WorldWideScience

Sample records for single underlying construct

  1. AA under construction

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The AA at an early stage of construction, in the newly built AA-Hall. Cable-trays already outline the shape of the accumulator ring. To the right are huge cable-drums for the pulse-forming-network (PFN) of the injection kicker. Seeing this picture, can one imagine that only 8 months later beams were circulating in the completed accumulator ring ?

  2. New CMS detectors under construction at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    While the LHC will play the starring role in the 2013/2014 Long Shutdown (LS1), the break will also be a chance for its experiments to upgrade their detectors. CMS will be expanding its current muon detection systems, fitting 72 new cathode strip chambers (CSC) and 144 new resistive plate chambers (RPC) to the endcaps of the detector. These new chambers are currently under construction in Building 904.   CMS engineers install side panels on a CSC detector in Building 904. "The original RPC and CSC detectors were constructed in bits and pieces around the world," says Armando Lanaro, CSC construction co-ordinator. "But for the construction of these additional chambers, we decided to unify the assembly and testing into a single facility at CERN. There, CMS technicians, engineers and physicists are taking raw materials and transforming them into installation-ready detectors.” This new facility can be found in Building 904. Once the assembly site for the strai...

  3. Object Construction Under Diverse Conditions of Rearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J. McVicker

    1974-01-01

    This study examines object construction and the ages at which children developing under various environmental conditions achieve five of the landmarks in the Uzgiris-Hunt (1974) scale of object permanence. (Author)

  4. Constructing the single woman in therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Jill

    2002-01-01

    This article brings a social constructionist perspective to discussion of the therapeutic literature on singleness and draws on the author's research interviews with single women to consider how therapists might make use of this perspective in their practice.

  5. Bglbrick strategy for the construction of single domain antibody fusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen R. Goldman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Single domain antibodies, recombinantly expressed variable domains derived from camelid heavy chain antibodies, are often expressed as multimers for detection and therapeutic applications. Constructs in which several single domain antibodies are genetically fused serially, as well as those in which single domain antibodies are genetically linked with domains that naturally form multimers, yield improvement in apparent binding affinity due to avidity. Here, using a single domain antibody that binds envelope protein from the Dengue virus, we demonstrated the construction of single domain antibody dimers using the Bglbrick cloning strategy. Constructing single domain antibodies and multimerization domains as Bglbrick parts enables the easy mixing and matching of parts. The dimeric constructs provided enhanced fluorescent signal in assays for detection of Dengue virus like particles over the monomeric single domain antibody.

  6. Construction of prestressed concrete single-tee bridge superstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    This report discusses in detail the construction of the first five precast, prestressed concrete, single-tee beam bridge superstructures to be let to contract in Virginia. The data suggest that this single-tee beam enables efficient construction of t...

  7. Design, Construction and Measured Performance of a Single-Stage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The design philosophy, construction and measured performances of a single stage, single entry centrifugal pump demonstration unit are presented. In the construction, close-coupled induction motor drives the centrifugal pump, which draws fluid (water) from a water storage tank and delivers same through a flow control ...

  8. New library construction method for single-cell genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Xi

    Full Text Available A central challenge in sequencing single-cell genomes is the accurate determination of point mutations, phasing of these mutations, and identifying copy number variations with few assumptions. Ideally, this is accomplished under as low sequencing coverage as possible. Here we report our attempt to meet these goals with a novel library construction and library amplification methodology. In our approach, single-cell genomic DNA is first fragmented with saturated transposition to make a primary library that uniformly covers the whole genome by short fragments. The library is then amplified by a carefully optimized PCR protocol in a uniform and synchronized fashion for next-generation sequencing. Each step of the protocol can be quantitatively characterized. Our shallow sequencing data show that the library is tightly distributed and is useful for the determination of copy number variations.

  9. Pavement behaviour under the super single tyre

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Viljoen, AW

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Pavement behaviour under the super single tyre (SST) was investigated and compared with that under a conventional dual tyre (CDT). Contact areas and contact pressures over a range of loading conditions were measured and compared. Two approaches were...

  10. Homology modelling and bivalent single-chain Fv construction of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Homology modelling and bivalent single-chain Fv construction of anti-HepG2 single-chain immunoglobulin Fv fragments from a phage display library ... Department of Infectious Diseases, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China; Department of ...

  11. Construction and deconstruction of single instanton Hilbert series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanany, Amihay; Kalveks, Rudolph [Theoretical Physics Group, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London,Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-17

    Many methods exist for the construction of the Hilbert series describing the moduli spaces of instantons. We explore some of the underlying group theoretic relationships between these various constructions, including those based on the Coulomb branches and Higgs branches of SUSY quiver gauge theories, as well as those based on generating functions derivable from the Weyl Character Formula. We show how the character description of the reduced single instanton moduli space (“RSIMS') of any Classical or Exceptional group can be deconstructed faithfully in terms of characters or modified Hall-Littlewood polynomials of its regular semi-simple subgroups. We derive and utilise Highest Weight Generating (“HWG') functions, both for the characters of Classical or Exceptional groups and for the Hall-Littlewood polynomials of unitary groups. We illustrate how the root space data encoded in extended Dynkin diagrams corresponds to relationships between the Coulomb branches of quiver gauge theories for RSIMS and those for T(SU(N)) moduli spaces.

  12. Single curved fiber sedimentation under gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoying Rong; Dewei Qi; Junyong Zhu

    2005-01-01

    Dynamics of single curved fiber sedimentation under the gravity are simulated by using lattice Boltzmann method. The results of migration and rotation of the curved fiber at different Reynolds numbers are reported. The results show that the rotation and migration processes are sensitive to the curvature of the fiber.

  13. Peru Brand: a Nation under Construction?

    OpenAIRE

    Elder Cuevas-Calderón

    2016-01-01

    During the last decade Peru has experienced a euphoric rediscovery –pseudo revaluation as a country– due to its booming gastronomy, tourism and economic growth.In this context, the presentresearch uses semio-psychoanalytic and postcolonial theories to explain Peru’s social outlook regarding the concept of nation, its reunion with a non-existent identity and the construction of the idea of nation based on the marketing campaign titled the Peru Brand. Thus, Peru Brand, far from uniting all Peru...

  14. EDUCATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY AND ADMINISTRATION MAGISTRATURE UNDER CONSTRUCTION SPECIALTY (08.04.01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olejnik Pavel Pavlovich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This Paper discusses some Educational Considerations for Construction Technology and Administration Magistrature under Construction Specialty. The main requirements to the level of the enacted construction and housing maintenance and utilities standards have been described and the need for the Construction Technology and Administration Magistrature has been outlined. The Construction Technology and Administration Magistrature 3-Unit Structure meeting the Construction Specialty (08.04.01 Federal State Educational Standards has been presented. The basic Magistrature Unit consist of the following two disciplines — Scientific Research Basics and Construction Professional Basics. The basics of the Additional Unit include Construction Design — Construction Operations Preparation System, Construction and Assembly Operations — Construction Quality Control Sys-tem. In the Additional Unit, there are the options open for a number of disciplines. The Magistrature envisages a work placement and a scientific & research study.

  15. The Single Needle Lockstitch Machine. [Constructing Darts.] Module 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on constructing darts, one in a series on the single needle lockstitch sewing machine for student self-study, contains two sections. Each section includes the following parts: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, student self-check, check-out activities, and an instructor's final…

  16. Peru Brand: a Nation under Construction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder Cuevas-Calderón

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade Peru has experienced a euphoric rediscovery –pseudo revaluation as a country– due to its booming gastronomy, tourism and economic growth.In this context, the presentresearch uses semio-psychoanalytic and postcolonial theories to explain Peru’s social outlook regarding the concept of nation, its reunion with a non-existent identity and the construction of the idea of nation based on the marketing campaign titled the Peru Brand. Thus, Peru Brand, far from uniting all Peruvians and bring them together into the wellknown “melting pot”, becomes the resemantization of the old colonial discourse longing for a republic without natives. Therefore, in the Peru Brand advertising discourse, the “primitive natives” are white people brought from Nebraska and speak English.

  17. Experience feedback system of nuclear power plant under construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qun; Lin Ling

    2012-01-01

    The Experience Feedback System of Hainan Nuclear Power Plant under construction, which is a typical EPC nuclear power project, is introduced in the paper. And the good practice of the system set a good example for those NPPs under construction in China. (authors)

  18. Single Crystals Grown Under Unconstrained Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagawa, Ichiro

    Based on detailed investigations on morphology (evolution and variation in external forms), surface microtopography of crystal faces (spirals and etch figures), internal morphology (growth sectors, growth banding and associated impurity partitioning) and perfection (dislocations and other lattice defects) in single crystals, we can deduce how and by what mechanism the crystal grew and experienced fluctuation in growth parameters through its growth and post-growth history under unconstrained condition. The information is useful not only in finding appropriate way to growing highly perfect and homogeneous single crystals, but also in deciphering letters sent from the depth of the Earth and the Space. It is also useful in discriminating synthetic from natural gemstones. In this chapter, available methods to obtain molecular information are briefly summarized, and actual examples to demonstrate the importance of this type of investigations are selected from both natural minerals (diamond, quartz, hematite, corundum, beryl, phlogopite) and synthetic crystals (SiC, diamond, corundum, beryl).

  19. Under Construction: An Experiential Exercise Illustrating Elements of Work Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Kimberly M.; Fluegge-Woolf, Erin R.

    2015-01-01

    The Under Construction Exercise was developed by the authors to highlight key factors of work design that when implemented among the work group or entire organization can lead to an environment conducive to fostering satisfaction and motivation. In the exercise, groups are assigned to one of four different conditions that are designed to emulate…

  20. 47 CFR 32.2003 - Telecommunications plant under construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Telecommunications plant under construction. 32.2003 Section 32.2003 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet...

  1. Object Construction and Imitation under Differing Conditions of Rearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevopoulos, John; Hunt, J. McV.

    1971-01-01

    Compares the ages at which infants living under different conditions in two orphanges in Athens, Greece achieve levels of object construction and imitation, both verbal and gestural. Home-reared infants of the same age range were also examined using two of the Uzgiris-Hunt Ordinal Scales of Infant Psychological Development. (WY)

  2. Introduction to Single Piles under Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    The purpose of this chapter is to give a short introduction to single piles subjected to lateral loading. First, the observed behaviour of laterally loaded piles is described, i.e. the effects of loading conditions, installation procedure, pile type etc. on pile behaviour are presented (section 1.......2). The description is based on results of laboratory tests, full-scale field tests as well as numerical investigations presented in literature. Second, general methods that attempt to model lateral pile response are discussed in section 1.4. Third, focus is paid to a widely used method for prediction of the response...... of a lateral loaded pile, namely the Winkler approach in which the pile is modelled as an elastic beam on an elastic foundation (section 1.5). The soil response and thereby the elastic foundation is represented by springs with nonlinear behaviour (p-y curves). In section 1.6 different types and formulations...

  3. Lie construction affects information storage under high memory load condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuqiu; Wang, Chunjie; Jiang, Haibo; He, Hongjian; Chen, Feiyan

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that lying consumes cognitive resources, especially working memory (WM) resources. Considering the dual functions that WM might play in lying: holding the truth-related information and turning the truth into lies, the present study examined the relationship between the information storage and processing in the lie construction. To achieve that goal, a deception task based on the old/new recognition paradigm was designed, which could manipulate two levels of WM load (low-load task using 4 items and high-load task using 6 items) during the deception process. The analyses based on the amplitude of the contralateral delay activity (CDA), a proved index of the number of representations being held in WM, showed that the CDA amplitude was lower in the deception process than that in the truth telling process under the high-load condition. In contrast, under the low-load condition, no CDA difference was found between the deception and truth telling processes. Therefore, we deduced that the lie construction and information storage compete for WM resources; when the available WM resources cannot meet this cognitive demand, the WM resources occupied by the information storage would be consumed by the lie construction.

  4. Genetically engineered multivalent single chain antibody constructs for cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surinder Batra, Ph D

    2006-02-27

    its tumor: normal tissue ratio for improved therapeutic index, we engineered a variety antibody constructs. These constructs were evaluated using novel approaches like special radionuclides, pretargeting and optimization. Due to the smaller size, the engineered antibody molecules should penetrate better throughout a tumor mass, with less dose heterogeneity, than is the case with intact IgG. Multivalent scFvs with an appropriate radionuclide, therefore, hold promising prospects for cancer therapy and clinical imaging in MAb-based radiopharmaceuticals. In addition, the human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA) responses in patients against antibody-based therapy are usually directed against the immunoglobulin constant regions; however, anti-idiotypic responses can also be detected. The HAMA responses reduce the efficacy of treatment by removing the circulating antibody molecules, fragments, and possibly scFvs by altering the pharmacokinetic properties of the antibody. HAMA responses against divalent IgG, divalent Ig fragments, and possibly multimeric scFvs could cause immune complex formation with hypersensitivity or allergic reactions that could be harmful to patients. The use of small molecules, such as scFvs (monomeric as well as multimeric), with their shorter biological half-lives and the lack of the constant regions and humanized variable (binding regions) performed in our studies should reduce the development of HAMA. The generation of humanized and fully human scFvs should further reduce the development of HAMA. Specific accomplishments on the project are the production of large amounts of recombinant antibodies as they are required in large amounts for cancer diagnosis and therapy. A variety of single-chain Fv (scFv) constructs were engineered for the desired pharmacokinetic properties. Tetrameric and dimeric scFvs showed a two-fold advantage: (1) there was a considerable gain in avidity as compared to smaller fragments, and (2) the biological half-life was more

  5. Genetically engineered multivalent single chain antibody constructs for cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surinder Batra

    2006-01-01

    increase its tumor: normal tissue ratio for improved therapeutic index, we engineered a variety antibody constructs. These constructs were evaluated using novel approaches like special radionuclides, pretargeting and optimization. Due to the smaller size, the engineered antibody molecules should penetrate better throughout a tumor mass, with less dose heterogeneity, than is the case with intact IgG. Multivalent scFvs with an appropriate radionuclide, therefore, hold promising prospects for cancer therapy and clinical imaging in MAb-based radiopharmaceuticals. In addition, the human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA) responses in patients against antibody-based therapy are usually directed against the immunoglobulin constant regions; however, anti-idiotypic responses can also be detected. The HAMA responses reduce the efficacy of treatment by removing the circulating antibody molecules, fragments, and possibly scFvs by altering the pharmacokinetic properties of the antibody. HAMA responses against divalent IgG, divalent Ig fragments, and possibly multimeric scFvs could cause immune complex formation with hypersensitivity or allergic reactions that could be harmful to patients. The use of small molecules, such as scFvs (monomeric as well as multimeric), with their shorter biological half-lives and the lack of the constant regions and humanized variable (binding regions) performed in our studies should reduce the development of HAMA. The generation of humanized and fully human scFvs should further reduce the development of HAMA. Specific accomplishments on the project are the production of large amounts of recombinant antibodies as they are required in large amounts for cancer diagnosis and therapy. A variety of single-chain Fv (scFv) constructs were engineered for the desired pharmacokinetic properties. Tetrameric and dimeric scFvs showed a two-fold advantage: (1) there was a considerable gain in avidity as compared to smaller fragments, and (2) the biological half-life was more

  6. Measuring single constructs by single items: Constructing an even shorter version of the “Short Five” personality inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstabel, Kenn; Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Leikas, Sointu; García Velázquez, Regina; Qin, Hiaying; Verkasalo, Markku; Walkowitz, Gari

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to construct a short, 30-item personality questionnaire that would be, in terms of content and meaning of the scores, as comparable as possible with longer, well-established inventories such as NEO PI-R and its clones. To do this, we shortened the formerly constructed 60-item “Short Five” (S5) by half so that each subscale would be represented by a single item. We compared all possibilities of selecting 30 items (preserving balanced keying within each domain of the five-factor model) in terms of correlations with well-established scales, self-peer correlations, and clarity of meaning, and selected an optimal combination for each domain. The resulting shortened questionnaire, XS5, was compared to the original S5 using data from student samples in 6 different countries (Estonia, Finland, UK, Germany, Spain, and China), and a representative Finnish sample. The correlations between XS5 domain scales and their longer counterparts from well-established scales ranged from 0.74 to 0.84; the difference from the equivalent correlations for full version of S5 or from meta-analytic short-term dependability coefficients of NEO PI-R was not large. In terms of prediction of external criteria (emotional experience and self-reported behaviours), there were no important differences between XS5, S5, and the longer well-established scales. Controlling for acquiescence did not improve the prediction of criteria, self-peer correlations, or correlations with longer scales, but it did improve internal reliability and, in some analyses, comparability of the principal component structure. XS5 can be recommended as an economic measure of the five-factor model of personality at the level of domain scales; it has reasonable psychometric properties, fair correlations with longer well-established scales, and it can predict emotional experience and self-reported behaviours no worse than S5. When subscales are essential, we would still recommend using the full version

  7. Measuring single constructs by single items: Constructing an even shorter version of the "Short Five" personality inventory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenn Konstabel

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to construct a short, 30-item personality questionnaire that would be, in terms of content and meaning of the scores, as comparable as possible with longer, well-established inventories such as NEO PI-R and its clones. To do this, we shortened the formerly constructed 60-item "Short Five" (S5 by half so that each subscale would be represented by a single item. We compared all possibilities of selecting 30 items (preserving balanced keying within each domain of the five-factor model in terms of correlations with well-established scales, self-peer correlations, and clarity of meaning, and selected an optimal combination for each domain. The resulting shortened questionnaire, XS5, was compared to the original S5 using data from student samples in 6 different countries (Estonia, Finland, UK, Germany, Spain, and China, and a representative Finnish sample. The correlations between XS5 domain scales and their longer counterparts from well-established scales ranged from 0.74 to 0.84; the difference from the equivalent correlations for full version of S5 or from meta-analytic short-term dependability coefficients of NEO PI-R was not large. In terms of prediction of external criteria (emotional experience and self-reported behaviours, there were no important differences between XS5, S5, and the longer well-established scales. Controlling for acquiescence did not improve the prediction of criteria, self-peer correlations, or correlations with longer scales, but it did improve internal reliability and, in some analyses, comparability of the principal component structure. XS5 can be recommended as an economic measure of the five-factor model of personality at the level of domain scales; it has reasonable psychometric properties, fair correlations with longer well-established scales, and it can predict emotional experience and self-reported behaviours no worse than S5. When subscales are essential, we would still recommend using the

  8. Measuring single constructs by single items: Constructing an even shorter version of the "Short Five" personality inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstabel, Kenn; Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Leikas, Sointu; García Velázquez, Regina; Qin, Hiaying; Verkasalo, Markku; Walkowitz, Gari

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to construct a short, 30-item personality questionnaire that would be, in terms of content and meaning of the scores, as comparable as possible with longer, well-established inventories such as NEO PI-R and its clones. To do this, we shortened the formerly constructed 60-item "Short Five" (S5) by half so that each subscale would be represented by a single item. We compared all possibilities of selecting 30 items (preserving balanced keying within each domain of the five-factor model) in terms of correlations with well-established scales, self-peer correlations, and clarity of meaning, and selected an optimal combination for each domain. The resulting shortened questionnaire, XS5, was compared to the original S5 using data from student samples in 6 different countries (Estonia, Finland, UK, Germany, Spain, and China), and a representative Finnish sample. The correlations between XS5 domain scales and their longer counterparts from well-established scales ranged from 0.74 to 0.84; the difference from the equivalent correlations for full version of S5 or from meta-analytic short-term dependability coefficients of NEO PI-R was not large. In terms of prediction of external criteria (emotional experience and self-reported behaviours), there were no important differences between XS5, S5, and the longer well-established scales. Controlling for acquiescence did not improve the prediction of criteria, self-peer correlations, or correlations with longer scales, but it did improve internal reliability and, in some analyses, comparability of the principal component structure. XS5 can be recommended as an economic measure of the five-factor model of personality at the level of domain scales; it has reasonable psychometric properties, fair correlations with longer well-established scales, and it can predict emotional experience and self-reported behaviours no worse than S5. When subscales are essential, we would still recommend using the full version of

  9. Ecosystem Under Construction: An Action Research Study on Entrepreneurship in a Business Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Leni Kuivaniemi; Marikka Heikkilä

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, we have seen increasing interest in new service concepts that take advantage of the capabilities of business ecosystems instead of single companies. In this article, we describe how a business ecosystem begins to develop around a service business idea proposed by an entrepreneur. We aim to recognize the different domains of players that are or should be involved in the ecosystem while it is under construction. The article concludes with an ecosystem model consisting of six su...

  10. Underlying construct of empathy, optimism, and burnout in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Vergare, Michael; Isenberg, Gerald; Cohen, Mitchell; Spandorfer, John

    2015-01-29

    This study was designed to explore the underlying construct of measures of empathy, optimism, and burnout in medical students. Three instruments for measuring empathy (Jefferson Scale of Empathy, JSE); Optimism (the Life Orientation Test-Revised, LOT-R); and burnout (the Maslach Burnout Inventory, MBI, which includes three scales of Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and Personal Accomplishment) were administered to 265 third-year students at Sidney Kimmel (formerly Jefferson) Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University. Data were subjected to factor analysis to examine relationships among measures of empathy, optimism, and burnout in a multivariate statistical model. Factor analysis (principal component with oblique rotation) resulted in two underlying constructs, each with an eigenvalue greater than one. The first factor involved "positive personality attributes" (factor coefficients greater than .58 for measures of empathy, optimism, and personal accomplishment). The second factor involved "negative personality attributes" (factor coefficients greater than .78 for measures of emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization). Results confirmed that an association exists between empathy in the context of patient care and personality characteristics that are conducive to relationship building, and considered to be "positive personality attributes," as opposed to personality characteristics that are considered as "negative personality attributes" that are detrimental to interpersonal relationships. Implications for the professional development of physicians-in-training and in-practice are discussed.

  11. Modeling Escherichia coli removal in constructed wetlands under pulse loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaamin, Yaseen A; Adhikari, Umesh; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Harrigan, Timothy; Reinhold, Dawn M

    2014-03-01

    Manure-borne pathogens are a threat to water quality and have resulted in disease outbreaks globally. Land application of livestock manure to croplands may result in pathogen transport through surface runoff and tile drains, eventually entering water bodies such as rivers and wetlands. The goal of this study was to develop a robust model for estimating the pathogen removal in surface flow wetlands under pulse loading conditions. A new modeling approach was used to describe Escherichia coli removal in pulse-loaded constructed wetlands using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS). Several ANFIS models were developed and validated using experimental data under pulse loading over two seasons (winter and summer). In addition to ANFIS, a mechanistic fecal coliform removal model was validated using the same sets of experimental data. The results showed that the ANFIS model significantly improved the ability to describe the dynamics of E. coli removal under pulse loading. The mechanistic model performed poorly as demonstrated by lower coefficient of determination and higher root mean squared error compared to the ANFIS models. The E. coli concentrations corresponding to the inflection points on the tracer study were keys to improving the predictability of the E. coli removal model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Design and construction of a microcontroller based single axis solar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solar energy is rapidly gaining popularity as an important means of expanding renewable energy resources. As such, it is vital that those in engineering fields understand the technologies associated with this area. This paper presents the design and construction of a microcontroller-based solar panel tracking system. Solar ...

  13. Ecosystem Under Construction: An Action Research Study on Entrepreneurship in a Business Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leni Kuivaniemi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, we have seen increasing interest in new service concepts that take advantage of the capabilities of business ecosystems instead of single companies. In this article, we describe how a business ecosystem begins to develop around a service business idea proposed by an entrepreneur. We aim to recognize the different domains of players that are or should be involved in the ecosystem while it is under construction. The article concludes with an ecosystem model consisting of six sub-ecosystems having different change drivers and clockspeeds.

  14. Iowa task report : US 18 concrete overlay construction under traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The National Concrete Pavement Technology Center, Iowa Department of Transportation, and Federal Highway Administration set out to demonstrate and document the design and construction of portland cement concrete (PCC) overlays on two-lane roadways wh...

  15. 48 CFR 52.225-11 - Buy American Act-Construction Materials under Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Construction Materials under Trade Agreements. 52.225-11 Section 52.225-11 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-11 Buy American Act—Construction Materials under Trade Agreements. As prescribed in 25.1102(c), insert the following clause: Buy American Act—Construction Materials...

  16. Robust biological nitrogen removal by creating multiple tides in a single bed tidal flow constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuansheng; Zhao, Yaqian; Rymszewicz, Anna

    2014-02-01

    Achieving effective total nitrogen (TN) removal is one of the major challenges faced by constructed wetlands (CWs). To address this issue, multiple "tides" were proposed in a single stage tidal flow constructed wetland (TFCW). With this adoption, exceptional TN removal (85% on average) was achieved under a high nitrogen loading rate (NLR) of around 28 g Nm(-2)day(-1), which makes the proposed system an adequate option to provide advanced wastewater treatment for peri-urban communities and rural area. It was revealed that the multiple "tides" not only promoted TN removal performance, but also brought more flexibility to TFCWs. Adsorption of NH4(+)-N onto the wetland medium (during contact period) and regeneration of the adsorption capacity via nitrification (during bed resting) were validated as the key processes for NH4(+)-N conversion in TFCWs. Moreover, simultaneous nitrification denitrification (SND) was found to be significant during the bed resting period. These findings will provide a new foundation for the design and modeling of nitrogen conversion and oxygen transfer in TFCWs. © 2013.

  17. Construction Method Study For Installation Of A Large Riser In A Single-Shell Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkisson, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates and identifies a construction method for cutting a hole in a single-shell tank dome. This study also identifies and evaluates vendors for performing the cut. Single-shell tanks (SST) in the 241-C tank farm are currently being retrieved using various retrieval technologies (e.g., modified sluicing). The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order require that the SSTs be retrieved to less than 360 cubic feet of radioactive waste. The current technologies identified and deployed for tank retrieval have not been able to retrieve waste in accordance with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. As such, alternative retrieval systems have been proposed and are currently under construction that will have the ability to retrieve waste to this defined level. The proposed retrieval systems will not fit down existing risers. New risers will need to be installed to provide the retrieval systems access to the inside of the SSTs. The purpose of this study is two-fold. The first objective is to identify multiple concrete cutting technologies and perform an initial pre-screening, evaluate the technologies identified for more in-depth analysis, and recommend a technology/methodology for cutting a hole in the tank dome. The identified/pre-screened methods will be evaluated based on the following criteria: (1) Maturity/complexity; (2) Waste generation; (3) Safety; (4) Cost; and (5) Schedule. Once the preferred method is identified to cut the hole in the tank dome, the second objective is to identify, evaluate, and recommend a vendor for the technology selected that will perform the cutting process.

  18. Inspection of nuclear power plants under construction in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoma, L.

    1977-01-01

    Brief summary of the situation of the nuclear industry in Spain, in order to better understand the questions involved in the inspection of the Spanish nuclear power plants, as well as the experience acquired, followed by a description of some of the problems which have arisen during the construction phase. Also the problems faced by the Inspection of the Junta de Energia Nuclear are described in order to fulfill the missions entrusted to it. Finally, some recommendations are made in light of the experience had by Spain.(author) [es

  19. THE CONSTRUCTION OF URBAN SINGLE CAREER WOMAN IN INDONESIAN CHICK LIT, JODOH MONICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny M. Djundjung

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The text of urban single career women in Jodoh Monica is constructed to be negative and unfavorable as opposed to the text of married women, which is positive and favorable. The construction of both texts is based on a patriarchal ideology that is deeply rooted in every aspect of Indonesian family and social lives that Monica, the protagonist in Jodoh Monica, takes a subject position in this the patriarchal discourse of gender role. The text of urban single career woman in Jodoh Monica seeks to conform rather than challenge the patriarchal ideology.

  20. Utility function under decision theory: A construction arbitration application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alozn, Ahmad E.; Galadari, Abdulla

    2017-08-01

    While a wide range of dispute resolution mechanisms exist, practitioners favor legally binding ones such as litigation and arbitration. Since initiating a litigation or arbitration case against a business partner may dissolve the business relationship between them, predicting the arbitrator's decision becomes valuable to the arbitrating parties. This paper proposes a construction-specific utility framework for the arbitrating party through decision theory, and based on expected utility theory. The proposed framework preserves the industry practicality and most importantly, considers direct short-term factors and indirect long-term factors as well. It is suggested that the arbitrating parties' utility functions could be then used to identify equilibrium points among them when interact via game theory principles, which would serve the purpose of predicting the arbitration outcome.

  1. The filtered venting system under construction at barseback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, A.H.

    1985-01-01

    A filter venting containment system, bearing the acronym FILTRA will be installed at the Swedish nuclear power plant Barseback. The Barseback Power Plant is owned by the Southern Sweden Power Supply (Sydkraft AB) and has two 1700-MW boiling water reactors. The reactors are of ASEA-ATOM design with pressure suppression containments (Mark IItype). The installation of the filter venting system is a condition set by the Swedish government for a continued operating license after September 1, 1986. The construction work for the FILTRA plant, the first of its kind ever planned, will be completed at the end of 1985. The FILTRA is designed so that 99.9% of the core inventory of radioactivity, excluding inert gases, is retained in the reactor containment and filter system in the event of containment venting. Another design guideline is to achieve passive functioning of the FILTRA plant during the first 24 h of an accident. The FILTRA plant is common to the two reactors on the site and consists mainly of two systems, a venting system (pressure relief system) and a filtering system. The total cost is approximately U.S. $15 million

  2. The Social and Cultural Construction of Singlehood among Young, Single Mormons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrington, Jana; Piercy, Kathleen W.; Niehuis, Sylvia

    2005-01-01

    Religious young adults interpret their single experiences based on an intricate system of influences that include personal beliefs, family, religious teachings, and friendships. This qualitative study of 24 never-married, young Mormon men and women examined the social and cultural construction of singlehood based on: (1) definitions of singlehood,…

  3. A Bistable View of Single Constructs Measured Using Balanced Questionnaires: Application to Trait Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vautier, Stephane; Callahan, Stacey; Moncany, Delphine; Sztulman, Henri

    2004-01-01

    Single constructs measured using positively and negatively worded items are often incompatible with a congeneric model, but require 2 correlated factors. Imperfect correlation entails that 2 independent dimensions are required for representing the true variance. If 2 dimensions are sought, how can they be interpreted? This study shows how to…

  4. The Single Needle Lockstitch Machine. [Constructing and Setting Sleeves.] Module 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on constructing and setting sleeves, one in a series on the single needle lockstitch sewing machine for student self-study, contains two sections. Each section includes the following parts: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, student self-check, check-out activities, and an instructor's…

  5. The Single Needle Lockstitch Machine. [Constructing and Setting Pockets.] Module 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on constructing and setting pockets, one in a series on the single needle lockstitch sewing machine for student self-study, contains three sections. Each section includes the following parts: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, student self-check, check-out activities, and an…

  6. Steam generators under construction for the SNR-300 power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essebaggers, J.

    1975-01-01

    The prototype straight tube and the helical coil-steam generator has been designed and fabricated of which the straight tube steam generator has been successfully tested for over 3000 hours at prototypical conditions and is presently being dismantled for detailed examination of critical designed features. The prototype helical coil steam generator is presently under testing in the 50 MWt test facility at TNO-Hengelo with approximately 500 hours of operation at full load conditions. In an earlier presentation the design and fabrication of the prototype steam generators have been presented, while for this presentation the production units for SNR-300 will be discussed. Some preliminary information will be presented at this meeting of the dismantling operations of the prototype straight tube steam generator. (author)

  7. 76 FR 42683 - Establishment of a Team Under the National Construction Safety Team Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Establishment of a Team Under the National Construction Safety Team Act AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, United States Department of...), United States Department of Commerce, announces the establishment of a National Construction Safety Team...

  8. Generation of single domain antibody fragments derived from camelids and generation of manifold constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincke, Cécile; Gutiérrez, Carlos; Wernery, Ulrich; Devoogdt, Nick; Hassanzadeh-Ghassabeh, Gholamreza; Muyldermans, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Immunizing a camelid (camels and llamas) with soluble, properly folded proteins raises an affinity-matured immune response in the unique camelid heavy-chain only antibodies (HCAbs). The peripheral blood lymphocytes of the immunized animal are used to clone the antigen-binding antibody fragment from the HCAbs in a phage display vector. A representative aliquot of the library of these antigen-binding fragments is used to retrieve single domain antigen-specific binders by successive rounds of panning. These single domain antibody fragments are cloned in tandem to generate manifold constructs (bivalent, biparatopic or bispecific constructs) to increase their functional affinity, to increase specificity, or to connect two independent antigen molecules.

  9. Under Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Interdisciplinary in approach, this volume explores and deciphers the symbolic value and iconicity of the built environment in the Arab Gulf Region, its aesthetics, language and performative characteristics. It suggests that recent developments in this region of the world not only represent a sho...

  10. Buckling of Single-Crystal Silicon Nanolines under Indentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min K. Kang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Atomic force microscope-(AFM- based indentation tests were performed to examine mechanical properties of parallel single-crystal silicon nanolines (SiNLs of sub-100-nm line width, fabricated by a process combining electron-beam lithography and anisotropic wet etching. The SiNLs have straight and nearly atomically flat sidewalls, and the cross section is almost perfectly rectangular with uniform width and height along the longitudinal direction. The measured load-displacement curves from the indentation tests show an instability with large displacement bursts at a critical load ranging from 480 μN to 700 μN. This phenomenon is attributed to a transition of the buckling mode of the SiNLs under indentation. Using a set of finite element models with postbuckling analyses, we analyze the indentation-induced buckling modes and investigate the effects of tip location, contact friction, and substrate deformation on the critical load of mode transition. The results demonstrate a unique approach for the study of nanomaterials and patterned nanostructures via a combination of experiments and modeling.

  11. Thermal expansion of C60 single crystals under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grube, K.D.

    1995-12-01

    The thermal expansion and compressibility of C 60 single crystals have been investigated by a newly developed capacitive dilatometer. The dilatometer was integrated in a high pressure cell and exposed to a hydrostatic pressure of maximal 0.85 GPa with He or Ar as pressure transmitting medium. The relative length change of the C 60 -samples was measured with a resolution of ΔL/L∼10 -9 . The crystals consist of weakly bonded C 60 -molecules which can rotate nearly free at room temperature. The gradual freezing-in of the rotational motions leads to a first order phase transition at 260 K and a glass transition at 90 K. The pressure dependence of these transitions was determined in a temperature range from 50 K to 325 K up to a pressure of 0.85 GPa. The phase transition at 260 K shows a positive pressure dependence of 174 K/GPa. The glass transition temperature first increases with 75 K/GPa under pressure, then it jumps discontinuously by 10 K at 0.15 GPa followed by a further increase with a slope of 54 K/GPa. The jump in the glass transition temperature at 0.15 GPa can be explained with an orientation-dependent interaction between the C 60 -molecules. (orig.) [de

  12. 34 CFR 403.81 - How must funds be used under the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program? 403.81 Section 403.81 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women... Pregnant Women Program? A State shall use funds reserved in accordance with § 403.180(b)(2)(i) for...

  13. Crack formation of steel reinforced concrete structure under stress in construction period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To obtain deformation rules of steel reinforced concrete structure under stress, this study explored the crack formation in construction period. A novel structure system – steel reinforced concrete structure with shear wall and truss at the bottom was analyzed using on-the-spot test in combination with theoretical simulation analysis with SAP2000 software. It was found that, factors influencing crack formation of steel reinforced concrete structure in construction period included construction load, creep of concrete, shrinkage of concrete, displacement of bond of section steel and concrete as well as leveling. In the construction period, the simulated results and the measured results were highly fitted under the influence of time-variant characteristics such as compressive strength, elasticity modulus, creep and shrinkage. Through processing and analyzing the measured data, we obtained the development rules of crack formation of steel reinforced concrete structure with different strength grades as well as deformation rules of time-varying structure system in construction period, figured out the reason for the difference between the simulated results and the measured results, analyzed the deformation of structural components under stress in construction period and proposed some suggestions. This work is beneficial to ensure safe and high-efficient operation of construction

  14. 48 CFR 52.225-12 - Notice of Buy American Act Requirement-Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Requirement-Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements. 52.225-12 Section 52.225-12 Federal Acquisition...—Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements. As prescribed in 25.1102(d)(1), insert the following provision: Notice of Buy American Act Requirement—Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements (FEB 2009) (a...

  15. Constructing anisotropic single-Dirac-cones in Bi(1-x)Sb(x) thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shuang; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2012-04-11

    The electronic band structures of Bi(1-x)Sb(x) thin films can be varied as a function of temperature, pressure, stoichiometry, film thickness, and growth orientation. We here show how different anisotropic single-Dirac-cones can be constructed in a Bi(1-x)Sb(x) thin film for different applications or research purposes. For predicting anisotropic single-Dirac-cones, we have developed an iterative-two-dimensional-two-band model to get a consistent inverse-effective-mass-tensor and band gap, which can be used in a general two-dimensional system that has a nonparabolic dispersion relation as in the Bi(1-x)Sb(x) thin film system. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  16. Single-Bid Awards Under the GSA Service Schedules

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stott, Bethany

    2004-01-01

    .... To this end, we look at why single-bid orders exist in the current procurement system, how these orders measure up to competitively-bid orders in cost and performance, and how customer satisfaction...

  17. Single-Bid Awards Under the GSA Service Schedules

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stott, Bethany

    2004-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the verity of the common perception that single-bid orders are more costly, lower in performance quality, and shorter in pre-award process time than competitively-bid orders...

  18. Preparation of single rice chromosome for construction of a DNA library using a laser microbeam trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Haowei; Li, Yinmei; Tang, Yesheng; Liu, Yilei; Hu, Xin; Jia, Peixin; Ying, Kai; Feng, Qi; Guan, Jianping; Jin, Chaoqing; Zhang, Lei; Lou, Liren; Zhou, Zhuan; Han, Bin

    2004-04-29

    We report the development of a laser micromanipulation system and its application in the isolation of individual rice chromosomes directly from a metaphase cell. Microdissection and flow sorting are two major methods for the isolation of single chromosome. These methods are dependent on the techniques of chromosome spread and chromosome suspension, respectively. In the development of this system, we avoided using chromosome spread and cell suspension was used instead. The cell wall of metaphase rice cell was cut by optical scissors. The released single chromosome was captured by an optical trap and transported to an area without cell debris. The isolated single chromosome was then collected and specific library was constructed by linker adaptor PCR. The average insert size of the library was about 300 bp. Two hundred inserts of chromosome 4 library were sequenced, and 96.5% were aligned to the corresponding sequences of rice chromosome 4. These results suggest the possible application of this method for the preparation of other subcellular structures and for the cloning of single macromolecule through a laser microbeam trap.

  19. Construction of Industrial Ecosystem of an Electric Company under Ecological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Yuan; Wu, Han

    2018-01-01

    Be confronted with more and more fierce competition environment, only by constantly integrating, constructing and restructuring internal and external resources as well as capabilities can enterprises adapt themselves to the rapidly changing environment and maintain the advantages of sustained competition. Business competition has changed from product competition of single enterprise to competition of bussiness ecosystem. Therefore, how to build a business system is the key to win competition. This paper draws lessons from business ecosystem and industrial ecosystem concept and takes the subordinate industry company of a large enterprise as the research object. On the the basis of combing its characteristics and organizational structure, an industrial ecosystem is tired to constructed.

  20. Constructions of secure entanglement channels assisted by quantum dots inside single-sided optical cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jino; Kang, Min-Sung; Hong, Chang-Ho; Choi, Seong-Gon; Hong, Jong-Phil

    2017-08-01

    We propose quantum information processing schemes to generate and swap entangled states based on the interactions between flying photons and quantum dots (QDs) confined within optical cavities for quantum communication. To produce and distribute entangled states (Bell and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger [GHZ] states) between the photonic qubits of flying photons of consumers (Alice and Bob) and electron-spin qubits of a provider (trust center, or TC), the TC employs the interactions of the QD-cavity system, which is composed of a charged QD (negatively charged exciton) inside a single-sided cavity. Subsequently, the TC constructs an entanglement channel (Bell state and 4-qubit GHZ state) to link one consumer with another through entanglement swapping, which can be realized to exploit a probe photon with interactions of the QD-cavity systems and single-qubit measurements without Bell state measurement, for quantum communication between consumers. Consequently, the TC, which has quantum nodes (QD-cavity systems), can accomplish constructing the entanglement channel (authenticated channel) between two separated consumers from the distributions of entangled states and entanglement swapping. Furthermore, our schemes using QD-cavity systems, which are feasible with a certain probability of success and high fidelity, can be experimentally implemented with technology currently in use.

  1. DOES THE CONSTRUCT OF INTERNET ADDICTION REFLECT A SINGLE ENTITY OR A SPECTRUM OF DISORDERS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Billieux

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This article aimed to examine the issue of whether the construct of Internet addiction represents a single entity or a spectrum of disorders. Method: A literature review was performed and a conceptual synthesis was proposed. Results: Most research supports the notion that Internet addiction is a spectrum of Internet-related disorders, which pertain to addictive online behaviours, such as gaming and sexual activities. Although there are certain similarities between these behaviours, they are often associated with different socio-demographic and psychological variables (e.g., motivations and psychopathological symptoms, suggesting entities that are related, but still distinct. As constructs, addictive online activities are generally less heterogeneous than addictive use of the Internet, i.e., Internet addiction. Conclusions: The umbrella term “Internet addiction” is inadequate because it overlooks important differences between various addictive online activities. However, it may be unrealistic to expect a demise of the term before determining more clearly the acceptable level of internal heterogeneity of the psychopathological constructs.

  2. A deep-sea agglutinated foraminifer tube constructed with planktonic foraminifer shells of a single species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Paul N.; Expedition 363 Shipboard Scientific Party, IODP

    2018-01-01

    Agglutinated foraminifera are marine protists that show apparently complex behaviour in constructing their shells, involving selecting suitable sedimentary grains from their environment, manipulating them in three dimensions, and cementing them precisely into position. Here we illustrate a striking and previously undescribed example of complex organisation in fragments of a tube-like foraminifer (questionably assigned to Rhabdammina) from 1466 m water depth on the northwest Australian margin. The tube is constructed from well-cemented siliciclastic grains which form a matrix into which hundreds of planktonic foraminifer shells are regularly spaced in apparently helical bands. These shells are of a single species, Turborotalita clarkei, which has been selected to the exclusion of all other bioclasts. The majority of shells are set horizontally in the matrix with the umbilical side upward. This mode of construction, as is the case with other agglutinated tests, seems to require either an extraordinarily selective trial-and-error process at the site of cementation or an active sensory and decision-making system within the cell.

  3. Human and bovine enamel erosion under 'single-drink' conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, Andrew J.; Yorath, Celyn; ten Hengel, Valerie; Leary, Sam D.; Huysmans, Marie-Charlotte D. N. J. M.; Barbour, Michele E.

    2010-01-01

    Tooth-surface pH is lowered, during drinking, to a value close to the pH of the drink itself. After the drink is swallowed, the pH rises to baseline values but this process can take several minutes. Few techniques can quantify enamel erosion at timescales representative of single drinks. The

  4. Negative Mood and Obsessive-Compulsive Related Clinical Constructs: An Examination of Underlying Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary I. Britton

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that many of the clinical constructs used to help understand and explain obsessive-compulsive (OC symptoms, and negative mood, may be causally interrelated. One approach to understanding this interrelatedness is a motivational systems approach. This approach suggests that rather than considering clinical constructs and negative affect as separable entities, they are all features of an integrated threat management system, and as such are highly coordinated and interdependent. The aim of the present study was to examine if clinical constructs related to OC symptoms and negative mood are best treated as separable or, alternatively, if these clinical constructs and negative mood are best seen as indicators of an underlying superordinate variable, as would be predicted by a motivational systems approach. A sample of 370 student participants completed measures of mood and the clinical constructs of inflated responsibility, intolerance of uncertainty, not just right experiences, and checking stop rules. An exploratory factor analysis suggested two plausible factor structures, one where all construct items and negative mood items loaded onto one underlying superordinate variable, and a second structure comprising of five factors, where each item loaded onto a factor representative of what the item was originally intended to measure. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the five factor model was preferential to the one factor model, suggesting the four constructs and negative mood are best conceptualized as separate variables. Given the predictions of a motivational systems approach were not supported in the current study, other possible explanations for the causal interrelatedness between clinical constructs and negative mood are discussed.

  5. Single particle studies of black liquor gasification under pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.; Backman, R.; Hupa, M.; Backman, P.; Ek, P.; Hulden, S.T.; Kullberg, M.; Sorvari, V.

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide experimental data relevant to pressurized black liquor gasification concepts. Specifically, the following two goals will be achieved: Data on swelling, char yields and component release during pressurized pyrolysis of small samples of black liquor will be obtained. The reactivity and physical behavior of single black liquor droplets during simultaneous pyrolysis and gasification will be investigated. The structure and composition of black liquor char during formation and conversion will be studied. (orig.)

  6. Numerical study on a single bladed vertical axis wind turbine under dynamic stall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bangga, Galih [Institute of Aerodynamics and Gas Dynamics, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany); Hutomo, Go; Sasongko, Herman [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya (Indonesia); Wiranegara, Raditya [School of Mechanical Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    The aim of this study is to investigate the flow development of a single bladed vertical axis wind turbine using Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. The blade is constructed using the NACA 0012 profile and is operating under stalled conditions at tip speed ratio of 2. Two dimensional simulations are performed using a commercial CFD package, ANSYS Fluent 15.0, employing the Menter-SST turbulence model. For the preliminary study, simulations of the NACA 0012 airfoil under static conditions are carried out and compared with available measurement data and calculations using the boundary layer code XFOIL. The CFD results under the dynamic case are presented and the resulting aerodynamic forces are evaluated. The turbine is observed to generate negative power at certain azimuth angles which can be divided into three main zones. The blade vortex interaction is observed to strongly influence the flow behavior near the blade and contributes to the power production loss. However, the impact is considered small since it covers only 6.4 % of the azimuth angle range where the power is negative compared to the dynamic stall impact which covers almost 22 % of the azimuth angle range.

  7. Investigating the Underlying Factors of Corruption in the Public Construction Sector: Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Ming; Le, Yun; Yiu, Kenneth T W; Chan, Albert P C; Hu, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Over recent years, the issue of corruption in the public construction sector has attracted increasing attention from both practitioners and researchers worldwide. However, limited efforts are available for investigating the underlying factors of corruption in this sector. Thus, this study attempted to bridge this knowledge gap by exploring the underlying factors of corruption in the public construction sector of China. To achieve this goal, a total of 14 structured interviews were first carried out, and a questionnaire survey was then administered to 188 professionals in China. Two iterations of multivariate analysis approaches, namely, stepwise multiple regression analysis and partial least squares structural equation modeling were successively utilized to analyze the collected data. In addition, a case study was also conducted to triangulate the findings obtained from the statistical analysis. The results generated from these three research methods achieve the same conclusion: the most influential underlying factor leading to corruption was immorality, followed by opacity, unfairness, procedural violation, and contractual violation. This study has contributed to the body of knowledge by exploring the properties of corruption in the public construction sector. The findings from this study are also valuable to the construction authorities as they can assist in developing more effective anti-corruption strategies.

  8. Life quality and living standards in big cities under conditions of high-rise construction development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdeeva, Elena; Averina, Tatiana; Kochetova, Larisa

    2018-03-01

    Modern urbanization processes occurring on a global scale inevitably lead to an increase in population density in large cities. People assess the state of life quality and living standards of megalopolises under conditions of high-rise construction development ambiguously. Using SWOT analysis, the authors distinguished positive and negative aspects of high-rise construction, highlighted threats to its development and its opportunities. The article considers the model of development of the city's industry and infrastructure, which enables determining the optimal volume of production by sectors and branches of city economy in order to increase its innovative, production and economic potential and business activity.

  9. Single, childless working women's construction of wellbeing: On balance, being dynamic and tensions between them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Kim; Frohlich, Katherine; Descarries, Francine; Fernet, Mylène

    2011-01-01

    Single, childless working women (SCWW) are a notable proportion of the female workforce. The budding research on this population suggests that they have issues of wellbeing that may be tied to specific needs of both their workplaces and their personal lives, and hence, distinct work-life dynamics that require attention. This study explores how SCWW construct their wellbeing. The sample was composed of 22 SCWW aged 29 to 45. A discourse analysis of the transcripts of semi-structured interviews with these women was performed. Most women drew on an interpretative repertoire of "wellbeing as balance" (e.g., diversification and reasonable dosing of life's dimensions). It was associated with a recurrent subject position we have termed "the dynamic woman" whose intensity transfused talk of the activities in her life. Here, work becomes a "passion" and a source of appreciated challenges. However, a dilemma could arise from these constructions for positioning oneself in relation to the cadence of one's active life or rather, in articulating an unambiguous claim to balance. Balance/dosing and dynamicity/passion can be uneasy bedfellows. Our analyses raise questions about possible counter[balancing] discourses and further argue the relevance of work-life issues for SCWW.

  10. Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Harbor Deepening Project, Jacksonville, FL Palm Valley Bridge Project, Jacksonville, FL Rotary Club of San Juan, San Juan, PR Tren Urbano Subway...David. What is nanotechnology? What are its implications for construction?, Foresight/CRISP Workshop on Nanotechnology, Royal Society of Arts

  11. Finite single wall capped carbon nanotubes under hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltazar, S E; Romero, A H; RodrIguez-Lopez, J L; Martonak, R

    2006-01-01

    We report a classical molecular dynamics isothermal-isobaric ensemble (NPT) implementation for the simulation of pressure effects on finite systems. The method is based on calculating the enclosed surface area by means of the Delauney triangulation method, which results in a fairly accurate description of the surface and the system volume. The external pressure is applied to the system by external forces acting on the triangulated surface covering the nanostructure. Pressure is exerted perpendicularly to every one of the Delauney triangles, by equally distributing the force to every corner of a triangle. We applied the method to finite single wall capped carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with different chiralities and different tube lengths ranging from 4 nm up to 30 nm. Pressure effects are studied as a function of the radii and the nanotube length, as well as as a function of temperature. Our results are in very good agreement when compared with both experimental and other theoretical results

  12. Single-arm phase II trial design under parametric cure models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    The current practice of designing single-arm phase II survival trials is limited under the exponential model. Trial design under the exponential model may not be appropriate when a portion of patients are cured. There is no literature available for designing single-arm phase II trials under the parametric cure model. In this paper, a test statistic is proposed, and a sample size formula is derived for designing single-arm phase II trials under a class of parametric cure models. Extensive simulations showed that the proposed test and sample size formula perform very well under different scenarios. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Latent constructs underlying sensory subtypes in children with autism: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Brittany N; Dennis, Simon; Lane, Alison E

    2017-08-01

    Recent reports identify sensory subtypes in ASD based on shared patterns of responses to daily sensory stimuli [Ausderau et al., 2014; Lane, Molloy, & Bishop, 2014]. Lane et al. propose that two broad sensory dimensions, sensory reactivity and multisensory integration, best explain the differences between subtypes, however this has yet to be tested. The present study tests this hypothesis by examining the latent constructs underlying Lane's sensory subtypes. Participants for this study were caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 2-12 years. Caregiver responses on the Short Sensory Profile (SSP), used to establish Lane's sensory subtypes, were extracted from two existing datasets (total n = 287). Independent component analyses were conducted to test the fit and interpretability of a two-construct structure underlying the SSP, and therefore, the sensory subtypes. The first construct was largely comprised of the taste/smell sensitivity domain, which describes hyper-reactivity to taste and smell stimuli. The second construct had a significant contribution from the low energy/weak domain, which describes behaviors that may be indicative of difficulties with multisensory integration. Findings provide initial support for our hypothesis that sensory reactivity and multisensory integration underlie Lane's sensory subtypes in ASD. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1364-1371. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Memory under stress: from single systems to network changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars

    2017-02-01

    Stressful events have profound effects on learning and memory. These effects are mainly mediated by catecholamines and glucocorticoid hormones released from the adrenals during stressful encounters. It has been known for long that both catecholamines and glucocorticoids influence the functioning of the hippocampus, a critical hub for episodic memory. However, areas implicated in other forms of memory, such as the insula or the dorsal striatum, can be affected by stress as well. Beyond changes in single memory systems, acute stress triggers the reconfiguration of large scale neural networks which sets the stage for a shift from thoughtful, 'cognitive' control of learning and memory toward more reflexive, 'habitual' processes. Stress-related alterations in amygdala connectivity with the hippocampus, dorsal striatum, and prefrontal cortex seem to play a key role in this shift. The bias toward systems proficient in threat processing and the implementation of well-established routines may facilitate coping with an acute stressor. Overreliance on these reflexive systems or the inability to shift flexibly between them, however, may represent a risk factor for psychopathology in the long-run. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Construction of a recombinant single chain antibody recognizing nonreducing terminal mannose residues applicable to immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Noriyuki; Iida, Noriko; Sakaue, Hiroyuki; Zhang, Wei; Wilczynski, Sharon; Fujita-Yamaguchi, Yoko

    2007-10-01

    We recently reported characterization of 25 clones isolated from a phage library displaying human scFvs using a neoglycolipid Man3-DPPE, which was synthesized from mannotriose (Man3) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE). Of those, 5A3 scFv was successfully expressed and purified as a humanized scFv-Fc form (Sakai et al., Biochemistry 46:253, 2007, Zhang et al. ibid 263). To carry out immunohistochemistry (IHC) in human tissues, a HA tag sequence was introduced to the 5A3 scFv-Fc gene and the resulting construct was transfected to murine myeloma NS0 cells. The 5A3 scFv-Fc protein expressed was affinity-purified. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under nonreducing and reducing conditions and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay confirmed that 5A3 scFv-Fc protein is dimeric and retained the ability to recognize nonreducing terminal mannose residues. IHC staining of non-neoplastic tissues by this recombinant antibody revealed that no immunoreactivity was detectable in most of 16 tissues examined. Exceptions were found in IHC staining of kidney and pancreas, which demonstrated clear staining of proximal tubules and islet of Langerhans, respectively. These results demonstrated that nonreducing terminal mannose residues are not usually present under normal physiological conditions. This study thus provided a potentially useful tool for examination of the nonreducing terminal mannose residues, which may become exposed under certain pathophysiologycal conditions.

  16. Adolescent gambling behaviour, a single latent construct and indicators of risk: findings from a national survey of New Zealand high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona V. Rossen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study explores underlying latent construct/s of gambling behaviour, and identifies indicators of “unhealthy gambling”. Data were collected from Youth’07 a nationally representative sample of New Zealand secondary school students (N = 9107. Exploratory factor analyses, item-response theory analyses, multiple indicators-multiple causes, and differential item functioning analyses were used to assess dimensionality of gambling behaviour, underlying factors, and indicators of unhealthy gambling. A single underlying continuum of gambling behaviour was identified. Gambling frequency and ‘gambling because I can’t stop’ were most strongly associated with unhealthy gambling. Gambling to ‘feel better about myself’ and to ‘forget about things’ provided the most precise discriminants of unhealthy gambling. Multivariable analyses found that school connectedness was associated with lower levels of unhealthy gambling.

  17. Break junction under electrochemical gating: testbed for single-molecule electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cancan; Rudnev, Alexander V; Hong, Wenjing; Wandlowski, Thomas

    2015-02-21

    Molecular electronics aims to construct functional molecular devices at the single-molecule scale. One of the major challenges is to construct a single-molecule junction and to further manipulate the charge transport through the molecular junction. Break junction techniques, including STM break junctions and mechanically controllable break junctions are considered as testbed to investigate and control the charge transport on a single-molecule scale. Moreover, additional electrochemical gating provides a unique opportunity to manipulate the energy alignment and molecular redox processes for a single-molecule junction. In this review, we start from the technical aspects of the break junction technique, then discuss the molecular structure-conductance correlation derived from break junction studies, and, finally, emphasize electrochemical gating as a promising method for the functional molecular devices.

  18. Expression of multiple transgenes from a single construct using viral 2A peptides in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Richard W; Rossano, Adam J; Macleod, Gregory T; Ganetzky, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Expression of multiple reporter or effector transgenes in the same cell from a single construct is increasingly necessary in various experimental paradigms. The discovery of short, virus-derived peptide sequences that mediate a ribosome-skipping event enables generation of multiple separate peptide products from one mRNA. Here we describe methods and vectors to facilitate easy production of polycistronic-like sequences utilizing these 2A peptides tailored for expression in Drosophila both in vitro and in vivo. We tested the separation efficiency of different viral 2A peptides in cultured Drosophila cells and in vivo and found that the 2A peptides from porcine teschovirus-1 (P2A) and Thosea asigna virus (T2A) worked best. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, we used the P2A peptide to co-express the red fluorescent protein tdTomato and the genetically-encoded calcium indicator GCaMP5G in larval motorneurons. This technique enabled ratiometric calcium imaging with motion correction allowing us to record synaptic activity at the neuromuscular junction in an intact larval preparation through the cuticle. The tools presented here should greatly facilitate the generation of 2A peptide-mediated expression of multiple transgenes in Drosophila.

  19. Construction and characterization of a single stage dual diaphragm gas gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helminiak, Nathaniel Steven

    In the interest of studying the propagation of shock waves, this work sets out to design, construct, and characterize a pneumatic accelerator that performs high-velocity flyer plate impact tests. A single stage gas gun with a dual diaphragm breach allows for a non-volatile, reliable experimental testing platform for shock phenomena. This remotely operated gas gun utilizes compressed nitrogen to launch projectiles down a 14 foot long, 2 inch diameter bore barrel, which subsequently impacts a target material of interest. A dual diaphragm firing mechanism allows the 4.5 liter breech to reach a total pressure differential of 10ksi before accelerating projectiles to velocities as high as 1,000 m/s (1570-2240 mph). The projectile's velocity is measured using a series of break pin circuits. The target response can be measured with Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) and/or stress gauge system. A vacuum system eliminates the need for pressure relief in front of the projectile, while additionally allowing the system to remain closed over the entire firing cycle. Characterization of the system will allow for projectile speed to be estimated prior to launching based on initial breach pressure.

  20. Construction of human anti-tetanus single-chain variable fragment applying SYMPLEX technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmati, Laya; Mehrabadi, Jalil Fallah; Bazaz, Masoumeh; Nejad, Hamideh Rouhani

    2016-01-01

    Human monoclonal antibodies are important molecules in clinical research. Current Limitations of mAb technologies namely instability of immortalized B-cell line and probability of forming unusual VH-VL pairs in phage-display method led to mAbs technology based on single plasma cell called ``SYMPLEX''. In this method, cognate VH and VL fragments generated from individual antibody genes exactly the same as natural ones. PBMCs of whole blood of an immunized candidate was used as a resource of rearranged Ab genes. Then flow-cytometric screening was performed to isolate VH and VL from PBMCs. Various VH and VLκ were amplified by six pairs of primers. Overlap Extension PCR was accomplished to link VH and Vκ regions. ScFv inserted into T-vector and its sequence was determined and eventually analyzed by using blast analysis tools. Electrophoresis results indicated that VH and VL fragments were separately amplified by PCR with a length of about 400bp and linked through OE-PCR. Hence, ScFv, which was approximately 800bp in size, was constructed then sequencing and BLASTn results of the ScFv fragment consequently proved the accuracy. Results showed 88% similarity to available sequences in mentioned databank. ScFv was ultimately inserted into expression vector for producing recombinant human anti-tetanus mAb.

  1. Singleness, Marriage, and the Construction of Heterosexual Masculinities: Australian Men Teaching English in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslyn Appleby

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a study of Australian men and their accounts of living and working in Japan as English language teachers. In this site, recent research has explored Japanese discourses of desire for the West, Western men, and English language learning. These patterns of desire have afforded white Western men a privileged personal and professional status in Japan, and enabled access to employment opportunities as teachers of English language. At the same time, white Western men working as English language teachers face the challenge of negotiating competing discourses that threaten their social status. In particular, their employment in a lowly-regarded profession and a reputation for sexual promiscuity potentially position Western male language teachers as the ‘white trash’ of Asia. My analysis of interview data focuses on the ways in which the men negotiate these discourses, and construct ‘respectable’ Western heterosexual masculinities by mobilising a binary distinction between singleness and marriage. Marriage to a Japanese spouse is presented as a bulwark against alignment with problematic discourses that threaten the status of white masculinity: it is associated with fidelity and maturity, and with integration into Japanese social, linguistic and professional communities. However, the articulation of marital status also reinforces a marginalised position for teachers who do not conform to heteronormative expectations.

