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Sample records for single tube test

  1. Columbia University flow instability experimental program: Volume 2. Single tube uniformly heated tests -- Part 2: Uncertainty analysis and data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, T.; Maciuca, C.; McAssey, E.V. Jr.; Reddy, D.G.; Yang, B.W.

    1990-05-01

    In June 1988, Savannah River Laboratory requested that the Heat Transfer Research Facility modify the flow excursion program, which had been in progress since November 1987, to include testing of single tubes in vertical down-flow over a range of length to diameter (L/D) ratios of 100 to 500. The impetus for the request was the desire to obtain experimental data as quickly as possible for code development work. In July 1988, HTRF submitted a proposal to SRL indicating that by modifying a facility already under construction the data could be obtained within three to four months. In January 1990, HTFR issued report CU-HTRF-T4, part 1. This report contained the technical discussion of the results from the single tube uniformly heated tests. The present report is part 2 of CU-HTRF-T4 which contains further discussion of the uncertainty analysis and the complete set of data

  2. Single cells for forensic DNA analysis--from evidence material to test tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brück, Simon; Evers, Heidrun; Heidorn, Frank; Müller, Ute; Kilper, Roland; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a method that, while providing morphological quality control, allows single cells to be obtained from the surfaces of various evidence materials and be made available for DNA analysis in cases where only small amounts of cell material are present or where only mixed traces are found. With the SteREO Lumar.V12 stereomicroscope and UV unit from Zeiss, it was possible to detect and assess single epithelial cells on the surfaces of various objects (e.g., glass, plastic, metal). A digitally operated micromanipulator developed by aura optik was used to lift a single cell from the surface of evidence material and to transfer it to a conventional PCR tube or to an AmpliGrid(®) from Advalytix. The actual lifting of the cells was performed with microglobes that acted as carriers. The microglobes were held with microtweezers and were transferred to the DNA analysis receptacles along with the adhering cells. In a next step, the PCR can be carried out in this receptacle without removing the microglobe. Our method allows a single cell to be isolated directly from evidence material and be made available for forensic DNA analysis. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Expansion tube test time predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourlay, Christopher M.

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of an interface between two gases and strong expansion is investigated and the effect on flow in an expansion tube is examined. Two mechanisms for the unsteady Pitot-pressure fluctuations found in the test section of an expansion tube are proposed. The first mechanism depends on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the driver-test gas interface in the presence of a strong expansion. The second mechanism depends on the reflection of the strong expansion from the interface. Predictions compare favorably with experimental results. The theory is expected to be independent of the absolute values of the initial expansion tube filling pressures.

  4. Tube vibration in industrial size test heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halle, H.; Wambsganss, M.W.

    1980-03-01

    Tube vibration data from tests of a specially built and instrumented, industrial-type, shell-and-tube heat exchanger are reported. The heat exchanger is nominally 0.6 m (2 ft) in dia and 3.7 m (12 ft) long. Both full tube and no-tubes-in-window bundles were tested for inlet/outlet nozzles of different sizes and with the tubes supported by seven, equally-spaced, single-segmental baffles. Prior to water flow testing, natural frequencies and damping of representative tubes were measured in air and water. Flow testing was accomplished by increasing the flow rates in stepwise fashion and also by sweeping through a selected range of flow rates. The primary variables measured and reported are tube accelerations and/or displacements and pressure drop through the bundle. Tests of the full tube bundle configuration revealed tube rattling to occur at intermediate flow rates, and fluidelastic instability, with resultant tube impacting, to occur when the flow rate exceeded a threshold level; principally, the four-span tubes were involved in the regions immediately adjacent to the baffle cut. For the range of flow rates tested, fluidelastic instability was not achieved in the no-tubes-in-window bundle; in this configuration the tubes are supported by all seven baffles and are, therefore, stiffer

  5. Atmospheres in a Test Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudi, R.; Erculiani, M. S.; Giro, E.; D'Alessandro, M.; Galletta, G.

    2013-09-01

    The "Atmosphere in a Test Tube" project is a laboratory experiment that will be able to reproduce condition of extreme environments by means of a simulator. These conditions span from those existing inside some parts of the human body to combinations of temperatures, pressures, irradiation and atmospheric gases present on other planets. In this latter case the experiments to be performed will be useful as preliminary tests for both simulation of atmosphere of exoplanets and Solar System planets and Astrobiology experiments that should be performed by planetary landers or by instruments to be launched in the next years. In particular at INAF Astronomical Observatory of Padova Laboratory we are approaching the characterization of extrasolar planet atmospheres taking advantage by innovative laboratory experiments with a particular focus on low mass Neptunes and Super earths and low mass M dwarfs primaries.

  6. Atmosphere in a Test Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudi, R.; Pace, E.; Ciaravella, A.; Micela, G.; Piccioni, G.; Billi, D.; Cestelli Guidi, M.; Coccola, L.; Erculiani, M. S.; Fedel, M.; Galletta, G.; Giro, E.; La Rocca, N.; Morosinotto, T.; Poletto, L.; Schierano, D.; Stefani, S.

    The ancestor philosophers' dream of thousand of new world is finally realised: more than 1800 extrasolar planets have been discovered in the neighborhood of our Sun. Most of them are very different from those we used to know in our Solar System. Others orbit the Habitable Zone (HZ) of their parent stars. Space missions, as JWST and the very recently proposed ARIEL, or ground based instruments, like SPHERE@VLT, GPI@GEMINI and EPICS@ELT, have been proposed and built to measure the atmospheric transmission, reflection and emission spectra over a wide wavelength range of these new worlds. In order to interpret the spectra coming out by this new instrumentation, it is important to know in detail the optical characteristics of gases in the typical physical conditions of the planetary atmospheres and how those characteristics could be affected by radiation driven photochemical and bio-chemical reaction. Insights in this direction can be achieved from laboratory studies of simulated planetary atmosphere of different pressure and temperature conditions under the effects of radiation sources, used as proxies of different bands of the stellar emission. ''Atmosphere in a Test Tube'' is a collaboration among several Italian astronomical, biological and engineering institutes in order to share their experiencece in performing laboratory experiments on several items concerning extrasolar planet atmospheres.

  7. Eddy current tube testing unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufayet, J.P.; Duret, G.

    1975-01-01

    The unit described can check a wide variety of tubes in quick succession and its modular design gives it a high degree of versability. Suitably defined working conditions and specific fittings enable most of the faults encountered in the manufacture of a tube to be detected. By appropriate means of selection based on signal amplitude, phase and frequency analyses it is possible to adapt selection criteria to the seriousness of the different categories of defect [fr

  8. Condensation heat transfer of steam on a single horizontal tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, K. A.

    1983-06-01

    An experimental apparatus was designed, constructed and instrumented in an effort to systematically and carefully study the condensation heat-transfer coefficient on a single, horizontal tube. A smooth, thick-walled copper tube of length 133.5 mm, with an outside diameter of 15.9 mm and an inside diameter of 12.7 mm was instrumented with six wall thermocouples. The temperature rise across the test section was measured accurately using quartz crystal thermometers. The inside heat-transfer coefficient was determined using the Sieder-Tate correlation with leading coefficient of 0.029. Initial steam side data were taken at atmospheric pressure to test the data acquisition/reduction computer programs.

  9. Steam generator tube denting simulation testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, P.J.; Singley, W.J.

    1978-02-01

    Tube denting has been reported in steam generators in a number of commercial nuclear power plants in recent years. In order to aid in understanding of the mechanism leading to tube denting in the steam generators, a Bettis laboratory test program was initiated to attempt to reproduce tube denting and to investigate the effects of chemistry, design, and temperature. The results of the tests indicate that denting can be reproduced in the small model steam generator test apparatus devised for this testing. Denting was observed under carbon steel support plates in seawater-contaminated secondary water in a test with hydrazine-ammonia chemistry and a primary water inlet temperature of 590 0 F and in a test with hydrazine-morpholine chemistry and a primary water inlet temperature of 545 0 F. The parameters of these two tests simulate conditions in a typical commercial steam generator and the Shippingport Atomic Power Station steam generators, respectively

  10. Internal ultrasonic testing of steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlan, J.; Soleille, G.; Chalaye, H.

    1983-01-01

    The ''in situ'' inspection of steam generator tubes uses generally Foucault currents before starting and along its life. This inspection aims at searching cracks and corrosion defects. The Foucault current method is quite badly adapted to ''closed crack'' detection, for it doesn't introduce neither resistivity or magnetic permeability variation, or lack of matter. More, it is sensible to the magnetic properties of the tube itself and to its environment (tubular or support plates). It is why, this first systematic inspection has to be completed by an ultrasonic one allowing to bring new elements in the uncertain cases. A device with an internal probe has been developed. It ''lights'' the tube wall with the aid of a transducer of which beam reflects on a mirror. Operating conditions are the same as for Foucault current testing, that is to say the probe moves inside the tube without rotation of the device (bent parts are excluded) [fr

  11. Manufacturing and testing the HTGR refueling tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurin, V.A.; Gribanov, Yu.A.; Kolosenko, V.V.; Gujda, V.V.

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the manufacturing technique for a refueling tube of a high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (HTGR). Four refueling tube sections were made: two sections from GSP-50 material and two sections from carbon-carbon (C-C) composite materials. Radiation tests were carried out in the reactor BOR-60. Experimental results show that the strength characteristics and thermophysical properties of graphitized carbon materials, from which the sections have been manufactured, are higher by a factor of 2.5-3.5 as compared with the HTGR refueling tube requirements. The dimensional changes of GSP-50 and C-C composite materials at temperatures between 300 and 600 deg C up to the neutron fluence of 1·10 21 n/cm 2 are comparable and meet the specifications for HTGR refueling tube

  12. Development and test evaluation of duplex steam reformer tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.C.; Meyer, D.J.; Pflasterer, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    For HTR applications involving a steam reformer (SR), it is uncertain whether an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) is required. There are several system configurations that could be developed for the application of nuclear heat using the steam reformer reaction. The considerations (advantages vs. disadvantages) for each of the system configurations are summarized. The approach that technically and economically appears to be the most attractive, in studies conducted by General Electric, combines the SR process heat exchanger and the IHX in a single component using a duplex tube. A central question concerning the duplex tube concept is whether the design would provide adequate leak monitoring capability and significant reduction in tritium and hydrogen diffusion, while introducing only a small increase in overall temperature difference from the helium to the process gas. A cooperative GE-KFA effort was undertaken to develop, fabricate, test, and evaluate a duplex steam reformer tube. GE was responsible for the development and fabrication of the tube, and KFA was responsible for testing the tube in the EVA I facility at Juelich. Both GE and KFA are evaluating the thermochemical and metallurgical test data. Actual fabrication of the tube was performed by Foster-Wheeler in accordance with the GE design. This paper reviews the highlights of the fabrication development and preliminary evaluation of the test data

  13. Eddy current testing of heat exchangers tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouez, J.F.; Rieusset, A.; Groix, F.

    An automatic system for Eddy Current testing of heat exchangers tubes of warships was developed. The advantages are an exposure of the controller limited at the time required to put in place the system and a reduced time of control [fr

  14. Of Slot Machines and Broken Test Tubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 5. Of Slot Machines and Broken Test Tubes. S Mahadevan. General Article Volume 19 Issue 5 May 2014 pp 395-405. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/05/0395-0405. Keywords.

  15. Of Slot Machines and Broken Test Tubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 5. Of Slot Machines and Broken Test Tubes. S Mahadevan. General Article Volume 19 Issue 5 May 2014 pp 395-405. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/05/0395-0405. Keywords.

  16. The dynamic single-tube concept; Le mono-tube dynamique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivet, P. [Ste MC International (France)

    1997-12-31

    In the framework of greenhouse gas emission reduction and the utilization of cooling intermediate fluids with indirect refrigerating systems, a new concept of dynamical single-tube has been developed, which allows for the simultaneous cold distribution from a centralized plant towards various required temperature systems (as for example in a supermarket refrigerating system) with optimized efficiency, fluid flow and defrosting conditions; moreover, the dynamic single-tube concept is very well adapted to two-phase flows

  17. Single-tube library preparation for degraded DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carøe, Christian; Gopalakrishnan, Shyam; Vinner, Lasse

    2018-01-01

    of chemically damaged and highly fragmented DNA molecules. In particular, the enzymatic reactions and DNA purification steps during library preparation can result in DNA template loss and sequencing biases, affecting downstream analyses. The development of library preparation methods that circumvent...... these obstacles and enable higher throughput are therefore of interest to researchers working with degraded DNA. 2.In this study, we compare four Illumina library preparation protocols, including two “single-tube” methods developed for this study with the explicit aim of improving data quality and reducing...... preparation time and expenses. The methods are tested on grey wolf (Canis lupus) museum specimens. 3.We found single-tube protocols increase library complexity, yield more reads that map uniquely to the reference genome, reduce processing time, and may decrease laboratory costs by 90%. 4.Given the advantages...

  18. Production and testing of tubes for nuclear boiler steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacson, M.

    1977-01-01

    Vallourec, second pipe manufacturer in Europe, has developed a workshop for the production of nuclear heat exchanger tubes in its Montbard plant. This workshop, by its special construction, production engineering and handling procedures, has attained nuclear standards and can produce U-bended tubes from diameter 12 to 25 mm with a maximum length of 36 meters. Its annual out-put is 1.500.000 meters. The final dimensions are obtained by a cold rolling procedure, followed by an outside and inside degreasing, a solution annealing in a controlled atmosphere continuous type furnace, a surface grinding and an inside surface conditionning. The non-destructive tests: eddy currents, ultrasonic tests and thickness mesures are recorded on a single tube basis. The curving and packing procedures have been specially developed for this production [fr

  19. Surveillance test of OWL-2 inpile tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Masatsugu; Itoh, Noboru

    1976-08-01

    A series of irradiation surveillance tests performed in integrity evaluation of an inpile tube for the test loop OWL-2 are described. Specimens were exposed to the neutron fluences from 1 x 10 20 to 3.4 x 10 21 n/cm 2 (>1 MeV), and subjected to post-irradiation tensile test at room temperature and service temperature 285 0 C. The strength increased and the ductility decreased with increasing neutron fluence. The reduction in fracture ductility due to neutron irradiation in the fluence range was insignificant, and the elongation of 33% was retained even for the maximum neutron fluence at 285 0 C. Little decrease of the ductility with fluence indicates that the tube would be in service for long time, ie to the integral fluence of 3.4 x 10 21 n/cm 2 . (auth.)

  20. Thin tube testing by eddy currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Bernard; Pigeon, Michel

    1981-01-01

    It is often necessary to define test conditions in eddy current testing, in consequence rules and laws allowing a rapid choice of these conditions are welcome. The similarity law, given by Forster, using the reduced frequency f/fg, allows extrapolation of results from an object to one another, if these two objects are similar (i.e. all their dimensions are proportional). In a particular case, often met, a law going further is given to describe, in a sole way, eddy current behaviour using the reduced frequency in all thin tubes (internal to external diameter ratio between 0.85 to 1). For instance working at f/fe=2 defines the same verification leading to identical results, whatever the nature, the diameter or the thickness may be, if the tubes are thin. A diagram is given and a slide-rule, based on this principle, has been realized [fr

  1. Stress corrosion testing of irradiated cladding tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunde, L.; Olshausen, K.D.

    1980-01-01

    Samples from two fuel rods with different cladding have been stress corrosion tested by closed-end argon-iodine pressurization at 320 0 C. The fuel rods with stress relieved and recrystallized Zircaloy-2 had received burnups of 10.000 and 20.000 MWd/ton UO 2 , respectively. It was found that the SCC failure stress was unchanged or slightly higher for the irradiated than for the unirradiated control tubes. The tubes failed consistently in the end with the lowest irradiation dose. The diameter increase of the irradiated cladding during the test was 1.1% for the stress-relieved samples and 0.24% for the recrystallized samples. SEM examination revealed no major differences between irradiated and unirradiated cladding. A ''semi-ductile'' fracture zone in recrystallized material is described in some detail. (author)

  2. Single-site neural tube closure in human embryos revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bakker, Bernadette S; Driessen, Stan; Boukens, Bastiaan J D; van den Hoff, Maurice J B; Oostra, Roelof-Jan

    2017-10-01

    Since the multi-site closure theory was first proposed in 1991 as explanation for the preferential localizations of neural tube defects, the closure of the neural tube has been debated. Although the multi-site closure theory is much cited in clinical literature, single-site closure is most apparent in literature concerning embryology. Inspired by Victor Hamburgers (1900-2001) statement that "our real teacher has been and still is the embryo, who is, incidentally, the only teacher who is always right", we decided to critically review both theories of neural tube closure. To verify the theories of closure, we studied serial histological sections of 10 mouse embryos between 8.5 and 9.5 days of gestation and 18 human embryos of the Carnegie collection between Carnegie stage 9 (19-21 days) and 13 (28-32 days). Neural tube closure was histologically defined by the neuroepithelial remodeling of the two adjoining neural fold tips in the midline. We did not observe multiple fusion sites in neither mouse nor human embryos. A meta-analysis of case reports on neural tube defects showed that defects can occur at any level of the neural axis. Our data indicate that the human neural tube fuses at a single site and, therefore, we propose to reinstate the single-site closure theory for neural tube closure. We showed that neural tube defects are not restricted to a specific location, thereby refuting the reasoning underlying the multi-site closure theory. Clin. Anat. 30:988-999, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Optimization of the Single Staggered Wire and Tube Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsana I Made

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wire and tube heat exchanger consists of a coiled tube, and wire is welded on the two sides of it in normal direction of the tube. Generally,wire and tube heat exchanger uses inline wire arrangement between the two sides, whereas in this study, it used staggered wire arrangement that reduces the restriction of convection heat transfer. This study performed the optimization of single staggered wire and tube heat exchanger to increase the capacity and reduce the mass of the heat exchanger. Optimization was conducted with the Hooke-Jeeves method, which aims to optimize the geometry of the heat exchanger, especially on the diameter (dw and the distance between wires (pw. The model developed to present heat transfer correlations on single staggered wire and tube heat exchanger was valid. The maximum optimization factor obtained when the diameter wire was 0.9 mm and the distance between wires (pw was 11 mm with the fref value = 1.5837. It means that the optimized design only using mass of 59,10 % and could transfer heat about 98,5 % from the basis design.

