM). The point of zero charge was around 8. The intrinsic surface complexation equilibrium constants (log K...... became abundant at low pH. (3) Electrochemical reduction of chlorinated compounds using an SSI modified electrode. Here, the electrochemical reactivity of SSIs coated on indium tin oxide coated glass electrodes was investigated. Iron on the SSI modified electrode showed a typical Cyclic Voltammetry...

  13. Single frequency semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Zujie; Chen, Gaoting; Qu, Ronghui

    2017-01-01

    This book systematically introduces the single frequency semiconductor laser, which is widely used in many vital advanced technologies, such as the laser cooling of atoms and atomic clock, high-precision measurements and spectroscopy, coherent optical communications, and advanced optical sensors. It presents both the fundamentals and characteristics of semiconductor lasers, including basic F-P structure and monolithic integrated structures; interprets laser noises and their measurements; and explains mechanisms and technologies relating to the main aspects of single frequency lasers, including external cavity lasers, frequency stabilization technologies, frequency sweeping, optical phase locked loops, and so on. It paints a clear, physical picture of related technologies and reviews new developments in the field as well. It will be a useful reference to graduate students, researchers, and engineers in the field.

  14. Watching single molecules dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Amit Dinesh

    Molecular motors convert chemical energy, from ATP hydrolysis or ion flow, into mechanical motion. A variety of increasingly precise mechanical probes have been developed to monitor and perturb these motors at the single molecule level. Several outstanding questions can be best approached at the single molecule level. These include: how far does a motor progress per energy quanta consumed? how does its reaction cycle respond to load? how many productive catalytic cycles can it undergo per diffusional encounter with its track? and what is the mechanical stiffness of a single molecule connection? A dual beam optical trap, in conjunction with in vitro ensemble motility assays, has been used to characterize two members of the myosin superfamily: muscle myosin II and chick brain myosin V. Both move the helical polymer actin, but myosin II acts in large ensembles to drive muscle contraction or cytokinesis, while myosin V acts in small numbers to transport vesicles. An optical trapping apparatus was rendered sufficiently precise to identify a myosin working stroke with 1nm or so, barring systematic errors such as those perhaps due to random protein orientations. This and other light microscopic motility assays were used to characterize myosin V: unlike myosin II this vesicle transport protein moves through many increments of travel while remaining strongly bound to a single actin filament. The step size, stall force, and travel distance of myosin V reveal a remarkably efficient motor capable of moving along a helical track for over a micrometer without significantly spiraling around it. Such properties are fully consistent with the putative role of an organelle transport motor, present in small numbers to maintain movement over long ranges relative to cellular size scales. The contrast between myosin II and myosin V resembles that between a human running on the moon and one walking on earth, where the former allows for faster motion when in larger ensembles but for less

  15. Single Purpose Satellite Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins, Warren

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines the need for tactically responsive space systems capable of supporting battlefield and fleet commanders. Terminology used to describe this category of satellite system varies according to organization or agency. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's Lightsat, the Naval Space Command's SPINSAT, and the Air Force Space Command s TACSAT, are reviewed. The United State Space Command's space support mission IS addressed and the role single-purpose satellites can play ...

  16. Use of Main Loop Isolating Valves (GZZS) in WWER 440

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanova, A.E.; Gencheva, R.V.; Groudev, P.P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the usage of Main Loop Isolation Valves in case of Steam Generator Tube Rupture accident in WWER440/V230. A double-ended single pipe break in SG-6 was chosen as representative. In the paper are investigated two cases. In the first one the operator isolates the affected loop by Main Loop Isolation Valves closing and after primary depressurization re-opens them to cooldown the damaged Steam Generator. The second case treats the situation, where Main Loop Isolation Valves fail to close with the necessary operator actions for managing plant recovery. RELAP5/MOD3.2 computer code has been used to simulate the Steam Generator Tube Rupture accident in WWER440 NPP model. This model was developed and validated at Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The results of analyses presented in this report demonstrate that in the both cases (with or without Main Loop Isolation Valves usage) the operator could bring the plant to stable and safety conditions (Authors)

  17. Single rotor turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts, David A.

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented a turbine engine with a single rotor which cools the engine, functions as a radial compressor, pushes air through the engine to the ignition point, and acts as an axial turbine for powering the compressor. The invention engine is designed to use a simple scheme of conventional passage shapes to provide both a radial and axial flow pattern through the single rotor, thereby allowing the radial intake air flow to cool the turbine blades and turbine exhaust gases in an axial flow to be used for energy transfer. In an alternative embodiment, an electric generator is incorporated in the engine to specifically adapt the invention for power generation. Magnets are embedded in the exhaust face of the single rotor proximate to a ring of stationary magnetic cores with windings to provide for the generation of electricity. In this alternative embodiment, the turbine is a radial inflow turbine rather than an axial turbine as used in the first embodiment. Radial inflow passages of conventional design are interleaved with radial compressor passages to allow the intake air to cool the turbine blades.

  18. Evidence of heterozygosity and recombinant alleles in single cysts of Giardia duodenalis

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, Juliana Martins; Silva, Sheila Oliveira; Santos, Valdir Azevedo dos; Taniwaki, Sueli Akemi; Oliveira, Tricia Maria Ferreira de Sousa; Ferreira, Helena Lage; Keid, Lara Borges; Gregori, Fábio; Soares, Rodrigo Martins

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Giardia duodenalis is divided into eight assemblages (named A to H). Isolates of assemblage A are divided into four sub-assemblages (AI, AII, AIII and AIV). While isolates of sub-assemblage AII are almost exclusively detected in human hosts, isolates of assemblage B are encountered in a multitude of animal hosts and humans. Here, we isolated single cysts of G. duodenalis from a human stool sample and found that one of them had overlaps of assemblage AII and B alleles and an unexpecte...

  19. Prevotella aurantiaca sp. nov., isolated from the human oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Suzuki, Natsuko; Okamoto, Masaaki

    2010-03-01

    Two anaerobic, pigmented, non-spore-forming, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped strains isolated from the human oral cavity, OMA31(T) and OMA130, were characterized by determining their phenotypic and biochemical features, cellular fatty acid profiles and phylogenetic positions based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the new isolates belonged to a single species of the genus Prevotella. The two isolates showed 100 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with each other and were most closely related to Prevotella intermedia ATCC 25611(T) with 96.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity; the next most closely related strains to the isolates were Prevotella pallens AHN 10371(T) (96.1 %) and Prevotella falsenii JCM 15124(T) (95.3 %). Phenotypic and biochemical characteristics of the isolates were the same as those of P. intermedia JCM 12248(T), P. falsenii JCM 15124(T) and Prevotella nigrescens JCM 12250(T). The isolates could be differentiated from P. pallens JCM 11140( T) by mannose fermentation and alpha-fucosidase activity. Conventional biochemical tests were unable to differentiate the new isolates from P. intermedia, P. falsenii and P. nigrescens. However, hsp60 gene sequence analysis suggested that strain OMA31(T) was not a representative of P. intermedia, P. pallens, P. falsenii or P. nigrescens. Based on these data, a novel species of the genus Prevotella, Prevotella aurantiaca sp. nov., is proposed, with OMA31(T) (=JCM 15754(T)=CCUG 57723(T)) as the type strain.

  20. Uniform Single Valued Neutrosophic Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Broumi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new concept named the uniform single valued neutrosophic graph. An illustrative example and some properties are examined. Next, we develop an algorithmic approach for computing the complement of the single valued neutrosophic graph. A numerical example is demonstrated for computing the complement of single valued neutrosophic graphs and uniform single valued neutrosophic graph.

  1. Characterization and lytic activity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA phages isolated from NICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnar Rahimzadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a well-known pathogen that causes serious diseases in humans. As part of the efforts to control this pathogen, an isolated bacteriophage, Siphoviridae, which specifically targets Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, was characterized. Aims The objective of this study was to characterize of a virulent bacteriophage (Siphoviridae isolated from a NICU bathroom sink. Methods The MRSA strain was isolated from patient blood. The isolated strain was confirmed as MRSA using conventional methods. Phages were isolated from a NICU bathroom sink and activity was lytic as determined by spot test. Titer phage lysate was measured by the Double Layer Agar (DLA technique. The morphology was found with electron microscopy. The single-step growth curve was plotted. Results Electron microscopy showed the phage as a member of the family Siphoviridae, serogroup A and F. The isolated phage was capable of lytic activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strain as shown by spot test. By DLA, the titre of the phages was determined to be 10×108PFU/ml. The single-step growth curve showed that the latent period of the isolated bacteriophage was 30 min and the total number of viable progeny per infected host, burst size, was 2600 PFU/infected host. Conclusion In this study, two phages were isolated and characterized from a NICU bathroom sink, from the Siphoviridae family, which specifically targetsmethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA.

  2. A fast converging adaptive control scheme for suppression of broadband disturbances on a multi-variable vibration isolation setup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, G.; van Dijk, J.; Jonker, J.B.; Sas, P.; De Munck, M.

    2006-01-01

    For research and development, a single reference input multiple actuator input multiple error sensor output vibration isolation setup is realized. The objective of the setup is to investigate if the flexible receiver structure can be isolated from the rigid source structure by six piezo-electric

  3. Isolated Echinococcosis of cervical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratima Khare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis, commonly called as hydatid disease, is a parasitic infestation caused by the larva of the genus Echinococcus in human. Isolated occurrence of Echinococcosis without any evidence of visceral disease is very rare. A thorough search of the literature revealed only 11 cases of isolated cervical Echinococcosis. We report here a very rare case of isolated hydatid cyst in a 45-year-old female patient, who presented with swelling in right cervical region about 5 cm below the angle of mandible with no evidence of the disease elsewhere in the body. The case was diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology. The diagnosis was further supported by histopathology. We propose that the treating physician should also consider the differential diagnosis of Echinococcosis in the presence of an asymptomatic soft tissue mass, especially when the patient lives in an endemic area.

  4. Subcellular western blotting of single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Kevin A; Herr, Amy E

    2017-01-01

    Although immunoassays are the de facto standard for determining subcellular protein localization in individual cells, antibody probe cross-reactivity and fixation artifacts remain confounding factors. To enhance selectivity while providing single-cell resolution, we introduce a subcellular western blotting technique capable of separately assaying proteins in the 14 pL cytoplasm and 2 pL nucleus of individual cells. To confer precision fluidic control, we describe a passive multilayer microdevice that leverages the rapid transport times afforded by miniaturization. After isolating single cells in microwells, we apply single-cell differential detergent fractionation to lyse and western blot the cytoplasmic lysate, whereas the nucleus remains intact in the microwell. Subsequently, we lyse the intact nucleus and western blot the nuclear lysate. To index each protein analysis to the originating subcellular compartment, we utilize bi-directional electrophoresis, a multidimensional separation that assays the lysate from each compartment in a distinct region of the separation axis. Single-cell bi-directional electrophoresis eliminates the need for semi-subjective image segmentation algorithms required in immunocytochemistry. The subcellular, single-cell western blot is demonstrated for six targets per cell, and successfully localizes spliceosome-associated proteins solubilized from large protein and RNA complexes, even for closely sized proteins (a 7 kDa difference). Measurement of NF-κB translocation dynamics in unfixed cells at 15-min intervals demonstrates reduced technical variance compared with immunofluorescence. This chemical cytometry assay directly measures the nucleocytoplasmic protein distribution in individual unfixed cells, thus providing insight into protein signaling in heterogeneous cell populations.

  5. Always single and single again women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, K G; Moon, S

    1997-04-01

    What is it like to be a single woman today? Are the experiences of women who have always been single different from those who find themselves single again after having been married? How can family therapists promote the development of single women both individually and relationally? The purpose of this phenomenological, multiple-case study was to investigate perceptions of being single among heterosexual single women between the ages of 30 and 65. Nine focus group interviews and a semistructured, mailed questionnaire were used to collect the data. Constant comparative analyses were used to develop the findings. The findings were organized around the most salient theme that emerged from the analyses: single women have unresolved or unrecognized ambivalences about being single. This overarching theme was supported by three subassertions: (a) single women are aware of both the advantages and the drawbacks of being single; (b) single women are ambivalent about the reasons for their singleness; (c) although content with being single, many women simultaneously experience feelings of loss and grief. Implications for the clinical practice of family therapy and future research on single women are discussed.

  6. Isolation, purification, characterization, and physiological behavior of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work was devoted for isolation, characterization, and studying physiological behavior of drinking water borne pathogenic bacteria isolated from tap and cooling water. Total of 171 bacterial isolates were isolated from twenty nine different localities on eight common and specific agar media (Nutrient, Salmonella ...

  7. Isolation, characterization and identification of actinomycetes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 62 isolates of actinomycetes were isolated from 7 soil samples collected from Agriculture Research Center Semongok, Sarawak. All 62 isolates exhibited a range of colony colours (dark grey, grey, dark brown, brownish, whitish and yellowish white). All the isolates were later purified and subjected to a few ...

  8. Completely Isolated? Health Information Seeking among Social Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Campo, Shelly; Carter, Knute D.

    2011-01-01

    To better target messages it is important to determine where people seek their health information. Interpersonal networks are a common way most people gather health information, but some people have limited networks. Using data from the 2004 General Social Survey (N = 984), we compared social isolates and nonisolates in their health…

  9. Isolation and screening of fungal isolates from bambara ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to isolate tannase producing fungal species using Bambara nuts as a substrate in a bid to finding alternatives to the importation of tannase. Fresh Bambara nuts were collected from different locations in Nigeria. They were cleaned, sorted and intermittently moistened with water to encourage fungal ...

  10. Spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyspepsia with mild, stabbing epigastric discomfort without history of trauma is a very common symptom that emergency physicians see in their daily practice. Vascular emergencies, mostly the aortic dissection and aneurysm, are always described in the differential diagnosis with persistent symptoms. Isolated celiac artery dissection occurring spontaneously is a very rare diagnosis. The involvement of branch vessels is generally observed and patients show various clinical signs and symptoms according to the involved branch vessel. Here we are presenting a case with spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection, without any branch vessel involvement or visceral damage, detected by computed tomography scans taken on admission.

  11. Isolated complete corpus callosal agenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiganesh S, Venkateshwaran A, Naresh Kumar C, Rajasekhar KV

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Isolated complete corpus callosal agenesis is a rare entity. Usually this condition will be an associated finding in other syndromes. 3 month old male child came with complaints of deformed foot on both sides, not having a social smile and neck holding. Patient referred to the Radiology department for MRI brain which showed complete absence of corpus callosum, widely separated and parallely placed lateral ventricles, colpocephaly, high riding of 3rd ventricle and absence of cingulate gyrus and radial arrangement of gyri along the interhemispheric fissure. Hence it was reported as isolated complete corpus callosal agenesis and this article describes the Embryogenesis, anatomy, developmental anomalies and its clinical manifestations & prognosis.