  2. Construction and high cytoplasmic expression of a tumoricidal single-chain antibody against hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imanaka Tadayuki

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hep27 monoclonal (Hep27 Mab is an antibody against hepatocellular carcinoma. Hep27 Mab itself can inhibit the growth of a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HCC-S102. We attempted to produce a single-chain fragment (scFv, a small fragment containing an antigen-binding site of Hep27 Mab, by using DNA-recombinant techniques. Results The sequences encoding the variable regions of heavy (VH and light (VL chains of a murine Hep27 Mab were linked together by a linker peptide (Gly4Ser3 and tagged with a hexa-histidine at the C-terminal; the resultant DNA construct was expressed in E. coli as an insoluble protein. The denatured scFv was refolded and purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (12 mg/l with a molecular weight of 27 kDa. Hep27scFv exhibited a tumoricidal activity against the HCC-S102 cell as its parental antibody (Hep27 Mab. Conclusion This scFv may be a potential candidate for a targeting agent in HCC immunodiagnosis or immunotherapy.

  3. Construction and high cytoplasmic expression of a tumoricidal single-chain antibody against hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandee, Duanpen; Tungpradabkul, Sumalee; Tsukio, Manae; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Takagi, Masahiro

    2002-09-12

    Hep27 monoclonal (Hep27 Mab) is an antibody against hepatocellular carcinoma. Hep27 Mab itself can inhibit the growth of a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HCC-S102). We attempted to produce a single-chain fragment (scFv), a small fragment containing an antigen-binding site of Hep27 Mab, by using DNA-recombinant techniques. The sequences encoding the variable regions of heavy (VH) and light (VL) chains of a murine Hep27 Mab were linked together by a linker peptide (Gly4Ser)3 and tagged with a hexa-histidine at the C-terminal; the resultant DNA construct was expressed in E. coli as an insoluble protein. The denatured scFv was refolded and purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (12 mg/l with a molecular weight of 27 kDa). Hep27scFv exhibited a tumoricidal activity against the HCC-S102 cell as its parental antibody (Hep27 Mab). This scFv may be a potential candidate for a targeting agent in HCC immunodiagnosis or immunotherapy.

  4. 43 CFR 404.12 - Can Reclamation provide assistance with the construction of a rural water supply project under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the construction of a rural water supply project under this program? 404.12 Section 404.12 Public... RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.12 Can Reclamation provide assistance with the construction of a rural water supply project under this program? Reclamation may provide assistance with the...

  5. Technical data for concentrated solar power plants in operation, under construction and in project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Pelay

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents technical data for concentrated solar power (CSP plants in operation, under construction and in project all over the world in the form of tables. These tables provide information about plants (e.g., name of the CSP plant, country of construction, owner of the plant, aim of the plant and their technical characteristics (e.g., CSP technology, solar power, area of the plant, presence and type of hybridization system, electricity cost, presence and type of TES, power cycle fluid, heat transfer fluid, operating temperature, operating pressure, type of turbine, type and duration of storage, etc.. Further interpretation of the data and discussions on the current state-of-the-art and future trends of CSP can be found in the associated research article (Pelay et al., 2017 [1].

  6. Technical data for concentrated solar power plants in operation, under construction and in project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelay, Ugo; Luo, Lingai; Fan, Yilin; Stitou, Driss; Rood, Mark

    2017-08-01

    This article presents technical data for concentrated solar power (CSP) plants in operation, under construction and in project all over the world in the form of tables. These tables provide information about plants (e.g., name of the CSP plant, country of construction, owner of the plant, aim of the plant) and their technical characteristics (e.g., CSP technology, solar power, area of the plant, presence and type of hybridization system, electricity cost, presence and type of TES, power cycle fluid, heat transfer fluid, operating temperature, operating pressure, type of turbine, type and duration of storage, etc.). Further interpretation of the data and discussions on the current state-of-the-art and future trends of CSP can be found in the associated research article (Pelay et al., 2017) [1].

  7. Development of new microscope unit for single molecule spectroscopy under various ambient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, T; Kaji, T; Ueda, R; Otomo, A

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces techniques we previously developed for single molecule spectroscopy and continues on to describe our studies on dipole orientation imaging of single molecules under various ambient conditions. In these studies, we successfully obtained defocused images of single perylene diimide (PDI) molecules under air, high-vacuum, and pure N 2 gas conditions by utilizing the advantages of our new microscope unit. The studies are positioned as one of the important applications of our microscope unit for single molecule spectroscopy. We expect a wide range of applications for this unit for various microscope measurements for many types of materials.

  8. Numerical Simulation Study on Lateral Displacement of Pile Foundation and Construction Process under Stacking Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-yan Cai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateral displacement of pile foundation is crucial to the safety of an overall structure. In this study, a numerical simulation on the lateral displacement of pile foundation under stacking loads was conducted to determine its relation with different influencing factors. Simulation results demonstrated that stacking loads at the pile side mostly influence the lateral displacement of pile foundation. The lateral displacement of pile foundation increases by one order of magnitude when the stacking loads increase from 100 kPa to 300 kPa. Other influencing factors are less important than stacking loads. Lateral displacements of the pile body and at the pile top can be reduced effectively by increasing the deformation modulus of surface soil mass, reducing the thickness of soft soil, and expanding pile diameter. Our analysis indicates that a nonlinear relationship exists between the lateral displacement at the pile top and the pile diameter. The lateral resistance of the pile body can be enhanced by coupling the stacking load along piles and the axial force at the pile top. An actual large-scale engineering project was chosen to simulate the effects of postconstructed embankment on lateral displacement and axial force of bridge pile foundation under different construction conditions and to obtain the lateral displacement of the pile body and the negative frictional resistance caused by soft soil compression under stacking loads. On the basis of the calculated results, engineering safety and stability were evaluated, and a guide for the design and construction was proposed.

  9. Performance of a constructed wetland treating intensive shrimp aquaculture wastewater under high hydraulic loading rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.-F.; Jing, S.-R.; Lee, D.-Y.; Chang, Y.-F.; Chen, Y.-M.; Shih, K.-C.

    2005-01-01

    A water treatment unit, mainly consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetland cells, was integrated into a commercial-scale recirculating aquaculture system for intensive shrimp culture. This study investigated performance of the treatment wetlands for controlling water quality. The results showed that the FWS-SF cells effectively removed total suspended solids (55-66%), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (37-54%), total ammonia (64-66%) and nitrite (83-94%) from the recirculating water under high hydraulic loading rates (1.57-1.95 m/day). This led to a water quality that was suitable for shrimp culture and effluent that always satisfied the discharge standards. The area ratios of wetlands to culture tank being demonstrated (0.43) and calculated (0.096) in this study were both significantly lower than the reported values. Accordingly, a constructed wetland was technically and economically feasible for managing water quality of an intensive aquaculture system. - A constructed wetland was found to be technically and economically feasible for managing water quality of an intensive recirculating aquaculture system

  10. Part-construction licenses and preliminary licenses issued within the licensing procedure under atomic energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, F.J.

    1984-01-01

    The author elaborates a delimitation in terms of law of various licenses available under atomic energy law within the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, such as the part-construction license, preliminary license and preliminary approval of the overall concept, preliminary conceptual approval and conceptual license, preliminary conceptual approval subject to subsequent examinations and decisions, preliminary site ruling and site approval, advance permits and subsequent partial licenses. Such a delimitation becomes particularly significant in case of the plant conceptual design or the site being the subject under review, and the definitions stated also have considerable impact on administrative court proceedings. In this review the author tries to bear in mind the various interests of all parties involved in the licensing procedure. (HSCH) [de

  11. Single cycle to failure in bending of three standard and five locking plates and plate constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, C A; Boudrieau, R J; Torrance, B S; Tacvorian, E K; Cabassu, J B; Gaudette, G R; Kowaleski, M P

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the biomechanical properties of standard and locking plates in bending. We hypothesised that titanium (Ti) constructs would have the greatest deformation and that String of Pearl (SOP) constructs would have the greatest strength and stiffness, and would behave differently compared to plates alone. Dynamic compression plates (DCP), stainless steel (SS) limited contact (LC)-DCP®, Ti LC-DCP, locking compression plates (LCP), 10 mm and 11 mm advanced locking plate system (ALPS 10 / 11), SOP and Fixin plates were evaluated individually and as constructs applied to a validated bone model simulating a bridging osteosynthesis. Bending stiffness and strength were compared using one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey, and unpaired t-test (p <0.05). The SOP plates had significantly greater stiffness than all other plates; Ti LC-DCP, ALPS 10 and Fixin plates had significantly lower stiffness than all other plates. The SOP constructs had the highest mean bending stiffness, and strength that was significantly different from only the Ti LC-DCP, ALPS 10 and Fixin constructs. The ALPS 10 constructs had the lowest mean bending stiffness, and strength that was significantly different from only ALPS 11 and SOP constructs. Comparison of bending structural stiffness of plates versus constructs showed a significant difference in all plate pairs except for the DCP and ALPS 10. Due to differing plate construct properties inherent to these diverse implant systems, identical approaches to fracture management and plate application cannot be applied.

  12. Constructing Pairing-Friendly Elliptic Curves under Embedding Degree 1 for Securing Critical Infrastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Maocai; Dai, Guangming; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Jayaraman, Prem Prakash; Ranjan, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Information confidentiality is an essential requirement for cyber security in critical infrastructure. Identity-based cryptography, an increasingly popular branch of cryptography, is widely used to protect the information confidentiality in the critical infrastructure sector due to the ability to directly compute the user's public key based on the user's identity. However, computational requirements complicate the practical application of Identity-based cryptography. In order to improve the efficiency of identity-based cryptography, this paper presents an effective method to construct pairing-friendly elliptic curves with low hamming weight 4 under embedding degree 1. Based on the analysis of the Complex Multiplication(CM) method, the soundness of our method to calculate the characteristic of the finite field is proved. And then, three relative algorithms to construct pairing-friendly elliptic curve are put forward. 10 elliptic curves with low hamming weight 4 under 160 bits are presented to demonstrate the utility of our approach. Finally, the evaluation also indicates that it is more efficient to compute Tate pairing with our curves, than that of Bertoni et al.

  13. Constructing Pairing-Friendly Elliptic Curves under Embedding Degree 1 for Securing Critical Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Guangming

    2016-01-01

    Information confidentiality is an essential requirement for cyber security in critical infrastructure. Identity-based cryptography, an increasingly popular branch of cryptography, is widely used to protect the information confidentiality in the critical infrastructure sector due to the ability to directly compute the user’s public key based on the user’s identity. However, computational requirements complicate the practical application of Identity-based cryptography. In order to improve the efficiency of identity-based cryptography, this paper presents an effective method to construct pairing-friendly elliptic curves with low hamming weight 4 under embedding degree 1. Based on the analysis of the Complex Multiplication(CM) method, the soundness of our method to calculate the characteristic of the finite field is proved. And then, three relative algorithms to construct pairing-friendly elliptic curve are put forward. 10 elliptic curves with low hamming weight 4 under 160 bits are presented to demonstrate the utility of our approach. Finally, the evaluation also indicates that it is more efficient to compute Tate pairing with our curves, than that of Bertoni et al. PMID:27564373

  14. An advanced algorithm for construction of Integral Transport Matrix Method operators using accumulation of single cell coupling factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, B. P.; Azmy, Y. Y.

    2013-01-01

    The Integral Transport Matrix Method (ITMM) has been shown to be an effective method for solving the neutron transport equation in large domains on massively parallel architectures. In the limit of very large number of processors, the speed of the algorithm, and its suitability for unstructured meshes, i.e. other than an ordered Cartesian grid, is limited by the construction of four matrix operators required for obtaining the solution in each sub-domain. The existing algorithm used for construction of these matrix operators, termed the differential mesh sweep, is computationally expensive and was developed for a structured grid. This work proposes the use of a new algorithm for construction of these operators based on the construction of a single, fundamental matrix representing the transport of a particle along every possible path throughout the sub-domain mesh. Each of the operators is constructed by multiplying an element of this fundamental matrix by two factors dependent only upon the operator being constructed and on properties of the emitting and incident cells. The ITMM matrix operator construction time for the new algorithm is demonstrated to be shorter than the existing algorithm in all tested cases with both isotropic and anisotropic scattering considered. While also being a more efficient algorithm on a structured Cartesian grid, the new algorithm is promising in its geometric robustness and potential for being applied to an unstructured mesh, with the ultimate goal of application to an unstructured tetrahedral mesh on a massively parallel architecture. (authors)

  15. Single Chain Fv Constructs of Anti-Ganglioside GD2 Antibodies for Radioimaging and Radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Nai-Kong

    2003-01-01

    because of its broad and usually homogeneous distribution in human solid tumors, and most importantly, their absence on cell membranes of normal human tissues. In separate experiments, we have shown that T-cells transduced with the herpes simplex viral thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene can be radiolabeled with 131 I-FIAU to a safe nuclear radiation dose. Using a dicistronic construct we are inserting chimeric immune receptor plus HSV-tk into T-cells to allow such their trafficking to be radioactively monitored. We plan to study the role of cytokines, chemoreceptors and CD4 helper T-cells in recruiting CD8+ transduced T-cells to the tumor site. These studies should provide us with an adoptive cell therapy approach to target cytotoxicity to human tumors, and a lymphocyte tracking tool to study delivery to the tumor sites, to determine if they proliferate locally and/or recirculate. Such pharmacologic information is crucial for optimizing gene-modified T-cells in future clinical trials. Single chain FV constructs of anti-ganglioside GD2 antibodies for radioimaging

  16. The impact of possession on legality of mortgage registered on a building under construction: With case law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicković Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of the subject of a mortgage to buildings under construction is a considerable step forward in regulating mortgages. It is not possible to register ownership rights on buildings under construction. A person acquiring ownership does not have the possibility to protect his rights. Acquiring ownership rights to a building under construction is tied to possession. This is detrimental to the principle of publicity which in turn erodes the principle of reliance. Validity of the mortgage is tied to the possession over the mortgaged real estate at the time of its registration. Such position of the courts challenges the very essence of mortgage.

  17. Synchronization in single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic systems under grid faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    under grid faults. The focus of this paper is put on the benchmarking of synchronization techniques, mainly about phase locked loop (PLL) based methods, in single-phase PV power systems operating under grid faults. Some faulty mode cases are studied at the end of this paper in order to compare...

  18. Child writers' construction and reconstruction of single sentences and construction of multi-sentence texts: contributions of syntax and transcription to translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W; Nagy, William; Beers, Scott

    2011-02-01

    Children in grades one to four completed two sentence construction tasks: (a) Write one complete sentence about a topic prompt (sentence integrity, Study 1); and (b) Integrate two sentences into one complete sentence without changing meaning (sentence combining, Study 2). Most, but not all, children in first through fourth grade could write just one sentence. The sentence integrity task was not correlated with sentence combining until fourth grade, when in multiple regression, sentence integrity explained unique variance in sentence combining, along with spelling. Word-level skills (morphology in first and spelling in second through fourth grade) consistently explained unique variance in sentence combining. Thus, many beginning writers have syntactic knowledge of what constitutes a complete sentence, but not until fourth grade do both syntax and transcription contribute uniquely to flexible translation of ideas into the syntax of a written sentence. In Study 3, eleven syntactic categories were identified in single- and multi- sentence composing from second to fifth grade. Complex clauses (independent plus subordinate) occurred more often on single-sentence composing, but single independent clauses occurred more often on multi-sentence composing. For multi-sentence text, more single, independent clauses were produced by pen than keyboard in grades 3 to 7. The most frequent category of complex clauses in multi-sentence texts varied with genre (relative for essays and subordinate for narratives). Thus, in addition to syntax-level sentence construction and word-level transcription, amount of translation (number of sentences), mode of transcription, and genre for multiple sentence text also influence translation of ideas into written language of child writers. Results of these studies employing descriptive linguistic analyses are discussed in reference to cognitive theory of writing development.

  19. Child writers’ construction and reconstruction of single sentences and construction of multi-sentence texts: contributions of syntax and transcription to translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Nagy, William; Beers, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Children in grades one to four completed two sentence construction tasks: (a) Write one complete sentence about a topic prompt (sentence integrity, Study 1); and (b) Integrate two sentences into one complete sentence without changing meaning (sentence combining, Study 2). Most, but not all, children in first through fourth grade could write just one sentence. The sentence integrity task was not correlated with sentence combining until fourth grade, when in multiple regression, sentence integrity explained unique variance in sentence combining, along with spelling. Word-level skills (morphology in first and spelling in second through fourth grade) consistently explained unique variance in sentence combining. Thus, many beginning writers have syntactic knowledge of what constitutes a complete sentence, but not until fourth grade do both syntax and transcription contribute uniquely to flexible translation of ideas into the syntax of a written sentence. In Study 3, eleven syntactic categories were identified in single- and multi- sentence composing from second to fifth grade. Complex clauses (independent plus subordinate) occurred more often on single-sentence composing, but single independent clauses occurred more often on multi-sentence composing. For multi-sentence text, more single, independent clauses were produced by pen than keyboard in grades 3 to 7. The most frequent category of complex clauses in multi-sentence texts varied with genre (relative for essays and subordinate for narratives). Thus, in addition to syntax-level sentence construction and word-level transcription, amount of translation (number of sentences), mode of transcription, and genre for multiple sentence text also influence translation of ideas into written language of child writers. Results of these studies employing descriptive linguistic analyses are discussed in reference to cognitive theory of writing development. PMID:21383865

  20. 30 CFR 18.95 - Approval of machines constructed of components approved, accepted or certified under Bureau of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of machines constructed of components... Electrically Operated Mining Equipment § 18.95 Approval of machines constructed of components approved, accepted or certified under Bureau of Mines Schedule 2D, 2E, 2F, or 2G. Machines for which field approval...

  1. 77 FR 29701 - Impact of Construction (Under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating Units at Multi-Unit Sites AGENCY... a COL intending to construct and operate new nuclear power plants (NPPs) on multi-unit sites to... Impacts of Construction (under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plants on Operating Units at Multi...

  2. The growth of single crystals of Ni-W alloy under conditions of high temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhazha, V.M.; Gorbenko, Yu.V.; Kovtun, G.P.; Ladygin, A.N.; Malykhin, D.G.; Rudycheva, T.Yu.; Sverdlov, V.Ya.; Shcherban', A.P.; Zhemanyuk, P.D.; Klochikhin, V.V.

    2004-01-01

    The structure of single crystals of the NV-4 nickel alloy containing 32-36 wt % W is investigated. The temperature gradient at the crystallization front and the velocity of the crystallization front are the variable parameters of directional crystallization. The degrees of structural perfection of the single crystals grown under different conditions are compared. The crystallization parameters providing growth of single crystals that have high structural perfection and can be successfully used as seeds for the growth of single-crystal blades are determined. Typical defects formed upon directional crystallization of single crystals of the Ni-W (35 wt %) alloy are examined. The studied defects are classified, and the factors responsible for the disturbance of the single-crystal structure are analyzed

  3. [Removal nitrogen of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland under aeration condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Min; He, Feng; Xu, Dong; Zhou, Qiao-Hong; Liang, Wei; Chen, Shui-Ping; Wu, Zhen-Bin

    2011-03-01

    Oxygen is an important limit factor of nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands, so it is the key point for improving nitrogen removal efficiency of constructed wetlands that the optimization of oxygen distribution within wetlands. Therefore, oxygen status, nitrogen removal and purification mechanism of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland (IVCW) under aeration condition in summer and winter have been studied. The results showed that both oxygen levels and aerobic zones were increased in the wetland substrates. The area of oxic zone I (expressing with depth) extended from 22 cm, 17 cm to 53 cm, 44 cm, in summer and winter, respectively. The electric potential (Eh) profiling demonstrated that artificial aeration maintained the pattern of sequential oxic-anoxic-oxic (O-A-O) redox zones within the aerated IVCW in winter, while only two oxic-anoxic (O-A) zones were present inside the non-aerated IVCW in the cold season. The decomposition of organic matter and nitrification were obviously enhanced by artificial aeration since the removal efficiency of COD, TN and NH4(+) -N were increased by 12.2%, 6.9% and 15.1% in winter, respectively. There was no significant accumulation of NO3(-) -N in the effluent with an aeration cycle of 8 h on and 16 h off in this experiment. Moreover, we found that oxic zone I was the main region of pollutants removal in IVCW system, and artificial aeration mainly acted to enhance the purification capacity of this oxic zone in the aerated IVCW. These results suggest that aeration is important for optimization and application of IVCW system.

  4. Beyond Family-Friendly: The Construct and Measurement of Singles-Friendly Work Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Wendy J.; Weltman, David; Kwesiga, Eileen

    2007-01-01

    Although research has examined work-family issues and organizational support for employees' family responsibilities, few studies have explored the work-life issues of single employees without children. The current study examines single employees' perceptions of how their organizations support their work-life balance in comparison to employees with…

  5. Sustainability of Constructed Wetland under the Impact of Aquatic Organisms Overloading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chieh Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impacts, such as earthquakes, chemical pollution and anthropogenic factors can affect the stability and sustainability of an ecosystem. In this study, a long-term (3.7 years investigation experiment was conducted to estimate the sustainability of a constructed wetland (CW under the impact of aquatic organisms overloading. The situation of aquatic organisms overloading in this study meant that around 27,000 kg of fishes had to be moved and accommodated in a 4 ha water area of wetland for six months. Experimental results indicated that the pH value of CW water was slightly acidic and the Dissolved Oxygen (DO level decreased under the impact. On the other hand, the levels of Electrical Conductivity (EC, Suspended Solids (SS, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, and Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN of CW water were increased under the impact. The pathogen analysis revealed that total coliforms, Salmonella spp., Enterococcus spp., and Escherichia coli, in the wetland water increased under the impact. The analyzed factors of water quality and amount of pathogens were all returned to their original statuses soon after the impact ended. Eventually, the results of microbial community structure analysis showed that overloading of aquatic organisms slightly increased the specific richness (R of wetland bacteria, whereas higher structural biodiversity (H of CW could stabilize the whole microbial community and prevent the pathogens or other bacteria from increasing to become the dominant strains. These results were novel and could be possible to conclude that a CW environment could not only stabilize the water quality and amount of pathogens resulting from the impact of aquatic organisms overloading, but also they could stabilize the microbial community structures, allowing the biogeochemical cycles of the CW to function. They could provide the useful information for wetland sustainability.

  6. Statistical techniques to construct assays for identifying likely responders to a treatment under evaluation from cell line genomic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Erich P; Fridlyand, Jane; Lewin-Koh, Nicholas; Yue, Peng; Shi, Xiaoyan; Dornan, David; Burington, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Developing the right drugs for the right patients has become a mantra of drug development. In practice, it is very difficult to identify subsets of patients who will respond to a drug under evaluation. Most of the time, no single diagnostic will be available, and more complex decision rules will be required to define a sensitive population, using, for instance, mRNA expression, protein expression or DNA copy number. Moreover, diagnostic development will often begin with in-vitro cell-line data and a high-dimensional exploratory platform, only later to be transferred to a diagnostic assay for use with patient samples. In this manuscript, we present a novel approach to developing robust genomic predictors that are not only capable of generalizing from in-vitro to patient, but are also amenable to clinically validated assays such as qRT-PCR. Using our approach, we constructed a predictor of sensitivity to dacetuzumab, an investigational drug for CD40-expressing malignancies such as lymphoma using genomic measurements of cell lines treated with dacetuzumab. Additionally, we evaluated several state-of-the-art prediction methods by independently pairing the feature selection and classification components of the predictor. In this way, we constructed several predictors that we validated on an independent DLBCL patient dataset. Similar analyses were performed on genomic measurements of breast cancer cell lines and patients to construct a predictor of estrogen receptor (ER) status. The best dacetuzumab sensitivity predictors involved ten or fewer genes and accurately classified lymphoma patients by their survival and known prognostic subtypes. The best ER status classifiers involved one or two genes and led to accurate ER status predictions more than 85% of the time. The novel method we proposed performed as well or better than other methods evaluated. We demonstrated the feasibility of combining feature selection techniques with classification methods to develop assays

  7. Effects of a saturated layer and recirculation on nitrogen treatment performances of a single stage Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland (VFCW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigent, S; Paing, J; Andres, Y; Chazarenc, F

    2013-01-01

    Upgrades to enhance nitrogen removal were tested in a 2 year old pilot vertical flow constructed wetland in spring and summer periods. The effects of a saturated layer and of recirculation were tested in particular. Two pilots (L = 2 m, W = 1.25 m, H = 1.2 m), filled with expanded schist (Mayennite(®)), were designed with hydraulic saturated layers of 20 and 40 cm at the bottom. Each pilot was fed with raw domestic wastewater under field conditions according to a hydraulic load of 15-38 cm d(-1) (i.e. 158-401 g COD (chemical oxygen demand) m(-2) d(-1)) and to recirculation rates ranging from 0% up to 150%. The initial load during the first 2 years of operation resulted in an incomplete mineralized accumulated sludge leading to total suspended solids (TSS), COD and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) release. A 40 cm hydraulic saturated layer enabled an increase of 5-10% total nitrogen (TN) removal compared to a 20 cm saturated layer. Recirculation allowed the dilution of raw wastewater and enhanced nitrification in a single stage. A design of 1.8 m² pe(-1) (48 cm d(-1), 191 g COD m(-2) d(-1)) with a 40 cm saturated layer and 100% recirculation enabled the French standard D4 (35 mg TSS L(-1), 125 mg COD L(-1), 25 mg BOD5 L(-1)), nitrogen concentrations below 20 mg TKN (total Kjeldahl nitrogen) L(-1) and 50 mg TN L(-1), to be met.

  8. Method and apparatus for single-stepping coherence events in a multiprocessor system under software control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Salapura, Valentina

    2010-11-02

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for single-stepping coherence events in a multiprocessor system under software control in order to monitor the behavior of a memory coherence mechanism. Single-stepping coherence events in a multiprocessor system is made possible by adding one or more step registers. By accessing these step registers, one or more coherence requests are processed by the multiprocessor system. The step registers determine if the snoop unit will operate by proceeding in a normal execution mode, or operate in a single-step mode.

  9. Absorption measurement s in InSe single crystal under an applied electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ates, A.; Guerbulak, B.; Guer, E.; Yildirim, T.; Yildirim, M.

    2002-01-01

    InSe single crystal was grown by Bridgman-Stockberger method. Electric field effect on the absorption measurements have been investigated as a function of temperature in InSe single crystal. The absorption edge shifted towards longer wavelengths and decreased of intensity in absorption spectra under an electric field. Using absorption measurements, Urbach energy was calculated under an electric field. Applied electric field caused a increasing in the Urbach energy. At 10 K and 320 K, the first exciton energies were calculated as 1.350 and 1.311 eV for zero voltage and 1.334 and 1.301 eV for electric field respectively

  10. Raman study of bromine-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes under high pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Liu Bing Bing; Yu Miao; Zou Guang Tian; Carlsten, J; Wagberg, T; Sundqvist, B

    2002-01-01

    Raman results for different single-walled carbon nanotube bundles doped with Br sub 2 were studied both at ambient pressure and under high pressure up to 6 GPa. Our study indicates that bromine resides in the interstitial channel of nanotube bundles as a form of polymer.

  11. Weatherization and Indoor Air Quality: Measured Impacts in Single Family Homes Under the Weatherization Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigg, Scott [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Cautley, Dan [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Francisco, Paul [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Hawkins, Beth A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brennan, Terry M [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes findings from a national field study of indoor air quality parameters in homes treated under the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). The study involved testing and monitoring in 514 single-family homes (including mobile homes) located in 35 states and served by 88 local weatherization agencies.

  12. Identifying areas under potential risk of illegal construction and demolition waste dumping using GIS tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seror, Nissim; Portnov, Boris A

    2018-05-01

    Construction and demolition (C&D) waste, dumped illegally in ravines and open areas, contaminates soil and can cause underground water pollution and forests fires. Yet, effective monitoring of illegal C&D waste dumping and enforcing legislation against the offenders are often a difficult task due to the large size of geographic areas that need to be monitored, and limited human and financial resources available to environmental law enforcement agencies. In this study, we use Geographic Information System (GIS) tools and geo-statistical modelling to identify the areas under potentially elevated risk of illegal C&D waste dumping in the Haifa district of Israel. As our analysis shows, locational factors, significantly associated with the accumulated amount of waste in the existing illegal C&D waste sites, include: distance to the nearest main road, depth of the ravine present at the site (pwaste dumping for future monitoring. As we suggest, the proposed approach may be useful for environmental law enforcement authorities, by helping them to focus on specific sites for inspection, save resources, and act against the offenders more efficiently. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. JHR. A high performance MTR under construction for a sustainable nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iracane, Daniel; Cordier, Pierre-Yves

    2009-01-01

    The Access to an up-to-date Material Testing Reactor (MTR) is essential to support a sustainable nuclear energy, meeting industry and public needs, and keeping a high level of scientific expertise. This includes services to existing and coming reactor technologies for major stakes such as safety and competitiveness, lifetime management, operation optimization, development of innovative structural material and fuel required for future systems (innovative Gen III, Gen IV, fusion...), etc. The JHR copes with this context. Design phase has been completed by the end of 2005 and JHR is now under construction. Start of operation is scheduled in 2014. As a new MTR taking benefit of a large available worldwide experience, JHR offers new major experimental capability that will be presented. JHR will be operated within an international users' consortium that will guarantee effective and cost-effective operation. This innovative way to operate a MTR, as a user-facility for the benefit of industry and public bodies, will be presented. (author)

  14. Journalistic identity and audience perceptions: paradigm and models under construction in the African Great Lakes region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Soleil Frère

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a research conducted in three African countries (Burundi, Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, focusing on the recent evolution of the journalistic profession and the way journalists are perceived today and represented by members of the audience polled in five localities of the region. In the last twenty years, journalism has been deeply transformed, following the liberalization of the media sector, on one hand, and the murderous civil wars which marked the three countries on the other hand. New formats and new roles have appeared for the media, as well as new professional standards for journalists (codes of ethics, regulations from regulatory authorities, journalists education and training curricula, professional associations, often encouraged by foreign donors and international NGOs. This paper aims at showing that, behind these changes, a new « journalistic paradigm » has taken shape, a consequence of both internal dynamics within the profession and external assignments (imposed by the State and the evolution of the market, and also of new demands emanating from the public. In an unstable political, economic and security context, the changes of the journalistic paradigm have transfigured media content, as well as the perception by the local public of the role that journalists have to play in society, and of what the citizens may expect from them, in a region where democracy is still widely under construction.

  15. Journalistic identity and audience perceptions: paradigm and models under construction in the African Great Lakes region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Soleil Frère

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a research conducted in three African countries (Burundi, Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, focusing on the recent evolution of the journalistic profession and the way journalists are perceived today and represented by members of the audience polled in five localities of the region. In the last twenty years, journalism has been deeply transformed, following the liberalization of the media sector, on one hand, and the murderous civil wars which marked the three countries on the other hand. New formats and new roles have appeared for the media, as well as new professional standards for journalists (codes of ethics, regulations from regulatory authorities, journalists education and training curricula, professional associations, often encouraged by foreign donors and international NGOs. This paper aims at showing that, behind these changes, a new « journalistic paradigm » has taken shape, a consequence of both internal dynamics within the profession and external assignments (imposed by the State and the evolution of the market, and also of new demands emanating from the public. In an unstable political, economic and security context, the changes of the journalistic paradigm have transfigured media content, as well as the perception by the local public of the role that journalists have to play in society, and of what the citizens may expect from them, in a region where democracy is still widely under construction.

  16. Construction of a single lentiviral vector containing tetracycline-inducible Alb-uPA for transduction of uPA expression in murine hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiasi Bai

    Full Text Available The SCID-beige/Alb-uPA mouse model is currently the best small animal model available for viral hepatitis infection studies [1]. But the construction procedure is often costly and time-consuming due to logistic and technical difficulties. Thus, the widespread application of these chimeric mice has been hampered [2]. In order to optimize the procedure, we constructed a single lentiviral vector containing modified tetracycline-regulated system to control Alb-uPA gene expression in the cultured hepatocytes. The modified albumin promoter controlled by tetracycline (Tet-dependent transactivator rtTA2S-M2 was integrated into a lentiviral vector. The full-length uPA cDNA was inserted into another lentiviral vector containing PTight, a modified Tet-responsive promoter. Two vectors were then digested by specific enzymes and ligated by DNA ligase 4. The ligated DNA fragment was inserted into a modified pLKO.1 cloning vector and the final lentiviral vector was then successfully constructed. H2.35 cell, Lewis lung carcinoma, primary kidney, primary hepatic interstitial and CT26 cells were infected with recombinant lentivirus at selected MOI. The expression of uPA induced by DOX was detectable only in the infected H2.35 cells, which was confirmed by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Moreover, DOX induced uPA expression on the infected H2.35 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The constructed single lentiviral vector has many biological advantages, including that the interested gene expression under "Tet-on/off" system is controlled by DOX in a dose-depending fashion only in murine liver cells, which provides an advantage for simplifying generation of conditional transgenic animals.

  17. Pressure drop and heat transfer of lithium single-phase flow under transverse magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Minoru; Aritomi, Masanori; Inoue, Akira; Matsuzaki, Mitsuo

    1996-01-01

    Pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of a lithium single-phase flow in a rectangular channel was investigated experimentally in the presence of a magnetic field. Friction loss coefficient under non-magnetic field and skin friction coefficient under magnetic field agreed well with the Blasius formula and a simple analytical expression, respectively. Nusselt number under non-magnetic field was slightly lower than the correlation by Hartnett and Irvine. Heat transfer was enhanced by increasing magnetic field above the Hartmann number of about 200. (author)

  18. Evolutionary Game Model Study of Construction Green Supply Chain Management under the Government Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yuanzhi; Deng, Xiaoyi

    2017-11-01

    The paper first has defined the concepts of green supply chain management and evolution game theory, and pointed out the characteristics of green supply chain management in construction. The main participants and key links of the construction green supply chain management are determined by constructing the organization framework. This paper established the evolutionary game model between construction enterprises and recycling enterprises for the green supply chain closed-loop structure. The waste recycling evolutionary stability equilibrium solution is obtained to explore the principle and effective scope of government policy intervention. This paper put forward the relevant countermeasures to the green supply chain management in construction recycling stage from the government point of view. The conclusion has reference value and guidance to the final product construction enterprises, recycling enterprises and the government during green supply chain.

  19. SINGLE CHANNEL SEISMIC APPLICATION FOR GAS CHARGED SEDIMENT RECONNAISSANCE IN GEOHAZARD STUDY OF PORT CONSTRUCTION AT WETLAND AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufan Wiguna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gas charged sediment as a one of parameter for geohazard study in infrastructure especially in swamp area. Instability of sediment layer for exampel subsidence and landslide result in geohazard potention that caused by gas charged sediment. Seismic single channel can be used to identufy gas charged sediment location. Seabed morphology is collected from bathymetry and tidal survey. From seismic profile interpretation shows gas charged sediment indication in Line A and Line B. That indication emerged by presence of acoustic turbid zone and acoustic blanking. Line A and Line B location will be spotlight in next geotechnic port construction study.

  20. Microstructural evolution of reduced-activation martensitic steel under single and sequential ion irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Fengfeng; Guo, Liping; Jin, Shuoxue; Li, Tiecheng; Zheng, Zhongcheng; Yang, Feng; Xiong, Xuesong; Suo, Jinping

    2013-01-01

    Microstructural evolution of super-clean reduced-activation martensitic steels irradiated with single-beam (Fe + ) and sequential-beam (Fe + plus He + ) at 350 °C and 550 °C was studied. Sequential-beam irradiation induced smaller size and larger number density of precipitates compared to single-beam irradiation at 350 °C. The largest size of cavities was observed after sequential-beam irradiation at 550 °C. The segregation of Cr and W and depletion of Fe in carbides were observed, and the maximum depletion of Fe and enrichment of Cr occurred under irradiation at 350 °C

  1. A Review of Structure Construction of Silk Fibroin Biomaterials from Single Structures to Multi-Level Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Qi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The biological performance of artificial biomaterials is closely related to their structure characteristics. Cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation are all strongly affected by the different scale structures of biomaterials. Silk fibroin (SF, extracted mainly from silkworms, has become a popular biomaterial due to its excellent biocompatibility, exceptional mechanical properties, tunable degradation, ease of processing, and sufficient supply. As a material with excellent processability, SF can be processed into various forms with different structures, including particulate, fiber, film, and three-dimensional (3D porous scaffolds. This review discusses and summarizes the various constructions of SF-based materials, from single structures to multi-level structures, and their applications. In combination with single structures, new techniques for creating special multi-level structures of SF-based materials, such as micropatterning and 3D-printing, are also briefly addressed.

  2. The constructed catchment Chicken Creek as Critical Zone Observatory under transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwin, Werner; Schaaf, Wolfgang; Elmer, Michael; Hinz, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The constructed catchment Chicken Creek was established in 2005 as an experimental landscape laboratory for ecosystem research. The 6 ha area with clearly defined horizontal as well as vertical boundary conditions was left for an unrestricted primary succession. All Critical Zone elements are represented at this site, which allows the study of most processes occurring at the interface of bio-, pedo-, geo- and hydrosphere. It provides outstanding opportunities for investigating interactions and feedbacks between different evolving compartments during ecosystem development. The catchment is extensively instrumented since 2005 in order to detect transition stages of the ecosystem. Data recorded with a high spatial and temporal resolution include hydrological, geomorphological, pedological, limnological as well as biological parameters. In contrast to other Critical Zone Observatories, this site offers the unique situation of an early stage ecosystem with highly dynamic system properties. The first years of development were characterized by a fast formation of geomorphological structures due to massive erosion processes at the initially non-vegetated surface. Hydrological processes led to the establishment of a local groundwater body within 5 years. In the following years the influence of biological structures like vegetation patterns gained an increasing importance. Feedbacks between developing vegetation and e.g. hydrological features became more and more dominant. As a result, different phases of ecosystem development could be distinguished until now. This observatory offers manifold possibilities to identify and disentangle complex interactions between Critical Zone processes in situ under natural conditions. The originally low complexity of the system is growing with time facilitating the identification of influences of newly developing structures on system functions. Thus, it is possible to study effects of small-scale processes on the whole system at the

  3. In Situ TEM Study of Interaction between Dislocations and a Single Nanotwin under Nanoindentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Zhang, Zhenyu; Cui, Junfeng; Jiang, Nan; Lyu, Jilei; Chen, Guoxin; Wang, Jia; Liu, Zhiduo; Yu, Jinhong; Lin, Chengte; Ye, Fei; Guo, Dongming

    2017-09-06

    Nanotwinned (nt) materials exhibit excellent mechanical properties, and have been attracting much more attention of late. Nevertheless, the fundamental mechanism of interaction between dislocations and a single nanotwin is not understood. In this study, in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) nanoindentation is performed, on a specimen of a nickel (Ni) alloy containing a single nanotwin of 89 nm in thickness. The specimen is prepared using focused ion beam (FIB) technique from an nt surface, which is formed by a novel approach under indentation using a developed diamond panel with tips array. The stiffness of the specimen is ten times that of the pristine counterparts during loading. The ultrahigh stiffness is attributed to the generation of nanotwins and the impediment of the single twin to the dislocations. Two peak loads are induced by the activation of a new slip system and the penetration of dislocations over the single nanotwin, respectively. One slip band is parallel to the single nanotwin, indicating the slip of dislocations along the nanotwin. In situ TEM observation of nanoindentation reveals a new insight for the interaction between dislocations and a single nanotwin. This paves the way for design and preparation of high-performance nt surfaces of Ni alloys used for aircraft engines, gas turbines, turbocharger components, ducts, and absorbers.

  4. Construction and high cytoplasmic expression of a tumoricidal single-chain antibody against hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Sandee, Duanpen; Tungpradabkul, Sumalee; Tsukio, Manae; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Takagi, Masahiro

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background Hep27 monoclonal (Hep27 Mab) is an antibody against hepatocellular carcinoma. Hep27 Mab itself can inhibit the growth of a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HCC-S102). We attempted to produce a single-chain fragment (scFv), a small fragment containing an antigen-binding site of Hep27 Mab, by using DNA-recombinant techniques. Results The sequences encoding the variable regions of heavy (VH) and light (VL) chains of a murine Hep27 Mab were linked together by a linker pepti...

  5. Quality assurance and supervision of mass concrete construction under EPC mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Hong

    2013-01-01

    Taking one typical general contraction project-Hainan Changjiang nuclear power project as an example, this paper introduces the mass concrete construction of nuclear island foundation of Unit 1 in its installation phase, elaborates how to conduct quality assurance and supervision for concrete production, construction, supervision and management, detects relevant weak points of quality and management in the mass concrete construction through quality assurance supervision, puts forward management requirements for the supervising organizations, accumulates useful experience on how to promote contractors to implement the contract in line with national laws, regulations and to improve the management in equipment installation, commissioning and acceptance. (authors)

  6. Shape transition of unstrained flattest single-walled carbon nanotubes under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Weihua, E-mail: whmu@mit.edu, E-mail: muwh@itp.ac.cn [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 2735 Beijing 100190 (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 2735 Beijing 100190 (China); Cao, Jianshu, E-mail: jianshu@mit.edu [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART), Singapore 138602 (Singapore); Ou-Yang, Zhong-can [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 2735 Beijing 100190 (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 2735 Beijing 100190 (China); Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART), Singapore 138602 (Singapore); Center for Advanced Study, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-01-28

    Single walled carbon nanotube's (SWCNT's) cross section can be flattened under hydrostatic pressure. One example is the cross section of a single walled carbon nanotube successively deforms from the original round shape to oval shape, then to peanut-like shape. At the transition point of reversible deformation between convex shape and concave shape, the side wall of nanotube is flattest. This flattest tube has many attractive properties. In the present work, an approximate approach is developed to determine the equilibrium shape of this unstrained flattest tube and the curvature distribution of this tube. Our results are in good agreement with recent numerical results, and can be applied to the study of pressure controlled electric properties of single walled carbon nanotubes. The present method can also be used to study other deformed inorganic and organic tube-like structures.

  7. Numerical Simulation of single-stage axial fan operation under dusty flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkov, L. L.; Pikushchak, E. V.

    2017-11-01

    Assessment of the aerodynamic efficiency of the single-stage axial flow fan under dusty flow conditions based on a numerical simulation using the computational package Ansys-Fluent is proposed. The influence of dust volume fraction on the dependences of the air volume flow rate and the pressure drop on the rotational speed of rotor is demonstrated. Matching functions for formulas describing a pressure drop and volume flow rate in dependence on the rotor speed and dust content are obtained by numerical simulation for the single-stage axial fan. It is shown that the aerodynamic efficiency of the single-stage axial flow fan decreases exponentially with increasing volume content of dust in the air.

  8. Enhancing network performance under single link failure with AS-disjoint BGP extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manolova, Anna Vasileva; Romeral, S.; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose an enhancement of the BGP protocol for obtaining AS-disjoint paths in GMPLS multi-domain networks. We evaluate the benefits of having AS-disjoint paths under single inter-domain link failure for two main applications: routing of future connection requests during routing...... protocol re-convergence and applying multi-domain restoration as survivability mechanism in case of a single link failure. The proposed BGP modification is a simple and effective solution for disjoint path selection in connection-oriented multi-domain networks. Our results show that applying the proper...... failure notification method combined with our proposal reduces the blocking of new connection requests under protocol re-convergence. Furthermore. we show that our proposal is a valuable complementary process for increasing the network resilience....

  9. Mechanical properties of cocoons constructed consecutively by a single silkworm caterpillar, Bombyx mori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S. Q.; Zhao, H. P.; Feng, X. Q.; Cui, W.; Lin, Z.; Xu, M. Q.

    2008-04-01

    Most animals have the ability to adapt, to some extends and in different ways, the variation or disturbance of environment. In our experiments, we forced a silkworm caterpillar to spin two, three or four thin cocoons by taking it out from the cocoon being constructed. The mechanical properties of these cocoons were studied by static tensile tests and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. Though external disturbances may cause the decrease in the total weight of silk spun by the silkworm, a gradual enhancement was interestingly found in the mechanical properties of these thin cocoons. Scanning electron microscopy observations of the fractured specimens of the cocoons showed that there exist several different energy dissipation mechanisms occurred simultaneously at macro-, meso-, and micro-scales, yielding a superior capacity of cocoons to adsorb the energy of possible attacks from the outside and to protect efficiently its pupa against damage. Through evolution of millions of years, therefore, the silkworm Bombyx mori seems to have gained the ability to adapt external disturbances and to redesign a new cocoon with optimized protective function when its first cocoon has been damaged for some reasons.

  10. Physical investigation of square cylinder array dynamical response under single-phase cross-flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longatte, E.; Baj, F.

    2014-01-01

    Fluid structure interaction and flow-induced vibration in square cylinder arrangement under single-phase incompressible laminar cross flow are investigated in the present paper. Dynamic instability governed by damping generation is studied without any consideration about mixing with turbulence effects. Conservative and non-conservative effects are pointed out and dynamical stability limit sensitivity to physical parameters is analyzed. Finally the influence of key physical parameters on fluid solid dynamics interaction is quantified. (authors)

  11. Single-shot readout of multiple nuclear spin qubits in diamond under ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Vincent

    2013-03-01

    Nuclear spins are attractive candidates for solid-state quantum information storage and processing owing to their extremely long coherence time. However, since this appealing property results from a high level of isolation from the environment, it remains a challenging task to polarize, manipulate and readout with high fidelity individual nuclear spins. A promising approach to overcome this limitation consists in utilizing an ancillary single electronic spin to detect and control remote nuclear spins coupled by hyperfine interaction. In this talk, I will show how the electronic spin of a single Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) defect in diamond can be used as a robust platform to observe the real-time evolution of surrounding single nuclear spins under ambient conditions. Using a diamond sample with a natural abundance of 13C isotopes, we first demonstrate high fidelity initialization and single-shot readout of an individual 13C nuclear spin. By including the intrinsic 14N nuclear spin of the NV defect in the quantum register, we then report the simultaneous observation of quantum jumps linked to both nuclear spin species, providing an efficient initialization of the two qubits. These results open up new avenues for diamond-based quantum information processing (QIP) including active feedback in quantum error correction protocols and tests of quantum correlations with solid-state single spins at room temperature.

  12. Strength Investigations in Aircraft Construction Under Repeated Application of the Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassner, E.

    1946-01-01

    In the calculation of the dimensions of modern machines and building constructions, account is taken of the frequency of the occurrence of the anticipated loads. It is generally assumed that these loads will be repeated an infinite number, or at any rate some millions, of times during the total working life of the construction, When calculating the dimensions of the structural parts of aircraft, on the contrary, a consideration only of those frequencies in the appearance of the loads which actually come into play in the various states of stress is allowable. This is because in aircraft construction it is absolutely essential not only to ensure adequate structural strength but also to keep down the structural weight to the lowest possible limit, Strength tests in which this requirement is directly taken into account have recently been carried out by the DVL Material Strength Department.

  13. Discussion on the nuclear information resources co-constructing and sharing under network information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yang

    2010-01-01

    During the tenth five-year plan, along with the digitization of information, and the development of information transmission network, the co-construction and sharing of China's nuclear industry information is facing a new development opportunities and challenges. This paper is based on the analysis of the nuclear library status and characteristics, combined of the development process of nuclear information resources over the past 20 years. For the characteristic of information sharing and services in the net environment, the problem in the current co-construction and sharing of nuclear information, and the needs of the future nuclear research and development of nuclear production, this paper forecast the work trends of nuclear information, and gives some countermeasure to strength the development of the co-construction and sharing of nuclear information. (author)

  14. Underlying Constructs in the Development and Institutionalization of the Child Drama Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodson, Stephani Etheridge

    1998-01-01

    Examines the invisible incorporation of constructions from the Victorian and Progressive eras regarding children, women, and theatre art, into the field of child drama. Discusses child drama as a moral calling; women and the gendered status of child drama; child drama as an amateur field; child drama as education in democracy; and the construction…

  15. How to Construct Curricula for Finance Professional under Credit System in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    As a kind of teaching system, the credit system is constructed according to the elective system. It is benefit for improving teaching in implementing credit system. There are still some constraints during the transition from the academic year system to the credit one. In this paper, we shall first briefly introduce the bottleneck of credit system.…

  16. An Examination of the Personality Constructs Underlying Dimensions of Creative Problem-Solving Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksen, Scott G.; Kaufmann, Astrid H.; Bakken, Bjørn T.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the personality facets that underpin the construct of problem-solving style, particularly when approaching more creative kinds of problem-solving. Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factors Questionnaire and VIEW--An Assessment of Problem Solving Style were administered to 165 students from the Norwegian Business School. We…

  17. Design and Construction of an Autonomous Low-Cost Pulse Height Analyzer and a Single Channel Analyzer for Moessbauer Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez, A.A.; Trujillo, J.M.; Morales, A.L.; Tobon, J.E.; Gancedo, J.R.; Reyes, L.

    2005-01-01

    A multichannel analyzer (MCA) and a single channel-analyzer (SCA) for Moessbauer spectrometry application have been designed and built. Both systems include low-cost digital and analog components. A microcontroller manages, either in PHA or MCS mode, the data acquisition, data storage and setting of the pulse discriminator limits. The user can monitor the system from an external PC through the serial port with the RS232 communication protocol. A graphic interface made with the LabVIEW software allows the user to adjust digitally the lower and upper limits of the pulse discriminator, and to visualize as well as save the PHA spectra in a file. The system has been tested using a 57Co radioactive source and several iron compounds, yielding satisfactory results. The low cost of its design, construction and maintenance make this equipment an attractive choice when assembling a Moessbauer spectrometer

  18. Construction of Recombinant Single Chain Variable Fragment (ScFv) Antibody Against Superantigen for Immunodetection Using Antibody Phage Display Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pawan Kumar; Agrawal, Ranu; Kamboj, D V; Singh, Lokendra

    2016-01-01

    Superantigens are a class of antigens that bind to the major histocompatibility complex class (MHC) II and T-cell receptor (TCR) and cause the nonspecific activation of T cells, resulting in a massive release of pro-inflammatory mediators. They are produced by the gram-positive organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, and by a variety of other microbes such as viruses and mycoplasma, and cause toxic shock syndrome (TSS) and even death in some cases. The immunodetection of superantigens is difficult due to the polyclonal activation of T-cells leading to nonspecific antibody production. The production of recombinant monoclonal antibodies against superantigens can solve this problem and are far better than polyclonal antibodies in terms of detection. Here, we describe the construction of recombinant single chain variable fragments (ScFv) antibodies against superantigens with specific reference to SEB (staphylococcal enterotoxin B) using antibody phage display technology.

  19. Microstructural evolution of reduced-activation martensitic steel under single and sequential ion irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Fengfeng [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Guo, Liping, E-mail: guolp@whu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Jin, Shuoxue; Li, Tiecheng; Zheng, Zhongcheng [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yang, Feng; Xiong, Xuesong; Suo, Jinping [State Key Laboratory of Mould Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-07-15

    Microstructural evolution of super-clean reduced-activation martensitic steels irradiated with single-beam (Fe{sup +}) and sequential-beam (Fe{sup +} plus He{sup +}) at 350 °C and 550 °C was studied. Sequential-beam irradiation induced smaller size and larger number density of precipitates compared to single-beam irradiation at 350 °C. The largest size of cavities was observed after sequential-beam irradiation at 550 °C. The segregation of Cr and W and depletion of Fe in carbides were observed, and the maximum depletion of Fe and enrichment of Cr occurred under irradiation at 350 °C.

  20. Multicriteria decision-making method using the correlation coefficient under single-valued neutrosophic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jun

    2013-05-01

    The paper presents the correlation and correlation coefficient of single-valued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs) based on the extension of the correlation of intuitionistic fuzzy sets and demonstrates that the cosine similarity measure is a special case of the correlation coefficient in SVNS. Then a decision-making method is proposed by the use of the weighted correlation coefficient or the weighted cosine similarity measure of SVNSs, in which the evaluation information for alternatives with respect to criteria is carried out by truth-membership degree, indeterminacy-membership degree, and falsity-membership degree under single-valued neutrosophic environment. We utilize the weighted correlation coefficient or the weighted cosine similarity measure between each alternative and the ideal alternative to rank the alternatives and to determine the best one(s). Finally, an illustrative example demonstrates the application of the proposed decision-making method.

  1. Development of transgenic watermelon resistant to Cucumber mosaic virus and Watermelon mosaic virus by using a single chimeric transgene construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Yi; Ku, Hsin-Mei; Chiang, Yi-Hua; Ho, Hsiu-Yin; Yu, Tsong-Ann; Jan, Fuh-Jyh

    2012-10-01

    Watermelon, an important fruit crop worldwide, is prone to attack by several viruses that often results in destructive yield loss. To develop a transgenic watermelon resistant to multiple virus infection, a single chimeric transgene comprising a silencer DNA from the partial N gene of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) fused to the partial coat protein (CP) gene sequences of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) was constructed and transformed into watermelon (cv. Feeling) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Single or multiple transgene copies randomly inserted into various locations in the genome were confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Transgenic watermelon R(0) plants were individually challenged with CMV, CGMMV or WMV, or with a mixture of these three viruses for resistance evaluation. Two lines were identified to exhibit resistance to CMV, CGMMV, WMV individually, and a mixed inoculation of the three viruses. The R(1) progeny of the two resistant R(0) lines showed resistance to CMV and WMV, but not to CGMMV. Low level accumulation of transgene transcripts in resistant plants and small interfering (si) RNAs specific to CMV and WMV were readily detected in the resistant R(1) plants by northern blot analysis, indicating that the resistance was established via RNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Loss of the CGMMV CP-transgene fragment in R1 progeny might be the reason for the failure to resistant CGMMV infection, as shown by the absence of a hybridization signal and no detectable siRNA specific to CGMMV in Southern and northern blot analyses. In summary, this study demonstrated that fusion of different viral CP gene fragments in transgenic watermelon contributed to multiple virus resistance via PTGS. The construct and resistant watermelon lines developed in this study could be used in a watermelon breeding program for resistance to multiple viruses.

  2. Spin dynamics in the single molecule magnet Ni4 under microwave irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Loubens, Gregoire

    2009-03-01

    Quantum mechanical effects such as quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) and quantum phase interference have been intensively studied in single molecule magnets (SMMs). These materials have also been suggested as candidates for qubits and are promising for molecular spintronics. Understanding decoherence and energy relaxation mechanisms in SMMs is then both of fundamental interest and important for the use of SMMs in applications. Interestingly, the single-spin relaxation rate due to direct process of a SMM embedded in an elastic medium can be derived without any unknown coupling constant [1]. Moreover, nontrivial relaxation mechanisms are expected from collective effects in SMM single crystals, such as phonon superradiance or phonon bottleneck. In order to investigate the spin relaxation between the two lowest lying spin-states of the S=4 single molecule magnet Ni4, we have developed an integrated sensor that combines a microstrip resonator and micro-Hall effect magnetometer on a chip [2]. This sensor enables both real time studies of magnetization dynamics under pulse irradiation as well as simultaneous measurements of the absorbed power and magnetization changes under continuous microwave irradiation. The latter technique permits the study of small deviations from equilibrium under steady state conditions, i.e. small amplitude cw microwave irradiation. This has been used to determine the energy relaxation rate of a Ni4 single crystal as a function of temperature at two frequencies, 10 and 27.8 GHz. A strong temperature dependence is observed below 1.5 K, which is not consistent with a direct spin-phonon relaxation process. The data instead suggest that the spin relaxation is dominated by a phonon bottleneck at low temperatures and occurs by an Orbach process involving excited spin-levels at higher temperatures [3]. Experimental results will be compared with detailed calculations of the relaxation rate using the density matrix equation with the relaxation

  3. BUCKLING BEHAVIOUR OF SINGLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES UNDER AXIAL LOADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Litak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a single walled Carbon Nanotube under an axially directed compressive line loading applied at both of its edges. The expected buckling behavior we study by application of a molecular computation approach. We formulate a global potential and search for its minimum to obtain the equilibrium configuration. Using besides the main parameter, which is the value of the loading, as second parameter the diameter of the tube, we are able to define the critical value of the diameter, for which we obtain the coincident case of local shell buckling.

  4. Magnetocrystalline anisotropy of cementite pseudo single crystal fabricated under a rotating magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Sukeyoshi; Terai, Tomoyuki; Fukuda, Takashi; Sato, Kazunori; Kakeshita, Tomoyuki; Horii, Shigeru; Ito, Mikio; Yonemura, Mitsuharu

    2018-04-01

    We have fabricated a pseudo single crystal of cementite under a rotating magnetic field and investigated its easy and hard axes of magnetization, and determined its magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy. The obtained results are as follows: the hard and easy axes of cementite are the a- and c-axes of the orthorhombic structure with the space group Pnma, respectively. The hard axis observed experimentally was in good agreement with that obtained by an ab initio calculation; however, such consistency was not observed for the easy axis. The magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy was determined as 334 ± 20 kJ/m3 at 5 K.

  5. Large Deflections Mechanical Analysis of a Suspended Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube under Thermoelectrical Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assaf Ya'akobovitz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the recent progress in integrating single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs into silicon-based micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS, new modeling tools are needed to predict their behavior under different loads, including thermal, electrical and mechanical. In the present study, the mechanical behavior of SWCNTs under thermoelectrical loading is analyzed using a large deflection geometrically nonlinear string model. The effect of the resistive heating was found to have a substantial influence on the SWCNTs behavior, including significant enhancement of the strain (up to the millistrains range and buckling due to the thermal expansion. The effect of local buckling sites was also studied and was found to enhance the local strain. The theoretical and numerical results obtained in the present study demonstrate the importance of resistive heating in the analysis of SWCNTs and provide an additional insight into the unique mechanics of suspended SWCNTs.

  6. Excitons and trions in single and vertically coupled quantum dots under an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Li-Xue; Wang, Yan; An, Zhong

    2017-08-01

    We present a theoretical study of the exciton (X0), the positive and negative trions (X+ and X-) in single and vertically coupled configurations of self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots under an electric field. The quantum states of X0, X+ and X- have been investigated using a quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) model within the effective-mass approximation. For the single quantum dots, the electric-field dependent energy levels and the average inter-particle distances for the exciton and trions have been calculated. For the coupled quantum dots, the ground and the excited states for X0, X+ and X- have also been calculated and discussed. It is found that either the hole or the electron can be tuned into resonance states by the electric field and that the transition energy spectra for both trions consequently show crossing and anticrossing patterns. The recombination probabilities of the exciton and trion optical transitions are also calculated. The theoretical results have been compared with previously reported photoluminescence data and qualitative agreement is obtained. The trion conditional wave functions are also plotted under different electric field intensities, and it is found that a molecular orbital can be formed at a critical electric field intensity. The evolution of the energy levels of the trions in coupled quantum dots can be explained by the interplay of particle transfer and the electric field.

  7. Growth and development of Arabidopsis thaliana under single-wavelength red and blue laser light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Amanda; Wong, Aloysius; Ng, Tien Khee; Marondedze, Claudius; Gehring, Christoph; Ooi, Boon S

    2016-09-23

    Indoor horticulture offers a sensible solution for sustainable food production and is becoming increasingly widespread. However, it incurs high energy and cost due to the use of artificial lighting such as high-pressure sodium lamps, fluorescent light or increasingly, the light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The energy efficiency and light quality of currently available horticultural lighting is suboptimal, and therefore less than ideal for sustainable and cost-effective large-scale plant production. Here, we demonstrate the use of high-powered single-wavelength lasers for indoor horticulture. They are highly energy-efficient and can be remotely guided to the site of plant growth, thus reducing on-site heat accumulation. Furthermore, laser beams can be tailored to match the absorption profiles of different plant species. We have developed a prototype laser growth chamber and demonstrate that plants grown under laser illumination can complete a full growth cycle from seed to seed with phenotypes resembling those of plants grown under LEDs reported previously. Importantly, the plants have lower expression of proteins diagnostic for light and radiation stress. The phenotypical, biochemical and proteome data show that the single-wavelength laser light is suitable for plant growth and therefore, potentially able to unlock the advantages of this next generation lighting technology for highly energy-efficient horticulture.

  8. Growth and development of Arabidopsis thaliana under single-wavelength red and blue laser light

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Amanda Siok Lee

    2016-09-23

    Indoor horticulture offers a sensible solution for sustainable food production and is becoming increasingly widespread. However, it incurs high energy and cost due to the use of artificial lighting such as high-pressure sodium lamps, fluorescent light or increasingly, the light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The energy efficiency and light quality of currently available horticultural lighting is suboptimal, and therefore less than ideal for sustainable and cost-effective large-scale plant production. Here, we demonstrate the use of high-powered single-wavelength lasers for indoor horticulture. They are highly energy-efficient and can be remotely guided to the site of plant growth, thus reducing on-site heat accumulation. Furthermore, laser beams can be tailored to match the absorption profiles of different plant species. We have developed a prototype laser growth chamber and demonstrate that plants grown under laser illumination can complete a full growth cycle from seed to seed with phenotypes resembling those of plants grown under LEDs reported previously. Importantly, the plants have lower expression of proteins diagnostic for light and radiation stress. The phenotypical, biochemical and proteome data show that the single-wavelength laser light is suitable for plant growth and therefore, potentially able to unlock the advantages of this next generation lighting technology for highly energy-efficient horticulture.