  4. 42 CFR 84.152 - Breathing tube test; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. 84.152... Respirators § 84.152 Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. (a)(1) Type A and Type B supplied-air respirators shall employ one or two flexible breathing tubes of the nonkinking type which extend from the...

  5. Chemical cleaning specification: few tube test model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampton, L.V.; Simpson, J.L.

    1979-09-01

    The specification is for the waterside chemical cleaning of the 2 1/4 Cr - 1 Mo steel steam generator tubes. It describes the reagents and conditions for post-chemical cleaning passivation of the evaporator tubes

  6. Single file diffusion into a semi-infinite tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Spencer G; Brown, Aidan I; Rutenberg, Andrew D

    2015-11-23

    We investigate single file diffusion (SFD) of large particles entering a semi-infinite tube, such as luminal diffusion of proteins into microtubules or flagella. While single-file effects have no impact on the evolution of particle density, we report significant single-file effects for individually tracked tracer particle motion. Both exact and approximate ordering statistics of particles entering semi-infinite tubes agree well with our stochastic simulations. Considering initially empty semi-infinite tubes, with particles entering at one end starting from an initial time t = 0, tracked particles are initially super-diffusive after entering the system, but asymptotically diffusive at later times. For finite time intervals, the ratio of the net displacement of individual single-file particles to the average displacement of untracked particles is reduced at early times and enhanced at later times. When each particle is numbered, from the first to enter (n = 1) to the most recent (n = N), we find good scaling collapse of this distance ratio for all n. Experimental techniques that track individual particles, or local groups of particles, such as photo-activation or photobleaching of fluorescently tagged proteins, should be able to observe these single-file effects. However, biological phenomena that depend on local concentration, such as flagellar extension or luminal enzymatic activity, should not exhibit single-file effects.

  7. Maintenance of immersion ultrasonic testing on the water tube boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Toru; Kawasaki, Ichio; Miura, Hirohito

    2014-01-01

    There are 4-boiler in nuclear fuel cycle engineering laboratories (NCL). These boilers have been operated in the long term over 20 years. One of them, the leakage of boiler water was found at one of the generating tubes, and 2 adjoining generating tubes were corroded in Dec, 2011. These generating tubes were investigated by immersion ultrasonic testing (UT) for measure thickness of the tube. As a result, thinner tube was found in a part of a bend and near the water drum. These parts are covered with sulfide deposit, it seems that the generating tubes were corroded by sulfide. (author)

  8. The single chest tube versus double chest tube application after pulmonary lobectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Compared with the double chest tube, the single chest tube significantly decreases amount of drainage, duration of chest tube drainage, pain score, the number of patients who need thoracentesis, and cost. Although there is convincing evidence to confirm the results mentioned herein, they still need to be confirmed by large-sample, multicenter, randomized, controlled trials.

  9. RIA simulation tests using driver tube for ATF cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinbiz, Mahmut N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, N. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lowden, R. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linton, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, K. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Pellet-cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI) is a potential failure mechanism for accident-tolerant fuel (ATF) cladding candidates during a reactivity-initiated accident (RIA). This report summarizes Fiscal Year (FY) 2017 research activities that were undertaken to evaluate the PCMI-like hoop-strain-driven mechanical response of ATF cladding candidates. To achieve various RIA-like conditions, a modified-burst test (MBT) device was developed to produce different mechanical pulses. The calibration of the MBT instrument was accomplished by performing mechanical tests on unirradiated Generation-I iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloy samples. Shakedown tests were also conducted in both FY 2016 and FY 2017 using unirradiated hydrided ZIRLO™ tube samples. This milestone report focuses on testing of ATF materials, but the benchmark tests with hydrided ZIRLO™ tube samples are documented in a recent journal article.a For the calibration and benchmark tests, the hoop strain was monitored using strain gauges attached to the sample surface in the hoop direction. A novel digital image correlation (DIC) system composed of a single high-speed camera and an array of six mirrors was developed for the MBT instrument to better resolve the failure behavior of samples and to provide useful data for validation of high-fidelity modeling and simulation tools. The DIC system enable a 360° view of a sample’s outer surface. This feature was added to the instrument to determine the precise failure location on a sample’s surface for strain predictions. The DIC system was tested on several silicon carbide fiber/silicon carbide matrix (SiC/SiC) composite tube samples at various pressurization rates of the driver tube (which correspond to the strain rates for the samples). The hoop strains for various loading conditions were determined for the SiC/SiC composite tube samples. Future work is planned to enhance understanding of the failure behavior of the ATF cladding candidates of age

  10. Probing DNA interactions with proteins using a single-molecule toolbox: inside the cell, in a test tube and in a computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollman, Adam J M; Miller, Helen; Zhou, Zhaokun; Leake, Mark C

    2015-04-01

    DNA-interacting proteins have roles in multiple processes, many operating as molecular machines which undergo dynamic meta-stable transitions to bring about their biological function. To fully understand this molecular heterogeneity, DNA and the proteins that bind to it must ideally be interrogated at a single molecule level in their native in vivo environments, in a time-resolved manner, fast enough to sample the molecular transitions across the free-energy landscape. Progress has been made over the past decade in utilizing cutting-edge tools of the physical sciences to address challenging biological questions concerning the function and modes of action of several different proteins which bind to DNA. These physiologically relevant assays are technically challenging but can be complemented by powerful and often more tractable in vitro experiments which confer advantages of the chemical environment with enhanced detection signal-to-noise of molecular signatures and transition events. In the present paper, we discuss a range of techniques we have developed to monitor DNA-protein interactions in vivo, in vitro and in silico. These include bespoke single-molecule fluorescence microscopy techniques to elucidate the architecture and dynamics of the bacterial replisome and the structural maintenance of bacterial chromosomes, as well as new computational tools to extract single-molecule molecular signatures from live cells to monitor stoichiometry, spatial localization and mobility in living cells. We also discuss recent developments from our laboratory made in vitro, complementing these in vivo studies, which combine optical and magnetic tweezers to manipulate and image single molecules of DNA, with and without bound protein, in a new super-resolution fluorescence microscope.

  11. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy-a flat-plate collector with a single-tube serpentine flow distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S.

    1976-01-01

    This preliminary data report gives basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and coolant flow rates. Collector efficienty is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  12. Test Station for Measuring Aluminum Tube Geometrical Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Oansea, D; Gongadze, A L; Gostkin, M I; Dedovich, D V; Evtoukhovitch, P G; Comanescu, B; Kotov, S A; Necsoiu, T; Potrap, I N; Rogalev, E V; Tskhadadze, E G; Chelkov, G A

    2001-01-01

    A test station for quality control of aluminum tube outer diameter and wall thickness is presented. The tested tubes are used for drift detector assembly of ATLAS (LHC, CERN) muon system. The outer diameter and wall thickness of aluminium tubes are measured by means of noncontact optical and ultrasonic methods respectively with the accuracy of 3 {\\mu}m. The testing process is automatic and interacts with the production data base.

  13. Practical acoustic thermometry with twin-tube and single-tube sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Podesta, M.; Sutton, G.; Edwards, G.; Stanger, L.; Preece, H.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate measurement of high temperatures in a nuclear environment presents unique challenges. All secondary techniques inevitably drift because the thermometric materials in thermocouples and resistance sensors are sensitive not just to temperature, but also their own chemical and physical composition. The solution is to use primary methods that rely on fundamental links between measurable physical properties and temperature. In the nuclear field the best known technique is the measurement of Johnson Noise in a resistor (See Paper 80 at this conference). In this paper we describe the measurement of temperature in terms of the speed of sound in a gas confined in a tube - an acoustic waveguide. Acoustic thermometry is the most accurate technique of primary thermometry ever devised with the best uncertainty of measurement below 0.001 C. In contrast, the acoustic technique described in this work has a much larger uncertainty, approximately 1 deg. C. But the cost and ease of use are improved by several orders of magnitude, making implementation eminently practical. We first describe the basic construction and method of operation of thermometers using twin-tubes and single tubes. We then present results using a twin-tube design showing that showing long term stability (i.e. no detectable drift) at 700 deg. C over periods of several weeks. We then outline how the technique may be developed for different nuclear applications. (authors)

  14. Multifrequency eddy current testing of helical tubes of steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigeon, M.; David, B.

    1983-06-01

    In the event of a water-sodium reaction in a steam-generator of a fast breeder reactor, it is necessary to test the tubes close to the leak to evaluate the damage. In SUPERPHENIX, the tubes are about 100m long and are coiled on a dead body. This report describes the equipment and the technic to test such tubes with multifrequency eddy current technics [fr

  15. The SCC testing of nuclear steam generator tubing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, P. E.; Sarver, J. M.; Miglin, B. P.

    1996-05-01

    The integrity of heat-exchanger tubes in a nuclear reaction system is crucial for the safe operation of a power plant. In order to study the corrosion behavior of certain alloys, constant extension rate (CERT) tests were performed on alloy 690 and alloy 800 nuclear steam generator tubing specimens. In this article, the CERT test results (such as maximum stress achieved and crack morphology) are correlated to tubing microstructure, chemistry, and manufacturing processes.

  16. Apparatus facilitates pressure-testing of metal tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyorgak, C. A.

    1965-01-01

    Burst-testing of refractory metal tubing is conducted in an apparatus in which tubular specimans are firmly gripped and test pressures and temperatures are applied. Porosity, flaw, and fatigue-stress rupture are also tested.

  17. Post-test calculations of out-of-pile single rod burst experiments with Argentine ZRY-4 tubes using SSYST codes system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassini, H.; Meyder, R.

    1988-11-01

    The calculations were performed with SSYST-3 code system. The experiments have been carried out with shortened REBEKA simulators. The main goal was to verify whether the model for describing the Zircaloy cladding deformation and rupture at high temperatures (NORA2 model) is able to predict the Argentine cladding material behaviour under such conditions. A good agreement between experimental results and model predictions was found in the range of temperatures from 700 to 850 0 C (in α phase and first half of α+β transition phase). There were some discrepances at higher temperatures, probably due to the strong influence of heating rate on material properties. According to the results of these post-test calculations, it can be concluded that NORA2 model is able to well describe the Argentine Zircaloy cladding deformation and rupture under LOCA conditions, because there was a good agreement in the range of burst (ballooning) temperatures which are expected in this type of accident. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Test tube systems with cutting/recombination operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, R. [Technische Universitaet Wien (Austria); Csuhaj-Varju, E. [Computer and Automation Institute, Budapest (Hungary); Wachtler, F. [Universitaet Wien (Austria)

    1996-12-31

    We introduce test tube systems based on operations that are closely related to the splicing operations, i.e. we consider the operations of cutting a string at a specific site into two pieces with marking them at the cut ends and of recombining two strings with specifically marked endings. Whereas in the splicing of two strings these strings are cut at specific sites and the cut pieces are recombined immediately in a crosswise way, in CR(cutting/recombination)-schemes cutting can happen independently from recombining the cut pieces. Test tube systems based on these operations of cutting and recombination turn out to have maximal generative power even if only very restricted types of input filters for the test tubes are used for the redistribution of the contents of the test tubes after a period of cuttings and recombinations in the test tubes. 10 refs.

  19. Characterization of Friction Stir Welded Tubes by Means of Tube Bulge Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Urso, G.; Longo, M.; Giardini, C.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical properties of friction stir welded joints are generally evaluated by means of conventional tensile test. This testing method might provide insufficient information because maximum strain obtained in tensile test before necking is small; moreover, the application of tensile test is limited when the joint path is not linear or even when the welds are executed on curved surfaces. Therefore, in some cases, it would be preferable to obtain the joints properties from other testing methods. Tube bulge test can be a valid solution for testing circumferential or longitudinal welds executed on tubular workpieces. The present work investigates the mechanical properties and the formability of friction stir welded tubes by means of tube bulge tests. The experimental campaign was performed on tubular specimens having a thickness of 3 mm and an external diameter of 40 mm, obtained starting from two semi-tubes longitudinally friction stir welded. The first step, regarding the fabrication of tubes, was performed combining a conventional forming process and friction stir welding. Sheets in Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy AA6060 T6 were adopted for this purpose. Plates having a dimension of 225x60 mm were bent (with a bending axis parallel to the main dimension) in order to obtain semi-tubes. A particular care was devoted to the fabrication of forming devices (punch and die) in order to minimize the springback effects. Semi-tubes were then friction stir welded by means of a CNC machine tool. Some preliminary tests were carried out by varying the welding parameters, namely feed rate and rotational speed. A very simple tool having flat shoulder and cylindrical pin was used. The second step of the research was based on testing the welded tubes by means of tube bulge test. A specific equipment having axial actuators with a conical shape was adopted for this study. Some analyses were carried out on the tubes bulged up to a certain pressure level. In particular, the burst pressure and the

  20. Experimental research on single-phase heat transfer characteristics in a vertical circular tube under marine conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Sijia; Zhang Hong; Jia Baoshan

    2011-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted to study the heat transfer characteristics of single-phase forced circulation when the test tube was under different marine conditions. The experiments measured the wall temperature of test tube to calculate the heat transfer coefficients at different circumferential places. When the test tube was under inclined conditions, the heat transfer coefficient increased at downside and decreased at upside of test tube because of buoyancy effect. When the test tube was under rolling conditions, the heat transfer coefficients fluctuated with the rolling motions, and the Coriolis force dominated the heat transfer fluctuation during the rolling motion. CFD method was used to simulate the heat transfer phenomena under marine conditions, and the results were accord to the experimental phenomena. (authors)

  1. Eddy current testing of steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumaier, P.

    1981-01-01

    A rotating probe is described for improving the inspection of tubes and end plate in steam generators. The method allows a representation of the whole defect, consequently the observer is able to determine directly the type of defect, signal processing in-line or off-line is possible [fr

  2. Automatic integrated testing bench for tubes in translation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufayet, J.P.; Perdijon, J.

    1976-01-01

    All the nondestructive tests required for receiving the cladding tubes intended for fast nuclear reactor are integrated on this bench: quality control by eddy currents and ultra-sounds, thickness and (inner and outer) diameter measurement. The linear displacement of the tube allows very high rates to be attained [fr

  3. Life-test results on the Zetatron tube, transformer and the tube-transformer assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shope, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    In the development of the PFN probe it became evident that some considerable life testing of the neutron tube, high-voltage pulse transformer, and the tube-transformer assembly (TTA) were needed to (1) identify life limiting mechanisms, (2) estimate performance degradation, and (3) provide a data base for end-of-life predictions. Initial results had shown clearly that testing monitored by technicians would be much too costly. Consequently, a computer-controlled and monitored test was developed. This paper describes the test, summarizes the records, and discusses the results. Also presented are early results of actual probe life testing now underway

  4. Tagging of Test Tubes with Electronic p-Chips for Use in Biorepositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandecki, Wlodek; Kopacka, Wesley M; Qian, Ziye; Ertwine, Von; Gedzberg, Katie; Gruda, Maryann; Reinhardt, David; Rodriguez, Efrain

    2017-08-01

    A system has been developed to electronically tag and track test tubes used in biorepositories. The system is based on a light-activated microtransponder, also known as a "p-Chip." One of the pressing problems with storing and retrieving biological samples at low temperatures is the difficulty of reliably reading the identification (ID) number that links each storage tube with the database containing sample details. Commonly used barcodes are not always reliable at low temperatures because of poor adhesion of the label to the test tube and problems with reading under conditions of frost and ice accumulation. Traditional radio frequency identification (RFID) tags are not cost effective and are too large for this application. The system described herein consists of the p-Chip, p-Chip-tagged test tubes, two ID readers (for single tubes or for racks of tubes), and software. We also describe a robot that is configured for retrofitting legacy test tubes in biorepositories with p-Chips while maintaining the temperature of the sample below -50°C at all times. The main benefits of the p-Chip over other RFID devices are its small size (600 × 600 × 100 μm) that allows even very small tubes or vials to be tagged, low cost due to the chip's unitary construction, durability, and the ability to read the ID through frost and ice.