  12. Isolation contactor state control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2017-05-16

    A controller area network (CAN) installed on a hybrid electric vehicle provides one node with control of high voltage power distribution system isolation contactors and the capacity to energize a secondary electro-mechanical relay device. The output of the secondary relay provides a redundant and persistent backup signal to the output of the node. The secondary relay is relatively immune to CAN message traffic interruptions and, as a result, the high voltage isolation contactor(s) are less likely to transition open in the event that the intelligent output driver should fail.

  13. Isolation and Cultivation of Anaerobes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aragao Börner, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms play important roles in different biotechnological processes. Their complex metabolism and special cultivation requirements have led to less isolated representatives in comparison to their aerobic counterparts.In view of that, the isolation and cultivation of anaerobic...... microorganisms is still a promising venture, and conventional methodologies as well as considerations and modifications are presented here. An insight into new methodologies and devices as well as a discussion on future perspectives for the cultivation of anaerobes may open the prospects of the exploitation...... of these microorganisms as a source for biotechnology....

  14. Active Fault Isolation in MIMO Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2014-01-01

    Active fault isolation of parametric faults in closed-loop MIMO system s are considered in this paper. The fault isolation consists of two steps. T he first step is group- wise fault isolation. Here, a group of faults is isolated from other pos sible faults in the system. The group-wise fault...... isolation is based directly on the input/output s ignals applied for the fault detection. It is guaranteed that the fault group includes the fault that had occurred in the system. The second step is individual fault isolation in the fault group . Both types of isolation are obtained by applying dedicated...

  15. Molecular characterization of Mycoplasma synoviae isolates from commercial chickens in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourbakhsh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Detection of Mycoplasma synoviae (MS by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR has been reported from commercial chicken farms in different provinces of Iran. In some reports the phylogenetic analysis of MS isolates based on 16S rRNA and variable lipoprotein hemagglutinin (vlhA genes have been carried out. The PCR product containing partial 16S rRNA genes of Iranain isolates was sequenced, and compared with 16S rRNA gene of MS sequences which were available in GenBank. Variations, polymorphisms, and differences between nucleotides of all isolates were observed. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences showed that all MS isolates from Iran were most closely related to sequences of MS from Brazil. Sequence analysis of the N-terminal end of the hemagglutinin encoding gene vlhA were also used as an alternative for the detection and initial typing of field strains of MS in commercial poultry. The results showed that there was a complete concordance between all Iranian isolates nucleotide sequence and the 5́-vlhA region sequence remained unchanged in all MS isolates and demonstrated differentiation between Iranian isolates and live commercial MS-H vaccine strain. More recently, the single-copy domain of the conserved region of vlhA gene in MS was sequenced, analyzed and verified to type MS field isolates in Iran and live vaccine MS-H strain. In addition, a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP method was established based on single nucleotide polymorphism that existed in all field isolates of Iran to differentiate between these field isolates and MS-H. This PCR-RFLP method allowed differentiating all MS field isolates from the vaccine strain.

  16. Single Electrode Heat Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Torben; Broers, G. H. J.

    1977-01-01

    The heat evolution at a single irreversibly working electrode is treated onthe basis of the Brønsted heat principle. The resulting equation is analogous to the expression for the total heat evolution in a galvanic cellwith the exception that –DeltaS is substituted by the Peltier entropy, Delta......SP, of theelectrode reaction. eta is the overvoltage at the electrode. This equation is appliedto a high temperature carbonate fuel cell. It is shown that the Peltier entropyterm by far exceeds the heat production due to the irreversible losses, and thatthe main part of heat evolved at the cathode is reabsorbed...

  17. Trapping and manipulating single molecules of DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Min Ju

    This thesis presents the development and application of nanoscale techniques to trap and manipulate biomolecules, with a focus on DNA. These methods combine single-molecule microscopy and nano- and micro-fabrication to study biophysical properties of DNA and proteins. The Dimple Machine is a lab-on-a-chip device that can isolate and confine a small number of molecules from a bulk solution. It traps molecules in nanofabricated chambers, or "dimples", and the trapped molecules are then studied on a fluorescence microscope at the single-molecule level. The sampling of bulk solution by dimples is representative, reproducible, and automated, enabling highthroughput single-molecule experiments. The device was applied to study hybridization of oligonucleotides, particularly in the context of reaction thermodynamics and kinetics in nanoconfinement. The DNA Pulley is a system to study protein binding and the local mechanical properties of DNA. A molecule of DNA is tethered to a surface on one end, and a superparamagnetic bead is attached to the other. A magnet pulls the DNA taut, and a silicon nitride knife with a nanoscale blade scans the DNA along its contour. Information on the local properties of the DNA is extracted by tracking the bead with nanometer precision in a white-light microscope. The system can detect proteins bound to DNA and localize their recognition sites, as shown with a model protein, EcoRI restriction enzyme. Progress on the measurements of nano-mechanical properties of DNA is included.

  18. Single Hadron Response Measurement in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Starovoitov, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Single hadron response measurement in minimum bias proton-proton collisions at a center of mass energy of $sqrt{s}=7$~TeV are presented. Together with test-beam results, these measurement form the basis to evaluate the calorimeter energy response uncertainty of jets at high transverse momenta. A novel technique to evaluate the jet energy response from the single particle response will be presented. The single hadrons response is measured in the momentum range of 0.5 to about 20~GeV in-situ, by comparing the calorimeter response of all energy deposits in a cone around an isolated track with the more precisely measured track momenta. The agreement between data and Monte Carlo simulation is on the level of a few percent. Using kaon and $Lambda$ particles, the calorimeter response of identified pions, proton and anti-proton is studied. The MC simulation describes the energy response of pions and protons well, but differences are observed for anti-protons. It is discussed how the jet calorimeter response uncertain...

  19. Single hadron response measurements in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Sousa, M J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Single hadron response measurement in minimum bias proton-proton collisions at a center of mass energy of sqrt(s)=7 TeV are presented. Together with test-beam results these measurement form the basis to evaluate the calorimeter response uncertainty of jets at high transverse momenta. The novel technique to evaluate the jet from the single particle response will be presented. The single hadrons response is measured in the momentum range of 0.5 to about 20 GeV in-situ by comparing the calorimeter response of all energy deposits in a cone around an isolated track with the precisely measured track momenta. The agreement between data and Monte Carlo simulation is on the level of a few percent. Using kaon and Lambda particles the calorimeter response of identified pions, proton and anti-proton The MC simulation describes pions and protons well, but differences are observed for anti-protons. It is discuss how the jet calorimeter response uncertainty and it correlation between tranverse momentum bins is determined fr...

  20. Detection of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens type A isolates in American retail foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qiyi; McClane, Bruce A

    2004-05-01

    Currently there is only limited understanding of the reservoirs for Clostridium perfringens type A food poisoning. A recent survey (Y.-T. Lin and R. Labbe, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:1642-1646, 2003) of non-outbreak American retail foods did not identify the presence of a single C. perfringens isolate carrying the enterotoxin gene (cpe) necessary for causing food poisoning. The present study revisited this issue, using revised methodology and food sampling strategies. In our survey, cpe-positive C. perfringens isolates were detected in approximately 1.4% of approximately 900 surveyed non-outbreak American retail foods. Interestingly, those enterotoxigenic isolates in non-outbreak foods appear indistinguishable from C. perfringens isolates known to cause food poisoning outbreaks: i.e., the enterotoxigenic retail food isolates all carry a chromosomal cpe gene, are classified as type A, and exhibit exceptional heat resistance. Collectively, these findings indicate that some American foods are contaminated, at the time of retail purchase, with C. perfringens isolates having full potential to cause food poisoning. Furthermore, demonstrating that type A isolates carrying a chromosomal cpe gene are the enterotoxigenic isolates most commonly present in foods helps to explain why these isolates (rather than type A isolates carrying a plasmid cpe gene or cpe-positive type C or D isolates) are strongly associated with food poisoning outbreaks. Finally, since type A chromosomal cpe isolates present in the surveyed raw foods exhibited strong heat resistance, it appears that exceptional heat resistance is not a survivor trait selected for by cooking but is instead an intrinsic trait possessed by many type A chromosomal cpe isolates.

  1. Variability in tolerance to UV-B radiation among Beauveria spp. isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Everton K K; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Moraes, Aurea M L; Bittencourt, Vânia R E P; Roberts, Donald W

    2007-11-01

    Solar radiation, particularly the UV-B component, negatively affects survival of entomopathogenic fungi in the field. In an effort to identify Beauveria spp. isolates with promise for use in biological control settings with high insolation, we examined 53 Beauveria bassiana isolates, 7 isolates of 4 other Beauveria spp. and Engyodontium albus (=Beauveria alba). The origins of these fungi varied widely as to host/substrate and country, but approximately 30% of these isolates were B. bassiana from ticks in Brazil. A preliminary trial with three B. bassiana isolates (Bb 19, CG 310 and CG 481) at several UV-B dosages indicated that 2h of weighted UV-B irradiance at 978mWm(-2) (providing a total dose of 7.04kJm(-2)) allowed separation of isolates into low, medium or high UV-B tolerance. This dose, therefore, was selected as a single dose to compare UV-B tolerances of all 60 Beauveria spp. isolates. There was high variability in tolerance to UV-B radiation among the B. bassiana isolates, ranging from virtually zero tolerance (e.g., Bb 03) to almost 80% tolerance (e.g., CG 228). In addition, surviving B. bassiana conidia demonstrated delayed germination; and this is likely to reduce virulence. Conidia of the other species were markedly more sensitive to UV-B, with E. albus (UFPE 3138) being the least UV-B tolerant. Among B. bassiana isolates originating from 0 degrees to 22 degrees latitudes, those from lower latitudes demonstrated statistically significant greater UV-B tolerances than those isolates from higher latitudes. Isolates from above 22 degrees , however, were unaffected by latitude of origin. A similar analysis based on host type did not indicate a correlation between original host and UV-B tolerance. The identification in this study of several B. bassiana isolates with relatively high UV-B tolerance will guide the selection of isolates for future arthropod microbial control experiments.

  2. Serotyping and analysis of produced pigments kinds by Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković-Nedeljković Nataša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa is devided into 20 serotypes on the base of the International Antigenic Typing Scheme. P. aeruginosa serotyping is important because of few reasons but epidemiological is the most important. The aim of the study was serotyping of P. aeruginosa clinical isolates, analysing of single clinical isolates P. aeruginosa present in the particular samples, and analysing of pyocianin and fluorescin production in different isolates of P. aeruginosa. Methods. A total of 223 isolates of P. aeruginosa, isolated in the microbiological laboratory of the Health Center “Aleksinac”, Aleksinac, were examinated. P. aeruginosa isolates were put on the pseudomonas isolation agar, pseudomonas agar base, acetamid agar, asparagin prolin broth, pseudomonas asparagin broth, Bushnnell-Haas agar, cetrimid agar base, King A and King B plates, plates for pyocianin production, plates for fluorescin production and tripticasa soya agar (Himedia. Polyvalent and monovalent serums were used in the agglutination (Biorad. Pigment production was analysed on the bases of growth on the plates for pyocianin and fluorescin production. Results. Serologically, we identificated the serovars as follows: O1, O3, O4, O5, O6, O7, O8, O10, O11 and O12. O1 (38% was the most often serovar, then O11 (19% and O6 (8.6%. A total of 18.6% (42 isolates did not agglutinate with any serum, whereas 21 isolates agglutinated only with polyvalent serum. The majority of P. aeruginosa isolates produced fluorescin, 129 (58.54%, 53 (22.94% produced pyocianin whereas 49 (21.21% isolates produced both pigments. Conclusion. P. aeruginosa was isolated most of the from urine, sputum and other materials. The majority often serovars were O1, O6 and O11. The most of isolates produced fluorescin (58.54%, while 22.94% producted pyocianin and 21.21% both pigments.

  3. Single photons on demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grangier, P.; Abram, I.

    2004-01-01

    Quantum cryptography and information processing are set to benefit from developments in novel light sources that can emit photons one by one. Quantum mechanics has gained a reputation for making counter-intuitive predictions. But we rarely get the chance to witness these effects directly because, being humans, we are simply too big. Take light, for example. The light sources that are familiar to us, such as those used in lighting and imaging or in CD and DVD players, are so huge that they emit billions and billions of photons. But what if there was a light source that emitted just one photon at a time? Over the past few years, new types of light source that are able to emit photons one by one have been emerging from laboratories around the world. Pulses of light composed of a single photon correspond to power flows in the femtowatt range - a million billion times less than that of a table lamp. The driving force behind the development of these single-photon sources is a range of novel applications that take advantage of the quantum nature of light. Quantum states of superposed and entangled photons could lead the way to guaranteed-secure communication, to information processing with unprecedented speed and efficiency, and to new schemes for quantum teleportation. (U.K.)

  4. Single-borehole techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, D.; Moser, H.; Trimborn, P.

    1978-01-01

    Proceeding on the theoretical considerations and on the experience and practice derived from laboratory and field testing, a system consisting of tracer injection units, detector units, measuring probe units and packers is presented, from which the different borehole probes required can be combined. A couple of examples of recent applications shows the position of the Single-Borehole Techniques with respect to the traditional methods used for the measurement of the ground-water flow. A confrontation of the permeabilities of different aquifers consents, both on the basis of the Single-Borehole Techniques as by pumping experiments, the determination of the reliability of the Point-Dilution-Method. The Point-Dilution-Method is giving information about the vertical and horizontal distribution of the permeabilities in an aquifer. By measuring the vertical current in two karst wells, the tributary horizons of a well have been determined, which gave valuable information for the subsequent well construction. Local leakages could be detected by measuring the vertical flow rate through observation wells arranged along a grout curtain erected on both sides of the retaining barrage of the Keban dam. (orig.) [de

  5. New Volvovirus Isolates from Acheta domesticus (Japan) and Gryllus assimilis (United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hanh T; Iwao, Hajime; Bergoin, Max; Tijssen, Peter

    2013-06-27

    A novel circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus, volvovirus, from the house cricket has been described recently. Here, we report the isolation of volvoviruses from Acheta domesticus in Japan and Gryllus assimilis in the United States. These Acheta domesticus volvovirus (AdVVV) isolates have genomes of 2,517 and 2,516 nucleotides (nt) and 4 large open reading frames (ORFs).