  9. Distinct Fracture Patterns in Construction Steels for Reinforced Concrete under Quasistatic Loading— A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Suárez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Steel is one of the most widely used materials in construction. Nucleation growth and coalescence theory is usually employed to explain the fracture process in ductile materials, such as many metals. The typical cup–cone fracture pattern has been extensively studied in the past, giving rise to numerical models able to reproduce this pattern. Nevertheless, some steels, such as the eutectoid steel used for manufacturing prestressing wires, does not show this specific shape but a flat surface with a dark region in the centre of the fracture area. Recent studies have deepened the knowledge on these distinct fracture patterns, shedding light on some aspects that help to understand how damage begins and propagates in each case. The numerical modelling of both fracture patterns have also been discussed and reproduced with different approaches. This work reviews the main recent advances in the knowledge on this subject, particularly focusing on the experimental work carried out by the authors.

  10. [Geochemical characteristics of the carbonate constructions formed during microbial oxidation of methane under anaerobic conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lein, A Iu; Ivanov, M V; Pimenov, N V; Gulin, M B

    2002-01-01

    The aragonite constructions of the Black Sea are formed in a stable anaerobic zone and are a perfect object to study the natural mechanism of anaerobic methane oxidation. The most probable pathway of methane oxidation is its methanogen-mediated reaction with bicarbonates, dissolved in seawater, with the formation of water and acetate, which is then consumed by other components of the anaerobic community. Comparison of the delta 13C values of carbonate minerals and organic matter once more demonstrated that the formation of the organic matter of biomass is accompanied by intense fractionation of carbon isotopes, as a result of which the total organic matter of biomass acquires an extremely light isotopic composition, characterized by delta 13C values as low as -83.8@1000.

  11. A New Dynamic Multicriteria Decision-Making Approach for Green Supplier Selection in Construction Projects under Time Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Yin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to the lack of natural resources and environment problems which have been appearing increasingly, green building is more and more involved in the construction industry. The evaluation and selection of green supplier are a significant part of the development of green building. In this paper, we propose a new dynamic multicriteria decision-making approach in construction projects under time sequence to deal with these problems. First, the paper establishes 4 main criteria and 17 subcriteria for green supplier selection in construction projects. Then, a method considering interaction between criteria and the influence of constructors subjective preference and objective criteria information is proposed. It uses the interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy geometric weighted Heronian means (IVIFGWHM operator and multitarget nonlinear programming model to calculate the comprehensive evaluation results of potential green suppliers. The proposed method is much easier for constructors to select green supplier and make the localization of green supplier more practical and accurate in construction projects. Finally, a case study about a green building project is given to verify practicality and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  12. Direct exchange between silicon nanocrystals and tunnel oxide traps under illumination on single electron photodetector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatbouri, S., E-mail: Samir.chatbouri@yahoo.com; Troudi, M.; Sghaier, N.; Kalboussi, A. [Avenue de I’environnement, Université de Monastir, Laboratoire de Micro électronique et Instrumentation (LR13ES12), Faculté des Sciences de Monastir (Tunisia); Aimez, V. [Université de Sherbrooke, Laboratoire Nanotechnologies et Nanosystémes (UMI-LN2 3463), Université de Sherbrooke—CNRS—INSA de Lyon-ECL-UJF-CPE Lyon, Institut Interdisciplinaire d’Innovation Technologique (Canada); Drouin, D. [Avenue de I’environnement, Université de Monastir, Laboratoire de Micro électronique et Instrumentation (LR13ES12), Faculté des Sciences de Monastir (Tunisia); Souifi, A. [Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon—site INSA de Lyon, UMR CNRS 5270 (France)

    2016-09-15

    In this paper we present the trapping of photogenerated charge carriers for 300 s resulted by their direct exchange under illumination between a few silicon nanocrystals (ncs-Si) embedded in an oxide tunnel layer (SiO{sub x} = 1.5) and the tunnel oxide traps levels for a single electron photodetector (photo-SET or nanopixel). At first place, the presence of a photocurrent limited in the inversion zone under illumination in the I–V curves confirms the creation of a pair electron/hole (e–h) at high energy. This photogenerated charge carriers can be trapped in the oxide. Using the capacitance-voltage under illumination (the photo-CV measurements) we show a hysteresis chargement limited in the inversion area, indicating that the photo-generated charge carriers are stored at traps levels at the interface and within ncs-Si. The direct exchange of the photogenerated charge carriers between the interface traps levels and the ncs-Si contributed on the photomemory effect for 300 s for our nanopixel at room temperature.

  13. Single-phase liquid flow forced convection under a nearly uniform heat flux boundary condition in microchannels

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Man

    2012-02-22

    A microchannel heat sink, integrated with pressure and temperature microsensors, is utilized to study single-phase liquid flow forced convection under a uniform heat flux boundary condition. Utilizing a waferbond-and-etch- back technology, the heat source, temperature and pressure sensors are encapsulated in a thin composite membrane capping the microchannels, thus allowing experimentally good control of the thermal boundary conditions. A three-dimensional physical model has been constructed to facilitate numerical simulations of the heat flux distribution. The results indicate that upstream the cold working fluid absorbs heat, while, within the current operating conditions, downstream the warmer working fluid releases heat. The Nusselt number is computed numerically and compared with experimental and analytical results. The wall Nusselt number in a microchannel can be estimated using classical analytical solutions only over a limited range of the Reynolds number, Re: both the top and bottom Nusselt numbers approach 4 for Re < 1, while the top and bottom Nusselt numbers approach 0 and 5.3, respectively, for Re > 100. The experimentally estimated Nusselt number for forced convection is highly sensitive to the location of the temperature measurements used in calculating the Nusselt number. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  14. Exploration of mechanisms underlying the strain-rate-dependent mechanical property of single chondrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Trung Dung; Gu, YuanTong, E-mail: yuantong.gu@qut.edu.au [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

    2014-05-05

    Based on the characterization by Atomic Force Microscopy, we report that the mechanical property of single chondrocytes has dependency on the strain-rates. By comparing the mechanical deformation responses and the Young's moduli of living and fixed chondrocytes at four different strain-rates, we explore the deformation mechanisms underlying this dependency property. We found that the strain-rate-dependent mechanical property of living cells is governed by both of the cellular cytoskeleton and the intracellular fluid when the fixed chondrocytes are mainly governed by their intracellular fluid, which is called the consolidation-dependent deformation behavior. Finally, we report that the porohyperelastic constitutive material model which can capture the consolidation-dependent behavior of both living and fixed chondrocytes is a potential candidature to study living cell biomechanics.

  15. 3D Finite Element Modeling of Single Bolt Connections under Static and Dynamic Tension Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Guzas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Naval Undersea Warfare Center has funded research to examine a range of finite element approaches used for modeling bolted connections subjected to various loading conditions. Research focused on developing finite element bolt representations that were accurate and computationally efficient. A variety of finite element modeling approaches, from detailed models to simplified ones, were used to represent the behavior of single solid bolts under static and dynamic tension loading. Test cases utilized models of bolted connection test arrangements (static tension and dynamic tension developed for previous research and validated against test data for hollow bore bolts (Behan et al., 2013. Simulation results for solid bolts are validated against experimental data from physical testing of bolts in these load configurations.

  16. Experimental Adiabatic Quantum Factorization under Ambient Conditions Based on a Solid-State Single Spin System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kebiao; Xie, Tianyu; Li, Zhaokai; Xu, Xiangkun; Wang, Mengqi; Ye, Xiangyu; Kong, Fei; Geng, Jianpei; Duan, Changkui; Shi, Fazhan; Du, Jiangfeng

    2017-03-31

    The adiabatic quantum computation is a universal and robust method of quantum computing. In this architecture, the problem can be solved by adiabatically evolving the quantum processor from the ground state of a simple initial Hamiltonian to that of a final one, which encodes the solution of the problem. Adiabatic quantum computation has been proved to be a compatible candidate for scalable quantum computation. In this Letter, we report on the experimental realization of an adiabatic quantum algorithm on a single solid spin system under ambient conditions. All elements of adiabatic quantum computation, including initial state preparation, adiabatic evolution (simulated by optimal control), and final state read-out, are realized experimentally. As an example, we found the ground state of the problem Hamiltonian S_{z}I_{z} on our adiabatic quantum processor, which can be mapped to the factorization of 35 into its prime factors 5 and 7.

  17. A retrospective analysis of episodes of single tooth extraction under general anaesthesia for adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, B; Birnie, A

    2016-01-15

    To investigate the provision of adult dental extraction under general anaesthesia (DGA) at the Royal Cornwall Hospitals NHS Trust (RCHT)-- specifically adult single tooth DGA episodes in regards to numbers, demographics, justifications, and appropriateness regarding the use of resources. Data were collected retrospectively from the patient case notes and electronic records for the complete study cohort. This study included all episodes of adult single tooth DGA in all RCHT sites during 2014, except for mandibular third molar and impacted teeth. Each case was tested against the DGA case selection criteria empirically devised for this study. In 2014, 106 episodes of adult single tooth DGA were carried out in RCHT that met the inclusion criteria. Younger females from more socio-economically deprived areas of Cornwall were increasingly likely to have this procedure. Mental disorders were the most prevalent co-morbidity (21.7%) in this cohort. The vast majority of patients (93.4%) had previously tolerated dental treatment without the need for general anaesthesia (GA). Many referrals (46.2%) and listings (30.2%) specifically stated patient demand-driven reasons. None of the cohort had DGA due to failure of sedation. There were potentially 11 episodes that met the DGA case selection criteria. Patients waited for 126 days (median) from the referral date for an operation which took seven minutes (median) to complete. The majority (83%) of the cases were simple exodontia. Twenty patients (18.9%) had previous DGA. Potentially a considerable proportion of GA prescription appeared to be driven by patient demand rather than clinical need. This study poses a fundamental question--what drives the demand for DGA? National data collection and specific DGA case selection criteria are recommended.

  18. Kinematic analysis and fault-tolerant trajectory planning of space manipulator under a single joint failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Zonggao; Han, Liang; Xu, Wenfu; Li, Bing; Liang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    A space manipulator plays an important role in spacecraft capturing, repairing, maintenance, and so on. However, the harsh space environment will cause its joints fail to work. For a non-redundant manipulator, single joint locked failure will cause it to lose one degree of freedom (DOF), hence reducing its movement ability. In this paper, the key problems related to the fault-tolerant including kinematics, workspace, and trajectory planning of a non-redundant space manipulator under single joint failure are handled. First, the analytical inverse kinematics equations are derived for the 5-DOF manipulator formed by locking the failure joint of the original 6-DOF manipulator. Then, the reachable end-effector pose (position and orientation) is determined. Further, we define the missions can be completed by the 5-DOF manipulator. According to the constraints of the on-orbital mission, we determine the grasp envelope required for the end-effector. Combining the manipulability of the manipulator and the performance of its end-effector, a fault tolerance parameter is defined and a planning method is proposed to generate the reasonable trajectory, based on which the 5-DOF manipulator can complete the desired tasks. Finally, typical cases are simulated and the simulation results verify the proposed method.

  19. Coefficients of sliding friction of single crystals of high explosives under different rubbing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y Q; Chaudhri, M Munawar

    2013-01-01

    The coefficients of sliding friction of single crystals of commonly used high explosives pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) and beta-cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (β-HMX) under several rubbing configurations and at a relative sliding speed of 0.22 mm s -1 were measured. The sliding configurations were (1) crystal-polished steel pairs, (2) like-crystal pairs and (3) unlike-crystal pairs. For every rubbing configuration the friction force showed oscillations, which are thought to be caused by the formation and shearing of the adhesive junctions formed at the surface of the rubbing crystals. This shearing of the adhesive junctions led to the formation of microscopic and sub-microscopic particles, which were confirmed by an environmental scanning electron microscope study. For every rubbing configuration and for relatively high normal loads pressing the rubbing crystals together, the coefficient of friction was generally in the range 0.2-0.25 and it has been concluded that the coefficient of friction is controlled by the adhesion with almost negligible contribution from the ploughing component. From a knowledge of the coefficient of friction and the uniaxial yield stress values of single crystals of RDX and β-HMX, the shear strength of these crystals were determined to be ∼13.4 MPa and ∼16.8 MPa, respectively.

  20. Defects of diamond single crystal grown under high temperature and high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Qingcai, E-mail: suqc@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan, P. R. China, 250061 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, P. R. China, 250061 (China); Shandong Engineering Research Center for Superhard Materials, Zoucheng, P. R. China 273500 (China); Zhang, Jianhua [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, P. R. China, 250061 (China); Li, Musen [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan, P. R. China, 250061 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, P. R. China, 250061 (China); Shandong Engineering Research Center for Superhard Materials, Zoucheng, P. R. China 273500 (China)

    2013-11-01

    The diamond single crystal, synthesized with Fe–Ni–C–B system of catalyst under high temperature and high pressure, had been observed by field emission scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The presence of a cellular structure suggested that the diamond grew from melted catalyst solution and there existed a zone of component supercooling zone in front of the solid–liquid interface. The main impurities in the diamond crystal was (FeNi){sub 23}C{sub 6}. The triangle screw pit revealed on the (111) plane was generated by the screw dislocation meeting the diamond (111) plane at the points of emergence of dislocations. A narrow twin plane was formed between the two (111) plane. - Highlights: • High pressure, high temperature synthesis of diamond single crystal. • Fe–Ni–C–B used as catalyst, graphite as carbon source. • The main impurity in the diamond crystal was (FeNi){sub 23}C{sub 6}. • Surface defects arose from screw dislocations and stacking faults.

  1. Thermal Behavior of a Single Spent Fuel in Water Pool Storage Under Partially Uncovered Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Woo Ram; Park, Hee Sung; Song, Sub Lee; Lee, Jae Young [Handong Global Univ, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    LOCA in SFP can be led by a partial drain-down or a boil off scenario. In order to predict the response and consequence in such case, exact model on the partially uncovered SFP has to be established. Most studies on accidents in SFP have been done by safety analysis codes such as ATHLET-CD, ASTEC, MAAP, and MELCOR. However, an experimental investigation has not been conducted so far. Schultz et al.(2014) studied experimentally the response of air cooled BWR fuel assembly which is blocked at lower side fluid path. In this study, we experimentally investigated the thermal response of a partially uncovered single nuclear fuel rod (SNFR) in the SFP. The SNFR was 1/4 scaled down in axial length. 1-dimensional numerical analysis model was developed and compared with the result of experiment. An experimental study was conducted for obtaining transient temperature profile data of a modeled single nuclear fuel rod in heating condition under partially uncovered condition. Numerical prediction model was developed also and the prediction result was compared with the experimental result.

  2. Constructing of DNA vectors with controlled nanosize and single dispersion by block copolymer coating gold nanoparticles as template assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Junbo, E-mail: Lijunbo@haust.edu.cn [Henan University of Science and Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmaceutics (China); Wu, Wenlan [Henan University of Science and Technology, School of Medicine (China); Gao, Jiayu; Liang, Ju; Zhou, Huiyun; Liang, Lijuan [Henan University of Science and Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmaceutics (China)

    2017-03-15

    Synthesized vectors with nanoscale size and stable colloid dispersion are highly desirable for improving gene delivery efficiency. Here, a core-shell template particle was constructed with polyethylene glycol-b-poly1-(3-aminopropyl)-3-(2-methacryloyloxy propylimidazolium bromine) (PEG-b-PAMPImB) coating gold nanoparticles (PEG-b-PAMPImB-@-Au NPs) for loading DNA and delivering in vitro. Data from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) suggest that these nanoplexes, by forming an electrostatic complex with DNA at the inner PAMPImB shell, offer steric protection for the outer PEG corona leading to single dispersion and small size. Notably, higher colloid stability and lower cytotoxicity were achieved with these nanoplexes when compared with PAMPImB monolayer-coated gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Confocal laser scanning microscopy and intracellular trafficking TEM further indicate that the nanoplexes can translocate across the cell membrane and partly enter the nucleus for high efficient expression. Thus, template assembly represents a promising approach to control the size and colloid stability of gene vectors and ensure safety and efficiency of DNA delivery.

  3. An investigation into the authorship of scientific data webs of a network under construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson da Silva Medeiros

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to analyze the scientific authorship from the data sharing. For this purpose, it uses the Actor-Network Theory (ANT, which seeks, from an idea of symmetry between human and non-human, do not assume a division between those entities, allowing to view the establishment and dissolution of a network from the relationships that are created at different levels. The data collected, which were the basis for description and analysis from the literature that also emerged from what ware collected by observation, interviews and bibliographic materials. The study was carried out by the Repositório de Dados de Estudos Ecológicos do Programa de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade (PPBio. Concludes that conceptual and pragmatic objects can not be seen in isolate way, but like actors directly affected by the technology, should be considered important actants in the process of production, sharing and use of digital research data. The construction of scientific and social fact authorship is coordinated by a number of elements, such as data collection, curation, scientific data and its metadata, funding sources, data policy, repository and its management software for data and metadata, licensing, ownership and responsibility, acting like a kind of exploitation of a phenomena arrangement.

  4. Information Sharing and Channel Construction of Supply Chain under Asymmetric Demand Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangdong Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information sharing and marketing channel building have become an important problem of supply chain management theory and practice. The research of information sharing focused on traditional channel of supply chain between upstream and downstream enterprises; however, the research ignores the behavior of information sharing with potential entrants and composite structure characteristics about traditional marketing channel with the direct channel. This paper uses the model to research the effects brought about sharing demand information with potential entrants and building marketing channel, which reveals information sharing and channel building mechanism in the supply chain. The study found that the five-force model of Porter regards potential entrants only as a threat that is one-sided. When the channel competitiveness meets certain conditions, manufacturer and retailer will share demand information with potential entrants. Building composite marketing channel is the manufacturer's absolute dominant strategy. Channel construction will increase the entry barriers for potential entrants and weaken the effect of double marginalization; meanwhile, the performance of supply chain will be augmented.

  5. Reliability and construct validity of factors underlying the emotional intelligence of Iranian EFL teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Khodadady

    2013-06-01

    The 133-item Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i designed by Bar-On (1997 and translated by Dehshiry (2003 was revised and modified by removing the response validity items, changing reverse indicators into positively worded statements and revising the remaining 117 Persian indicators on the basis of schema theory. It was administered to 669 instructors most of whom were teaching English as a foreign language (EFL in national branches of Iran Language Institute in 15 cities. The application of the Principal Axis Factoring to the data and rotating the extracted factors via Varimax with Kaiser Normalization yielded 15 latent variables (LVs called Humanistic, Self-Satisfying, Self-Confident, Self-Aware, Self-Controlled, Research-Oriented, Content, Sociable, Empathetic, Tolerant, Flexible, Realistic, Independent, Emotional and Happy in this study. Not only did the modified Persian EQ-I proved to be more reliable than its original version, but also its thirteen LVs reached very high and acceptable levels of reliability. With the exception of the last, all the LVs also correlated significantly with each other and thus established the EI as a multifactorial construct whose constituting LVs are closely related to each other. The findings question correlating the so-called competences of EI and offer employing the factorially valid LVs as the best factors to explore the relationship between EI and variables involved in teaching and learning EFL.

  6. Neutron diffraction in a quartz single crystal under the action of acoustic oscillations or a temperature gradient

    CERN Document Server

    Mkrtchyan, A R; Hunanyan, H A; Beglaryan, A G

    1986-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of neutron diffraction in a quartz single crystal under the action of acoustic oscillations or a temperature gradient in the Laue geometry. Theoretical conclusions were compared with experimental results.

  7. Problems of natural lighting for deepened buildings and underground premises under screen effect of high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionova, Kira; Stetsky, Sergey

    2018-03-01

    The main rationale and objective of the submitted research work is to create a quality lighting environment in the premises of deepened buildings and below-ground structures under screen effect of high-rise construction (high-rise buildings). It is noted, that in modern megapolises, a deficiency of vacant urban territories leads to the increased density of urban development with increased amount of high-rise construction and tendency to increase efficiency in the use of underground space. The natural lighting of premises in underground buildings and structures is the most efficient way, but it can be implemented only under use of roof lighting system in the form of roof monitors or skylights. In this case the levels of indoor natural lighting will be affected with serious screening effect of high-rise buildings in surrounding development. Such an situation is not regulated, or even considered by the contemporary building Codes and Regulations on natural lighting of interiors. The authors offered a new formula for a daylight factor calculation with roof lighting system in the described cases. The results of theoretical calculations and experimental studies showed very similar values. This proved the truth of the offered formula and elaborated method of calculation on the basis of an offered hypothesis. It prooves, that it is possible to use some factor and guide points in the daylight factors design under system of side natural lighting in the same design for a system of roof lighting.

  8. Changes in bacteria composition and efficiency of constructed wetlands under sustained overloads: A modeling experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boano, F; Rizzo, A; Samsó, R; García, J; Revelli, R; Ridolfi, L

    2018-01-15

    The average organic and hydraulic loads that Constructed Wetlands (CWs) receive are key parameters for their adequate long-term functioning. However, over their lifespan they will inevitably be subject to either episodic or sustained overloadings. Despite that the consequences of sustained overloading are well known (e.g., clogging), the threshold of overloads that these systems can tolerate is difficult to determine. Moreover, the mechanisms that might sustain the buffering capacity (i.e., the reduction of peaks in nutrient load) during overloads are not well understood. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of sudden but sustained organic and hydraulic overloads on the general functioning of CWs. To that end, the mathematical model BIO_PORE was used to simulate five different scenarios, based on the features and operation conditions of a pilot CW system: a control simulation representing the average loads; 2 simulations representing +10% and +30% sustained organic overloads; one simulation representing a sustained +30% hydraulic overload; and one simulation with sustained organic and hydraulic overloads of +15% each. Different model outputs (e.g., total bacterial biomass and its spatial distribution, effluent concentrations) were compared among different simulations to evaluate the effects of such operation changes. Results reveal that overloads determine a temporary decrease in removal efficiency before microbial biomass adapts to the new conditions and COD removal efficiency is recovered. Increasing organic overloads cause stronger temporary decreases in COD removal efficiency compared to increasing hydraulic loads. The pace at which clogging develops increases by 10% for each 10% increase on the organic load. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Finnish EPR Olkiluoto 3. The world's first third-generation reactor now under construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The EPR was developed by Framatome and Siemens KWU (the nuclear division of Siemens), whose nuclear activities were combined in January 2001 to form Framatome ANP, now AREVA NP. The French electricity utility EDF (Electricite de France), together with the major German utilities, played an active role in the project. The safety authorities of the two countries joined forces to bring their respective safety standards into line and draw up joint design rules for the new reactor. On December 18, 2003, the consortium formed by AREVA and Siemens - and led by AREVA - signed a contract with TVO for the turnkey construction of the EPR. The overall Olkiluoto 3 project cost has been estimated by TVO at around euros 3 Billion. TVO is responsible for the overall project management and licensing process with the Finnish Safety Authority STUK. In the pre-qualification phase, STUK concluded that the EPR can meet the Finnish licensing requirements. All specific comments will be taken into account for the realization of the project. In January 2005, STUK emphasized in its safety assessment that the evolutionary EPR design compared to predecessor product lines has been further enhanced by AREVA. This paper presents first, The Finnish energy situation (Electricity consumption and supply, Finland's Kyoto CO 2 cutback, Competitiveness of nuclear power), and then the EPR in Olkiluoto (General schedule of responsibilities, Important milestones of the project). Finally, the EPR third-generation and advanced reactor is presented with its position in the international competition (Targeted design objectives, Main characteristics, competitiveness, safety, Additional measures to prevent the occurrence of events likely to damage the core, Increased protection against the consequences of core melt)

  10. Slide Valves for Single-Screw Expanders Working Under Varied Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper fully describes the working principle of slide valves in single-screw expanders (SSEs. A geometric analysis of suction and volume ratio slide valves is presented to determine the relations between volume ratio, suction closure volume, discharge opening volume and slide valves displacement. An organic Rankine cycle (ORC thermodynamic model with SSE integrated with slide valves is developed to analyze the power output of SSE and the net power output of ORC system and variation law of slide valves displacement. Analysis of a typical ORC system under changing operating conditions shows that the power output of the expander and the net output power of the ORC system with slide valves are much better than those without slide valves. When the condensing temperature is 40 °C and the waste availability is 80 kW, the increase in output power and net output power are approximately 3.4 kW and 5 kW, respectively. The presented geometric analysis of slide valves and the thermodynamic model integrated with slide valves can be used to provide a theoretical and technical basis for designing the slide valves of SSEs and the control strategies of slide valves under varied operating conditions.

  11. RNA synthetic biology inspired from bacteria: construction of transcription attenuators under antisense regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawid, Alexandre; Cayrol, Bastien; Isambert, Hervé

    2009-01-01

    Among all biopolymers, ribonucleic acids or RNA have unique functional versatility, which led to the early suggestion that RNA alone (or a closely related biopolymer) might have once sustained a primitive form of life based on a single type of biopolymer. This has been supported by the demonstration of processive RNA-based replication and the discovery of 'riboswitches' or RNA switches, which directly sense their metabolic environment. In this paper, we further explore the plausibility of this 'RNA world' scenario and show, through synthetic molecular design guided by advanced RNA simulations, that RNA can also perform elementary regulation tasks on its own. We demonstrate that RNA synthetic regulatory modules directly inspired from bacterial transcription attenuators can efficiently activate or repress the expression of other RNA by merely controlling their folding paths 'on the fly' during transcription through simple RNA–RNA antisense interaction. Factors, such as NTP concentration and RNA synthesis rate, affecting the efficiency of this kinetic regulation mechanism are also studied and discussed in the light of evolutionary constraints. Overall, this suggests that direct coupling among synthesis, folding and regulation of RNAs may have enabled the early emergence of autonomous RNA-based regulation networks in absence of both DNA and protein partners

  12. RNA synthetic biology inspired from bacteria: construction of transcription attenuators under antisense regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Alexandre; Cayrol, Bastien; Isambert, Hervé

    2009-07-01

    Among all biopolymers, ribonucleic acids or RNA have unique functional versatility, which led to the early suggestion that RNA alone (or a closely related biopolymer) might have once sustained a primitive form of life based on a single type of biopolymer. This has been supported by the demonstration of processive RNA-based replication and the discovery of 'riboswitches' or RNA switches, which directly sense their metabolic environment. In this paper, we further explore the plausibility of this 'RNA world' scenario and show, through synthetic molecular design guided by advanced RNA simulations, that RNA can also perform elementary regulation tasks on its own. We demonstrate that RNA synthetic regulatory modules directly inspired from bacterial transcription attenuators can efficiently activate or repress the expression of other RNA by merely controlling their folding paths 'on the fly' during transcription through simple RNA-RNA antisense interaction. Factors, such as NTP concentration and RNA synthesis rate, affecting the efficiency of this kinetic regulation mechanism are also studied and discussed in the light of evolutionary constraints. Overall, this suggests that direct coupling among synthesis, folding and regulation of RNAs may have enabled the early emergence of autonomous RNA-based regulation networks in absence of both DNA and protein partners.

  13. Status report 500 MeV, 10% d.f. linear accelerator (MEA) under construction at Amsterdam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruinsma, P.J.T.; Vries, C. de.

    1979-03-01

    The design parameters and the general lay-out of buildings and of the main components of the accelerator are presented. Some of the accelerator technology features which are typical for the Amsterdam machine are then described. The performance obtained so far with the first part of the machine is indicated with some remarks on the planning for the next 2 years during which the facility ought to be fully operational. The type of experimental facilities under construction are described and the status and the planning schedule are indicated. (Auth.)

  14. Evaluation of single-stage adjustable strabismus surgery under conscious sedation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Pradeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and stability of ocular alignment after single-stage adjustable strabismus surgery (SSASS performed under topical anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Forty-five patients of concomitant exodeviations were randomized into three groups of 15 cases each and were operated with three different techniques: Group I - conventional surgery, Group II - two-stage adjustable suture technique with suture adjustment performed 6h postoperatively and Group III- SSASS under topical anesthesia and intravenous conscious sedation with midazolam and fentanyl. Intraoperative suture adjustment was done by giving a cross target to the patient on the ceiling at the end of the procedure. Surgical results were compared among the three groups at three months follow-up. Intraoperative hemodynamic parameters and patients′ experience of the surgery (by questionnaire were also compared. Results: Mean preoperative deviation for distance in Groups I, II, III was -41.67 prism diopter (pd ±9.0, -38.93 pd ±11.05 and -41.87 pd ±8.91 ( P =0.6 respectively. At three months, mean correction achieved for distance was +31.87 pd ±11.71, +35.47 pd ±10.86 and +42.80 pd ±10.71 respectively which was significantly different between Group III and Group I ( P =0.03. Intraoperatively all hemodynamic parameters remained stable and comparable ( P =0. 5 in all groups. Intraoperative pain ( P < 0.001 and time taken for surgery ( P < 0.001 was more in the SSASS group. Amount of exodrift was 10-12 pd, comparable in all three groups ( P = 0.5. Conclusions: SSASS, performed under topical anesthesia, is safe and has better outcomes than conventional recession-resection surgery for concomitant exodeviation. An overcorrection of about 10-12 pd is recommended to check the exodrift and achieve stable alignment.

  15. Damage detection based on mode shapes of a girder bridge constructed from responses of a moving vehicle under impact excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhongqiang; Au, Francis T. K.

    2016-04-01

    The vibration mode shapes are often used to identify damage of bridges because the mode shapes are not only important modal properties but also sensitive to damage. However, the key issue is how to conveniently obtain the mode shapes of a bridge in service. Traditional methods invariably require installation of instruments on the bridge for collection of dynamic responses for constructing mode shapes, which are both costly and inconvenient. Therefore a method is developed to construct the mode shapes of simply supported bridges based on Hilbert Transform using only vehicle acceleration response for identification of the location of damage. Firstly, an algorithm is devised to construct the mode shapes by using the dynamic responses extracted from a moving vehicle under impact excitation. Then, based on these intermediate results, the coordinate modal assurance criterion in conjunction with suitable wavelets is used to identify the location of damage. Compared with the traditional methods, the proposed method uses only the information from the moving vehicle. Moreover, additional impact excitation on the vehicle helps to excite the bridge. This helps to improve the accuracy by overcoming the adverse effects of measurement noise and road surface roughness, which leads to high accuracy of damage detection. To verify the feasibility of the proposed method, some numerical studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of measurement noise, road surface roughness and multiple locations of damage on the accuracy of results.

  16. Using expanded real options analysis to evaluate capacity expansion decisions under uncertainty in the construction material industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momani, Amer Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Capacity expansion generally requires large capital expenditure on illiquid assets. Therefore, decisions to enlarge capacity must support the organisation’s strategic objectives and provide valuable input for the budgeting process. This paper applies an expanded form of Real Options Analysis (ROA to generate and evaluate capacity expansion strategies under uncertainty in the construction material industry. ROA is applied to different expansion strategies associated with different demand scenarios. Evaluating a wider variety of strategies can reduce risk and sponsor decisions that maximise the firm’s value. The case study shows that the execution of a lead expansion strategy with 10-year intervals under a 50 per cent demand satisfaction scenario produces superior results.

  17. Vendor Managed Inventory of a Single-vendor Multiple-retailer Single-warehouse Supply Chain under Stochastic Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Poorbagheri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a vendor-managed inventory model is developed for a single-vendor multiple-retailer single-warehouse (SV-MR-SV supply chain problem based on the economic order quantity in which demands are stochastic and follow a uniform probability distribution. In order to reduce holding costs and to help balanced on-hand inventory cost between the vendor and the retailers, it is assumed that all inventory is held at a central warehouse with the lowest cost among the parties. The capacity of the central warehouse is limited. The objective is to find the warehouse replenishment frequency, the vendor's replenishment frequency, the order points, and the order quantities of the retailers such that the total inventory cost of the integrated supply chain is minimized. The proposed model is a mixed integer nonlinear programming problem (MINLP; hence, a genetic algorithm (GA is utilized to solve this NP-hard problem. The parameters of the GA are calibrated using the Taguchi method to find better solutions. Some numerical illustrations are solved at the end to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed methodology and to evaluate the performance of the solution method.

  18. Numerical Simulations of Fluid Flow in a Single Fracture under Loading and Unloading Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, T.; Huo, D.; Schwarz, J. O.; Enzmann, F.; Blum, P.; Benson, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Hydraulic aperture is one of the most important parameters to describe fluid flow in fractured rocks. Hydraulic apertures are typically determined indirectly by fluid flow experiments or hydraulic field tests based on the cubic law. Alternatively, there are different equations approximating an empirical relation between mechanical and hydraulic aperture. However, these methods most widely neglect mechanisms such as stress changes, where increasing stresses decrease the mechanical aperture and, therefore, also the effective hydraulic aperture. Hence, the objective of the present study is to simulate fluid flow in a single fracture under loading/unloading conditions and validate the results with core flooding experiments. Core flooding data and X-ray CT scans (voxel size 0.5 x 0.5 x 1 mm) of a sandstone sample with a single fracture (measured mean aperture of around 0.1 mm) were obtained by laboratory experiments. The fluid flow simulations are performed by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation by using a finite volume method. Input data are given by experimental flow rates, pressures, applied stress levels and CT images of the fracture. In addition, an error analysis is performed to establish confidence in results. Results of the validation exhibit significant effects of stress on aperture distribution such as channeling and stress-dependent fracture permeability. A significant stress sensitivity of hydraulic aperture compared to the mechanical aperture was found, which can be explained by roughness changes resulting from loading. Observations indicate that with increasing stress, changes in mechanical aperture are small, while changes in hydraulic aperture can be very large. Since previous equations for hydraulic aperture do not consider changes in normal stress, a modification of these equations is proposed, including the stress-dependency of mechanical apertures to provide a better approximation to the observed hydraulic apertures.

  19. Construction and characterization of a fusion protein of single-chain anti-carcinoma antibody 323/A3 and human beta-glucuronidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, HJ; Brakenhoff, RH; Van der Meulen-Muileman, I.H.; Pinedo, HM; Boven, E

    We report the construction and expression of a fusion protein between a single-chain antibody specific for human carcinomas and human beta-glucuronidase by recombinant DNA technology. The sequences encoding the murine monoclonal antibody 323/A3 light- and heavy-chain variable genes were joined by a

  20. Design of a RCT evaluating the (cost-) effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention for male construction workers at risk for cardiovascular disease: the health under construction study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, Iris F.; Proper, Karin I.; van der Beek, Allard J.; van Duivenbooden, Cor; van Mechelen, Willem

    2008-01-01

    Of all workers in Dutch construction industry, 20% has an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A major risk factor for CVD risk is an unhealthy lifestyle. The aim of our study is to design a lifestyle intervention for construction workers with an elevated CVD risk, and to evaluate its

  1. Single-photon detector operating under extremely high background photon flux conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochazka, Ivan; Sopko, Bruno; Blazej, Josef

    2009-01-01

    We are reporting our results in research and development in the field of avalanche semiconductor single-photon detectors and their application. Our goal was a development of a solid-state photon-counting detector capable of high-precision photon arrival time tagging in extremely harsh operating conditions. The background photon flux exceeding 10 9 photons per second hitting the detector active area should not avoid the useful signal detection and recognition on the signal level of units of photons per second. This is background photon flux about two orders of magnitude higher than what the conventional solid-state photon counters accept. The detection timing resolution should be better than 100 ps and the delay stability should be on picosecond level. We have developed and tested the active quenched and gated avalanche structure on silicon providing the required features in connection with the K14 detection chips. The detector is capable of gated operation under the conditions of background photon flux of 5x10 9 photons per second. The operational detector tolerates long term exposures to the input photon flux exceeding 10 15 photons (>1 mW) per second without damage.

  2. A single dumbbell falling under gravity in a cellular flow field

    CERN Document Server

    Piva, M F

    2003-01-01

    We study the motion of a single polymer chain settling under gravity in an ensemble of periodic, cellular flow fields, which are steady in time. The molecule is an elastic dumbbell composed of two beads connected by a nonbendable Hookean spring. Each bead is subject to a Stokes drag and a Brownian force from the flow. In the absence of particle inertia, the molecule settles out at a rate which depends on three parameters: the particle velocity in a fluid at rest, V sub g , the spring constant, B, and the diffusion coefficient, D. We investigate the dependence of the molecule settling velocity on B, for fixed V sub g and D. It is found that this velocity strongly depends on B and it has a minimum value less than V sub g. We also find that the molecule is temporarily trapped at fixed points for certain values of the parameters. We analyse one fixed point in detail and conclude that its stability is the main factor which contributes to slowing down the settling process.

  3. Single Machine Problem with Multi-Rate-Modifying Activities under a Time-Dependent Deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The single machine scheduling problem with multi-rate-modifying activities under a time-dependent deterioration to minimize makespan is studied. After examining the characteristics of the problem, a number of properties and a lower bound are proposed. A branch and bound algorithm and a heuristic algorithm are used in the solution, and two special cases are also examined. The computational experiments show that, for the situation with a rate-modifying activity, the proposed branch and bound algorithm can solve situations with 50 jobs within a reasonable time, and the heuristic algorithm can obtain the near-optimal solution with an error percentage less than 0.053 in a very short time. In situations with multi-rate-modifying activities, the proposed branch and bound algorithm can solve the case with 15 jobs within a reasonable time, and the heuristic algorithm can obtain the near-optimal with an error percentage less than 0.070 in a very short time. The branch and bound algorithm and the heuristic algorithm are both shown to be efficient and effective.

  4. Graph SLAM correction for single scanner MLS forest data under boreal forest canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukko, Antero; Kaijaluoto, Risto; Kaartinen, Harri; Lehtola, Ville V.; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Hyyppä, Juha

    2017-10-01

    Mobile laser scanning (MLS) provides kinematic means to collect three dimensional data from surroundings for various mapping and environmental analysis purposes. Vehicle based MLS has been used for road and urban asset surveys for about a decade. The equipment to derive the trajectory information for the point cloud generation from the laser data is almost without exception based on GNSS-IMU (Global Navigation Satellite System - Inertial Measurement Unit) technique. That is because of the GNSS ability to maintain global accuracy, and IMU to produce the attitude information needed to orientate the laser scanning and imaging sensor data. However, there are known challenges in maintaining accurate positioning when GNSS signal is weak or even absent over long periods of time. The duration of the signal loss affects the severity of degradation of the positioning solution depending on the quality/performance level of the IMU in use. The situation could be improved to a certain extent with higher performance IMUs, but increasing system expenses make such approach unsustainable in general. Another way to tackle the problem is to attach additional sensors to the system to overcome the degrading position accuracy: such that observe features from the environment to solve for short term system movements accurately enough to prevent the IMU solution to drift. This results in more complex system integration with need for more calibration and synchronization of multiple sensors into an operational approach. In this paper we study operation of an ATV (All -terrain vehicle) mounted, GNSS-IMU based single scanner MLS system in boreal forest conditions. The data generated by RoamerR2 system is targeted for generating 3D terrain and tree maps for optimizing harvester operations and forest inventory purposes at individual tree level. We investigate a process-flow and propose a graph optimization based method which uses data from a single scanner MLS for correcting the post

  5. Exploring the Relationships between Independent Listening and Listening-Reading-Writing Tasks in Chinese Language Testing: Toward a Better Understanding of the Construct Underlying Integrated Writing Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinhua; Li, Xueyan; Yu, Guoxing; Cheong, Choo Mui; Liao, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Integrated assessment tasks have been increasingly used in language tests, but the underlying constructs of integrated tasks remain elusive. This study aimed to improve understanding of the construct of integrated writing tasks in Chinese Language examinations in Hong Kong by looking at the language competences measured in the…

  6. cGMP in Mouse Rods: the spatiotemporal dynamics underlying single photon responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen P. Gross

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate vision begins when retinal photoreceptors transduce photons into membrane hyperpolarization, which reduces glutamate release onto second-order neurons. In rod photoreceptors, transduction of single photons is achieved by a well-understood G-protein cascade that modulates cGMP levels, and in turn, cGMP-sensitive inward current. The spatial extent and depth of the decline in cGMP during the single photon response have been major issues in phototransduction research since the discovery that single photons elicit substantial and reproducible changes in membrane current. The spatial profile of cGMP decline during the single photon response affects signal gain, and thus may contribute to reduction of trial-to-trial fluctuations in the single photon response. Here we summarize the general principles of rod phototransduction, emphasizing recent advances in resolving the spatiotemporal dynamics of cGMP during the single photon response.

  7. Theoretical analysis and numerical modelling of heat transfer and fuel migration in underlying soils and constructive elements of nuclear plants during an accident release from the core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arutunjan, R.V.; Bolshov, L.A.; Vitukov, V.V.; Goloviznin, V.M.; Dykhne, A.M.; Kiselev, V.P.; Klementova, S.V.; Krayushkin, I.E.; Moskovchenko, A.V.; Pismennii, V.D.; Popkov, A.G.; Chernov, S.Y.; Chudanov, V.V.; Khoruzhii, O.V.; Yudin, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    Migration of fuel fragments and core fission products during severe accidents on nuclear plants is studied analytically and numerically. The problems of heat transfer and migration of volume heat sources in construction materials and underlying soils are considered

  8. Electrical resistivity tomography for early vadose leak detection under single shell storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narbutovshih, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    This document describes planned testing with Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT). It is prepared in support of TTP RL46WT51 Rev. 1, funded by the Tank Focus Area through the Office of Technology Integration. The primary goal of the testing for fiscal year 1996 (FY96) is to develop and demonstrate the ability to place vertical electrode arrays (VEA) with the cone penetrometer technology (CPT) to depths below existing single shell tanks (SST) at the DOE Hanford Site. It is desirable to have the capability to use CPT for this application for obvious reasons. First, current methods of emplacement, drilled boreholes, are expensive with respect to the rest of the ERT operation. Cone penetrometer VEA emplacements offer the opportunity to significantly reduce installation costs. Second, use of CPT will reduce emplacement time from weeks or months to just several days depending on the number of VEAs and the depth of placement. ERT is preferable to other monitoring methods since operation costs and turn around time are less than the current baselines of either groundwater sampling networks or borehole logging techniques. ERT cost savings can be substantial and will continue into the future. ERT can also provide complete coverage under a tank or other facility which is an important supplement to existing monitoring methods. Groundwater sampling provides one data point per well and borehole logging provides data along a line in the ground. Neither provide information from beneath a facility and thus, are not able to locate release points. These electrode arrays are used to acquire subsurface electrical resistance data in a manner appropriate for tomographic inversion. The resulting tomograms can then be used to detect, monitor and track contaminated moisture plumes leaking from underground storage tanks during waste retrieval operations

  9. Single and multi degree of freedom analysis of steel beams under blast loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassr, Amr A.; Razaqpur, A. Ghani; Tait, Michael J.; Campidelli, Manuel; Foo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Experimentally tested beams under blast are analyzed using SDOF and MDOF models. ► SDOF model adequately captures the time dependant deformations and internal forces. ► Constant DIF based on a low strain rate leads to conservative estimate of the DIF. ► The responses of the test beams are governed by the first mode of vibration. - Abstract: This paper presents detailed analysis of the results of field tests on 13 full scale wide flange steel beams subjected to blast loads generated by the detonation of up to 250 kg of ANFO explosive. The experimental results are analyzed using an equivalent Single-Degree-of-Freedom (SDOF) model of a beam, which includes material nonlinearity and strain rate effects. To account for strain rate effect on beam stiffness and strength, its full moment-curvature response is determined by dividing its cross-section into a number of layers and a strain rate-dependent stress-strain relationship, based on the Cowper–Symonds strain rate model, is used to capture the nonlinear stress distribution over the section. To determine the effects of higher modes of vibration and the variation of beam mechanical properties along its length on its dynamic response, the test beams are also analyzed using a Multi-Degree-of-Freedom (MDOF) model involving beam finite elements. Each element has two nodes and three degrees of freedom and is again divided into a number of layers to capture the strain rate effect and nonlinear stress distribution over its depth. The predicted displacements and strains by the two models are compared with the corresponding experimental data and the results show that for the given beams, the time-dependant deformations, internal forces, and moments can be adequately predicted by either model because the first mode of vibration is found to dominate their response; however, the use of a constant strain rate through the so-called Dynamic Increase Factor (DIF) can lead to highly conservative estimate of the

  10. Characterization of Plant Growth under Single-Wavelength Laser Light Using the Model Plant Arabidopsis Thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Amanda

    2016-12-01

    Indoor horticulture offers a promising solution for sustainable food production and is becoming increasingly widespread. However, it incurs high energy and cost due to the use of artificial lighting such as high-pressure sodium lamps, fluorescent light or increasingly, the light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The energy efficiency and light quality of currently available lighting is suboptimal, therefore less than ideal for sustainable and cost-effective large-scale plant production. Here, we demonstrate the use of high-powered single-wavelength lasers for indoor horticulture. Lasers are highly energy-efficient and can be remotely guided to the site of plant growth, thus reducing on-site heat accumulation. Besides, laser beams can be tailored to match the absorption profiles of different plants. We have developed a prototype laser growth chamber and demonstrate that laser-grown plants can complete a full growth cycle from seed to seed with phenotypes resembling those of plants grown under LEDs. Importantly, the plants have lower expression of proteins diagnostic for light and radiation stress. The phenotypical, biochemical and proteomic data show that the singlewavelength laser light is suitable for plant growth and therefore, potentially able to unlock the advantages of this next generation lighting technology for highly energy-efficient horticulture. Furthermore, stomatal movement partly determines the plant productivity and stress management. Abscisic acid (ABA) induces stomatal closure by promoting net K+-efflux from guard cells through outwardrectifying K+ (K+ out) channels to regulate plant water homeostasis. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana guard cell outward-rectifying K+ (ATGORK) channel is a direct target for ABA in the regulation of stomatal aperture and hence gas exchange and transpiration. Addition of (±)-ABA, but not the biologically inactive (−)-isomer, increases K+ out channel activity in Vicia faba guard cell protoplast. A similar ABA

  11. Effect of long construction times on utility financial requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    It is well-known that long construction times significantly increase the cost of an individual nuclear plant. Long construction times, however, are not confined to either a single plant or a single utility. Rather, they apparently occur in almost all nuclear plants currently under construction. The total financial requirement to complete the 82 nuclear plants currently under construction was assessed. The analysis was performed assuming a construction time of ten years in one case, and six years in another. It was found that decreasing the construction time from ten to six years will reduce the financial requirements of the utility industry by $89 billion

  12. 77 FR 37349 - Amendment of Prohibited Payment Option Under Single-Employer Defined Benefit Plan of Plan Sponsor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... pension plan termination insurance program that is administered by the Pension Benefit Guaranty... pension plans that are covered under the program.\\2\\ If a single-employer plan terminates in a distress... optional form of benefit in these limited circumstances. The legislative history of section 411(d)(6)(B...

  13. 77 FR 66915 - Amendment of Prohibited Payment Option Under Single-Employer Defined Benefit Plan of Plan Sponsor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... ERISA provides for a pension plan termination insurance program that is administered by the Pension... defined benefit pension plans that are covered under the program.\\2\\ If a single-employer plan terminates... circumstances. The legislative history of section 411(d)(6)(B), which was added by section 301(a) of the...

  14. [Construction of haplotype and haplotype block based on tag single nucleotide polymorphisms and their applications in association studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ming-liang; Chu, Jia-you

    2007-12-01

    Human genome has structures of haplotype and haplotype block which provide valuable information on human evolutionary history and may lead to the development of more efficient strategies to identify genetic variants that increase susceptibility to complex diseases. Haplotype block can be divided into discrete blocks of limited haplotype diversity. In each block, a small fraction of ptag SNPsq can be used to distinguish a large fraction of the haplotypes. These tag SNPs can be potentially useful for construction of haplotype and haplotype block, and association studies in complex diseases. There are two general classes of methods to construct haplotype and haplotype blocks based on genotypes on large pedigrees and statistical algorithms respectively. The author evaluate several construction methods to assess the power of different association tests with a variety of disease models and block-partitioning criteria. The advantages, limitations and applications of each method and the application in the association studies are discussed equitably. With the completion of the HapMap and development of statistical algorithms for addressing haplotype reconstruction, ideas of construction of haplotype based on combination of mathematics, physics, and computer science etc will have profound impacts on population genetics, location and cloning for susceptible genes in complex diseases, and related domain with life science etc.

  15. Repression of multiple CYP2D genes in mouse primary hepatocytes with a single siRNA construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elraghy, Omaima; Baldwin, William S

    2015-01-01

    The Cyp2d subfamily is the second most abun-dant subfamily of hepatic drug-metabolizing CYPs. In mice, there are nine Cyp2d members that are believed to have redundant catalytic activity. We are testing and optimizing the ability of one short interfering RNA (siRNA) construct to knockdown the expression of multiple mouse Cyp2ds in primary hepatocytes. Expression of Cyp2d10, Cyp2d11, Cyp2d22, and Cyp2d26 was observed in the primary male mouse hepatocytes. Cyp2d9, which is male-specific and growth hormone-dependent, was not expressed in male primary hepatocytes, potentially because of its dependence on pulsatile growth hormone release from the anterior pituitary. Several different siRNAs at different concentrations and with different reagents were used to knockdown Cyp2d expression. siRNA constructs designed to repress only one construct often mildly repressed several Cyp2d isoforms. A construct designed to knockdown every Cyp2d isoform provided the best results, especially when incubated with transfection reagents designed specifically for primary cell culture. Interestingly, a construct designed to knockdown all Cyp2d isoforms, except Cyp2d10, caused a 2.5× increase in Cyp2d10 expression, presumably because of a compensatory response. However, while RNA expression is repressed 24 h after siRNA treatment, associated changes in Cyp2d-mediated metabolism are tenuous. Overall, this study provides data on the expression of murine Cyp2ds in primary cell lines, valuable information on designing siRNAs for silencing multiple murine CYPs, and potential pros and cons of using siRNA as a tool for repressing Cyp2d and estimating Cyp2d's role in murine xenobiotic metabolism.

  16. Monitoring single-cell gene regulation under dynamically controllable conditions with integrated microfluidics and software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Matthias; Jug, Florian; Julou, Thomas; Deshpande, Siddharth; Pfohl, Thomas; Silander, Olin K; Myers, Gene; van Nimwegen, Erik

    2018-01-15

    Much is still not understood about how gene regulatory interactions control cell fate decisions in single cells, in part due to the difficulty of directly observing gene regulatory processes in vivo. We introduce here a novel integrated setup consisting of a microfluidic chip and accompanying analysis software that enable long-term quantitative tracking of growth and gene expression in single cells. The dual-input Mother Machine (DIMM) chip enables controlled and continuous variation of external conditions, allowing direct observation of gene regulatory responses to changing conditions in single cells. The Mother Machine Analyzer (MoMA) software achieves unprecedented accuracy in segmenting and tracking cells, and streamlines high-throughput curation with a novel leveraged editing procedure. We demonstrate the power of the method by uncovering several novel features of an iconic gene regulatory program: the induction of Escherichia coli's lac operon in response to a switch from glucose to lactose.

  17. Reflectance of Biological Turbid Tissues under Wide Area Illumination: Single Backward Scattering Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guennadi Saiko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various scenarios of light propagation paths in turbid media (single backward scattering, multiple backward scattering, banana shape are discussed and their contributions to reflectance spectra are estimated. It has been found that a single backward or multiple forward scattering quasi-1D paths can be the major contributors to reflected spectra in wide area illumination scenario. Such a single backward scattering (SBS approximation allows developing of an analytical approach which can take into account refractive index mismatched boundary conditions and multilayer geometry and can be used for real-time spectral processing. The SBS approach can be potentially applied for the distances between the transport and reduced scattering domains. Its validation versus the Kubelka-Munk model, path integrals, and diffusion approximation of the radiation transport theory is discussed.

  18. Construction of a laser combiner for dual fluorescent single molecule imaging of pRNA of phi29 DNA packaging motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Shu, Dan; Browne, Mark; Guo, Peixuan

    2010-02-01

    A customized laser combiner was designed and constructed for dual channel single molecule imaging. The feasibility of a combiner-incorporated imaging system was demonstrated in studies of single molecule FRET. Distance rulers made of dual-labeled dsDNA were used to evaluate the system by determining the distance between one FRET pair. The results showed that the system is sensitive enough to distinguish between distances differing by two base pair and the distances calculated from FRET efficiencies are close to those documented in the literature. The single molecule FRET with the dual-color imaging system was also applied to reconstructed phi29 motor pRNA monomers. Finally, techniques for dual laser alignment and tuning of laser power for dual-color excitation are discussed.

  19. Application of single step genomic BLUP under different uncertain paternity scenarios using simulated data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Lara Tonussi

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the application of BLUP and single step genomic BLUP (ssGBLUP models in different scenarios of paternity uncertainty with different strategies of scaling the G matrix to match the A22 matrix, using simulated data for beef cattle. Genotypes, pedigree, and phenotypes for age at first calving (AFC and weight at 550 days (W550 were simulated using heritabilities based on real data (0.12 for AFC and 0.34 for W550. Paternity uncertainty scenarios using 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of multiple sires (MS were studied. The simulated genome had a total length of 2,333 cM, containing 735,293 biallelic markers and 7,000 QTLs randomly distributed over the 29 BTA. It was assumed that QTLs explained 100% of the genetic variance. For QTL, the amount of alleles per loci randomly ranged from two to four. The BLUP model that considers phenotypic and pedigree data, and the ssGBLUP model that combines phenotypic, pedigree and genomic information were used for genetic evaluations. Four ways of scaling the mean of the genomic matrix (G to match to the mean of the pedigree relationship matrix among genotyped animals (A22 were tested. Accuracy, bias, and inflation were investigated for five groups of animals: ALL = all animals; BULL = only bulls; GEN = genotyped animals; FEM = females; and YOUNG = young males. With the BLUP model, the accuracies of genetic evaluations decreased for both traits as the proportion of unknown sires in the population increased. The EBV accuracy reduction was higher for GEN and YOUNG groups. By analyzing the scenarios for YOUNG (from 0 to 100% of MS, the decrease was 87.8 and 86% for AFC and W550, respectively. When applying the ssGBLUP model, the accuracies of genetic evaluation also decreased as the MS in the pedigree for both traits increased. However, the accuracy reduction was less than those observed for BLUP model. Using the same comparison (scenario 0 to 100% of MS, the accuracies reductions

  20. Anisotropy effect of crater formation on single crystal silicon surface under intense pulsed ion beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Yu, Xiao; Zhang, Jie; Zhong, Haowen; Cui, Xiaojun; Liang, Guoying; Yu, Xiang; Huang, Wanying; Shahid, Ijaz; Zhang, Xiaofu; Yan, Sha; Le, Xiaoyun

    2018-04-01

    Due to the induced extremely fast thermal and dynamic process, Intense Pulsed Ion Beam (IPIB) is widely applied in material processing, which can bring enhanced material performance and surface craters as well. To investigate the craters' formation mechanism, a specific model was built with Finite Element Methods (FEM) to simulate the thermal field on irradiated single crystal silicon. The direct evidence for the existence of the simulated 6-fold rotational symmetric thermal distribution was provided by electron microscope images obtained on single crystal silicon. The correlation of the experiment and simulation is of great importance to understand the interaction between IPIB and materials.

  1. JOURNALISTIC IDENTITY AND AUDIENCE PERCEPTIONS: PARADIGM AND MODELS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN THE AFRICAN GREAT LAKES REGIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Soleil Frère

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a research conducted in three African countries (Burundi, Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, focusing on the recent evolution of the journalistic profession and the way journalists are perceived today and represented by members of the audience polled in five localities of the region. In the last twenty years, journalism has been deeply transformed, following the liberalization of the media sector, on one hand, and the murderous civil wars which marked the three countries on the other hand. New formats and new roles have appeared for the media, as well as new professional standards for journalists (codes of ethics, regulations from regulatory authorities, journalists education and training curricula, professional associations, often encouraged by foreign donors and international NGOs. This paper aims at showing that, behind these changes, a new « journalistic paradigm » has taken shape, a consequence of both internal dynamics within the profession and external assignments (imposed by the State and the evolution of the market, and also of new demands emanating from the public. In an unstable political, economic and security context, the changes of the journalistic paradigm have transfigured media content, as well as the perception by the local public of the role that journalists have to play in society, and of what the citizens may expect from them, in a region where democracy is still widely under construction.

  2. Strength and Stability Analysis of a Single Walled Black Phosphorus Tube under Axial Compression

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Kun; Wan, Jing; Wei, Ning; Qin, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Few-layered black phosphorus materials recently attract much attention due to its special electronic properties. As a Consequence, the nano-tube from a single-layer black phosphorus has been theoretically built. The corresponding electronic properties of such black phosphorus nano-tube were also evaluated numerically.

  3. Single shot damage mechanism of Mo/Si multilayer optics under intense pulsed XUV-exposures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khorsand, A.R.; Sobierajski, R.; Louis, Eric; Bruijn, S.; Gleeson, A.; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Gullikson, E.M.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2010-01-01

    We investigated single shot damage of Mo/Si multilayer coatings exposed to the intense fs XUV radiation at the Free-electron LASer facility in Hamburg - FLASH. The interaction process was studied in situ by XUV reflectometry, time resolved optical microscopy, and “post-mortem” by

  4. On the Discrete-Time GeoX/G/1 Queues under N-Policy with Single and Multiple Vacations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung J. Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the discrete-time GeoX/G/1 queue under N-policy with single and multiple vacations. In this queueing system, the server takes multiple vacations and a single vacation whenever the system becomes empty and begins to serve customers only if the queue length is at least a predetermined threshold value N. Using the well-known property of stochastic decomposition, we derive the stationary queue-length distributions for both vacation models in a simple and unified manner. In addition, we derive their busy as well as idle-period distributions. Some classical vacation models are considered as special cases.

  5. Design of a RCT evaluating the (cost- effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention for male construction workers at risk for cardiovascular disease: The Health under Construction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Beek Allard J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of all workers in Dutch construction industry, 20% has an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. A major risk factor for CVD risk is an unhealthy lifestyle. The aim of our study is to design a lifestyle intervention for construction workers with an elevated CVD risk, and to evaluate its (cost- effectiveness. Methods/Design In a RCT, 692 participants will be randomised to either the control or the intervention group. The control group will receive usual care. For the intervention group, a lifestyle intervention has been designed based on interviews and current literature. The intervention will last 6 months and will comprise 3 face-to-face and 4 telephone contacts, consisting of individual counselling aimed at increasing daily physical activity (PA and improving dietary behaviour, and/or smoking cessation. Counselling will take place at the Occupational Health Service (OHS, and will be done according to motivational interviewing (MI. Additional written information about healthy lifestyle will also be provided to those in the intervention group. At baseline, after 6 and after 12 months, measurements will take place. Primary outcome variables will be the lifestyle behaviours of concern, i.e. daily PA, dietary intake, and smoking status. Secondary outcome variables will be body mass index (BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total and HDL blood cholesterol, Hba1c and cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF. Sickness absenteeism and cost-effectiveness will be assessed as well. Multilevel analysis will be performed to compare all outcome measures between the intervention group and the control group. Discussion By improving lifestyle, CVD risk may be lowered, yielding benefits for both employee and employer. If proven effective, this lifestyle intervention will be implemented on a larger scale within the Occupational Health Services in construction industry. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN60545588

  6. Exploring the Relationships Between Independent Listening and Listening-Reading-Writing Tasks in Chinese Language Testing:Toward a Better Understanding of the Construct Underlying Integrated Writing Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xinhua; Li, Xueyan; Yu, Guoxing; Cheong, Choo Mui; Liao, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Integrated assessment tasks have been increasingly used in language tests, but the underlying constructs of integrated tasks remain elusive. This study aimed to improve understanding of the construct of integrated writing tasks in Chinese Language examinations in Hong Kong by looking at the language competences measured in the Listening-Reading-Writing Task and how they relate to the outcome of the Independent Listening Task. The performance of 226 native Chinese Secondary Five students on bo...

  7. Development of a versatile experimental setup for the evaluation of the photocatalytic properties of construction materials under realistic outdoor conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, S; Portela, R; Hernández-Alonso, M D; Sánchez, B

    2014-10-01

    samples at the same time. The suitability of the system for the evaluation of the DeNO x properties of construction elements at realistic outdoor conditions was demonstrated. The designed experimental device can be used 24/7 for testing materials under real fluctuations of NO x concentration, temperature, UV irradiation, and relative humidity and the presence of other outdoor air pollutants such as VOCs, SO x , or NH3. The chamber-based design allows comparing a photocatalytic material with respect to a reference substrate without the photoactive phase, or even the comparison of several outdoor elements at the same time.