  5. Single port laparoscopic long-term tube gastrostomy in Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Vegge, Andreas; Moesgaard, S G

    2015-01-01

    Oral dosing by gavage is often used to test compounds in minipigs. This method is also used for certain nutritional studies that require exact dosing. This procedure may be stressful for the animal and requires the assistance of more than one technician. We investigated whether a gastrostomy tube...... it was evident that the catheter had entered the stomach in the fundus region in 11/12 of the animals. In one animal the catheter had entered the antrum region. None of the animals developed leakage or clinically detectable reactions to the gastrostomy tube. Histopathologically, only discrete changes were...... observed. Single port laparoscopic tube gastrostomy with a locking pigtail catheter is safe, simple and reliable and is an appropriate alternative to, for example, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, when long-term enteral delivery of pharmacological or nutritional compounds is needed. The use...

  6. Sodium flow distribution test of the air cooler tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Hidehisa; Shimazu, Hisashi

    1980-01-01

    In the heat transfer tubes of the air cooler which is installed in the auxiliary core cooling system of the fast breeder prototype plant reactor ''Monju'', sodium freezing may be caused by undercooling the sodium induced by an extremely unbalanced sodium flow in the tubes. Thus, the sodium flow distribution test of the air cooler tubes was performed to examine the flow distribution of the tubes and to estimate the possibility of sodium freezing in the tubes. This test was performed by using a one fourth air cooler model installed in the water flow test facility. As the test results show, the flow distribution from the inlet header to each tube is almost equal at any operating condition, that is, the velocity deviation from normalized mean velocity is less than 6% and sodium freezing does not occur up to 250% air velocity deviation at stand-by condition. It was clear that the proposed air cooler design for the ''Monju'' will have a good sodium flow distribution at any operating condition. (author)

  7. Tube and column agglutination technology for autocontrol testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, J E; Vincent, J L; Indrikovs, A J

    2001-01-01

    The incidence of positive autocontrol test results with column agglutination technology is a concern. This study investigates the incidence and significance of positive autocontrols in the ID Micro Typing System (gel) and the Gamma ReACT (ReACT). The study encompassed a total of 1021 randomly selected samples from patients and 95 samples from donors collected during 1 month. The autocontrol testing was carried out according to the manufacturer's instructions for the column agglutination tests. The tube method was carried out using low-ionic-strength solution (LISS). The direct antiglobulin test (DAT) was performed using the tube method, and further investigated with elution studies if warranted. Seventy-nine patient's samples (7.74%) had a positive autocontrol: the gel test, 72 (91.13%); ReACT, 21 (26.58%); and the tube method, 27 (34.18%). Of the 79 positive autocontrols, 44 samples had a negative DAT. Of the samples with positive DAT results, only one possessed a clinically significant antibody, anti-D. Moreover, the same sample also tested positive in all three methods. Column agglutination techniques have increased sensitivity for a positive autocontrol beyond the conventional tube method. However, ReACT and gel tests differ significantly in their frequency of positives. Investigation of the significance of a positive autocontrol in column agglutination technology when the conventional tube method is also positive is suggested.

  8. Remote field eddy current testing of ferromagnetic tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, B.

    1990-01-01

    In order to test ferromagnetic tubes using internal probes, Intercontrole and the CEA have carried out theoretical and experimental works and developed a method to adapt the Remote Field Eddy Current technique which has been known and used for 30 years now. This document briefly recalls the basic principles of the Remote Field Eddy Current technique, the various steps of the works carried out and mainly describes examples of field inspection of ferromagnetic tubes and pipes [fr

  9. Non-destructive testing of tubes by electromagnetic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowarski, A.

    1979-01-01

    This article reviews and assesses the non destructive testing techniques used for locating defects in tubes by electromagnetic processes. These form the basis of many testing devices, the diversity of which results from various factors: range of materials, methods of fabrication, specific defects of the product. There are two distinct main families of devices utilising two different principles: dispersion flow and Foucault currents [fr

  10. The Megapixel EBCCD a high-resolution imaging tube sensitive to single photons

    CERN Document Server

    Buontempo, S; Dalinenko, I N; Ereditato, A; Ekimov, A V; Fabre, Jean-Paul; Fedorov, V Yu; Frenkel, A; Galeazzi, F; Garufi, F; Golovkin, S V; Govorun, V N; Kalashnikova, N N; Kosov, V G; Kozarenko, E N; Kreslo, I E; Lasovsky, L Y; Liberti, B; Malyarov, A V; Martellotti, G; Medvedkov, A M; Penso, G; Vishnevski, G I; Wolff, T; Zhuk, A

    1998-01-01

    A hybrid image-intensifier tube, suitable for extremely low-light imaging, has been tested. This device is based on an Electron-Bombarded CCD chip (EBCCD) with $1024 \\times 1024$ sensitive pixe ls. The tube, which has a photocathode diameter of 40 mm, is gateable and zoomable, with an image magnification varying from 0.62 to 1.3. The high gain (about 4000 collected electrons per photo electron at the operational voltage of 15 kV) and the relatively low noise (180 electrons per pixel at 10 MHz pixel-readout frequency), allows single-photoelectron signals to be separated from n oise with a signal-to-noise ratio greater than 10. By applying an appropriate threshold on the signal amplitude, the background can almost be eliminated, with a loss of few percent in single-ph otoelectron counting. High inner gain, low noise, single-photoelectron sensitivity, and high spatial resolution make the EBCCD imaging tube a unique device, attractive for many applications in h igh-energy physics, astrophysics, biomedical diagnos...

  11. Influence of test tube material on subcooled flow boiling critical heat flux in short vertical tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, Koichi; Shiotsu, Masahiro; Noda, Nobuaki

    2007-01-01

    The steady state subcooled flow boiling critical heat flux (CHF) for the flow velocities (u=4.0 to 13.3 m/s), the inlet subcoolings (ΔT sub,in =48.6 to 154.7 K), the inlet pressure (P in =735.2 to 969.0 kPa) and the increasing heat input (Q 0 exp(t/τ), τ=10, 20 and 33.3 s) are systematically measured with the experimental water loop. The 304 Stainless Steel (SUS304) test tube of inner diameter (d=6 mm), heated length (L=66 mm) and L/d=11 with the inner surface of rough finished (Surface roughness, Ra=3.18 μm), the Cupro Nickel (Cu-Ni 30%) test tube of d=6 mm, L=60 mm and L/d=10 with Ra=0.18 μm and the Platinum (Pt) test tubes of d=3 and 6 mm, L=66.5 and 69.6 mm, and L/d=22.2 and 11.6 respectively with Ra=0.45 μm are used in this work. The CHF data for the SUS304, Cu-Ni 30% and Pt test tubes were compared with SUS304 ones for the wide ranges of d and L/d previously obtained and the values calculated by the authors' published steady state CHF correlations against outlet and inlet subcoolings. The influence of the test tube material on CHF is investigated into details and the dominant mechanism of subcooled flow boiling critical heat flux is discussed. (author)

  12. Influence of Test Tube Material on Subcooled Flow Boiling Critical Heat Flux in Short Vertical Tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koichi Hata; Masahiro Shiotsu; Nobuaki Noda

    2006-01-01

    The steady state subcooled flow boiling critical heat flux (CHF) for the flow velocities (u = 4.0 to 13.3 m/s), the inlet subcooling (ΔT sub,in = 48.6 to 154.7 K), the inlet pressure (P in = 735.2 to 969.0 kPa) and the increasing heat input (Q 0 exp(t/t), t = 10, 20 and 33.3 s) are systematically measured with the experimental water loop. The 304 Stainless Steel (SUS304) test tubes of inner diameters (d = 6 mm), heated lengths (L = 66 mm) and L/d = 11 with the inner surface of rough finished (Surface roughness, R a = 3.18 μm), the Cupro Nickel (Cu-Ni 30%) test tubes of d = 6 mm, L = 60 mm and L/d = 10 with R a = 0.18 μm and the Platinum (Pt) test tubes of d = 3 and 6 mm, L = 66.5 and 69.6 mm, and L/d 22.2 and 11.6 respectively with R a = 0.45 μm are used in this work. The CHF data for the SUS304, Cu-Ni 30% and Pt test tubes were compared with SUS304 ones for the wide ranges of d and L/d previously obtained and the values calculated by the authors' published steady state CHF correlations against outlet and inlet subcooling. The influence of the test tube material on CHF is investigated into details and the dominant mechanism of subcooled flow boiling critical heat flux is discussed. (authors)

  13. Design and test of the Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yong-Ju; Ko, Junseok; Kim, Hyo-Bong; Yeom, Han-Kil; In, Sehwan; Park, Seong-Je

    2017-12-01

    Stirling type pulse tube cryocoolers are very attractive for cooling of diverse application because it has it has several inherent advantages such as no moving part in the cold end, low manufacturing cost and long operation life. To develop the Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler, we need to design a linear compressor to drive the pulse tube cryocooler. A moving magnet type linear motor of dual piston configuration is designed and fabricated, and this compressor could be operated with the electric power of 100 W and the frequency up to 60 Hz. A single stage coaxial type pulse tube cold finger aiming at over 1.5 W at 80K is built and tested with the linear compressor. Experimental investigations have been conducted to evaluate their performance characteristics with respect to several parameters such as the phase shifter, the charging pressure and the operating frequency of the linear compressor.

  14. Delayed hydrogen cracking test design for pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Roberto; Loberse, Antonio N.; Yawny, Alejandro A.; Riquelme, Pablo

    1999-01-01

    CANDU nuclear power stations pressure tubes of alloy Zr-2,5 % Nb present a cracking phenomenon known as delayed hydrogen cracking (DHC). This is a brittle fracture of zirconium hydrides that are developed by hydrogen due to aqueous corrosion on the metal surface. This hydrogen diffuses to the crack tip where brittle zirconium hydrides develops and promotes the crack propagation. A direct current potential decay (DCPD) technique has been developed to measure crack propagation rates on compact test (CT) samples machined from a non irradiated pressure tube. Those test samples were hydrogen charged by cathodic polarization in an acid solution and then pre cracked in a fatigue machine. This technique proved to be useful to measure crack propagation rates with at least 1% accuracy for DHC in pressure tubes. (author)

  15. High efficiency 40 K single-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X. L.; Chen, L. B.; Pan, C. Z.; Cui, C.; Wang, J. J.; Zhou, Y.

    2017-12-01

    A high efficiency single-stage Stirling-type coaxial pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) operating at around 40 K has been designed, built and tested. The double-inlet and the inertance tubes together with the gas reservoir were adopted as the phase shifters. Under the conditions of 2.5 MPa charging pressure and 30 Hz operating frequency, the prototype has achieved a no-load temperature of 23.8 K with 330 W of electric input power at a rejection temperature of 279 K. When the input power increases to 400 W, it can achieve a cooling capacity of 4.7 W/40 K while rejecting heat at 279 K yielding an efficiency of 7.02% relative to Carnot. It achieves a cooling capacity of 5 W/40 K with an input power of 450 W. It takes 10 minutes for the SPTC to cool to its no-load temperature of 40 K from 295 K.

  16. A single-tube approach for in vitro diagnostics using diatomaceous earth and optical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei; Koo, Bonhan; Liu, Huifang; Eun Jin, Choong; Shin, Yong

    2018-01-15

    Versatile, simple and efficient sample preparation is desirable for point-of-care testing of emerging diseases such as zoonoses, but current sample preparation assays are insensitive, labour-intensive and time-consuming and require multiple instruments. We developed a single-tube sample preparation approach involving direct pathogen enrichment and extraction from human specimens using diatomaceous earth (DE). Amine-modified DE was used to directly enrich a zoonotic pathogen, Brucella, in a large sample volume. Next, a complex of amine-modified DE and dimethyl suberimidate was used for nucleic acid extraction from the enriched pathogen. Using our single-tube approach, the pathogen can be enriched and extracted within 60min at a level of 1 colony formation unit (CFU) from a 1ml sample volume in the same tube. The performance of this approach is 10-100 times better than that of a commercial kit (10 2 to 10 3 CFU/ml) but does not require a large centrifuge. Finally, we combined the single-tube approach with a bio-optical sensor for rapid and accurate zoonotic pathogen detection in human urine samples. Using the combination system, Brucella in human urine can be efficiently enriched (~ 8-fold) and the detection limit is enhanced by up to 100 times (1CFU/ml bacteria in urine) compared with the commercial kit. This combined system is fast and highly sensitive and thus represents a promising approach for disease diagnosis in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Tube suction test for evaluating durability of cementitiously stabilized soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    In a comprehensive laboratory study, different tests namely, unconfined compressive strength (UCS) at the end of freeze-thaw/wet-dry (F-T/W-D) cycles, resilient modulus (Mr) at the end of F-T/W-D cycles, vacuum saturation, tube suction, and moisture ...

  18. Eddy current test of fin tubes for a heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KIm, Young Joo; Lee, Se Kyung; Chung, Min Hwa

    1992-01-01

    Eddy current probes were designed for the test of fin tubes. Fin tubes, often used for heat exchangers, have uneven outer and inner surfaces to enhance the heat emission. The surface roughness make it difficult to detect flaws employing eddy current test(ECT). In order to overcome the difficulties we performed two types of works, one is the delopment of ECT probes, and the other is the signal processing including fast Fourier transform and digital filtering. In the development of ECT probes, we adopted empirical design method. Our ECT probes for fin tubes are inside diameter type. And we are specially concerned about geometric features such as the widths of the coils composing an ECT probe. We fabricated four probes with various coil widths. Eddy current test was performed using those ECT probes on specimens with artificial flaws. After analyzing the output signals, we found that, in order for the effective testing, the width of a coil should be determined considering the pitch of the fins of a tube. And we also learned that the frequency filtering could improve the s/n ratio.

  19. Laboratory evaluation of the improved tube test detection limits for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Kenya there is currently no screening of antimicrobial drug residues in milk. This study evaluated the improved tube test as a possible screening method using seven representatives of the β-lactam antibiotics. The group comprises antimicrobials most frequently used to treat bacterial infections in dairy cows.

  20. Ballooning of pressure tubes - Construction of a test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, C.F.

    1995-09-01

    The test facility has been built to enable creep testing of reactor pressure tube specimens under conditions which represent those likely to be encountered in a reactor loss-of-coolant accident. The facility has been designed to be capable of specimen heating rates up to 30 K.s -1 , temperatures up to 1200 C and internal pressurization up to 6 MPa with either argon or steam. Pressure tube temperature, strain rate, and pressure instrumentation have been provided for collection of data required for analysis of creep behaviour. The facility has been designed to be suitable for testing irradiated specimens in a hot cell. The report provides a detailed description of the test rig and results from two commissioning ballooning tests. (author). 2 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  1. Development and validation of a lipase nasogastric tube position test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Oliver; Carr, Reuben; Harbinson, Merrilee; Hanna, George Bushra

    2016-01-01

    Background Nasogastric tube position should be checked every day by either aspirate pH or chest radiography to prevent fatal misplaced feeding into the lungs. Many patients do not have acidic gastric aspirates and require daily chest radiographs. We developed and validated a lipase test that was compatible with non-acidic gastric aspirates. Methods We conducted evaluations of diagnostic test accuracy at a teaching hospital in development and validation stages. Development: We collected gastric and lung aspirates from 34 consecutive patients. We measured pH and human gastric lipase activity in the laboratory. These data helped us develop the lipase test. Ingenza Ltd (Roslin, Scotland) created tributyrin-coated pH test paper, which human gastric lipase converted into butyric acid, thus correcting false negatives. Validation: We tested nasogastric feeding tube aspirates from 36 consecutive patients with pH and lipase tests, using chest radiography or trial by use as the reference standard. Results Development: We demonstrated human gastric lipase activity in the non-acidic stomach aspirates. Validation: The accuracy of the lipase test (sensitivity 97.2%, specificity 100%) was significantly better than pH (sensitivity 65.7%, specificity 100%, pnasogastric tube stomach aspirates were not acidic and pH was falsely negative, the lipase test showed a true positive and was significantly more accurate. PMID:26966548

  2. Preliminary project of installation for separation tubes tests-ITTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Z.