  6. New Volvovirus Isolates from Acheta domesticus (Japan) and Gryllus assimilis (United States)

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Hanh T.; Iwao, Hajime; Bergoin, Max; Tijssen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A novel circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus, volvovirus, from the house cricket has been described recently. Here, we report the isolation of volvoviruses from Acheta domesticus in Japan and Gryllus assimilis in the United States. These Acheta domesticus volvovirus (AdVVV) isolates have genomes of 2,517 and 2,516 nucleotides (nt) and 4 large open reading frames (ORFs).

  7. Dual window approach with two-side screw fixation for isolated talonavicular arthrodesis

    OpenAIRE

    van den Broek, Mathias; Vandeputte, Geoffroy; Somville, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Isolated talonavicular arthrodesis is a commonly performed surgical intervention. Nonunion is a dreaded complication. The aim of the present study was to analyze the clinical and radiologic outcome of talonavicular arthrodesis using a dual approach with 2-side screw fixation. From February 2012 to September 2014, isolated talonavicular arthrodesis was performed on 17 joints of 16 patients (mean age 59.12 years). All procedures were performed by a single surgeon. The incidence of uni...

  8. Isolated tricuspid valve infective endocarditis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-07-07

    Jul 7, 1990 ... Case 2. Initial chest radiograph showing rounded shadows with cavitation. Fig. 2. Case 2. Chest radiograph showing progression to effusion. nuc/eacum was Isolated from repeated blood cultures. Two- dimensional echocardiography revealed vegetations on the tricuspid valve (Fig. 3). The patient was now ...

  9. Isolated tricuspid valve infective endocarditis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-07-07

    Jul 7, 1990 ... A report of 6 cases. D. P. NAIDOO,. I. P. NAICKER,. S. NAICKER, S. VYTHYLlNGUM,. M. A. K. OMAR, A. S. MITHA. F. HASSEN,. Summary. Six cases of isolated tricuspid valve endocarditis in young women are described. Preceding ... friction rub, became hypotensive and died. At autopsy vegetations were ...

  10. JBS Haldane: an isolated souvenir

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 96; Issue 5. J. B. S. Haldane: an isolated souvenir. P. P. DIVAKARAN. HALDANE AT 125 Volume 96 Issue 5 November 2017 pp 733-733. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jgen/096/05/0733-0733. Keywords.

  11. Physical isolation with virtual support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wearne, Susan M.; Teunissen, Pim W.; Dornan, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Changing the current geographical maldistribution of the medical workforce is important for global health. Research regarding programs that train doctors for work with disadvantaged, rural populations is needed. This paper explores one approach of remote supervision of registrars in isol...

  12. Optical isolation by Faraday rotator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Takeshi; Matsushima, Isao; Nemoto, Fusashi; Yano, Masaaki

    1984-01-01

    Three Faraday rotators designed as optical isolators in a high power glass laser system are described. The spatial fluctuation of applied magnetic field is less than 1% throughout the Faraday glass rod. The Faraday rotators transmit more than 80% of the forward-going laser light and reject more than 96% of the backward-going light. (author)

  13. Heralded single-photon absorption by a single atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, N.; Rohde, F.; Schuck, C.; Almendros, M.; Huwer, J.; Ghosh, J.; Haase, A.; Hennrich, M.; Dubin, F.; Eschner, J.

    2011-01-01

    Emission and absorption of single photons by single atoms is a fundamental limit of matter-light interaction, manifesting its quantum mechanical nature. As a controlled process, it is also a key tool in quantum optical information technology . Controlled single-photon emission is well advanced ; for controlled single-photon absorption by a single atom, proposals exist but only preliminary experimental steps have been taken . Here we report the absorption of single photons by a single trapped ion: employing a photon pair source, detection of the quantum-correlated partner photon heralds the presence of the resonant photon at the atom. We find clear correlations between the detection of the herald and the absorption process in the atom; we also demonstrate polarization control of this process. Our experiment evidences previously unexplored interaction between a single absorber and a quantum light source; with improved control over the coupling, it will open up new avenues in quantum technology.

  14. Quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Hannemann

    Full Text Available During cancer progression, specific genomic aberrations arise that can determine the scope of the disease and can be used as predictive or prognostic markers. The detection of specific gene amplifications or deletions in single blood-borne or disseminated tumour cells that may give rise to the development of metastases is of great clinical interest but technically challenging. In this study, we present a method for quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cells. Cells were isolated under permanent microscopic control followed by high-fidelity whole genome amplification and subsequent analyses by fine tiling array-CGH and qPCR. The assay was applied to single breast cancer cells to analyze the chromosomal region centred by the therapeutical relevant EGFR gene. This method allows precise quantitative analysis of copy number variations in single cell diagnostics.

  15. Trends in antimicrobial susceptibility among isolates of Campylobacter species in Ireland and the emergence of resistance to ciprofloxacin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lucey, B

    2012-02-03

    Measurements were made of the susceptibility to six commonly prescribed antibiotics, including erythromycin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin, of 130 isolates of Campylobacterjejuni and 15 isolates of Campylobacter coli cultured from human and poultry sources during 2000. The results were compared with the results from a collection of strains isolated between 1996 and 1998. The levels of resistance to erythromycin remained low, 2 per cent and 4.4 per cent for the human and poultry isolates, respectively. Resistance to tetracycline had increased to 31 per cent and 24.4 per cent from 13.9 per cent and 18.8 per cent for the human and poultry isolates, respectively. However, the resistance to ciprofloxacin of the strains isolated during 2000 had increased to 30 per cent, whereas between 1996 and 1998 there had been no resistance to this agent among human isolates, and only 3.1 per cent resistance among poultry isolates. The molecular basis for this resistance has been shown to be the result of a single amino acid substitution, Thr-86-Ile, in the gyrA subunit of DNA gyrase in Cjejuni. A subset of 59 isolates was tested by molecular methods and all of the 25 phenotypically resistant isolates possessed this substitution. None of the human isolates had been treated with ciprofloxacin before their laboratory isolation.

  16. What does an isolated cerebrospinal fluid band mean: a tertiary centre experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turan Poyraz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The presence of oligoclonal bands in cerebrospinal fluid of multiple sclerosis patients is now well established to support the clinical diagnosis. On the other hand, a single band response can represent the initial stage of an oligoclonal response, before the other antibody clones become visible. Method: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the presence of an isolated cerebrospinal fluid single immunoglobulin band, and to analyse the clinical and radiological diagnosis of the samples with a single immunoglobulin band. In this study, 3524 cerebrospinal fluid samples were re-examined using agarose gel isoelectric focusing, and ones with an isolated cerebrospinal fluid immunoglobulin band were detected. Results: A single band in cerebrospinal fluid was detected in 1.4% samples. A clinically isolated syndrome was diagnosed in 27.5%of them, relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis in 49%, secondary progressive multiple sclerosis in 11.8%, and radiologically isolated syndrome in 2%. No primary progressive multiple sclerosis patient was found. All Barkhoff criteria were met in 90.1% of them. The remaining were diagnosed with other inflammatory neurological diseases (9.8%. Conclusion: The presence of an isolated cerebrospinal fluid monoclonal immunoglobulin band is rare. Although most of the samples were diagnosed as multiple sclerosis according to both clinical and paraclinical (magnetic resonance imaging parameters, they had only a single immunoglobulin band in cerebrospinal fluid. Not only oligoclonal bands, but also an isolated cerebrospinal fluid single band might be a cornerstone for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis at least for some patients.

  17. Distribution of Florfenicol Resistance Genes fexA and cfr among Chloramphenicol-Resistant Staphylococcus Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrenberg, Corinna; Schwarz, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    A total of 302 chloramphenicol-resistant Staphylococcus isolates were screened for the presence of the florfenicol/chloramphenicol resistance genes fexA and cfr and their localization on mobile genetic elements. Of the 114 isolates from humans, only a single Staphylococcus aureus isolate showed an elevated MIC to florfenicol, but did not carry either of the known resistance genes, cfr or fexA. In contrast, 11 of the 188 staphylococci from animal sources were considered florfenicol resistant and carried either cfr (one isolate), fexA (five isolates), or both resistance genes (five isolates). In nine cases we confirmed that these genes were carried on a plasmid. Five different types of plasmids could be differentiated on the basis of their sizes, restriction patterns, and resistance genes. The gene fexA, which has previously been shown to be part of the nonconjugative transposon Tn558, was identified in 10 of the 11 resistant isolates from animals. PCR assays were developed to detect different parts of this transposon as well as their physical linkage. Complete copies of Tn558 were found in five different isolates and shown by inverse PCR to be functionally active. Truncated copies of Tn558, in which the tnpA-tnpB area was in part deleted by the integration of a 4,674-bp segment including the gene cfr and a novel 2,446-bp IS21-like insertion sequence, were seen in a plasmid present in three staphylococcal isolates. PMID:16569824

  18. Prevalence, distribution and antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis bloodstream isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfietti, Lucas Xavier; Martins, Marilena dos Anjos; Szeszs, Maria Walderez; Pukiskas, Sandra Brasil Stolf; Purisco, Sonia Ueda; Pimentel, Fabiana Cortez; Pereira, Graziella Hanna; Silva, Dayane Cristina; Oliveira, Lidiane; Melhem, Marcia de Souza Carvalho

    2012-07-01

    The Candida parapsilosis group encompasses three species: C. parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis. These species are phenotypically indistinguishable, and molecular methods are needed for their detection. We analysed 152 unique blood culture isolates of the C. parapsilosis group obtained during 1997-2011. The isolates were screened by PCR amplification of the gene encoding secondary alcohol dehydrogenase, followed by digestion with the restriction enzyme BanI. Isolates with RFLP patterns distinct from those of the C. parapsilosis group were characterized as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (90.8 %), C. orthopsilosis (8.6 %) and C. metapsilosis (0.6 %). Antifungal susceptibility tests indicated that all isolates were susceptible to itraconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin. Although C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates were susceptible to fluconazole, higher MICs (≥2 mg l(-1)) were observed for C. orthopsilosis. Three isolates (2.0 %) of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto were resistant to voriconazole. Five C. parapsilosis isolates (3.3 %) were intermediate, and a single isolate (0.7 %) was resistant (MIC 16 mg l(-1)) to fluconazole. These data were confirmed using reference strains. It was observed that C. parapsilosis isolates were less susceptible to all triazoles, and this finding deserves further attention to assess the appearance of cross-resistance phenomena. In conclusion, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis are involved in a small but significant number of invasive infections in Brazil.

  19. Base Isolation for Seismic Retrofitting of a Multiple Building Structure: Evaluation of Equivalent Linearization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Ferraioli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the most commonly used isolation systems exhibit nonlinear inelastic behaviour, the equivalent linear elastic analysis is commonly used in the design and assessment of seismic-isolated structures. The paper investigates if the linear elastic model is suitable for the analysis of a seismically isolated multiple building structure. To this aim, its computed responses were compared with those calculated by nonlinear dynamic analysis. A common base isolation plane connects the isolation bearings supporting the adjacent structures. In this situation, the conventional equivalent linear elastic analysis may have some problems of accuracy because this method is calibrated on single base-isolated structures. Moreover, the torsional characteristics of the combined system are significantly different from those of separate isolated buildings. A number of numerical simulations and parametric studies under earthquake excitations were performed. The accuracy of the dynamic response obtained by the equivalent linear elastic model was calculated by the magnitude of the error with respect to the corresponding response considering the nonlinear behaviour of the isolation system. The maximum displacements at the isolation level, the maximum interstorey drifts, and the peak absolute acceleration were selected as the most important response measures. The influence of mass eccentricity, torsion, and high-modes effects was finally investigated.

  20. Assessment of the Antimicrobial Activity and the Entomocidal Potential of Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djenane, Zahia; Nateche, Farida; Amziane, Meriam; Gomis-Cebolla, Joaquín; El-Aichar, Fairouz; Khorf, Hassiba; Ferré, Juan

    2017-04-13

    This work represents the first initiative to analyze the distribution of B. thuringiensis in Algeria and to evaluate the biological potential of the isolates. A total of 157 isolates were recovered, with at least one isolate in 94.4% of the samples. The highest Bt index was found in samples from rhizospheric soil (0.48) and from the Mediterranean area (0.44). Most isolates showed antifungal activity (98.5%), in contrast to the few that had antibacterial activity (29.9%). A high genetic diversity was made evident by the finding of many different crystal shapes and various combinations of shapes within a single isolate (in 58.4% of the isolates). Also, over 50% of the isolates harbored cry1 , cry2 , or cry9 genes, and 69.3% contained a vip3 gene. A good correlation between the presence of chitinase genes and antifungal activity was observed. More than half of the isolates with a broad spectrum of antifungal activity harbored both endochitinase and exochitinase genes. Interestingly, 15 isolates contained the two chitinase genes and all of the above cry family genes, with some of them harboring a vip3 gene as well. The combination of this large number of genes coding for entomopathogenic proteins suggests a putative wide range of entomotoxic activity.

  1. Isolation and characterization of putative endophytic bacteria antagonistic to Phoma tracheiphila and Verticillium albo-atrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalai-Grami, Leila; Saidi, Sabrine; Bachkouel, Sarra; Ben Slimene, Imen; Mnari-Hattab, Monia; Hajlaoui, Mohamed Rebah; Limam, Ferid

    2014-09-01

    A collection of 200 bacterial isolates recovered from citrus plants (Citrus limon, Citrus sinensis, and Citrus reticulata), Medicago truncatula and Laurus nobilis, was established. In vitro screening indicated that 28 isolates exhibited an inhibitory activity against the vascular pathogens Phoma tracheiphila and Verticillium albo-atrum. Isolates were screened according to their hydrolytic activities, plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) abilities, as well as for the presence of nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes responsible of the lipopeptide biosynthesis. The results were positive for 16 isolates which exhibited at least two PGPB activities and a single NRPS gene. Genetic diversity of the selected isolates was studied using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and repetitive element PCR (REP) tools that showed clustering of strains into three major groups (I, II, and III) (i, ii, and iii), respectively. Clustering was further confirmed by the 16S rDNA sequencing that assigned nine isolates to Bacillus velezensis, four isolates to Bacillus methyltrophicus, one isolate to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, and two isolates to Bacillus mojavensis. Organ-bacterial genotype interaction as well as positive correlation with NRPS genes are discussed.

  2. 75 FR 9247 - Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-13] Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice... is soliciting public comments on the subject proposal. Lenders use the Single Family Premium...