  8. Strong field line shapes and photon statistics from a single molecule under anomalous noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanda, Frantisek

    2009-10-01

    We revisit the line-shape theory of a single molecule with anomalous stochastic spectral diffusion. Waiting time profiles for bath induced spectral jumps in the ground and excited states become different when a molecule, probed by continuous-wave laser field, reaches the steady state. This effect is studied for the stationary dichotomic continuous-time-random-walk spectral diffusion of a single two-level chromophore with power-law distributions of waiting times. Correlated waiting time distributions, line shapes, two-point fluorescence correlation function, and Mandel Q parameter are calculated for arbitrary magnitude of laser field. We extended previous weak field results and examined the breakdown of the central limit theorem in photon statistics, indicated by asymptotic power-law growth of Mandel Q parameter. Frequency profile of the Mandel Q parameter identifies the peaks of spectrum, which are related to anomalous spectral diffusion dynamics.

  9. Evaluation of 600V Superjunction Devices in Single Phase PFC Applications under CCM Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Petersen, Lars Press; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper pr esents a power density/efficiency evaluation in single phase power factor correction (PFC) applications operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM). The comparison is based on semiconductor dynamic characterization and a mathematical model for prediction of the conducted electroma......This paper pr esents a power density/efficiency evaluation in single phase power factor correction (PFC) applications operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM). The comparison is based on semiconductor dynamic characterization and a mathematical model for prediction of the conducted...... electromagnetic interference (EMI). The dynamic characterization is based on a low inductive double pulse tester (DPT). The measured switching energy is used in order to evaluate the devices performance in a conventional PFC. This data is used together with the mathematical model for prediction of the conducted...... electromagnetic interference. The method allows comparing different devices and evaluating the performance as a function of the PFC power density and efficiency....

  10. Performance improvement for GPS single frequency kinematic relative positioning under poor satellite visibility

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wantong

    2016-01-01

    Reliable ambiguity resolution in difficult environments such as during setting/rising events of satellites or during limited satellite visibility is a significant challenge for GPS single frequency kinematic relative positioning. Here, a recursive estimation method combining both code and carrier phase measurements was developed that can tolerate recurrent satellite setting/rising and accelerate initialization in motion. We propose an ambiguity dimension expansion method by utilizing the part...

  11. Biomechanical comparison of two locking plate constructs under cyclic torsional loading in a fracture gap model. Two screws versus three screws per fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilmont, A; Palierne, S; Verset, M; Swider, P; Autefage, A

    2015-01-01

    The number of locking screws required per fragment during bridging osteosynthesis in the dog has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to assess the survival of two constructs, with either two or three screws per fragment, under cyclic torsion. Ten-hole 3.5 mm stainless steel locking compression plates (LCP) were fixed 1 mm away from bone surrogates with a fracture gap of 47 mm using two bicortical locking screws (10 constructs) or three bicortical locking screws (10 constructs) per fragment, placed at the extremities of each LCP. Constructs were tested in cyclic torsion (range: 0 to +0.218 rad) until failure. The 3-screws constructs (29.65 ± 1.89 N.m/rad) were stiffer than the 2-screws constructs (23.73 ± 0.87 N.m/rad), and therefore, were subjected to a greater torque during cycling (6.05 ± 1.33 N.m and 4.88 ± 1.14 N.m respectively). The 3-screws constructs sustained a significantly greater number of cycles (20,700 ± 5,735 cycles) than the 2-screws constructs (15,600 ± 5,272 cycles). In most constructs, failure was due to screw damage at the junction of the shaft and head. The remaining constructs failed because of screw head unlocking, sometimes due to incomplete seating of the screw head prior to testing. Omitting the third innermost locking screw during bridging osteosynthesis led to a reduction in fatigue life of 25% and construct stiffness by 20%. Fracture of the screws is believed to occur sequentially, starting with the innermost screw that initially shields the other screws.

  12. Experimental research on single-phase heat transfer characteristics in a vertical circular tube under marine conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Sijia; Zhang Hong; Jia Baoshan

    2011-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted to study the heat transfer characteristics of single-phase forced circulation when the test tube was under different marine conditions. The experiments measured the wall temperature of test tube to calculate the heat transfer coefficients at different circumferential places. When the test tube was under inclined conditions, the heat transfer coefficient increased at downside and decreased at upside of test tube because of buoyancy effect. When the test tube was under rolling conditions, the heat transfer coefficients fluctuated with the rolling motions, and the Coriolis force dominated the heat transfer fluctuation during the rolling motion. CFD method was used to simulate the heat transfer phenomena under marine conditions, and the results were accord to the experimental phenomena. (authors)

  13. The baboon model under anaesthesia for in vivo cerebral blood flow studies using single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dormehl, I.; Redelinghuys, F.; Hugo, N. [Pretoria Univ. (South Africa); Oliver, D.; Pilloy, W. [Medical Univ. of Southern Africa (MEDUNSA), Pretoria (South Africa)

    1992-12-31

    Single photon computed tomography of the brain can be useful in animal experimentation directed towards cerebral conditions. A well established and understood baboon model, necessarily under anaesthesia, could especially be valuable in such investigations. Six normal baboons were studied under various anesthetic agents and their combinations: ketamine, thiopentone, pentobarbitone and halothane. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) studies were performed with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO. CBF effects from various anaesthesia were detected, requiring careful choice of the anaesthesia for cerebral investigations. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs.

  14. The baboon model under anaesthesia for in vivo cerebral blood flow studies using single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormehl, I.; Redelinghuys, F.; Hugo, N.; Oliver, D.; Pilloy, W.

    1992-01-01

    Single photon computed tomography of the brain can be useful in animal experimentation directed towards cerebral conditions. A well established and understood baboon model, necessarily under anaesthesia, could especially be valuable in such investigations. Six normal baboons were studied under various anesthetic agents and their combinations: ketamine, thiopentone, pentobarbitone and halothane. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) studies were performed with 99m Tc-HMPAO. CBF effects from various anaesthesia were detected, requiring careful choice of the anaesthesia for cerebral investigations. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  15. Perpetual American vanilla option pricing under single regime change risk: an exhaustive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Miquel

    2009-07-01

    Perpetual American options are financial instruments that can be readily exercised and do not mature. In this paper we study in detail the problem of pricing this kind of derivatives, for the most popular flavour, within a framework in which some of the properties—volatility and dividend policy—of the underlying stock can change at a random instant of time but in such a way that we can forecast their final values. Under this assumption we can model actual market conditions because most relevant facts usually entail sharp predictable consequences. The effect of this potential risk on perpetual American vanilla options is remarkable: the very equation that will determine the fair price depends on the solution to be found. Sound results are found under the optics both of finance and physics. In particular, a parallelism among the overall outcome of this problem and a phase transition is established.

  16. Construction of a Single Chain Variable Fragment Antibody (scFv) against Carbaryl and Its Interaction with Carbaryl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiuyuan, Zhang; Zhihong, Huang; Lixia, Wang; Xiaonan, Liu

    2015-05-01

    Carbaryl is a low molecular weight insecticide that inhibits cholinesterase. Residues of carbaryl in food and the environment have damaged human health. A high-specificity scFv that can identify carbaryl is still lacking. In the present study, an anti-carbaryl scFv gene was prepared by cloning VL and VH genes from hybridoma cells secreting monoclonal antibody, then VH and VL were fused together using splicing by overlap extension (SOE) PCR with a flexible polypeptide linker connector (Gly4Ser)3, and then the scFv-pET-26b recombinant plasmid was constructed and transformed into E. coli BL21 for expression using IPTG as an inducer. The expressed recombinant protein was identified by SDS-PAGE and ELISA. The three-dimensional structure of the anti-carbaryl scFv was constructed by computer modeling, and carbaryl was docked to the scFv model to obtain the structure of the binding complex. The binding site was composed of Ala51, Ser52, Ile51, Gly54, Ser56, Arg98, and Gly100. This helps to understand the mechanism of interaction between anti-carbaryl antibody and antigen. Furthermore, it provides guidance for in vitro affinity maturation of anti-carbaryl antibody.

  17. Managing health expenditure inflation under a single-payer system: Taiwan's National Health Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Winnie C; Lee, Yue-Chune; Tsai, Shu-Ling; Chen, Bradley

    2017-11-16

    As nations strive to achieve and sustain universal health coverage (UHC), they seek answers as to what health system structures are more effective in managing health expenditure inflation. A fundamental macro-level choice a nation has to make is whether to adopt a single- or a multiple-payer health system. Using Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) as a case, this paper examines how a single-payer system manages its health expenditure growth and draws lessons for other countries whose socioeconomic development is similar to Taiwan's. Our analyses show that as a single payer, Taiwan's NHI is able to exercise its monopsony power to manage its health expenditure growth. This is achieved primarily through the adoption of a system-wide global budget. The global budget sets a hard aggregate budget cap to limit NHI's total spending to its expected revenue, with the annual budget growth rate established by a process of negotiation among key stakeholders. The global budget system is complemented by comprehensive and continuous monitoring and review of encounter records of all providers and patients, enabled by the NHI's advanced information technology. However, by paying its providers using a point-based fee schedule, Taiwan's NHI suffers from inefficient service provision. In particular, providers have incentives to increase use of services and drugs with positive profit margins. Furthermore, Taiwan demonstrates that its control of NHI expenditure growth might be leading it to inadequately meet the changing needs of the population, resulting in the rapid growth of private insurance to cover services excluded or not fully covered by the NHI. If this trend persists and results in a two-tier system, Taiwan's NHI may risk compromising the equity it has achieved in the past two decades. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Restorability on 3-connected WDM Networks Under Single and Dual Physical Link Failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Jensen, Michael; Riaz, Tahir

    2013-01-01

    This work studies the influence the network interconnection has over restoration techniques. The way physical links are distributed to interconnect network nodes has a great impact on parameters such as path distances when failures occur and restoration is applied. The work focuses on single and ...... to network planning, the trade-off network length vs. performance of the different topological options is studied. The results show how 3-connected graphs could provide a reasonable trade-off between costs, link failure rates, and restored path parameters....

  19. GROWTH RATE DISTRIBUTION OF BORAX SINGLE CRYSTALS ON THE (001 FACE UNDER VARIOUS FLOW RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharso Suharso

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth rates of borax single crystals from aqueous solutions at various flow rates in the (001 direction were measured using in situ cell method. From the growth rate data obtained, the growth rate distribution of borax crystals was investigated using Minitab Software and SPSS Software at relative supersaturation of 0807 and temperature of 25 °C. The result shows that normal, gamma, and log-normal distribution give a reasonably good fit to GRD. However, there is no correlation between growth rate distribution and flow rate of solution.   Keywords: growth rate dispersion (GRD, borax, flow rate

  20. Dielectric behavior and phase transition in [111]-oriented PIN–PMN–PT single crystals under dc bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhui Wan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and electric field dependences of the dielectric behavior and phase transition for [111]-oriented 0.23PIN–0.52PMN–0.25PT (PIN-PMN–0.25PT and 0.24PIN–0.43PMN–0.33PT (PIN–PMN–0.33PT single crystals were investigated over a temperature range from -100°C to 250°C using field-heating (FH dielectric measurements. The transition phenomenon from ferroelectric microdomain to macrodomain was found in rhombohedra (R phase region in the single crystals under dc bias. This transition temperature Tf of micro-to-macrodomain is sensitive to dc bias and move quickly to lower temperature with increasing dc bias. The phase transition temperatures in the two single crystals shift toward high temperature and the dielectric permittivities at the phase transition temperature decrease with increasing dc bias. Especially, the phase transition peaks are gradually broad in PIN–PMN–0.33PT single crystal with the increasing dc bias. Effects of dc bias on the dielectric behavior and phase transition in PIN–PMN–PT single crystals are discussed.

  1. EXAFS investigations on PbMoO4 single crystals grown under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements on PbMoO4 (LMO) crystals have been performed at the recently-commissioned dispersive EXAFS beamline (BL-8) of INDUS-2 Synchrotron facility at Indore, India. The LMO samples were prepared under three different conditions viz. (i) grown from ...

  2. Single Pixel Characterization of X-Ray TES Microcalorimeter Under AC Bias at MHz Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardi, L.; Blandler, S. R.; Porter, F. S.; Sadleir, J. E.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Bailey, C. N.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Chervenak, J. A.; Adams, J. S.; Eckart, M. E.; hide

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the progress made at SRON in the read-out of GSFC x-ray transition-edge sensor (TES) micro-calorimeters in the frequency domain. The experiments reported so far, whose aim was to demonstrate an energy resolution of 2eV at 6 keV with a TES acting as a modulator, were carried out at frequencies below 700 kHz using a standard flux locked loop (FLL) SQUID read-out scheme. The TES read-out suffered from the use of sub-optimal circuit components, large parasitic inductances, low quality factor resonators and poor magnetic field shielding. We have developed a novel experimental set-up, which allows us to test several read-out schemes in a single cryogenic run. In this set-up, the TES pixels are coupled via superconducting transformers to 18 high-Q lithographic LC filters with resonant frequencies ranging between 2 and 5 MHz. The signal is amplified by a two-stage SQUID current sensor and baseband feedback is used to overcome the limited SQUID dynamic range. We study the single pixel performance as a function of TES bias frequency, voltage and perpendicular magnetic field.

  3. Study on Single-yarn Pullout Test of Ballistic Resistant Fabric under Different Preloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Q. C.; Lei, Z. K.; Y Qin, F.; Li, W. K.; Bai, R. X.

    2017-12-01

    During bullet penetrating fabric, the pull-out force of yarn in fabric is related to the impact resistance of fabric when the yarn is pulled out from the fabric. The complex uncrimping and friction slip behavior occur during the yarn pullout process, which is critical to learn the impact resistance of fabric. Based on digital image correlation technique, the deformation behavior of Kevlar 49 fabric subjected to preload during the single-yarn pullout process was studied in this paper. The pullout force and displacement curve shows a straight rise and an oscillated decrease. In the linear rise stage, the yarn uncrimping causes a static friction effect. The maximum of the pullout force is not linearly increased with the preload. In the oscillating descending stage, the local descent of the pullout force indicates that the yarn end is gradually withdrawn from the fabric, and the local rise indicates that the yarn end moves to the next weft/warp interaction until the yarn is completely pulled out. The shear deformation of fabric corresponds to the single-yarn pullout process.

  4. Single-crystal neutron diffraction under high pressures: valence instabilities in Tm monochalcogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignot, J.-M.; Goncharenko, I.N.; Link, P.; Matsumura, T.; Suzuki, T.

    2000-01-01

    New high-pressure devices based on the use of sapphire anvils now allow single-crystal neutron diffraction experiments to be performed up to P=8-10 GPa. After giving a brief overview of the technique, we present its application to the study of pressure-induced valence instabilities in Tm monochalcogenides (TmX, X: S, Se, Te). A variety of new magnetic phases have been characterized, yielding a consistent picture of the evolution of magnetism through the series. The results indicate a striking interplay between magnetic order taking place at low temperature and different types of electronic ground states (classical semiconductor, narrow-gap Kondo insulator, metallic Kondo lattice, etc.) inferred from the transport properties

  5. Performance improvement for GPS single frequency kinematic relative positioning under poor satellite visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wantong

    2016-01-01

    Reliable ambiguity resolution in difficult environments such as during setting/rising events of satellites or during limited satellite visibility is a significant challenge for GPS single frequency kinematic relative positioning. Here, a recursive estimation method combining both code and carrier phase measurements was developed that can tolerate recurrent satellite setting/rising and accelerate initialization in motion. We propose an ambiguity dimension expansion method by utilizing the partial ambiguity relevance of previous and current observations. In essence, this method attempts to integrate all useful information into the recursive estimation equation and performs a better least squares adjustment. Using this method, the success rate of the extended ambiguity estimation is independent of the satellite setting and shows robust performance despite poor satellite visibility. Our model allows integration of other useful information into the recursive process. Actual experiments in urban environments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can improve the reliability and availability of relative positioning.

  6. Evaluation of single implants placed in the posterior mandibular area under immediate loading: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, L G C; Monnazzi, M S; Piveta, A C G; Gabrielli, M A C; Gabrielli, M F R; Pereira Filho, V A

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival of single dental implants subjected to immediate function. Twelve patients with edentulous areas in the posterior mandible were included in the study. All received at least one regular platform dental implant (3.75mm×11mm or 3.75mm×13mm). Clinical and radiographic parameters were evaluated. The survival rate after 12 months was 83.3%. The implants showed no clinical mobility, had implant stability quotient values (ISQ; Osstell) around 70, bone loss of up to 2mm, and a probing depth of ≤3mm. Although the posterior mandible is an area in which the immediate loading of dental implants should be performed with caution, this treatment presented a good success rate in the present study sample. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pilot-scale comparison of constructed wetlands operated under high hydraulicloading rates and attached biofilm reactors for domestic wastewater treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountoulakis, M.S.; Terzakis, S.; Chatzinotas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Four different pilot-scale treatment units were constructed to compare the feasibility of treating domestic wastewater in the City of Heraklio, Crete, Greece: (a) a freewater surface (FWS) wetland system, (b) a horizontal subsurface flow (HSF) wetland system, (c) a rotating biological contactor (......-conventional wastewater treatment system depends on the construction and operation cost, the area demand and the required quality of effluent.......Four different pilot-scale treatment units were constructed to compare the feasibility of treating domestic wastewater in the City of Heraklio, Crete, Greece: (a) a freewater surface (FWS) wetland system, (b) a horizontal subsurface flow (HSF) wetland system, (c) a rotating biological contactor...... units) and higher in HSF and RBC (2.3 to 2.6 log units). HSF showed slightly lower but comparable effluent quality to that of RBC and PBF systems, but the construction cost and energy requirements for this system are significantly lower. Overall the final decision for the best non...

  8. Towards Unifying OpenMP Under the Task-Parallel Paradigm Implementation and Performance of the taskloop Construct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podobas, Artur; Karlsson, Sven

    2016-01-01

    OpenMP 4.5 introduced a task-parallel version of the classical thread-parallel for-loop construct: the taskloop construct. With this new construct, programmers are given the opportunity to choose between the two parallel paradigms to parallelize their for loops. However, it is unclear where...... and when the two approaches should be used when writing efficient parallel applications.In this paper, we explore the taskloop construct. We study performance differences between traditional thread-parallel for loops and the new taskloop directive. We introduce an efficient implementation and compare our...... implementation to other taskloop implementations using micro-and kernel-benchmarks, as well as an application. We show that our taskloop implementation on average results in a 3.2% increase in peak performance when compared against corresponding parallel-for loops....

  9. Testing and evaluation of a slot and tab construction technique for light-weight wood-fiber-based structural panels under bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinghao Li; John F. Hunt; Shaoqin Gong; Zhiyong Cai

    2015-01-01

    This paper presented construction and strain distributions for light-weight wood-fiber-based structural panels with tri-grid core made from phenolic impregnated laminated paper composites under bending. A new fastening configuration of slots in the faces and tabs on the core was applied to the face/core interfaces of the sandwich panel in addition to epoxy resin. Both...

  10. Measuring Medical Students' Empathy : Exploring the Underlying Constructs of and Associations Between Two Widely Used Self-Report Instruments in Five Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, Patrício; de Carvalho-Filho, Marco Antonio; Schweller, Marcelo; Thiemann, Pia; Salgueira, Ana; Benson, John; Costa, Manuel João; Quince, Thelma

    PURPOSE: Understanding medical student empathy is important to future patient care; however, the definition and development of clinical empathy remain unclear. The authors sought to examine the underlying constructs of two of the most widely used self-report instruments-Davis's Interpersonal

  11. Physical scale modeling of single free head piles under lateral loading in cohesive soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Leonardo Salamanca-Medina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the small scale modeling of free head wood piles under horizontal loading in cohesive soils, tested in order to compare the results with analytical models proposed by various authors. Characteristic Load (CLM and P-Y Curves methods were used for the prediction of lateral deflections at the head of the piles and the method proposed by Broms for estimating the ultimate lateral load. These predictions were compared with the results of the physical modeling, obtaining a good approximation between them.

  12. Rational Design of High-Number dsDNA Fragments Based on Thermodynamics for the Construction of Full-Length Genes in a Single Reaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagyashree S Birla

    Full Text Available Gene synthesis is frequently used in modern molecular biology research either to create novel genes or to obtain natural genes when the synthesis approach is more flexible and reliable than cloning. DNA chemical synthesis has limits on both its length and yield, thus full-length genes have to be hierarchically constructed from synthesized DNA fragments. Gibson Assembly and its derivatives are the simplest methods to assemble multiple double-stranded DNA fragments. Currently, up to 12 dsDNA fragments can be assembled at once with Gibson Assembly according to its vendor. In practice, the number of dsDNA fragments that can be assembled in a single reaction are much lower. We have developed a rational design method for gene construction that allows high-number dsDNA fragments to be assembled into full-length genes in a single reaction. Using this new design method and a modified version of the Gibson Assembly protocol, we have assembled 3 different genes from up to 45 dsDNA fragments at once. Our design method uses the thermodynamic analysis software Picky that identifies all unique junctions in a gene where consecutive DNA fragments are specifically made to connect to each other. Our novel method is generally applicable to most gene sequences, and can improve both the efficiency and cost of gene assembly.

  13. Rational Design of High-Number dsDNA Fragments Based on Thermodynamics for the Construction of Full-Length Genes in a Single Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birla, Bhagyashree S; Chou, Hui-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Gene synthesis is frequently used in modern molecular biology research either to create novel genes or to obtain natural genes when the synthesis approach is more flexible and reliable than cloning. DNA chemical synthesis has limits on both its length and yield, thus full-length genes have to be hierarchically constructed from synthesized DNA fragments. Gibson Assembly and its derivatives are the simplest methods to assemble multiple double-stranded DNA fragments. Currently, up to 12 dsDNA fragments can be assembled at once with Gibson Assembly according to its vendor. In practice, the number of dsDNA fragments that can be assembled in a single reaction are much lower. We have developed a rational design method for gene construction that allows high-number dsDNA fragments to be assembled into full-length genes in a single reaction. Using this new design method and a modified version of the Gibson Assembly protocol, we have assembled 3 different genes from up to 45 dsDNA fragments at once. Our design method uses the thermodynamic analysis software Picky that identifies all unique junctions in a gene where consecutive DNA fragments are specifically made to connect to each other. Our novel method is generally applicable to most gene sequences, and can improve both the efficiency and cost of gene assembly.

  14. Single Phase Natural Circulation Behaviors of the Integral Type Marine Reactor Simulator under Rolling Motion Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou-jun Gong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During operation in the sea the reactor natural circulation behaviors are affected by ship rolling motion. The development of an analysis code and the natural circulation behaviors of a reactor simulator under rolling motion are described in this paper. In the case of rolling motion, the primary coolant flow rates in the hot legs and heating channels oscillated periodically, and the amplitude of flow rate oscillation was in direct proportion to rolling amplitude, but in inverse proportion to rolling period. The total mass flow rate also oscillated with half the rolling period, and the average total mass flow rate was less than that in steady state. In the natural circulation under a rolling motion, the flow rate oscillations in the hot legs were controlled by the tangential force; however, the mass flow rate oscillations in the total natural circulation and the heating channels were a result of the combined action of the change of inclination angle, flow resistance, and the extra force arising from the rolling motion. The extra tangential force brought about intense flow rate oscillations in the hot legs, which resulted in increasing total flow resistance; however the extra centrifugal force played a role in increasing thermal driving head.

  15. Versatile Gap Mode Plasmon under ATR Geometry towards Single Molecule Raman, Laser Trapping and Photocatalytic Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futamata, Masayuki; Akai, Keitaro; Iida, Chiaki; Akiba, Natsumi

    2017-01-01

    We have investigated various aspects of a gap mode plasmon to establish it as an analytical tool. First, markedly large (10 7 - 10 9 ) enhancement factors for the Raman scattering intensity from a thiophenol (TP) monolayer sandwiched by Ag films on a prism and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were obtained under attenuated total reflection (ATR) geometry. Second, AgNPs with a radius of ∼20 nm were optically trapped and immobilized on TP-covered Ag films under a gap mode resonance with extremely weak laser power density of ∼1 μW/μm 2 at 532 nm. The observed optical trapping and immobilization were theoretically rationalized using a dipole-dipole coupling and van der Waals interaction between AgNPs and Ag films. Third, p-alkyl TP molecules such as p-methyl TP, p-ethyl TP, p-isopropyl TP, and p-tertiary butyl TP were photocatalytically oxidized into p-carboxyl TP, whereas o- and m-methyl TP did not show such reactions.

  16. Frequency-feedback tuning for single-cell cavity under rf heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepp, J.D.; Bridges, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    A tuning system is described that is being used to match the source frequency of a high-power klystron on the resonant frequency of the prototype single-cell cavity for the 7-GeV Advance Photon Source (APS) storage ring. Typically a water-cooled piston tuner is required to adjust the reactive component of the cavity's impedance to minimize reflected power back to the RF drive source. As the cavity watts expand due to RF heating, the resonant frequency decreases. Adjusting the source frequency to follow the cavity resonant frequency is a convenient method used to condition the cavity (for vacuum) at high power levels, in this case, 1 MV gap voltage at 100 kW power level. The tuning system consists of two coupling ports, a phase detector, a digitizing I/O system, and a DC coupled FM-modulated RF source. Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) loop parameters for the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) software are calculated, and data is presented showing the damped response to peturbations on the loop. The timing system presented here does not need water-cooling, has no moving parts to wear out, and has an inherently faster response time. Its one limitation is the digitizing sampling rate. The only limitation in tuning range is the bandwidth of the RF source

  17. Sustainable Assessment of Alternative Sites for the Construction of a Waste Incineration Plant by Applying WASPAS Method with Single-Valued Neutrosophic Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundas Kazimieras Zavadskas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The principles of sustainability have become particularly important in the construction, real estate maintenance sector, and all areas of life in recent years. The one of the major problem of urban territories that domestic and construction waste of generated products cannot be removed automatically. The above necessity induces the demand of systems and technologies for waste life cycle and proper disposal development. Siting of the waste incineration plant is a complex process, which includes all factors of sustainability principles. The selection of the construction area is a complex problem due to the existence of different tangible and intangible factors and the multiple alternatives available. Multicriteria decision-making methods (MCDM present powerful and flexible techniques for the solution of many sustainability problems. In this paper, we propose a new extension of WASPAS method, namely WASPAS-SVNS. This extension is realized in the framework of the single-valued neutrosophic set that enables to represent and model the indeterminacy explicitly and the functions of the truth-membership, the indeterminacy-membership and the falsity-membership are not related to each other. The paper deals with the solution of the waste incineration plant siting problem due to the requirements of sustainability factors.

  18. Coloration dependence in the thermoluminescence properties of the double doped NaCl single crystals under gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Mejorada, G.; Gelover-Santiago, A.L.; Frias, D.

    2006-01-01

    In this work the behaviour of calcium manganese doped NaCl single crystals under gamma irradiation is reported. Various single crystals of NaCl doped with Ca and Mn have been irradiated at different doses with ionising radiation. The production of defects has been correlated to the increase in the intensity of the thermo luminescent glow curve as a function of doses. The glow curves intensity as a function of doses shows the potential use of these materials as dosimeters. Optical properties of such crystals after irradiation with gamma rays have also been studied; results have shown their potentiality as a good detector and optical store memory devices. Since the creations of colour centres by photons with energy less than the band gap energy has been detected also in ns 2 -ion doped alkali halides. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Power Based Phase-Locked Loop Under Adverse Conditions with Moving Average Filter for Single-Phase System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menxi Xie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High performance synchronization methord is citical for grid connected power converter. For single-phase system, power based phase-locked loop(pPLL uses a multiplier as phase detector(PD. As single-phase grid voltage is distorted, the phase error information contains ac disturbances oscillating at integer multiples of fundamental frequency which lead to detection error. This paper presents a new scheme based on moving average filter(MAF applied in-loop of pPLL. The signal characteristic of phase error is dissussed in detail. A predictive rule is adopted to compensate the delay induced by MAF, thus achieving fast dynamic response. In the case of frequency deviate from nomimal, estimated frequency is fed back to adjust the filter window length of MAF and buffer size of predictive rule. Simulation and experimental results show that proposed PLL achieves good performance under adverse grid conditions.

  20. Lattice distortion under an electric field in BaTiO3 piezoelectric single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazaki, Ryoko; Fu Desheng; Daimon, Masahiro; Koshihara, Shin-ya; Itoh, Mitsuru

    2009-01-01

    Lattice distortions under an electric field in a mono-domain of BaTiO 3 ferroelectric crystal have been detected with synchrotron x-ray radiation. The variation of the lattice constant with an electric field observed with high angle diffraction shows a linear response nature of the piezoelectric effect. When an electric field is applied along the spontaneous polarization direction, the c-axis of the lattice elongates and the a-axis of the lattice shrinks at a rate of d 33 = 149 ± 54 pm V -1 and d 31 = -82 ± 61 pm V -1 ; these represent the longitudinal and transverse piezoelectric coefficients of BaTiO 3 crystal, respectively. These results give an insight into the intrinsic piezoelectric response on the lattice scale in BaTiO 3 that has been widely used to explore high performance lead-free piezoelectric alloys.

  1. Single- and multi-pulse formation of surface structures under static femtosecond irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillermin, M.; Garrelie, F.; Sanner, N.; Audouard, E.; Soder, H.

    2007-07-01

    Femtosecond surface structure modifications are investigated under irradiation with laser pulses of 150 fs at 800 nm, on copper and silicon. We report sub-wavelength periodic structures formation (ripples) with a periodicity of 500 nm for both materials. These ripples are perpendicular to the laser polarization and can be obtained with only one pulse. The formation of these ripples corresponds to a fluence threshold of 1 J/cm 2 for copper and 0.15 J/cm 2 for silicon. We find several morphologies when more pulses are applied: larger ripples parallel to the polarization are formed with a periodicity of 1 μm and degenerate into a worm-like morphology with a higher number of pulses. In addition, walls of deep holes also show sub-wavelength and large ripples.

  2. Using sea surface temperatures to improve performance of single dynamical downscaling model in flood simulation under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Y.; Cheng, C. T.; Hsiao, Y. H.; Hsu, C. T.; Yeh, K. C.; Liu, P. L.

    2017-12-01

    There are 5.3 typhoons hit Taiwan per year on average in last decade. Typhoon Morakot in 2009, the most severe typhoon, causes huge damage in Taiwan, including 677 casualties and roughly NT 110 billion (3.3 billion USD) in economic loss. Some researches documented that typhoon frequency will decrease but increase in intensity in western North Pacific region. It is usually preferred to use high resolution dynamical model to get better projection of extreme events; because coarse resolution models cannot simulate intense extreme events. Under that consideration, dynamical downscaling climate data was chosen to describe typhoon satisfactorily, this research used the simulation data from AGCM of Meteorological Research Institute (MRI-AGCM). Considering dynamical downscaling methods consume massive computing power, and typhoon number is very limited in a single model simulation, using dynamical downscaling data could cause uncertainty in disaster risk assessment. In order to improve the problem, this research used four sea surfaces temperatures (SSTs) to increase the climate change scenarios under RCP 8.5. In this way, MRI-AGCMs project 191 extreme typhoons in Taiwan (when typhoon center touches 300 km sea area of Taiwan) in late 21th century. SOBEK, a two dimensions flood simulation model, was used to assess the flood risk under four SSTs climate change scenarios in Tainan, Taiwan. The results show the uncertainty of future flood risk assessment is significantly decreased in Tainan, Taiwan in late 21th century. Four SSTs could efficiently improve the problems of limited typhoon numbers in single model simulation.

  3. Single Molecular Level Probing of Structure and Dynamics of Papain Under Denaturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Bhaswati; Chaudhury, Apala; Das, Nilimesh; Sen, Pratik

    2017-01-01

    Papain is a cysteine protease enzyme present in papaya and known to help in digesting peptide. Thus the structure and function of the active site of papain is of interest. The objective of present study is to unveil the overall structural transformation and the local structural change around the active site of papain as a function of chemical denaturant. Papain has been tagged at Cys-25 with a thiol specific fluorescence probe N-(7- dimethylamino-4-methylcoumarin-3-yl) iodoacetamide (DACIA). Guanidine hydrochloride (GnHCl) has been used as the chemical denaturant. Steady state, time-resolved, and single molecular level fluorescence techniques was applied to map the change in the local environment. It is found that papain undergoes a two-step denaturation in the presence of GnHCl. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopic (FCS) data indicate that the size (hydrodynamic diameter) of native papain is ~36.8 Å, which steadily increases to ~53 Å in the presence of 6M GnHCl. FCS study also reveals that the conformational fluctuation time of papain is 6.3 µs in its native state, which decreased to 2.7 µs in the presence of 0.75 M GnHCl. Upon further increase in GnHCl concentration the conformational fluctuation time increase monotonically till 6 M GnHCl, where the time constant is measured as 14 µs. On the other hand, the measurement of ellipticity, hence the helical structure, by circular dichroism spectroscopy is found to be incapable to capture such structural transformation. It is concluded that in the presence of small amount of GnHCl the active site of papain takes up a more compact structure (although the overall size increases) than in the native state, which has been designated as the intermediate state. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Single-Column Model Simulations of Subtropical Marine Boundary-Layer Cloud Transitions Under Weakening Inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neggers, R. A. J.; Ackerman, A. S.; Angevine, W. M.; Bazile, E.; Beau, I.; Blossey, P. N.; Boutle, I. A.; de Bruijn, C.; Cheng, A.; van der Dussen, J.; Fletcher, J.; Dal Gesso, S.; Jam, A.; Kawai, H.; Cheedela, S. K.; Larson, V. E.; Lefebvre, M.-P.; Lock, A. P.; Meyer, N. R.; de Roode, S. R.; de Rooy, W.; Sandu, I.; Xiao, H.; Xu, K.-M.

    2017-10-01

    Results are presented of the GASS/EUCLIPSE single-column model intercomparison study on the subtropical marine low-level cloud transition. A central goal is to establish the performance of state-of-the-art boundary-layer schemes for weather and climate models for this cloud regime, using large-eddy simulations of the same scenes as a reference. A novelty is that the comparison covers four different cases instead of one, in order to broaden the covered parameter space. Three cases are situated in the North-Eastern Pacific, while one reflects conditions in the North-Eastern Atlantic. A set of variables is considered that reflects key aspects of the transition process, making use of simple metrics to establish the model performance. Using this method, some longstanding problems in low-level cloud representation are identified. Considerable spread exists among models concerning the cloud amount, its vertical structure, and the associated impact on radiative transfer. The sign and amplitude of these biases differ somewhat per case, depending on how far the transition has progressed. After cloud breakup the ensemble median exhibits the well-known "too few too bright" problem. The boundary-layer deepening rate and its state of decoupling are both underestimated, while the representation of the thin capping cloud layer appears complicated by a lack of vertical resolution. Encouragingly, some models are successful in representing the full set of variables, in particular, the vertical structure and diurnal cycle of the cloud layer in transition. An intriguing result is that the median of the model ensemble performs best, inspiring a new approach in subgrid parameterization.

  5. HOT DUST OBSCURED GALAXIES WITH EXCESS BLUE LIGHT: DUAL AGN OR SINGLE AGN UNDER EXTREME CONDITIONS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assef, R. J.; Diaz-Santos, T. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Walton, D. J.; Brightman, M. [Space Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Tsai, C.-W. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-236, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Alexander, D. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Bauer, F. [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Blain, A. W. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, 1 University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Finkelstein, S. L. [The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Hickox, R. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Wu, J. W., E-mail: roberto.assef@mail.udp.cl [UCLA Astronomy, P.O. Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2016-03-10

    Hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) are a population of hyper-luminous infrared galaxies identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission from their very red mid-IR colors, and characterized by hot dust temperatures (T > 60 K). Several studies have shown clear evidence that the IR emission in these objects is powered by a highly dust-obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) that shows close to Compton-thick absorption at X-ray wavelengths. Thanks to the high AGN obscuration, the host galaxy is easily observable, and has UV/optical colors usually consistent with those of a normal galaxy. Here we discuss a sub-population of eight Hot DOGs that show enhanced rest-frame UV/optical emission. We discuss three scenarios that might explain the excess UV emission: (i) unobscured light leaked from the AGN by reflection over the dust or by partial coverage of the accretion disk; (ii) a second unobscured AGN in the system; or (iii) a luminous young starburst. X-ray observations can help discriminate between these scenarios. We study in detail the blue excess Hot DOG WISE J020446.13–050640.8, which was serendipitously observed by Chandra/ACIS-I for 174.5 ks. The X-ray spectrum is consistent with a single, hyper-luminous, highly absorbed AGN, and is strongly inconsistent with the presence of a secondary unobscured AGN. Based on this, we argue that the excess blue emission in this object is most likely either due to reflection or a co-eval starburst. We favor the reflection scenario as the unobscured star formation rate needed to power the UV/optical emission would be ≳1000 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. Deep polarimetry observations could confirm the reflection hypothesis.

  6. Common single nucleotide variants underlying drug addiction: more than a decade of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Kora-Mareen; Giné, Elena; Echeverry-Alzate, Victor; Calleja-Conde, Javier; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodriguez; López-Moreno, Jose Antonio

    2015-09-01

    Drug-related phenotypes are common complex and highly heritable traits. In the last few years, candidate gene (CGAS) and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a huge number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with drug use, abuse or dependence, mainly related to alcohol or nicotine. Nevertheless, few of these associations have been replicated in independent studies. The aim of this study was to provide a review of the SNPs that have been most significantly associated with alcohol-, nicotine-, cannabis- and cocaine-related phenotypes in humans between the years of 2000 and 2012. To this end, we selected CGAS, GWAS, family-based association and case-only studies published in peer-reviewed international scientific journals (using the PubMed/MEDLINE and Addiction GWAS Resource databases) in which a significant association was reported. A total of 371 studies fit the search criteria. We then filtered SNPs with at least one replication study and performed meta-analysis of the significance of the associations. SNPs in the alcohol metabolizing genes, in the cholinergic gene cluster CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4, and in the DRD2 and ANNK1 genes, are, to date, the most replicated and significant gene variants associated with alcohol- and nicotine-related phenotypes. In the case of cannabis and cocaine, a far fewer number of studies and replications have been reported, indicating either a need for further investigation or that the genetics of cannabis/cocaine addiction are more elusive. This review brings a global state-of-the-art vision of the behavioral genetics of addiction and collaborates on formulation of new hypothesis to guide future work. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. A Research on Development of Construction Industrialization Based on BIM Technology under the Background of Industry 4.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Junjie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available “Industry 4.0” and “Made in China 2025”, the future strategic plans of the manufacturing industry in Germany and China, are being noted and studied all over the world. In this wave, information and industrialization of production are Construction industry development direction in the future. Based on the introduction of the strategic objectives of “Made in china 2025”, a new production pattern of construction industrialization, which is based on BIM technology, are put forward in this paper. Comparative analysis is used in the study of mechanism and development path of the production pattern. The dilemma of construction industrialization confronted at present is illustrated in this paper. Based on the background of implementation of “Made in China 2025”, the countermeasures and suggestions of the new production pattern have been proposed.

  8. Single-layer ionic conduction on carboxyl-terminated silane monolayers patterned by constructive lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Jonathan; Burshtain, Doron; Zeira, Assaf; Yoffe, Alexander; Maoz, Rivka; Sagiv, Jacob

    2015-06-01

    Ionic transport plays a central role in key technologies relevant to energy, and information processing and storage, as well as in the implementation of biological functions in living organisms. Here, we introduce a supramolecular strategy based on the non-destructive chemical patterning of a highly ordered self-assembled monolayer that allows the reproducible fabrication of ion-conducting surface patterns (ion-conducting channels) with top -COOH functional groups precisely definable over the full range of length scales from nanometre to centimetre. The transport of a single layer of selected metal ions and the electrochemical processes related to their motion may thus be confined to predefined surface paths. As a generic solid ionic conductor that can accommodate different mobile ions in the absence of any added electrolyte, these ion-conducting channels exhibit bias-induced competitive transport of different ionic species. This approach offers unprecedented opportunities for the realization of designed ion-conducting systems with nanoscale control, beyond the inherent limitations posed by available ionic materials.

  9. Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Tomoya; Ara, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Miki; Takai, Yuki; Okumura, Yoshiko; Baba, Miki; Datsenko, Kirill A; Tomita, Masaru; Wanner, Barry L; Mori, Hirotada

    2006-01-01

    We have systematically made a set of precisely defined, single-gene deletions of all nonessential genes in Escherichia coli K-12. Open-reading frame coding regions were replaced with a kanamycin cassette flanked by FLP recognition target sites by using a one-step method for inactivation of chromosomal genes and primers designed to create in-frame deletions upon excision of the resistance cassette. Of 4288 genes targeted, mutants were obtained for 3985. To alleviate problems encountered in high-throughput studies, two independent mutants were saved for every deleted gene. These mutants-the 'Keio collection'-provide a new resource not only for systematic analyses of unknown gene functions and gene regulatory networks but also for genome-wide testing of mutational effects in a common strain background, E. coli K-12 BW25113. We were unable to disrupt 303 genes, including 37 of unknown function, which are candidates for essential genes. Distribution is being handled via GenoBase (http://ecoli.aist-nara.ac.jp/).

  10. Risk factors and outcomes for catastrophic failures at the top of long pedicle screw constructs: a matched cohort analysis performed at a single center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Patrick T; Bridwell, Keith H; Lenke, Lawrence G; Good, Christopher R; Pichelmann, Mark A; Buchowski, Jacob M; Kim, Yongjung J; Flynn, Jennifer

    2009-09-15

    Retrospective review with matched-cohort analysis performed at a single institution. To determine risk factors and outcomes for acute fractures at the proximal aspect of long pedicle screw constructs. Acute fractures at the top of long segmental pedicle screw constructs (FPSC) can be catastrophic. Substantial surgical increase in lordosis may precipitate this problem. In relation to a matched cohort, we postulated that age, body mass index (BMI), and significant correction of lumbar lordosis would increase risk of FPSC and patients with FPSC would have lesser improvements in outcomes. Thirteen patients who sustained FPSC between 2000 and 2007 were evaluated. During this time, 264 patients aged 40 or older had a spinal fusion from the thoracic spine to the sacrum using an all-pedicle screw construct. A cohort of 31 of these patients without FPSC but with all pedicle screw constructs was matched for diagnosis of positive sagittal imbalance, gender, preoperative C7 sagittal plumb, and number of levels fused. There was a significant difference in age (P = 0.02) and BMI (P = 0.006) between the matched groups. There was no significant difference in preoperative/postoperative C7 plumb or change in lumbar lordosis between groups. Acute neurological deficit developed in 2 patients; both patients improved substantially after revision surgery. Nine patients underwent proximal extension of the fusion. For 7 of the 13 FPSC patients with bone mineral density data (BMD) available, average T score was-1.73; -0.58 for the matched group (10/31 with bone mineral density data) (P = 0.02). Factors that increased the risk of FPSC included obesity and older age. Osteopenia increased the risk as evidenced by BMD (based on 17 patients) and the older age of these patients. There was no statistical difference in clinical improvement between groups based on ODI, but the FPSC group did demonstrate a smaller improvement in ODI score than the matched cohort.

  11. Performance of an X-ray single pixel TES microcalorimeter under DC and AC biasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottardi, L.; Kuur, J. van der; Korte, P. A. J. de; Den Hartog, R.; Dirks, B.; Popescu, M.; Hoevers, H. F. C.; Bruijn, M.; Borderias, M. Parra; Takei, Y.

    2009-01-01

    We are developing Frequency Domain Multiplexing (FDM) for the read-out of TES imaging microcalorimeter arrays for future X-ray missions like IXO. In the FDM configuration the TES is AC voltage biased at a well defined frequencies (between 0.3 to 10 MHz) and acts as an AM modulating element. In this paper we will present a full comparison of the performance of a TES microcalorimeter under DC bias and AC bias at a frequency of 370 kHz. In both cases we measured the current-to-voltage characteristics, the complex impedance, the noise, the X-ray responsivity, and energy resolution. The behaviour is very similar in both cases, but deviations in performances are observed for detector working points low in the superconducting transition (R/R N <0.5). The measured energy resolution at 5.89 keV is 2.7 eV for DC bias and 3.7 eV for AC bias, while the baseline resolution is 2.8 eV and 3.3 eV, respectively.

  12. Absence of single critical dose for the amorphization of quartz under ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Pakarinen, O. H.; Backholm, M.; Djurabekova, F.; Nordlund, K.; Keinonen, J.; Wang, T. S.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we first simulated the amorphization of crystalline quartz under 50 keV 23 Na ion irradiation with classical molecular dynamics (MD). We then used binary collision approximation algorithms to simulate the Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channeling conditions (RBS-C) from these irradiated MD cells, and compared the RBS-C spectra with experiments. The simulated RBS-C results show an agreement with experiments in the evolution of amorphization as a function of dose, showing what appears to be (by this measure) full amorphization at about 2.2 eVṡatom-1 . We also applied other analysis methods, such as angular structure factor, Wigner–Seitz, coordination analysis and topological analysis, to analyze the structural evolution of the irradiated MD cells. The results show that the atomic-level structure of the sample keeps evolving after the RBS signal has saturated, until the dose of about 5 eVṡatom-1 . The continued evolution of the SiO2 structure makes the definition of what is, on the atomic level, an amorphized quartz ambiguous.

  13. The Dynamic Relationship between Growth and Profitability under Long-Term Recession: The Case of Korean Construction Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungkyu Yoo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted an empirical analysis of the dynamic relationship between growth and profitability for small- and medium-sized construction companies that faced long-term economic stagnation in Korea. The period of the analysis spanned 2000 to 2014, and the full period was divided into two halves: before the 2008 global financial crisis and after it. Our empirical model was based on the system generalized method of moments model, and 264 construction companies were used as the study sample. The results of the empirical analysis are as follows. (1 A profitability-driven management strategy limits company growth, thus prolonging the economic downturn; (2 When the macroeconomic environment is relatively stable, high growth in the previous period fosters profitability in the current period. This implies that the phenomenon of dynamic increasing returns is present in the Korean construction industry, and learning through growth enhances productivity and profitability. Consequentially, a strategy oriented towards short-term profitability (popular with small- and medium-sized Korean construction companies makes the corporate management less resilient, causing them to select “de-growth” during the long-term stagnation by decreasing their scale of operations. Accordingly, it is important for companies to maintain the balance between growth and profitability.

  14. Design and construction of immune phage antibody library against Tetanus neurotoxin: Production of single chain antibody fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadreddini, Sanam; Seifi-Najmi, Mehrnosh; Ghasemi, Babollah; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Alinejad, Vahideh; Sadreddini, Sevil; Younesi, Vahid; Jadidi-Niaragh, Farhad; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2015-12-23

    Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) is composed of a light (LC) and heavy chain (HC) polypeptides, released by anaerobic bacterium Clostridium tetani and can cause fatal life-threatening infectious disease. Toxin HC and LC modules represents receptor binding and zinc metalloprotease activity, respectively. The passive administration of animal-derived antibodies against tetanus toxin has been considered as the mainstay therapy for years. However, this treatment is associated with several adverse effects due to the presence of anti-isotype antibodies. In the present study, we have produced the fully human single chain antibody fragments (HuScFv) from two human antibody phage display libraries. Twenty-four different HuscFvs were isolated from two anti TeNT immune libraries. Our produced human ScFv (HuScFv) were converted to IgG platform and analyzed regarding their specific reactivity to TeNT. All of the selected scFvs have the same VL but different VH. Three HuscFvs from the first library (TTX15, 51, 75) and two HuscFvs from the second library (TTX16, 20) were chosen to convert to IgG1 using pOptiVEC and pcDNA3.3 systems. Production of IgG1 from transfected DG44 and binding capacity of them to tetanus toxin and toxoid were measured by ELISA. ELISA results showed no detectable production of TTX16 and TTX20 IgG1. Although, TTX51 and TTX75 were converted and produced as IgG1, no reactivity to tetanus toxin and toxoid was observed. However, TTX15 was successfully produced as whole IgG1 platform with reactivity to both tetanus toxin and toxoid. The latter would be an appropriate replacement for conventional polyclonal antibodies if would meet the further characterization including specificity determination, affinity measurement and toxin neutralizing assays. Our results demonstrated production of functional IgG1 derived from TTX15 scFv and might be an appropriate replacement for polyclonal Tetabulin but it needs further characterization.

  15. Thermochemical micro imprinting of single-crystal diamond surface using a nickel mold under high-pressure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imoto, Yuji; Yan, Jiwang

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A Ni mold and thermochemically imprinted microstructures on diamond. - Highlights: • A thermochemical method for micro machining/patterning of diamond is proposed. • Various kinds of microstructures were imprinted on diamond using a Ni mold. • A graphite layer is formed during imprinting which can be removed by acid. • The processing depth depends strongly on pressure and temperature. - Abstract: Single-crystal diamond is an important material for cutting tools, micro electro mechanical systems, optical devices, and semiconductor substrates. However, the techniques for producing microstructures on diamond surface with high efficiency and accuracy have not been established. This paper proposes a thermochemical imprinting method for transferring microstructures from a nickel (Ni) mold onto single-crystal diamond surface. The Ni mold was micro-structured by a nanoindenter and then pressed against the diamond surface under high temperature and pressure in argon atmosphere. Results show that microstructures on the Ni mold were successfully transferred onto the diamond surface, and their depth increased with both pressure and temperature. Laser micro-Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) analyses indicate that a graphite layer was formed over the contact area between diamond and Ni during pressing, and after washing by a mixed acid, the graphite layer could be completely removed. This study demonstrated the feasibility of a cost-efficient fabrication method for large-area microstructures on single-crystal diamond.

  16. Simulating the Effects of Surface Roughness on Reinforced Concrete T Beam Bridge under Single and Multiple Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Kalyankar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the application of the spatial system of finite element modeling for the vehicle-bridge interaction on reinforced concrete US Girder Bridge in order to obtain the effect of surface roughness. Single vehicle and multiple vehicles on reinforced concrete T beam bridge were studied with variable surface roughness profiles. The effects of six different surface roughness profiles (very good, good, measured, average, poor, and very poor were investigated for vehicle-bridge interaction. The values of the Dynamic Amplification Factor (DAF were obtained for single and multiple vehicles on T Beam Bridge for different surface roughness profiles, along with the distances between the axles of heavy vehicle. It was observed that when the bridge has very good, good, measured, and average surface roughness, the DAF values for the single vehicle over the bridge were observed to be within acceptable limits specified by AASHTO. However, for the bridge with multiple vehicles only very good and measured surface roughness profiles showed a DAF and vehicle axle distances within the acceptable limits. From the current studies, it was observed that the spatial system showed reliable responses for predicting the behavior of the bridge under variable road surface roughness conditions and was reliable in vehicle axle detection, and therefore, it has a potential to be use for realistic simulations.

  17. Temporal and spatial gait parameters in children with Cri du Chat Syndrome under single and dual task conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbruzzese, Laurel D; Salazar, Rachel; Aubuchon, Maddie; Rao, Ashwini K

    2016-10-01

    To describe temporal and spatial gait characteristics in individuals with Cri du Chat syndrome (CdCS) and to explore the effects of performing concurrent manual tasks while walking. The gait parameters of 14 participants with CdCS (mean age 10.3, range 3-20 years) and 14 age-matched controls (mean age 10.1, range 3-20 years) were collected using the GAITRite ® instrumented walkway. All participants first walked without any concurrent tasks and then performed 2 motor dual task walking conditions (pitcher and tray). Individuals with CdCS took more frequent, smaller steps than controls, but, on average, had a comparable gait speed. In addition, there was a significant task by group interaction. Participants decreased gait speed, decreased cadence, decreased step length, and increased% time in double limb support under dual task conditions compared to single task conditions. However, the age-matched controls altered their gait for both manual tasks, and the participants with CdCS only altered their gait for the tray task. Although individuals with CdCS ambulate with a comparable gait speed to age-matched controls under single task conditions, they did not significantly alter their gait when carrying a pitcher with a cup of water inside, like controls. It is not clear whether or not individuals with CdCS had difficulty attending to task demands or had difficulty modifying their gait. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Constructing a generalized network design model to study air distribution in ventilation networks in subway with a single-track tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugin, IV

    2018-03-01

    In focus are the features of construction of the generalized design model for the network method to study air distribution in ventilation system in subway with the single-track tunnel. The generalizations, assumptions and simplifications included in the model are specified. The air distribution is calculated with regard to the influence of topology and air resistances of the ventilation network sections. The author studies two variants of the subway line: half-open and closed with dead end on the both sides. It is found that the total air exchange at a subway station depends on the station location within the line. The operating mode of fans remains unaltered in this case. The article shows that elimination of air leakage in the station ventilation room allows an increase in the air flow rate by 7–8% at the same energy consumption by fans. The influence of the stop of a train in the tunnel on the air distribution is illustrated.

  19. Design and Construction of an Autonomous Low-Cost Pulse Height Analyzer and a Single Channel Analyzer for Mössbauer Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, A. A.; Gancedo, J. R.; Trujillo, J. M.; Morales, A. L.; Tobón, J. E.; Reyes, L.

    2005-04-01

    A multichannel analyzer (MCA) and a single channel-analyzer (SCA) for Mössbauer spectrometry application have been designed and built. Both systems include low-cost digital and analog components. A microcontroller manages, either in PHA or MCS mode, the data acquisition, data storage and setting of the pulse discriminator limits. The user can monitor the system from an external PC through the serial port with the RS232 communication protocol. A graphic interface made with the LabVIEW software allows the user to adjust digitally the lower and upper limits of the pulse discriminator, and to visualize as well as save the PHA spectra in a file. The system has been tested using a 57Co radioactive source and several iron compounds, yielding satisfactory results. The low cost of its design, construction and maintenance make this equipment an attractive choice when assembling a Mössbauer spectrometer.

  20. Construction from a single parent of baker's yeast strains with high freeze tolerance and fermentative activity in both lean and sweet doughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, S; Ouchi, K

    1994-10-01

    From a freeze-tolerant baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), 2,333 spore clones were obtained. To improve the leavening ability in lean dough of the parent strain, we selected 555 of the high-maltose-fermentative spore clones by using a method in which a soft agar solution containing maltose and bromocresol purple was overlaid on yeast colonies. By measuring the gassing power in the dough, we selected 66 spore clones with a good leavening ability in lean dough and a total of 694 hybrids were constructed by crossing them. Among these hybrids, we obtained 50 novel freeze-tolerant strains with good leavening ability in all lean, regular, and sweet doughs comparable to that of commercial baker's yeast. Hybrids with improved leavening ability or freeze tolerance compared with the parent yeast and commercial baker's yeasts were also obtained. These results suggest that hybridization between spore clones derived from a single parent strain is effective for improving the properties of baker's yeasts.

  1. The post-buckled behaviour in thin-walled construction and its partial "erosion" under repeated loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škaloud, Miroslav; Zörnerová, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 5 (2011), s. 805-827 ISSN 0219-4554 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/09/0091 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA103/08/0275; GA ČR(CZ) GA103/08/1677 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : thin-walled construction * buckling * fatigue Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.450, year: 2011

  2. Molecular dynamics study of radiation damage and microstructure evolution of zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes under carbon ion incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; Tang, Xiaobin; Chen, Feida; Huang, Hai; Liu, Jian; Chen, Da

    2016-07-01

    The radiation damage and microstructure evolution of different zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were investigated under incident carbon ion by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The radiation damage of SWCNTs under incident carbon ion with energy ranging from 25 eV to 1 keV at 300 K showed many differences at different incident sites, and the defect production increased to the maximum value with the increase in incident ion energy, and slightly decreased but stayed fairly stable within the majority of the energy range. The maximum damage of SWCNTs appeared when the incident ion energy reached 200 eV and the level of damage was directly proportional to incident ion fluence. The radiation damage was also studied at 100 K and 700 K and the defect production decreased distinctly with rising temperature because radiation-induced defects would anneal and recombine by saturating dangling bonds and reconstructing carbon network at the higher temperature. Furthermore, the stability of a large-diameter tube surpassed that of a thin one under the same radiation environments.

  3. Dye-conjugated single-walled carbon nanotubes induce photothermal therapy under the guidance of near-infrared imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaoyuan; Shang, Wenting; Chi, Chongwei; Zeng, Chaoting; Wang, Kun; Fang, Chihua; Chen, Qingshan; Liu, Huiyu; Fan, Yingfang; Tian, Jie

    2016-12-28

    Recently, photothermal therapy (PTT) has become viewed as an ideal auxiliary therapeutic treatment for cancers. However, the development of safe, convenient, and highly effective photothermal agents remains a great challenge. In this study, we prepared single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for PTT against breast tumors under the guidance of infrared fluorescent cyanines. Tumors were accurately located using near-infrared imaging (NIR) and then exposed to laser irradiation. Both the in vivo and in vitro results showed that the SWNTs have high stability and low cytotoxicity. Introducing polyethylene glycol into our nanoparticles increased the blood-circulation time. Our in vivo results further showed that Cy5.5-conjugated SWNTs mediated PTT, resulting in efficient tumor suppression in mice under the guidance of near-infrared imaging. Due to the small amount of absorption at 808-nm, Cy5.5 increased the efficiency of PTT. Breast tumors significantly shrunk after irradiation under the 808-nm near-infrared laser. The treated mice developed scabs, but otherwise recovered after 15 days, and their physical conditions restored gradually. These data indicate that our unique photothermal-responsive SWNT-Cy5.5-based theranostic agent can serve as a promising candidate for PTT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Construction of predictive models for recurrence and progression in >1000 patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) from a single centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-El-Dein, Bedeir; Sooriakumaran, Prasanna; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Barakat, Tamer S; Nabeeh, Adel; Ibrahiem, El-Housseiny I

    2013-06-01

    To construct predictive models based on the objectively calculated risks of progression and recurrence of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) in a large cohort of patients from a single centre. Between October 1984 and March 2009 a cohort of 1019 patients (877 males; 142 females; median age 44 years) with histologically confirmed NMIBC was included in this study. Among these patients, 74% received bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-based therapy. Complete transurethral resection of bladder tumour of all visible tumours was carried out in all patients, and the stage and grade were determined. Univariate analysis and multivariate Cox regression were used to identify predictors of recurrence and progression. The studied predictors included age, sex, stage, grade, associated carcinoma in situ, tumour size, multiplicity, macroscopic appearance of the tumour, history of recurrence and type of adjuvant intravesical therapy. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to develop the 12- and 60-month recurrence and progression predictive models. The predictive accuracy of the models was assessed for discrimination as well as calibration. The median (range) follow-up was 44 (6-254) months. On multivariate analysis, stage, multiplicity, history of recurrence and adjuvant intravesical therapy were significantly associated with recurrence, whereas for progression only tumour grade and size were significant independent predictors. The constructed nomograms had a 64.9% and 69.4% chance of correctly distinguishing between two patients, one destined to have a recurrence and one not at 12 and 60 months, respectively. The constructed nomograms had a 70.2% and 73.5% chance of correctly distinguishing between two patients, one destined to progress and one not at 12 and 60 months, respectively. All predictive models were well calibrated. Based on multivariate analysis of the studied prognostic factors nomograms for predicting recurrence and progression in NMIBC were

  5. Phase manipulation of Goos–Hänchen shifts in a single-layer of graphene nanostructure under strong magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solookinejad, Gh; Jabbari, M.; Panahi, M.; Ahmadi Sangachin, E.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we discuss the phase management of Goos–Hänchen (GH) shifts of a probe light through a cavity with a single-layer graphene nanostructure under a strong magnetic field. By using the quantum mechanical density matrix formalism we study the GH shifts of reflected and transmitted light beams. It is realized that negative or positive GH shifts can be achieved simultaneously by tuning some controllable parameters such as relative phase and the Rabi frequency of the applied fields. Moreover, the thickness effect of the cavity structure is considered as an effective parameter for adjusting the GH shifts of reflected and transmitted light beams. We find that by choosing suitable parameters, a maximum negative shift of 4.5 mm and positive shift of 5.4 mm are possible for GH shifts in reflected and transmitted light. Our proposed model may be useful for developing all-optical devices in the infrared region.

  6. Dynamic response of a single-walled carbon nanotube under a moving harmonic load by considering modified nonlocal elasticity theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, O.; Shokrnia, M.; Golmohammadi, H.; Hosseini, S. A. H.

    2018-02-01

    Transverse forced vibration of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) under excitation of a moving harmonic load has been analyzed based on modified nonlocal elasticity theory. In the parametric study, influences of nonlocal parameter, velocity of the moving load, excitation frequency, order of derivative and their interactive effects on forced deflection of the nanotube have been investigated in details. Numerical amounts of the dimensionless static deflection of the SWCNT have been calculated and compared with those of existing papers and an excellent agreement has been achieved. The results show that the variation of N affects the dynamic deflection and natural frequency of SWCNTs, significantly. Also by amplification of the excitation frequency, differences between the amounts of dynamic deflection become smaller for various values of N . Furthermore, decreasing the frequency ratio causes a reduction of the maximum deflection and increasing the frequency ratio causes an increase of the maximum deflection for values of load velocity which are greater than a specified value.