    1984-01-01

    A consolidation of actual ideas about installation, entitled ''Installation to separation tubes tests-ITTS'', expected to CDTN is presented. The project bases, the testing to be realized, the procedures to be obeyed during the operation, the components and the space required by installation and auxiliary equipments, the presumable origin of components (nacional and international), including a preliminary list of building and operation costs are described. (author) [pt

  3. Single-tube nested PCR for detection of tritrichomonas foetus in feline feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gookin, Jody L; Birkenheuer, Adam J; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Levy, Michael G

    2002-11-01

    Tritrichomonas foetus, a venereal pathogen of cattle, was recently identified as an inhabitant of the large intestine in young domestic cats with chronic diarrhea. Recognition of the infection in cats has been mired by unfamiliarity with T. foetus in cats as well as misdiagnosis of the organisms as Pentatrichomonas hominis or Giardia sp. when visualized by light microscopy. The diagnosis of T. foetus presently depends on the demonstration of live organisms by direct microscopic examination of fresh feces or by fecal culturing. As T. foetus organisms are fastidious and fragile, routine flotation techniques and delayed examination and refrigeration of feces are anticipated to preclude the diagnosis in numerous cases. The objective of this study was to develop a sensitive and specific PCR test for the diagnosis of feline T. foetus infection. A single-tube nested PCR was designed and optimized for the detection of T. foetus in feline feces by using a combination of novel (TFITS-F and TFITS-R) and previously described (TFR3 and TFR4) primers. The PCR is based on the amplification of a conserved portion of the T. foetus internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (ITS1 and ITS2) and the 5.8S rRNA gene. The absolute detection limit of the single-tube nested PCR was 1 organism, while the practical detection limit was 10 organisms per 200 mg of feces. Specificity was examined by using P. hominis, Giardia lamblia, and feline genomic DNA. Our results demonstrate that the single-tube nested PCR is ideally suited for (i) diagnostic testing of feline fecal samples that are found negative by direct microscopy and culturing and (ii) definitive identification of microscopically observable or cultivated organisms.

  4. Single-frequency reflection characterisation of shock tube excited plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Tian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Plasma has been of great interest to engineers and scientists during the past few decades due to its wide applications. Besides, the plasma-sheath-caused lose of communication (i.e. re-entry blackout that happens when a spacecraft re-enters the earth atmosphere is still a problem to be solved. The microwave characterisation of shock tube excited plasma has been an important method for exploring the transmission and reflection of microwave signals in plasma. The existing frequency sweep or multi-frequency technologies are not desirable for the characterisation of high-speed time-varying plasma generated in shock tubes. Hence, in this paper a novel signal-frequency approach is proposed to measure both electron density and collision frequency of plasma in shock tube. As frequency sweep is not required in this method, it is extremely suitable for characterising the shock tube excited high-speed time-varying plasma. The genetic algorithm is applied to extract electron density and collision frequency from the reflection coefficient. Simulation results demonstrate excellent accuracy for electron density within 1 0 10 ∼ 1 0 12   c m − 3 and collision frequency within 5 × 1 0 10 ∼ 1 0 12   H z . This work paves the way for a fast and compact microwave reflection measurement of shock tube generated plasma.

  5. Fracture Toughness Round Robin Test International in pressure tube materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villagarcia, M.P.; Liendo, M.F.

    1993-01-01

    Part of the pressure tubes surveillance program of CANDU type reactors is to determine the fracture toughness using a special fracture specimen and test procedure. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited decided to hold a Round Robin Test International and 9 laboratories participated worldwide in which several pressure tube materials were selected: Zircaloy-2, Zr-2.5%Nb cold worked and Zr-2.5%Nb heat treated. The small specimens used held back the thickness and curvature of the tube. J-R curves at room temperature were obtained and the crack extension values were determined by electrical potential drop techniques. These values were compared with results generated from other laboratories and a bid scatter was founded. It could be due to slight variations in the test method or inhomogeneity of the materials and a statistical study must be done to see if there is any pattern. The next step for the Round Robin Test would be to make some modifications in the test method in order to reduce the scatter. (Author)

  6. Strength and Stability Analysis of a Single Walled Black Phosphorus Tube under Axial Compression

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Kun; Wan, Jing; Wei, Ning; Qin, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Few-layered black phosphorus materials recently attract much attention due to its special electronic properties. As a Consequence, the nano-tube from a single-layer black phosphorus has been theoretically built. The corresponding electronic properties of such black phosphorus nano-tube were also evaluated numerically.

  7. A novel test tube method of screening for hemoglobin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatu, T; Kasinrerk, W

    2012-02-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) E is a β-structural variant common worldwide. This Hb disorder can form a compound heterozygous state with the β-thalassemia gene, leading to life-threatening hereditary hemolytic anemia, HbE/β-thalassemia. Screening of HbE has proven to be a challenging practice in prevention and control of the HbE/β-thalassemia. A novel test tube method for HbE screening using diethyl aminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose resin was described. With the developed system, HbE/A(2) did not bind to the resin and remained dissolved in the supernatant, whereas other Hbs completely bound to the resin. The red color of the supernatant observed in the test tube indicated the presence of HbE. Colorless or markedly pale color of the supernatant indicates the absence of HbE. Accuracy and efficiency of the established method in detecting HbE was comparable with the standard cellulose acetate electrophoresis method. The developed method is cheap and simple with no requirement of sophisticated equipment. The reagent could be stored at 4 °C for up to 5 months. Hemolysate samples aged up to 5 months were still suitable for this test. The described novel test tube method could be an alternative method of mass population screening for HbE, particularly in small health care facilities. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. SINGLE HEATER TEST FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.B. Cho

    1999-05-01

    The Single Heater Test is the first of the in-situ thermal tests conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of its program of characterizing Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site for a proposed deep geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. The Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988) contained an extensive plan of in-situ thermal tests aimed at understanding specific aspects of the response of the local rock-mass around the potential repository to the heat from the radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. With the refocusing of the Site Characterization Plan by the ''Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan'' (DOE 1994), a consolidated thermal testing program emerged by 1995 as documented in the reports ''In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (DOE 1995) and ''Updated In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (CRWMS M&O 1997a). The concept of the Single Heater Test took shape in the summer of 1995 and detailed planning and design of the test started with the beginning fiscal year 1996. The overall objective of the Single Heater Test was to gain an understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes that are anticipated to occur in the local rock-mass in the potential repository as a result of heat from radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. This included making a priori predictions of the test results using existing models and subsequently refining or modifying the models, on the basis of comparative and interpretive analyses of the measurements and predictions. A second, no less important, objective was to try out, in a full-scale field setting, the various instruments and equipment to be employed in the future on a much larger, more complex, thermal test of longer duration, such as the Drift Scale Test. This ''shake down'' or trial aspect of the Single Heater Test applied

  9. SINGLE HEATER TEST FINAL REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.B. Cho

    1999-01-01

    The Single Heater Test is the first of the in-situ thermal tests conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of its program of characterizing Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site for a proposed deep geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. The Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988) contained an extensive plan of in-situ thermal tests aimed at understanding specific aspects of the response of the local rock-mass around the potential repository to the heat from the radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. With the refocusing of the Site Characterization Plan by the ''Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan'' (DOE 1994), a consolidated thermal testing program emerged by 1995 as documented in the reports ''In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (DOE 1995) and ''Updated In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (CRWMS M and O 1997a). The concept of the Single Heater Test took shape in the summer of 1995 and detailed planning and design of the test started with the beginning fiscal year 1996. The overall objective of the Single Heater Test was to gain an understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes that are anticipated to occur in the local rock-mass in the potential repository as a result of heat from radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. This included making a priori predictions of the test results using existing models and subsequently refining or modifying the models, on the basis of comparative and interpretive analyses of the measurements and predictions. A second, no less important, objective was to try out, in a full-scale field setting, the various instruments and equipment to be employed in the future on a much larger, more complex, thermal test of longer duration, such as the Drift Scale Test. This ''shake down'' or trial aspect of the Single Heater Test applied not just to the hardware, but also to the teamwork and cooperation between

  10. Single event upset test programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russen, L.C.

    1984-11-01

    It has been shown that the heavy ions in cosmic rays can give rise to single event upsets in VLSI random access memory devices (RAMs). Details are given of the programs written to test 1K, 4K, 16K and 64K memories during their irradiation with heavy charged ions, in order to simulate the effects of cosmic rays in space. The test equipment, which is used to load the memory device to be tested with a known bit pattern, and subsequently interrogate it for upsets, or ''flips'', is fully described. (author)

  11. Eddy current testing device for metallic tubes at least locally curved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigeon, Marcel; Vienot, Claude.

    1975-01-01

    Steam generators, condensers and heat exchangers generally consist of metallic tube bundles, the tubes having a complex geometry. The invention concerns an Eddy current testing device for metallic tubes at least locally curved, operating by translation of a probe inside the tubes [fr

  12. Field tests of 2- and 40-tube condensers at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, R.W.; Domingo, N.

    1982-05-01

    Two water-cooled isobutane condensers, one with 2 tubes and one with 40 tubes, were subjected to field tests at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site to assess relative heat transfer performance in both surface evaporator and direct-contact evaporator modes. The five groups of tests established that field performance was below earlier laboratory-determined levels and that direct-contact evaporator mode performance was poorer than that for the surface evaporator mode. In all test situations, fluted condenser tubes performed better than smooth condenser tubes. Cooling water quality had no significant effect on performance, but brine preflash in the direct-contact mode did promote some relative performance improvement. Important implications of these results for binary geothermal power plants are that (1) working-fluid-side impurities can significantly degrade heat transfer performance of the power plant condensers and (2) provisions for minimizing such impurities may be required.

  13. Isolation of Microarray-Grade Total RNA, MicroRNA, and DNA from a Single PAXgene Blood RNA Tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruhøffer, Mogens; Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Voss, Thorsten

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a procedure for isolation of microRNA and genomic DNA in addition to total RNA from whole blood stabilized in PAXgene Blood RNA tubes. The procedure is based on automatic extraction on a BioRobot MDx and includes isolation of DNA from a fraction of the stabilized blood......RNA was tested using spotted locked nucleic acid-based microarrays. We conclude that the yield and quality of total RNA, microRNA, and DNA from a single PAXgene blood RNA tube is sufficient for downstream microarray analysis....

  14. Five Tubes Rupture at Cold Side of Steam Generator Simulation Test Report Using the ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kyoung Ho; Park, Hyun Sik; Cho, Seok

    2010-12-01

    In this study, a postulated SGTR event of the APR1400 was experimentally investigated with the ATLAS. In order to simulate a double-ended rupture of five U-tubes in the APR1400, the SGTR-CL-02 test was performed with the ATLAS. The main objectives of this test were not only to provide a physical insight into the system response of the APR1400 during the SGTR but also to produce integral effect experimental data to validate the safety analysis code. In the present report, major thermal-hydraulic phenomena such as the system pressures, the collapsed water levels, and the break flow rate were presented and discussed. Compared to the case of a single U-tube rupture test, opening frequency of the MSSVs in the intact steam generator (SG-2) was highly reduced after 500 seconds in the present SGTR-CL-02 test. Large discharge of the primary inventory resulted in rapid depressurization of the primary system and consequently early injection of the SIP. Supply of cold ECC water by the SIPs reduced the energy transfer to the secondary side compared with the single U-tube rupture case. Less heat transfer to the secondary side had more influence on the secondary pressure of the affected steam generator than the break flow. This integral effect test data will be used to evaluate the prediction capability of existing safety analysis codes of the MARS and the RELAP5 as well as the SPACE code

  15. Tests and analysis on steam generator tube failure propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Hiromi

    1990-01-01

    The understanding of leak enlargement and failure propagation behavior is essential to select a design basis leak (DBL) of LMFBR steam generators. Therefore, various series of experiments, such as self-enlargement tests, target wastage tests, failure propagation tests were conducted in a wide range of leak using test facilities of SWAT at PNC/OEC. Especially, in the large leak tests, potential of overheating failure was investigated under a prototypical steam cooling condition inside target tubes. In the small leak, the difference of wastage resistivity was clarified among several tube materials such as 9-chrome steels. In regard to an analytical approach, a computer code LEAP (Leak Enlargement and Propagation) was developed on the basis of all of these experimental results. The code was used to validate the previously selected DBL of the prototype reactor, Monju, steam generator. This approach proved to be successful in spite of somewhat over-conservatism in the analysis. Moreover, LEAP clarified the effectiveness of a rapid steam dump and an enhanced leak detection system. The code improvement toward a realistic analysis is desired, however, to lessen the DBL for a future large plant and then the re-evaluation of the experimental data such as the size of secondary failure is under way. (author). 4 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  16. Counting DNA: estimating the complexity of a test tube of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulhammer, D; Lipton, R J; Landweber, L F

    1999-10-01

    We consider the problem of estimation of the 'complexity' of a test tube of DNA. The complexity of a test tube is the number of different kinds of strands of DNA in the test tube. It is quite easy to estimate the number of total strands in a test tube, especially if the strands are all the same length. Estimation of the complexity is much less clear. We propose a simple kind of DNA computation that can estimate the complexity.

  17. Geometric Relations for CYLEX Test Tube-Wall Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Larry

    2015-06-01

    The CYLinder EXpansion (CYLEX) test is a (precision, instrumented, high-purity annealed copper) pipe bomb. Its essential measured quantities are detonation speed and tube-wall motion. Its main purpose is to calibrate detonation product equations of state (EOS) by measuring how product fluid pushes metal. In its full complexity, CYLEX is an integral test, for which EOS calibration requires the entire system to be computationally modeled and compared to salient data. Stripped to its essence, CYLEX is a non-integral test for which one may perform the inverse problem, to infer the EOS directly from data. CYLEX analysis can be simplified by the fact that the test constituents achieve a steady traveling wave structure; this allows derivation of several useful geometric relationships regarding tube wall motion. The first such treatment was by G.I. Taylor. Although his analysis was limited to small wall deflection angles, he asserted that the results remain valid for arbitrary ones. I confirm this attribute and present additional useful relationships. In the past decade, CYLEX wall-motion instrumentation has migrated almost entirely from streak camera to PDV, yet discrepancies remain between the two methods. I further present geometric relationships that shed light on this issue. Work supported by the U.S. DOE.

  18. Numerical predictions of heat transfer and pressure tube/calandria tube deformation during Calandria-tube Strain Contact Boiling (CSCB) tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanase, A.; Szymanski, J.; El-Hawary, M.; Delja, A., E-mail: aurelian.tanase@cnsc-ccsn.gc.ca [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    The assessment of fuel channel integrity during large break LOCA requires adequate prediction of the thermal-mechanical behaviour of the fuel channel following pressure tube ballooning into contact with the calandria tube. Analytical models developed for this purpose need to be calibrated and validated against experimental data. A new series of contact boiling tests was initiated by CNSC to provide additional data on calandria tube straining behaviour after PT/CT contact. This paper presents selected results of the first of these tests and their comparisons with predictions using analytical methodology developed by CNSC staff. (author)

  19. Theoretical Investigation on the Solubilization in Water of Functionalized Single-Wall Carbon Nano tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mananghaya, M.; Rodulfo, E.; Santos, G.N.; Villagracia, A.; Mananghaya, M.

    2012-01-01

    An important technique to increase the solubility and reactivity of carbon nano tube is through functionalization. In this study, the effects of functionalization of some single-walled carbon nano tubes (SWCNTs) were investigated with the aid of density functional theory. The SWCNT model used in the study consists of a finite, (5, 0) zigzag nano tube segment containing 60 C atoms with hydrogen atoms added to the dangling bonds of the perimeter carbons. There are three water-dispersible SWCNTs used in this study that were functionalized with (a) formic acid, as a model of carboxylic acid, (b) isophthalic acid, as a model aromatic dicarboxylic acid, and (c) benzenesulfonic acid, as a model aromatic sulfonic acid. Binding energies of the organic radicals to the nano tubes are calculated, as well as the HOMO-LUMO gaps and dipole moments of both nano tubes and functionalized nano tubes. Binding was found out to be thermodynamically favorable. The functionalization increases the electrical dipole moments and results in an enhancement in the solubility of the nano tubes in water manifested through favorable changes in the free energies of solvation. This should lower the toxicity of nano tubes and improve their biocompatibility.

  20. Small angle neutron scattering study of isolated single wall carbon nano tubes in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doe, Chang-Woo; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Choi, Sung-Min; Kline, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    As an effort to provide more practical approaches to a wide range of potential applications of carbon nano tubes, we report a new type of noncovalently functionalized isolated single-walled carbon nano tube(SWNT) which is easily dispersible in water by only ten minutes of mild vortex mixing. The structure and quality of dispersion have been investigated using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique

  1. Hydrogen storage in single-wall carbon nano-tubes by means of laser excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oksengorn, B.

    2010-01-01

    A new mode for hydrogen adsorption and storage in single-wall carbon nano-tubes is used, on the basis of laser excitation. Remember that this method has been useful to obtain, in the case of the fullerene C 60 , many complex C 60 -atoms or C 60 -molecules, where atoms or molecular particles are trapped inside the C 60 -molecules. We think this method might be important to store many hydrogen molecules inside carbon nano-tubes. (author)

  2. Reliability test results of LGE pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.-Y.; Chung, W.-S.; Park, J.-J.; Hwang, D.-K.; Lee, H.-K.