  3. Platforms for Single-Cell Collection and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Valihrach

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Single-cell analysis has become an established method to study cell heterogeneity and for rare cell characterization. Despite the high cost and technical constraints, applications are increasing every year in all fields of biology. Following the trend, there is a tremendous development of tools for single-cell analysis, especially in the RNA sequencing field. Every improvement increases sensitivity and throughput. Collecting a large amount of data also stimulates the development of new approaches for bioinformatic analysis and interpretation. However, the essential requirement for any analysis is the collection of single cells of high quality. The single-cell isolation must be fast, effective, and gentle to maintain the native expression profiles. Classical methods for single-cell isolation are micromanipulation, microdissection, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. In the last decade several new and highly efficient approaches have been developed, which not just supplement but may fully replace the traditional ones. These new techniques are based on microfluidic chips, droplets, micro-well plates, and automatic collection of cells using capillaries, magnets, an electric field, or a punching probe. In this review we summarize the current methods and developments in this field. We discuss the advantages of the different commercially available platforms and their applicability, and also provide remarks on future developments.

  4. Tumor Heterogeneity, Single-Cell Sequencing, and Drug Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Schmidt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tumor heterogeneity has been compared with Darwinian evolution and survival of the fittest. The evolutionary ecosystem of tumors consisting of heterogeneous tumor cell populations represents a considerable challenge to tumor therapy, since all genetically and phenotypically different subpopulations have to be efficiently killed by therapy. Otherwise, even small surviving subpopulations may cause repopulation and refractory tumors. Single-cell sequencing allows for a better understanding of the genomic principles of tumor heterogeneity and represents the basis for more successful tumor treatments. The isolation and sequencing of single tumor cells still represents a considerable technical challenge and consists of three major steps: (1 single cell isolation (e.g., by laser-capture microdissection, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, micromanipulation, whole genome amplification (e.g., with the help of Phi29 DNA polymerase, and transcriptome-wide next generation sequencing technologies (e.g., 454 pyrosequencing, Illumina sequencing, and other systems. Data demonstrating the feasibility of single-cell sequencing for monitoring the emergence of drug-resistant cell clones in patient samples are discussed herein. It is envisioned that single-cell sequencing will be a valuable asset to assist the design of regimens for personalized tumor therapies based on tumor subpopulation-specific genetic alterations in individual patients.

  5. Fabrication of single optical centres in diamond-a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orwa, J.O.; Greentree, A.D.; Aharonovich, I.; Alves, A.D.C.; Van Donkelaar, J.; Stacey, A.; Prawer, S.

    2010-01-01

    Colour centres in diamond are rapidly becoming one of the leading platforms for solid-state quantum information processing applications. This is due in large part to the remarkable properties of the nitrogen-vacancy colour centre. From initial demonstrations of room-temperature single photon generation and spin single spin readout and quantum control, diamond nanocrystals are also finding application in magnetometry and biosensing. This review discusses the state of the art in the creation of isolated and small ensembles of optically active diamond defect centres, including nitrogen and nickel-related centres.

  6. Deracemization of Secondary Alcohols by using a Single Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    KAUST Repository

    Karume, Ibrahim

    2016-03-01

    © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. We developed a single-enzyme-mediated two-step approach for deracemization of secondary alcohols. A single mutant of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus secondary alcohol dehydrogenase enables the nonstereoselective oxidation of racemic alcohols to ketones, followed by a stereoselective reduction process. Varying the amounts of acetone and 2-propanol cosubstrates controls the stereoselectivities of the consecutive oxidation and reduction reactions, respectively. We used one enzyme to accomplish the deracemization of secondary alcohols with up to >99% ee and >99.5% recovery in one pot and without the need to isolate the prochiral ketone intermediate.

  7. Pheno- and genotyping of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from bovine milk and human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorberg, B. M.; Kuhn, I.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2006-01-01

    (PFGE) and 122 by ribotyping. PFGE showed single patterns in the human strains with one exception; one strain was categorised as the same clone as four of the milk strains. PFGE divided 73 of the milk strains into 62 different patterns. The PFGE method had high discriminatory power and shows that many...... different S. epidermidis types exist in milk samples. Antibiotic resistance patterns matched the SmaI profiles closely in the two herds, but poorly in the routinely collected milk samples. Isolates from herd I showed one to five patterns, depending on the typing method used. Isolates from the milker's skin...... showed one pattern, which was identical to the most common pattern found in the milk isolates. Isolates from herd 2 showed three to four patterns, two of these being identical to skin isolates from the milker. As dairy cows are not a natural host for S. epidermidis the results suggest a human source...

  8. The relationship between subjective perception and the psychological effects of patients in spatial isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibert, Fabienne; Eckstein, Monika; Günther, Frank; Mutters, Nico T

    2017-01-01

    Background: Spatial isolation is a common infection control measure, but negative psychological effects are often neglected. We investigated which factors influence the perception of single room isolated patients. Methods: In the present correlative cross-sectional study, 32 isolated patients have been interviewed within three departments of the Heidelberg University Hospital, one of Germany's largest hospitals. The following questionnaires were used: 10-Item Big Five Inventory (BFI-10), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and a self-developed questionnaire to evaluate the individual experience of isolation. Data were analysed using correlation and regression analysis. Results: A significant positive correlation was found between the isolation period and anxiety (r=.42, pwell-being of the patient.

  9. Isotropic Single Negative Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Protiva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of simple, and therefore cheap, planar resonators for building 3D isotropic metamaterials. These resonators are: a broadside-coupled split ring resonator with a magnetic response providing negative permeability; an electric dipole terminated by a loop inductor together with a double H-shaped resonator with an electric response providing negative permittivity. Two kinds of 3D isotropic single negative metamaterials are reported. The first material consists of unit cells in the form of a cube bearing on its faces six equal planar resonators with tetrahedral symmetry. In the second material, the planar resonators boxed into spherical plastic shells and randomly distributed in a hosting material compose a real 3D volumetric metamaterial with an isotropic response. In both cases the metamaterial shows negative permittivity or permeability, according to the type of resonators that are used. The experiments prove the isotropic behavior of the cells and of the metamaterial specimens.

  10. Lanthanide single molecule magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Jinkui

    2015-01-01

    This book begins by providing basic information on single-molecule magnets (SMMs), covering the magnetism of lanthanide, the characterization and relaxation dynamics of SMMs, and advanced means of studying lanthanide SMMs. It then systematically introduces lanthanide SMMs ranging from mononuclear and dinuclear to polynuclear complexes, classifying them and highlighting those SMMs with high barrier and blocking temperatures – an approach that provides some very valuable indicators for the structural features needed to optimize the contribution of an Ising type spin to a molecular magnet. The final chapter presents some of the newest developments in the lanthanide SMM field, such as the design of multifunctional and stimuli-responsive magnetic materials as well as the anchoring and organization of the SMMs on surfaces. In addition, the crystal structure and magnetic data are clearly presented with a wealth of illustrations in each chapter, helping newcomers and experts alike to better grasp ongoing trends and...

  11. Coronary single vessel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltenbach, M.; Kober, G.; Satter, P.; Gruentzig, A.; Myler, R.; Sterzer, S.

    1980-01-01

    The seven-years-survival rate is about 80 percent with respect to the most favourable long-time prognosis for coronary single vessel diseases under conservative therapy. In this contribution the control angiography of 76 patients after aorto-coronary bypass operation or transluminal angioplastic is reported. Only two patients subjected to a bypass operation. The recidivity rate is 10 percent after an operation, whereby it is not possible to make a recidivity prognosis. If a recidivity shows up it is being developped during the first three months. If the control angiography three months after the operation shows a good result, then a favourable steady state result can be expected. A comparison of the result with four different centers is given. (APR) [de

  12. Single-Molecule Nanomagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jonathan R.; Sarachik, Myriam P.

    2010-04-01

    Single-molecule magnets straddle the classical and quantum mechanical worlds, displaying many fascinating phenomena. They may have important technological applications in information storage and quantum computation. We review the physical properties of two prototypical molecular nanomagnets, Mn12-acetate and Fe8: Each behaves as a rigid, spin-10 object and exhibits tunneling between up and down directions. As temperature is lowered, the spin-reversal process evolves from thermal activation to pure quantum tunneling. At low temperatures, magnetic avalanches occur in which the magnetization of an entire sample rapidly reverses. We discuss the important role that symmetry-breaking fields play in driving tunneling and in producing Berry-phase interference. Recent experimental advances indicate that quantum coherence can be maintained on timescales sufficient to allow a meaningful number of quantum computing operations to be performed. Efforts are under way to create monolayers and to address and manipulate individual molecules.

  13. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Pereira, Vania; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg

    2014-01-01

    and briefly describe the methods that are preferred for SNP typing in forensic genetics. In addition, we will illustrate how SNPs can be used as investigative leads in the police investigation by discussing the use of ancestry informative markers and forensic DNA phenotyping. Modern DNA sequencing......Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent DNA sequence variations in the genome. They have been studied extensively in the last decade with various purposes in mind. In this chapter, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using SNPs for human identification...... technologies (also called next generation sequencing or NGS) have the potential to completely transform forensic genetic investigations as we know them today. Here, we will make a short introduction to NGS and explain how NGS may combine analysis of the traditional forensic genetic markers with analysis...

  14. Lanthanide single molecule magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jinkui; Zhang, Peng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun (China). Changchun Inst. of Applied Chemistry

    2015-10-01

    This book begins by providing basic information on single-molecule magnets (SMMs), covering the magnetism of lanthanide, the characterization and relaxation dynamics of SMMs and advanced means of studying lanthanide SMMs. It then systematically introduces lanthanide SMMs ranging from mononuclear and dinuclear to polynuclear complexes, classifying them and highlighting those SMMs with high barrier and blocking temperatures - an approach that provides some very valuable indicators for the structural features needed to optimize the contribution of an Ising type spin to a molecular magnet. The final chapter presents some of the newest developments in the lanthanide SMM field, such as the design of multifunctional and stimuli-responsive magnetic materials as well as the anchoring and organization of the SMMs on surfaces. In addition, the crystal structure and magnetic data are clearly presented with a wealth of illustrations in each chapter, helping newcomers and experts alike to better grasp ongoing trends and explore new directions.

  15. Vapor-barrier Vacuum Isolation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor); Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system includes a collimated beam source within a vacuum chamber, a condensable barrier gas, cooling material, a pump, and isolation chambers cooled by the cooling material to condense the barrier gas. Pressure levels of each isolation chamber are substantially greater than in the vacuum chamber. Coaxially-aligned orifices connect a working chamber, the isolation chambers, and the vacuum chamber. The pump evacuates uncondensed barrier gas. The barrier gas blocks entry of atmospheric vapor from the working chamber into the isolation chambers, and undergoes supersonic flow expansion upon entering each isolation chamber. A method includes connecting the isolation chambers to the vacuum chamber, directing vapor to a boundary with the working chamber, and supersonically expanding the vapor as it enters the isolation chambers via the orifices. The vapor condenses in each isolation chamber using the cooling material, and uncondensed vapor is pumped out of the isolation chambers via the pump.

  16. Isolated pulmonary vasculitis: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riancho-Zarrabeitia, Leyre; Zurbano, Felipe; Gómez-Román, Javier; Martínez-Meñaca, Amaya; López, Marta; Hernández, Miguel A; Pina, Trinitario; González-Gay, Miguel A

    2015-04-01

    Single-organ vasculitis has been reported to affect the skin, kidneys, central nervous system, peripheral nerves, genitourinary tract, calf muscles, aorta, coronary arteries, retina, or gastrointestinal tract. However, isolated pulmonary vasculitis is a very rare entity. Our aims were to describe a case of localized pulmonary vasculitis affecting medium-sized vessels and review the literature. A patient with localized pulmonary vasculitis affecting medium-sized vessels that presented as pulmonary arterial hypertension is described. A MEDLINE database search of cases with localized pulmonary vasculitis was also conducted. A 30-year-old man presented with pulmonary hypertension due to isolated pulmonary medium-sized vessel vasculitis that was confirmed histologically. Initially he responded to corticosteroids and vasodilator treatment, but therapy eventually lost efficacy. Treatment with rituximab was not effective, and as the clinical situation worsened, lung transplant was performed. Isolated large pulmonary vessel disease, often related to Takayasu disease or giant cell arteritis, may present as pulmonary artery hypertension, thus mimicking chronic thromboembolic disease. Medium- and small-vessel pulmonary vasculitis usually develops in the context of a systemic disease. Some cases of isolated small-vessel vasculitis have been reported presenting as diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. In contrast, our case developed pulmonary artery hypertension secondary to medium-sized vessels vasculitis. To our knowledge, this is the first case of lung transplantation in isolated pulmonary vasculitis. Pulmonary isolated vasculitis is a rare cause of pulmonary hypertension but it must be taken into consideration after more common disorders are excluded. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Toxinotyping of Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from packed chicken portions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Poursoltani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Clostridium perfringens are classified into five toxin types A to E, on the basis of production of Alpha, Beta, Epsilon and Iota toxins. Some strains are able to produce enterotoxin, can cause food poisoning in human. The bacteria are able to produce NetB and TpeL toxins which are virulence factors in necrotic enteritis in poultry. The aim of this study was to determine the toxin profile of C. perfringens strains isolated from packed chicken portions using Single and Multiplex PCR assays. Materials and Methods: In a crossectional study, 180 sample of chicken portions including wing (n=50, liver (n=50, neck (n=50 and gizzard (n=30 were collected randomly and examined for C. perfringens contamination. For this purpose all of samples were cultured on the 7% sheep defibrinated blood agar, TSN and TSC culture media. All of the isolates were investigated for the presence of alpha, beta, epsilon, iota toxin and virulence (tpeL and netB genes. Results: In the present study, 6 isolates out of 180 samples, were confirmed as C. perfringens by culture and molecular methods. All of the isolates (100% were confirmed as cpa and cpb positive strains and belong to type C of C. perfringens. The netB gene was detected in 5 isolates (83.33% and tpeL gene in three isolates (50%. Conclusions: Our findings show the majority of C. perfringens in broilers are belong to type C which produce necrotic enteritis in poultry and may be transmitted to human through poultry products.

  18. Diversity of genomic electropherotypes of naturally occurring equine herpesvirus 1 isolates in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Galosi

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The genomes of 10 equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1 strains isolated in Argentina from 1979 to 1991, and a Japanese HH1 reference strain were compared by restriction endonuclease analysis. Two restriction enzymes, BamHI and BglII, were used and analysis of the electropherotypes did not show significant differences among isolates obtained from horses with different clinical signs. This suggests that the EHV-1 isolates studied, which circulated in Argentina for more than 10 years, belong to a single genotype.