  7. EFFECT OF STRAIN HARDENING ON FATIGUE CRACK CLOSURE IN ALUMINUM ALLOY UNDER CONSTANT AMPLITUDE WITH SINGLE OVERLOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirpesh Vikram

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study effect of strain hardening on crack closure has been examined with the help of experiments and finite element method on the side edge notched specimen of five different Aluminum alloy (3003 Al, 5052 Al, 6061 T6, 6063 T6, 6351 in mode I under constant amplitude fatigue loading with single overload using Abaqus® 6.10 which is very well accepted FEM application in research. Extended Finite Element Method Module has been used to determine effective stress intensity factor at the crack tip while propagation takes place. FEM results have given good agreement with experimental results. Regression analysis has also been done with SPSS® 16 and dependency of strain hardening coefficient on crack closure has analyzed. A generalized empirical formula has been developed based on strain hardening to calculate effective stress intensity range ratio and a modified Paris law has also been formulated for these aluminum alloy.

  8. Stereoscopy of dust density waves under microgravity: Velocity distributions and phase-resolved single-particle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himpel, Michael, E-mail: himpel@physik.uni-greifswald.de; Killer, Carsten; Melzer, André [Institute of Physics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Bockwoldt, Tim; Piel, Alexander [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Ole Menzel, Kristoffer [ABB Switzerland Ltd, Corporate Research Center, 5405 Dättwil (Switzerland)

    2014-03-15

    Experiments on dust-density waves have been performed in dusty plasmas under the microgravity conditions of parabolic flights. Three-dimensional measurements of a dust density wave on a single particle level are presented. The dust particles have been tracked for many oscillation periods. A Hilbert analysis is applied to obtain trajectory parameters such as oscillation amplitude and three-dimensional velocity amplitude. While the transverse motion is found to be thermal, the velocity distribution in wave propagation direction can be explained by harmonic oscillations with added Gaussian (thermal) noise. Additionally, it is shown that the wave properties can be reconstructed by means of a pseudo-stroboscopic approach. Finally, the energy dissipation mechanism from the kinetic oscillation energy to thermal motion is discussed and presented using phase-resolved analysis.

  9. Similarity analysis and scaling criteria for LWRs under single-phase and two-phase natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, M.; Kataoka, I.

    1983-03-01

    Scaling criteria for a natural circulation loop under single phase and two-phase flow conditions have been derived. For a single phase case the continuity, integral momentum, and energy equations in one-dimensional area average forms have been used. From this, the geometrical similarity groups, friction number, Richardson number, characteristic time constant ratio, Biot number, and heat source number are obtained. The Biot number involves the heat transfer coefficient which may cause some difficulties in simulating the turbulent flow regime. For a two-phase flow case, the similarity groups obtained from a perturbation analysis based on the one-dimensional drift-flux model have been used. The physical significance of the phase change number, subcooling number, drift-flux number, friction number are discussed and conditions imposed by these groups are evaluated. In the two-phase flow case, the critical heat flux is one of the most important transients which should be simulated in a scale model. The above results are applied to the LOFT facility in case of a natural circulation simulation. Some preliminary conclusions on the feasibility of the facility have been obtained

  10. Similarity analysis and scaling criteria for LWRs under single-phase and two-phase natural circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, M.; Kataoka, I.

    1983-03-01

    Scaling criteria for a natural circulation loop under single phase and two-phase flow conditions have been derived. For a single phase case the continuity, integral momentum, and energy equations in one-dimensional area average forms have been used. From this, the geometrical similarity groups, friction number, Richardson number, characteristic time constant ratio, Biot number, and heat source number are obtained. The Biot number involves the heat transfer coefficient which may cause some difficulties in simulating the turbulent flow regime. For a two-phase flow case, the similarity groups obtained from a perturbation analysis based on the one-dimensional drift-flux model have been used. The physical significance of the phase change number, subcooling number, drift-flux number, friction number are discussed and conditions imposed by these groups are evaluated. In the two-phase flow case, the critical heat flux is one of the most important transients which should be simulated in a scale model. The above results are applied to the LOFT facility in case of a natural circulation simulation. Some preliminary conclusions on the feasibility of the facility have been obtained.

  11. Study on characteristics of single cavitation bubble considering condensation and evaporation of kerosene steam under ultrasonic vibration honing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Linzheng; Zhu, Xijing; Wang, Lujie; Guo, Ce

    2018-01-01

    Ultrasonic vibration honing technology is an effective means for materials difficult to machine, where cavitation occurs in grinding fluid under the action of ultrasound. To investigate the changes of single cavitation bubble characteristics in the grinding area and how honing parameters influence bubble characteristics, a dynamic model of single cavitation bubble in the ultrasonic vibration honing grinding area was established. The model was based on the bubble dynamics and considered the condensation and evaporation of kerosene steam and honing processing environment. The change rules of bubble radius, temperature, pressure and number of kerosene steam molecules inside the bubble were numerically simulated in the process of bubble moving. The results show that the condensation and evaporation of kerosene steam can help to explain the changes of temperature and pressure inside the bubble. Compared with ultrasonic vibration, the amplitude of bubble radius is greatly suppressed in the ultrasonic honing environment. However, the rate of movement of the bubble is faster. Meanwhile, the minimum values of pressure and temperature are larger, and the number of kerosene steam molecules is less. By studying the effect of honing factors on the movement of the cavitation bubble, it is found that honing pressure has a greater influence on bubble evolution characteristics, while rotation speed of honing head has a minor effect and the reciprocating speed of honing head has little impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of the Influencing Factors on Resettled Farmer’s Satisfaction under the Policy of the Balance between Urban Construction Land Increasing and Rural Construction Land Decreasing: A Case Study of China’s Xinjin County in Chengdu City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shui

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore what are the influencing factors on resettled farmer’s satisfaction and occupancy under the policy of the balance between urban construction land increasing and rural construction land decreasing in Xinjin County, Chengdu City. Questionnaires, statistical analysis and logistic regressions were employed. The results indicate that the higher educated farmers will be more satisfied with the relocation areas. An increase in the number of public facilities and the associated maintenance costs will decrease the resettled farmer’s satisfaction. Farmers who have moved to new communities are more satisfied with infrastructure, supporting facilities and property management, especially the living environment. The main tasks completed by farmers are the tillage land and to do work for their new community. The positive factors that contribute to the famer’s satisfaction, include land-rights guarantees, compensation for land consolidation, sewage treatment and the living environment. In contrast, public facilities, commercial service networks and resettled area’s maintenance are negative factors for farmer’s satisfaction. Meanwhile, the key factors to promoting harmony between urban and rural construction are to establish relevant laws and regulations, reasonable operation and management mechanisms, farmer-rights protection mechanisms, and to protect famer household income, as well as to improve agricultural production and farmer’s non-agricultural employment opportunity.

  13. Differential activation behavior of dermal dendritic cells underlies the strain-specific Th1 responses to single epicutaneous immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chih-Hung; Chen, Jau-Shiuh; Chiu, Hsien-Ching; Hong, Chien-Hui; Liu, Ching-Yi; Ta, Yng-Cun; Wang, Li-Fang

    2016-12-01

    Epicutaneous immunization with allergens is an important sensitization route for atopic dermatitis. We recently showed in addition to the Th2 response following single epicutaneous immunization, a remarkable Th1 response is induced in B6 mice, but not in BALB/c mice, mimicking the immune response to allergens in human non-atopics and atopics. We investigated the underlying mechanisms driving this differential Th1 response between BALB/c and B6 mice. We characterized dermal dendritic cells by flow cytometric analysis. We measured the induced Th1/Th2 responses by measuring the IFN-γ/IL-13 contents of supernatants of antigen reactivation cultures of lymph node cells. We demonstrate that more dermal dendritic cells with higher activation status migrate into draining lymph nodes of B6 mice compared to BALB/c mice. Dermal dendritic cells of B6 mice have a greater ability to capture protein antigen than those of BALB/c mice. Moreover, increasing the activation status or amount of captured antigen in dermal dendritic cells induced a Th1 response in BALB/c mice. Further, differential activation behavior, but not antigen-capturing ability of dermal dendritic cells between BALB/c and B6 mice is dendritic cell-intrinsic. These results show that the differential activation behavior of dermal dendritic cells underlies the strain-specific Th1 responses following single epicutaneous immunization. Furthermore, our findings highlight the potential differences between human atopics and non-atopics and provide useful information for the prediction and prevention of atopic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A single-stage functionalization and exfoliation method for the production of graphene in water: stepwise construction of 2D-nanostructured composites with iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihiawakrim, Dris; Ersen, Ovidiu; Melin, Frédéric; Hellwig, Petra; Janowska, Izabela; Begin, Dominique; Baaziz, Walid; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Pham-Huu, Cuong; Baati, Rachid

    2013-10-07

    A practically simple top-down process for the exfoliation of graphene (GN) and few-layer graphene (FLG) from graphite is described. We have discovered that a biocompatible amphiphilic pyrene-based hexahistidine peptide is able to exfoliate, functionalize, and dissolve few layer graphene flakes in pure water under exceptionally mild, sustainable and virtually innocuous low intensity cavitation conditions. Large area functionalized graphene flakes with the hexahistidine oligopeptide (His₆-TagGN = His₆@GN) have been produced efficiently at room temperature and characterized by TEM, Raman, and UV spectroscopy. Conductivity experiments carried out on His₆-TagGN samples revealed superior electric performances as compared to reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and non-functionalized graphene, demonstrating the non-invasive features of our non-covalent functionalization process. We postulated a rational exfoliation mechanism based on the intercalation of the peptide amphiphile under cavitational chemistry. We also demonstrated the ability of His6-TagGN nanoassemblies to self-assemble spontaneously with inorganic iron oxide nanoparticles generating magnetic two-dimensional (2D) His₆-TagGN/Fe₃O₄ nanocomposites under mild and non-hydrothermal conditions. The set of original experiments described here open novel perspectives in the facile production of water dispersible high quality GN and FLG sheets that will improve and facilitate the interfacing, processing and manipulation of graphene for promising applications in catalysis, nanocomposite construction, integrated nanoelectronic devices and bionanotechnology.

  15. Equivalence of chain conformations in the surface region of a polymer melt and a single Gaussian chain under critical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvortsov, A M; Leermakers, F A M; Fleer, G J

    2013-08-07

    In the melt polymer conformations are nearly ideal according to Flory's ideality hypothesis. Silberberg generalized this statement for chains in the interfacial region. We check the Silberberg argument by analyzing the conformations of a probe chain end-grafted at a solid surface in a sea of floating free chains of concentration φ by the self-consistent field (SCF) method. Apart from the grafting, probe chain and floating chains are identical. Most of the results were obtained for a standard SCF model with freely jointed chains on a six-choice lattice, where immediate step reversals are allowed. A few data were generated for a five-choice lattice, where such step reversals are forbidden. These coarse-grained models describe the equilibrium properties of flexible atactic polymer chains at the scale of the segment length. The concentration was varied over the whole range from φ = 0 (single grafted chain) to φ = 1 (probe chain in the melt). The number of contacts with the surface, average height of the free end and its dispersion, average loop and train length, tail size distribution, end-point and overall segment distributions were calculated for a grafted probe chain as a function of φ, for several chain lengths and substrate∕polymer interactions, which were varied from strong repulsion to strong adsorption. The computations show that the conformations of the probe chain in the melt do not depend on substrate∕polymer interactions and are very similar to the conformations of a single end-grafted chain under critical conditions, and can thus be described analytically. When the substrate∕polymer interaction is fixed at the value corresponding to critical conditions, all equilibrium properties of a probe chain are independent of φ, over the whole range from a dilute solution to the melt. We believe that the conformations of all flexible chains in the surface region of the melt are close to those of an appropriate single chain in critical conditions, provided

  16. Secondary electron emission from boron-doped diamond under ion impact: Applications in single-ion detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, T.; Cholewa, M.; Saint, A.; Prawer, S.; Legge, G.J.; Butler, J.E.; Vestyck, D.J. , Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The secondary electron emission from a 2 μm thick boron-doped diamond film under ion (4.6 endash 7.7 MeV He + )impact is reported. The yield under ions impact is found to be remarkably high, stable over a period of many months, and independent of which side of the film (i.e., growth or substrate side) is exposed to the ion flux. By taking advantage of the high secondary-electron yield, the passage of each ion through the film could be detected with an efficiency of close to 100%, which to the best of our knowledge is the highest efficiency recorded to date for any thin-film window. This finding has an immediate application in single-ion irradiation systems where a thin vacuum window is required to allow extraction of an ion beam from the vacuum into air and at the same time offer 100% efficiency for the detection of the passage of the ion through the window. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  17. Construct validity and responsiveness of the single-item presenteeism question in patients with lower back pain for the measurement of presenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigozi, Jesse; Lewis, Martyn; Jowett, Sue; Barton, Pelham; Coast, Joanna

    2014-03-01

    Validity and responsiveness study using a randomized clinical trial and prospective cohort study of patients with low back pain (LBP). To provide evidence for construct validity and responsiveness to change of a single-item presenteeism question (SIPQ) in patients with LBP. The SIPQ is a simple, easy to administer tool that has been used to measure the impact of back pain on reduced productivity at work (presenteeism) as a standalone measure. Evidence supporting the validity and responsiveness of the SIPQ among patients with back pain is however lacking. The SIPQ was administered to patients consulting for back pain in a randomized controlled trial (N = 851) and a cohort intervention study (N = 922). Construct validity was assessed using convergent, divergent, and known-group validity. The validity investigation included assessing associations between the SIPQ and pain, disability, psychological, health status, and quality of life measures. Responsiveness was assessed using external indicators of change as comparators, evaluating correlation of clinical change scores and effect size statistics. Moderate to strong correlations were found between presenteeism and pain (r: 0.44-0.77), disability (r: 0.53-0.70), and 12-Item Short Form Health Survey physical dimensions (r: -0.66 to -0.55). Presenteeism was strongly associated with disease-specific pain and disability scales. The SIPQ was responsive to changes in productivity-presenteeism change scores indicated strong correlation with change scores, and high responsiveness in distribution- and anchor-based testing. The SIPQ is a potentially valid and responsive tool for assessing the impact of back pain on presenteeism. This SIPQ could, with relative ease, facilitate further research on the estimation of presenteeism within economic evaluation studies of musculoskeletal conditions, thus providing policymakers with estimates of economic impact of musculoskeletal disease. Further evidence is, however, merited to assess

  18. Electrospray soft-landing for the construction of non-covalent molecular nanostructures using charged droplets under ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jian; Zheng, Qingna; Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K; Xiong, Caiqiao; Guan, Cuizhong; Chen, Suming; Nie, Zongxiu; Wang, Dong; Wan, Lijun

    2016-11-17

    An electrospray soft-landing (SL) technique was utilized to create 2D nano-networks on HOPG under ambient conditions. A 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexahydroxy-triphenylene close-packing structure was observed by STM instead of unorganized clusters, as well as amine and acid nanostructures. On C 18 H 37 NH 2 networks, C 18 H 37 NH 3 + was identified by XPS analysis revealing retaining of charges on the SL-modified surface.

  19. Economical Evaluation of Single Irrigation Efficient of Rainfed Barley under Different Agronimic Managements at On-farm Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Tavakoli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Two of the main challenges in developing countries are food production and trying to get a high income for good nutrition and reduction of poverty. Cereals and legumes are the most important crops in the rainfed areas of the country occupying the majority of dry land areas. Irrigated production systems had a main role in food production in the past years; but unfortunately, in recent years, with high population and competition of industry and environment with agricultural sectors, getting adequate irrigation water is difficult. The main purpose of this study is to determine the best option of crop agronomic management. Rainfed agriculture is important in the world; because this production system establishes %80 of the agriculture area and prepares %70 of the food in the world. In the Lorestan province, production area for rainfed barley is 120,000 ha and the amount produced is 120000 ton (approximately 1009 kg per ha. The purposes of this study were to evaluate cost, benefit and profit of rainfed barley production, economical and non-economical substitution of treatments in different agronomic management, study of sale return, cost ratio, determining break-even of price and comparing it with the guaranteed price of barley and estimating the value of water irrigation. Materials and Methods: This research was carried out by sample farmers (12 farmers on rainfed barley at the Honam selected site in the Lorestan province during 2005-07. At on-farm areas of the upper Karkheh River Basin (KRB three irrigation levels were analyzed (rainfed, single irrigation at planting time and single irrigation at spring time under two agronomic managements (advanced management (AM and traditional management (TM. Data was analyzed by Partial Budgeting (PB technique, Marginal Benefit-Cost Ratio (MBCR, and economical and non-economical test. For estimation of net benefit the following formula was used: (1 Where: N.B: Net income (Rials/ ha , B(w : Gross

  20. Modeling of constructed wetland performance in BOD5removal for domestic wastewater under changes in relative humidity using genetic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankararajan, Vanitha; Neelakandhan, Nampoothiri; Chandrasekaran, Sivapragasam

    2017-04-01

    Despite the extensive use of constructed wetland (CW) as an effective method for domestic wastewater treatment, there is lack of clarity in arriving at well-defined design guidelines. This is particularly due to the fact that the design of CW is dependent on many inter-connected parameters which interact in a complex manner. Consequently, different researchers in the past have tried to address different aspects of this complexity. In this study, an attempt is made to model the influence of relative humidity (RH) in the effectiveness of BOD 5 removal. Since it is an accepted fact that plants respond to change in humidity, it is necessary to take this parameter into consideration particularly when the CW is to be designed involving changes in relative humidity over a shorter time horizon (say a couple of months). This study reveals that BOD 5out depends on the ratio of BOD 5in and relative humidity. An attempt is also made to model the outlet BOD 5 using genetic programming with inlet BOD 5 and relative humidity as input parameters.

  1. Studying the energy dependence of intrinsic conversion efficiency of single crystal scintillators under X-ray excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyvas, N.; Valais, I.; David, S.; Michail, Ch.; Fountos, G.; Liaparinos, P.; Kandarakis, I.

    2014-05-01

    Single crystal scintilators are used in various radiation detectors applications. The efficiency of the crystal can be determined by the Detector Optical Gain (DOG) defined as the ratio of the emitted optical photon flux over the incident radiation photons flux. A parameter affecting DOG is the intrinsic conversion efficiency ( n C ) giving the percentage of the X-ray photon power converted to optical photon power. n C is considered a constant value for X-ray energies in the order of keV although a non-proportional behavior has been reported. In this work an analytical model, has been utilized to single crystals scintillators GSO:Ce, LSO:Ce and LYSO:Ce to examine whether the intrinsic conversion efficiency shows non proportional behavior under X-ray excitation. DOG was theoretically calculated as a function of the incident X-ray spectrum, the X-ray absorption efficiency, the energy of the produced optical photons and the light transmission efficiency. The theoretical DOG values were compared with experimental data obtained by irradiating the crystals with X-rays at tube voltages from 50 to 140 kV and by measuring the light energy flux emitted from the irradiated screen. An initial value for n C (calculated from literature data) was assumed for the X-ray tube voltage of 50 kV. For higher X-ray tube voltages the optical photon propagation phenomena was assumed constant and any deviations between experimental and theoretical data were associated with changes in the intrinsic conversion efficiency. The experimental errors were below 7% for each experimental setup. The behavior of n C values for LSO:Ce and LYSO:Ce were found very similar, i.e., ranging with values from 0.089 at 50 kV to 0.015 at 140 kV, while for GSO:Ce, n C demonstrated a peak at 80 kV.

  2. Parameters influencing the fatigue life of a Cu–Al–Be single-crystal shape memory alloy under repeated bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siredey-Schwaller, N; Eberhardt, A; Bastie, P

    2009-01-01

    One of the principal limitations in the use of shape memory alloys is certainly fatigue behaviour. Initially, the mechanical behaviour of polycrystals evolves during cycling and then rupture occurs after a relatively small number of cycles, in particular for deformation higher than a few per cent. If one replaces the polycrystal by a single crystal, one notices an important increase in the fatigue lifespan, mainly for high deformation (Siredey et al 2005 Mater. Sci. Eng. A 396 296–301). The aim of this study is to analyse the role of three parameters influencing the lifespan in mechanical fatigue. The first one relates to the atmosphere in which the test is carried out. No notable influence was found. However, for samples having spent 44 000 h in air, one notes a lifespan reduction for those tested in the presence of air, whereas it is normal for those tested under argon. In the second part, the effect of the surface state will be discussed. As already presented in Siredey et al (2005 Mater. Sci. Eng. A 396 296–301), surface roughness influences lifespan, especially for low imposed strain. However, for higher strain this effect is much less important. On the surface, striations due to martensitic transformations appear during cycling. However, the damage inside these striations seems not to be correlated to rupture. The third parameter relates to crystalline quality of the single crystal. It was studied with a hard x-ray diffractometer using a transposition at high energy of the Guinier–Tennevin method. Crystalline quality is found to play a crucial role in the lifespan in fatigue. The presence of sub-grains disoriented by about 1° and mosaicity can reduce the lifespan by a factor up to 10

  3. [Construction of a diagnostic prediction model of severe bacterial infection in febrile infants under 3 months old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos Pinto, Enrique; Sánchez-Bayle, Marciano

    2017-12-01

    Fever is a common cause of paediatric admissions in emergency departments. An aetiological diagnosis is difficult to obtain in those less than 3 months of age, as they tend to have a higher rate of serious bacterial infection (SBI). The aim of this study is to find a predictor index of SBI in children under 3 months old with fever of unknown origin. A study was conducted on all children under 3 months of age with fever admitted to hospital, with additional tests being performed according to the clinical protocol. Rochester criteria for identifying febrile infants at low risk for SBI were also analysed. A predictive model for SBI and positive cultures was designed, including the following variables in the maximum model: C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and meeting not less than four of the Rochester criteria. A total of 702 subjects were included, of which 22.64% had an SBI and 20.65% had positive cultures. Children who had SBI and a positive culture showed higher values of white cells, total neutrophils, CRP and PCT. A statistical significance was observed with less than 4 Rochester criteria, CRP and PCT levels, an SBI (area under the curve [AUC] 0.877), or for positive cultures (AUC 0.888). Using regression analysis a predictive index was calculated for SBI or a positive culture, with a sensitivity of 87.7 and 91%, a specificity of 70.1 and 87.7%, an LR+ of 2.93 and 3.62, and a LR- of 0.17 and 0.10, respectively. The predictive models are valid and slightly improve the validity of the Rochester criteria for positive culture in children less than 3 months admitted with fever. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of muscle fatigue on gait characteristics under single and dual-task conditions in young and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wehrle Anja

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle fatigue and dual-task walking (e.g., concurrent performance of a cognitive interference (CI while walking represent major fall risk factors in young and older adults. Thus, the objectives of this study were to examine the effects of muscle fatigue on gait characteristics under single and dual-task conditions in young and older adults and to determine the impact of muscle fatigue on dual-task costs while walking. Methods Thirty-two young (24.3 ± 1.4 yrs, n = 16 and old (71.9 ± 5.5 yrs, n = 16 healthy active adults participated in this study. Fatigue of the knee extensors/flexors was induced by isokinetic contractions. Subjects were tested pre and post fatigue, as well as after a 5 min rest. Tests included the assessment of gait velocity, stride length, and stride length variability during single (walking, and dual (CI+walking task walking on an instrumented walkway. Dual-task costs while walking were additionally computed. Results Fatigue resulted in significant decreases in single-task gait velocity and stride length in young adults, and in significant increases in dual-task gait velocity and stride length in older adults. Further, muscle fatigue did not affect dual-task costs during walking in young and older adults. Performance in the CI-task was improved in both age groups post-fatigue. Conclusions Strategic and/or physiologic rationale may account for the observed differences in young and older adults. In terms of strategic rationale, older adults may walk faster with longer strides in order to overcome the feeling of fatigue-induced physical discomfort as quickly as possible. Alternatively, older adults may have learned how to compensate for age-related and/or fatigue-induced muscle deficits during walking by increasing muscle power of synergistic muscle groups (e.g., hip flexors. Further, a practice and/or learning effect may have occurred from pre to post testing. Physiologic rationale may comprise motor unit

  5. Social constructions of environmental services in a rapidly densifying peri-urban area under dual governance in Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Sutherland

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biodiversity plays a critical role in improving the quality of life and resilience of poor urban communities in Durban. Objectives: However, the rapid densification that is taking place in the ‘rural periphery’ of the city is impacting significantly on the integrity of ecosystems, which provide valuable ecosystem services. It is also changing the relations between people and the environment. Mzinyathi and eSkebheni, in the north-west of Durban, are peri-urban areas located on Ingonyama Trust land and hence they are governed by both the traditional authority and the eThekwini Municipality. The settlement pattern is changing rapidly here as middle and upper income residents move into the area, changing the way of life from being rural and ‘traditional’ to urban and ‘modern’. Method: This paper focused on the nexus of rapid urban growth, dual governance systems, biodiversity loss and cultural change in these two areas. It adopted a qualitative methodology and social constructivist approach. Data on the value of environmental services in the area was collected through interviewing the traditional authority, provincial and municipal planners and environmentalists, and household members. Results: The paper revealed that environmental services are constructed in multiple ways within a particular socio-historical and political context, that they have value to peri-urban communities, and that their function and use is changing as a result of the ‘modernisation’ of the area. The impact of the dual governance system and traditional land allocation process on environmental services is significant. This has implications for long term sustainability, for the quality of life of peri-urban residents and for planning and urban governance.

  6. Electricity production from Azo dye wastewater using a microbial fuel cell coupled constructed wetland operating under different operating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhou; Song, Hai-liang; Cang, Ning; Li, Xian-ning

    2015-06-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have got tremendous attention for their capability to enhance the degradation of some recalcitrant pollutants and simultaneous electricity production. A microbial fuel cell coupled constructed wetland (CW-MFC) is a new device to treat the wastewater and produce energy which has more wastewater treatment volume and more easily to maintenance than others MFCs. The studies on the performance of CW-MFCs are necessary. In this work, the effects of hydraulic residence time (HRT), reactive brilliant red X-3B (ABRX3) proportion and COD concentration on the electricity production of CW-MFC and the degradation characteristics of ABRX3 were investigated. The decolorization rate and the electricity production increased to a peak before slowing down with the elongation of HRT. The highest decolorization rate and electricity production were obtained when HRT was 3 days. The ABRX3 proportion (calculated as COD) in the wastewater played an important role in decolorization and electricity production, which may influence the distribution of electrons in the system. The power density of CW-MFC and the decolorization rate decreased concomitantly with an increasing ABRX3 proportion. The COD concentration influenced the CW-MFC performance slightly. The highest decolorization rate and power density reached 95.6% and 0.852 W/m(3), respectively, when the COD concentration was 300 mg/L while the ABRX3 proportion was 30%. The coulombic efficiency of the CW-MFC depended on glucose and ABRX3 proportions in the wastewater. ABRX3 acquired more electrons than the anode. Further investigations are needed to optimize CW-MFC performance and explain the mechanism of biorefractory compounds degradation and electron motion in CW-MFCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhancement of the complete autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite process in a modified single-stage subsurface vertical flow constructed wetland: Effect of saturated zone depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Menglu; Wang, Zhen; Qi, Ran

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to explore enhancement of the complete autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process in a modified single-stage subsurface vertical flow constructed wetland (VSSF) with saturated zone, and nitrogen transformation pathways in the VSSF treating digested swine wastewater were investigated at four different saturated zone depths (SZDs). SZD significantly affected nitrogen transformation pathways in the VSSF throughout the experiment. As the SZD was 45cm, the CANON process was enhanced most effectively in the system owing to the notable enhancement of anammox. Correspondingly, the VSSF had the best TN removal performance [(76.74±7.30)%] and lower N 2 O emission flux [(3.50±0.22)mg·(m 2 ·h) - 1 ]. It could be concluded that autotrophic nitrogen removal via CANON process could become a primary route for nitrogen removal in the VSSF with optimized microenvironment that developed as a result of the appropriate SZD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Protection of third parties. The protection of third parties affected by building or plant construction permits under the public construction law, the emission control law, or the atomic energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, S.

    1993-01-01

    Building construction permits just like plant construction permits under the Federal Emission Control Act or the Atomic Energy Act are typical cases representing the administrative order with a dual effect, or an effect on third parties: decisions supporting the interests of the project owner always affect third parties. Third party protection therefore is a major topic of public construction law or the environmental protection law to be applied to industrial installations. Although actions brought by third parties have become something ordinary for the administrative courts, substantive third party protection continues to pose specific problems. The book in hand develops and explains a way out of the dilemma created by third party protection. The solutions presented are founded on a sound dogmatic basis and take into account the Federal Constitutional Court's rulings in matters of civil rights. The starting point adopted by the authors is the third party rights warranting protection, with the objective protection provided for by the law in general gaining effect as subjective rights as far as the protection is based on the civil rights of the constitution. The scope of protection affordable depends on the individual case and the reconciliation of terests of all parties concerned. The problem solutions set forth very extensively rely on the jurisdiction in matters of third party protection and on approaches published in the relevant literature, so that the book also may serve as a guide to current practice and a helpful source of reference for readers looking for information about the issue of third party protection. (orig./HP) [de

  9. A mobile robot with parallel kinematics constructed under requirements for assembling and machining of the ITER vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessi, P.; Huapeng Wu; Handroos, H.; Jones, L.

    2006-01-01

    ITER sectors require more stringent tolerances ± 5 mm than normally expected for the size of structure involved. The walls of ITER sectors are made of 60 mm thick stainless steel and are joined together by high efficiency structural and leak tight welds. In addition to the initial vacuum vessel assembly, sectors may have to be replaced for repair. Since commercially available machines are too heavy for the required machining operations and the lifting of a possible e-beam gun column system, and conventional robots lack the stiffness and accuracy in such machining condition, a new flexible, lightweight and mobile robotic machine is being considered. For the assembly of the ITER vacuum vessel sector, precise positioning of welding end-effectors, at some distance in a confined space from the available supports, will be required, which is not possible using conventional machines or robots. This paper presents a special robot, able to carry out welding and machining processes from inside the ITER vacuum vessel, consisting of a ten-degree-of-freedom parallel robot mounted on a carriage driven by electric motor/gearbox on a track. The robot consists of a Stewart platform based parallel mechanism. Water hydraulic cylinders are used as actuators to reach six degrees of freedom for parallel construction. Two linear and two rotational motions are used for enlargement the workspace of the manipulator. The robot carries both welding gun such as a TIG, hybrid laser or e-beam welding gun to weld the inner and outer walls of the ITER vacuum vessel sectors and machining tools to cut and milling the walls with necessary accuracy, it can also carry other tools and material to a required position inside the vacuum vessel . For assembling an on line six degrees of freedom seam finding algorithm has been developed, which enables the robot to find welding seam automatically in a very complex environment. In the machining multi flexible machining processes carried out automatically by

  10. Features of polyatomic ion emission under sputtering of a silicon single crystal by Au sub m sup - cluster ions

    CERN Document Server

    Akhunov, S; Rasulev, U K

    2003-01-01

    Comparative studies of the emission of secondary cluster Si sub n sup + ions (n=1-11) and polyatomic Si sub n X sub l Y sub k sup + ions (X, Y are Au, B, C, N), as well as doubly charged Si sup 2 sup + ions under bombardment of single crystalline silicon by cluster Au sub m sup - (m=1-5) ions with energy E sub 0 =4-18 keV have been carried out. High non-additivity enhancement of the yield of the Si sub n sup + ions and most polyatomic ones has been observed with an increase of the number of atoms in the projectiles. For Si sup 2 sup + ions the negative non-additive effect has been observed. The increase in the yield of impurity-containing cluster Si sub n X sup + ions allows for an increase by a factor of 100-1000 for the sensitivity of the SIMS analysis of the Au, B, C, N impurities in Si with the use of cluster ions as primary and secondary ones.

  11. Surface texture of single-crystal silicon oxidized under a thin V{sub 2}O{sub 5} layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, S. E., E-mail: nikitin@mail.ioffe.ru; Verbitskiy, V. N.; Nashchekin, A. V.; Trapeznikova, I. N.; Bobyl, A. V.; Terukova, E. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The process of surface texturing of single-crystal silicon oxidized under a V{sub 2}O{sub 5} layer is studied. Intense silicon oxidation at the Si–V{sub 2}O{sub 5} interface begins at a temperature of 903 K which is 200 K below than upon silicon thermal oxidation in an oxygen atmosphere. A silicon dioxide layer 30–50 nm thick with SiO{sub 2} inclusions in silicon depth up to 400 nm is formed at the V{sub 2}O{sub 5}–Si interface. The diffusion coefficient of atomic oxygen through the silicon-dioxide layer at 903 K is determined (D ≥ 2 × 10{sup –15} cm{sup 2} s{sup –1}). A model of low-temperature silicon oxidation, based on atomic oxygen diffusion from V{sub 2}O{sub 5} through the SiO{sub 2} layer to silicon, and SiO{sub x} precipitate formation in silicon is proposed. After removing the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and silicon-dioxide layers, texture is formed on the silicon surface, which intensely scatters light in the wavelength range of 300–550 nm and is important in the texturing of the front and rear surfaces of solar cells.

  12. Concentrated Solutions of Single-Chain Nanoparticles: A Simple Model for Intrinsically Disordered Proteins under Crowding Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Angel J; Lo Verso, Federica; Arbe, Arantxa; Pomposo, José A; Colmenero, Juan

    2016-03-03

    By means of large-scale computer simulations and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), we investigate solutions of single-chain nanoparticles (SCNPs), covering the whole concentration range from infinite dilution to melt density. The analysis of the conformational properties of the SCNPs reveals that these synthetic nano-objects share basic ingredients with intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), as topological polydispersity, generally sparse conformations, and locally compact domains. We investigate the role of the architecture of the SCNPs in their collapse behavior under macromolecular crowding. Unlike in the case of linear macromolecules, which experience the usual transition from self-avoiding to Gaussian random-walk conformations, crowding leads to collapsed conformations of SCNPs resembling those of crumpled globules. This behavior is already found at volume fractions (about 30%) that are characteristic of crowding in cellular environments. The simulation results are confirmed by the SANS experiments. Our results for SCNPs--a model system free of specific interactions--propose a general scenario for the effect of steric crowding on IDPs: collapse from sparse conformations at high dilution to crumpled globular conformations in cell environments.

  13. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster on single-shell tanks during salt well pumping and other activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.96, portable exhausters for use on single-shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping and other activities. The reference to 'other activities' throughout this NOC means those activities described in Appendix A. The use of portable exhausters represents a cost savings feature because one portable exhauster can be moved back and forth between SSTS as schedules for salt well pumping or other activities dictate. A portable exhauster also could be used to simultaneously exhaust more than one SST during salt well pumping or during performance of other activities. The primary objective of providing active ventilation to these SSTS is to reduce the risk of postulated accidents to remain within risk guidelines. It is anticipated that salt well pumping will release gases entrapped within the waste as the liquid level is lowered, because of less hydrostatic force keeping the gases in place. Other activities also have the potential to release trapped gases by interrupting gas pockets within the waste. Hanford Site waste tanks must comply with the Tank Farms Safety Basis (OESH 1997) which requires that the flammable gas concentration be less than 25 percent of the lower flammability limit (LFL). The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) safety analysis indicates that the LFL might be exceeded in some tanks during certain postulated accident scenarios. Also, the potential for electrical (pump motor, heat tracing) and mechanical (equipment installation) spark sources exist. Therefore, because of the presence of ignition sources and the potential for released flammable gases, active ventilation might be required in some SSTS to reduce the 'time at risk' while salt well pumping or performing other activities. Thirty tanks remain to be salt well pumped

  14. [Construction of suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library of copepod Pseudodiaptomous annandalei and its ferritin cDNA cloning and differential expression under nickel stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jie-Lan; Wang, Gui-Zhong; Wu, Li-Sheng; Li, Shao-Jing

    2012-07-01

    To study the molecular response mechanisms of copepod to nickel stress, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library of Pseudodiaptomous annandalei under nickel stress was constructed by using SSH technique, and a total of 140 clones were randomly picked from the growing colonies and identified by PCR. The recombinant rate of the library was 98.6%, and the volume of the library was 1.12 x 10(6) cfu. After the recombinant plasmids were sequenced, a partial cDNA fragment of ferritin was recognized based on BLAST searches in NCBI, with a size of 859 bp and continuously encoding 170 amino acid residues. The semi-quantitative PCR results showed that the ferritin cDNA under 24 h nickel stress was distinctly up-regulated. The successful construction of the SSH library and the obtaining of ferritin cDNA fragment would supply basis for the further study of the molecular response mechanisms of copepod to nickel stress.

  15. Base-Excision-Repair-Induced Construction of a Single Quantum-Dot-Based Sensor for Sensitive Detection of DNA Glycosylase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Juan; Ma, Fei; Tang, Bo; Zhang, Chun-Yang

    2016-08-02

    DNA glycosylase is an initiating enzyme of cellular base excision repair pathway which is responsible for the repair of various DNA lesions and the maintenance of genomic stability, and the dysregulation of DNA glycosylase activity is associated with a variety of human pathology. Accurate detection of DNA glycosylase activity is critical to both clinical diagnosis and therapeutics, but conventional methods for the DNA glycosylase assay are usually time-consuming with poor sensitivity. Here, we demonstrate the base-excision-repair-induced construction of a single quantum dot (QD)-based sensor for highly sensitive measurement of DNA glycosylase activity. We use human 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1), which is responsible for specifically repairing the damaged 8-hydroxyguanine (8-oxoG, one of the most abundant and widely studied DNA damage products), as a model DNA glycosylase. In the presence of biotin-labeled DNA substrate, the hOGG1 may catalyze the removal of 8-oxo G from 8-oxoG·C base pairs to generate an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site. With the assistance of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1), the cleavage of the AP site results in the generation of a single-nucleotide gap. Subsequently, DNA polymerase β incorporates a Cy5-labeled dGTP into the DNA substrate to fill the gap. With the addition of streptavidin-coated QDs, a QD-DNA-Cy5 nanostructure is formed via specific biotin-streptavidin binding, inducing the occurrence of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from the QD to Cy5. The resulting Cy5 signal can be simply monitored by total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) imaging. The proposed method enables highly sensitive measurement of hOGG1 activity with a detection limit of 1.8 × 10(-6) U/μL. Moreover, it can be used to measure the enzyme kinetic parameters and detect the hOGG1 activity in crude cell extracts, offering a powerful tool for biomedical research and clinical diagnosis.

  16. Dynamic quantitative visualization of single cell alignment and migration and matrix remodeling in 3-D collagen hydrogels under mechanical force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yonggang; Wang, Xiaoli; Lee, Dongkeun; Greisler, Howard P

    2011-05-01

    We developed a live imaging system enabling dynamic visualization of single cell alignment induced by external mechanical force in a 3-D collagen matrix. The alignment dynamics and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were studied by time lapse differential interference contrast and/or phase contrast microscopy. Fluorescent and reflection confocal microcopy were used to study the SMC morphology and the microscale collagen matrix remodeling induced by SMCs. A custom developed program was used to quantify the cell migration and matrix remodeling. Our system enables cell concentration-independent alignment eliminating cell-to-cell interference and enables dynamic cell tracking, high magnification observation and rapid cell alignment accomplished in a few hours compared to days in traditional models. We observed that cells sense and response to the mechanical signal before cell spreading. Under mechanical stretch the migration directionality index of SMCs is 46.3% more than those cells without external stretch; the dynamic direction of cell protrusion is aligned to that of the mechanical force; SMCs showed directional matrix remodeling and the alignment index calculated from the matrix in front of cell protrusions is about 3 fold of that adjacent to cell bodies. Our results indicate that the mechanism of cell alignment is directional cell protrusion. Mechano-sensing, directionality in cell protrusion dynamics, cell migration and matrix remodeling are highly integrated. Our system provides a platform for studying the role of mechanical force on the cell matrix interactions and thus finds strategies to optimize selected properties of engineered tissues. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Stability investigation of a high number density Pt1/Fe2O3single-atom catalyst under different gas environments by HAADF-STEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Sibin; Wang, Rongming; Liu, Jingyue

    2018-05-18

    Catalysis by supported single metal atoms has demonstrated tremendous potential for practical applications due to their unique catalytic properties. Unless they are strongly anchored to the support surfaces, supported single atoms, however, are thermodynamically unstable, which poses a major obstacle for broad applications of single-atom catalysts (SACs). In order to develop strategies to improve the stability of SACs, we need to understand the intrinsic nature of the sintering processes of supported single metal atoms, especially under various gas environments that are relevant to important catalytic reactions. We report on the synthesis of high number density Pt 1 /Fe 2 O 3 SACs using a facial strong adsorption method and the study of the mobility of these supported Pt single atoms at 250 °C under various gas environments that are relevant to CO oxidation, water-gas shift, and hydrogenation reactions. Under the oxidative gas environment, Fe 2 O 3 supported Pt single atoms are stable even at high temperatures. The presence of either CO or H 2 molecules in the gas environment, however, facilitates the movement of the Pt atoms. The strong interaction between CO and Pt weakens the binding between the Pt atoms and the support, facilitating the movement of the Pt single atoms. The dissociation of H 2 molecules on the Pt atoms and their subsequent interaction with the oxygen species of the support surfaces dislodge the surface oxygen anchored Pt atoms, resulting in the formation of Pt clusters. The addition of H 2 O molecules to the CO or H 2 significantly accelerates the sintering of the Fe 2 O 3 supported Pt single atoms. An anchoring-site determined sintering mechanism is further proposed, which is related to the metal-support interaction.

  18. The Feasibility of Single-Item Measures for Organizational Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jeremy S.; Turner, Brian A.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers in a number of disciplines have examined the utility of single-item measures for both affective and cognitive constructs. While these authors have indicated that, under certain circumstances, the use of single-item measures is appropriate, there remains concern regarding the reliability and validity of single-item measures. This study…

  19. The model of children's social adjustment under the gender-roles absence in single-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Jun; Zhang, Hailun; Wei, Bingsi; Guo, Zeyao

    2018-01-14

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the gender-role types and child-rearing gender-role attitude of the single-parents, as well as their children's gender role traits and family socio-economic status, on social adjustment. We recruited 458 pairs of single parents and their children aged 8-18 by purposive sampling. The research tools included the Family Socio-economic Status Questionnaire, Sex Role Scales, Parental Child-rearing Gender-role Attitude Scale and Social Adjustment Scale. The results indicated: (a) single mothers' and their daughters' feminine traits were both higher than their masculine traits, and sons' masculine traits were higher than their feminine traits; the majority gender-role type of single parents and their children was androgyny; significant differences were found between children's gender-role types depending on different raiser, the proportion of girls' masculine traits raised by single fathers was significantly higher than those who were raised by single mothers; (b) family socio-economic status and single parents' gender-role types positively influenced parental child-rearing gender-role attitude, which in turn, influenced the children's gender traits, and further affected children's social adjustment. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.

  20. Teen Brain: Still Under Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in gray matter on brain scans during the teen years reflect growth and pruning of synapses. A Spectrum of Change ... cence. Reproductive hormones shape not only sex- related growth and behavior, but ... during the teens. As with repro- ductive hormones, stress hormones can ...

  1. Wood construction under cold climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Hagman, Olle; Sundqvist, Bror

    2014-01-01

    was sensitive to temperature change. MUF, PRF and PVAc resins demonstrated different characters with Norway spruce and Scot pine. At room temperature, all types of adhesive showed relative stability, in terms of shear strength variation. While at low temperature, the shear strength varied considerably. More......) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) joints (150mm x 20mm x 10mm) were bonded with seven commercially available resins (PUR, PVAc, EPI, MF, MUF1, PRF and MUF2) and tested at six temperatures (20, -20, -30, -40, -50 and -60 °C), respectively. Generally, for both species, temperature changes significantly...... affected shear strength of wood joints. As temperature decreased, the shear strength decreased. PUR resin resulted in the strongest shear strength at all temperatures tested. MF resin responded to temperature changes in a similar ways as the PUR resin. The shear strength of wood joints with EPI resins...

  2. A mixed integer linear programming model to reconstruct phylogenies from single nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes under the maximum parsimony criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzaro, Daniele; Ravi, Ramamoorthi; Schwartz, Russell

    2013-01-23

    Phylogeny estimation from aligned haplotype sequences has attracted more and more attention in the recent years due to its importance in analysis of many fine-scale genetic data. Its application fields range from medical research, to drug discovery, to epidemiology, to population dynamics. The literature on molecular phylogenetics proposes a number of criteria for selecting a phylogeny from among plausible alternatives. Usually, such criteria can be expressed by means of objective functions, and the phylogenies that optimize them are referred to as optimal. One of the most important estimation criteria is the parsimony which states that the optimal phylogeny T∗for a set H of n haplotype sequences over a common set of variable loci is the one that satisfies the following requirements: (i) it has the shortest length and (ii) it is such that, for each pair of distinct haplotypes hi,hj∈H, the sum of the edge weights belonging to the path from hi to hj in T∗ is not smaller than the observed number of changes between hi and hj. Finding the most parsimonious phylogeny for H involves solving an optimization problem, called the Most Parsimonious Phylogeny Estimation Problem (MPPEP), which is NP-hard in many of its versions. In this article we investigate a recent version of the MPPEP that arises when input data consist of single nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes extracted from a population of individuals on a common genomic region. Specifically, we explore the prospects for improving on the implicit enumeration strategy of implicit enumeration strategy used in previous work using a novel problem formulation and a series of strengthening valid inequalities and preliminary symmetry breaking constraints to more precisely bound the solution space and accelerate implicit enumeration of possible optimal phylogenies. We present the basic formulation and then introduce a series of provable valid constraints to reduce the solution space. We then prove that these

  3. Contribution of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nutrient conditions to Fe-removal mechanisms in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaweera, Mahesh W; Kasturiarachchi, Jagath C; Kularatne, Ranil K A; Wijeyekoon, Suren L J

    2008-05-01

    Severe contamination of water resources including groundwater with iron (Fe) due to various anthropogenic activities has been a major environmental problem in industrial areas of Sri Lanka. Hence, the use of the obnoxious weed, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in constructed wetlands (floating aquatic macrophyte-based plant treatment systems) to phytoremediate Fe-rich wastewaters seems to be an appealing option. Although several studies have documented that hyacinths are good metal-accumulating plants none of these studies have documented the ability of this plant grown under different nutrient conditions to remove heavy metals from wastewaters. This paper, therefore, reports the phytoremediation efficiencies of water hyacinth grown under different nutrient conditions for Fe-rich wastewaters in batch-type constructed wetlands. This study was conducted for 15 weeks after 1-week acclimatization by culturing young water hyacinth plants (average height of 20+/-2cm) in 590L capacity fiberglass tanks under different nutrient concentrations of 1-fold [28 and 7.7mg/L of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP), respectively], 2-fold, 1/2-fold, 1/4-fold and 1/8-fold with synthetic wastewaters containing 9.27Femg/L. Another set-up of hyacinths containing only Fe as a heavy metal but without any nutrients (i.e., 0-fold) was also studied. A mass balance was carried out to investigate the phytoremediation efficiencies and to determine the different mechanisms governing Fe removal from the wastewaters. Fe removal was largely due to phytoremediation mainly through the process of rhizofiltration and chemical precipitation of Fe2O3 and FeOH3 followed by flocculation and sedimentation. However, chemical precipitation was more significant especially during the first 3 weeks of the study. Plants grown in the 0-fold set-up showed the highest phytoremediation efficiency of 47% during optimum growth at the 6th week with a highest accumulation of 6707Femg/kg dry

  4. Escherichia coli MW005: lambda Red-mediated recombineering and copy-number induction of oriV-equipped constructs in a single host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope Ian A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli strain EL350 contains chromosomally integrated phage lambda Red recombinase genes enabling this strain to be used for modifying the sequence of resident clones via recombineering. BAC and fosmid clones are highly suitable for modification by recombineering but, because they are present at low (1-2 copies per cell, the DNA is difficult to isolate in high yield and purity. To overcome this limitation vectors, e.g. pCC1FOS, have been constructed that contain the additional replication origin, oriV, which permits copy-number to be induced transiently when propagated in a suitable host strain, e.g. EPI300, that supplies the cognate trans-replication protein TrfA. Previously, we used EL350 and EPI300 sequentially to recombineer oriV-equipped fosmid genomic clones and, subsequently, to induce copy-number of the resulting recombinant clone. To eliminate these intervening DNA isolation and transformation steps we retrofitted EL350 with a PBAD-driven trfA gene generating strain MW005 that supports, independently, both recombineering and copy-number induction. Results The PBAD-driven copy of cre in EL350 was replaced seamlessly with a copy of trfA, PCR-amplified from EPI300 chromosomal DNA, to generate MW005. This new strain has been used to both generate, via recombineering, a number of reporter gene fusions directly from pCC1FOS-based Caenorhabditis elegans genomic clones and to transiently induce copy-number of fosmid and BAC clones prior to DNA preparation. Conclusions By retrofitting EL350, an established 'recombineering' E. coli strain, with a tightly regulated copy of trfA we have produced a new strain, MW005, which combines recombineering capacity with the useful ability to transiently induce copy-number of oriV-equipped clones. By coupling these two steps in a single strain, use of MW005 will enable the more rapid recombineering-mediated production of recombinant clones in the yield and quality necessary for

  5. Real-time monitoring and calculation of the derating of single-phase transformers under nonsinusoidal operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batan, Tufan

    The extensive use of power electronic devices in the last two decades have degraded the quality of the power system by introducing voltage and current harmonics as well as DC excitations. Such phenomena cause additional losses in transformers, resulting in elevated temperatures of transformers above their rated temperatures. This added heat degrades the insulating material of the windings, decreasing the rated lifetime of transformers. For this reason, transformers feeding nonlinear loads must be derated; that is. by limiting either their output apparent or real power such that rated temperatures are not exceeded. It is of advantage to measure the derating of transformers which are already in service, for given nonlinear loads and to calculate the derating of large transformers that cannot readily be tested in laboratories. It is one of the objectives of this thesis to validate the computed derating values of transformers with corroborating measurements. A 25kVA 7200V/240V single-phase pole transformer is analyzed using two dimensional field analysis based on the diffusion equation, employing either rectangular or polycentric grid structures. Such a field analysis allows us to visualize the complex vector potential and flux density distributions inside the unsaturated transformer operating under short-circuit conditions. One can calculate the eddy currents within conducting materials, such as copper and aluminum windings, from complex vector potential values. Short-circuit tests applied to low and high voltage windings allow us to calculate the eddy currents inside each winding and consequently their eddy-current losses. The frequency dependent AC winding resistance RAC as well as the per-unit eddy-current loss coefficient PEC-R are computed. These values are used to determine the derating of transformers via either the K-factor as proposed by Underwriters Laboratory, Inc., or via the harmonic loss factor FHL, as favored by IEEE and IEC. A new digital data

  6. Dynamic single-cell analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under process perturbation: Comparison of different methods for monitoring the intensity of population heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delvigne, Frank; Baert, Jonathan; Gofflot, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Single cell biology has attracted a lot of attention in recent years and has led to numerous fundamental results pointing out the heterogeneity of clonal cell populations. In this context, microbial phenotypic heterogeneity under bioprocessing conditions needs to be further investigat...

  7. Replication of the plasmid pBR322 under the control of a cloned replication origin from the single-stranded DNA phage M13.

    OpenAIRE

    Cleary, J M; Ray, D S

    1980-01-01

    The replication origins of viral and complementary strands of bacteriophage M13 DNA are contained within a 507-nucleotide intergenic region of the viral genome. Chimeric plasmids have been constructed by inserting restriction endonuclease fragments of the M13 intergenic region into the plasmid pBR322. Replication of these hybrid plasmids, under conditions not permissive for the plasmid replicon, depends on specific segments of the M13 origin region and on the presence of M13 helper virus. Thu...

  8. Power Based Phase-Locked Loop Under Adverse Conditions with Moving Average Filter for Single-Phase System

    OpenAIRE

    Menxi Xie; CanYan Zhu; BingWei Shi; Yong Yang

    2017-01-01

    High performance synchronization methord is citical for grid connected power converter. For single-phase system, power based phase-locked loop(pPLL) uses a multiplier as phase detector(PD). As single-phase grid voltage is distorted, the phase error information contains ac disturbances oscillating at integer multiples of fundamental frequency which lead to detection error. This paper presents a new scheme based on moving average filter(MAF) applied in-loop of pPLL. The signal characteristic of...

  9. Thermal Optimized Operation of the Single-Phase Full-Bridge PV Inverter under Low Voltage Ride-Through Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    . At the same time, the target of a long service time (25 years or more) imposes new challenges to grid-connected transformer-less PV systems. Achieving more reliable PV inverters is of intense interest in recent research. As one of the most critical stresses that induce failures, the thermal stresses...... on the power devices of a single-phase full-bridge PV inverter are analyzed in different operational modes in this paper. The low voltage grid condition is specially taken into account in this paper. The analysis is demonstrated by a 3 kW single-phase full-bridge grid-connected PV system by simulations...

  10. Age-Related Changes in Brain Activation Underlying Single- and Dual-Task Performance: Visuomanual Drawing and Mental Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Impe, A.; Coxon, J. P.; Goble, D. J.; Wenderoth, N.; Swinnen, S. P.

    2011-01-01

    Depending on task combination, dual-tasking can either be performed successfully or can lead to performance decrements in one or both tasks. Interference is believed to be caused by limitations in central processing, i.e. structural interference between the neural activation patterns associated with each task. In the present study, single- and…

  11. Transport properties of Lu.sub.2./sub.Fe.sub.17./sub. single crystals under extreme conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skorokhod, Yuriy; Arnold, Zdeněk; Kamarád, Jiří; Andreev, Alexander V.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2004), s. 471-475 ISSN 1027-5495 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/02/0943 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : transport properties * magnetotransport properties * pressure effect * single crystals * intermetallic compounds Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  12. Adjusting output impedance using a PI controller to improve the stability of a single-phase inverter under weak grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Jiao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Explored in this paper is the grid impedance effect on the stability of a single-phase grid connected inverter with an LC filter based on an analysis of the inverter output impedance. For a single-phase grid connected inverter, a PI controller is often used to regulate the current injected into the grid. However, the control performance can be influenced when the inverter is connected to a weak grid. Also, the utility grid has background harmonic noise, which can make the injected current distorted. Therefore, analysis of the output impedance of a single-phase grid connected inverter is important for the robustness and stability of the system. By modeling the output impedance of inverter, it can be determined that the proportional gain and integral gain of the controller have an effect on the output impedance. Analytical results show that by adjusting the PI controller parameters, the ability for harmonic reduction and stability of the system can be improved. Simulation and experiments using a 1 kW single-phase grid connected inverter verify the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis.

  13. Measurements of Pair Production Under Channelling Conditions by 70-180 GeV Photons Incident on Single Crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment will use the WA69 set-up to deliver a tagged photon beam in the energy range from 15~GeV to 150~GeV with a total angular spread of about @M~0.5~mrad. The incident photon direction is known to about 35~@mrad through the direction of the emitting electron. The photon beam is incident on an about 1~mm thick Ge single crystal in order to investigate pair production in single crystals. Above a certain energy threshold photons incident along crystal axis will show strongly increased pair production yi - the so-called .us Channelling Pair Production (ChPP). The produced pairs are analyzed in the @W-spectrometer. The large spread in incident photon angles offers an excellent opportunity to investigate in one single experiment the pair production in an angular region around a crystal axes and thereby compare ChPP with coherent (CPP) and incoherent (ICPP) processes. The very abrupt onset of ChPP (around threshold) will be measured and give a crucial test of the theoretical calculations. The differential...

  14. Studies of Antibiotic Resistance of Beta-Lactamase Bacteria under Different Nutrition Limitations at the Single-Cell Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Ran, Min; Wang, Jun; Ouyang, Qi; Luo, Chunxiong

    2015-01-01

    Drug resistance involves many biological processes, including cell growth, cell communication, and cell cooperation. In the last few decades, bacterial drug resistance studies have made substantial progress. However, a major limitation of the traditional resistance study still exists: most of the studies have concentrated on the average behavior of enormous amounts of cells rather than surveying single cells with different phenotypes or genotypes. Here, we report our study of beta-lactamase bacterial drug resistance in a well-designed microfluidic device, which allows us to conduct more controllable experiments, such as controlling the nutrient concentration, switching the culture media, performing parallel experiments, observing single cells, and acquiring time-lapse images. By using GFP as a beta-lactamase indicator and acquiring time-lapse images at the single-cell level, we observed correlations between the bacterial heterogeneous phenotypes and their behavior in different culture media. The feedback loop between the growth rate and the beta-lactamase production suggests that the beta-lactamase bacteria are more resistant in a rich medium than in a relatively poor medium. In the poorest medium, the proportion of dormant cells may increase, which causes a lower death rate in the same generation. Our work may contribute to assaying the antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacteria in heterogeneous complex media.

  15. Studies of Antibiotic Resistance of Beta-Lactamase Bacteria under Different Nutrition Limitations at the Single-Cell Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    Full Text Available Drug resistance involves many biological processes, including cell growth, cell communication, and cell cooperation. In the last few decades, bacterial drug resistance studies have made substantial progress. However, a major limitation of the traditional resistance study still exists: most of the studies have concentrated on the average behavior of enormous amounts of cells rather than surveying single cells with different phenotypes or genotypes. Here, we report our study of beta-lactamase bacterial drug resistance in a well-designed microfluidic device, which allows us to conduct more controllable experiments, such as controlling the nutrient concentration, switching the culture media, performing parallel experiments, observing single cells, and acquiring time-lapse images. By using GFP as a beta-lactamase indicator and acquiring time-lapse images at the single-cell level, we observed correlations between the bacterial heterogeneous phenotypes and their behavior in different culture media. The feedback loop between the growth rate and the beta-lactamase production suggests that the beta-lactamase bacteria are more resistant in a rich medium than in a relatively poor medium. In the poorest medium, the proportion of dormant cells may increase, which causes a lower death rate in the same generation. Our work may contribute to assaying the antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacteria in heterogeneous complex media.

  16. Tactile sensibility of single-tooth implants and natural teeth under local anesthesia of the natural antagonistic teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkling, Norbert; Heussner, Stefan; Nicolay, Claudia; Bayer, Stefan; Mericske-Stern, Regina; Utz, Karl-Heinz

    2012-04-01

    The term osseoperception describes the capability of developing a subtle tactile sensibility over dental implants. The present clinical study aims at clarifying the question of how far tactile sensibility is to be attributed to the periodontium of the natural opposing tooth of the implant. Thirty-two subjects with single-tooth implants with natural opposing teeth were included in this clinical, single-blind, split-mouth study. The natural antagonistic tooth of the implant and the corresponding natural contralateral tooth were anesthetized with a locally infiltrated articaine anesthetic. In a computer-assisted and randomized way, copper foils of varying thickness (0-100 µm) were placed interocclusally between the single-tooth implant and the natural opposing tooth, and between the contralateral pair of natural opposing teeth in order to investigate the active tactile sensibility according to the psychophysical method of constant stimuli and evaluate it statistically by the Weibull distribution. The average tactile sensibility of the implants with anesthetized antagonists at the 50% value calculated by means of the Weibull distribution was 20 ± 11 µm with a support area (90%-10% value) of 77 ± 89 µm. For the pair of natural teeth, the tactile sensibility at the 50% value was 16 ± 9 µm with a support area of 48.4 ± 93 µm. This resulted in an average intraindividual difference of 3.5 ± 7 µm at the 50% value and 29 ± 93 µm in the support area. The statistical calculations demonstrated an equivalent tactile sensibility (50% value) of the single-tooth implant and the contralateral natural control tooth with the natural antagonists being anesthetized in each case (double t-test, equivalence limit ± 8 µm, P 80%). Apparently, the active tactile sensibility of single-tooth implants with natural opposing teeth is not only to be attributed to the periodontium of the opposing tooth but also to a perception over the implant itself. This could support the hypothesis

  17. Construction of a single/multiple wavelength RZ optical pulse source at 40 GHz by use of wavelength conversion in a high-nonlinearity DSF-NOLM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Jianjun; Yujun, Qian; Jeppesen, Palle

    2001-01-01

    A single or multiple wavelength RZ optical pulse source at 40 GHz is successfully obtained by using wavelength conversion in a nonlinear optical loop mirror consisting of high nonlinearity-dispersion shifted fiber.......A single or multiple wavelength RZ optical pulse source at 40 GHz is successfully obtained by using wavelength conversion in a nonlinear optical loop mirror consisting of high nonlinearity-dispersion shifted fiber....