    2002-05-01

    A low-cost and highly reliable cryocooler is strongly required for several applications. In this circumstance, LG Electronics has developed a 5 W at 65 K pulse tube cryocooler with high potential for low-cost manufacturing based on linear motor and compressor technology. Recently dozens of coolers have been fabricated and tested for the verification of performance stability with ambient temperature variation. From tests at high ambient temperature like 60°C, an average performance degradation of 45% is found and good performance stability of coolers is shown. Continuous operation at 40°C is ongoing for the verification of their reliability. To date no failure has been found. This paper discusses the test process, results and MTBF calculation.

  3. A deep-sea agglutinated foraminifer tube constructed with planktonic foraminifer shells of a single species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Paul N.; Expedition 363 Shipboard Scientific Party, IODP

    2018-01-01

    Agglutinated foraminifera are marine protists that show apparently complex behaviour in constructing their shells, involving selecting suitable sedimentary grains from their environment, manipulating them in three dimensions, and cementing them precisely into position. Here we illustrate a striking and previously undescribed example of complex organisation in fragments of a tube-like foraminifer (questionably assigned to Rhabdammina) from 1466 m water depth on the northwest Australian margin. The tube is constructed from well-cemented siliciclastic grains which form a matrix into which hundreds of planktonic foraminifer shells are regularly spaced in apparently helical bands. These shells are of a single species, Turborotalita clarkei, which has been selected to the exclusion of all other bioclasts. The majority of shells are set horizontally in the matrix with the umbilical side upward. This mode of construction, as is the case with other agglutinated tests, seems to require either an extraordinarily selective trial-and-error process at the site of cementation or an active sensory and decision-making system within the cell.

  4. Development of a sealing process of capsules for surveillance test tubes of the vessel in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero C, J.; Fernandez T, F.; Perez R, N.; Rocamontes A, M.; Garcia R, R.

    2007-01-01

    The surveillance capsule is composed by the support, three capsules for impact test tubes, five capsules for tension test tubes and one porta dosemeters. The capsules for test tubes are of two types: rectangular capsule for Charpy test tubes and cylindrical capsule for tension test tubes. This work describes the development of the welding system to seal the capsules for test tubes that should contain helium of ultra high purity to a pressure of 1 atmosphere. (Author)

  5. Burst Testing of Filament-Wound Graphite-Epoxy Composite Cylindrical Tubes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chang, D

    2002-01-01

    An experimental and analytical program was performed to elucidate the failure process of filament-wound graphite-epoxy tubes, especially the effects of wrinkled fibers and of proof testing on tube burst strength...

  6. Testing Placement of Gastric Feeding Tubes in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metheny, Norma A; Pawluszka, Ann; Lulic, Melanie; Hinyard, Leslie J; Meert, Kathleen L

    2017-11-01

    Inadvertent positioning of a nasogastric tube in the lung can cause serious complications, so identifying methods to detect improperly inserted tubes is imperative. To compare the sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values of 4 pH cut points (< 4.0, < 4.5, < 5.0, and < 5.5) in differentiating gastric and tracheal aspirates under various treatment conditions and to explore the utility of a pepsin assay for distinguishing between gastric and tracheal aspirates. Gastric and tracheal aspirates were collected from critically ill infants undergoing mechanical ventilation who had nasogastric or orogastric feeding tubes. Aspirates were tested with colorimetric pH indicators and a rapid pepsin assay. Information about treatment conditions was obtained from medical records. Two hundred twelve gastric aspirates and 60 tracheal aspirates were collected from 212 patients. Sensitivity was highest and specificity was lowest at the gastric aspirate pH cut point of less than 5.5. Positive predictive values were 100% at all pH cut points less than 5.0. Negative predictive values were higher at the pH cut point of less than 5.0 than at cut points less than 4.5. A higher percentage of pepsin-positive readings was found in gastric aspirates (88.3%) than in tracheal aspirates (5.4%). For a desired positive predictive value of 100%, a pH cut point of less than 5.0 provides the best negative predictive values, regardless of gastric acid inhibitor administration and feeding status. The pepsin assay is promising as an additional marker to distinguish gastric from tracheal aspirates. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  7. Design of experiments and equipment to test the ballooning characteristics of CANDU pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, C.F.; Stern, F.; Hart, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments have been planned and an apparatus has been designed to enable creep testing of end-of-life pressure tube specimens in a LOCA environment. Effects that could be studied include: annealing of irradiation damage during transient heating; effects of hydride blisters on pressure tube ballooning strains; and, effects of uniformly-distributed hydrogen content on pressure tube ballooning strains. The proposed experimental program will consist of separate effects creep tests on pressure tube sections under transient heating conditions

  8. Pressure Tests on SG Pulled Tubes at TSP Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccanfuso, Marc; Mathon, Cédric

    In 2009, 12 tubes were pulled at the tube support plate level of a Steam Generator at one of France's oldest nuclear power plants. In order to identify the involved mechanisms and to characterise the defects, metallurgical examinations were carried out on these tubes.

  9. Template synthesis of test tube nanoparticles using non-destructive replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jonathan; Yao, Jingyuan; Rodgers, David; Hinds, Bruce

    2013-03-01

    Nano test tubes are a promising delivery vehicle for a range of therapeutics, including small molecule drugs and biologics. However, current template synthesis methods of producing nano test tubes are prohibitively expensive and time consuming. Here, non-destructive template replication was used to increase nano test tube yield from porous alumina by more than a hundredfold. We demonstrate how to produce nano test tubes of several sizes and compositions, including hybrid tubes with different inner and outer surfaces for targeted surface chemistry. Nano test tubes were readily suspended and stored in aqueous solutions without the need for chemical treatment. These nano test tubes should find application as delivery vehicles for therapeutics, particularly for processive 'bionanoreactors' loaded with enzymes.

  10. Template synthesis of test tube nanoparticles using non-destructive replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Jonathan; Rodgers, David; Yao Jingyuan; Hinds, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Nano test tubes are a promising delivery vehicle for a range of therapeutics, including small molecule drugs and biologics. However, current template synthesis methods of producing nano test tubes are prohibitively expensive and time consuming. Here, non-destructive template replication was used to increase nano test tube yield from porous alumina by more than a hundredfold. We demonstrate how to produce nano test tubes of several sizes and compositions, including hybrid tubes with different inner and outer surfaces for targeted surface chemistry. Nano test tubes were readily suspended and stored in aqueous solutions without the need for chemical treatment. These nano test tubes should find application as delivery vehicles for therapeutics, particularly for processive ‘bionanoreactors’ loaded with enzymes. (paper)

  11. Antimicrobial Activity of Single-Walled Carbon Nano tubes Suspended in Different Surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, L.; Alex Henderson, A.; Field, Ch.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the antibacterial activity of single-walled carbon nano tubes (SWCNTs) dispersed in surfactant solutions of sodium cholate, sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, and sodium dodecyl sulfate. Among the three surfactants, sodium cholate demonstrated the weakest antibacterial activity against Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecium and thereby was used to disperse bundled SWCNTs in order to study nano tube antibiotic activity. SWCNTs exhibited antibacterial characteristics for both S. enterica and E. coli. With the increase of nano tube concentrations from 0.3 mg/mL to 1.5 mg/mL, the growth curves had plateaus at lower absorbance values whereas the absorbance value was not obviously affected by the incubation ranging from 5?min to 2 h. Our findings indicate that carbon nano tubes could become an effective alternative to antibiotics in dealing with drug-resistant and multidrug-resistant bacterial strains because of the physical mode of bactericidal action that SWCNTs display

  12. Single-stage micro-scale solvent extraction in parallel microbore tubes using MDIMJ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darekar, Mayur; Singh, K.K.; Joshi, J.M.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Shenoy, K.T.

    2016-01-01

    Single-stage micro-scale solvent extraction of U(VI) from simulated lean streams is explored using micro-scale contactor comprising of a MDIMJ (Monoblock Distributor with Integrated Microfluidic Junction) and PTFE microbore tubes. 30% (v/v) TBP in dodecane has been used as the extracting phase. The objective of the study is to demonstrate numbering up approach for scale-up of micro-scale extraction using indigenously conceptualized and fabricated MDIMJ. First the performance of MIDIMJ for equal flow distribution is tested. Then the effects of inlet flow rate and O/A ratio on stage efficiency and percentage extraction are studied. The experiments show that it is easy to scale-up single-stage micro-scale solvent extraction by using MDIMJ for numbering up approach. Maximum capacity tested is 4.8 LPH. With O/A = 2/1, more than 90% extraction is achieved in a very short contact time of less than 3s. The study thus demonstrates possibility of process intensification and easy scale-up of micro-scale solvent extraction

  13. Metal/ceramic X-ray tubes for non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartl, W.; Peter, D.; Reiber, K.

    1984-01-01

    As a wall material for X-ray tubes, glass has a number of disadvantages. The tube is relatively fragile, charge builds up on the tube wall, and current poths may form due to ''hopping'' of electrons. These problems can be avoided by means of metal/ceramic technology and an improved tube geometry. In a new generation of X-ray tubes for macroscopic testing of materials it has been possible to halve the linear dimensions and to reduce the weight to a quarter of that of conventional tubes with a glass wall. The new tubes have an earthed metal wall, so that there was no need for insulating oil around the tube. Typical examples of applications of the new tubes are presented. (orig.) [de

  14. Reaction-time-resolved measurements of laser-induced fluorescence in a shock tube with a single laser pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabeti, S.; Fikri, M.; Schulz, C.

    2017-11-01

    Shock tubes allow for the study of ultra-fast gas-phase reactions on the microsecond time scale. Because the repetition rate of the experiments is low, it is crucial to gain as much information as possible from each individual measurement. While reaction-time-resolved species concentration and temperature measurements with fast absorption methods are established, conventional laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements with pulsed lasers provide data only at a single reaction time. Therefore, fluorescence methods have rarely been used in shock-tube diagnostics. In this paper, a novel experimental concept is presented that allows reaction-time-resolved LIF measurements with one single laser pulse using a test section that is equipped with several optical ports. After the passage of the shock wave, the reactive mixture is excited along the center of the tube with a 266-nm laser beam directed through a window in the end wall of the shock tube. The emitted LIF signal is collected through elongated sidewall windows and focused onto the entrance slit of an imaging spectrometer coupled to an intensified CCD camera. The one-dimensional spatial resolution of the measurement translates into a reaction-time-resolved measurement while the species information can be gained from the spectral axis of the detected two-dimensional image. Anisole pyrolysis was selected as the benchmark reaction to demonstrate the new apparatus.

  15. Separation of fluoride from fluoroelastomers by diffusion in test tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswarlu, P

    1992-02-15

    The conventional procedure for separation of fluoride as trimethylfluorosilane in Conway diffusion cells involves the use of grease for sealing the cell and also for closing the hole in the lid drilled for introduction of hexamethyldisiloxane. We have developed a simpler procedure in which diffusion is carried out in 5-mL test tubes without the use of grease. Results of analysis of fluoride following diffusion from water, urine, and bone samples are in excellent agreement with those obtained by other procedures not involving diffusion. Separation of fluoride from partly and fully cured fluoroelastomers is achieved by first grinding the samples in a liquid nitrogen mill and then using methyl ethyl ketone as an adjuvant to perchloric acid employed in the diffusion procedure.

  16. DNA nanotechnology from the test tube to the cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Jyue; Groves, Benjamin; Muscat, Richard A; Seelig, Georg

    2015-09-01

    The programmability of Watson-Crick base pairing, combined with a decrease in the cost of synthesis, has made DNA a widely used material for the assembly of molecular structures and dynamic molecular devices. Working in cell-free settings, researchers in DNA nanotechnology have been able to scale up system complexity and quantitatively characterize reaction mechanisms to an extent that is infeasible for engineered gene circuits or other cell-based technologies. However, the most intriguing applications of DNA nanotechnology - applications that best take advantage of the small size, biocompatibility and programmability of DNA-based systems - lie at the interface with biology. Here, we review recent progress in the transition of DNA nanotechnology from the test tube to the cell. We highlight key successes in the development of DNA-based imaging probes, prototypes of smart therapeutics and drug delivery systems, and explore the future challenges and opportunities for cellular DNA nanotechnology.

  17. DNA nanotechnology from the test tube to the cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Jyue; Groves, Benjamin; Muscat, Richard A.; Seelig, Georg

    2015-09-01

    The programmability of Watson-Crick base pairing, combined with a decrease in the cost of synthesis, has made DNA a widely used material for the assembly of molecular structures and dynamic molecular devices. Working in cell-free settings, researchers in DNA nanotechnology have been able to scale up system complexity and quantitatively characterize reaction mechanisms to an extent that is infeasible for engineered gene circuits or other cell-based technologies. However, the most intriguing applications of DNA nanotechnology -- applications that best take advantage of the small size, biocompatibility and programmability of DNA-based systems -- lie at the interface with biology. Here, we review recent progress in the transition of DNA nanotechnology from the test tube to the cell. We highlight key successes in the development of DNA-based imaging probes, prototypes of smart therapeutics and drug delivery systems, and explore the future challenges and opportunities for cellular DNA nanotechnology.

  18. Experimental and numerical determination of temperature gradients for a single tube alkali metal thermal-to-electric converter cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the results from the experimental and numerical determination of shell temperature gradients for a single tube AMTEC cell evaluated under simulated deep space operating conditions.

  19. Tests of compressed geometry acceleration tubes in the Oak Ridge 25URC tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.M.; Erb, K.A.; Haynes, D.L.; Mitchell, J.T.; Ziegler, N.F.; Raatz, J.E.; Rathmell, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    In an effort to further improve voltage performance of the Oak Ridge 25URC accelerator, the original acceleration tubes will be replaced with NEC compressed geometry acceleration tubes. In this paper, we report on tests in the 25URC accelerator of two prototype compressed geometry acceleration tube designs. One of the designs utilizes a novel aperture which provides enhanced electron and ion trapping

  20. Eddy-Current Testing of Thin-Walled Cladding Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verstappen, C.; Deknock, R.; Neider, R.; Brabers, M.; Meester, P. de

    1965-01-01

    In view of an extended programme on the evaluation of properties and defects of stainless-steel and Zircaloy thin-walled tubes, a basic study has been made of the optimum test conditions for applying eddy-current test methods. An electronic apparatus has been built to define these conditions for a great variety of test problems. Therefore, it was necessary to have the possibility of changing the frequency over a wide range and to measure the two components of the complex impedance of the test coil separately. This has die advantage over a measurement of the absolute value of the impedance change since this value has little meaning in view of the change of the properties of the test object. The actual apparatus allows the precise and sensitive measurement of the real and imaginary components of any test coil in a frequency range from 0.1 - 500 kHz. A special type of modulation device has been developed. The apparatus is not considered as an actual testing apparatus; by determining optimum conditions for each case,- it enables a relatively simple and specific apparatus to be built. Up to now, a detailed study of relationships between physical and electrical properties of a specimen and the test-coil impedance has been performed for tubular fuel-cladding materials. Frequency and coil configurations are established for wall-thickness measurements and a particular apparatus has been constructed; the accuracy is better than 1% and changes between inner and outer diameter variations can be discriminated. Other specific apparatus are studied and proposed. (author) [fr

  1. Characterization and structural integrity tests of ex-service steam generator tubes at Ontario Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagan, Sandra [Ontario Power Generation, 889 Brock Road, Pickering, Ontario (Canada); Duan Xinjian [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, 2251 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)], E-mail: duanx@aecl.ca; Kozluk, Michael J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, 2251 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Mills, Brian; Goszczynski, Guylaine [Kinectrics Inc., 800 Kipling Avenue, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-03-15

    The Canadian Nuclear Standard CSA N285.4 requires the periodic metallurgical examination of removed ex-service steam generator tubes. This paper describes the practices used for the characterization and structural integrity tests of ex-service steam generator tubes at Ontario Power Generation (OPG). It shows that there is no degradation of mechanical properties of Monel 400 tubes after 7-18 effective full power years (EFPY) of operation and Incoloy 800 tubes after more than 10 EFPY of operation.

  2. Single-tube linear DNA amplification (LinDA) for robust ChIP-seq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shankaranarayanan, P.; Mendoza-Parra, M.A.; Walia, M.; Wang, L.; Li, N.; Trindade, L.M.; Gronemeyer, H.

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide profiling of transcription factors based on massive parallel sequencing of immunoprecipitated chromatin (ChIP-seq) requires nanogram amounts of DNA. Here we describe a high-fidelity, single-tube linear DNA amplification method (LinDA) for ChIP-seq and reChIP-seq with picogram DNA amounts

  3. Single-sided sheet-to-tube spot welding investigated by 3D numerical simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Chergui, Azeddine; Zhang, Wenqi

    The single-sided resistance spot welding process is analyzed by a 3D numerical study of sheet-to-tube joining. Finite element simulations are carried out in SORPAS® 3D. Two levels of electrode force and five levels of welding current are simulated. The overall effects of changing current and force...