  19. Isolation, Culture, Functional Assays, and Immunofluorescence of Myofiber-Associated Satellite Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Thomas O; Gadek, Katherine E; Cadwallader, Adam B; Elston, Tiffany L; Olwin, Bradley B

    2016-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle stem cells, termed satellite cells, regenerate and repair the functional contractile cells in adult skeletal muscle called myofibers. Satellite cells reside in a niche between the basal lamina and sarcolemma of myofibers. Isolating single myofibers and their associated satellite cells provides a culture system that partially mimics the in vivo environment. We describe methods for isolating and culturing intact individual myofibers and their associated satellite cells from the mouse extensor digitorum longus muscle. Following dissection and isolation of individual myofibers we provide protocols for myofiber transplantation, satellite cell transfection, immune detection of satellite cell antigens, and assays to examine satellite cell self-renewal and proliferation.

  20. Ecological study of isolation and suicide in Tuscany (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiello, Michele Arcangelo; Giacchi, Mariano Vincenzo

    2012-06-30

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the association between suicide and demographic and socio-economic measures in Tuscany. Data on standardized rates of suicide from 1997 to 2005 in addition to census-derived variables, income and abstention were derived from the Mortality register, the 2001 Census, the Tax Agency and the Regional Electoral Office databases. Pearson's correlation and stepwise multiple regression analyses (unweighted and weighted by population) were used to analyze the association between suicide rates and demographic and socio-economic measures for the 34 health districts for both males and females. The correlation analyses showed that suicide was significantly associated with many variables in men, but only with old age in women. The multiple regression analyses showed that the best predictors in men were education, single person households and isolated houses (only education and single person households in the weighted model). For women, the best predictors were the proportion of elderly people and income (this was also true for the weighted model, but in the opposite order). An ecological correlation between suicide and measures of economic deprivation and social fragmentation was found in both men and women. Among the best predictors, isolated houses may act as a marker for remoteness and isolation on a small scale. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Isolated galaxies, pairs, and groups of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuneva, I.; Kalinkov, M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors searched for isolated galaxies, pairs and groups of galaxies in the CfA survey (Huchra et al. 1983). It was assumed that the distances to galaxies are given by R = V/H sub o, where H sub o = 100 km s(exp -1) Mpc(exp -1) and R greater than 6 Mpc. The searching procedure is close to those, applied to find superclusters of galaxies (Kalinkov and Kuneva 1985, 1986). A sphere with fixed radius r (asterisk) is described around each galaxy. The mean spatial density in the sphere is m. Let G 1 be any galaxy and G 2 be its nearest neighbor at a distance R 2 . If R sub 2 exceeds the 95 percent quintile in the distribution of the distances of the second neighbors, then G 1 is an isolated galaxy. Let the midpoint of G 1 and G 2 be O 2 and r 2 =R 2 2. For the volume V 2 , defined with the radius r 2 , the density D 2 less than k mu, the galaxy G 2 is a single one and the procedure for searching for pairs and groups, beginning with this object is over and we have to pass to another object. Here the authors present the groups - isolated and nonisolated - with n greater than 3, found in the CfA survey in the Northern galactic hemisphere. The parameters used are k = 10 and r (asterisk) = 5 Mpc. Table 1 contains: (1) the group number, (2) the galaxy, nearest to the multiplet center, (3) multiplicity n, (4) the brightest galaxy if it is not listed in (2); (5) and (6) are R.A. and Dec. (1950), (7) - mean distance D in Mpc. Further there are the mean density rho (8) of the multiplet (galaxies Mpc (exp -3)), (9) the density rho (asterisk) for r (asterisk) = 5 Mpc and (10) the density rho sub g for the group with its nearest neighbor. The parenthesized digits for densities in the last three columns are powers of ten

  2. Cutoff-mesa isolated rib optical waveguide for III-V heterostructure photonic integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vawter, G.A.; Smith, R.E.

    1998-04-28

    A cutoff mesa rib waveguide provides single-mode performance regardless of any deep etches that might be used for electrical isolation between integrated electrooptic devices. Utilizing a principle of a cutoff slab waveguide with an asymmetrical refractive index profile, single mode operation is achievable with a wide range of rib widths and does not require demanding etch depth tolerances. This new waveguide design eliminates reflection effects, or self-interference, commonly seen when conventional rib waveguides are combined with deep isolation etches and thereby reduces high order mode propagation and crosstalk compared to the conventional rib waveguides. 7 figs.

  3. ENEA activities on seismic isolation of nuclear and non-nuclear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martelli, A.; Masoni, P.; Forni, M.; Indirli, M.; Spadoni, B.; Di Pasquale, G.; Lucarelli, V.; Sano, T.; Bonacina, G.; Castoldi, A.

    1989-01-01

    Work on seismic isolation of nuclear and non-nuclear structures was started by ENEA in cooperation with ISMES in 1988. The first activity consisted of a proposal for guidelines for seismically isolated nuclear plants using high-damping, steel-laminated elastomer bearings. This is being performed in the framework of an agreement with General Electric Company. Furthermore, research and development work has been defined and recently initiated to support development of the seismic isolation guidelines as well as that of qualification procedures for seismic isolation systems in general. The present R and D work includes static and dynamic experiments on single bearings, shake table tests with multi-axial simultaneous excitations on reduced-scale mockups of isolated structures supported by multiple bearings, and dynamic tests on large-scale isolated structures with on-site test techniques. It also includes the development and validation of finite-element nonlinear models of the single bearings, as well as those of simplified design tools for the analysis of the isolated structures dynamic behavior. Extension of this work is foreseen in a wider national frame

  4. SYMBIODINIUM ISOLATES FROM STONY CORAL: ISOLATION, GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS AND EFFECTS OF UV IRRADIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symbiodinium spp. Isolates from Stony Coral: Isolation, Growth Characteristics and Effects of UV Irradiation (Abstract). J. Phycol. 37(3):42-43.Symbiodinium species were isolated from Montipora capitata, Acropora palmata and two field samples of Porites porites. Cultures ...

  5. Single Pixel, Single Band Microstrip Antenna for Sub-Millimeter Wavelength Detection Using Transition Edge Superconducting Bolometric Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Cynthia; Bock, Jamie J.; Day, Peter K.; Goldin, Alexey; Lange, Andrew E.; Leduc, Henry G.; Vayonakis, Anastasios; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    We are developing a single pixel antenna coupled bolometric detector as a precursor to the SAMBA (Superconducting Antenna-coupled Multi-frequency Bolometric Array) instrument. Our device consists of a dual slot microstrip antenna coupled to an Al/Ti/Au voltage-biased transition edge superconducting bolometer (TES). The coupling architecture involves propagating the signal along superconducting microstrip lines and terminating the lines at a normal metal resistor on a thermally isolated island. The device, which is inherently polarization sensitive, is optimized to for 100GHz band measurements, ideal for future implementation as an astronomical sub-millimeter instrument. We will present recent tests of these single pixel detectors.

  6. Single-molecule magnets ``without'' intermolecular interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernsdorfer, W.; Vergnani, L.; Rodriguez-Douton, M. J.; Cornia, A.; Neugebauer, P.; Barra, A. L.; Sorace, L.; Sessoli, R.

    2012-02-01

    Intermolecular magnetic interactions (dipole-dipole and exchange) affect strongly the magnetic relaxation of crystals of single-molecule magnets (SMMs), especially at low temperature, where quantum tunneling of the magnetization (QTM) dominates. This leads to complex many-body problems [l]. Measurements on magnetically diluted samples are desirable to clearly sort out the behaviour of magnetically-isolated SMMs and to reveal, by comparison, the effect of intermolecular interactions. Here, we diluted a Fe4 SMM into a diamagnetic crystal lattice, affording arrays of independent and iso-oriented magnetic units. We found that the resonant tunnel transitions are much sharper, the tunneling efficiency changes significantly, and two-body QTM transitions disappear. These changes have been rationalized on the basis of a dipolar shuffling mechanism and of transverse dipolar fields, whose effect has been analyzed using a multispin model. Our findings directly prove the impact of intermolecular magnetic couplings on the SMM behaviour and disclose the magnetic response of truly-isolated giant spins in a diamagnetic crystalline environment.[4pt] [1] W. Wernsdorfer, at al, PRL 82, 3903 (1999); PRL 89, 197201 (2002); Nature 416, 406 (2002); IS Tupitsyn, PCE Stamp, NV Prokof'ev, PRB 69, 132406 (2004).

  7. Characterization of integrons in Burkholderia cepacia clinical isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Furlanis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia cepacia is an opportunistic pathogen able to colonize the airways of Cystic Fibrosis (CF patients, frequently developing chronic infections. In 20% of cases these infections cause severe and poorly controlled pathological situations because of the intrinsic antibiotic resistance expressed by the microorganism. CF patients are often subjected to antibiotic therapy: this facilitates the acquisition of antibiotic resistance determinants by the infecting bacteria. Integrons are mobile genetic elements that are widespread in bacterial populations and favor the acquisition of gene cassettes coding for these determinants.The presence of class 1 integrons was investigated by PCR with primers specific for the 5’ and 3’ ends in Burkholderia isolates recovered from patients in treatment at the CF center of Friuli Venezia Giulia. The same integron, carrying an uncommon allelic form (Ib of the aacA4 gene in its cassette array and conferring resistance to some aminoglycosides, was found in two independent isolates (different RAPD profiles infecting two different patients. In both isolates the integron was carried by plasmids and was still present 3 and 6 years later the first finding. Despite the exchange of integrons between bacterial pathogens is fully described, these items were not frequently found in Burkholderia isolates. Although the clinical relevance of the integron we identified is low (a single gene cassette encoding a widespread resistance,we feel concerned that these genetic elements begin to circulate in this bacterial species, as this could make more and more troublesome the treatment of infections notoriously difficult to eradicate.

  8. Thermalization and its mechanism for generic isolated quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigol, Marcos; Dunjko, Vanja; Olshanii, Maxim

    2008-04-17

    An understanding of the temporal evolution of isolated many-body quantum systems has long been elusive. Recently, meaningful experimental studies of the problem have become possible, stimulating theoretical interest. In generic isolated systems, non-equilibrium dynamics is expected to result in thermalization: a relaxation to states in which the values of macroscopic quantities are stationary, universal with respect to widely differing initial conditions, and predictable using statistical mechanics. However, it is not obvious what feature of many-body quantum mechanics makes quantum thermalization possible in a sense analogous to that in which dynamical chaos makes classical thermalization possible. For example, dynamical chaos itself cannot occur in an isolated quantum system, in which the time evolution is linear and the spectrum is discrete. Some recent studies even suggest that statistical mechanics may give incorrect predictions for the outcomes of relaxation in such systems. Here we demonstrate that a generic isolated quantum many-body system does relax to a state well described by the standard statistical-mechanical prescription. Moreover, we show that time evolution itself plays a merely auxiliary role in relaxation, and that thermalization instead happens at the level of individual eigenstates, as first proposed by Deutsch and Srednicki. A striking consequence of this eigenstate-thermalization scenario, confirmed for our system, is that knowledge of a single many-body eigenstate is sufficient to compute thermal averages-any eigenstate in the microcanonical energy window will do, because they all give the same result.

  9. Integrated isolators for opto-electro-mechanical systems and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Rivera, Luis J.; Pandit, Saurabh; Pieski, Suzanne; Cobian, Ryan; Cherif, Monher; Stadler, Bethanie J. H.

    2001-05-01

    The development of integrated isolators is critical to the functional integration of optics within OEM devices and systems. Bulk isolators have proven to be the most important components in many fiber optic systems due to their ability to protect light sources from back-reflected light. Such reflections are created at each component interface, inhomogeneity, or other perturbation in the path of the light. This paper reviews the operation of and current work in integrated isolators. Several methods for fabricating monolithically integrated magneto-optical isolators are discussed, including the fabrication of garnets, magnets, and cladding/buffer layers. Garnets are traditionally grown by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) at temperatures and environments that are not friendly to semiconductors or other common substrates. More importantly, LPE requires epitaxial growth, which dictates garnet substrates and therefore hybrid integration techniques. We have used metallorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), sputtering, and metallorganic chemical liquid deposition (MOCLD) to deposit single-phase yttrium iron garnet (YIG). A variety of substrates were used, including MgO and SiO2 which are promising buffer layer materials. The chemical, structural, and optical properties of the resulting films are discussed. We have also used a variety of sputtering techniques to integrate permanent magnet films with semiconductor processing. These magnets are sufficient for biasing the magneto-optical element. The chemical, structural and magnetic properties of these materials, as well as total integration will be discussed.

  10. High proportion of heteroresistance in gyrA and gyrB in fluoroquinolone-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilertson, Brandon; Maruri, Fernanda; Blackman, Amondrea; Herrera, Miguel; Samuels, David C; Sterling, Timothy R

    2014-06-01

    Heteroresistance is the coexistence of populations with differing nucleotides at a drug resistance locus within a sample of organisms. Although Sanger sequencing is the gold standard for sequencing, it may be less sensitive than deep sequencing for detecting fluoroquinolone heteroresistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Twenty-seven fluoroquinolone monoresistant and 11 fluoroquinolone-susceptible M. tuberculosis isolates were analyzed by Sanger and Illumina deep sequencing. Individual sequencing reads were analyzed to detect heteroresistance in the gyrA and gyrB genes. Heteroresistance to fluoroquinolones was identified in 10/26 (38%) phenotypically fluoroquinolone-resistant samples and 0/11 (P = 0.02) fluoroquinolone-susceptible controls. One resistant sample was excluded because of contamination with the laboratory strain M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Sanger sequencing revealed resistance-conferring mutations in 15 isolates, while deep sequencing revealed mutations in 20 isolates. Isolates with fluoroquinolone resistance-conferring mutations by Sanger sequencing all had at least those same mutations identified by deep sequencing. By deep sequencing, 10 isolates had a single fixed (defined as >95% frequency) mutation, while 10 were heteroresistant, 5 of which had a single unfixed (defined as fluoroquinolone-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates with heteroresistance than did Sanger sequencing. The heteroresistant isolates frequently demonstrated multiple mutations, but resistant isolates with fixed mutations each had only a single mutation. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Isolated vasculitis of the CNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, F.; Reith, W.