  18. A study on the electric properties of single-junction GaAs solar cells under the combined radiation of low-energy protons and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Huijie; Wu Yiyong; Xiao Jingdong; He Shiyu; Yang Dezhuang; Sun Yanzheng; Sun Qiang; Lv Wei; Xiao Zhibin; Huang Caiyong

    2008-01-01

    Displacement damage induced by charged particle radiation is the main cause of degradation of orbital-service solar cells, while the radiation-induced ionization shows no permanent damage effect on their electrical properties. It is reported that in single crystal silicon solar cells, low-energy electron radiation does not exert permanent degradation of their properties, but the fluence of electron radiation exerts an influence on the damage magnitude under the combined radiation of protons and electrons. The electrical properties of the single-junction GaAs/Ge solar cells were investigated after irradiation by sequential and synchronous electron and proton beams. Low-energy electron radiation showed no effects on the change of the solar cell properties during sequential or synchronous irradiation, implying ionization during particle radiation could not exert influence on the displacement damage process to the solar cells under the experimental conditions

  19. Construction and characterization of a fusion protein of single-chain anti-CD20 antibody and human beta-glucuronidase for antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, HJ; Sernee, MF; Hooijberg, E; Brakenhoff, RH; van den Meulen-Mulleman, IH; Pinedo, HM; Boven, E

    1998-01-01

    The CD20 antigen is an attractive target for specific treatment of B-cell lymphoma. Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT) aims at the specific activation of a nontoxic prodrug at the tumor site by an enzyme targeted by a tumor-specific antibody such as anti-CD20. We constructed a fusion

  20. A single molecule assay to probe monovalent and multivalent bonds between hyaluronan and its key leukocyte receptor CD44 under force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bano, Fouzia; Banerji, Suneale; Howarth, Mark; Jackson, David G.; Richter, Ralf P.

    2016-09-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), a category of linear, anionic polysaccharides, are ubiquitous in the extracellular space, and important extrinsic regulators of cell function. Despite the recognized significance of mechanical stimuli in cellular communication, however, only few single molecule methods are currently available to study how monovalent and multivalent GAG·protein bonds respond to directed mechanical forces. Here, we have devised such a method, by combining purpose-designed surfaces that afford immobilization of GAGs and receptors at controlled nanoscale organizations with single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS). We apply the method to study the interaction of the GAG polymer hyaluronan (HA) with CD44, its receptor in vascular endothelium. Individual bonds between HA and CD44 are remarkably resistant to rupture under force in comparison to their low binding affinity. Multiple bonds along a single HA chain rupture sequentially and independently under load. We also demonstrate how strong non-covalent bonds, which are versatile for controlled protein and GAG immobilization, can be effectively used as molecular anchors in SMFS. We thus establish a versatile method for analyzing the nanomechanics of GAG·protein interactions at the level of single GAG chains, which provides new molecular-level insight into the role of mechanical forces in the assembly and function of GAG-rich extracellular matrices.

  1. The effect of a cognitive-motor intervention on voluntary step execution under single and dual task conditions in older adults: a randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichierri G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Pichierri,1 Amos Coppe,1 Silvio Lorenzetti,2 Kurt Murer,1 Eling D de Bruin11Institute of Human Movement Sciences and Sport, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, Switzerland; 2Institute for Biomechanics, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, SwitzerlandBackground: This randomized controlled pilot study aimed to explore whether a cognitive-motor exercise program that combines traditional physical exercise with dance video gaming can improve the voluntary stepping responses of older adults under attention demanding dual task conditions.Methods: Elderly subjects received twice weekly cognitive-motor exercise that included progressive strength and balance training supplemented by dance video gaming for 12 weeks (intervention group. The control group received no specific intervention. Voluntary step execution under single and dual task conditions was recorded at baseline and post intervention (Week 12.Results: After intervention between-group comparison revealed significant differences for initiation time of forward steps under dual task conditions (U = 9, P = 0.034, r = 0.55 and backward steps under dual task conditions (U = 10, P = 0.045, r = 0.52 in favor of the intervention group, showing altered stepping levels in the intervention group compared to the control group.Conclusion: A cognitive-motor intervention based on strength and balance exercises with additional dance video gaming is able to improve voluntary step execution under both single and dual task conditions in older adults.Keywords: fall prevention, exercise, dance, video game

  2. The effect of a cognitive-motor intervention on voluntary step execution under single and dual task conditions in older adults: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichierri, Giuseppe; Coppe, Amos; Lorenzetti, Silvio; Murer, Kurt; de Bruin, Eling D

    2012-01-01

    This randomized controlled pilot study aimed to explore whether a cognitive-motor exercise program that combines traditional physical exercise with dance video gaming can improve the voluntary stepping responses of older adults under attention demanding dual task conditions. Elderly subjects received twice weekly cognitive-motor exercise that included progressive strength and balance training supplemented by dance video gaming for 12 weeks (intervention group). The control group received no specific intervention. Voluntary step execution under single and dual task conditions was recorded at baseline and post intervention (Week 12). After intervention between-group comparison revealed significant differences for initiation time of forward steps under dual task conditions (U = 9, P = 0.034, r = 0.55) and backward steps under dual task conditions (U = 10, P = 0.045, r = 0.52) in favor of the intervention group, showing altered stepping levels in the intervention group compared to the control group. A cognitive-motor intervention based on strength and balance exercises with additional dance video gaming is able to improve voluntary step execution under both single and dual task conditions in older adults.

  3. Synergistic effects of total ionizing dose on single event upset sensitivity in static random access memory under proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Yao; Guo Hong-Xia; Zhang Feng-Qi; Zhao Wen; Wang Yan-Ping; Zhang Ke-Ying; Ding Li-Li; Luo Yin-Hong; Wang Yuan-Ming; Fan Xue

    2014-01-01

    Synergistic effects of the total ionizing dose (TID) on the single event upset (SEU) sensitivity in static random access memories (SRAMs) were studied by using protons. The total dose was cumulated with high flux protons during the TID exposure, and the SEU cross section was tested with low flux protons at several cumulated dose steps. Because of the radiation-induced off-state leakage current increase of the CMOS transistors, the noise margin became asymmetric and the memory imprint effect was observed. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  4. 26 CFR 1.436-1 - Limits on benefits and benefit accruals under single employer defined benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., unless the present value, determined in accordance with section 417(e)(3), of the portion of the benefit...) of this section) does not exceed the lesser of— (A) 50 percent of the present value (determined in...)(3)(iii)(C) is the present value (determined under guidance prescribed by the Pension Benefit...

  5. Conferring of contracts by utilities in the Single European Market. Transposition of the sectoral directive where it concerns construction and delivery orders into German law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pick, H.; Wetzel, U.

    1994-01-01

    After the enactment of the Second Law Amending the Law on Budgetary Principles, the Ordinance on the Confering of Contracts, and the Ordinance on Verification; and the amendment of the ordinances on the placing of construction and delivery orders (VOB and VOL) the European Directives on so-called ''public'' tendering can be said to be transposed into German law as far as they concern construction and delivery orders. This means that as of 1 March 1994 besides the ''classical'' public contractors utilities, too, must invite bids Europe-wide. According to European law this also applies to service orders as of 1 July 1994, but this provision still awaits transposition into German law. (orig.) [de

  6. Base damage within single-strand DNA underlies in vivo hypermutability induced by a ubiquitous environmental agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin Chan

    Full Text Available Chromosomal DNA must be in single-strand form for important transactions such as replication, transcription, and recombination to occur. The single-strand DNA (ssDNA is more prone to damage than double-strand DNA (dsDNA, due to greater exposure of chemically reactive moieties in the nitrogenous bases. Thus, there can be agents that damage regions of ssDNA in vivo while being inert toward dsDNA. To assess the potential hazard posed by such agents, we devised an ssDNA-specific mutagenesis reporter system in budding yeast. The reporter strains bear the cdc13-1 temperature-sensitive mutation, such that shifting to 37°C results in telomere uncapping and ensuing 5' to 3' enzymatic resection. This exposes the reporter region, containing three closely-spaced reporter genes, as a long 3' ssDNA overhang. We validated the ability of the system to detect mutagenic damage within ssDNA by expressing a modified human single-strand specific cytosine deaminase, APOBEC3G. APOBEC3G induced a high density of substitutions at cytosines in the ssDNA overhang strand, resulting in frequent, simultaneous inactivation of two reporter genes. We then examined the mutagenicity of sulfites, a class of reactive sulfur oxides to which humans are exposed frequently via respiration and food intake. Sulfites, at a concentration similar to that found in some foods, induced a high density of mutations, almost always as substitutions at cytosines in the ssDNA overhang strand, resulting in simultaneous inactivation of at least two reporter genes. Furthermore, sulfites formed a long-lived adducted 2'-deoxyuracil intermediate in DNA that was resistant to excision by uracil-DNA N-glycosylase. This intermediate was bypassed by error-prone translesion DNA synthesis, frequently involving Pol ζ, during repair synthesis. Our results suggest that sulfite-induced lesions in DNA can be particularly deleterious, since cells might not possess the means to repair or bypass such lesions

  7. Numerical Simulation of Inter-Flat Air Cross-Contamination under the Condition of Single-Sided Natural Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoping; Niu, Jianlei; Perino, Marco

    2008-01-01

    ventilated room, the renormalization group based k-ε model, together with carbon dioxide used as a tracer, is chosen to reveal this air cross-contamination. The simulation results are in agreement with our prior on-site tracer-gas measurements, revealing that the windows flush with a flat fa ade can...... be a major route of the air cross-contamination in high-rise residential buildings. Finally, an assessment index is proposed to evaluate the potential infection risks associated with this inter-flat air flow occurring in high-rise residential buildings....... the two sides, each of which has a flat fa ade with openable windows. When the wind speed is extremely low, with doors closed and windows opened, the flats become single-sided naturally ventilated driven by buoyancy effects. The air pollutants can travel from a lower flat to a vertically adjacent upper...

  8. Gold nanoshell photomodification under a single-nanosecond laser pulse accompanied by color-shifting and bubble formation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akchurin, Garif; Khlebtsov, Boris; Akchurin, Georgy; Tuchin, Valery; Zharov, Vladimir; Khlebtsov, Nikolai

    2008-01-01

    Laser-nanoparticle interaction is crucial for biomedical applications of lasers and nanotechnology to the treatment of cancer or pathogenic microorganisms. We report on the first observation of laser-induced coloring of gold nanoshell solution after a one nanosecond pulse and an unprecedentedly low bubble formation (as the main mechanism of cancer cell killing) threshold at a laser fluence of about 4 mJ cm -2 , which is safe for normal tissue. Specifically, silica/gold nanoshell (140/15 nm) suspensions were irradiated with a single 4 ns (1064 nm) or 8 ns (900 nm) laser pulse at fluences ranging from 0.1 mJ cm -2 to 50 J cm -2 . Solution red coloring was observed by the naked eye confirmed by blue-shifting of the absorption spectrum maximum from the initial 900 nm for nanoshells to 530 nm for conventional colloidal gold nanospheres. TEM images revealed significant photomodification of nanoparticles including complete fragmentation of gold shells, changes in silica core structure, formation of small 20-30 nm isolated spherical gold nanoparticles, gold nanoshells with central holes, and large and small spherical gold particles attached to a silica core. The time-resolved monitoring of bubble formation phenomena with the photothermal (PT) thermolens technique demonstrated that after application of a single 8 ns pulse at fluences 5-10 mJ cm -2 and higher the next pulse did not produce any PT response, indicating a dramatic decrease in absorption because of gold shell modification. We also observed a dependence of the bubble expansion time on the laser energy with unusually very fast PT signal rising (∼3.5 ns scale at 0.2 J cm -2 ). Application of the observed phenomena to medical applications is discussed, including a simple visual color test for laser-nanoparticle interaction

  9. Comparative Studies of Silicon Dissolution in Molten Aluminum Under Different Flow Conditions, Part I: Single-Phase Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed Ahmadi, Mehran; Argyropoulos, Stavros A.; Bussmann, Markus; Doutre, Don

    2015-02-01

    This manuscript presents research work related to the assimilation of Silicon (Si) in molten Aluminum (Al) under natural and forced convection conditions. The effects of impurity levels of solid Si, Al bath temperature, and fluid flow conditions were investigated. It was found that a polycrystalline metallurgical grade Si (MGSi) with higher levels of impurities dissolved more slowly than high purity polycrystalline MGSi, which showed a similar dissolution rate to monocrystalline electronic grade Si. For high-purity Si cylinders, the experimental data under natural convection conditions exhibit good agreement with a correlation for vertical cylinders: overline{Sh} = ( 0. 1 1 {{to}}0.129)(Gr_m Sc)^{1/3} . Under forced convection conditions, by rotating the molten Al, the mass transfer rate increased at higher liquid velocities, implying that the dissolution process is controlled by liquid phase diffusion. When the forced convection prevails, the experimental data are well predicted by a correlation for vertical cylinders in cross flow: overline{Sh} = 0.3 + {0.62{Re}^{1/2} Sc^{1/3} }/{[ {1 + (0.4/Sc)^{2/3 } ]^{1/4} }}[ {1 + ( {{Re} /282000} )^{5/8} } ]^{4/5} . Finally, at lower velocities of liquid Al, the combined effect of natural and forced convection must be considered, and a correlation is proposed based on the buoyancy force normal to the direction of the flow.

  10. The influence of topography on single-tower-based carbon flux measurements under unstable conditions: a modeling perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiguo

    2010-01-01

    Based on high-resolution numerical simulations, the influence of topography on the one-dimensional (1-D) tower-based measurements of the net ecosystem-atmosphere exchange rate (NEE) of CO2 was analyzed under unstable conditions. Airflow and transport of a passive scalar were simulated over undulating surfaces covered by tall trees. Compared to their flat surface counterparts, the wind and scalar mixing ratio fields are more disturbed over a steeper surface and/or under a weaker background wind condition, resulting in larger errors in the 1-D NEE estimation. The magnitude of the error is generally larger on the windward side than on the lee side when topography-induced circulation (TIC) does not occur. Applying the ensemble streamline coordinate system to estimating NEE could result in larger errors than applying the local earth coordinate system or terrain coordinate system when the atmospheric flow is significantly distorted. This is especially true when TIC occurs. NEE estimated from the 1-D framework under convective conditions with calm or weak background winds may incur significant errors even over gentle topography. Preference in the selection of a flux tower location is given to the crest area.

  11. Constructed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    these systems can improve water quality, engineers and scientists construct systems that replicate the functions of natural wetlands. Constructed wetlands are treatment systems that use natural processes

  12. Retrofitting of a barn under preservation order into a residential house by means of passive house construction; Umbau einer unter Denkmalschutz stehenden Scheune zu einem Wohnhaus in Passivhausbauweise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeser, R. [SAINT-GOBAIN ISOVER G und H AG, Ladenburg (Germany)

    2001-02-01

    This project shows the possibilities of old building retrofitting by means of passive house construction. A peculiarity is the special requirements at building physics, static and protection of historic monuments. The project was subsidised by the companies SAINT-GOBAIN ISOVER G+H AG; SAINT-GOBAIN GLASS Germany and BASF in order to show that even historic monuments can be brought to the latest level of building technology. The barn, built in approximately 1850 in the Brundtland city Viernheim known as energy conservation city, is part of an ensemble of former tobacco barns under preservation order, which partially have already been retrofitted into residential houses, a library or into a municipal culture centre. The object was supposed to be retrofitted into a passive house with a yearly heating energy demand of 15 kWh/m{sub 2} and thus reach a passive house standard that is so far unique for such a building under preservation order. The following had to be taken into consideration (a) compliance with regulations for protection of historic monuments (b) reaching the passive house standard (c) solutions in terms of humidity protection for the visible trelliswork wall and salt-loaded natural stone wall (d) solution of special static requirements by protecting neighbouring buildings. (orig.) [German] Dieses Projekt zeigt die Moeglichkeiten einer Altbausanierung in Passivhausbauweise auf. Eine Besonderheit hierbei sind spezielle Anforderungen an die Bauphysik, der Statik und des Denkmalschutzes. Das Vorhaben wurde unterstuetzt durch die Unternehmen SAINT-GOBAIN ISOVER G+H AG, SAINT-GOBAIN GLASS Deutschland und BASF, um zu zeigen, dass auch historische Altbauten auf den neuesten Stand der Bautechnik gebracht werden koennen. Die Scheune mit einem Baujahr von ca. 1850 in der als Energiesparstadt bekannten hessischen Brundtlandstadt Viernheim ist Teil eines denkmalgeschuetztes Ensembles von ehemaligen Tabakscheunen, die z.T. schon in Wohnhaeuser, in eine Bibliothek, oder

  13. Effect of Various Lengths of Single Phase Starvation on Compensatory Growth in Rainbow Trout under Summer Conditions (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    OpenAIRE

    Sevgili, Hüseyin; Hoşsu, * Belgin; Emre, Yılmaz; Kanyılmaz, Mahir

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of various lengths of starvation periods on following compensatory growth (CG) in rainbow trout under summer conditions (18.1°C and day length of 12.5-14.5 hours). Five treatments with triplicate tanks were as follows: control (C) fed to satiation over 84 days; one (S1), two (S2), three (S3), and four (S4) weeks of starvation; and then refeeding for the remaining eight weeks of the experiment. Starvation periods induced hyperphagia during refe...

  14. Evaluating lane-by-lane gap-out based signal control for isolated intersection under stop-line, single and multiple advance detection systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Keerthi Kancharla

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In isolated intersection’s actuated signal control, inductive loop detector layout plays a crucial role in providingthe vehicle information to the signal controller. Based on vehicle actuations at the detector, the green time is extended till a pre-defined threshold gap-out occurs. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA proposed various guidelines for detec-tor layouts on low-speed and high-speed approaches. This paper proposes single and multiple advance detection schemes for low-speed traffic movements, that utilizes vehicle actuations from advance detectors located upstream of the stop-line, which are able to detect spill-back queues. The proposed detection schemes operate with actuated signal control based on lane-by-lane gap-out criteria. The performance of the proposed schemes is compared with FHWA’s stop-line and single advance detection schemes in the VISSIM simulation tool. Results have shown that the proposed single advance detection schemes showed improved performance in reducing travel time delay and average number of stops per vehicle under low volumes while the multiple advance detection scheme performed well under high volumes.

  15. Postoperative infection treatment score for the spine (PITSS): construction and validation of a predictive model to define need for single versus multiple irrigation and debridement for spinal surgical site infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipaola, Christian P; Saravanja, Davor D; Boriani, Luca; Zhang, Hongbin; Boyd, Michael C; Kwon, Brian K; Paquette, Scott J; Dvorak, Marcel F S; Fisher, Charles G; Street, John T

    2012-03-01

    There is very little evidence to guide treatment of patients with spinal surgical site infection (SSI) who require irrigation and debridement (I&D) in deciding need for single or multiple I&Ds or more complex wound management such as vacuum-assisted closure dressing or soft-tissue flaps. The purpose of this study was to build a predictive model that stratifies patients with spinal SSI, allowing us to determine which patients will need single versus multiple I&D. The model will be validated and will serve as evidence to support a scoring system to guide treatment. A consecutive series of 128 patients from a tertiary spine center (collected from 1999 to 2005) who required I&D for spinal SSI were studied based on data from a prospectively collected outcomes database. More than 30 variables were identified by extensive literature review as possible risk factors for SSI and tested as possible predictors of risk for multiple I&D. Logistic regression was conducted to assess each variable's predictability by a "bootstrap" statistical method. A prediction model was built in which single or multiple I&D was treated as the "response" and risk factors as "predictors." Next, a second series of 34 different patients meeting the same criteria as the first population were studied. External validation of the predictive model was performed by applying the model to the second data set, and predicted probabilities were generated for each patient. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed, and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Twenty-four of one hundred twenty-eight patients with spinal SSI required multiple I&D. Six predictors: anatomical location, medical comorbidities, specific microbiology of the SSI, the presence of distant site infection (ie, urinary tract infection or bacteremia), the presence of instrumentation, and the bone graft type proved to be the most reliable predictors of need for multiple I&D. Internal validation of the predictive model

  16. Optical absorbances of Gd3Ga5O12 single crystals under shock compression to 211 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q. C.; Zhou, X. M.; Luo, S. N.

    2017-04-01

    Shock-induced opacity in Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG) single crystals is investigated by transmission/emission measurements at 16 wavelengths (400-800 nm), as well as complementary particle velocity measurements at 1550 nm, in the pressure range of 47-211 GPa. Optical transmission spectra through the shocked samples are measured with a in-situ, shock-generated light source, and the resultant extinction coefficients of different wavelengths and shock pressures obtained. As shock strength increases, the optical opacity of the shocked GGG increases and peaks at 75 GPa (the transparent-opaque transition), drops at 75-100 GPa (the opaque-transparent transition), and then increases again. The transparency recovery coincides with a solid-solid phase transition. The microstructure changes associated with the solid-solid phase transition and plastic deformation most likely cause the loss and recovery of transparency. GGG can be useful as a high pressure window for laser velocimetry (1550 nm) or optical pyrometry (400-800 nm) in the ranges of 100-140 GPa and 80-120 GPa, respectively.

  17. Changes in the lipid composition of blood under the influence of a single submaximal exercise capacity (experimental research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermolaeva E.N.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In acute physical exercise, there is a change in oxygen delivery working tissues, blood gas transport function and efficiency of the use of oxygen by cells in the process of metabolism, which is the basis for compensation for physical activities. Lipid metabolism plays an important role in the energy supply of muscle activity. The aim of our research is to study the effect of a single submaximal exercise capacity by changing the lipid profile of peripheral blood. Materials and Methods. The study was performed on 18 white rats. Model of acute exercise: animals swam 4 minutes with a load weighing 20% of body weight. Blood sampling was performed by intracardiac way, right after exercise. The blood lipid profile was determined. Results. In the experiment reported an increase in triglycerides, total cholesterol, very low-density lipoproteins, but the atherogenic ratio is maintained at the control values, due to a significant increase in the level of high-density lipoprotein. Conclusion. Acute submaximal exercise capacity by untrained body has an atherogenic effect. Working muscles during physical activity is a major consumer of free fatty acids, which are the source of atherogenic lipoprotein form of the very low and low density.

  18. Three-dimensional simulation of the motion of a single particle under a simulated turbulent velocity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Casas, P. A.; Bombardelli, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    A 3D Lagrangian particle tracking model is coupled to a 3D channel velocity field to simulate the saltation motion of a single sediment particle moving in saltation mode. The turbulent field is a high-resolution three dimensional velocity field that reproduces a by-pass transition to turbulence on a flat plate due to free-stream turbulence passing above de plate. In order to reduce computational costs, a decoupled approached is used, i.e., the turbulent flow is simulated independently from the tracking model, and then used to feed the 3D Lagrangian particle model. The simulations are carried using the point-particle approach. The particle tracking model contains three sub-models, namely, particle free-flight, a post-collision velocity and bed representation sub-models. The free-flight sub-model considers the action of the following forces: submerged weight, non-linear drag, lift, virtual mass, Magnus and Basset forces. The model also includes the effect of particle angular velocity. The post-collision velocities are obtained by applying conservation of angular and linear momentum. The complete model was validated with experimental results from literature within the sand range. Results for particle velocity time series and distribution of particle turbulent intensities are presented.

  19. Normal Growth in PKU Patients Under Low-Protein Diet in a Single-Center Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matic, Jana; Zeltner, Nina A; Häberle, Johannes

    2018-02-25

    Dietary phenylalanine restriction in phenylketonuria (PKU) patients is usually mandatory in order to prevent cognitive impairment. The influence of a low-protein diet on growth has raised concerns in families and caregivers. This paper aims to investigate the growth in PKU patients treated with a low-protein diet including supplementation of amino acids and other nutrients according to standard protocols.We performed a single-center, cross-sectional study on growth in pediatric PKU patients (n = 51) treated with low-protein diet over a 20-month period. Height of healthy siblings (n = 44) and target height, calculated based on parents' height, served as controls.No statistically significant differences were found comparing mean height z-scores between patients and siblings (p = 0.261). Patients PKU patients treated with low-protein diet can achieve normal growth with patients making up the leeway after puberty. While prepubertal patients were shorter than expected based on their target height, older patients were within their expected target height. This study indicates that current practice of low-protein diet in PKU patients allows normal growth.

  20. Numerical analysis of intrinsic bistability and chromatic switching in Tm3+ single-doped systems under photon avalanche pumping scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Li; Zhang Xinlu; Chen Lixue

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we predict and numerically demonstrate the intrinsic intensity bistability, spectra bistability and chromatic switching of visible-infrared emission in Tm 3+ single-doped systems that are pumped by the photon avalanche scheme at 648 nm. Based on the coupled rate equation theory, the evolutions of the populations at various Tm 3+ energy levels, emission spectra and fluorescence intensity versus pump excitation are numerically investigated in detail. The results show that intrinsic optical bistability (IOB) associated with emission spectra and luminescence intensity takes place in the vicinity of the avalanche threshold (∼10 kW cm -2 ). When the pump excitation rises above the switching threshold (∼17.5 kW cm -2 ), the chromatic switching between the infrared (1716 nm) and the visible blue (452/469 nm) spectra can be performed. Moreover, the influences of system parameters on IOB and the origin of chromatic switching are discussed. These unique characteristics of Tm 3+ -doped systems would lead to the new possibility of the development of pump-controlled all-solid-state luminescence switches and optical bistability switches.

  1. Charge transport and glassy dynamics of poly(ethylene oxide)-based single-ion conductors under geometrical confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runt, James; Iacob, Ciprian

    2015-03-01

    Segmental and local dynamics as well as charge transport are investigated in a series of poly(ethylene oxide)-based single-ion conductors (ionomers) with varying counterions (Li +, Na +) confined in uni-directional nanoporous silica membranes. The dynamics are explored over a wide frequency and temperature range by broadband dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. Slowing of segmental dynamics and a decrease in dc conductivity (strongly coupled with segmental relaxation) of the confined ionomers are associated with surface effects - resulting from interfacial hydrogen bonding between the host nanoporous silica membrane and the guest ionomers. These effects are significantly reduced or eliminated upon pore surface modification through silanization. The primary transport properties for the confined ionomers decrease by about one decade compared to the bulk ionomer. A model assuming reduced mobility of an adsorbed layer at the pore wall/ionomer interface is shown to provide a quantitative explanation for the decrease in effective transport quantities in non-silanized porous silica membranes. Additionally, the effect of confinement on ion aggregation in ionomers by using X-ray scattering will also be discussed. Supported by the National Science Foundation, Polymers Program.

  2. Under the Microscope: Single-Domain Antibodies for Live-Cell Imaging and Super-Resolution Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjoern Traenkle

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Single-domain antibodies (sdAbs have substantially expanded the possibilities of advanced cellular imaging such as live-cell or super-resolution microscopy to visualize cellular antigens and their dynamics. In addition to their unique properties including small size, high stability, and solubility in many environments, sdAbs can be efficiently functionalized according to the needs of the respective imaging approach. Genetically encoded intrabodies fused to fluorescent proteins (chromobodies have become versatile tools to study dynamics of endogenous proteins in living cells. Additionally, sdAbs conjugated to organic dyes were shown to label cellular structures with high density and minimal fluorophore displacement making them highly attractive probes for super-resolution microscopy. Here, we review recent advances of the chromobody technology to visualize localization and dynamics of cellular targets and the application of chromobody-based cell models for compound screening. Acknowledging the emerging importance of super-resolution microscopy in cell biology, we further discuss advantages and challenges of sdAbs for this technology.

  3. Effect of vacancy defect on electrical properties of chiral single-walled carbon nanotube under external electrical field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yu-Pin; Tien Li-Gan; Tsai Chuen-Horng; Lee Ming-Hsien; Li Feng-Yin

    2011-01-01

    Ab initio calculations demonstrated that the energy gap modulation of a chiral carbon nanotube with mono-vacancy defect can be achieved by applying a transverse electric field. The bandstructure of this defective carbon nanotube varying due to the external electric field is distinctly different from those of the perfect nanotube and defective zigzag nanotube. This variation in bandstructure strongly depends on not only the chirality of the nanotube and also the applied direction of the transverse electric field. A mechanism is proposed to explain the response of the local energy gap between the valence band maximum state and the local gap state under external electric field. Several potential applications of these phenomena are discussed. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  4. Modelling of heating and photoexcitation of single-crystal silicon under multipulse irradiation by a nanosecond laser at 1.06 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, D. S.; Yakovlev, E. B.

    2018-03-01

    We report a theoretical study of heating and photoexcitation of single-crystal silicon by nanosecond laser radiation at a wavelength of 1.06 μm. The proposed physicomathematical model of heating takes into account the complex nonlinear dynamics of the interband absorption coefficient of silicon and the contribution of the radial heat removal to the cooling of silicon between pulses under multipulse irradiation, which allows one to obtain a satisfactory agreement between theoretical predictions of silicon melting thresholds at different nanosecond pulse durations and experimental data (both under single-pulse and multipulse irradiation). It is found that under irradiation by nanosecond pulses at a wavelength of 1.06 μm, the dynamic Burshtein–Moss effect can play an important role in processes of photoexcitation and heating. It is shown that with the regimes typical for laser multipulse microprocessing of silicon (the laser spot diameter is less than 100 μm, and the repetition rate of pulses is about 100 kHz), the radial heat removal cannot be neglected in the analysis of heat accumulation processes.

  5. Rare-Earth Free Self-Activated Graphene Quantum Dots and Copper-Cysteamine Phosphors for Enhanced White Light-Emitting-Diodes under Single Excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wubin; Lei, Yifeng; Xu, Man; Zhao, Pei; Zhang, Zhanhui; Zhou, Jia

    2017-10-09

    Rare-earth (RE) based phosphors are attractive due to their potential applications. However, owing to the resource issue, these kinds of phosphors are expensive and costly. On the contrary, as for phosphor-convert white light-emitting-diodes (pc-WLEDs), a solution-processed tunable warm white emission LED composite is fabricated in this study under single excitation, with both RE free phosphors graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and Copper-Cysteamine (Cu-Cy). By using microwave-assisted wet-chemical method and with graphite as raw material, cold white fluorescence of the GQDs is obtained. Cu-Cy which shows intense photoluminescence in the red region has the structure where both the thio and amine groups connected with copper and forming cysteamine. Warm white light is achieved by mixing the two self-activated RE free phosphors at the weight ratio of 1: 1.7 under the excitation at 365 nm. The designed optimal LED device has the properties of CIE (x, y) = (0.341, 0.327), T = 4436 K, R = 87.9 EQE = 0.31%. The experimental results demonstrate that RE free phosphor(s) excited under a single chip can open up a new avenue to develop much lower device for warm WLEDs.

  6. Microstructure evolution of an EB-PVD NiAl coating and its underlying single crystal superalloy substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Xueyuan; Peng, Hui; Ma, Yue; Guo, Hongbo; Gong, Shengkai

    2016-01-01

    A NiAl coating was deposited onto a Ni-based single crystal superalloy with (001) crystal orientation by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). The as-deposited NiAl coating showed a columnar microstructure with (110) preferred orientation. The microstructure evolution behavior near interface between the NiAl coating and superalloy substrate at 1100 °C was investigated. Kirkendall voids were formed in the NiAl coating, indicating the different elements diffusion coefficients in the coating and substrate. Interdiffusion zone (IDZ) with rod-like and granular topological close-packed (TCP) phases and substrate diffusion zone (SDZ) with needle-like TCP phases were formed during diffusion annealing at elevated temperature. The equi-axed β-NiAl grains were developed in the IDZ after diffusion annealing at 1100 °C for 10 h, which showed different orientations from the coating and substrate. However, after 50 h diffusion annealing, the equi-axed β-NiAl phases in the IDZ were transformed into γ′-Ni 3 Al phases which had the same orientation as the substrate. Furthermore, oriented rafting of the substrate occurred during diffusion annealing and the rafts were parallel to the coating/substrate interface. - Highlights: • The as-deposited NiAl coating by EB-PVD showed a (110) preferred orientation. • Kirkendall voids were formed in the NiAl coating near the interface. • Equi-axed β grains in the IDZ were transformed into γ′ after 50 h annealing. • The secondary γ′ phases in the IDZ showed the same orientation as substrate. • Oriented rafting of the substrate occurred during diffusion annealing.

  7. Increase of the Specific Load Under Tension, Compression, and Buckling of Welded Steel Tubes in Airplane Construction by Suitable Treatment of Structural Steel and by Proper Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, J

    1939-01-01

    The new construction method indicated, which makes possible a considerably better material utilization and hence a saving in weight, has been tested in a number of Focke-Wulf types also in series production and has fully justified itself.

  8. Construction management

    CERN Document Server

    Pellicer, Eugenio; Teixeira, José C; Moura, Helder P; Catalá, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    The management of construction projects is a wide ranging and challenging discipline in an increasingly international industry, facing continual challenges and demands for improvements in safety, in quality and cost control, and in the avoidance of contractual disputes. Construction Management grew out of a Leonardo da Vinci project to develop a series of Common Learning Outcomes for European Managers in Construction. Financed by the European Union, the project aimed to develop a library of basic materials for developing construction management skills for use in a pan-European context. Focused exclusively on the management of the construction phase of a building project from the contractor's point of view, Construction Management covers the complete range of topics of which mastery is required by the construction management professional for the effective delivery of new construction projects. With the continued internationalisation of the construction industry, Construction Management will be required rea...

  9. Single-Antenna Microwave Ablation Under Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Guidance for Treatment of Small Renal Cell Carcinoma: Preliminary Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Mangini, Monica; Fontana, Federico; Recaldini, Chiara; Piacentino, Filippo; Pellegrino, Carlo; Lagana, Domenico; Cuffari, Salvatore; Marconi, Alberto; Fugazzola, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the safety, effectiveness, and feasibility of microwave ablation (MWA) of small renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) in selected patients. Institutional review board and informed consent were obtained. From December 2007 to January 2009, 12 patients (8 male, 4 female) were enrolled in a treatment group, in which percutaneous MWA of small RCCs was performed under contrast-enhanced ultrasound guidance. The tumors were 1.7-2.9 cm in diameter (mean diameter, 2.0 cm).Therapeutic effects were assessed at follow-up with computed tomography. All patients were followed up for 3-14 months (mean, 6 months) to observe the therapeutic effects and complications (according to SIR classification). Assessment was carried out with CT imaging. No severe complications or unexpected side effects were observed after the MWA procedures. In all cases technical success was achieved. Clinical effectiveness was 100%; none of the patients showed recurrence on imaging. In conclusion, our preliminary results support the use of MWA for the treatment of small renal tumors. This technology can be applied in select patients who are not candidates for surgery, as an alternative to other ablative techniques.

  10. Digital assistance of nasogastric tube insertion in intubated patients under general anesthesia: A single-blinded prospective randomized study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandeel, Alrefaey; Elmorhedi, Mohammed; Abdalla, Usama

    2017-01-01

    Background: Nasogastric tube (NGT) insertion may pose a special problem in patients under general anesthesia with first attempt failure rates up to 50%. To increase insertion success rate and decreases related complications, several techniques have been developed. In this study, digital assistance technique is compared to the classic insertion technique in neck flexion. Materials and Methods: In this prospective randomized study, 160 patients were randomly allocated into two groups; control group (Group C, n = 80) where NGT tube will be inserted with the neck in flexion position and digital facilitation group (Group D, n = 80). Results: Overall success rate and first attempt success were statistically higher in Group D compared to Group C (94% vs. 81%, P = 0.02, 80% vs. 62%, P = 0.01 respectively) with significantly lower insertion time in Group D (13 ± 5 s. vs. 10 ± 3 s., P = 0.00). Conclusions: Digital assistance of NGT insertion in the anesthetized or unconscious patient is an effective, fast, and safe method that can be either used as a routine technique or as a rescue in case of failed other methods. PMID:28757827

  11. Promoting effects of a single Rhodopseudomonas palustris inoculant on plant growth by Brassica rapa chinensis under low fertilizer input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wai-Tak; Tseng, Ching-Han; Hsu, Shu-Hua; Lur, Huu-Sheng; Mo, Chia-Wei; Huang, Chu-Ning; Hsu, Shu-Chiung; Lee, Kung-Ta; Liu, Chi-Te

    2014-09-17

    Several Rhodopseudomonas palustris strains have been isolated from rice paddy fields in Taiwan by combining the Winogradsky column method and molecular marker detection. These isolates were initially screened by employing seed germination and seedling vigor assays to evaluate their potential as inoculants. To fulfill the demand in the present farming system for reducing the application of chemical fertilizers, we assessed the plant growth-promoting effects of the R. palustris YSC3, YSC4, and PS3 inoculants on Brassica rapa chinensis (Chinese cabbage) cultivated under a half quantity of fertilizer. The results obtained showed that supplementation with approximately 4.0×10(6) CFU g(-1) soil of the PS3 inoculant at half the amount of fertilizer consistently produced the same plant growth potential as 100% fertility, and also increased the nitrogen use efficiency of the applied fertilizer nutrients. Furthermore, we noted that the plant growth-promotion rate elicited by PS3 was markedly higher with old seeds than with new seeds, suggesting it has the potential to boost the development of seedlings that were germinated from carry-over seeds of poor quality. These beneficial traits suggest that the PS3 isolate may serve as a potential PGPR inoculant for integrated nutrient management in agriculture.

  12. Magnetic structure of RPdSn (R=Tb, Ho) single crystal compounds under strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoh, Y.; Kurisu, M.; Nakamoto, G.; Tsutaoka, T.; Kawano, S.

    2003-01-01

    Rare earth compounds RTX, where R stands for rare earth elements, T for Ni, Pd or Rh, and X for Sn or Ge, crystallize to a rhombic ε-TiNiSi structure. Only rare earth elements R contribute to magnetic properties since T and X atoms are nonmagnetic. The competition between RKKY indirect interaction and large magnetic anisotropy generates many complicated magnetic phases. At a low temperature phase, complicated magnetisms such as meta-magnetism were observed in magnetization curves with many steps. In previous experiments dealing with RPdSn where R means Tb or Ho, some characteristics of magnetic properties of these compounds were deduced from magnetization measurements and neutron diffraction without external magnetic field. In this report, the change of magnetic scattering of neutron diffraction was studied under external magnetic fields in order to reveal the mechanism of the phase transformations of the compounds. The difference between TbPdSn and HoPdSn compounds was observed in magnetic field dependence of the wave vectors of the magnetic scattering. Two independent wave vectors in magnetic scattering existed in HoPdSn compound. (Y. Kazumata)

  13. Optimal Decisions in a Single-Period Supply Chain with Price-Sensitive Random Demand under a Buy-Back Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies a single-period supply chain with a buy-back contract under a Stackelberg game model, in which the supplier (leader decides on the wholesale price, and the retailer (follower responds to determine the retail price and the order quantity. We analytically investigate the decentralized retailer’s optimal decision. Our results demonstrate that the retailer has a unique optimal simultaneous decision on the retail price and the order quantity, under a mild restriction on the demand distribution. Moreover, as it can be shown that the decentralized supply chain facing price-sensitive random demand cannot be coordinated with buy-back contract, we propose a scheme for the system to achieve Pareto-improvement. Theoretical analysis suggests that there exists a unique Pareto-equilibrium for the supply chain. In particular, when the Pareto-equilibrium is reached, the supply chain is coordinated. Numerical experiments confirm our results.

  14. Single particle ICP-MS as a tool for determining the stability of silver nanoparticles in aquatic matrixes under various environmental conditions, including treatment by ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telgmann, Lena; Nguyen, Michael Thanh Khoa; Shen, Li; Yargeau, Viviane; Hintelmann, Holger; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2016-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used in a large number of consumer products due to their antimicrobial and antifungal properties, and these materials may be discharged into municipal wastewater. Wastewater treatment, including advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), may modify the forms of silver in wastewater before they are discharged into surface waters. In addition, little is known about the changes in AgNPs that occur in natural waters under different environmental conditions. In this project, we utilized single particle ICP-MS (spICP-MS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analytical techniques to evaluate changes in the number and size of AgNPs in laboratory experiments with milliQ water under different environmental conditions, as well as during ozonation. Changes in the number and size of AgNPs determined by spICP-MS were evidence of altered stability of the nanoparticles. Increased rates of dissolution occurred under extremes of pH. Lower temperature decreased the rate of dissolution of AgNP relative to the dissolution in treatments at room temperature. The addition of chloride resulted in the loss of AgNPs from suspension due to agglomeration and precipitation. Ozonation led to a rapid decline in the number and size of AgNPs, as indicated by both spICP-MS and DLS analysis. An increase in the concentration of dissolved silver in the ozone treatments was evidence that changes in particle size were a result of oxidative dissolution of AgNPs to silver ion. Graphical abstract Single particle ICP-MS is used to evaluate dissolution of silver nanoparticles under different environmental conditions, including water treatment by ozonation.

  15. Multi-rate Poisson tree processes for single-locus species delimitation under maximum likelihood and Markov chain Monte Carlo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapli, P; Lutteropp, S; Zhang, J; Kobert, K; Pavlidis, P; Stamatakis, A; Flouri, T

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, molecular species delimitation has become a routine approach for quantifying and classifying biodiversity. Barcoding methods are of particular importance in large-scale surveys as they promote fast species discovery and biodiversity estimates. Among those, distance-based methods are the most common choice as they scale well with large datasets; however, they are sensitive to similarity threshold parameters and they ignore evolutionary relationships. The recently introduced "Poisson Tree Processes" (PTP) method is a phylogeny-aware approach that does not rely on such thresholds. Yet, two weaknesses of PTP impact its accuracy and practicality when applied to large datasets; it does not account for divergent intraspecific variation and is slow for a large number of sequences. We introduce the multi-rate PTP (mPTP), an improved method that alleviates the theoretical and technical shortcomings of PTP. It incorporates different levels of intraspecific genetic diversity deriving from differences in either the evolutionary history or sampling of each species. Results on empirical data suggest that mPTP is superior to PTP and popular distance-based methods as it, consistently yields more accurate delimitations with respect to the taxonomy (i.e., identifies more taxonomic species, infers species numbers closer to the taxonomy). Moreover, mPTP does not require any similarity threshold as input. The novel dynamic programming algorithm attains a speedup of at least five orders of magnitude compared to PTP, allowing it to delimit species in large (meta-) barcoding data. In addition, Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling provides a comprehensive evaluation of the inferred delimitation in just a few seconds for millions of steps, independently of tree size. mPTP is implemented in C and is available for download at http://github.com/Pas-Kapli/mptp under the GNU Affero 3 license. A web-service is available at http://mptp.h-its.org . : paschalia.kapli@h-its.org or

  16. Constructing high energy accelerators under DOE's open-quotes New Cultureclose quotes for environment and safety: An example, the Fermilab 150 GeV Main Injector proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, W.

    1993-01-01

    Fermilab has initiated construction of a new Main Injector (150 GeV proton synchrotron) to take the place of the current Main RIng accelerator. open-quotes New Cultureclose quotes environmental and safety questions have been addressed. The paper will detail the necessary steps that were accomplished in order to obtain the permits which controlled the start of construction. Obviously these depend on site-specific circumstances, however, some steps are universally applicable. In the example, floodplains and wetlands were affected and therefore the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) compliance was a significant issue. The important feature was to reduce the relevant regulations to a concise set of easily understandable requirements and to perform the work required in order to proceed with the accelerator construction in a timely fashion. The effort required and the associated time line will be presented so that other new accelerator proposals can benefit from the experience gained from this example

  17. Modeling Single Occupant Vehicle Behavior in High-Occupancy Toll (HOT) Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-14

    High-occupancy toll (HOT) lanes are in operation, under construction, and planned for in several major metropolitan areas. The premise behind HOT lanes is to allow single occupant vehicles (SOVs) to access high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes (and theo...

  18. Bio-mathematical analysis for the peristaltic flow of single wall carbon nanotubes under the impact of variable viscosity and wall properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzadi, Iqra; Sadaf, Hina; Nadeem, Sohail; Saleem, Anber

    2017-02-01

    The main objective of this paper is to study the Bio-mathematical analysis for the peristaltic flow of single wall carbon nanotubes under the impact of variable viscosity and wall properties. The right and the left walls of the curved channel possess sinusoidal wave that is travelling along the outer boundary. The features of the peristaltic motion are determined by using long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximation. Exact solutions are determined for the axial velocity and for the temperature profile. Graphical results have been presented for velocity profile, temperature and stream function for various physical parameters of interest. Symmetry of the curved channel is disturbed for smaller values of the curvature parameter. It is found that the altitude of the velocity profile increases for larger values of variable viscosity parameter for both the cases (pure blood as well as single wall carbon nanotubes). It is detected that velocity profile increases with increasing values of rigidity parameter. It is due to the fact that an increase in rigidity parameter decreases tension in the walls of the blood vessels which speeds up the blood flow for pure blood as well as single wall carbon nanotubes. Increase in Grashof number decreases the fluid velocity. This is due to the reason that viscous forces play a prominent role that's why increase in Grashof number decreases the velocity profile. It is also found that temperature drops for increasing values of nanoparticle volume fraction. Basically, higher thermal conductivity of the nanoparticles plays a key role for quick heat dissipation, and this justifies the use of the single wall carbon nanotubes in different situations as a coolant. Exact solutions are calculated for the temperature and the velocity profile. Symmetry of the curved channel is destroyed due to the curvedness for velocity, temperature and contour plots. Addition of single wall carbon nanotubes shows a decrease in fluid temperature. Trapping

  19. Under One Big Sky: Elementary Pre-Service Teachers Use Inquiry to Learn about the Moon, Construct Knowledge, and Teach Elementary Students around the World via the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Luann Christensen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) constructed by a group of 24 pre-service elementary teacher participants as they learned about the moon's phases, inquiry learning, and use of the Internet message boards as a teaching tool as a part of their science teaching methods course. The MOON Project (More…

  20. Construction, expression, and characterization of a single-chain variable fragment antibody against 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in the hemolymph of silkworm larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Seiichi; Pongkitwitoon, Benyakan; Nakamura, Seiko; Sasaki-Tabata, Kaori; Tanizaki, Yusuke; Maenaka, Katsumi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2011-07-01

    A single-chain variable fragment antibody against herbicide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D-scFv) has been successfully expressed in the hemolymph of silkworm larvae using a rapid Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) bacmid DNA system. Variable heavy- and light-chain domains were cloned directly from the cDNA of the hybridoma cell line 2C4 and assembled together with flexible peptide linker (Gly(4)Ser)(3) between two domains. The yield of functional 2,4-D-scFv after purification was 640 μg per 30 ml of hemolymph, which is equivalent to 21.3 mg per liter of hemolymph. The characterization of 2,4-D-scFv using an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) revealed that it has wide cross-reactivities against 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (65.5%), 2,4-dichlorophenol (47.9%), and 2,4-dichlorobenzoic acid (26.0%), making it possible to apply 2,4-D-scFv to icELISA for detecting/determining 2,4-D and its metabolites. Judging from its cost and time requirements and its ease of handling, this BmNPV bacmid DNA expression system is more useful for expressing functional scFv than bacterial systems, which frequently require costly and time-consuming refolding.

  1. Construction practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, J.; Clelland, J.; Rumble, E.; Sandell, L.

    2007-01-01

    One has elaborated a virtual computer model (VRC) of construction of the AP1000 project reactor to demonstrate its viability, to improve the NPP project making it more easy for construction with simultaneous reduction of time, costs and risk of construction. The approach ensured time sequence of the 3-D visualization of NPP at the construction stages. The VRC ensures optimization of scheme implementation time period and specifies the basic costs. The VRC application offers essential advantages when planning construction of a nuclear power facility [ru

  2. A novel high performance stopped-flow apparatus equipped with a special constructed mixing chamber containing a plunger under inert condition with a very short dead-time to investigate very rapid reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Mostafa Habibi Khorassani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work set out to establish a novel stopped-flow instrument equipped with a special constructed mixing chamber containing a plunger to enable a kinetic study of the very rapid reactions under a dry inert atmosphere glove bag, in particular, for the reactions are sensitive to moisture or air. A stopped-flow spectrophotometer is essentially a conventional spectrophotometer with the addition of a system for rapid mixing of solutions. The purpose of this work is to describe the fabrication and evaluation of specially constructed and in-expensive stopped-flow system. The evaluation includes determination of the dead-time, relative mixing efficiency, and the measurement of known rate constants. Herein, a dead-time of about 3.4 ms was determined in the final modified construction of the stopped-flow apparatus in order to investigate the rapid initial during which some form of reaction intermediate is presented to be formed.

  3. Ecological Wisdom and Inspiration Underlying the Planning and Construction of Ancient Human Settlements: Case Study of Hongcun UNESCO World Heritage Site in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanwen Zheng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Human settlements are social-economic-natural complex ecosystems centered on human activities and the most prominent site for the contradictions between humans and the environment. Taking Hongcun, a UNESCO World Heritage site in China, as an example, this paper analyzes the methods and effect of coupling man and nature in Hongcun, summarizes the ecological wisdom of dealing with the relationship between human and nature, and uses this wisdom to shed light on the planning, construction, and management of contemporary urban and rural settlements. Firstly, the study introduces the Human-Natural Intergraded Ecological Planning (HNIEP model’s hypothesis, explaining its foundation and potential principles or approaches. Secondly, using the case study of Hongcun to explain, support, and validate the HNIEP model and its framework, the study found that the unique planning and construction of Hongcun has greatly promoted ecosystem services, such as local microclimate regulation, rainwater runoff regulation, water conservation, landscape aesthetic, and engagement with nature. Thirdly, Hongcun reflects the concept of harmonious coexistence between human and nature, the wisdom of rational use of ecosystem structures, processes and functions, and the wisdom of coupling human activities with the living environment and natural ecosystem. Finally, the paper summarizes the enlightenment brought by both the HNIEP model and Hongcun wisdom to contemporary urban-rural planning and construction management.

  4. Pilot-scale comparison of constructed wetlands operated under high hydraulic loading rates and attached biofilm reactors for domestic wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fountoulakis, M.S. [School of Agricultural Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Heraklion (Greece)], E-mail: mfountoul@teemail.gr; Terzakis, S. [School of Agricultural Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Heraklion (Greece); Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania (Greece); Chatzinotas, A. [UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Department of Environmental Microbiology, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Brix, H. [Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University (Denmark); Kalogerakis, N. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania (Greece); Manios, T. [School of Agricultural Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Heraklion (Greece); Greek Open University, School of Science and Technology, Patras (Greece)

    2009-04-01

    Four different pilot-scale treatment units were constructed to compare the feasibility of treating domestic wastewater in the City of Heraklio, Crete, Greece: (a) a free water surface (FWS) wetland system, (b) a horizontal subsurface flow (HSF) wetland system, (c) a rotating biological contactor (RBC), and (d) a packed bed filter (PBF). All units operated in parallel at various hydraulic loading rates (HLR) ranging from 50% to 175% of designed operating HLR. The study was conducted during an 8 month period and showed that COD removal efficiency of HSF was comparable (> 75%) to that of RBC and PBF, whereas that of the FWS system was only 57%. Average nutrient removal efficiencies for FWS, HSF, RBC and PBF were 6%, 21%, 40% and 43%, respectively for total nitrogen and 21%, 39%, 41% and 42%, respectively for total phosphorus. Removals of total coliforms were lowest in FWS and PBF (1.3 log units) and higher in HSF and RBC (2.3 to 2.6 log units). HSF showed slightly lower but comparable effluent quality to that of RBC and PBF systems, but the construction cost and energy requirements for this system are significantly lower. Overall the final decision for the best non-conventional wastewater treatment system depends on the construction and operation cost, the area demand and the required quality of effluent.

  5. Hydrogenation vs. H-D isotope scrambling during the conversion of ethylene with hydrogen/deuterium catalyzed by platinum under single-collision conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yujung; Ebrahimi, Maryam; Tillekaratne, Aashani; Simonovis, Juan Pablo; Zaera, Francisco

    2016-07-28

    The catalytic hydrogenation of olefins promoted by transition metals, represented here by the conversion of ethylene with platinum, was studied under a unique regime representing pressures in the mTorr range and single-collision conditions. Isotope labeling was used to follow the concurrent H-D exchange steps that occur during this conversion. Multiple isotope substitutions were observed in the resulting ethane products, reflecting the operability of the reversible stepwise mechanism proposed a long time ago by Horiuti and Polanyi. In fact, the ethane isotopologue distributions obtained in these experiments reflect a much higher probability for the dehydrogenation of ethyl intermediates back to the olefin, relative to the hydrogenation to ethane, than typically seen in this catalysis. In addition, a second mechanistic pathway was clearly identified, responsible for most of the dideuteroethane produced. Based on the dependence of the rates of formation of each isotopologue on the fluxes of deuterium and ethylene, it is argued that this second route may be a "reverse" Eley-Rideal step between gas-phase ethylene and two deuterium atoms adsorbed on adjacent sites of the platinum surface. The clear identification of this second pathway is new, and was possible thanks to our ability to explore a new single-collision intermediate pressure regime.

  6. Abrasive wear under multiscratching of polystyrene + single-walled carbon nanotube nanocomposites. Effect of sliding direction and modification by ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermudez, M.D., E-mail: mdolores.bermudez@upct.es [Grupo de Ciencia de Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales y Fabricacion, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Campus de la Muralla del Mar. C/Doctor Fleming, s/n. 30202 Cartagena (Spain); Carrion, F.J.; Espejo, C.; Martinez-Lopez, E.; Sanes, J. [Grupo de Ciencia de Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales y Fabricacion, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Campus de la Muralla del Mar. C/Doctor Fleming, s/n. 30202 Cartagena (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (NTs) and single-walled carbon nanotubes modified (NTms) by the room-temperature ionic liquid (IL) 1-octyl, 3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([OMIM]BF{sub 4}) were added in a 1 wt.% to polystyrene (PS) and processed by compression or injection moulding to obtain PS + NT and PS + NTm, respectively. Friction coefficients and abrasive wear from penetration depth, residual depth and viscoelastic recovery were determined under multiple scratching. The effect of the moulding process, the additives and the sliding direction was studied. Compression moulded PS shows a transition to more severe damage after a critical number of successive passes. Addition of NTs or NTms to compression moulded PS induces a strain hardening effect and reduces friction, residual depth and viscoelastic recovery. Strain hardening is also observed in injection moulded PS with sliding in the longitudinal and random directions, but not in the transverse direction. The scratch resistance of PS + NTm depends on sliding direction. The lowest friction coefficient and residual depth values, and the highest viscoelastic recovery were found for injection moulded PS + NTm, in the sliding direction parallel to injection flow. Mechanisms of surface damage are discussed upon scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion beam-field emission scanning electron microscopy (FIB-FESEM), 3D surface topography, surface roughness and profilometry observations.

  7. Formation of 6-methyl-1,4-dihydronaphthalene in the reaction of the p-tolyl radical with 1,3-butadiene under single-collision conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Dorian S N; Dangi, Beni B; Kaiser, Ralf I; Jamal, Adeel; Ryazantsev, Mikhail; Morokuma, Keiji

    2014-12-26

    Crossed molecular beam reactions of p-tolyl (C7H7) plus 1,3-butadiene (C4H6), p-tolyl (C7H7) plus 1,3-butadiene-d6 (C4D6), and p-tolyl-d7 (C7D7) plus 1,3-butadiene (C4H6) were carried out under single-collision conditions at collision energies of about 55 kJ mol(-1). 6-Methyl-1,4-dihydronaphthalene was identified as the major reaction product formed at fractions of about 94% with the monocyclic isomer (trans-1-p-tolyl-1,3-butadiene) contributing only about 6%. The reaction is initiated by barrierless addition of the p-tolyl radical to the terminal carbon atom of the 1,3-butadiene via a van der Waals complex. The collision complex isomerizes via cyclization to a bicyclic intermediate, which then ejects a hydrogen atom from the bridging carbon to form 6-methyl-1,4-dihydronaphthalene through a tight exit transition state located about 27 kJ mol(-1) above the separated products. This is the dominant channel under the present experimental conditions. Alternatively, the collision complex can also undergo hydrogen ejection to form trans-1-p-tolyl-1,3-butadiene; this is a minor contributor to the present experiment. The de facto barrierless formation of a methyl-substituted aromatic hydrocarbons by dehydrogenation via a single event represents an important step in the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their partially hydrogenated analogues in combustion flames and the interstellar medium.

  8. Construction aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    Part of a special section on industrial minerals in 1993. The 1993 production of construction aggregates increased 6.3 percent over the 1992 figure, to reach 2.01 Gt. This represents the highest estimated annual production of combined crushed stone and construction sand and gravel ever recorded in the U.S. The outlook for construction aggregates and the issues facing the industry are discussed.

  9. FFTF constructibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, S.A.; Hulbert, D.I.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of the design criteria on the constructibility of the Fast Flux Test Facility is described. Specifically, the effects of requirements due to maintenance accessibility, inerting of cells, seismicity, codes, and standards are addressed. The design and construction techniques developed to minimize the impact of the design criteria on cost and schedule are presented with particular emphasis on the cleanliness and humidity controls imposed during construction of the sodium systems. (U.S.)

  10. Parallels and Differences in the Attitudes towards Single-Firm Conduct: What are the Reasons? The History, Interpretation and Underlying Principles of Sec. 2 Sherman Act and Art. 82 EC

    OpenAIRE

    SCHWEITZER, Heike

    2007-01-01

    In the US and in the EU, the antitrust rules on single-firm conduct are currently under review. Antitrust authorities on both sides of the Atlantic are reconsidering the tests to be applied in order to distinguish between lawful competition on the merits and exclusionary conduct. In the transatlantic comparison that accompanies the review, it has been observed that in the US, the tests for identifying anti-competitive single-firm conduct under Sec. 2 Sherman Act are frequently ...

  11. OligArch: A software tool to allow artificially expanded genetic information systems (AEGIS to guide the autonomous self-assembly of long DNA constructs from multiple DNA single strands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Bradley

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biologists wishing to self-assemble large DNA (L-DNA constructs from small DNA fragments made by automated synthesis need fragments that hybridize predictably. Such predictability is difficult to obtain with nucleotides built from just the four standard nucleotides. Natural DNA's peculiar combination of strong and weak G:C and A:T pairs, the context-dependence of the strengths of those pairs, unimolecular strand folding that competes with desired interstrand hybridization, and non-Watson–Crick interactions available to standard DNA, all contribute to this unpredictability. In principle, adding extra nucleotides to the genetic alphabet can improve the predictability and reliability of autonomous DNA self-assembly, simply by increasing the information density of oligonucleotide sequences. These extra nucleotides are now available as parts of artificially expanded genetic information systems (AEGIS, and tools are now available to generate entirely standard DNA from AEGIS DNA during PCR amplification. Here, we describe the OligArch (for "oligonucleotide architecting" software, an application that permits synthetic biologists to engineer optimally self-assembling DNA constructs from both six- and eight-letter AEGIS alphabets. This software has been used to design oligonucleotides that self-assemble to form complete genes from 20 or more single-stranded synthetic oligonucleotides. OligArch is therefore a key element of a scalable and integrated infrastructure for the rapid and designed engineering of biology.

  12. Psychometric properties of three single-item pain scales in patients with rheumatoid arthritis seen during routine clinical care: a comparative perspective on construct validity, reproducibility and internal responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendlbeck, Melanie; Araujo, Elizabeth G; Schett, Georg; Englbrecht, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the construct validity, reproducibility (ie, retest reliability) and internal responsiveness to treatment change of common single-item scales measuring overall pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to investigate the corresponding effect of common pain-related comorbidities and medical consultation on these outcomes. 236 patients with RA completed a set of questionnaires including a visual analogue scale (VAS), a numerical rating scale (NRS) and a verbal rating scale (VRS) measuring overall pain before and immediately after routine medical consultation as well as 1 week after the patient's visit. Construct validity and retest reliability were evaluated using the Bravais-Pearson correlation while standardised response means (SRM) were calculated for evaluating internal responsiveness. Differences in the perception of pain were calculated using dependent samples t-tests. In the total sample, construct validity was good across all three time points (convergent validity of pain scales: rT1-T3=0.82-0.92, pscales with age: rage=0.01-0.16, p>0.05). In patients maintaining antirheumatic treatment, retest reliability of pain scales was confirmed for all scales and across time points (rVAS=0.82-0.95, rNRS=0.89-0.98, rVRS=0.80-0.90, pscales to a change in treatment was low across all scales (SRM=0.08-0.21). The VAS especially suggested a change in pain perception after medical consultation in patients maintaining therapy. The VAS, NRS and VRS are valid and retest reliable in an outpatient clinical practice setting. The low pain scales' internal responsiveness to treatment change is likely to be due to the short follow-up period. Patients with RA maintaining antirheumatic therapy seem to experience less pain after medical consultation.