  4. Pressure Drop Correlations of Single-Phase and Two-Phase Flow in Rolling Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia-xin Cao; Chang-qi Yan; Pu-zhen Gao; Zhong-ning Sun

    2006-01-01

    A series of experimental studies of frictional pressure drop for single phase and two-phase bubble flow in smooth rolling tubes were carried out. The tube inside diameters were 15 mm, 25 mm and 34.5 mm respectively, the rolling angles of tubes could be set as 10 deg. and 20 deg., and the rolling periods could be set as 5 s, 10 s and 15 s. Combining with the analysis of single-phase water motion, it was found that the traditional correlations for calculating single-phase frictional coefficient were not suitable for the rolling condition. Based on the experimental data, a new correlation for calculating single-phase frictional coefficient under rolling condition was presented, and the calculations not only agreed well with the experimental data, but also could display the periodically dynamic characteristics of frictional coefficients. Applying the new correlation to homogeneous flow model, two-phase frictional pressure drop of bubble flow in rolling tubes could be calculated, the results showed that the relative error between calculation and experimental data was less than ± 25%. (authors)

  5. An experimental study on single basin solar still augmented with evacuated tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampathkumar K.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of the solar still is determined by the temperature of water in the basin and the glass temperature. Various active methods have been adopted to increase the temperature of the basin, so as to improve the productivity of solar still. Most of the previous research works have been focusing on flat plate collector and concentrating collector. In this experimental study, a single slope solar still directly augmented with evacuated tubes was used to increase the daily productivity by reducing heat losses. Evacuated tubes were directly coupled to the lower side of the single slope solar still with an area of 1m2. Black gravel is used to increase the productivity by means of reducing quantity of water in the basin. Extensive experiments were conducted to explore the performance of solar still in several modes namely still alone, still with black stones, still with evacuated tubes, and still with evacuated tubes and black gravel. The experimental setup was designed and installed at Solar Energy Park, Tamilnadu College of Engineering, Coimbatore (77˚E, 11˚N, Tamilnadu, India. These experiments were conducted using tap water as feed. It was found that, after augmentation of the evacuated tubes, the daily production rate has increased by 49.7 % and it increased by 59.48% with black stones. Economic analysis was also done and payback period of this experimental setup is 235 days.

  6. Investigations of single-electron avalanches in a proportional drift tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, W.S.; Armitage, J.C.; Chevreau, P.; Heinrich, J.G.; Lu, C.; McDonald, I.; McDonald, K.T.; Miller, B.; Secrest, D.; Weckel, J.

    1990-01-01

    Detailed information on single-electron drift and avalanche behavior has a basic interest in an investigation of gas-chamber performance. Its timing, avalanche distribution, attachment by the working gas mixtures, etc., provide various criteria for choosing the best suitable gas mixture under a specific experimental circumstance. Investigations of single-electron avalanches in a proportional drift tube have been carried out with a pulsed N 2 laser. The study consists of two aspects: timing properties, and fluctuations in the gas avalanche

  7. Nondestructive testing of welds on thin-walled tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemaier, D. J.; Posakony, G. J.

    1969-01-01

    Special ultrasonic search unit, or transducer assembly, reliably inspects the quality of melt-through welds of fusion welded tubing couplers for hydraulic lines. This instrumentation can also be used to detect faulty braze bonds in thin-walled, small diameter joints and wall thickness of thin-walled metal tubing.

  8. Sensitivity of the improved Dutch tube diffusion test for detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sensitivity of the improved two-tube test for detection of antimicrobial residues in Kenyan milk was investigated by comparison with the commercial Delvo test SP. Suspect positive milk samples (n =244) from five milk collection centers, were analyzed with the improved two-tube and the commercial Delvo SP test as per ...

  9. Single-crystal sapphire tubes as economical probes for optical pyrometry in harsh environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Růžička, Jakub; Houžvička, Jindřich; Bok, Jiří; Praus, Petr; Mojzeš, Peter

    2011-12-20

    One-end-sealed single-crystal sapphire tubes are presented as a simple, robust, and economical alternative for bulky lightpipe probes. Thermal radiation from a blackbody cavity created at the inner surface of the sealed end is gathered by a simple lens-based collecting system and transmitted via optical fiber to the remote detection unit. Simplicity and applicability of the concept are demonstrated by the combination of commercially available sapphire tubes with a common optical pyrometer. Radiation thermometers with sapphire tubes as invasive probes can be useful for applications requiring immunity to electromagnetic interference, resistance to harsh environments, simple replacement in the case of failure, and enhanced mechanical firmness, enabling wider range probe positioning inside the medium of interest.

  10. Numeric Simulation of Heat Transfer from a Single Round Tube Shielded with Wire Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dymo B.V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of development and investigation of heat transfer at transverse flow of round tube with wire screen using the software ANSYS Fluent 3D-model. Selection of optimal parameters of the finite element model, in particular, transition shear stress transport model as well and boundary conditions are realized. Instructed and combined net is used at numerical calculations. This net is built with the help of generators grid-torus ANSYS CFX Mesh 14.0. The problem of verification of conformity of the numerical model of the heat transfer of a single screen-covered round tubes according to physical experiment for the same tubes in the range of Reynolds numbers Re = (5000...35000 was studied. We established that discrepancy between physical experiments and numerical simulation results not exceeds 5% with respect to the data of physical experiment.

  11. Experimental study of single taylor bubbles rising in stagnant liquid mixtures inside of vertical tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, Marcos B. de; Faccini, Jose L.H.; Su, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The present work reports an experimental study of single Taylor bubbles rising in vertical tubes filled with water-glycerin mixtures by using the pulse-echo ultrasonic technique. A 2m long acrylic tube with inner diameter of 24 mm was used in the experiments. Initially, the tube was sealed at the ends and filled partially with the liquid mixtures to leave an air pocket of length L 0 at the top end. A Taylor bubble was formed by the inversion of the tube. The rising bubbles were detected by ultrasonic transducers located at the upper part of the tube. The velocity, the length and the pro le of the bubbles and the thickness of the liquid lm around them were obtained from the ultrasonic signals processing. The liquid lm thickness in the vertical tube was also determined by a graphic method that relates the bubble length L b with the initial length of the air pocket L 0 . It was observed that the bubble velocity decreased with increasing viscosity, while the lm thickness increased. It was shown that the liquid lm thickness determined by the graphic method fitted well the higher viscosities data, but overestimated the lower viscosities data. Additionally, the results indicated that some correlations developed to estimate the thickness of liquid films falling down inside/outside of tubes and down a plane surface could be applied to estimate the thickness of liquid films falling around Taylor bubbles in an Inverse Viscosity Number (N f ) range different to those considered in the literature. (author)

  12. Feasibility Test with a STS304 tube of the Eddy Current Test using a Bobbin Probe for the SMART SG Tube Inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoon Sang; Jung, Hyun Kyu; Choung, Yun Hang

    2010-01-01

    The SMART SG tubes will be made of Alloy 690. The outside diameter will be 17 mm and the thickness will be 2.5 mm. They will be assembled helically around, and their innermost diameter will be about 600 mm and the total length will be about 32 meters. For the sake of safety, SMART SG tubes are designed for use with thick tubes such as 2.5 mm thickness compared to about 1 mm thickness of normal Korean standard pressurized water reactor tubes. Due to using thick tubes such as the 2.5 mm varieties, it was doubted that the Eddy Current Testing Method (ECT) would be a feasible method. Therefore we are trying to check the feasibility of the ECT using the substitute material STS304 tube instead of Alloy 690 tubes with the bobbin type ECT probe. The previous paper reported the feasibility of the ECT using modeling, but this paper will report the preliminary experimental results and comparison with the previous results of the modeling for the STS304 tube

  13. Evaluation of single and double centrifugation tube methods for concentrating equine platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüelles, D; Carmona, J U; Pastor, J; Iborra, A; Viñals, L; Martínez, P; Bach, E; Prades, M

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate single and double centrifugation tube methods for concentrating equine platelets. Whole blood samples were collected from clinically normal horses and processed by use of single and double centrifugation tube methods to obtain four platelet concentrates (PCs): PC-A, PC-B, PC-C, and PC-D, which were analyzed using a flow cytometry hematology system for hemogram and additional platelet parameters (mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width, mean platelet component concentration, mean platelet component distribution width). Concentrations of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta(1)) were determined in all the samples. Platelet concentrations for PC-A, PC-B, PC-C, and PC-D were 45%, 44%, 71%, and 21% higher, respectively, compared to the same values for citrated whole blood samples. TGF-beta(1) concentrations for PC-A, PC-B, PC-C, and PC-D were 38%, 44%, 44%, and 37% higher, respectively, compared to citrated whole blood sample values. In conclusion, the single and double centrifugation tube methods are reliable methods for concentrating equine platelets and for obtaining potentially therapeutic TGF-beta(1) levels.

  14. Model independent approach to the single photoelectron calibration of photomultiplier tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldanha, R.; Grandi, L.; Guardincerri, Y.; Wester, T.

    2017-08-01

    The accurate calibration of photomultiplier tubes is critical in a wide variety of applications in which it is necessary to know the absolute number of detected photons or precisely determine the resolution of the signal. Conventional calibration methods rely on fitting the photomultiplier response to a low intensity light source with analytical approximations to the single photoelectron distribution, often leading to biased estimates due to the inability to accurately model the full distribution, especially at low charge values. In this paper we present a simple statistical method to extract the relevant single photoelectron calibration parameters without making any assumptions about the underlying single photoelectron distribution. We illustrate the use of this method through the calibration of a Hamamatsu R11410 photomultiplier tube and study the accuracy and precision of the method using Monte Carlo simulations. The method is found to have significantly reduced bias compared to conventional methods and works under a wide range of light intensities, making it suitable for simultaneously calibrating large arrays of photomultiplier tubes.

  15. Sequence Design for a Test Tube of Interacting Nucleic Acid Strands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Brian R; Pierce, Niles A

    2015-10-16

    We describe an algorithm for designing the equilibrium base-pairing properties of a test tube of interacting nucleic acid strands. A target test tube is specified as a set of desired "on-target" complexes, each with a target secondary structure and target concentration, and a set of undesired "off-target" complexes, each with vanishing target concentration. Sequence design is performed by optimizing the test tube ensemble defect, corresponding to the concentration of incorrectly paired nucleotides at equilibrium evaluated over the ensemble of the test tube. To reduce the computational cost of accepting or rejecting mutations to a random initial sequence, the structural ensemble of each on-target complex is hierarchically decomposed into a tree of conditional subensembles, yielding a forest of decomposition trees. Candidate sequences are evaluated efficiently at the leaf level of the decomposition forest by estimating the test tube ensemble defect from conditional physical properties calculated over the leaf subensembles. As optimized subsequences are merged toward the root level of the forest, any emergent defects are eliminated via ensemble redecomposition and sequence reoptimization. After successfully merging subsequences to the root level, the exact test tube ensemble defect is calculated for the first time, explicitly checking for the effect of the previously neglected off-target complexes. Any off-target complexes that form at appreciable concentration are hierarchically decomposed, added to the decomposition forest, and actively destabilized during subsequent forest reoptimization. For target test tubes representative of design challenges in the molecular programming and synthetic biology communities, our test tube design algorithm typically succeeds in achieving a normalized test tube ensemble defect ≤1% at a design cost within an order of magnitude of the cost of test tube analysis.

  16. Automation of inspection methods for eddy current testing of steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meurgey, P.; Baumaire, A.

    1990-01-01

    Inspection of all the tubes of a steam generator when the reactor is stopped is required for some of these exchangers affected by stress corrosion cracking. Characterization of each crack, in each tube is made possible by the development of software for processing the signals from an eddy current probe. The ESTELLE software allows a rapid increase of tested tubes, more than 80,000 in 1989 [fr

  17. The efficacy of test tube warming devices used during oocyte retrieval for IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Queenie Sum Yee; Briton-Jones, Christine May; Tjer, Grace Ching Ching; Chiu, Tony Tak Yu; Haines, Christopher

    2004-10-01

    To investigate whether commonly used test tube warming devices maintain a constant temperature in follicular fluid aspirates. By using a digital thermocouple, temperature was measured and comparisons were made between an analog dry block heater, a digital dry block heater, and a thermostatic test tube heater. For small fluid volumes, temperature in the block heaters increased above 37 degrees C after being in the block for over 2 min. The thermostatic heater maintained a constant temperature, but this was below the factory setting of 36.9 degrees C. Temperature maintenance was influenced by fluid volume in each tube. One of the key factors in the handling of gametes and embryos is the maintenance of constant temperature. Test tube warming devices require verification of their ability to maintain fluid at the desired temperature. Temperature may vary with fluid volume and the type of test tube warming device used.

  18. YouTube and the single-rod contraceptive implant: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Jennifer; Boraas, Christy M; Duvet, Mildred; Chang, Judy C

    2017-07-01

    Since the internet has become an important source of contraceptive information with YouTube.com as the second most visited site, we analysed contraceptive implant YouTube videos for content and clinical accuracy. Using the terms 'contraceptive implant', 'Nexplanon' and 'Implanon', the top 20 results on YouTube by relevance and view count were identified. After excluding duplicates, single-rod implant videos in English were included. Videos were classified as providing a professional or patient perspective. Views, duration and comments were noted. Videos were rated for reliability, global quality scale and whether they were positive or negative about the implant. Inter-rater agreement was measured. A total of 120 videos were retrieved; 52 were eligible for review. Less than 23% were professional videos; the majority reported patient experience (46% testimonials, 27% real-time procedure videos, 4% other). Patient videos had been posted a significantly longer duration of time than professional videos (364 vs 188 days, p =0.02), were less reliable ( p ≤0.0001) and were of lower global quality ( p YouTube pertaining to contraceptive implants is accurate, is presented from the patient's perspective, and promotes the method's use. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Experimental Investigation of Reynolds Number Effects on Test Quality in a Hypersonic Expansion Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmann, Tobias; Devin, Alyssa; Shi, Wen; Verhoog, Charles

    2017-11-01

    Reynolds number effects on test time and the temporal and spatial flow quality in a hypersonic expansion tube are explored using high-speed pressure, infrared optical, and Schlieren imaging measurements. Boundary layer models for shock tube flows are fairly well established to assist in the determination of test time and flow dimensions at typical high enthalpy test conditions. However, the application of these models needs to be more fully explored due to the unsteady expansion of turbulent boundary layers and contact regions separating dissimilar gasses present in expansion tube flows. Additionally, expansion tubes rely on the development of a steady jet with a large enough core-flow region at the exit of the acceleration tube to create a constant velocity region inside of the test section. High-speed measurements of pressure and Mach number at several locations within the expansion tube allow for the determination of an experimental x-t diagram. The comparison of the experimentally determined x-t diagram to theoretical highlights the Reynolds number dependent effects on expansion tube. Additionally, spatially resolved measurements of the Reynolds number dependent, steady core-flow in the expansion tube viewing section are shown. NSF MRI CBET #1531475, Lafayette College, McCutcheon Foundation.

  20. Development of an Acoustic Impedance Tube Testbed for Material Sample Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Benjamin J.; Kolaini, Ali R.

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic impedance tube method: uses Traveling wave amplitudes are measured on either side of a sample in a tube. Many acoustic properties of the sample can be calculated. It is Simple and inexpensive to set up, ideal for high volume optimization tests

  1. Thermal and structural performance of a single tube support post for the Superconducting Super Collider dipole magnet cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroski, W.N.; Nicol, T.H.; Ruschman, M.K.; Schoo, C.J.

    1993-07-01

    The reentrant support post currently incorporated in the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipole cryostat has been shown to meet the structural and thermal requirements of the cryostat, both in prototype magnet assemblies and through component testing. However, the reentrant post design has two major drawbacks: tight dimensional control on all components, and cost driven by these tolerance constraints and a complex assembly procedure. A single tube support post has been developed as an alternative to the reentrant post design. Several prototype assemblies have been fabricated and subjected to structural testing. Compressive, tensile, and bending forces were applied to each assembly with deflection measured at several locations. A prototype support post has also been thermally evaluated in a heat leak measurement facility. Heat load to 4.2 K was measured with the intermediate post intercept operating at various temperatures while thermometers positioned along the conductive path of the post mapped thermal gradients. Results from these measurements indicate the single tube support post meets the design criteria for the SSC dipole magnet cryostat support system

  2. Multi-anode wire straw tube tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S.H.; Ebenstein, W.L.; Wang, C.W.

    2011-01-01

    We report on a test of a straw tube detector design having several anode (sense) wires inside a straw tube. The anode wires form a circle inside the tube and are read out independently. This design could solve several shortcomings of the traditional single wire straw tube design such as double hit capability and stereo configuration.

  3. Development of ultrasonic testing scanner for NPP steam generator tubes (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, J. I.; Huh, H

    1998-12-01

    Testing tubes are designed and fabricated to investigate the optimum test conditions through the various experiments. The proto-type P/C-controlled automatic rotating scanner is fabricated to obtain the ultrasonic data automatically from test tubes. It was attempted to visualize the shape of defects presented inside the specimen using peak amplitude at each point. However, further research works will be needed to be applied at the plant site as a more reliable technology.