    2000-01-01

    Vasculitis is a rare cause for disease of the CNS. The isolated vasculitis of the CNS is restricted to the CNS whereas other forms of vasculitis affect various organs including the CNS. Headache, encephalopathy, focal deficits and epileptic seizures are the major symptoms suggestive for vasculitis. One major criterion of the isolated vasculitis of the CNS is the lack of evidence for other vasculitis forms or for pathology of other organs. Angiography displays multifocal segmental stenosis of intracranial vessels. MRI demonstrates multiple lesions which in part show enhancement after gadolinium. A definite diagnosis can only be made on the grounds of biopsy from leptomeninges and parenchyma. Therapy consists of corticosteroids and cyclophosphamid. (orig.) [de

  12. Heterogeneity of koala retrovirus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimode, Sayumi; Nakagawa, So; Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Shojima, Takayuki; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2014-01-03

    Koala retrovirus (KoRV) is a gammaretrovirus which may induce immune suppression, leukemia and lymphoma in koalas. Currently three KoRV subgroups (A, B, and J) have been reported. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that KoRV-B and KoRV-J should be classified as the same subgroup. In long terminal repeat (LTR), a KoRV-B isolate has four 17 bp tandem repeats named direct repeat (DR)-1, while a KoRV-J isolate (strain OJ-4) has three 37 bp tandem repeats named DR-2. We also found that the promoter activity of the KoRV-J strain OJ-4 is stronger than that of original KoRV-A, suggesting that KoRV-J may replicate more efficiently than KoRV-A. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. DNA identification of fetal cells isolated from cervical mucus: potential for early non-invasive prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Jaffe, Mandy G; Mantzaris, Debbie; Cram, David S

    2005-05-01

    To develop a reliable method to isolate fetal cells for genetic diagnosis. Aspiration of cervical mucus from pregnant women in the first trimester. Pregnant women were recruited before an elective termination of pregnancy. Sixty pregnant women (7-10 weeks of gestation). Fetal cells were isolated from aspirated cervical mucus of pregnant women using a combination of enzymatic digestion, fluorescent immunohistochemistry, micromanipulation and single-cell DNA allelic profiling. The isolation and identification of fetal cells. The transformation of the tenacious cervical mucus into a single-cell suspension enabled the isolation and identification of fetal cells by fluorescent immunohistochemistry. Confirmation of fetal origin was accomplished by single-cell DNA allelic profiling alongside known maternal cells. This novel non-invasive method is rapid and efficient with results attainable within 24 hours as early as seven weeks of gestation. The technique would offer earlier reassurance and the option of first trimester therapeutic abortions to both high and low risk pregnant women.

  14. Single atom spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M. R.; Armstrong, J. N.; Hua, S. Z.; Chopra, H. D.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Single atom spintronics (SASS) represents the ultimate physical limit in device miniaturization. SASS is characterized by ballistic electron transport, and is a fertile ground for exploring new phenomena. In addition to the 'stationary' (field independent) scattering centers that have a small and fixed contribution to total transmission probability of electron waves, domain walls constitute an additional and enhanced source of scattering in these magnetic quantum point contacts (QPCs), the latter being both field and spin-dependent. Through the measurement of complete hysteresis loops as a function of quantized conductance, we present definitive evidence of enhanced backscattering of electron waves by atomically sharp domain walls in QPCs formed between microfabricated thin films [1]. Since domain walls move in a magnetic field, the magnitude of spin-dependent scattering changes as the QPC is cycled along its hysteresis loop. For example, as shown in the inset in Fig. 1, from zero towards saturation in a given field direction, the resistance varies as the wall is being swept away, whereas the resistance is constant upon returning from saturation towards zero, since in this segment of the hysteresis loop no domain wall is present across the contact. The observed spin-valve like behavior is realized by control over wall width and shape anisotropy. This behavior also unmistakably sets itself apart from any mechanical artifacts; additionally, measurements made on single atom contacts provide an artifact-free environment [2]. Intuitively, it is simpler to organize the observed BMR data according to all possible transitions between different conductance plateaus, as shown by the dotted line in Fig. 1; the solid circles show experimental data for Co, which follows the predicted scheme. Requisite elements for the observation of the effect will be discussed in detail along with a review of state of research in this field. Practically, the challenge lies in making

  15. A single particle energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodmer, A.R. [Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Usmani, Q.N.; Sami, M. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Physics

    1993-09-01

    We consider the binding energies of {Lambda} hypernuclei (HN), in particular the single-particle (s.p.) energy data, which have been obtained for a wide range of HN with mass numbers A {le} 89 and for orbital angular momenta {ell}{sub {Lambda}} {le} 4. We briefly review some of the relevant properties of A hypernuclei. These are nuclei {sub {Lambda}}{sup A}Z with baryon number A in which a single {Lambda} hyperon (baryon number = 1) is bound to an ordinary nucleus {sup A}Z consisting of A - 1 nucleons = Z protons + N neutrons. The {Lambda} hyperon is neutral, has spin 1/2, strangeness S = {minus}1, isospin I = O and a mass M{sub {Lambda}} = 1116 MeV/c{sup 2}. Although the {Lambda} interacts with a nucleon, its interaction is only about half as strong as that between two nucleons, and thus very roughly V{sub {Lambda}N} {approx} 0.5 V{sub NN}. As a result, the two-body {Lambda}N system is unbound, and the lightest bound HN is the three-body hypertriton {sub {Lambda}}{sup 3}H in which the {Lambda} is bound to a deuteron with the {Lambda}-d separation energy being only {approx} 0.1 MeV corresponding to an exponential tail of radius {approx} 15 fm! In strong interactions the strangeness S is of course conserved, and the {Lambda} is distinct from the nucleons. In a HN strangeness changes only in the weak decays of the {Lambda} which can decay either via ``free`` pionic decay {Lambda} {yields} N + {pi} or via induced decay {Lambda} + N {yields} N + N which is only possible in the presence of nucleons. Because of the small energy release the pionic decay is strongly suppressed in all but the lightest HN and the induced decay dominates. However, the weak decay lifetime {approx} 10{sup {minus}10}s is in fact close to the lifetime of a free {Lambda}. Since this is much longer than the strong interaction time {approx} 10{sup {minus}22}s we can ignore the weak interactions when considering the binding of HN, just as for ordinary nuclei.

  16. A single particle energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodmer, A.R.; Usmani, Q.N.; Sami, M.

    1993-01-01

    We consider the binding energies of Λ hypernuclei (HN), in particular the single-particle (s.p.) energy data, which have been obtained for a wide range of HN with mass numbers A ≤ 89 and for orbital angular momenta ell Λ ≤ 4. We briefly review some of the relevant properties of A hypernuclei. These are nuclei Λ A Z with baryon number A in which a single Λ hyperon (baryon number = 1) is bound to an ordinary nucleus A Z consisting of A - 1 nucleons = Z protons + N neutrons. The Λ hyperon is neutral, has spin 1/2, strangeness S = -1, isospin I = O and a mass M Λ = 1116 MeV/c 2 . Although the Λ interacts with a nucleon, its interaction is only about half as strong as that between two nucleons, and thus very roughly V ΛN ∼ 0.5 V NN . As a result, the two-body ΛN system is unbound, and the lightest bound HN is the three-body hypertriton Λ 3 H in which the Λ is bound to a deuteron with the Λ-d separation energy being only ∼ 0.1 MeV corresponding to an exponential tail of radius ∼ 15 fm exclamation point In strong interactions the strangeness S is of course conserved, and the Λ is distinct from the nucleons. In a HN strangeness changes only in the weak decays of the Λ which can decay either via ''free'' pionic decay Λ → N + π or via induced decay Λ + N → N + N which is only possible in the presence of nucleons. Because of the small energy release the pionic decay is strongly suppressed in all but the lightest HN and the induced decay dominates. However, the weak decay lifetime ∼ 10 -10 s is in fact close to the lifetime of a free Λ. Since this is much longer than the strong interaction time ∼ 10 -22 s we can ignore the weak interactions when considering the binding of HN, just as for ordinary nuclei

  17. Efflux pump contribution to multidrug resistance in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, Tyree H; Obritsch, Marilee D; Jung, Rose; MacLaren, Robert; Fish, Douglas N

    2010-07-01

    presence of one regulatory gene mutation or simple expression of a single outer membrane protein was not linked to multidrug resistance. However, OprM overexpression and multiple efflux regulatory gene mutations or efflux protein expression were associated with MDR P. aeruginosa isolates.

  18. Nuclei Isolation from Nematode Ascaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Jianbin; Davis, Richard E.

    2017-01-01

    Preparing nuclei is necessary in a variety of experimental paradigms to study nuclear processes. In this protocol, we describe a method for rapid preparation of large number of relatively pure nuclei from Ascaris embryos or tissues that are ready to be used for further experiments such as chromatin isolation and ChIP-seq, nuclear RNA analyses, or preparation of nuclear extracts (Kang et al., 2016; Wang et al., 2016). PMID:29082294

  19. Isolated adrenal paracoccidioidomycosis: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uribe Castro, Jorge Ricardo; Quintana, Humberto; Puentes, Alix Sofia and others

    2011-01-01

    Even though paracoccidioidomycosis has a relatively high prevalence in Latin America in a systemic form, isolated cases, especially compromising the adrenal glands, are uncommon, with only two reported cases. In this article, we report the case of a 55 year-old male with clinical manifestations of adrenal insufficiency. The only imaging finding was the presence of bilateral adrenal masses. The biopsy showed Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection.

  20. Discovery of single top quark production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillberg, Dag [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2009-04-01

    The top quark is by far the heaviest known fundamental particle with a mass nearing that of a gold atom. Because of this strikingly high mass, the top quark has several unique properties and might play an important role in electroweak symmetry breaking - the mechanism that gives all elementary particles mass. Creating top quarks requires access to very high energy collisions, and at present only the Tevatron collider at Fermilab is capable of reaching these energies. Until now, top quarks have only been observed produced in pairs via the strong interaction. At hadron colliders, it should also be possible to produce single top quarks via the electroweak interaction. Studies of single top quark production provide opportunities to measure the top quark spin, how top quarks mix with other quarks, and to look for new physics beyond the standard model. Because of these interesting properties, scientists have been looking for single top quarks for more than 15 years. This thesis presents the first discovery of single top quark production. An analysis is performed using 2.3 fb-1 of data recorded by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at centre-of-mass energy √s = 1.96 TeV. Boosted decision trees are used to isolate the single top signal from background, and the single top cross section is measured to be σ(p$\\bar{p}$ → tb + X, tqb + X) = 3.74-0.74+0.95 pb. Using the same analysis, a measurement of the amplitude of the CKM matrix element Vtb, governing how top and b quarks mix, is also performed. The measurement yields: |V{sub tb}|f1L| = 1.05 -0.12+0.13, where f1L is the left-handed Wtb coupling. The separation of signal from background is improved by combining the boosted decision trees with two other multivariate techniques. A new cross section measurement is performed, and the significance for the excess over the predicted background exceeds 5

  1. The single entity option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedlander, M.C.; Roberts, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally, an owner hires an engineer to design a power facility or other project and then circulates the completed plans to several contractors for competitive bidding. Although there are many variations on this theme, there is an alternative method which is growing in popularity--the design-build concept. In this construction method, the same entity designs and constructs the facility. The design builder may be a single firm with both design and construction capacity in-house, or it may be a combination of two or more firms with complementary abilities. If there are multiple firms, they may be structured as a joint venture or with one of the firms prime and the others in a subcontracting role. The critical aspect is that the owner contracts with one entity which has the responsibility for both designing and constructing the facility. According to statistics compiled by the Design-Build Institute of America and F.W. Dodge DATALINE2, a national reporter of construction statistics and information, from April 1995 to April 1996 the number of design-build contracts increased 103 percent over the previous year. Of a total $212 billion construction market, about $37.2 billion--18 percent--was design build. The strongest growth was in the category of industrial--plants, refineries, factories and warehouses--in which the concept use was up more than 300 percent from the previous year

  2. Zero-mode waveguide nanophotonic structures for single molecule characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Garrison M.; Han, Donghoon; Bohn, Paul W.

    2018-05-01

    Single-molecule characterization has become a crucial research tool in the chemical and life sciences, but limitations, such as limited concentration range, inability to control molecular distributions in space, and intrinsic phenomena, such as photobleaching, present significant challenges. Recent developments in non-classical optics and nanophotonics offer promising routes to mitigating these restrictions, such that even low affinity (K D ~ mM) biomolecular interactions can be studied. Here we introduce and review specific nanophotonic devices used to support single molecule studies. Optical nanostructures, such as zero-mode waveguides (ZMWs), are usually fabricated in thin gold or aluminum films and serve to confine the observation volume of optical microspectroscopy to attoliter to zeptoliter volumes. These simple nanostructures allow individual molecules to be isolated for optical and electrochemical analysis, even when the molecules of interest are present at high concentration (µM–mM) in bulk solution. Arrays of ZMWs may be combined with optical probes such as single molecule fluorescence, single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy for distributed analysis of large numbers of single-molecule reactions or binding events in parallel. Furthermore, ZMWs may be used as multifunctional devices, for example by combining optical and electrochemical functions in a single discrete architecture to achieve electrochemical ZMWs. In this review, we will describe the optical properties, fabrication, and applications of ZMWs for single-molecule studies, as well as the integration of ZMWs into systems for chemical and biochemical analysis.

  3. Experimental Verification Of Hyper-V Performance Isolation Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Rzecki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for cost optimization in a broad sense constitutes the basis of operation of every enterprise. In the case of IT structure, which is present in almost every field of activity these days, one of the most commonly applied technologies leading to good cost-to-profit adjustment is virtualization. It consists in locating several operational systems with IT systems on a single server. In order for such optimization to be carried out correctly it has to be strictly controlled by means of allocating access to resources, which is known as performance isolation. Modern virtualizers allow to set up this allocation in quantitative terms (the number of processors, size of RAM, or disc space. It appears, however, that in qualitative terms (processor's time, RAM or hard disc bandwidth the actual allocation of resources does not always correspond with this configuration. This paper provides an experimental presentation of the achievable level of performance isolation of the Hyper-V virtualizer.