  13. Meta-analysis of Magnetic Marker Monitoring Data to Characterize the Movement of Single Unit Dosage Forms Though the Gastrointestinal Tract Under Fed and Fasting Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénin, Emilie; Bergstrand, Martin; Weitschies, Werner; Karlsson, Mats O

    2016-03-01

    To develop a model predicting movement of non-disintegrating single unit dosage forms (or "tablet") through the gastrointestinal tract and characterizing the effect of food intake, based on Magnetic Marker Monitoring data, allowing real-time location of a magnetically labeled formulation. Five studies including 30 individuals in 94 occasions under 3 food status were considered. The mean residence time (MRT) of the tablet and the effect of food intake in proximal (PS) and distal stomach (DS), small intestine (SI), ascending (AC), transverse (TC) and descending colon (DC) were estimated using a Markov model for probabilities of movement. Under fasting conditions, tablet MRTs were 9.4 min in PS, 10.4 in DS, 246 in SI, 545 in AC, 135 in TC, and 286 in DC. A meal taken simultaneous to tablet intake prolonged tablet MRT to 99 min in PS and to 232 in DS; probability of gastric emptying increased of 89% each hour from 2.25 h after meal. The effect of a gastroileac reflex, caused by a secondary meal, accelerated the transit from terminal SI to AC. This model-based knowledge can be used as a part of mechanism-based models for drug absorption, applied for bottom-up predictions and/or top-down estimation.

  14. The impacts of pharmaceutical drugs under ocean acidification: New data on single and combined long-term effects of carbamazepine on Scrobicularia plana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Rosa; Almeida, Ângela; Calisto, Vânia; Velez, Cátia; Moreira, Anthony; Schneider, Rudolf J; Esteves, Valdemar I; Wrona, Frederick J; Figueira, Etelvina; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2016-01-15

    Ocean acidification and increasing discharges of pharmaceutical contaminants into aquatic systems are among key and/or emerging drivers of environmental change affecting marine ecosystems. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that ocean acidification can have direct and indirect impacts on marine organisms although combined effects with other stressors, namely with pharmaceuticals, have received very little attention to date. The present study aimed to evaluate the impacts of the pharmaceutical drug Carbamazepine and pH 7.1, acting alone and in combination, on the clam Scrobicularia plana. For this, a long-term exposure (28 days)was conducted and a set of oxidative stress markers was investigated. The results obtained showed that S. plana was able to develop mechanisms to prevent oxidative damage when under low pH for a long period, presenting higher survival when exposed to this stressor compared to CBZ or the combination of CBZ with pH 7.1. Furthermore, the toxicity of CBZ on S. plana was synergistically increased under ocean acidification conditions (CBZ + pH 7.1): specimens survival was reduced and oxidative stress was enhanced when compared to single exposures. These findings add to the growing body of evidence that ocean acidification will act to increase the toxicity of CBZ to marine organisms,which has clear implications for coastal benthic ecosystems suffering chronic pollution from pharmaceutical drugs.

  15. Application of CUPID for subchannel-scale thermal–hydraulic analysis of pressurized water reactor core under single-phase conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Jong Yoon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There have been recent efforts to establish methods for high-fidelity and multi-physics simulation with coupled thermal–hydraulic (T/H and neutronics codes for the entire core of a light water reactor under accident conditions. Considering the computing power necessary for a pin-by-pin analysis of the entire core, subchannel-scale T/H analysis is considered appropriate to achieve acceptable accuracy in an optimal computational time. In the present study, the applicability of in-house code CUPID of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute was extended to the subchannel-scale T/H analysis. CUPID is a component-scale T/H analysis code, which uses three-dimensional two-fluid models with various closure models and incorporates a highly parallelized numerical solver. In this study, key models required for a subchannel-scale T/H analysis were implemented in CUPID. Afterward, the code was validated against four subchannel experiments under unheated and heated single-phase incompressible flow conditions. Thereafter, a subchannel-scale T/H analysis of the entire core for an Advanced Power Reactor 1400 reactor core was carried out. For the high-fidelity simulation, detailed geometrical features and individual rod power distributions were considered in this demonstration. In this study, CUPID shows its capability of reproducing key phenomena in a subchannel and dealing with the subchannel-scale whole core T/H analysis.

  16. A new single-dose bivalent vaccine of porcine circovirus type 2 and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae elicits protective immunity and improves growth performance under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jiwoon; Park, Changhoon; Choi, Kyuhyung; Chae, Chanhee

    2016-01-15

    The efficacy of the new single-dose bivalent vaccine of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae was evaluated under field conditions for registration as recommended by the Republic of Korea's Animal, Plant & Fisheries Quarantine & Inspection Agency. Three farms were selected based on their history of co-infection with PCV2 and M. hyopneumoniae. On each farm, a total of 80 3-week-old pigs were randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups: (i) vaccinated (n=40) and (ii) unvaccinated (n=40) animals at 3 weeks of age. Protection by the bivalent vaccine helped increase the market weight by 6.2 kg/pig (106.2 kg in vaccinated group vs. 100 kg in unvaccinated group; Phyopneumoniae-specific IFN-γ-SC. Vaccinated animals displayed a reduced PCV2 load in the blood and M. hyopneumoniae load in nasal swabs compared to unvaccinated animals. Vaccination of pigs against PCV2 and M. hyopneumoniae effectively reduced the lung and lymphoid lesion scores compared to unvaccinated animals in all 3 farms. The new bivalent vaccine is very efficacious in controlling PCV2 and M. hyopneumoniae infection based on clinical, immunological, virological, and pathological evaluations under field conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Milligan-Morgan hemorrhoidectomy under local anesthesia - an old operation that stood the test of time. A single-team experience with 2,280 operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argov, Samuel; Levandovsky, Olga; Yarhi, Danielle

    2012-07-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the morbidity and efficacy of Milligan-Morgan (M&M) hemorrhoidectomy in comparison to novel techniques (e.g., hemorrhoidal artery ligation [HAL], stapler hemorrhoidopexy [PPH]). This is a retrospective review of a single-team experience with 2,280 M&M hemorrhoidectomy patients, with 1-12 years follow-up. All patients were operated upon in jack-knife position, using local anesthesia under light sedation in an ambulatory facility. This method allowed us to operate on 40 pregnant women. All operations were performed using simple, commercially available instruments. We found negligible morbidity, no mortality and a very efficient operation on long-term follow-up. The surgical literature is littered with dreadful complications and even mortality from stapled hemorrhoidopexy (Giordano et al., Dis Colon Rectum 51:1574-1576, 2008; Brown et al., Tech Coloproctol 11:357-358, 2007; Cipriani and Pescatori, Colorectal Dis 4:367-370, 2002; Mongardini et al., G Chir 26:275-277, 2005) and the inefficiency of Doppler HAL (Faucheron and Gangner, Dis Colon Rectum 51:945-949, 2008; Scheyer et al., Am J Surg, 191:89-93, 2006). In days of soaring medical expenditures, nobody will argue about the superiority of M&M hemorrhoidectomy as the cheapest operation available. In all aspects, M&M hemorrhoidectomy under local anesthesia beats its competitors in terms of morbidity, mortality, long-term efficiency and low cost.

  18. The Resource Benefits Evaluation Model on Remanufacturing Processes of End-of-Life Construction Machinery under the Uncertainty in Recycling Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-wang Deng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the process of end-of-life construction machinery remanufacturing, the existence of uncertainties in all aspects of the remanufacturing process increase the difficulty and complexity of resource benefits evaluation for them. To quantify the effects of those uncertainty factors, this paper makes a mathematical analysis of the recycling and remanufacturing processes, building a resource benefits evaluation model for the end-of-life construction machinery. The recycling price and the profits of remanufacturers can thereby be obtained with a maximum remanufacturing resource benefit. The study investigates the change regularity of the resource benefits, recycling price, and profits of remanufacturers when the recycling price, quality fluctuation coefficient, demand coefficient, and the reusing ratio of products or parts are varying. In the numerical experiment, we explore the effects of uncertainties on the remanufacturing decisions and the total expected costs. The simulated analysis shows when the quality fluctuation coefficient is approaching to 1, the values of the profits of remanufacturer, the maximal resource benefits and recycling price grade into constants.

  19. Construction fraud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, J.J.; Liedekerke, L.; Dubbink, W.; van Liedekerke, L.; van Luijk, H.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the actions of a whistleblower The Netherlands was confronted with a massive case of construction fraud involving almost the entire construction sector. Price fixing, prior consulting, duplicate accounts, fictitious invoices and active corruption of civil servants were rampant practices. This

  20. Superstring construction

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    The book includes a selection of papers on the construction of superstring theories, mainly written during the years 1984-1987. It covers ten-dimensional supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric strings, four-dimensional heterotic strings and four-dimensional type-II strings. An introduction to more recent developments in conformal field theory in relation to string construction is provided.

  1. Usability Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Clemmesen, Torkil; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren

    2007-01-01

    frustrating systems are experienced similarly to easy-to-use systems. Looking at the most characteristic construct for each participant we find that Chinese participants use constructs related to security, task types, training, and system issues, whereas Danish and to some extent Indian participants make more...

  2. Phase and widening construction of steel bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Phase construction is used to maintain traffic without interruption and generally refers to sequenced construction where a portion of the bridge is under construction while the remainder continues to carry traffic. The method typically results in two...

  3. A Feasibility Study of Low-Dose Single-Scan Dual-Energy Cone-Beam CT in Many-View Under-Sampling Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghyeon; Lee, Jiseoc; Kim, Hyoyi; Lee, Taewon; Soh, Jeongtae; Park, Miran; Kim, Changhwan; Lee, Yeon Ju; Cho, Seungryong

    2017-12-01

    A single-scan dual-energy low-dose cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging technique that exploits a multi-slit filter is proposed in this paper. The multi-slit filter installed between the x-ray source and the scanned object is reciprocated during a scan. The x-ray beams through the slits would generate relatively low-energy x-ray projection data, while the filtered beams would make high-energy projection data. An iterative image reconstruction algorithm that uses an adaptive-steepest-descent method to minimize image total-variation under the constraint of data fidelity was applied to reconstructing the image from the low-energy projection data. Since the high-energy projection data suffer from a substantially high noise level due to the beam filtration, we have developed a new algorithm that exploits the joint sparsity between the low- and high-energy CT images for image reconstruction of the high-energy CT image. The proposed image reconstruction algorithm uses a gradient magnitude image (GMI) of the low-energy CT image by regularizing the difference of GMIs of the low- and high-energy CT images to be minimized. The feasibility of the proposed technique has been demonstrated by the use of various phantoms in the experimental CBCT setup. Furthermore, based on the proposed dual-energy imaging, a material differentiation was performed and its potential utility has been shown. The proposed imaging technique produced promising results for its potential application to a low-dose single-scan dual-energy CBCT.

  4. PAH formation under single collision conditions: reaction of phenyl radical and 1,3-butadiene to form 1,4-dihydronaphthalene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, R I; Parker, D S N; Zhang, F; Landera, A; Kislov, V V; Mebel, A M

    2012-05-03

    The crossed beam reactions of the phenyl radical (C(6)H(5), X(2)A(1)) with 1,3-butadiene (C(4)H(6), X(1)A(g)) and D6-1,3-butadiene (C(4)D(6), X(1)A(g)) as well as of the D5-phenyl radical (C(6)D(5), X(2)A(1)) with 2,3-D2-1,3-butadiene and 1,1,4,4-D4-1,3-butadiene were carried out under single collision conditions at collision energies of about 55 kJ mol(-1). Experimentally, the bicyclic 1,4-dihydronaphthalene molecule was identified as a major product of this reaction (58 ± 15%) with the 1-phenyl-1,3-butadiene contributing 34 ± 10%. The reaction is initiated by a barrierless addition of the phenyl radical to the terminal carbon atom of the 1,3-butadiene (C1/C4) to form a bound intermediate; the latter underwent hydrogen elimination from the terminal CH(2) group of the 1,3-butadiene molecule leading to 1-phenyl-trans-1,3-butadiene through a submerged barrier. The dominant product, 1,4-dihydronaphthalene, is formed via an isomerization of the adduct by ring closure and emission of the hydrogen atom from the phenyl moiety at the bridging carbon atom through a tight exit transition state located about 31 kJ mol(-1) above the separated products. The hydrogen atom was found to leave the decomposing complex almost parallel to the total angular momentum vector and perpendicularly to the rotation plane of the decomposing intermediate. The defacto barrierless formation of the 1,4-dihydronaphthalene molecule involving a single collision between a phenyl radical and 1,3-butadiene represents an important step in the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their partially hydrogenated counterparts in combustion and interstellar chemistry.

  5. Sustainability Base Construction Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewhinney, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Construction of the new Sustainability Base Collaborative support facility, expected to become the highest performing building in the federal government continues at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, Calif. The new building is designed to achieve a platinum rating under the leadership in Energy and Environment Design (LEED) new construction standards for environmentally sustainable construction developed by the U. S. Green Building Council, Washington, D. C. When completed by the end of 2011, the $20.6 million building will feature near zero net energy consumption, use 90 percent less potable water than conventionally build buildings of equivalent size, and will result in reduced building maintenance costs.

  6. Single and combined effects of vitamin C and oregano essential oil in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, Shahab; Amjadian, Tahere; Norouzi, Shokufeh

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding vitamin C (VC), oregano essential oil (OR), or their combination in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress (HS) condition (38 °C). One-day-old 240 male broilers were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, six replicates of ten birds each. The birds were fed with either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with either 200 mg L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet, 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet, or 200 mg L-ascorbic acid plus 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained for 42 days of age and at the end of the experiment (day 42); birds were bled to determine some blood parameters and weighted for final body weight (BW). Feeding birds with diets supplemented with oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a single or combined form increased ADG ( P > 0.05). Also BW increased and feed efficiency decreased ( P vitamin C ( P > 0.05). Supplemental oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a combined form decreased the serum concentration of corticosterone, triglycerides, glucose, and MDA ( P vitamin C were seen in broiler chicks supplemented with vitamin C. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined oregano essential oil and vitamin C could have beneficial effects on some blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.

  7. Worldwide construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, M.

    1994-01-01

    The paper lists major construction projects in worldwide processing and pipelining, showing capacities, contractors, estimated costs, and time of construction. The lists are divided into refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur recovery units, gas processing plants, pipelines, and related fuel facilities. This last classification includes cogeneration plants, coal liquefaction and gasification plants, biomass power plants, geothermal power plants, integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plants, and a coal briquetting plant

  8. [Construction and analysis of a forward and reverse subtractive cDNA library from leaves and stem of Polygonum sibiricum Laxm. under salt stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guan-Jun; Liu, Ming-Kun; Xu, Zhi-Ru; Yan, Xiu-Feng; Wei, Zhi-Gang; Yang, Chuan-Ping

    2009-04-01

    Using cDNAs prepared from the leaves and stems of Polygonum sibiricum Laxm. treated with NaHCO3 stress for 48 h as testers and cDNAs from unstressed P. sibiricum leaves and stems as drivers library, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was employed to construct a cDNA subtracted library, which contained 2 282 valid sequences including 598 ESTs in the stems forward SSH library and 490 ESTs in the stem reverse SSH library, 627 ESTs in the leaf forward SSH library and 567 in the leaf reverse SSH library. According to the functional catalogue of MIPs and the comparison of the reverse and forward SSH libraries of the stem and leaf, the responses to NaHCO3 stress were different between leaf and stem, except for the same trend in cell rescue defense and transport facilitation. The trend in the metabolism, energy, photosynthesis, protein synthesis, transcription, and signal transduction was opposite. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the expression of 12 putative stress related genes in the NaHCO3-treated leaves and stems was different from that in the untreated leaves and stems. This indicated that different mechanisms might be responsible for reactions of leaf and stem in P. sibiricum. The results from this study are useful in understanding the molecular mechanism of saline-alkali tolerance in P. sibiricum.

  9. Near-infrared magneto-optical study of excitonic states in single-walled carbon nanotubes under ultra-high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoi, H; Effendi, Mukhtar; Minami, N; Takeyama, S

    2011-01-01

    Singlet excitonic states at the first subband-edge in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been studied through near-infrared magneto-absorption spectroscopy under magnetic fields to 105.9 T. Well-resolved absorption spectra of stretch-aligned SWCNT(CoMoCAT)-gelatin films were obtained above 100 T. By the application of magnetic fields in parallel to the alignment of SWCNTs, peak shift toward the lower energy was observed for (8, 4) and (7, 6) tubes and the opposite behavior was observed for (7, 5) and (6, 5) tubes. Above 28.8 T, new peaks emerged at the higher energy side of the peak for the (8, 4) and (7, 6) tubes, and at the lower energy side of the peaks for the (7, 5) and (6, 5) tubes. The magnetic splitting between the existing peak and the new peak was symmetric for every tube, which is in line with the energy splitting due to the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Judging from the energetic positions where the new peaks emerged, the singlet dark excitonic state locates at the lower energy than the singlet bright one in the (7, 5) and (6, 5) tubes while it is suggested strongly that the bright one locates at the lower energy in the (8, 4) and (7, 6) tubes.

  10. Insights into the Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Mammalian P2X7 Receptor Functions and Contributions in Diseases, Revealed by Structural Modeling and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lin-Hua; Baldwin, Jocelyn M.; Roger, Sebastien; Baldwin, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs), a member of the ionotropic P2X receptor family with distinctive functional properties, play an important part in mediating extracellular ATP signaling in health and disease. A clear delineation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the key receptor properties, such as ATP-binding, ion permeation, and large pore formation of the mammalian P2X7Rs, is still lacking, but such knowledge is crucial for a better understanding of their physiological functions and contributions in diseases and for development of therapeutics. The recent breakthroughs in determining the atomic structures of the zebrafish P2X4.1R in the closed and ATP-bound open states have provided the long-awaited structural information. The human P2RX7 gene is abundant with non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (NS-SNPs), which generate a repertoire of human P2X7Rs with point mutations. Characterizations of the NS-SNPs identified in patients of various disease conditions and the resulting mutations have informed previously unknown molecular mechanisms determining the mammalian P2X7R functions and diseases. In this review, we will discuss the new insights into such mechanisms provided by structural modeling and recent functional and genetic linkage studies of NS-SNPs. PMID:23675347

  11. Insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying mammalian P2X7 receptor functions and contributions in diseases, revealed by structural modeling and single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Hua eJiang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs, a member of the ionotropic P2X receptor family with distinctive functional properties, play an important part in mediating extracellular ATP signaling in health and disease. A clear delineation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the key receptor properties, such as ATP-binding, ion permeation, and large pore formation of the mammalian P2X7Rs, is still lacking, but such knowledge is crucial for a better understanding of their physiological functions and contributions in diseases and for development of therapeutics. The recent breakthroughs in determining the atomic structures of the zebrafish P2X4.1R in the closed and ATP-bound open states have provided the long-awaited structural information. The human P2RX7 gene is abundant with non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (NS-SNPs, which generate a repertoire of human P2X7Rs with point mutations. Characterizations of the NS-SNPs identified in patients of various disease conditions and the resulting mutations have informed previously unknown molecular mechanisms determining the mammalian P2X7R functions and diseases. In this review, we will discuss the new insights into such mechanisms provided by structural modeling and recent functional and genetic linkage studies of NS-SNPs.

  12. Patient satisfaction constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Muhammad Sabbir; Osmangani, Aahad M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the five-factor structure of patients' satisfaction constructs toward private healthcare service providers. This research is a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted with previous and current Bangladeshi patients. Exploratory factor analysis was employed to extract the underlying constructs. Five underlying dimensions that play a significant role in structuring the satisfaction perceived by Bangladeshi private healthcare patients are identified in this study. Practical implications - The main contribution of this study is identifying the dimensions of satisfaction perceived by Bangladeshi patients regarding private healthcare service providers. Healthcare managers adopt the five identified underlying construct items in their business practices to improve their respective healthcare efficiency while ensuring overall customer satisfaction.

  13. Structural Impact of Construction Loads

    OpenAIRE

    McPheron, Daniel; McCullouch, Bob; Bowman, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous bridge construction accidents have occurred across the country because of construction loadings, which are an under-emphasized topic in many DOT specifications and design manuals. Bridge girders are least stable when they are subjected to construction loads, so it is important for design engineers and contractors to understand and design for these loads. The Indiana Department of Transportation’s current Standard Specifications does not contain many construction load provisions, so t...

  14. Construction history and construction management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agh, S.

    1999-01-01

    The process of pre-design and design preparation of the Mochovce NPP as well as the construction history of the plant is highlighted, including the financing aspect and problems arising from changes in the technological and other conditions of start-up of the reactor units. The results of international audits performed to improve the level of nuclear safety and implementation of the measures suggested are also described. The milestones of the whole construction process and start-up process, the control and quality system, and the methods of control and management of the complex construction project are outlined. (author)

  15. Domestic Wastewater Depuration Using a Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland and Theoretical Surface Optimization: A Case Study under Dry Mediterranean Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Andreo-Martínez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The wastewater generated by isolated houses without access to public sewers can cause environmental problems, like the contamination of aquifers with nitrates and phosphates, as occurs in southeastern Spain. The effectiveness of a previously built horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HF-CW was studied over two years as a possible solution. This HF-CW measured 27 m2; it was planted with Phragmites australis(Cav. Trin. Ex Steuds sp. Altissima and the parameters studied were those required by European Union (EU legislation and adopted by Spain. Average abatement efficiency rates, for the first and the second year of study, were: biochemical oxygen demand over five days (BOD5 (96.4%, 92.0%, chemical oxygen demand (COD (84.6%, 77.7%, total suspended solids(TSS (94.8%,89.9%,total nitrogen(TN(79.5%,66.0%,ammonium nitrogen(NH4+-N(98.8%, 86.6% and total phosphorous (TP (83.7%, 82.8%. Average abatement efficiency for nitrate nitrogen (NO3−-N (−1280.5%, −961.1% and nitrite nitrogen (NO2−-N (−5.8%, −40.0% were negative because its content in influent wastewater was very low and they appear mainly from influent NH4+-N, as a result of purification processes carried out in the HF-CW bed. The abatement rates make the system suitable to produce discharges into the environment in accordance with Spanish law. It is noteworthy that the HF-CW patch suffered an episode of bed drying during the summer of 2013, whereby the causes were related to system oversizing and high evapotranspiration in the area. As a consequence, the decrease in the abatement of water pollutants during the second year can be attributed to the creation of preferential water flow paths and short circuits through the constructed wetland (CW bed. As a result of the oversizing of the CW, a theoretical resizing based on BOD5, TSS, TN or TP is proposed. The calculated values for the redesign were: 5.22 m2 considering DBO5, 0.18 m2 considering TSS, 10.14 m2 considering

  16. Under one big sky: Elementary pre-service teachers use inquiry to learn about the moon, construct knowledge, and teach elementary students around the world via the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Luann Christensen

    This study examined the content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) constructed by a group of 24 pre-service elementary teacher participants as they learned about the moon's phases, inquiry learning, and use of the Internet message boards as a teaching tool as a part of their science teaching methods course. The MOON Project (More Observations On Nature), an exploration of inquiry teaching via e-learning, matched the pre-service elementary teacher participants with schoolchildren in grades 4-8 around the world. Upon completion of a 4-week moon observation phase, the participants led the schoolchildren in a discussion of their observations via Blackboard(TM). This mixed methods study followed a quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design. The participants' content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge and perceptions about their knowledge were documented using questionnaires, essays, and tests as they entered this experience and again as they exited. Qualitative and quantitative methods and analysis established that the increase in pre-service teachers' content and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) as well as their perceptions of the knowledge gained was statistically significant at the conclusion of the project. However, they took away understandings of why the moon changes shape that were basic at best and fraught with a statistically significant increase in misconceptions. None of the instruments supported the pre-service teachers' perceptions of increased PCK. The pre-service teachers had mixed perceptions about teaching over the Internet, mostly due to the degree to which their elementary student groups responded with focus to questions and discussions or, in some cases, participated at all. The findings and recommendations speak to teacher educators about the methodology used in teacher education programs.

  17. High voltage power network construction

    CERN Document Server

    Harker, Keith

    2018-01-01

    This book examines the key requirements, considerations, complexities and constraints relevant to the task of high voltage power network construction, from design, finance, contracts and project management to installation and commissioning, with the aim of providing an overview of the holistic end to end construction task in a single volume.

  18. Construction safety

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rita Yi Man

    2013-01-01

    A close-to-ideal blend of suburb and city, speedy construction of towers of Babylon, the sparkling proportion of glass and steel buildings’ facade at night showcase the wisdom of humans. They also witness the footsteps, sweats and tears of architects and engineers. Unfortunately, these signatures of human civilizations are swathed in towering figures of construction accidents. Fretting about these on sites, different countries adopt different measures on sites. This book firstly sketches the construction accidents on sites, followed by a review on safety measures in some of the developing countries such as Bermuda, Egypt, Kuwait and China; as well as developed countries, for example, the United States, France and Singapore. It also highlights the enormous compensation costs with the courts’ experiences in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong.

  19. Runaway cultural niche construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, Luke; Fogarty, Laurel; Laland, Kevin N.

    2011-01-01

    Cultural niche construction is a uniquely potent source of selection on human populations, and a major cause of recent human evolution. Previous theoretical analyses have not, however, explored the local effects of cultural niche construction. Here, we use spatially explicit coevolutionary models to investigate how cultural processes could drive selection on human genes by modifying local resources. We show that cultural learning, expressed in local niche construction, can trigger a process with dynamics that resemble runaway sexual selection. Under a broad range of conditions, cultural niche-constructing practices generate selection for gene-based traits and hitchhike to fixation through the build up of statistical associations between practice and trait. This process can occur even when the cultural practice is costly, or is subject to counteracting transmission biases, or the genetic trait is selected against. Under some conditions a secondary hitchhiking occurs, through which genetic variants that enhance the capability for cultural learning are also favoured by similar dynamics. We suggest that runaway cultural niche construction could have played an important role in human evolution, helping to explain why humans are simultaneously the species with the largest relative brain size, the most potent capacity for niche construction and the greatest reliance on culture. PMID:21320897

  20. Changed processing of visual sexual stimuli under GnRH-therapy--a single case study in pedophilia using eye tracking and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kirsten; Fromberger, Peter; Laubinger, Helge; Dechent, Peter; Müller, Jürgen L

    2014-05-17

    Antiandrogen therapy (ADT) has been used for 30 years to treat pedophilic patients. The aim of the treatment is a reduction in sexual drive and, in consequence, a reduced risk of recidivism. Yet the therapeutic success of antiandrogens is uncertain especially regarding recidivism. Meta-analyses and reviews report only moderate and often mutually inconsistent effects. Based on the case of a 47 year old exclusively pedophilic forensic inpatient, we examined the effectiveness of a new eye tracking method and a new functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-design in regard to the evaluation of ADT in pedophiles. We analyzed the potential of these methods in exploring the impact of ADT on automatic and controlled attentional processes in pedophiles. Eye tracking and fMRI measures were conducted before the initial ADT as well as four months after the onset of ADT. The patient simultaneously viewed an image of a child and an image of an adult while eye movements were measured. During the fMRI-measure the same stimuli were presented subliminally. Eye movements demonstrated that controlled attentional processes change under ADT, whereas automatic processes remained mostly unchanged. We assume that these results reflect either the increased ability of the patient to control his eye movements while viewing prepubertal stimuli or his better ability to manipulate his answer in a socially desirable manner. Unchanged automatic attentional processes could reflect the stable pedophilic preference of the patient. Using fMRI, the subliminal presentation of sexually relevant stimuli led to changed activation patterns under the influence of ADT in occipital and parietal brain regions, the hippocampus, and also in the orbitofrontal cortex. We suggest that even at an unconscious level ADT can lead to changed processing of sexually relevant stimuli, reflecting changes of cognitive and perceptive automatic processes. We are convinced that our experimental designs using eye tracking and

  1. Changed processing of visual sexual stimuli under GnRH-therapy – a single case study in pedophilia using eye tracking and fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Antiandrogen therapy (ADT) has been used for 30 years to treat pedophilic patients. The aim of the treatment is a reduction in sexual drive and, in consequence, a reduced risk of recidivism. Yet the therapeutic success of antiandrogens is uncertain especially regarding recidivism. Meta-analyses and reviews report only moderate and often mutually inconsistent effects. Case presentation Based on the case of a 47 year old exclusively pedophilic forensic inpatient, we examined the effectiveness of a new eye tracking method and a new functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-design in regard to the evaluation of ADT in pedophiles. We analyzed the potential of these methods in exploring the impact of ADT on automatic and controlled attentional processes in pedophiles. Eye tracking and fMRI measures were conducted before the initial ADT as well as four months after the onset of ADT. The patient simultaneously viewed an image of a child and an image of an adult while eye movements were measured. During the fMRI-measure the same stimuli were presented subliminally. Eye movements demonstrated that controlled attentional processes change under ADT, whereas automatic processes remained mostly unchanged. We assume that these results reflect either the increased ability of the patient to control his eye movements while viewing prepubertal stimuli or his better ability to manipulate his answer in a socially desirable manner. Unchanged automatic attentional processes could reflect the stable pedophilic preference of the patient. Using fMRI, the subliminal presentation of sexually relevant stimuli led to changed activation patterns under the influence of ADT in occipital and parietal brain regions, the hippocampus, and also in the orbitofrontal cortex. We suggest that even at an unconscious level ADT can lead to changed processing of sexually relevant stimuli, reflecting changes of cognitive and perceptive automatic processes. Conclusion We are convinced that our

  2. What Matters More About the Interpersonal Reactivity Index and the Jefferson Scale of Empathy? Their Underlying Constructs or Their Relationships With Pertinent Measures of Clinical Competence and Patient Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Gonnella, Joseph S

    2017-06-01

    In their study published in this issue of Academic Medicine, Costa and colleagues confirmed the underlying constructs of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE) in medical students. The authors of this Commentary propose that in comparing two instruments that both purport to measure empathy, researchers or test users must pay close attention to the target populations, the conceptualizations of empathy, and the validity evidence in relation to pertinent criterion measures. The Commentary's authors draw attention to the fact that the IRI was developed for administration to the general population, whereas the JSE was developed specifically for administration to students and practitioners of health professions. Also, the author of the IRI conceptualized empathy as a combination of cognitive and emotional attributes, whereas the authors of the JSE defined empathy as a predominantly cognitive attribute. These differences are reflected in the content of the items, which determines the underlying constructs of the two instruments. The Commentary authors suggest that any empathy-measuring instrument in the context of health professions education and patient care requires the crucial evidence of significant relationships with indicators of clinical competence and positive patient outcomes. Such validity evidence is readily available for the JSE, and the Commentary authors recommend that researchers make efforts to provide pertinent validity support for any other instrument measuring empathy in health professionals-in-training and in-practice.

  3. Construction work

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Construction work on building 179 will start on the 16th February 2004 and continue until November 2004. The road between buildings 179 and 158 will temporarily become a one way street from Route Democrite towards building 7. The parking places between buildings 179 and 7 will become obsolete. The ISOLDE collaboration would like to apologize for any inconveniences.

  4. Scale Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawis, Rene V.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses design, development, and evaluation of scales used in counseling psychology research. Describes methods of scale construction including the Thurstone, Q-sort, rank-order methods, Likert, semantic differential, Guttman, Rasch, and external criterion methods. Presents ways of evaluating newly developed scales. Discusses measurement versus…

  5. Experimental Setups for Single Event Effect Studies

    OpenAIRE

    N. H. Medina; V. A. P. Aguiar; N. Added; F. Aguirre; E. L. A. Macchione; S. G. Alberton; M. A. G. Silveira; J. Benfica; F. Vargas; B. Porcher

    2016-01-01

    Experimental setups are being prepared to test and to qualify electronic devices regarding their tolerance to Single Event Effect (SEE). A multiple test setup and a new beam line developed especially for SEE studies at the São Paulo 8 UD Pelletron accelerator were prepared. This accelerator produces proton beams and heavy ion beams up to 107Ag. A Super conducting Linear accelerator, which is under construction, may fulfill all of the European Space Agency requirements to qualify electronic...

  6. Mutagenesis of the Agrobacterium VirE2 single-stranded DNA-binding protein identifies regions required for self-association and interaction with VirE1 and a permissive site for hybrid protein construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X R; Christie, P J

    1999-07-01

    The VirE2 single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB) of Agrobacterium tumefaciens is required for delivery of T-DNA to the nuclei of susceptible plant cells. By yeast two-hybrid and immunoprecipitation analyses, VirE2 was shown to self-associate and to interact with VirE1. VirE2 mutants with small deletions or insertions of a 31-residue oligopeptide (i31) at the N or C terminus or with an i31 peptide insertion at Leu236 retained the capacity to form homomultimers. By contrast, VirE2 mutants with modifications outside a central region located between residues 320 and 390 retained the capacity to interact with VirE1. These findings suggest the tertiary structure of VirE2 is important for homomultimer formation whereas a central domain mediates formation of a complex with VirE1. The capacity of VirE2 mutants to interact with full-length VirE2 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae correlated with the abundance of the mutant proteins in A. tumefaciens, suggesting that VirE2 is stabilized by homomultimerization in the bacterium. We further characterized the promoter and N- and C-terminal sequence requirements for synthesis of functional VirE2. A PvirB::virE2 construct yielded functional VirE2 protein as defined by complementation of a virE2 null mutation. By contrast, PvirE or Plac promoter constructs yielded functional VirE2 only if virE1 was coexpressed with virE2. Deletion of 10 or 9 residues from the N or C terminus of VirE2, respectively, or addition of heterologous peptides or proteins to either terminus resulted in a loss of protein function. However, an i31 peptide insertion at Tyr39 had no effect on protein function as defined by the capacity of the mutant protein to (i) interact with native VirE2, (ii) interact with VirE1, (iii) accumulate at abundant levels in A. tumefaciens, and (iv) restore wild-type virulence to a virE2 null mutant. We propose that Tyr39 of VirE2 corresponds to a permissive site for insertion of heterologous peptides or proteins of interest

  7. A 3-dimensional view of access to licensed and subsidized medicines under single-payer systems in the US, the UK, Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragupathy, Rajan; Aaltonen, Katri; Tordoff, June; Norris, Pauline; Reith, David

    2012-11-01

    Patients' access to medicines can be profoundly affected by the decisions made by medicine licensing bodies and public reimbursement agencies. The present study compares access to licensed and subsidized medicines under a single-payer system in each of the US, the UK, Australia and New Zealand (NZ). These systems are the US Department of Veterans Affairs National Formulary (VANF), the UK NHS for England and Wales, Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) and NZ's Pharmaceutical Management Agency (PHARMAC). The VANF, PBS and PHARMAC all use positive lists of medicines that are subsidized, along with pharmacoeconomic analysis and price negotiations with suppliers. The NHS uses a negative list of medicines that are not to be subsidized, along with pharmacoeconomic analysis of a small number of medicines and caps on manufacturers' profits. Our objective was to compare licensed and subsidized medicines in terms of the following: (i) total numbers of entities (unique Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical [ATC] codes); (ii) times since first registration (age) of the entities; and (iii) numbers of innovative entities. This was an observational study in order to test pre-defined hypotheses. All products listed in a major prescribing reference in each country were included in the study. All products were classified by ATC code and their registration dates recorded. Products were collapsed by ATC code to determine 'best-case' licensing and subsidy for each entity, along with the date of first registration. Innovative entities selected for 'fast-track' approval by the US FDA or as a 'breakthrough or substantial improvement' by the Canadian Patented Medicines Prices Review Board were identified. Results were verified by a sensitivity analysis that excluded entities only available in injectable formulations (as these may not always be listed in general prescribing references), and by a parallel analysis done by active agent rather than ATC code. Of the 918 entities and 64

  8. Modelling Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart

    2009-01-01

    , these notations have been extended in order to increase expressiveness and to be more competitive. This resulted in an increasing number of notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and in an increase of the different modelling constructs provided by modelling notations, which makes it difficult......There are many different notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and workflows. These notations and formalisms have been introduced with different purposes and objectives. Later, influenced by other notations, comparisons with other tools, or by standardization efforts...... to compare modelling notations and to make transformations between them. One of the reasons is that, in each notation, the new concepts are introduced in a different way by extending the already existing constructs. In this chapter, we go the opposite direction: We show that it is possible to add most...

  9. Airship construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, J.

    1975-01-01

    Forty-four years ago the first successful metal airship was completed and delivered to the United States Navy, the ZMC-2. Between those years and the present, very little effort or serious consideration has been given to the manufacture, design, construction, or economic impact of airships. It is important to retain and exploit the small but continually diminishing pool of airship talent that will expedite the success of the United States in what is now a pioneering venture. The relative simplicity of airship construction, utilizing the tremendous technical advances of the last 44 years, leads to the conclusion that this form of transportation holds great promise for reducing costs of military missions and improving the international competitive position of the United States in commercial applications.

  10. A status report on the PBFA II construction project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, G.W.; Furaus, J.P.; Cook, D.L.; Shirley, C.G.

    1985-01-01

    The Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II) is under construction at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). PBFA II contains 36 individual power modules configured in a stacked radial geometry and synchronized to provide greater than 3.5 MJ of energy into the vacuum section in a single 55-ns-wide 90-TW peak power pulse. This R and D construction project is being implemented in a fast track schedule mode in which final design of the accelerator components occurs in parallel with the construction of the laboratory building and the accelerator tank. PBFA II is scheduled to become operational in January 1986 with its first multi-module shot into an applied-B ion diode that will generate and transport a beam of lithium ions. Plans are now being made for experimental work on PBFA II beyond the construction phase

  11. Observation of martensitic structure evolution in Cu-Al-Ni single crystals with shape memory effect under external load using photoacoustic microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muratikov, K.L.; Glazov, A.L.; Nikolaev, V.I.; Pul'nev, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Photoacoustic microscopy is applied to observe the surface structure of Cu-Al-Ni shape-memory single crystals in both the loaded and unloaded states. Visualizing the early stages of the loading-induced martensitic transformation in Cu-Al-Ni single crystals is demonstrated to be feasible. The photoacoustic images are distinguished to advantage from the corresponding optical images by a higher contrast between different phases of the Cu-Al-Ni shape-memory alloy [ru

  12. The Single-Phase ProtoDUNE Technical Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abi, B. [Univ. of Padova (Italy); et al.

    2017-06-21

    ProtoDUNE-SP is the single-phase DUNE Far Detector prototype that is under construction and will be operated at the CERN Neutrino Platform (NP) starting in 2018. ProtoDUNE-SP, a crucial part of the DUNE effort towards the construction of the first DUNE 10-kt fiducial mass far detector module (17 kt total LAr mass), is a significant experiment in its own right. With a total liquid argon (LAr) mass of 0.77 kt, it represents the largest monolithic single-phase LArTPC detector to be built to date. It's technical design is given in this report.

  13. Constructing Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Philips

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Catalonia, in common with other nations, has long been concerned with the question of identity and difference. Its problematic relationship with Spain has led to an emphasis on differentiating itself from its larger neighbour (if we are to accept, as most Spaniards do not, that Catalonia is not Spain, a situation complicated by the loss of the Spanish colonies of Cuba and The Philippines in 1898, and the Spanish Civil War and subsequent dictatorship from 1936 to 1976. Beginning in the late nineteenth century, the construction of a Catalan identity followed a similar route to that taken by other European nations such as England, Ireland and, indeed, Spain, including an emphasis on rural values, activities and the countryside, and the conversion of specifically local traditions into national past times. It is only in the last ten years or so that this model of Catalan identity has been recognised for what it is – a model constructed and encouraged for and by specific nationalist political interests. Ironically, Catalonia’s identity abroad has also been constructed and manipulated for political purposes, but from quite a different perspective. Orwell’s /Homage to Catalonia/ (1938 narrates an extremely blinkered version of the Spanish Civil War which has achieved iconic status as a result of cold war politics. Subsequent portrayals of the Spanish Civil War – Valentine Cunningham’s /The Penguin Book of Spanish Civil War Verse/ (ed., Penguin, 1980, or Ken Loach’s 1995 film /Land and Freedom/ base their arguments unquestioningly on /Homage to Catalonia/, perpetuating a view of the nation’s recent history that is both reductive and inaccurate

  14. Layout Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Palsberg, Jens; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    We design a system for generating newspaper layout proposals. The input to the system consists of editorial information (text, pictures, etc) and style information (non-editorial information that specifies the aesthetic appearance of a layout). We consider the automation of layout construction...... to pose two main problems. One problem consists in optimizing the layout with respect to the constraints and preferences specified in the style information. Another problem consists in finding a representation of the style information that both supports its use in the combinatorial optimization...

  15. CLIC accelerator modules under construction at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2012-01-01

    The Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) study is dedicated to the design of an electron-positron (e- e+) linear accelerator, colliding particle beams at the energy of 3 TeV. The CLIC required luminosity can be reached with powerful particle beams (14 MW each) colliding with extremely small dimensions and high beam stability at the interaction point. The accelerated particle beams must have dimensions of 45 nm in the horizontal plane and 1 nm in the vertical plane. CLIC relies upon a novel two-beam acceleration concept in which the Radio Frequency (RF) power is extracted from a low energy but high-intensity particle beam, called Drive Beam (DB), and transferred to a parallel high energy accelerating particle beam, called Main Beam (MB). The extraction and transfer of the RF power is achieved by the Power Extraction and Transfer Structures (PETS) and the particle beam acceleration is achieved with high precision RF-Accelerating Structures (AS), operating at 11.9942 GHz with an accelerating gradient of 100 MV/m, whi...

  16. POX 186: A Dwarf Galaxy Under Construction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, M. R.; Vacca, W. D.

    2000-12-01

    We have obtained deep images of the ultracompact ( ~ 3'') blue compact dwarf galaxy POX 186 in the F336W, F555W, and F814W filters of the Planetary Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope. We have additionally obtained a low-resolution near ultraviolet spectrum of the object with STIS and combine this with a ground-based spectrum covering the visible continuum and emission lines. Our images confirm this object to be highly compact, with a maximum projected size of only ~ 240 pc, making it one of the smallest galaxies known. We also confirm that the outer regions of the galaxy consist of an evolved stellar population, ruling out earlier speculations that POX 186 is a protogalaxy. However, the PC images reveal the galaxy to have a highly irregular morphology, with a pronounced tidal arm on its western side. This morphology is strongly suggestive of a recent collision between two smaller components which has in turn triggered the central starburst. The F336W image also shows that the material in this tidal stream is actively star forming. Given the very small ( ~ 100 pc) sizes of the colliding components, POX 186 may be a dwarf galaxy in the early stages of formation, which would be consistent with current ``downsizing'' models of galaxy formation in which the least massive objects are the last to form. This work is supported by NASA and the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  17. AA under construction in its hall

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    The Antiproton Accumulator was installed in a specially built hall. Here we see it at an "early" stage of installation, just a few magnets on the floor, no vacuum chamber at all, but: 3 months later there was circulating beam !

  18. A single-dose, randomized, two-way crossover study comparing two olanzapine tablet products in healthy adult male volunteers under fasting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafeey, Ahmed H; Elsherbiny, Mohamed A; Fathallah, Mohsen M

    2009-03-01

    Olanzapine is a psychotropic agent that belongs to the thienobenzodiazepine class. The aim of this study was to assess the bioequivalence of 2 commercial 10-mg tablet formulations of olanzapine by statistical analysis of the pharmacokinetic parameters C(max), AUC from 0 to 72 hours after dosing (AUC(0-72)), and AUC(0-infinity) as required by the Egyptian health authority for the marketing of a generic product. This bioequivalence study was carried out in healthy male volunteers using a single-dose, randomized, 2-way crossover design under fasting conditions. Statistical analysis of the pharmacokinetic parameters C(max), AUC(0-72), and AUC(0-infinity) was conducted to determine bioequivalence (after log-transformation of data using analysis of variance and 90% CIs) and to gain marketing approval in Egypt. The formulations were considered to be bioequivalent if the log-transformed ratios of the 3 pharmacokinetic parameters were within the predetermined bioequivalence range (ie, 80%-125%), as established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Both the test product (Trademark: Integrol((R)) [Global Napi Pharmaceuticals, Cairo, Egypt]) and the reference product (Trademark: Zyprexa((R)) [Eli Lilly and Company, Basingstoke, Hampshire, United Kingdom]) were administered as 10-mg tablets with 240 mL of water after an overnight fast on 2 treatment days, separated by a 2-week washout period. After dosing, serial blood samples were collected for 72 hours. Plasma samples were analyzed using a sensitive, reproducible, and accurate liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method capable of quantitating olanzapine in the range of 0.167 to 16.7 ng/mL, with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.167 ng/mL. Adverse events were reported by the volunteers as instructed or observed by the resident physician, and were recorded, tabulated, and evaluated. Twenty-four healthy adult male volunteers participated in this study. Their mean (SD) age was 24.7 (6.2) years (range, 19

  19. Charge density analysis of SiO sub 2 under pressures over 50 GPa using a new diamond anvil cell for single-crystal structure analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, T; Komatsu, Y; Sumiya, H

    2002-01-01

    Single-crystal structure analysis of SiO sub 2 stishovite, (rutile type, P4 sub 2 /mnm z = 2) was carried out using the newly devised diamond anvil cell. The electron-density distribution was investigated at high pressures up to 50 GPa using synchrotron radiation at SPring-8 and a laboratory x-ray source generator of Ag K alpha rotating anode generator. Using large diamond crystal windows instead of beryllium for the cell has several advantages for single-crystal diffraction study supplying the large Q-value.

  20. Random population model to explain the recombination dynamics in single InAs/GaAs quantum dots under selective optical pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomis-Bresco, Jordi; Munoz-Matutano, Guillermo; Martinez-Pastor, Juan [Institut de Ciencies dels Materials de la Universitat de Valencia, Universitat de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Alen, Benito [IMM, Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC), Isaac Newton 8, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Seravalli, Luca; Frigeri, Paola; Trevisi, Giovanna; Franchi, Secondo, E-mail: jrdi.gomis@icn.cat [CNR-IMEM Institute, Parco delle Scienze 37a, I-43100 Parma (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    We model the time-resolved and time-integrated photoluminescence of a single InAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) using a random population description. We reproduce the joint power dependence of the single QD exciton complexes (neutral exciton, neutral biexciton and charged trions). We use the model to investigate the selective optical pumping phenomenon, a predominance of the negative trion observed when the optical excitation is resonant to a non-intentional impurity level. Our experiments and simulations determine that the negative charge confined in the QD after exciting resonance to the impurity level escapes in 10 ns.

  1. I. Monographic Section Constructing territories/constructing identity. Lagoons compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauro Gelichi (a cura di

    2015-10-01

    Though fragmented and tied to the specificity of the single contributions, the picture that emerges is one moving towards the construction of a unitary interpretative paradigm, in which the constructed territory is analysed in all its forms and expressions, both material and ideological. The result is an original and in some ways unique story of a significant segment of early medieval Italian history that has until now been largely neglected by historical studies.

  2. Magnetic and transport properties of PrRu.sub.2./sub.Si.sub.2./sub. single crystal under high pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vejpravová, J.; Kamarád, Jiří; Prchal, J.; Sechovsky, V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 76, suppl. A (2007), s. 49-50 ISSN 0031-9015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : pressure effect * magnetic properties * transport properties * single crystal Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.212, year: 2007

  3. Magnetism of UCo.sub.2./sub.Si.sub.2./sub. single crystal studied under applied magnetic field and hydrostatic pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mihalik, M.; Kolomiyets, O.; Griveau, J.C.; Andreev, Alexander V.; Sechovský, V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 76, Suppl. A (2007), s. 54-55 ISSN 0031-9015 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0178 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : uranium intermetallics * single crystals * antiferromagnetism * high pressure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.212, year: 2007

  4. Transition from ferromagnetism to metamagnetism under pressure in a U.sub.0.94./sub.Y.sub.0.06./sub.CoAl single crystal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Andreev, Alexander V.; Koyama, K.; Mushnikov, N. V.; Sechovský, V.; Shiokawa, Y.; Satoh, I.; Watanabe, K.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 76, Suppl. A (2007), s. 43-44 ISSN 0031-9015 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0178; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100100530 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : uranium intermetallics * single crystals * ferromagnetism * metamagnetism * high pressure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.212, year: 2007

  5. Concurrent Delay in Construction Disputes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleri, Sylvie Cécile

    period of delay can potentially be attributed to several events falling within both parties' spheres of responsibility, commonly termed concurrent delay, is rarely regulated in construction contracts in spite of its common occurrence. This book analyses both the theoretical foundations and the practical......Delay is one of the issues most frequently encountered in today’s construction industry; it causes significant economic damage to all parties involved. Construction contracts, standard and bespoke, almost invariably consider delay from a perspective of single liability. If the event causing...... solutions to the issue of concurrent delay in a comparative perspective between common and civil law systems, with an emphasis on Danish and English law....

  6. ON CHINESE ORDINAL CONSTRUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Chin Tsai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A Chinese ordinal construction in the form [di + Num + Cl + N] is ambiguous between a definite construal and an indefinite quantity construal. The morpheme di heads a DP, and the two readings of the ordinal expression can be attributed to the lexical ambiguity of the morpheme di. On the one hand, if the event is realized once, and there is an ordered set of objects in a single space within which the context of a sentence can verify a presupposed referential existence for the denotation of ordinal phrases, di is a [+strong] determiner giving rise to a definite reading. On the other hand, if the event is carried out more than once, no such an ordered set of objects is present in a single space, and the context of a sentence cannot verify a presupposed referential existence for the denotation of ordinal phrases, di is a [-strong] determiner with an additive function and results in an indefinite quantity reading.

  7. Effective viscous flow properties for fiber suspensions under concentrated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    The effective longitudinal and transverse shear viscosities are derived for an aligned fiber suspension. The solutions are valid under very concentrated conditions for a hexagonal arrangement of the single size fibers. The results compliment the classical dilute suspension forms at the other extreme of concentration. Empirical forms are constructed to cover the full range of volume fraction of the fiber phase. Also, single size spherical particle suspensions are given a similar treatment to that of the fiber case

  8. High field electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy under ultrahigh vacuum conditions—A multipurpose machine to study paramagnetic species on well defined single crystal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocker, J.; Cornu, D.; Kieseritzky, E.; Seiler, A.; Bondarchuk, O.; Hänsel-Ziegler, W.; Risse, T.; Freund, H.-J.

    2014-08-01

    A new ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer operating at 94 GHz to investigate paramagnetic centers on single crystal surfaces is described. It is particularly designed to study paramagnetic centers on well-defined model catalysts using epitaxial thin oxide films grown on metal single crystals. The EPR setup is based on a commercial Bruker E600 spectrometer, which is adapted to ultrahigh vacuum conditions using a home made Fabry Perot resonator. The key idea of the resonator is to use the planar metal single crystal required to grow the single crystalline oxide films as one of the mirrors of the resonator. EPR spectroscopy is solely sensitive to paramagnetic species, which are typically minority species in such a system. Hence, additional experimental characterization tools are required to allow for a comprehensive investigation of the surface. The apparatus includes a preparation chamber hosting equipment, which is required to prepare supported model catalysts. In addition, surface characterization tools such as low energy electron diffraction (LEED)/Auger spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption (TPD), and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) are available to characterize the surfaces. A second chamber used to perform EPR spectroscopy at 94 GHz has a room temperature scanning tunneling microscope attached to it, which allows for real space structural characterization. The heart of the UHV adaptation of the EPR experiment is the sealing of the Fabry-Perot resonator against atmosphere. To this end it is possible to use a thin sapphire window glued to the backside of the coupling orifice of the Fabry Perot resonator. With the help of a variety of stabilization measures reducing vibrations as well as thermal drift it is possible to accumulate data for a time span, which is for low temperature measurements only limited by the amount of liquid helium. Test measurements show that the system can detect paramagnetic

  9. Three dimensional contact stresses under the LINTRACK wide base single tyres, measured with the Vehicle-Road Surface Pressure Transducer Array (VRSPTA) system in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available system at TuDelft and a new tyre, were sent to South Africa for a comprehensive set of contact stress measurements under the South African Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS), which was used to provide the loading and speed requirements needed for the stress...

  10. One at a time: counting single-nanoparticle/electrode collisions for accurate particle sizing by overcoming the instability of gold nanoparticles under electrolytic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Danfeng; Wang, Song; Zheng, Yuanqin; Deng, Zhaoxiang

    2013-01-01

    In response to an increasing demand for understanding electrochemical processes on the nanometer scale, it now becomes possible to monitor electron transfer reactions at the single-nanoparticle level, namely particle collision electrochemistry. This technique has great potential in the development of research tools towards single-particle electrocatalysis and selective and multiplexed particle sizing. However, one existing problem that may discourage these applications is the relatively weak colloidal stability of nanoparticles in an electrolytic solution. Here we report on a facile but efficient way to achieve a good stability of gold nanoparticles in an acidic media so that ‘zero-aggregation’ collisions can be achieved at a carbon ultramicroelectrode. This allows us to obtain anodic dissolution currents from individual nanoparticles in a ‘one particle at a time’ manner, based on which accurate particle sizing with a resolution of 1–2 nm can be achieved. Our work strongly suggests that to maintain a well dispersed nanoparticle solution during a particle impact electrochemical experiment is critically important for accurate particle sizing, as well as other applications that require information to be extracted from individual nanoparticles (not their aggregates). (paper)

  11. Determination of NAD+ and NADH level in a Single Cell Under H2O2 Stress by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Wenjun [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method is developed to determine both NAD+ and NADH levels in a single cell, based on an enzymatic cycling reaction. The detection limit can reach down to 0.2 amol NAD+ and 1 amol NADH on a home-made CE-LIF setup. The method showed good reproducibility and specificity. After an intact cell was injected into the inlet of a capillary and lysed using a Tesla coil, intracellular NAD+ and NADH were separated, incubated with the cycling buffer, and quantified by the amount of fluorescent product generated. NADH and NAD+ levels of single cells of three cell lines and primary astrocyte culture were determined using this method. Comparing cellular NAD+ and NADH levels with and without exposure to oxidative stress induced by H2O2, it was found that H9c2 cells respond to the stress by reducing both cellular NAD+ and NADH levels, while astrocytes respond by increasing cellular NADH/NAD+ ratio.

  12. Intense laser effects on donor impurity in a cylindrical single and vertically coupled quantum dots under combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and applied electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duque, C.A.; Kasapoglu, E.; Sakiroglu, S.; Sari, H.; Soekmen, I.

    2010-01-01

    Using the effective mass and parabolic band approximations and a variational procedure we have calculated the combined effects of intense laser radiation, hydrostatic pressure, and applied electric field on shallow-donor impurity confined in cylindrical-shaped single and double GaAs-Ga 1-x Al x As QD. Several impurity positions and inputs of the heterostructure dimensions, hydrostatic pressure, and applied electric field have been considered. The laser effects have been introduced by a perturbative scheme in which the Coulomb and the barrier potentials are modified to obtain dressed potentials. Our findings suggest that (1) for on-center impurities in single QD the binding energy is a decreasing function of the dressing parameter and for small dot dimensions of the structures (lengths and radius) the binding energy is more sensitive to the dressing parameter, (2) the binding energy is an increasing/decreasing function of the hydrostatic pressure/applied electric field, (3) the effects of the intense laser field and applied electric field on the binding energy are dominant over the hydrostatic pressure effects, (4) in vertically coupled QD the binding energy for donor impurity located in the barrier region is smaller than for impurities in the well regions and can be strongly modified by the laser radiation, and finally (5) in asymmetrical double QD heterostructures the binding energy as a function of the impurity positions follows a similar behavior to the observed for the amplitude of probability of the noncorrelated electron wave function.

  13. One at a time: counting single-nanoparticle/electrode collisions for accurate particle sizing by overcoming the instability of gold nanoparticles under electrolytic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Danfeng; Wang, Song; Zheng, Yuanqin; Deng, Zhaoxiang

    2013-12-20

    In response to an increasing demand for understanding electrochemical processes on the nanometer scale, it now becomes possible to monitor electron transfer reactions at the single-nanoparticle level, namely particle collision electrochemistry. This technique has great potential in the development of research tools towards single-particle electrocatalysis and selective and multiplexed particle sizing. However, one existing problem that may discourage these applications is the relatively weak colloidal stability of nanoparticles in an electrolytic solution. Here we report on a facile but efficient way to achieve a good stability of gold nanoparticles in an acidic media so that 'zero-aggregation' collisions can be achieved at a carbon ultramicroelectrode. This allows us to obtain anodic dissolution currents from individual nanoparticles in a 'one particle at a time' manner, based on which accurate particle sizing with a resolution of 1-2 nm can be achieved. Our work strongly suggests that to maintain a well dispersed nanoparticle solution during a particle impact electrochemical experiment is critically important for accurate particle sizing, as well as other applications that require information to be extracted from individual nanoparticles (not their aggregates).

  14. Single-phased CaAl2Si2O8:Tm3+, Dy3+ white-light phosphors under ultraviolet excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Penghui; Yu, Xue; Xu, Xuhui; Jiang, Tingming; Yu, Hongling; Zhou, Dacheng; Yang, Zhengwen; Song, Zhiguo; Qiu, Jianbei

    2013-01-01

    A novel white-light-emitting phosphor CaAl 2 Si 2 O 8 :Tm, Dy was synthesized in ambient atmosphere by solid-state reaction. The energy transfer from Tm 3+ to Dy 3+ ions via a dipole–quadrupole reaction was observed and investigated. Upon UV excitation, white light emission was achieved by integrating a blue emission band located at 455 nm and an orange one located at 574 nm attributed to Tm 3+ and Dy 3+ ions, respectively. In addition, the energy-transfer efficiency and critical distance were calculated. Results suggested that the phosphor might be promising as a single-phased white-light-emitting phosphor for UV white-light LED. - Graphical abstract: The results indicate the existence of energy transfer from Tm 3+ to Dy 3+ . By tuning the concentration of Dy 3+ , single-phased white light can be realized. - Highlights: ► Energy transfer from Tm 3+ to Dy 3+ was investigated. ► Color tunable from blue to white can be achieved. ► White light can be realized in CaAl 2 Si 2 O 8 :Tm 3+ , Dy 3+ phosphor

  15. Intense laser effects on donor impurity in a cylindrical single and vertically coupled quantum dots under combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and applied electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, C. A.; Kasapoglu, E.; Sakiroglu, S.; Sari, H.; Sökmen, I.

    2010-10-01

    Using the effective mass and parabolic band approximations and a variational procedure we have calculated the combined effects of intense laser radiation, hydrostatic pressure, and applied electric field on shallow-donor impurity confined in cylindrical-shaped single and double GaAs-Ga 1- xAl xAs QD. Several impurity positions and inputs of the heterostructure dimensions, hydrostatic pressure, and applied electric field have been considered. The laser effects have been introduced by a perturbative scheme in which the Coulomb and the barrier potentials are modified to obtain dressed potentials. Our findings suggest that (1) for on-center impurities in single QD the binding energy is a decreasing function of the dressing parameter and for small dot dimensions of the structures (lengths and radius) the binding energy is more sensitive to the dressing parameter, (2) the binding energy is an increasing/decreasing function of the hydrostatic pressure/applied electric field, (3) the effects of the intense laser field and applied electric field on the binding energy are dominant over the hydrostatic pressure effects, (4) in vertically coupled QD the binding energy for donor impurity located in the barrier region is smaller than for impurities in the well regions and can be strongly modified by the laser radiation, and finally (5) in asymmetrical double QD heterostructures the binding energy as a function of the impurity positions follows a similar behavior to the observed for the amplitude of probability of the noncorrelated electron wave function.

  16. Identification of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphic Loci Associated with Biomass Yield under Water Deficit in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Using Genome-Wide Sequencing and Association Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long-Xi Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is a worldwide grown forage crop and is important due to its high biomass production and nutritional value. However, the production of alfalfa is challenged by adverse environmental factors such as drought and other stresses. Developing drought resistance alfalfa is an important breeding target for enhancing alfalfa productivity in arid and semi-arid regions. In the present study, we used genotyping-by-sequencing and genome-wide association to identify marker loci associated with biomass yield under drought in the field in a panel of diverse germplasm of alfalfa. A total of 28 markers at 22 genetic loci were associated with yield under water deficit, whereas only four markers associated with the same trait under well-watered condition. Comparisons of marker-trait associations between water deficit and well-watered conditions showed non-similarity except one. Most of the markers were identical across harvest periods within the treatment, although different levels of significance were found among the three harvests. The loci associated with biomass yield under water deficit located throughout all chromosomes in the alfalfa genome agreed with previous reports. Our results suggest that biomass yield under drought is a complex quantitative trait with polygenic inheritance and may involve a different mechanism compared to that of non-stress. BLAST searches of the flanking sequences of the associated loci against DNA databases revealed several stress-responsive genes linked to the drought resistance loci, including leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase, B3 DNA-binding domain protein, translation initiation factor IF2, and phospholipase-like protein. With further investigation, those markers closely linked to drought resistance can be used for MAS to accelerate the development of new alfalfa cultivars with improved resistance to drought and other abiotic stresses.