  4. Development of ultrasonic testing scanner for NPP steam generator tubes (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J. I.; Huh, H.

    1998-12-01

    Testing tubes are designed and fabricated to investigate the optimum test conditions through the various experiments. The proto-type P/C-controlled automatic rotating scanner is fabricated to obtain the ultrasonic data automatically from test tubes. It was attempted to visualize the shape of defects presented inside the specimen using peak amplitude at each point. However, further research works will be needed to be applied at the plant site as a more reliable technology

  5. A Robust Single Primate Neuroepithelial Cell Clonal Expansion System for Neural Tube Development and Disease Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing a model of primate neural tube (NT development is important to promote many NT disorder studies in model organisms. Here, we report a robust and stable system to allow for clonal expansion of single monkey neuroepithelial stem cells (NESCs to develop into miniature NT-like structures. Single NESCs can produce functional neurons in vitro, survive, and extensively regenerate neuron axons in monkey brain. NT formation and NESC maintenance depend on high metabolism activity and Wnt signaling. NESCs are regionally restricted to a telencephalic fate. Moreover, single NESCs can turn into radial glial progenitors (RGPCs. The transition is accurately regulated by Wnt signaling through regulation of Notch signaling and adhesion molecules. Finally, using the “NESC-TO-NTs” system, we model the functions of folic acid (FA on NT closure and demonstrate that FA can regulate multiple mechanisms to prevent NT defects. Our system is ideal for studying NT development and diseases.

  6. Single-tube linear DNA amplification (LinDA) for robust ChIP-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankaranarayanan, Pattabhiraman; Mendoza-Parra, Marco-Antonio; Walia, Mannu; Wang, Li; Li, Ning; Trindade, Luisa M; Gronemeyer, Hinrich

    2011-06-05

    Genome-wide profiling of transcription factors based on massive parallel sequencing of immunoprecipitated chromatin (ChIP-seq) requires nanogram amounts of DNA. Here we describe a high-fidelity, single-tube linear DNA amplification method (LinDA) for ChIP-seq and reChIP-seq with picogram DNA amounts obtained from a few thousand cells. This amplification technology will facilitate global analyses of transcription-factor binding and chromatin with very small cell populations, such as stem or cancer-initiating cells.

  7. Test bench HEATREC for heat loss measurement on solar receiver tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, José M.; López-Martín, Rafael; Valenzuela, Loreto; Zarza, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    In Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) plants the thermal energy of solar radiation is absorbed by solar receiver tubes (HCEs) and it is transferred to a heat transfer fluid. Therefore, heat losses of receiver tubes have a direct influence on STE plants efficiency. A new test bench called HEATREC has been developed by Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA) in order to determinate the heat losses of receiver tubes under laboratory conditions. The innovation of this test bench consists in the possibility to determine heat losses under controlled vacuum.

  8. Production and test of monitored drift tubes for the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Aprile, A; Campagna, A; Capua, M; Cuce, D; Ferraro, E; Lamanna, E; La Rotonda, L; Meoni, E; Pellegrino, F; Romano, V; Schioppa, M; Susinno, G; Turco, R P; Vena, R

    2002-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the two general-purpose experiments being built for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Its muon spectrometer consists of very high-precision chambers made of drift tubes. Up to now, more than 5000 monitored drift tubes (MDTs) have been constructed and tested at the University of Calabria, Italy, for ATLAS barrel system chambers of the muon detector. This paper reports the critical MDT assembly techniques in detail, including the automatic electronics system and data acquisition system. The extensive tests performed on individual drift tubes and the first results and experience are also reported. (5 refs).

  9. Elastic Stability of Concentric Tube Robots: A Stability Measure and Design Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Hunter B; Hendrick, Richard J; Webster, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    Concentric tube robots are needle-sized manipulators which have been investigated for use in minimally invasive surgeries. It was noted early in the development of these devices that elastic energy storage can lead to rapid snapping motion for designs with moderate to high tube curvatures. Substantial progress has recently been made in the concentric tube robot community in designing snap-free robots, planning stable paths, and characterizing conditions that result in snapping for specific classes of concentric tube robots. However, a general measure for how stable a given robot configuration is has yet to be proposed. In this paper, we use bifurcation and elastic stability theory to provide such a measure, as well as to produce a test for determining whether a given design is snap-free (i.e. whether snapping can occur anywhere in the unloaded robot's workspace). These results are useful in designing, planning motions for, and controlling concentric tube robots with high curvatures.

  10. Flow induced vibration mock-up test for heat exchanger tubes of PWR steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwase, T.; Takai, M.; Uwagawa, S.; Nakamura, T.; Hirota, K.; Suzuta, T.

    2000-01-01

    It is one of the most important subjects to estimate the flow-related stability of the heat exchanger tubes. A large scale model steam generator has been developed to verify the stability of the tubes in the Japanese PWR steam generators for the two-phase flow-induced vibration and to accumulate related technical data of thermal-hydraulic and flow-induced vibration of U-bend tube bundle. The model steam generator has 230 U-bend tubes of 46 different radius and 5 columns for each of practical diameter and material, and the anti vibration bars are inserted into each spacing between tube arrays. The freon R123 has been used as the secondary side fluid in stead of water-steam two-phase. In the test, void fraction and interfacial velocities in U-bend and straight tube-bundle are measured with bi-optical probes, and vibration responses of some selected tubes are measured with strain gauges and accelerators. It is verified that the U-bend tubes are stable when they are supported as the design requires under normal and some over power no operating condition. The thermal hydraulic code FIT-III has been well verified with measured thermal and hydraulic data. (author)

  11. Accuracy of Motor Axon Regeneration Across Autograft, Single Lumen, and Multichannel Poly(lactic-co-glycolic Acid) (PLGA) Nerve Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Godard C.; Spinner, Robert J.; Malessy, Martijn J. A.; Moore, Michael J.; Sorenson, Eric J.; Currier, Bradford L.; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Windebank, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Accuracy of motor axon regeneration becomes an important issue in the development of a nerve tube for motor nerve repair. Dispersion of regeneration across the nerve tube may lead to misdirection and polyinnervation. In this study, we present a series of methods to investigate the accuracy of regeneration, which we used to compare regeneration across autografts and single lumen poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nerve tubes. We also present the concept of the multichannel nerve tube that may limit dispersion by separately guiding groups of regenerating axons. Methods Simultaneous tracing of the tibial and peroneal nerves with fast blue (FB) and diamidino yellow (DY), 8 weeks after repair of a 1-cm nerve gap in the rat sciatic nerve, was performed to determine the percentage of double-projecting motoneurons. Sequential tracing of the peroneal nerve with DY 1 week before and FB 8 weeks after repair was performed to determine the percentage of correctly directed peroneal motoneurons. Results In the cases in which there was successful regeneration across single lumen nerve tubes, more motoneurons had double projections to both the tibial and peroneal nerve branches after single lumen nerve tube repair (21.4%) than after autograft repair (5.9%). After multichannel nerve tube repair, this percentage was slightly reduced (16.9%), although not significantly. The direction of regeneration was nonspecific after all types of repair. Conclusion Retrograde tracing techniques provide new insights into the process of regeneration across nerve tubes. The methods and data presented in this study can be used as a basis in the development of a nerve tube for motor nerve repair. PMID:18728579

  12. Single Event Effect (SEE) Test Planning 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Pellish, Jonathan; Berg, Melanie D.

    2011-01-01

    This is a course on SEE Test Plan development. It is an introductory discussion of the items that go into planning an SEE test that should complement the SEE test methodology used. Material will only cover heavy ion SEE testing and not proton, LASER, or other though many of the discussed items may be applicable. While standards and guidelines for how-to perform single event effects (SEE) testing have existed almost since the first cyclotron testing, guidance on the development of SEE test plans has not been as easy to find. In this section of the short course, we attempt to rectify this lack. We consider the approach outlined here as a "living" document: mission specific constraints and new technology related issues always need to be taken into account. We note that we will use the term "test planning" in the context of those items being included in a test plan.

  13. Studies of the steam generator degraded tubes behavior on BRUTUS test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chedeau, C.; Rassineux, B. [EDF/DER/MTC, Moret Sur Loing (France); Flesch, B. [EDF/EPN/DMAINT, Paris (France)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Studies for the evaluation of steam generator tube bundle cracks in PWR power plants are described. Global tests of crack leak rates and numerical calculations of crack opening area are discussed in some detail. A brief overview of thermohydraulic studies and the development of a mechanical probabilistic design code is also given. The COMPROMIS computer code was used in the studies to quantify the influence of in-service inspections and maintenance work on the risk of a steam generator tube rupture.

  14. QuantiFERON–TB Gold In-Tube test performance in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Thomas; Lillebaek, Troels; Hansen, Ann-Brit E

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube Test (QFT) in extreme age groups. The test performance has been reported to be impaired in children and elderly, but reports are diverging. The aim of this study was to evaluate QFT performance in patients with and without Tubercul......BACKGROUND: Little is known about the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube Test (QFT) in extreme age groups. The test performance has been reported to be impaired in children and elderly, but reports are diverging. The aim of this study was to evaluate QFT performance in patients with and without...

  15. Controlatron Neutron Tube Test Suite Software Manual - Operation Manual (V2.2)

    CERN Document Server

    Noel, W P; Hertrich, R J; Martinez, M L; Wallace, D L

    2002-01-01

    The Controlatron Software Suite is a custom built application to perform automated testing of Controlatron neutron tubes. The software package was designed to allowing users to design tests and to run a series of test suites on a tube. The data is output to ASCII files of a pre-defined format for data analysis and viewing with the Controlatron Data Viewer Application. This manual discusses the operation of the Controlatron Test Suite Software and a brief discussion of state machine theory, as state machine is the functional basis of the software.

  16. NASA Lewis Stirling SPRE testing and analysis with reduced number of cooler tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, W.A.; Cairelli, J.E.; Swec, D.M.; Doeberling, T.J.; Lakatos, T.F.; Madi, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    Free-piston Stirling power converters are a candidate for high capacity space power applications. The Space Power Research Engine (SPRE), a free-piston Stirling engine coupled with a linear alternator, is being tested at the NASA Lewis Research Center in support of the Civil Space Technology Initiative. The SPRE is used as a test bed for evaluating converter modifications which have the potential to improve converter performance and for validating computer code predictions. Reducing the number of cooler tubes on the SPRE has been identified as a modification with the potential to significantly improve power and efficiency. This paper describes experimental tests designed to investigate the effects of reducing the number of cooler tubes on converter power, efficiency and dynamics. Presented are test results from the converter operating with a reduced number of cooler tubes and comparisons between this data and both baseline test data and computer code predictions

  17. Optimum Frequency for Eddy Current Testing Method of SMART SG tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoon Sang; Jung, Hyun Kyu; Choung, Yun Hang

    2009-01-01

    The SMART SG tubes will be made of Alloy 690. The outside diameter will be 17 mm and the thickness will be 2.5 mm. They will be assembled helically around, and their innermost diameter will be about 600 mm and the total length will be about 32 meters. For safety, SMART SG tubes are designed for use with thick tubes such as 2.5 mm thickness compared to about 1 mm thickness of normal Korean standard pressurized water reactor tubes. Due to using thick tubes such as 2.5 mm varieties, it was doubted that the Eddy Current Testing Method (ECT) would be a feasible method. Therefore we are trying to simulate the bobbin probe signal for SMART SG tubes and comparing it to PWR SG ECT probe signal using VIM software, checking for the applicability of ECT. Also we are trying to compare the ECT signal of 2.5 mm thick stainless tubes to check if they are possible substitute material

  18. Risks of Using Bedside Tests to Verify Nasogastric Tube Position in Adult Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melody Ni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nasogastric (NG tubes are commonly used for enteral feeding. Complications of feeding tube misplacement include malnutrition, pulmonary aspiration, and even death. We built a Bayesian network (BN to analyse the risks associated with available bedside tests to verify tube position. Evidence on test validity (sensitivity and specificity was retrieved from a systematic review. Likelihood ratios were used to select the best tests for detecting tubes misplaced in the lung or oesophagus. Five bedside tests were analysed including magnetic guidance, aspirate pH, auscultation, aspirate appearance, and capnography/colourimetry. Among these, auscultation and appearance are non-diagnostic towards lung or oesophagus placements. Capnography/ colourimetry can confirm but cannot rule out lung placement. Magnetic guidance can rule out both lung and oesophageal placement. However, as a relatively new technology, further validation studies are needed. The pH test with a cut-off at 5.5 or lower can rule out lung intubation. Lowering the cut-off to 4 not only minimises oesophageal intubation but also provides extra safety as the sensitivity of pH measurement is reduced by feeding, antacid medication, or the use of less accurate pH paper. BN is an effective tool for representing and analysing multi-layered uncertainties in test validity and reliability for the verification of NG tube position. Aspirate pH with a cut-off of 4 is the safest bedside method to minimise lung and oesophageal misplacement.

  19. Integrated Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: Steady-State Model of a Bundle and Validation through Single Tube Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Costamagna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on a steady-state model developed for an integrated planar solid oxide fuel cell (IP-SOFC bundle. In this geometry, several single IP-SOFCs are deposited on a tube and electrically connected in series through interconnections. Then, several tubes are coupled to one another to form a full-sized bundle. A previously-developed and validated electrochemical model is the basis for the development of the tube model, taking into account in detail the presence of active cells, interconnections and dead areas. Mass and energy balance equations are written for the IP-SOFC tube, in the classical form adopted for chemical reactors. Based on the single tube model, a bundle model is developed. Model validation is presented based on single tube current-voltage (I-V experimental data obtained in a wide range of experimental conditions, i.e., at different temperatures and for different H2/CO/CO2/CH4/H2O/N2 mixtures as the fuel feedstock. The error of the simulation results versus I-V experimental data is less than 1% in most cases, and it grows to a value of 8% only in one case, which is discussed in detail. Finally, we report model predictions of the current density distribution and temperature distribution in a bundle, the latter being a key aspect in view of the mechanical integrity of the IP-SOFC structure.

  20. Eddy current testing technology research of aluminum coating thickness on stainless steel tube inwall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaona; Hao Xingui

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic testing method of coating layer thickness of stainless steel tube is built up using eddy current testing technology. It is determined that others-contrast point-type probe is adopted, by comparing the detection performance of self-contrast and others-contrast type probes. To effectively solve the lift-off effect between dynamic detection, 3 nylon (4 m long per piece) is distributed by 120° in the circumferential direction of tube to be tested, which ensure the rotational alignment and avoid point-type probe lifting off the tube inner surface. And the special tighten clamping fixture is used for fixing stainless steel tube; so, the dynamic transmission device is designed and realized. Accuracy study under the condition of different frequency and gain is carried out using multi-frequency detection technology. At the same time, the detection precision under quadratic curve and exponential curve calibration modal is compared. And then, test parameters and curve generated model is determined to achieve the best accuracy. Finally, spiral scanning eddy current method is achieved for testing the aluminium cladding thickness on stainless steel tube inwall. The accuracy of detecting the thickness of coating layer by this method is ±3μm, the instability of rotating tooling is lower than 10%. This method achieved the domestic leading level. (authors)

  1. Using a Bedside Video-assisted Test Tube Test to Assess Stoma Viability: A Report of 4 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sarwat; Turner, Keli; Shah, Paulesh; Diaz, Jose

    2016-07-01

    Mucosal discoloration of an intestinal stoma may indicate self-limited venous congestion or necrosis necessitating operative revision. A common bedside technique to assess stoma viability is the "test tube test". A clear tube is inserted into the stoma and a hand-held light is used to assess the color of the stoma. A technique (video-assisted test tube test [VATTT]) developed by the authors utilizes a standard video bronchoscope inserted into a clear plastic blood collection tube to visually inspect and assess the mucosa. This technique was evaluated in 4 patients (age range 49-72 years, all critically ill) with a discolored stoma after emergency surgery. In each case, physical exam revealed ischemic mucosa at the surface either immediately after surgery or after worsening hypotension weeks later. Serial test tube test assessments were ambiguous when trying to assess deeper mucosa. The VATTT assessment showed viable pink mucosa beneath the surface and until the fascia was revealed in 3 patients. One (1) patient had mucosal ischemia down to the fascia, which prompted operative revision of the stoma. The new stoma was assessed with a VATTT and was viable for the entire length of the stoma. VATTT provided an enhanced, magnified, and clearer way to visually assess stoma viability in the postoperative period that can be performed at the bedside with no adverse events. It may prevent unnecessary relaparotomy or enable earlier diagnosis of deep ostomy necrosis. Validity and reliability studies are warranted.

  2. Operational experience in the Langley expansion tube with various test gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. G.

    1977-01-01

    A resume' of operating experiences with the Langley Expansion Tube is presented. The driver gas was unheated helium at a nominal pressure of 5000 psi and the majority of the data presented are for air and carbon dioxide test gases. The primary purpose of these data is to illustrate the effects of various parameters on quasi-steady test flow duration, as well as free stream and post-normal shock flow conditions. The discussion shows that the Langley Expansion Tube is an operational facility capable of producing good quality, highly repeatable, quasi-steady flow for test times sufficient to establish flow about blunt axisymmetric and two-dimensional models.