  4. Recent results of seismic isolation study in CRIEPI: Numerical activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiojiri, Hiroo; Ishida, Katsuhiko; Yabana, Shurichi; Hirata, Kazuta

    1992-01-01

    Development of detailed numerical models of a bearing and the related isolation system Is necessary for establishing the rational design of the bearing and the system. The developed numerical models should be validated regarding the physical parameters and the basic assumption by comparing the experimental results with the numerical ones. The numerical work being conducted in CRIEPI consists of the following items: (1) Simple modeling of the behavior of the bearings capable of approximating the tests on bearings, and the validation of the model for the bearing by comparing the numerical results adopting the models with the shaking table tests results; (2) Detailed three-dimensional modeling of single bearings with finite-element codes, and the experimental validation of the model; (3)Simple and detailed three-dimensional modeling of isolation buildings and experimental validation

  5. Ciprofloxacin susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from keratitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, JA; Kilian, Mogens

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To examine the ciprofloxacin susceptibility of 106 Pseudomonas aeruginosa eye isolates from the United Kingdom, Denmark, India, the United States, and Australia, and to determine the molecular mechanisms of resistance. METHODS: Ciprofloxacin susceptibility was tested by an agar dilution method...... keratitis, endophthalmitis, contact lens associated red eye (CLARE), and contact lens storage cases showed MIC values below 1 mg/l. Several allelic forms of gyrA and a single variation in the mexR gene product were detected in 10 ciprofloxacin susceptible strains. CONCLUSIONS: The vast majority of eye...... isolates of P aeruginosa from European countries are fully susceptible to ciprofloxacin and the concentration of ciprofloxacin eye drops used for local treatment (3000 mg/l) exceeds MIC values for strains recorded as resistant. Mutations in more than one target gene were associated with higher MIC values....

  6. Serving First in Isolation Increases Vegetable Intake among Elementary Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redden, Joseph P.; Mann, Traci; Vickers, Zata; Mykerezi, Elton; Reicks, Marla; Elsbernd, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Many people want to eat healthier, but they often fail in these attempts. We report two field studies in an elementary school cafeteria that each demonstrate children eat more of a vegetable (carrots, broccoli) when we provide it first in isolation versus alongside other more preferred foods. We propose this healthy first approach succeeds by triggering one’s inherent motivation to eat a single food placed in front of them, and works even though they have prior knowledge of the full menu available and no real time constraints. Consistent with this theory, and counter to simple contrast effects, an additional lab study found that presenting a food first in isolation had the unique ability to increase intake whether the food was healthy (carrots) or less healthy (M&M’s). Our findings demonstrate the effectiveness of this simple intervention in promoting healthier eating, which should interest consumers, food marketers, health professionals, and policy makers. PMID:25830337

  7. Serving first in isolation increases vegetable intake among elementary schoolchildren.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P Redden

    Full Text Available Many people want to eat healthier, but they often fail in these attempts. We report two field studies in an elementary school cafeteria that each demonstrate children eat more of a vegetable (carrots, broccoli when we provide it first in isolation versus alongside other more preferred foods. We propose this healthy first approach succeeds by triggering one's inherent motivation to eat a single food placed in front of them, and works even though they have prior knowledge of the full menu available and no real time constraints. Consistent with this theory, and counter to simple contrast effects, an additional lab study found that presenting a food first in isolation had the unique ability to increase intake whether the food was healthy (carrots or less healthy (M&M's. Our findings demonstrate the effectiveness of this simple intervention in promoting healthier eating, which should interest consumers, food marketers, health professionals, and policy makers.

  8. Serving first in isolation increases vegetable intake among elementary schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redden, Joseph P; Mann, Traci; Vickers, Zata; Mykerezi, Elton; Reicks, Marla; Elsbernd, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Many people want to eat healthier, but they often fail in these attempts. We report two field studies in an elementary school cafeteria that each demonstrate children eat more of a vegetable (carrots, broccoli) when we provide it first in isolation versus alongside other more preferred foods. We propose this healthy first approach succeeds by triggering one's inherent motivation to eat a single food placed in front of them, and works even though they have prior knowledge of the full menu available and no real time constraints. Consistent with this theory, and counter to simple contrast effects, an additional lab study found that presenting a food first in isolation had the unique ability to increase intake whether the food was healthy (carrots) or less healthy (M&M's). Our findings demonstrate the effectiveness of this simple intervention in promoting healthier eating, which should interest consumers, food marketers, health professionals, and policy makers.

  9. Mycoplasma contamination of Chlamydia pneumoniae isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huniche, BS; Jensen, Lise Torp; Birkelund, Svend

    1998-01-01

    We examined 6 C. pneumonia isolates from The American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and 2 Finnish isolates for Mycoplasma contamination. Three of the ATCC isolates and both of the Finnish isolates were Mycoplasma-contaminated. The contaminants were characterized by means of growth in BEa and BEg...... media, immunoblotting, polymerase chain reaction and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Two of the 6 ATCC isolates [ATCC VR1355 (TWAR strain 2043) and ATCC VR1356 (TWAR strain 2023)] were infected with Mycoplasma hominis and 1 isolate [ATCC VR2282 (TWAR strain TW183)] was contaminated with both...... Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma orale, whereas 3 of the ATCC isolates [ATCC VR1310, ATCC VR1360 (TWAR strain CM-1) and ATCC 53592 (TWAR strain AR39)] were not contaminated. The Finnish C. pneumoniae isolates Kajaani 6 and Parola were found to be contaminated with M. hominis and M. orale, respectively...

  10. Isolation of Malassezia furfur from a Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, M. J.; Abarca, M. L.; Cabañes, F. J.

    1999-01-01

    During a survey of the occurrence of Malassezia species in the external ear canals of cats without otitis externa, Malassezia furfur was isolated. This is the first report of the isolation of M. furfur from cats. PMID:10203525

  11. Isolation of Malassezia furfur from a Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo, M. J.; Abarca, M. L.; Cabañes, F. J.

    1999-01-01

    During a survey of the occurrence of Malassezia species in the external ear canals of cats without otitis externa, Malassezia furfur was isolated. This is the first report of the isolation of M. furfur from cats.

  12. Isolation of haloorganic groundwater humic substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, M.; Grøn, C.

    1995-01-01

    Humic substances were isolated from groundwater according to a revised method designed to avoid organohalogen artefacts. The prepared humic substances exhibited lower halogen contents than humic substances isolated according to the conventionally used method. Excessive oxidation or hydrolysis...

  13. Isolation of Antidiabetic Principle from Bougainvillea spectabilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rhamnopyranoside were isolated from the stem bark of B. spectabilis Willd. Conclusion: An antidiabetic principle, pinitol, was successfully isolated from the stem bark of B. spectabilis Willd. Keywords: Bougainvillea spectabilis, Column chromatography, ...

  14. [Selective Isolation of Rare Actinomycetes from Soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sineva, O N; Terekhova, L P

    2015-01-01

    Many diverse methods for selective isolation of actinomycetes are used in discovery of organisms producing biologically active substances, as well as in ecological studies. Methods for isolation of rare actinomycetes from soil are reviewed.

  15. Isolation of biofilm producing microorganisms isolated from urinary indwelling catheter in geriatric hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Frugoni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In nature, bacterial cells can exist in two different states: individual (planktonic cells, or biofilm. In biofilms, bacterial cells are adherent to a surface and contained in an extracellular matrix mainly composed of polysaccharides and proteins.The cells in biofilms differ from planktonic counterparts for a different pattern of gene expression and increased resistance to antibiotics.This means that biofilms in hospital can cause persistent infections, due to the immunocompromised state of the patient and from a previous infection or exposure to the antibiotic. The aim of our work was to: 1 to assess the presence of microorganisms in institutionalized geriatric patients carrying indwelling catheter 2 assess the ability of gram-negative microorganisms to produce biofilm. Methods: 150 samples from urine of patients with indwelling urinary catheter hospitalized at ASP Pio Albergo Trivulzio were studied. Adhesion of bacteria was tested using LB medium diluted 1:4 and staining the biofilm cells with crystal violet. Results: 120 samples (80% tested positive for the presence of microorganisms; in 96 samples only one microrganism was detected, while 24 were contaminated with 2 or more bacterial species. 88% of isolates testing positive to a single species consisted of Gram negative microorganisms: E. coli (48%, P. mirabilis (16%, P. aeruginosa (13%, K. pneumoniae (5%, P. stuartii (2%, C. freundii (1%, E. aerogenes (1%, E. cloacae (1%, K. oxytica (1%, M. morganii (1%.Adhesion assays show that all strains of P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, E. cloacae and C. freundii isolates produced biofilm. In contrast, strains of E. aerogenes and M. morganii did not produce any biofilm. 26% of E. coli strains were able to produce biofilm, as well as 93% of P. mirabilis and 50% of P. stuartii.Overall, 55% of Gram negative microrganisms isolated were capable of producing biofilms. Conclusion: The use of a nutritionally poor medium (LB diluted 1

  16. Single-dopant resonance in a single-electron transistor

    OpenAIRE

    Golovach, V. N.; Jehl, X.; Houzet, M.; Pierre, M.; Roche, B.; Sanquer, M.; Glazman, L. I.

    2011-01-01

    Single dopants in semiconductor nanostructures have been studied in great details recently as they are good candidates for quantum bits, provided they are coupled to a detector. Here we report coupling of a single As donor atom to a single-electron transistor (SET) in a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor. Both capacitive and tunnel coupling are achieved, the latter resulting in a dramatic increase of the conductance through the SET, by up to one order of magnitude. The experimental resu...

  17. Behavioural reproductive isolation and speciation in Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the genus Drosophila, the phenomenon of behavioural reproductive isolation, which is an important type of premating (prezygotic) reproductive isolating mechanisms, has been extensively studied and interesting data have been documented. In many cases incomplete sexual isolation has been observed and the pattern ...

  18. (ESBLs) among clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates obtained from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred Gram negative bacterial isolates were collected from a private diagnostic center and identified by subjecting the isolates to biochemical tests using standard procedures. Confirmed Enterobacteriaceae isolates were further subjected to screening for extended spectrum â-lactamases (ESBLs) production using ...

  19. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Nosocomial Isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the occurrence, species prevalence, antibacterial resistance, and molecular characteristics of S. aureus isolates from different wards located in a university hospital. Methods: A total of one hundred and fifty S. aureus isolates were recovered from various clinical specimens. The isolates were tested ...

  20. Isolation, characterization, and hydrolytic activities of Geobacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to isolate, identify, characterize and to determine the enzymatic activities of the thermophilic Geobacillus species from five Jordanian hot springs. Based on phenotypic characters, eight thermophilic isolates were identified and belonged to the genus Geobacillus. The Geobacillus isolates ...

  1. Isolation and morphological characterization of antibiotic producing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To isolate and characterize antibiotic producing actinomycetes from soil samples in Belgaum, Karnataka, India. Methods: Crowded plate technique was used for the isolation of actinomycetes in media such as soybean – casein digest medium and actinomycetes isolation agar. The morphological and cultural ...

  2. [Polyps (single or multiple) and juvenile polyposis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnifili, A; Schietroma, M; Mattucci, S; Carloni, A; Caterino, G; Rossi, M; Pistoia, M A; Carlei, F

    2001-10-01

    The authors underline the important aspects of juvenile familial polyposis (JFP), a disease transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. A case of JFP characterized by the presence of hundreds of polyps in the colo-rectal intestinal tract, is analyzed. The single juvenile polyp, multiple polyps (=/>5 polyps) and the sporadic form are examined. These are mucous hamartomas which can undergo neoplastic transformation (in carcinoma in 68% of untreated cases), a behaviour similar to that of adenomatous polyps. They differ from the later due to the following features: epidemiology (earlier appearance age), anatomopathology (stroma), clinical observation (self-recovery in some cases) and genetics (10q23.3-18q21, genetic mutations in a locus different those of adenomatous polyps). It is also necessary to determine its extension by means of colonoscopy, ileoscopy, gastroscopy and small bowel barium enema. Patients' screening through construction of the genealogical family tree is fundamental. Isolation of possible degenerative aspects of the polyps through biopsy is also fundamental. Single or multiple polyps are treated endoscopically, the juvenile polyposis is treated surgically (colectomy, total colectomy). A rigorous follow-up of the patients and their family members is recommended.

  3. Observation of Single Top Quark Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Cecilia E.; /Illinois U., Chicago

    2009-09-01

    The author reports on the observation of electroweak production of single top quarks in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 Tev using 2.3 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the D0 detector at the fermilab Tevatron Collider. Using events containing an isolated electron or muon, missing transverse energy, two, three or four jets, with one or two of them identified as originating from the fragmentation of a b quark, the measured cross section for the process p{bar p} {yields} tb + X, tqb + X is 3.94 {+-} 0.88 pb (for a top quark mass of 170 GeV). the probability to measure a cross section at this value or higher in the absence of signal is 2.5 x 10{sup -7}, corresponding to a 5.0 standard deviation significance. Using the same dataset, the measured cross sections for the t- and the s-channel processes when determined simultaneously with no assumption on their relative production rate are 3.14{sub -0.80}{sup +0.94} pb and 1.05 {+-} 0.81 pb respectively, consistent with standard model expectations. The measured t-channel cross section has a significance of 4.8 standard deviations, representing the first evidence for the production of an individual single top process to be detected.

  4. Single Molecule Analysis of Resection Tracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Pablo; Cruz-García, Andrés

    2018-01-01

    Homologous recombination is initiated by the so-called DNA end resection, the 5'-3' nucleolytic degradation of a single strand of the DNA at each side of the break. The presence of resected DNA is an obligatory step for homologous recombination. Moreover, the amount of resected DNA modulates the prevalence of different recombination pathways. In different model organisms, there are several published ways to visualize and measure with more or less detail the amount of DNA resected. In human cells, however, technical constraints hampered the study of resection at high resolution. Some information might be gathered from the study of endonuclease-created DSBs, in which the resection of breaks at known sites can be followed by PCR or ChIP. In this chapter, we describe in detail a novel assay to study DNA end resection in breaks located on unknown positions. Here, we use ionizing radiation to induce double-strand breaks, but the same approach can be used to monitor resection induced by different DNA damaging agents. By modifying the DNA-combing technique, used for high-resolution replication analyses, we can measure resection progression at the level of individual DNA fibers. Thus, we named the method Single Molecule Analysis of Resection Tracks (SMART). We use human cells in culture as a model system, but in principle the same approach would be feasible to any model organism adjusting accordingly the DNA isolation part of the protocol.