  17. Design and construction of the prototype of a digital meter of single phase electric energy based in a microcontroller; Diseno y construccion del prototipo de un medidor digital de energia electrica monofasico basado en un microcontrolador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Alonso, Ruben

    2003-10-15

    This research work presents the design and construction of a single-phase microcontroller-based digital electric energy meter. The digital instrument displays the energy demand (kw-h) based on up-to-date tariff provided by the Mexican national utility Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). The meter digitally processes voltage and current line waveform samples taken at its input, displaying, in real time, the number of electrical parameters calculated. For a better instrument performance a PIC16F874 microcontroller from microchip has been used as computational core. The parameters of interest are visualized in a liquid crystal display of 2 X 16 characters. The user interface includes a menu where some of the parameters can be selected by the operator. In the event of an electric power supply disruption the meter keeps to the energy consumption in memory. The voltage and current measured levels ranges from 1 to 255 Vrms and 0.1 to 25.5 Arms, respectively. The power is displayed in 5 digits ranging from 0 to 6502.5 watts and the energy is displayed with 5 whole digits and 5 decimals ranging, from 0 kWh up to 99999.99999 kWh. These values are refreshed every one second together with the actual electrical consumption cost which ranges from 0 up to 9999.9 pesos. The digital measuring instrument has been built based on four main inter-connected modules named, data acquisition; signal conditioning; signal processing; and display. A set of efficient assembly code routines has been developed in order to calculate the number of electrical parameter previously described. After a debugging process, the optimised code has been assembled for the PIC16F874. [Spanish] El trabajo presenta el diseno y construccion de un medidor digital de energia electrica basado en un microcontrolador, el cual visualiza la demanda por el consumo de kWh, basandose en una tarifa escalonada de tipo domestico de CFE. Tambien el aparato visualiza voltaje, corriente, potencia y el tiempo de medicion

  18. Constructive Preference Elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Dragone

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When faced with large or complex decision problems, human decision makers (DM can make costly mistakes, due to inherent limitations of their memory, attention, and knowledge. Preference elicitation tools assist the decision maker in overcoming these limitations. They do so by interactively learning the DM’s preferences through appropriately chosen queries and suggesting high-quality outcomes based on the preference estimates. Most state-of-the-art techniques, however, fail in constructive settings, where the goal is to synthesize a custom or entirely novel configuration rather than choosing the best option among a given set of candidates. Many wide-spread problems are constructive in nature: customizing composite goods such as cars and computers, bundling products, recommending touristic travel plans, designing apartments, buildings, or urban layouts, etc. In these settings, the full set of outcomes is humongous and can not be explicitly enumerated, and the solution must be synthesized via constrained optimization. In this article, we describe recent approaches especially designed for constructive problems, outlining the underlying ideas and their differences as well as their limitations. In presenting them, we especially focus on novel issues that the constructive setting brings forth, such as how to deal with sparsity of the DM’s preferences, how to properly frame the interaction, and how to achieve efficient synthesis of custom instances.

  19. An analytical solution for the estimation of the critical available soil water fraction for a single layer water balance model under growing crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Brisson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of simplified water balance models devoted to irrigation scheduling or crop modelling, the relative transpiration rate (the ratio of actual to maximal transpiration is assumed to decrease linearly when the soil dries out below a critical available water value. This value is usually expressed as a fraction, F, of the maximal available soil water content. The present work aims to use the basic laws governing water transfer through the plants at a daily time step to compute F dynamically as the crop grows. It can be regarded as an expansion of Slabbers' (1980 approach to crop growing conditions. Starting from the mathematical representation given by single-root models (Gardner, 1960, an analytical expression for F is derived, using simplified hypotheses. This expression accounts for plant attributes such as the mean root radius, the critical leaf water potential for stomatal closure and the root length density profile growing with the crop. Environmental factors such as soil type and atmospheric demand also influence F. The structural influence of soil comes from the required introduction of the bulk soil hydraulic conductivity in the single-root model. The shape of the root length density profile is assumed to be sigmoidal and a new profile is calculated at each value of the rooting depth. A sensitivity analysis of F to all those factors is presented. The first general result is that F decreases as the root system grows in depth. Differences in the shape of the root profile can be responsible for differential water stress sensitivity in the early stages of growth. Yet, low critical leaf water potential can compensate partially for a poor root profile. Conversely, F is relatively insensitive to the average root radius. F sensitivity to soil type seems somewhat artificial: given the bulk soil hydraulic conductivity formula, the soil sensitivity results from F being expressed as a fraction of the maximal available soil water content

  20. Dynamic strain distribution measurement and crack detection of an adhesive-bonded single-lap joint under cyclic loading using embedded FBG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning, Xiaoguang; Murayama, Hideaki; Kageyama, Kazuro; Wada, Daichi; Kanai, Makoto; Ohsawa, Isamu; Igawa, Hirotaka

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the dynamic strain distribution measurement of an adhesive-bonded single-lap joint was carried out in a cyclic load test using a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor embedded into the adhesive/adherend interface along the overlap length direction. Unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) substrates were bonded by epoxy resin to form the joint, and the FBG sensor was embedded into the surface of one substrate during its curing. The measurement was carried out with a sampling rate of 5 Hz by the sensing system, based on the optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) throughout the test. A finite element analysis (FEA) was performed for the measurement evaluation using a three-dimensional model, which included the embedded FBG sensor. The crack detection method, based on the longitudinal strain distribution measurement, was introduced and performed to estimate the cracks that occurred at the adhesive/adherend interface in the test. (paper)

  1. Evolution of energy deposition processes in anthracene single crystal from photochemistry to radiation chemistry under excitation with synchrotron radiation from 3 to 700 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Kazumichi; Jin, Zhaohui; Shimoyama, Iwao; Miyake, Yasuyuki; Ueno, Madoka; Kishigami, Yoichi; Horiuchi, Hiroki; Tanaka, Masahito; Kaneko, Fusae; Nishimagi, Hironobu; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Kotani, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    Absolute values of quantum yield Φ(hν) of singlet exciton formation in anthracene single crystals were measured as a function of photon energy hν, with the usage of synchrotron radiation (SR) in 3-700 eV region. Values of Φ(hν) were found to increase linearly for hν≥75 eV. For hν≤40 eV, values of Φ(hν) gave a wealth of structures and are not linear to hν. Because number of secondary electrons produced by radiation is thought to increase in proportional to the incident photon energy, it is natural to conclude that the radiation chemistry effect becomes dominant above 75 eV. On the other hand, values of Φ(hν) showed response due to resonance rather than linear dependence with hν, which implies that the photochemical effect is dominant below 40 eV

  2. Simulation of V/G During Φ450 mm Czochralski Grown Silicon Single Crystal Growth Under the Different Crystal and Crucible Rotation Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan X J

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For discovering the principle of processing parameter combination for the stable growth and better wafer quality of Φ450 mm Czochralski grown silicon single crystal (shortly called Cz silicon crystal, the effects of crystal rotation rate and crucible one on the V/G ratio were simulated by using CGSim software. The results show that their effect laws on the V/G ratio for Φ450 mm Cz silicon crystal growth are some different from that for Φ200 mm Cz silicon one, and the effects of crucible rotation rate are relatively smaller than that of crystal one and its increasing only makes the demarcation point between two regions with different V/G ratio variations outward move along radial direction, and it promotes the wafer quality to weaken crystal rotation rate and strengthen crucible one.

  3. ABWR construction experience in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahata, Junichi; Miura, Jun; Saito, Fuyuki; Mori, Hiroya

    2003-01-01

    The construction of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station Unit No. 6 and 7 (K6 and 7) owned by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), have been in service since November 1996 and September 1997 respectively, and are the first ABWRs in the world. Hitachi, Ltd. and Toshiba Corporation took part in the projects and achieved safety construction in 52- month schedule from rock inspection to turnover in cooperation with TEPCO and other contractors with broad experience in BWRs. Taking advantage of experience of the Kashiwazaki construction, the ABWR construction methods realize to satisfy with requests from electric power companies and to fit site conditions. The Chubu Electric Power Company's Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit No. 5 (Hamaoka 5) and Hokuriku Electric Power Company's Shika Nuclear Power Station Unit No. 2 (Shika 2), which are ABWRs, completed rock inspection in May 2000 and June 2001 respectively, and are under construction. The ABWR construction methods are proved their validity through four actual construction projects. Safe constructions with the highest quality have been advanced thus further aiming at the introduction of the latest technologies and contributing to reduce plant construction costs and also to shorten schedule. (author)

  4. Designing field-controllable graphene-dot-graphene single molecule switches: A quantum-theoretical proof-of-concept under realistic operating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejov, Ljupčo; Petreska, Irina; Kocarev, Ljupčo

    2015-12-28

    A theoretical proof of the concept that a particularly designed graphene-based moletronics device, constituted by two semi-infinite graphene subunits, acting as source and drain electrodes, and a central benzenoid ring rotator (a "quantum dot"), could act as a field-controllable molecular switch is outlined and analyzed with the density functional theory approach. Besides the ideal (0 K) case, we also consider the operation of such a device under realistic operating (i.e., finite-temperature) conditions. An in-depth insight into the physics behind device controllability by an external field was gained by thorough analyses of the torsional potential of the dot under various conditions (absence or presence of an external gating field with varying strength), computing the torsional correlation time and transition probabilities within the Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound formalism. Both classical and quantum mechanical tunneling contributions to the intramolecular rotation were considered in the model. The main idea that we put forward in the present study is that intramolecular rotors can be controlled by the gating field even in cases when these groups do not possess a permanent dipole moment (as in cases considered previously by us [I. Petreska et al., J. Chem. Phys. 134, 014708-1-014708-12 (2011)] and also by other groups [P. E. Kornilovitch et al., Phys. Rev. B 66, 245413-1-245413-7 (2002)]). Consequently, one can control the molecular switching properties by an external electrostatic field utilizing even nonpolar intramolecular rotors (i.e., in a more general case than those considered so far). Molecular admittance of the currently considered graphene-based molecular switch under various conditions is analyzed employing non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, as well as by analysis of frontier molecular orbitals' behavior.

  5. Application of CUPID for subchannel-scale thermal–hydraulic analysis of pressurized water reactor core under single-phase conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Seok Jong Yoon; Seul Been Kim; Goon Cherl Park; Han Young Yoon; Hyoung Kyu Cho

    2018-01-01

    There have been recent efforts to establish methods for high-fidelity and multi-physics simulation with coupled thermal–hydraulic (T/H) and neutronics codes for the entire core of a light water reactor under accident conditions. Considering the computing power necessary for a pin-by-pin analysis of the entire core, subchannel-scale T/H analysis is considered appropriate to achieve acceptable accuracy in an optimal computational time. In the present study, the applicability of in-house code CU...

  6. A wheel-shaped single-molecule magnet of [MnII 3MnIII 4]: quantum tunneling of magnetization under static and pulse magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Satoshi; Nihei, Masayuki; Shiga, Takuya; Nakano, Motohiro; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Bircher, Roland; Waldmann, Oliver; Ochsenbein, Stefan T; Güdel, Hans U; Fernandez-Alonso, Felix; Oshio, Hiroki

    2007-01-01

    The reaction of N-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl)iminodiethanol (=H3(5-NO2-hbide)) with Mn(OAc)2* 4 H2O in methanol, followed by recrystallization from 1,2-dichloroethane, yielded a wheel-shaped single-molecule magnet (SMM) of [MnII 3MnIII 4(5-NO2-hbide)6].5 C2H4Cl2 (1). In 1, seven manganese ions are linked by six tri-anionic ligands and form the wheel in which the two manganese ions on the rim and the one in the center are MnII and the other four manganese ions are MnIII ions. Powder magnetic susceptibility measurements showed a gradual increase with chimT values as the temperature was lowered, reaching a maximum value of 53.9 emu mol(-1) K. Analyses of magnetic susceptibility data suggested a spin ground state of S=19/2. The zero-field splitting parameters of D and B 0 4 were estimated to be -0.283(1) K and -1.64(1)x10(-5) K, respectively, by high-field EPR measurements (HF-EPR). The anisotropic parameters agreed with those estimated from magnetization and inelastic neutron scattering experiments. AC magnetic susceptibility measurements showed frequency-dependent in- and out-of-phase signals, characteristic data for an SMM, and an Arrhenius plot of the relaxation time gave a re-orientation energy barrier (DeltaE) of 18.1 K and a pre-exponential factor of 1.63x10(-7) s. Magnetization experiments on aligned single crystals below 0.7 K showed a stepped hysteresis loop, confirming the occurrence of quantum tunneling of the on magnetization (QTM). QTM was, on the other hand, suppressed by rapid sweeps of the magnetic field even at 0.5 K. The sweep-rate dependence of the spin flips can be understood by considering the Landau-Zener-Stückelberg (LZS) model.

  7. Optimisation of single-phase dry-thermophilic anaerobic digestion under high organic loading rates of industrial municipal solid waste: population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, S; Sales, D; Romero, L I; Solera, R

    2013-10-01

    Different high feed organic loading rates (OLRs) (from 5.7 g to 46.0 g TVS/l/d) or hydraulic retention times (HRTs) (from 15 d to 2 d) in single-phase dry-thermophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic fraction municipal solid waste (OFMSW) were investigated. The specific gas production (SGP) values (0.25-0.53 m(3)/kg TVS) and the percentages of Eubacteria, Archaea, H2-utilising methanogens (HUMs) and acetate-utilising methanogens (AUMs) were stable within the ranges 80.2-91.1%, 12.4-18.5%, 4.4-9.8% and 5.5-10.9%, respectively. A HUM/AUM ratio greater than 0.7 seems to be necessary to maintain very low partial pressures of H2 required for dry AD process. Increasing OLR resulted in an increase in all the populations, except for propionate-utilising acetogens (PUAs). Optimal conditions were obtained at 3d HRT (OLR=30.7 g TVS/l/d), which is lower than the doubling time of acetogens and methanogens. The methane production (MP) was clearly higher than those reported in AD of OFMSW. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantum dynamics of a BEC interacting with a single-mode quantized field under the influence of a dissipation process: thermal and squeezed vacuum reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemian, E.; Tavassoly, M. K.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we consider a system consisting of a number of two-level atoms in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and a single-mode quantized field, which interact with each other in the presence of two different damping sources, i.e. cavity and atomic reservoirs. The reservoirs which we consider here are thermal and squeezed vacuum ones corresponding to field and atom modes. Strictly speaking, by considering both types of reservoirs for each of the atom and field modes, we investigate the quantum dynamics of the interacting bosons in the system. Then, via solving the quantum Langevin equations for such a dissipative BEC system, we obtain analytical expressions for the time dependence of atomic population inversion, mean atom as well as photon number and quadrature squeezing in the field and atom modes. Our investigations demonstrate that for modeling the real physical systems, considering the dissipation effects is essential. Also, numerical calculations which are presented show that the atomic population inversion, the mean number of atoms in the BEC and the photons in the cavity possess damped oscillatory behavior due to the presence of reservoirs. In addition, non-classical squeezing effects in the field quadrature can be observed especially when squeezed vacuum reservoirs are taken into account. As an outstanding property of this model, we may refer to the fact that one can extract the atom-field coupling constant from the frequency of oscillations in the mentioned quantities such as atomic population inversion.

  9. Dynamics of 1.55 μm Wavelength Single-Mode Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser Output under External Optical Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong Hon Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the temporal dynamics of the laser output spectrum and polarization state of 1.55 μm wavelength single-mode (SM vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs induced by external optical beam injection. Injection of an external continuous-wave laser beam to a gain-switched SM VCSEL near the resonance wavelength corresponding to its main polarization-mode output was critical for improvement of its laser pulse generation characteristics, such as pulse timing-jitter reduction, linewidth narrowing, pulse amplitude enhancement, and pulse width shortening. Pulse injection of pulse width shorter than the cavity photon lifetime into the SM VCSEL in the orthogonal polarization direction with respect to its main polarization mode caused temporal delay of the polarization recovery after polarization switching (PS, and its delay was found to be the minimum at an optimized bias current. Polarization-mode bistability was observed even in the laser output of an SM VCSEL of a standard circularly cylindrical shape and used for all-optical flip-flop operations with set and reset injection pulses of very low pulse energy of order of the 3.5~4.5 fJ.

  10. Analysis by Monte Carlo simulations of the sensitivity to single event upset of SRAM memories under spatial proton or terrestrial neutron environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, D.

    2006-07-01

    Electronic systems in space and terrestrial environments are subjected to a flow of particles of natural origin, which can induce dysfunctions. These particles can cause Single Event Upsets (SEU) in SRAM memories. Although non-destructive, the SEU can have consequences on the equipment functioning in applications requiring a great reliability (airplane, satellite, launcher, medical, etc). Thus, an evaluation of the sensitivity of the component technology is necessary to predict the reliability of a system. In atmospheric environment, the SEU sensitivity is mainly caused by the secondary ions resulting from the nuclear reactions between the neutrons and the atoms of the component. In space environment, the protons with strong energies induce the same effects as the atmospheric neutrons. In our work, a new code of prediction of the rate of SEU has been developed (MC-DASIE) in order to quantify the sensitivity for a given environment and to explore the mechanisms of failures according to technology. This code makes it possible to study various technologies of memories SRAM (Bulk and SOI) in neutron and proton environment between 1 MeV and 1 GeV. Thus, MC-DASIE was used with experiment data to study the effect of integration on the sensitivity of the memories in terrestrial environment, a comparison between the neutron and proton irradiations and the influence of the modeling of the target component on the calculation of the rate of SEU. (author)

  11. Single and combinatorial chromatin coupling events underlies the function of transcript factor krüppel-like factor 11 in the regulation of gene networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) are a group of master regulators of gene expression conserved from flies to human. However, scant information is available on either the mechanisms or functional impact of the coupling of KLF proteins to chromatin remodeling machines, a deterministic step in transcriptional regulation. Results and discussion In the current study, we use genome-wide analyses of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-on-Chip) and Affymetrix-based expression profiling to gain insight into how KLF11, a human transcription factor involved in tumor suppression and metabolic diseases, works by coupling to three co-factor groups: the Sin3-histone deacetylase system, WD40-domain containing proteins, and the HP1-histone methyltransferase system. Our results reveal that KLF11 regulates distinct gene networks involved in metabolism and growth by using single or combinatorial coupling events. Conclusion This study, the first of its type for any KLF protein, reveals that interactions with multiple chromatin systems are required for the full gene regulatory function of these proteins. PMID:24885560

  12. Fabrication of single walled carbon nanotubes/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) layers under enhanced gravity drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincón, M.E.; Alvarado-Tenorio, G.; Vargas, M.G.; Ramos, E.; Sánchez-Tizapa, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution, we explore the use of enhanced gravity in order to achieve composite films of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) with improved properties. The samples were characterized by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, in order to determine the differences caused by the enhanced gravity. Impedance spectroscopy results show that there is an improvement of the electrical properties of the SWCNT/PEDOT:PSS junction, manifested as lower contact resistance, modified chemical capacitance, and induced p-type doping. A force-induced interpenetration of the polymer into the SWCNT network and the efficient removal of water and PSS are proposed to explain the results. The transparency and electrical properties of these films forecast their application as a buffer layer in organic solar cell heterojunctions, or as hole transporting materials in perovskite-based solar cells. - Highlights: • A technique to fabricate conductive films of SWCNT/PEDOT:PSS is presented. • The technique is based on enhanced gravity drying. • Improved interpenetration of the bilayer SWCNT/PEDOT:PSS system • Enhanced gravity increases the p-type conductivity of the film. • Impedance spectroscopy confirms the improvement on the electrical properties.

  13. Fabrication of single walled carbon nanotubes/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) layers under enhanced gravity drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincón, M.E.; Alvarado-Tenorio, G. [Instituto de Energías Renovables, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 34, 62580 Temixco, Mor. (Mexico); Vargas, M.G. [Instituto Tecnológico de Zacatepec, Calzada Tecnológico 27, 62780 Zacatepec, Mor. (Mexico); Ramos, E. [Instituto de Energías Renovables, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 34, 62580 Temixco, Mor. (Mexico); Sánchez-Tizapa, M., E-mail: msanchez@valles.udg.mx [Centro Universitario de los Valles, Universidad de Guadalajara, Carretera Guadalajara-Ameca, Km 45.5, C.P. 46600, Ameca, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2015-12-31

    In this contribution, we explore the use of enhanced gravity in order to achieve composite films of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) with improved properties. The samples were characterized by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, in order to determine the differences caused by the enhanced gravity. Impedance spectroscopy results show that there is an improvement of the electrical properties of the SWCNT/PEDOT:PSS junction, manifested as lower contact resistance, modified chemical capacitance, and induced p-type doping. A force-induced interpenetration of the polymer into the SWCNT network and the efficient removal of water and PSS are proposed to explain the results. The transparency and electrical properties of these films forecast their application as a buffer layer in organic solar cell heterojunctions, or as hole transporting materials in perovskite-based solar cells. - Highlights: • A technique to fabricate conductive films of SWCNT/PEDOT:PSS is presented. • The technique is based on enhanced gravity drying. • Improved interpenetration of the bilayer SWCNT/PEDOT:PSS system • Enhanced gravity increases the p-type conductivity of the film. • Impedance spectroscopy confirms the improvement on the electrical properties.

  14. Sequential Construction of Costly Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutfraind, Alexander [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    Natural disasters or attacks often disrupt infrastructure networks requiring a costly recovery. This motivates an optimization problem where the objecitve is to construct the nodes of a graph G(V;E), and the cost of each node is dependent on the number of its neighbors previously constructed, or more generally, any properties of the previously-completed subgraph. In this optimization problem the objective is to find a permutation of the nodes which results in the least construction cost. We prove that in the case where the cost of nodes is a convex function in the number of neighbors, the optimal construction sequence is to start at a single node and move outwards. We also introduce algorithms and heuristics for solving various instances of the problem. Those methods can be applied to help reduce the cost of recovering from disasters as well as to plan the deployment of new network infrastructure.

  15. Blunting of the HPA-axis underlies the lack of preventive efficacy of early post-stressor single-dose Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Tzur Alexander; Matar, Michael Alex; Kaplan, Zeev; Zohar, Joseph; Cohen, Hagit

    2014-07-01

    The therapeutic value of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) in the aftermath of trauma has recently raised interest. A prospective animal model for posttraumatic stress disorder was employed to assess the behavioral effects of a single dose of Δ9-THC administered intraperitoneally following exposure to psychogenic stress. Animals were exposed to predator scent stress and treated 1h later with Δ9-THC (1, 5 and 10mg/kg) or vehicle. The outcome measures included behavior in an elevated plus-maze and acoustic startle response 1, 6 and 24 h or 7 days after exposure and freezing behavior upon exposure to a trauma cue on day 8. Pre-set cut-off behavioral criteria classified exposed animals as those with "extreme," "minimal" or "intermediate" (partial) response. Circulating corticosterone levels were assessed over 2h after exposure with and without Δ9-THC. The behavioral effects of a CB1 antagonist (AM251) administered systemically 1h post exposure were evaluated. In the short term (1-6 h), 5 mg/kg of Δ9-THC effectively attenuated anxiety-like behaviors. In the longer-term (7 days), it showed no effect in attenuating PTSD-like behavioral stress responses, or freezing response to trauma cue. Δ9-THC significantly decreased corticosterone levels. In contrast, administration of AM251 (a CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist) 1 h post exposure attenuated long-term behavioral stress responses through activation of the HPA-axis. The demonstrated lack of preventive efficacy of early Δ9-THC treatment and reports of its anxiogenic effects in many individuals raises doubts not only regarding its potential clinical value, but also the advisability of clinical trials. The endocannabinoids exert complex effects on behavioral responses mediating glucocorticoid effects on memory of traumatic experiences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Single-Column Model Simulations of Subtropical Marine Boundary-Layer Cloud Transitions Under Weakening Inversions: SCM SIMULATIONS OF CLOUD TRANSITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neggers, R. A. J. [Institute for Geophysics and Meteorology, Department of Geosciences, University of Cologne, Cologne Germany; Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, De Bilt The Netherlands; Ackerman, A. S. [NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York NY USA; Angevine, W. M. [CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder CO USA; NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder CO USA; Bazile, E. [Météo France/CNRM, Toulouse France; Beau, I. [Météo France/ENM, Toulouse France; Blossey, P. N. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Boutle, I. A. [Met Office, Exeter UK; de Bruijn, C. [Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, De Bilt The Netherlands; Cheng, A. [NOAA Center for Weather and Climate Prediction, Environmental Modeling Center, College Park MD USA; van der Dussen, J. [Department of Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Delft University of Technology, Delft The Netherlands; Fletcher, J. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; University of Leeds, Leeds UK; Dal Gesso, S. [Institute for Geophysics and Meteorology, Department of Geosciences, University of Cologne, Cologne Germany; Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, De Bilt The Netherlands; Jam, A. [Météo-France/CNRM & CNRS/IPSL/LMD, Toulouse France; Kawai, H. [Meteorological Research Institute, Climate Research Department, Japan Meteorological Agency, Tsukuba Japan; Cheedela, S. K. [Department of Atmosphere in the Earth System, Max-Planck Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg Germany; Larson, V. E. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee WI USA; Lefebvre, M. -P. [Météo-France/CNRM & CNRS/IPSL/LMD, Toulouse France; Lock, A. P. [Met Office, Exeter UK; Meyer, N. R. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee WI USA; de Roode, S. R. [Department of Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Delft University of Technology, Delft The Netherlands; de Rooy, W. [Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, De Bilt The Netherlands; Sandu, I. [Section of Physical Aspects, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading UK; Xiao, H. [University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles CA USA; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Xu, K. -M. [NASA Langley Research Centre, Hampton VI USA

    2017-10-01

    Results are presented of the GASS/EUCLIPSE single-column model inter-comparison study on the subtropical marine low-level cloud transition. A central goal is to establish the performance of state-of-the-art boundary-layer schemes for weather and climate mod- els for this cloud regime, using large-eddy simulations of the same scenes as a reference. A novelty is that the comparison covers four different cases instead of one, in order to broaden the covered parameter space. Three cases are situated in the North-Eastern Pa- cific, while one reflects conditions in the North-Eastern Atlantic. A set of variables is considered that reflects key aspects of the transition process, making use of simple met- rics to establish the model performance. Using this method some longstanding problems in low level cloud representation are identified. Considerable spread exists among models concerning the cloud amount, its vertical structure and the associated impact on radia- tive transfer. The sign and amplitude of these biases differ somewhat per case, depending on how far the transition has progressed. After cloud breakup the ensemble median ex- hibits the well-known “too few too bright” problem. The boundary layer deepening rate and its state of decoupling are both underestimated, while the representation of the thin capping cloud layer appears complicated by a lack of vertical resolution. Encouragingly, some models are successful in representing the full set of variables, in particular the verti- cal structure and diurnal cycle of the cloud layer in transition. An intriguing result is that the median of the model ensemble performs best, inspiring a new approach in subgrid pa- rameterization.

  17. Comparison of clinical applications of single-dose intravenous injection of mivacurium and cisatracurium in adults’ vocalcordpolyps resection under self-retaining laryngoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Fanglei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Through comparing the clinical observation of mivacurium and cisatracurium in vocal polyp extraction, to study the advantage of mivacurium in vocal polyp extraction. Methods: Forty American Society of Anesthesiologists(ASA physical status I~II patients for vocal polyp extraction, aged 18~60 years old, were randomly divided into two groups as Mivacurium injection group(Group M and Cis-atracurium injection group(Group C, each group includes 20 subjects. None of the patients are allergic, has serious diseases of cardiovascular system, liver or kidney.None of them has asthma, airway high response, difficult airway or neuromuscular diseases.Those patients who use beta-blockers or calcium channel blockers for a long time were excluded .All the subjects had the same premedication, fasting and fluid fobidden time. All the subjects who get into the operating room get the routine monitoring of electrocardiogram(EEG, blood pressure(BP, heart rate(HR, pulse oxygen saturation(SpO2 and the TOF WATCH SX. Each group gives the same medicine other than the muscle relaxant during induction of general anesthesia to do the vocal polyp extraction by the same experienced operator. Two groups were recorded in each index of anesthesia induction and tracheal intubation conditions, operation conditions, anesthesia, muscle relaxation monitoring. Results: There are no statistically significant in Cormack-Lehane grading system,Cooper’s grading system and operation satifaction(p>0.05. 2. Group A have shorter intubation time than Group B(p0.05. Conclusion: 1. A single intubating dose of mivacurium can provide similar intubation and surgeon satisfaction for the vocal polyp extraction. 2. Compared with cis-atracurium, mivacurium can shorten the intubation time and the recovery time of anesthesia. The adverse reactions of mivacurium is mild, and it has less Residual muscle relaxation. Therefore mivacurium is more suitable for the vocal polyp extraction than cis-atracurium.

  18. The incidence and risk factors of resistant E. coli infections after prostate biopsy under fluoroquinolone prophylaxis: a single-centre experience with 2215 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandemir, Özlem; Bozlu, Murat; Efesoy, Ozan; Güntekin, Onur; Tek, Mesut; Akbay, Erdem

    2016-08-01

    We evaluated the incidence and risk factors of resistant Escherichia coli infections after the prostate biopsy under flouroquinolone prophylaxis. From January 2003 to December 2012, we retrospectively evaluated the records of 2215 patients. The risk factors were described for infective complications and resistant E. coli in positive cultures was calculated. Of 2215 patients, 153 had positive urine cultures, such as 129 (84·3%) E. coli, 8 (5·2%) Enterococcus spp., 6 (3·9%) Enterobacter spp., 5 (3·2%) Pseudomonas spp., 3 (1·9%) MRCNS, and 2 (1·3%) Klebsiella spp. Of the positive urine cultures which yielded E. coli, 99 (76·7%) were evaluated for fluoroquinolone resistance. Of those, 83 (83·8%) were fluoroquinolone-resistant and composed of 51 (61·4%) extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive. Fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli ratios were 73·4 and 95·9% before 2008 and after 2008, respectively (P = 0·002). The most sensitive antibiotics for fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli strains were imipenem (100%), amikacin (84%) and cefoperazone (83%). The use of quinolones in the last 6 months and a history of hospitalization in the last 30 days were found to be significant risk factors. We found that resistant E. coli strains might be a common microorganism in patients with this kind of complication. The risk factors for development of infection with these resistant strains were history of the use of fluoroquinolones and hospitalization.

  19. Milestone experiments for single pass UV/X-ray FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.

    1994-01-01

    In the past decade, significant advances have been made in the theory and technology of high brightness electron beams and single pass FELS. These developments facilitate the construction of practical UV and X-ray FELs and has prompted proposals to the DOE for the construction of such facilities. There are several important experiments to be performed before committing to the construction of dedicated user facilities. Two experiments are under construction in the IR, the UCLA Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission experiment and the BNL laser seeded Harmonic Generation experiment. A multi-institution collaboration is being organized about a 210 MeV electron linac available at BNL and the 10 meter tong NISUS wiggler. This experiment will be done in the UV and will test various experimental aspects of electron beam dynamics, FEL exponential regime with gain guiding, start up from noise, seeding and harmonic generation. These experiments will advance the state of FEL research and lead towards future dedicated users' facilities

  20. Under Under Under / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2006-01-01

    20. nov. esietendub Kumu auditooriumis MTÜ Ühenduse R.A.A.A.M teatriprojekt "Under" poetess Marie Underist. Lavastajad Merle Karusoo ja Raimo Pass, kunstnik Jaagup Roomet, helilooja Urmas Lattikas, peaosas Katrin Saukas

  1. Clinical evaluation of a novel dental implant system as single implants under immediate loading conditions - 4-month post-loading results from a multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Marco; Trullenque-Eriksson, Anna; Blasone, Rodolfo; Malaguti, Giuliano; Gaffuri, Cristiano; Caneva, Marco; Minciarelli, Armando; Luongo, Giuseppe

    To evaluate the safety and clinical effectiveness of a novel dental implant system (GENESIS Implant System, Keystone Dental, Massachusetts, USA) using another dental implant system by the same manufacturer as a control (PRIMA Implant System, Keystone Dental). A total of 53 patients requiring at least two single crowns had their sites randomised according to a split-mouth design to receive both implant systems at six centres. If implants could be placed with a torque superior to 40 Ncm they were to be loaded immediately with provisional crowns, otherwise after 3 months of submerged healing. Provisional crowns were replaced by definitive crowns 4 months after initial loading, when the follow-up period for the initial part of this study was completed. Outcome measures were crown/implant failures, complications, pink esthetic score (PES), peri-implant marginal bone level changes, plaque score, marginal bleeding, patients and preference of the clinician. In total 53 PRIMA and 53 GENESIS implants were placed. Three patients dropped out but all of the remaining patients were followed up to 4-months post-loading. No PRIMA implant failed whereas four GENESIS implants failed. Only two complications were reported for PRIMA implants. There were no statistically significant differences for crown/implant failures (difference in proportions = 0.080; P (McNemar test) = 0.125) and complications (difference in proportions = -0.04; P (McNemar test) = 0.500) between the implant systems. There were no differences at 4-months post-loading for plaque (difference = -0.54, 95% CI: -3.01 to 1.93; P (Paired t-test) = 0.660), marginal bleeding (difference = -3.8, 95% CI: -7.63 to 0.019; P (Paired t-test) = 0.051), PES (difference = 0.47, 95% CI: -0.56 to 1.50; P (Paired t-test) = 0.365) and marginal bone level changes (difference in mm = -0.04, 95% CI: -0.33 to 0.26; P (Paired t-test) = 0.795). The majority of the patients (46) had no

  2. Construction completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Construction Completion Report documents the major construction projects at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site and related information on contracts, schedules, and other areas which affected construction. This report is not intended to be an exhaustive detailed analysis of construction, but is a general overview and summary of the WIPP construction. 10 refs., 29 figs

  3. Concrete construction engineering handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Nawy, Edward G

    2008-01-01

    Provides coverage of concrete construction engineering and technology. This work features discussions focusing on: the advances in engineered concrete materials; reinforced concrete construction; specialized construction techniques; and, design recommendations for high performance.

  4. Use sulfoferritic cements in construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samchenko, Svetlana V.; Zorin, Dmitriy A.

    2018-03-01

    Currently, high-rise construction has received increasing attention around the world. In the big cities under construction is less space and one solution is the high-rise construction. However, high-rise buildings use special requirements, such as strength, thermal insulation, wind load and others. When concrete is exposed to continuous loads by wind or to mechanical loads, it undergoes abrasion. Resistance to this process depends on the characteristics of materials that the concrete and finishing seams are made of. Research on increasing impact and abrasion resistance of calcium sulfoferrite-based cement stone from the perspective of formation of cement stone structure will be instrumental in developing durable materials for application in high-rise construction.

  5. Stonke Construction Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonke Construction (the Company) is located in Anchorage, Alaska. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at properties constructed prior to 1978, located in and around Anchorage, Alaska.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of titanate nanotube/single-walled carbon nanotube (TNT/SWCNT) porous nanocomposite and its photocatalytic activity on 4-chlorophenol degradation under UV and solar irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payan, A.; Fattahi, M.; Jorfi, S.; Roozbehani, B.; Payan, S.

    2018-03-01

    The titanate nanotube/single-wall carbon nanotube (TNT/SWCNT) nanocomposites from different titania precursors were prepared by a two-step hydrothermal process. These nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, BET, Raman, FESEM, TEM, EDX, EDS, EIS, UV-vis DRS and FTIR techniques. The FESEM and TEM images showed the high porous nanocomposites with two types of tubular structure relating to TNTs and SWCNTs which were interwoven together uniformly. The XRD and Raman analysis further corroborated the chemical interaction between the SWCNT and the TNT in the nanocomposites. The photocatalytic performance of the as-synthesized composites were examined by the photodegradation of 4-CP under solar and UV illumination. The results revealed an impressive enhancement in photocatalytic activity of the nanocomposites under both irradiation conditions comparison to bare TNPs and TNTs. Amongst the TNT/SWCNT nanocomposites, 10% loading of SWCNT under UV irradiation and 5% loading of SWCNT under solar irradiation exhibited the maximum photocatalytic performance while the photocatalytic degradation efficiency of nanocomposites were not affected considerably by the type of precursor. Moreover, the mechanism and role of SWCNT were investigated and the plausible degradation pathways of 4-CP was suggested. TOC analyses was performed for determination of 4-CP mineralization rate and results showed complete mineralization after 240 and 390 min under UV and solar irradiation, respectively. The trapping experiments corroborated the O2- and OH radicals as the main reactive species in 4-CP degradation process. Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model was fittingly matched with the experimental data (R2: 0.9218 and 0.9703 for UV and solar irradiation). Additionally, the stability of the nanocomposites were investigated and revealed 8% decrease in degradation efficiency after four cycles.

  7. The discursive climate of singleness: the consequences for women's negotiation of a single identity

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Jill; Wetherell, Margaret

    2003-01-01

    The privileging of marriage and long-term partnerships contributes to the marginalization of single women. This article explores the ways in which women defined as single work with the typical constructions of their identity available in the public arena. We view 'singleness' as a discursively constructed social category. Using data from interviews with 30 women, we examine the identity that women construct for themselves through their talk. We present the four main interpretative repertoires...

  8. IRT-based test construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.; Theunissen, T.J.J.M.; Boekkooi-Timminga, Ellen; Kelderman, Henk

    1987-01-01

    Four discussions of test construction based on item response theory (IRT) are presented. The first discussion, "Test Design as Model Building in Mathematical Programming" (T.J.J.M. Theunissen), presents test design as a decision process under certainty. A natural way of modeling this process leads

  9. The single entity option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedlander, M.C.; Roberts, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally, an owner hires an engineer to design a power facility or other project and then circulates the completed plans to several contractors for competitive bidding. Although there are many variations on this theme, there is an alternative method which is growing in popularity--the design-build concept. In this construction method, the same entity designs and constructs the facility. The design builder may be a single firm with both design and construction capacity in-house, or it may be a combination of two or more firms with complementary abilities. If there are multiple firms, they may be structured as a joint venture or with one of the firms prime and the others in a subcontracting role. The critical aspect is that the owner contracts with one entity which has the responsibility for both designing and constructing the facility. According to statistics compiled by the Design-Build Institute of America and F.W. Dodge DATALINE2, a national reporter of construction statistics and information, from April 1995 to April 1996 the number of design-build contracts increased 103 percent over the previous year. Of a total $212 billion construction market, about $37.2 billion--18 percent--was design build. The strongest growth was in the category of industrial--plants, refineries, factories and warehouses--in which the concept use was up more than 300 percent from the previous year

  10. Study of technology of pile foundation construction of no.5 main pier of Shoujiang bridge in Wenchuan County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xianbin; Liu, Chenyang; Chen, Chunyang; Wangren, Yahong; Xu, Jialin; Xian, Jin

    2018-03-01

    The group of pile foundation of no.5 pier in Shoujiang Bridge needs to overcome the big load of large span continuous steel structure. The length of single pile foundation is 77m and the diameter of single pile foundation is 250cm. It not only faces the flood in the upstream of Shoujiang river, the construction obstacles during summer rain period, but also the reservoir clearance activity of Zipingpu reservoir and the high water level in winter and other water level fluctuation that have huge impact on platform of pile foundation construction. This article introduces the preparation in aspect of personnel, material, equipment and so on of pile foundation construction, and also conduct intensive research on leveling the field, assaying pile location, the embedment of the steel casing, installing the drill, mixing mud, drilling, final hole inspection and clearance, steel cage construction, perfusing concrete under water.

  11. Heralded noiseless amplification for single-photon entangled state with polarization feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan-Dan; Jin, Yu-Yu; Qin, Sheng-Xian; Zu, Hao; Zhou, Lan; Zhong, Wei; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2018-03-01

    Heralded noiseless amplification is a promising method to overcome the transmission photon loss in practical noisy quantum channel and can effectively lengthen the quantum communication distance. Single-photon entanglement is an important resource in current quantum communications. Here, we construct two single-photon-assisted heralded noiseless amplification protocols for the single-photon two-mode entangled state and single-photon three-mode W state, respectively, where the single-photon qubit has an arbitrary unknown polarization feature. After the amplification, the fidelity of the single-photon entangled state can be increased, while the polarization feature of the single-photon qubit can be well remained. Both the two protocols only require the linear optical elements, so that they can be realized under current experimental condition. Our protocols may be useful in current and future quantum information processing.

  12. Single purpose reactor for sea water desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronen, Y.; Hadari, Z.; Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba. Nuclear Research Center-Negev); Glueckstern, P.

    1977-01-01

    Some possibilities of a single-purpose reactor for sea water desalination are outlined. Preliminary economic evaluations are also presented and emphasis is given to the prospects of a simplified reactor for sea water desalination. Because no more than 100M 3 /year are required in one place at one time and given the lack of experience in operating very large desalination plants, it seems that the single-purpose reactor should be small (between 200 mwt to 600 mwt). Two new concepts for desalination plants have been recently developed in Israel: an aluminium horizontal tube multieffect evaporator (AHTME) designed and manufactured by Israel Desalination Engineering Ltd. and a direct contact condensation (DCC) plant, whose 50,000 GPD pilot plant is under construction in the city of Haifa. These two concepts of desalination plants are characterized by economy and operating temperatures below 100 deg C. For the AHTME, the optimum water cost corresponds to a steam temperature of about 70 deg C. A water-cooled reactor can be employed without the need of pressurized vessels or tubes; in addition, cheap construction materials such as aluminium can be used. The advantages of combining a simplified reactor and improved desalination plants and the advantages of the single purpose reactor could bring about a cheaper cost for desalinated water. (author)

  13. Evolution between self-assembled single and double ring-like nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J H; Wang, Zh M; Abuwaar, Z Y; Strom, N W; Salamo, G J

    2006-01-01

    The evolution between lattice-matched GaAs/Al 0.3 Ga 0.7 As single and double ring-like nanostructures is studied, with an emphasis on the construction and destruction of the observed outer ring. Using droplet epitaxy, this was achieved by directly controlling the Ga surface diffusion on GaAs(100). Double ring-like nanostructures were observed at relatively low temperatures under a fixed As 4 flux (beam equivalent pressure (BEP) of 6.4 μTorr) and at a fixed temperature under a high As 4 flux. The construction of the outer ring can be controlled through surface diffusion by varying the substrate temperature or the As 4 flux. Single ring-like nanostructures were realized both at relatively high temperatures under a fixed As 4 flux, and at low temperatures under a relatively low As 4 flux

  14. The metabolic response of P. putida KT2442 producing high levels of polyhydroxyalkanoate under single- and multiple-nutrient-limited growth: Highlights from a multi-level omics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poblete-Castro Ignacio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas putida KT2442 is a natural producer of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs, which can substitute petroleum-based non-renewable plastics and form the basis for the production of tailor-made biopolymers. However, despite the substantial body of work on PHA production by P. putida strains, it is not yet clear how the bacterium re-arranges its whole metabolism when it senses the limitation of nitrogen and the excess of fatty acids as carbon source, to result in a large accumulation of PHAs within the cell. In the present study we investigated the metabolic response of KT2442 using a systems biology approach to highlight the differences between single- and multiple-nutrient-limited growth in chemostat cultures. Results We found that 26, 62, and 81% of the cell dry weight consist of PHA under conditions of carbon, dual, and nitrogen limitation, respectively. Under nitrogen limitation a specific PHA production rate of 0.43 (g·(g·h-1 was obtained. The residual biomass was not constant for dual- and strict nitrogen-limiting growth, showing a different feature in comparison to other P. putida strains. Dual limitation resulted in patterns of gene expression, protein level, and metabolite concentrations that substantially differ from those observed under exclusive carbon or nitrogen limitation. The most pronounced differences were found in the energy metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, as well as stress proteins and enzymes belonging to the transport system. Conclusion This is the first study where the interrelationship between nutrient limitations and PHA synthesis has been investigated under well-controlled conditions using a system level approach. The knowledge generated will be of great assistance for the development of bioprocesses and further metabolic engineering work in this versatile organism to both enhance and diversify the industrial production of PHAs.

  15. Innovative rock bed construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.

    1983-06-01

    A general discussion of the use of rock beds for heating and cooling thermal storage is particularized for design and construction in Phoenix, Arizona. The rock bed parameters for three two-story condominium apartments constructed in 1982 are discussed, including sizing criteria and original construction details. A revised construction method using gabions that are self-supporting chain link cylinders provided a much more economical construction method as well as other advantages of speed and structural flexibility.

  16. Single and combined effects of zinc and cinnamon essential oil in diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torki, Mehran; Akbari, Mohsen; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding zinc (Zn), cinnamon essential oil (Ci), or their combination in diet on productive performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (8.8 ± 3 °C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-Lite laying hens. Significant interactions between Ci and Zn on FCR, EW, EP, or EM were observed ( P hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (as single or combined form) compared to those fed the basal diet. There were significant interactions between Ci and Zn on the serum level of glucose and triglycerides as well as plasma concentration of zinc ( P hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (together) compared to those fed the basal diet. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by the combined form of Ci and Zn could have beneficial effects on performance and blood parameters of hens reared under cold stress condition.

  17. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of oxycodone and acetaminophen following single-dose administration of MNK-795, a dual-layer biphasic IR/ER combination formulation, under fed and fasted conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devarakonda K

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Krishna Devarakonda,1 Terri Morton,1 Rachel Margulis,2 Michael Giuliani,3 Thomas Barrett4 1Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacokinetics, 2Clinical Operations, 3Research and Development, 4Clinical Affairs, Mallinckrodt Inc., Hazelwood, MO, USA Background: XARTEMIS™ XR (formerly MNK-795 is a combination oxycodone (OC and acetaminophen (APAP analgesic with both immediate-release and extended-release (ER components (ER OC/APAP. The tablets are designed with gastric-retentive ER oral delivery technology that releases the ER component at a controlled rate in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Because consumption of food has demonstrated an impact on the pharmacokinetics (PK of some marketed products using gastric-retentive ER oral delivery technology, a characterization of the effects of fed (high- and low-fat diets versus fasted conditions on the PK of ER OC/APAP was performed. Methods: This Phase I study used an open-label randomized single-dose three-period six-sequence crossover single-center design. Healthy adult participants (n=48 were randomized to receive two tablets of ER OC/APAP under three conditions: following a high-fat meal; following a low-fat meal; and fasted. Plasma concentration versus time data from predose throughout designated times up to 48 hours postdose was used to estimate the PK parameters of oxycodone and APAP. Results: Thirty-one participants completed all three treatment periods. Both oxycodone and APAP were rapidly absorbed under fasted conditions. Total oxycodone and APAP exposures (area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve [AUC] from ER OC/APAP were not significantly affected by food, and minimal changes to maximum observed plasma concentration for oxycodone and APAP were also noted. However, food marginally delayed the time to maximum observed plasma concentration of oxycodone and APAP. There was no indication that tolerability was affected by food. Conclusion: The findings from this study suggest that ER OC

  18. Construct Maps as a Foundation for Standard Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyse, Adam E.

    2013-01-01

    Construct maps are tools that display how the underlying achievement construct upon which one is trying to set cut-scores is related to other information used in the process of standard setting. This article reviews what construct maps are, uses construct maps to provide a conceptual framework to view commonly used standard-setting procedures (the…

  19. Biomechanical effect of interspinous dynamic stabilization adjacent to single-level fusion on range of motion of the transition segment and the adjacent segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Chao; Lu, Shibao; Hai, Yong; Zang, Lei

    2015-05-01

    Despite numerous biomechanical studies have been carried out on dynamic stabilizers, there is very little information on their hybrid application, especially when combined interspinous dynamic stabilization with single-level fusion. The aim of this study is to assess the biomechanical effect of interspinous dynamic stabilization adjacent to single-level fusion on range of motion of the transition segment and the adjacent segment. Six fresh lumbosacral spines (L2-S1) were tested in the following sequence: 1) intact (Construct A); 2) fusion in L5/S1 and intact in L4/5 (Construct B); 3) fusion in L5/S1 and unstable state in L4/5 (Construct C); 4) fusion in L5/S1 and Coflex in L4/5 (Construct D). Range of motion (at L3/4 and L4/5) was recorded and calculated. Range of motion in L3/4 in the four constructs showed no difference under all motion states. Under flexion/extension, the range of motion of L4/5 in Construct B and Construct C increased, while the range of motion of L4/5 in Construct D decreased compared with Construct A. Compared with Construct D, the range of motion of L4/5 in Constructs B and C showed a significant increase. Under lateral bending and axial rotation, Construct A showed similar range of motion of L3/4 compared with other constructs. Fusion combined with Coflex is able to stabilize the transition segment and restrict flexion and extension in that segment, while having no significant effect on the range of motion of the adjacent segment or the range of motion of the transition segment under lateral bending and axial rotation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nuclear power plant construction activity, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1985-07-01

    This report presents cost estimates, chronological data on construction progress, and the physical characteristics of nuclear units in commercial operation and units in the construction pipeline as of December 31, 1984. Also presented are data on units that were canceled during 1984. Three types of information are included: plant characteristics and ownership; construction costs; construction schedules; and milestone dates. The reactor-specific cost data presented include estimated final costs for plants in construction and disbursed costs for each unit (funds already expended and funds committed but not yet expended) as of December 31, 1984, as reported by the utilities. In EIA's last report on nuclear construction costs, published in November 1984, 43 units were reported to be under construction or completed but not in commercial operation as of March 31, 1984; 12 units were reported to be deferred as of March 31, 1984; and 2 units were planned. The status of those units as of December 31, 1984, is summarized. Of the 43 units under construction, 4 entered commercial operation, 38 were still under construction, and 1 was reported as deferred. Of the 12 units deferred as of March 31, 1984, 6 remained in deferred status, and 6 were canceled. The 2 planned units remained in the planning stage as of December 31, 1984.

  1. Comment: Risk Allocation Norms of Civil Construction Contracts in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This comment discusses risk allocation under Ethiopian construction law and examines risks in civil construction contracts. The comment highlights the gaps in risk allocation norms under the standard format of construction contract that was issued by the Ethiopian Ministry of Work and Urban Development (MoWUD) in 1994 ...

  2. A Construction Management Framework for Mass Customisation in Traditional Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Andújar-Montoya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A Mass Customisation model is discussed as a competitive positioning strategy in the marketplace adding value to the customer’s end-use. It includes the user as part of the construction process responding to the customer’s demands and wishes. To the present day, almost all proposals for Mass Customisation have been focused on the design phase and single family houses. The reality is that the processes carried out in the work execution are so inefficient that the costs of the Mass Customisation models are assumed by the customer and they do not offer solutions that support the change management. Furthermore, this inefficiency often makes Mass Customisation unfeasible in terms of deadlines and site management. Therefore, the present proposal focuses on achieving the paradigm of Mass Customisation in the traditional residential construction complementary to the existing proposals in the design phase. All this through the proposal of a framework for the integral management in the work execution, which will address change management introduced by the users offering an efficient and productive model that reduces costs in the process. This model will focus on the synergy between different strategies, techniques and technologies currently used in the construction management (such as Lean Construction or Six Sigma, together with, other strategies and technologies that have proven to be valid solutions in other fields (such as Business Process Management, Service Oriented Architecture, etc..

  3. Statics of Historic Masonry Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of much of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. This book aims to help fill this demand presenting a comprehensive new statics of masonry constructions. The book, result of thirty years of research and professional experience, gives the fundamentals of statics of the masonry solid, then applied to the study of statics of arches, piers and vaults. Further, combining engineering and architecture and through an interdisciplinary approach, the book investigates the statical behaviour of many historic monuments, as the Pantheon, the Colosseum,  the domes of S. Maria del Fiore in Florence and of St. Peter in Rome, the Tower of Pisa, the Gothic Cathedrals and the Masonry Buildings under seismic actions.

  4. Status of the construction of the KLOE Drift Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell'Agnello, S.

    1997-01-01

    A status report on the construction of the drift chamber for the KLOE experiment at the LNF DAΦNE Φ-factory is given. Physics requirements, detector design performance and its key mechanical features and components are briefly reviewed. The program currently consists of (i) the preparation of final detector components, complemented by (ii) extensive tests of prototypes of critical mechanical parts (like the end plates) and the ''test construction'' of a 1:1 chamber prototype. These two sub-programs are pursued in parallel. Single-component prototype checks include surveys of their shape and size, of accuracy of wire-hole drilling, measurements of their displacement or buckling under nominal load. The ''test construction'' is the debugging of mechanical assembly, survey and alignment of mechanics and of wire-stringing robotics, the actual stringing of a sample 2000 holes drilled on the prototype end plates, the measurement of electrical properties of strung wires, as well as of their mechanical tension. These extensive tests have been successfully completed; they represent an effective hands-on training of the construction group, and will allow a prompt and steady start of the drift chamber wire stringing as all necessary components became available at LNF. (orig.)

  5. Sustainable entrepreneurship in the Dutch construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Woolthuis, R.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the strategies that sustainable entrepreneurs use to interact with their environment in the Dutch construction industry. The Dutch construction industry is under great pressure to move towards sustainability, and entrepreneurs are believed to be able to play a large role in

  6. Sustainable Entrepreneurship in the Dutch Construction Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Woolthuis, R.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the strategies that sustainable entrepreneurs use to interact with their environment in the Dutch construction industry. The Dutch construction industry is under great pressure to move towards sustainability, and entrepreneurs are believed to be able to play a large role in

  7. Construction project management handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of the FTA Construction Project Management Handbook is to provide guidelines for use by public transit agencies (Agen-cies) undertaking substantial construction projects, either for the first time or with little prior experience with cons...

  8. Improving concrete overlay construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Several road construction projects involving concrete overlays at the state and county levels in Iowa in 2009 were studied for : construction techniques and methods. The projects that were evaluated consisted of sites in four Iowa counties: Osceola, ...

  9. Validating MEDIQUAL Constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Gun; Min, Jae H.

    In this paper, we validate MEDIQUAL constructs through the different media users in help desk service. In previous research, only two end-users' constructs were used: assurance and responsiveness. In this paper, we extend MEDIQUAL constructs to include reliability, empathy, assurance, tangibles, and responsiveness, which are based on the SERVQUAL theory. The results suggest that: 1) five MEDIQUAL constructs are validated through the factor analysis. That is, importance of the constructs have relatively high correlations between measures of the same construct using different methods and low correlations between measures of the constructs that are expected to differ; and 2) five MEDIQUAL constructs are statistically significant on media users' satisfaction in help desk service by regression analysis.

  10. USAID Construction Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID construction assessment is a survey of the character, scope, value and management of construction activities supported by USAID during the period from June...

  11. Organizational Behaviour in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)......Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)...

  12. Construction Sector (NAICS 23)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find environmental regulatory information for the construction sector, including the construction of buildings or engineering projects. This includes RCRA information for hazardous waste, refrigeration compliance, asbestos, effluent guidelines & lead laws

  13. Construction dust amelioration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Dust produced on seasonal road construction sites in Alaska is both a traffic safety and environmental concern. Dust emanating from : unpaved road surfaces during construction severely reduces visibility and impacts stopping sight distance, and contr...

  14. Skin Problems in Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you use at work. Find out more about construction hazards. To receive copies of this Hazard Alert ... index.html Physician’s Alert: Occupational Contact Dermatitis Among Construction Workers – give this Alert to your doctor http:// ...

  15. Sustainable advanced construction technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kuchena, JC

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Materials (ECOMAT IV 2009): Paths Towards Sustainability Bayamo, CUBA 4 coupled with unimaginative and ill-directed policies by developers have created hectares of sterile concrete block units unaffordable to the average worker.” [10] Advanced construction... Gypsum panel boards Standards / Easy, fast construction 2. Frametech Concrete / Wire Mesh (durawall) Standards / Easy, fast construction 3. Frametech Wood panels Standards / Easy, fast construction 4. Wood Cabins Wood planks / boards Standards...

  16. 48 CFR 47.505 - Construction contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... as stated in paragraph (b) below, construction contractors, including subcontractors and suppliers... requirements shall not apply to military assistance, foreign aid, or similar projects under the auspices of the... gross tonnage for the project. ...

  17. Green noise wall construction and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This report details the research performed under Phase I of a research study titled Green Noise Wall Construction and Evaluation that looks into the feasibility of using green noise barriers as a noise mitigation option in Ohio. This phase incl...

  18. Is It Possible to Detect Activated Brown Adipose Tissue in Humans Using Single-Time-Point Infrared Thermography under Thermoneutral Conditions? Impact of BMI and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatidis, Sergios; Schmidt, Holger; Pfannenberg, Christina A; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Schick, Fritz; Schwenzer, Nina F

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility to detect activated brown adipose tissue (BAT) using single-time-point infrared thermography of the supraclavicular skin region under thermoneutral conditions. To this end, infrared thermography was compared with 18-F-FDG PET, the current reference standard for the detection of activated BAT. 120 patients were enrolled in this study. After exclusion of 18 patients, 102 patients (44 female, 58 male, mean age 58±17 years) were included for final analysis. All patients underwent a clinically indicated 18F-FDG-PET/CT examination. Immediately prior to tracer injection skin temperatures of the supraclavicular, presternal and jugular regions were measured using spatially resolved infrared thermography at room temperature. The presence of activated BAT was determined in PET by typical FDG uptake within the supraclavicular adipose tissue compartments. Local thickness of supraclavicular subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) was measured on CT. Measured skin temperatures were statistically correlated with the presence of activated BAT and anthropometric data. Activated BAT was detected in 9 of 102 patients (8.8%). Local skin temperature of the supraclavicular region was significantly higher in individuals with active BAT compared to individuals without active BAT. However, after statistical correction for the influence of BMI, no predictive value of activated BAT on skin temperature of the supraclavicular region could be observed. Supraclavicular skin temperature was significantly negatively correlated with supraclavicular SCAT thickness. We conclude that supraclavicular SCAT thickness influences supraclavicular skin temperature and thus makes a specific detection of activated BAT using single-time-point thermography difficult. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the possibility of BAT detection using alternative thermographic methods, e.g. dynamic thermography or MR-based thermometry taking into account BMI as a confounding factor.

  19. Is It Possible to Detect Activated Brown Adipose Tissue in Humans Using Single-Time-Point Infrared Thermography under Thermoneutral Conditions? Impact of BMI and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Thickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergios Gatidis

    Full Text Available To evaluate the feasibility to detect activated brown adipose tissue (BAT using single-time-point infrared thermography of the supraclavicular skin region under thermoneutral conditions. To this end, infrared thermography was compared with 18-F-FDG PET, the current reference standard for the detection of activated BAT.120 patients were enrolled in this study. After exclusion of 18 patients, 102 patients (44 female, 58 male, mean age 58±17 years were included for final analysis. All patients underwent a clinically indicated 18F-FDG-PET/CT examination. Immediately prior to tracer injection skin temperatures of the supraclavicular, presternal and jugular regions were measured using spatially resolved infrared thermography at room temperature. The presence of activated BAT was determined in PET by typical FDG uptake within the supraclavicular adipose tissue compartments. Local thickness of supraclavicular subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT was measured on CT. Measured skin temperatures were statistically correlated with the presence of activated BAT and anthropometric data.Activated BAT was detected in 9 of 102 patients (8.8%. Local skin temperature of the supraclavicular region was significantly higher in individuals with active BAT compared to individuals without active BAT. However, after statistical correction for the influence of BMI, no predictive value of activated BAT on skin temperature of the supraclavicular region could be observed. Supraclavicular skin temperature was significantly negatively correlated with supraclavicular SCAT thickness.We conclude that supraclavicular SCAT thickness influences supraclavicular skin temperature and thus makes a specific detection of activated BAT using single-time-point thermography difficult. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the possibility of BAT detection using alternative thermographic methods, e.g. dynamic thermography or MR-based thermometry taking into account BMI as a confounding factor.

  20. Body awareness: construct and self-report measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf E Mehling

    Full Text Available Heightened body awareness can be adaptive and maladaptive. Improving body awareness has been suggested as an approach for treating patients with conditions such as chronic pain, obesity and post-traumatic stress disorder. We assessed the psychometric quality of selected self-report measures and examined their items for underlying definitions of the construct.PubMed, PsychINFO, HaPI, Embase, Digital Dissertations Database.Abstracts were screened; potentially relevant instruments were obtained and systematically reviewed. Instruments were excluded if they exclusively measured anxiety, covered emotions without related physical sensations, used observer ratings only, or were unobtainable. We restricted our study to the proprioceptive and interoceptive channels of body awareness. The psychometric properties of each scale were rated using a structured evaluation according to the method of McDowell. Following a working definition of the multi-dimensional construct, an inter-disciplinary team systematically examined the items of existing body awareness instruments, identified the dimensions queried and used an iterative qualitative process to refine the dimensions of the construct.From 1,825 abstracts, 39 instruments were screened. 12 were included for psychometric evaluation. Only two were rated as high standard for reliability, four for validity. Four domains of body awareness with 11 sub-domains emerged. Neither a single nor a compilation of several instruments covered all dimensions. Key domains that might potentially differentiate adaptive and maladaptive aspects of body awareness were missing in the reviewed instruments.Existing self-report instruments do not address important domains of the construct of body awareness, are unable to discern between adaptive and maladaptive aspects of body awareness, or exhibit other psychometric limitations. Restricting the construct to its proprio- and interoceptive channels, we explore the current understanding