  5. Characteristics of Staphylococci isolated from mastitic goat milk in Iranian dairy herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Shams

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and fifteen cases of sub clinical mastitis were detected in a study on 510 goats from 5 herds in west central, Iran. From positive milk samples, 23 Staphylococcus spp. strains were isolated. Fourteen isolates were determined as Staphylococcus aureus (12.17%, and the other 9 (7.82% as Staphylococcus epidermidis. Eleven and six isolates of S. aureus and S. epidermidis produced combined form of hemolysins a/ß/d, while ß/d hemolysins produced by 2 and 3 isolates respectively . Only one isolate of S. aureus produced single type d hemolysin. The sensitivity of all strains to 10 chemotherapeutics was tested through the disk diffusion method, 6 strains (26.08% were determined as methicillin-resistant: out of them 4 isolates were S. aureus and 2 S.epidermidis. S. aureus and S. epidermidis isolates were 100% resistant to Cloxaciline and Kanamycin while the resistance to Penicillin was 100% in S. aureus and 33.33% in S. epidermidis isolates. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 205-208

  6. Design and test of aircraft engine isolators for reduced interior noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, J. F.; Scheidt, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    Improved engine vibration isolation was proposed to be the most weight and cost efficient retrofit structure-borne noise control measure for single engine general aviation aircraft. A study was carried out the objectives: (1) to develop an engine isolator design specification for reduced interior noise transmission, (2) select/design candidate isolators to meet a 15 dB noise reduction design goal, and (3) carry out a proof of concept evaluation test. Analytical model of the engine, vibration isolators and engine mount structure were coupled to an empirical model of the fuselage for noise transmission evaluation. The model was used to develop engine isolator dynamic properties design specification for reduced noise transmission. Candidate isolators ere chosen from available product literature and retrofit to a test aircraft. A laboratory based test procedure was then developed to simulate engine induced noise transmission in the aircraft for a proof of concept evaluation test. Three candidate isolator configurations were evaluated for reduced structure-borne noise transmission relative to the original equipment isolators.

  7. [Molecular characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in Cantabria, Spain, producing VIM-2 metallo-beta-lactamase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, María-Cruz; Ruiz del Castillo, Belén; Rodríguez-Mirones, Cristina; Romo, María; Monteagudo, Idoia; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2010-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains producing metallo-beta-lactamases (MbetaL) are uncommon in Spain. This study describes the characterization of 9 new clonally related multiresistant P. aeruginosa isolates possessing the bla(VIM-2) gene in Cantabria (Northern Spain). P. aeruginosa clinical strains (1 per patient) were isolated in the Microbiology Service of Marqués de Valdecilla University Hospital between January 2004 and December 2006. Identification and preliminary susceptibility studies were performed with the MicroScan WalkAway system (Dade Behring, Sacramento, CA) and results were verified by a microdilution reference method. MICs of imipenem and meropenem for the 9 isolates ranged from 32 to 128 and 16 to 64 microg/mL, respectively. Nine isolates had a single Rep-PCR pattern and were intermediate or resistant to ceftazidime, cefepime, gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin and ciprofloxacin. Eight of the 9 isolates were susceptible to aztreonam. Hydrolysis activity of imipenem in MbetaL-positive isolates ranged from 162+/-18 to 235+/-28 pmol/min/microg protein and was abolished in the presence of 5 mM EDTA. All isolates possessed an integron with genes aac(6')32, bla(VIM-2) and a putative transposase-encoding gene, flanked by the conserved 5'CS and 3'CS regions. In the clinical isolates studied, the presence of MbetaL VIM-2 sufficed to explain their resistance to carbapenems. Copyright (c) 2008 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. The genetic basis of behavioral isolation between Drosophila mauritiana and D. sechellia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabney, Daniel R

    2012-07-01

    Understanding how species form is a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. Identifying the genetic bases of barriers that prevent gene flow between species provides insight into how speciation occurs. Here, I analyze a poorly understood reproductive isolating barrier, prezygotic reproductive isolation. I perform a genetic analysis of prezygotic isolation between two closely related species of Drosophila, D. mauritiana and D. sechellia. I first confirm the existence of strong behavioral isolation between D. mauritiana females and D. sechellia males. Next, I examine the genetic basis of behavioral isolation by (1) scanning an existing set of introgression lines for chromosomal regions that have a large effect on isolation; and (2) mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) that underlie behavioral isolation via backcross analysis. In particular, I map QTL that determine whether a hybrid backcross female and a D. sechellia male will mate. I identify a single significant QTL, on the X chromosome, suggesting that few major-effect loci contribute to behavioral isolation between these species. In further work, I refine the map position of the QTL to a small region of the X chromosome. © 2012 The Author(s).

  9. A simple microfluidic dispenser for single-microparticle and cell samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasukurti, A; Eggleton, C D; Desai, S A; Disharoon, D I; Marr, D W M

    2014-12-21

    Non-destructive isolation of single-cells has become an important need for many biology research laboratories; however, there is a lack of easily employed and inexpensive tools. Here, we present a single-particle sample delivery approach fabricated from simple, economical components that may address this need. In this, we employ unique flow and timing strategies to bridge the significant force and length scale differences inherent in transitioning from single particle isolation to delivery. Demonstrating this approach, we use an optical trap to isolate individual microparticles and red blood cells that are dispensed within separate 50 μl droplets off a microfluidic chip for collection into microscope slides or microtiter plates.

  10. Fourier-transform spatial modulation spectroscopy of single gold nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kollmann Heiko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sensing the scattered fields of single metallic nanostructures is a crucial step towards the applications of isolated plasmonic antennas, such as for the sensing of single molecules or nanoparticles. In the past, both near- and far-field spectroscopy methods have been applied to monitor single plasmonic resonances. So far, however, these spectral-domain techniques do not yet provide the femtosecond time resolution that is needed to probe the dynamics of plasmonic fields in the time domain. Here, we introduce a time-domain technique that combines broadband Fourier-transform spectroscopy and spatial modulation spectroscopy (FT-SMS to quantitatively measure the extinction spectra of the isolated gold nanorods with a nominal footprint of 41×10 nm2. Using a phase-stable pulse pair for excitation, the technique is capable of rejecting off-resonant stray fields and providing absolute measurements of the extinction cross section. Our results indicate that the method is well suited for measuring the optical response of strongly coupled hybrid systems with high signal-to-noise ratio. It may form the basis for new approaches towards time-domain spectroscopy of single nanoantennas with few-cycle time resolution.

  11. Whole-Genome Sequences of Thirteen Isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schutzer S. E.; Dunn J.; Fraser-Liggett, C. M.; Casjens, S. R.; Qiu, W.-G.; Mongodin, E. F.; Luft, B. J.

    2011-02-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is a causative agent of Lyme disease in North America and Eurasia. The first complete genome sequence of B. burgdorferi strain 31, available for more than a decade, has assisted research on the pathogenesis of Lyme disease. Because a single genome sequence is not sufficient to understand the relationship between genotypic and geographic variation and disease phenotype, we determined the whole-genome sequences of 13 additional B. burgdorferi isolates that span the range of natural variation. These sequences should allow improved understanding of pathogenesis and provide a foundation for novel detection, diagnosis, and prevention strategies.

  12. Dual-phase reactor plant with partitioned isolation condenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Marvin M.

    1992-01-01

    A nuclear energy plant housing a boiling-water reactor utilizes an isolation condenser in which a single chamber is partitioned into a distributor plenum and a collector plenum. Steam accumulates in the distributor plenum and is conveyed to the collector plenum through an annular manifold that includes tubes extending through a condenser pool. The tubes provide for a transfer of heat from the steam, forming a condensate. The chamber has a disk-shaped base, a cylindrical sidewall, and a semispherical top. This geometry results in a compact design that exhibits significant performance and cost advantages over prior designs.

  13. Advances in single chain technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Burgos, Marina; Latorre-Sanchez, Alejandro; Pomposo, José A

    2015-10-07

    The recent ability to manipulate and visualize single atoms at atomic level has given rise to modern bottom-up nanotechnology. Similar exquisite degree of control at the individual polymeric chain level for producing functional soft nanoentities is expected to become a reality in the next few years through the full development of so-called "single chain technology". Ultra-small unimolecular soft nano-objects endowed with useful, autonomous and smart functions are the expected, long-term valuable output of single chain technology. This review covers the recent advances in single chain technology for the construction of soft nano-objects via chain compaction, with an emphasis in dynamic, letter-shaped and compositionally unsymmetrical single rings, complex multi-ring systems, single chain nanoparticles, tadpoles, dumbbells and hairpins, as well as the potential end-use applications of individual soft nano-objects endowed with useful functions in catalysis, sensing, drug delivery and other uses.

  14. Fungi isolated in school buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Ejdys

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the species composition of fungi occurring on wall surfaces and in the air in school buildings. Fungi isolated from the air using the sedimentation method and from the walls using the surface swab technique constituted the study material. Types of finish materials on wall surfaces were identified and used in the analysis. Samples were collected in selected areas in two schools: classrooms, corridors, men's toilets and women's toilets, cloakrooms, sports changing rooms and shower. Examinations were conducted in May 2005 after the heating season was over. Fungi were incubated on Czapek-Dox medium at three parallel temperatures: 25, 37 and 40°C, for at least three weeks. A total of 379 isolates of fungi belonging to 32 genera of moulds, yeasts and yeast-like fungi were obtained from 321 samples in the school environment. The following genera were isolated most frequently: Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium. Of the 72 determined species, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum occurred most frequently in the school buildings. Wall surfaces were characterised by an increased prevalence of mycobiota in comparison with the air in the buildings, with a slightly greater species diversity. A certain species specificity for rough and smooth wall surfaces was demonstrated. Fungi of the genera Cladosporium and Emericella with large spores adhered better to smooth surfaces while those of the genus Aspergillus with smaller conidia adhered better to rough surfaces. The application of three incubation temperatures helped provide a fuller picture of the mycobiota in the school environment.

  15. Braking index of isolated pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamil, O.; Stone, J. R.; Urbanec, M.; Urbancová, G.

    2015-03-01

    Isolated pulsars are rotating neutron stars with accurately measured angular velocities Ω , and their time derivatives that show unambiguously that the pulsars are slowing down. Although the exact mechanism of the spin-down is a question of detailed debate, the commonly accepted view is that it arises through emission of magnetic dipole radiation (MDR) from a rotating magnetized body. Other processes, including the emission of gravitational radiation, and of relativistic particles (pulsar wind), are also being considered. The calculated energy loss by a rotating pulsar with a constant moment of inertia is assumed proportional to a model dependent power of Ω . This relation leads to the power law Ω ˙ =-K Ωn where n is called the braking index. The MDR model predicts n exactly equal to 3. Selected observations of isolated pulsars provide rather precise values of n , individually accurate to a few percent or better, in the range 1 structure. In addition, we examine the effects of the baryonic mass MB of the star, and possible core superfluidity, on the value of the braking index within the MDR model. Four microscopic equations of state are employed as input to two different computational codes that solve Einstein's equations numerically, either exactly or using the perturbative Hartle-Thorne method, to calculate the moment of inertia and other macroscopic properties of rotating neutron stars. The calculations are performed for fixed values of MB (as masses of isolated pulsars are not known) ranging from 1.0 - 2.2 M⊙ , and fixed magnetic dipole moment and inclination angle between the rotational and magnetic field axes. The results are used to solve for the value of the braking index as a function of frequency, and find the effect of the choice of the EoS, MB. The density profile of a star with a given MB is calculated to determine the transition between the crust and the core and used in estimation of the effect of core superfluidity on the braking index. Our

  16. Growing Isolation Frustrates Iranian Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labi, Aisha

    2008-01-01

    Before the Islamic Revolution of 1979, Iranian graduate students and academics frequently studied or worked in the United States. That year, for example, the 51,300 Iranian students in the United States were the single largest group of foreign students in the country. Many, if not most, Iranian professors received their doctorates from American…

  17. Implementation of single qubit in QD ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alegre, T.P. Mayer

    2004-01-01

    Full text: During the last decades the semiconductor industry has achieved the production of exponentially shrinking components. This fact points to fundamental limits of integration, making computation with single atoms or particles like an electron an ultimate goal. To get to this limit, quantum systems in solid state have to be manipulated in a controllable fashion. The assessment of quantum degrees of freedom for information processing may allow exponentially faster performance for certain classes of problems. The essential aspect to be explored in quantum information processing resides in the superposition of states that allows resources such as entangled states to be envisaged. The quest for the optimal system to host a quantum variable that is sufficiently isolated from the environment encompasses implementations spanning optical, atomic, molecular and solid state systems. In the solid state, a variety of proposals have come forth, each one having its own advantages and disadvantages. The main conclusion from these e efforts is that there is no decisive technology upon which quantum information devices will be built. Self-assembled quantum dots (SAQDs or QDs), can be grown with size uniformity that enables the observation of single electron loading events. They can in turn be used to controllably trap single electrons into discrete levels, atom-like, with their corresponding shells. Hund's rules and Pauli exclusion principle are observed in these nanostructures and are key in allowing and preserving a particular quantum state. Provided that one can trap one electron in a QD ensemble, the corresponding spin can be manipulated by an external magnetic field by either conventional Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) techniques or g-tensor modulation resonance (g-TMR). By analogy with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, single qubit operations are proposed, which at some point in time should be scaled, provided that spin-spin interactions can be controlled. Read out can be

  18. Nanodiamond Emitters of Single Photons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasov I.I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Luminescence properties of single color centers were studied in nanodiamonds of different origin. It was found that single photon emitters could be realized even in molecularsized diamond (less than 2 nm capable of housing stable luminescent center “silicon-vacancy.” First results on incorporation of single-photon emitters based on luminescent nanodiamonds in plasmonic nanoantennas to enhance the photon count rate and directionality, diminish the fluorescence decay time, and provide polarization selectivity are presented.

  19. Review of methods to probe single cell metabolism and bioenergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasdekis, Andreas E; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Single cell investigations have enabled unexpected discoveries, such as the existence of biological noise and phenotypic switching in infection, metabolism and treatment. Herein, we review methods that enable such single cell investigations specific to metabolism and bioenergetics. Firstly, we discuss how to isolate and immobilize individuals from a cell suspension, including both permanent and reversible approaches. We also highlight specific advances in microbiology for its implications in metabolic engineering. Methods for probing single cell physiology and metabolism are subsequently reviewed. The primary focus therein is on dynamic and high-content profiling strategies based on label-free and fluorescence microspectroscopy and microscopy. Non-dynamic approaches, such as mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance, are also briefly discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Characterization of MnO4-/KBr Single Crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Win Kyaw; Win Zaw; Thein Soe; Pho Kaung; Sein Htoon

    2006-06-01

    Manually operated X- ray diffractometer (Tel-X-Ometer 580) was upgraded successfully into the Personal Computer (PC) based instrument. Utilizing this together with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrophotometer investigates the effect of doping Permanganate, MnO4- , ions into Potassium Bromide, KBr, single crystal. XRD spectra of the pure KBr single crystal and the MnO4 doped KBr (MnO4- / KBr) single crystal are found to be similar irrespective of the dopant MnO4- ion. The IR spectrum, however, confirms the existence of MnO4- matrix isolated in KBr. The high intensity of the resonance Raman transitions is employed to examine the dopants in substrate which are present in such low abundances that conventional Raman Spectroscopy cannot detect