  3. Design and implementation of medical diagnostic X-ray machine's tube current testing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Ping; Fang Fang; Liu Zhihong

    2011-01-01

    As an important parameter, Medical X-ray tube current control the X-ray intensity, which has been included in the JJG 744-2004 'Medical Diagnostic X-ray radiation sources' in the state verification procedures. With the continuous development of the digital diagnosis and treatment, traditional ammeter is not able to measure the X-ray tube current and exposure time accurately, in order to ensure safety and reliable operation of Medical X-ray machine, improve the corresponding level of digital detection, so designing a verification of non-intrusive system of tube current, which include FPGA combination of high speed ADC digital sampling technology, current transformers and Bluetooth technology. The system has obvious advantages on the diversification of measured parameters and the accuracy of data analysing, has more in line with the characteristics of tube current. At the same time with high accuracy and good repeatability, the system meet national requirements of testing procedures. (authors)

  4. A Shock-Tube-Based Facility for Impact Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Qi; Liu, Dahsin; Templeton, Douglas; Raju, Basavarju

    2007-01-01

    Many dynamic testing techniques use gas guns as a pressure generator. The pressure generated from the gas guns is often of low velocity and low energy and has a relatively random or short duration of a uniform pressure level...

  5. Can serums be replaced by Mueller‑Hinton agar in germ tube test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The germ tube test (GTT) is inexpensive, easy, and well‑defined test that differentiates Candida albicans (excluding Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana) from other species. The aim of this study was to evaluate various serums (i.e., human, rabbit, horse, and fetal bovine serum) used in the GTT and ...

  6. New device and method for capture, reverse transcription and nested PCR in a single closed-tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, A; Cambra, M; Esteban, O; Gorris, M T; Terrada, E

    1999-01-01

    A device and improved method based on the use of a compartmentalized Eppendorf tube that allows capture, reverse transcription and nested-PCR in a single closed-tube has been developed and patented. The main advantages of the system are the high sensitivity obtained, the simplicity, the low risk of contamination and the easy establishment of adequate conditions for nested-PCR. The method has been successfully applied to the detection and characterization of citrus tristeza closterovirus and plum pox potyvirus isolates in plant tissues and single aphids squashed on paper. This device and methodology could be easily adapted to the detection of other targets. PMID:10037824

  7. Diagnostic of corrosion defects in steam generator tubes using advanced signal processing from Eddy current testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formigoni, Andre L.; Lopez, Luiz A.N.M.; Ting, Daniel K.S.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the Brazilian Angra I PWR nuclear power plant went into a programmed shutdown for substitution of its Steam Generator (SG) which life was shortened due to stress corrosion in its tubes. The total cost of investment were around R$724 million. The signals generated during an Eddy-current Testing (ECT) inspection in SG tubes of nuclear plant allows for the localization and dimensioning of defects in the tubes. The defects related with corrosion generate complex signals that are difficult to analyze and are the most common cause in SG replacement in nuclear power plants around the world. The objective of this paper is the development of a methodology that allows for the characterization of corrosion signals by ECT inspections applied in the heat exchangers tubes of SG of a nuclear power plant. In this present work, the aim is to investigate distributed type defects by inducing controlled corrosion in sample tubes of different materials The ECT signals obtained from these samples tubes with corrosion implanted, will be analyzed using Zetec ECT equipment, the MIZ-17ET and its probes. The data acquisition will use a NI PC A/D CARD 700 card and the LabVIEW program. Subsequently, we will apply mathematical tools for signal processing like time windowed Fast Fourier transforms and Wavelets transforms, in MATLAB platform, which will allow effectiveness to remove the noises and to extract representative characteristics for the defect being analyzed. Previously obtained results as well as the proposal for the future work will be presented. (author)

  8. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings -- Phase 2 field testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blough, J.L.; Seitz, W.W.; Girshik, A. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States)

    1998-06-01

    In Phase 1 of this project, laboratory experiments were performed on a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings by exposing them to fireside corrosion tests which simulated a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase 2 (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347, RA85H, HR3C, RA253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, Ta-modified 310, NF 709, 690 clad, 671 clad, and 800HT for up to approximately 16,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW, coal-fired boiler. The samples were installed on air-cooled, retractable corrosion probes, installed in the reheater cavity, and controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle, coal-fired boiler. Samples of each alloy were exposed for 4,483, 11,348, and 15,883 hours of operation. The present results are for the metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after the full 15,883 hours of exposure. A previous topical report has been issued for the 4,483 hours of exposure.

  9. Eddy-current tests on operational evaluation of steam generator tubes in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Luiz Antonio Negro Martin; Ting, Daniel Kao Sun

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a worldwide research on the technical and economical impacts due to failure in tube bundles of nuclear power plant steam generators. An Eddy current non destructive test using Foucault currents for the inspection and failure detection on the tubes, and also the main type of defects. The paper also presents the signals generated by a Zetec MIZ-40 test equipment. This paper also presents a brief description of an automatic system for data analysis which is under development by using a fuzzy logic and artificial intelligence

  10. Performance demonstration tests for eddy current inspection of steam generator tubing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, R.J.; Heasler, P.G.; Anderson, C.M.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the methodology and results for development of performance demonstration tests for eddy current (ET) inspection of steam generator tubes. Statistical test design principles were used to develop the performance demonstration tests. Thresholds on ET system inspection performance were selected to ensure that field inspection systems would have a high probability of detecting and and correctly sizing tube degradation. The technical basis for the ET system performance thresholds is presented in detail. Statistical test design calculations for probability of detection and flaw sizing tests are described. A recommended performance demonstration test based on the design calculations is presented. A computer program for grading the probability of detection portion of the performance demonstration test is given.

  11. Performance demonstration tests for eddy current inspection of steam generator tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, R.J.; Heasler, P.G.; Anderson, C.M.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the methodology and results for development of performance demonstration tests for eddy current (ET) inspection of steam generator tubes. Statistical test design principles were used to develop the performance demonstration tests. Thresholds on ET system inspection performance were selected to ensure that field inspection systems would have a high probability of detecting and and correctly sizing tube degradation. The technical basis for the ET system performance thresholds is presented in detail. Statistical test design calculations for probability of detection and flaw sizing tests are described. A recommended performance demonstration test based on the design calculations is presented. A computer program for grading the probability of detection portion of the performance demonstration test is given

  12. Laboratory tests for single-event effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchner, S.; McMorrow, D.; Melinger, J.; Campbell, A.B.

    1996-01-01

    Integrated circuits are currently tested at accelerators for their susceptibility to single-event effects (SEE's). However, because of the cost and limited accessibility associated with accelerator testing, there is considerable interest in developing alternate testing methods. Two laboratory techniques for measuring SEE, one involving a pulsed laser and the other 252 Cf, are described in detail in this paper. The pulsed laser provides information on the spatial and temporal dependence of SEE, information that has proven invaluable in understanding and mitigating SEE in spite of the differences in the physical mechanisms responsible for SEE induced by light and by ions. Considerable effort has been expended on developing 252 Cf as a laboratory test for SEE, but the technique has not found wide use because it is severely limited by the low energy and short range of the emitted ions that are unable to reach junctions either covered with dielectric layers or deep below the surface. In fact, there are documented cases where single-event latchup (SEL) testing with 252 Cf gave significantly different results from accelerator testing. A detailed comparison of laboratory and accelerator SEE data is presented in this review in order to establish the limits of each technique

  13. NEXT Single String Integration Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulas, George C.; Patterson, Michael J.; Pinero, Luis; Herman, Daniel A.; Snyder, Steven John

    2010-01-01

    As a critical part of NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) test validation process, a single string integration test was performed on the NEXT ion propulsion system. The objectives of this test were to verify that an integrated system of major NEXT ion propulsion system elements meets project requirements, to demonstrate that the integrated system is functional across the entire power processor and xenon propellant management system input ranges, and to demonstrate to potential users that the NEXT propulsion system is ready for transition to flight. Propulsion system elements included in this system integration test were an engineering model ion thruster, an engineering model propellant management system, an engineering model power processor unit, and a digital control interface unit simulator that acted as a test console. Project requirements that were verified during this system integration test included individual element requirements ; integrated system requirements, and fault handling. This paper will present the results of these tests, which include: integrated ion propulsion system demonstrations of performance, functionality and fault handling; a thruster re-performance acceptance test to establish baseline performance: a risk-reduction PMS-thruster integration test: and propellant management system calibration checks.

  14. Experiment data report for semiscale Mod-1 test S-28-2 (steam generator tube rupture test). [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, M.L.; Sackett, K.E.

    1977-10-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Test S-28-2 of the Semiscale Mod-1 steam generator tube rupture test series. These tests are among several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Test S-28-2 was conducted from initial conditions of 15 936 kPa and 558 K to investigate the response of the Semiscale Mod-1 system to a depressurization and reflood transient following a simulated double-ended offset shear of the broken loop cold leg piping. During the test, cooling water was injected into the cold leg of the intact and broken loops to simulate emergency core coolant injection in a PWR. For Test S-28-2, accumulator injection into the intact loop hot leg was provided to simulate simulate the rupture of six steam generator tubes.

  15. Experiment data report for Semiscale Mod-1 Test S-28-5 (steam generator tube rupture test). [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-11-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Test S-28-5 of the Semiscale Mod-1 steam generator tube rupture test series. These tests are among several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Test S-28-5 was conducted from initial conditions of 15,768 kPa and 556 K to investigate the response of the Semiscale Mod-1 system to a depressurization and reflood transient following a simulated double-ended offset shear of the broken loop cold leg piping. During the test, cooling water was injected into the cold leg of the intact and broken loops to simulate emergency core coolant injection in a PWR. For Test S-28-5, accumulator injection into the intact loop hot leg was provided to simulate the rupture of 20 steam generator tubes.

  16. Pollen tube growth test (PTGT) in environmental biomonitoring and predictive radiation biology studies: problem and prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Devi D.

    2012-01-01

    In Environmental and Human Bio monitoring studies of Hazardous xenobiotics over living system particularly at cell level, it is desirable to have easy and sensitive test system like Cell Viability assay, MNT, Cell Culture photo toxicity Test, PTGT etc. Out of these the PTGT quite better than other because the in vitro culture of pollen grain can provides a sensitive indication of toxicity at cellular level, since germination and growth of pollen tube will inhibited in presence of toxic substance like DDT, Heavy metal, even Radionuclide's. This test system is easy, economical and widely accepted through out world. In PTGT pollen tube never containing Chloroplast or other plastids so pollen tube resembles animals more than a plant organ and is therefore also a suitable as model for Genotoxicity Assessment of compounds harmful to animal and humans. Lack of plastids in PT, PTGT will not identify the toxic effect of compounds that targets Non cyclic and cyclic photoposphorylation of photosynthesis. This test system valid in International Toxicity Testing Protocol. But this method is time consuming and problem in measurement of pollen tube growing in a culture medium became usually bent and make measurement difficult. Other disadvantage of this method is requirement of DMSO to dissolve test substance of low water suitability in culture medium. DMSO shown to have no effect on PTG at Concentration not more than 1% but some extent interfere with results. Values of PTG are quantified in ED50/IC50 that is the concentration of test compounds that reduces pollen tube growth to 50% of control. So PTGT could be very sensitive and easy to assess in common lab in International way. (author)

  17. Single-tube hydroponics as a novel idea for small-scale production of crop seed in a plant incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Masaharu; Ikenaga, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel protocol for small-scale production of crop seed in a plant incubator termed "Single-tube hydroponics." Our protocol minimizes the materials and methods for cultivation whereby a large number of independent plants can be cultured in a limited space. This study may aid in the improvement of crop seed components, especially in the cultivation of transgenic plants.

  18. Optimization and testing of dried antibody tube: The EuroFlow LST and PIDOT tubes as examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.H.J. van der Velden (Vincent); J. Flores-Montero (Juan); M. Perez-Andres; M. Martin-Ayuso (M.); Crespo, O. (Oliver); Blanco, E. (Elena); T. Kalina (Tomas); J. Philippé (Jan); Bonroy, C. (Carolien); M. de Bie (Maaike); J.G. te Marvelde (Jeroen); C. Teodosio (Cristina); Corral Mateos, A. (Alba); V. Kanderová (V.); M. van der Burg (Mirjam); Van Hoof, D. (Dennis); J.J.M. van Dongen (Jacques); A. Orfao (Alberto)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWithin EuroFlow, we recently developed screening tubes for hematological malignancies and immune deficiencies. Pipetting of antibodies for such 8-color 12-marker tubes however is time-consuming and prone to operational mistakes. We therefore evaluated dried formats of the lymphocytosis

  19. Experiment data report for Semiscale Mod-1 test S-28-3 (steam generator tube rupture test). [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillins, R.L.; Sackett, K.E.

    1977-10-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Test S-28-3 of the Semiscale Mod-1 steam generator tube rupture test series. These tests are among several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Test S-28-3 was conducted from initial conditions of 15621 kPa and 555 K to investigate the response of the Semiscale Mod-1 system to a depressurization and reflood transient following a simulated double-ended offset shear of the broken loop cold leg piping. During the test, cooling water was injected into the cold leg of the intact and broken loops to simulate emergency core coolant injection in a PWR. Twelve steam generator tube ruptures were simulated by a controlled injection from a heated accumulator into the intact loop hot leg.

  20. Experiment data report for Semiscale Mod-1 Test S-28-1 (steam generator tube rupture test series)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, B.L.; Coppin, C.E.; Sackett, K.E.

    1977-10-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Test S-28-1 of the Semiscale Mod-1 steam generator tube rupture test series. These tests are among several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Test S-28-1 was conducted from initial conditions of 15 767 kPa and 557 K to investigate the response of the Semiscale Mod-1 system to a depressurization and reflood transient following a simulated double-ended offset shear of the broken loop cold leg piping. During the test, cooling water was injected into the cold leg of the intact and broken loops to simulate emergency core coolant injection in a PWR. Sixty steam generator tube ruptures were simulated by a controlled injection from a heated accumulator into the intact loop hot leg.

  1. Experiment data report for semiscale Mod-1 test S-28-4 (steam generator tube rupture test)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esparza, V.; Sackett, K.E.

    1977-10-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Test S-28-4 of the Semiscale Mod-1 steam generator tube rupture test series. These tests are among several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Test S-28-4 was conducted from initial conditions of 15 646 kPa and 557 K to investigate the response of the Semiscale Mod-1 system to a depressurization and reflood transient following a simulated double-ended offset shear of the broken loop cold leg piping. During the test, cooling water was injected into the cold leg of the intact and broken loops to simulate emergency core coolant injection in a PWR. Thirty steam generator tube ruptures were simulated by a controlled injection from a heated accumulator into the intact loop hot leg.

  2. Experiment data report for Semiscale Mod-1 test S-28-6 (steam generator tube rupture test)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, M.L.; Sackett, K.E.; Coppin, C.E.

    1977-11-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Test S-28-6 of the Semiscale Mod-1 steam generator tube rupture test series. These tests are among several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Test S-28-6 was conducted from initial conditions of 15,770 kPa and 557 K to investigate the response of the Semiscale Mod-1 system to a depressurization and reflood transient following a simulated double-ended offset shear of the broken loop cold leg piping. During the test, cooling water was injected into the cold leg of the intact and broken loops to simulate emergency core coolant injection in a PWR. Sixteen steam generator tube ruptures were simulated by a controlled injection from a heated accumulator into the intact loop hot leg.

  3. The photomultiplier tube testing facility for the Borexino experiment at LNGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigatti, A. [INFN sez. di Milano, Via Celoria, 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Ianni, A. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, S.S. 17bis Km 18-910, I-67010 Assergi, Aquila (Italy); Lombardi, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica Universita and INFN. sez. di Milano, Via Celoria, 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Ranucci, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica Universita and INFN. sez. di Milano, Via Celoria, 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Smirnov, O.Ju. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie, 6, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: smirnov@lngs.infn.it

    2005-02-01

    A facility to test the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) for the solar neutrino detector Borexino was built at the Gran Sasso laboratory. Using the facility 2200 PMTs with optimal characteristics were selected from the 2350 delivered from the manufacturer. The details of the hardware used are presented.

  4. 9 CFR 147.1 - The standard tube agglutination test. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of clumps through a thin layer of absorbent cotton in a Buchner funnel with the aid of suction. The... absorbent cotton in a Buchner funnel with the aid of suction. The antigen then should be centrifuged. The... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The standard tube agglutination test...

  5. Laboratory evaluation of the improved tube test detection limits for β ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Key words: Improved tube test, β-lactams, Kenyan milk, maximum residue limits. INTRODUCTION. Antibiotics residues in bovine milk are a problem in. Kenyan milk (Ombui et al., 1995; Shitandi and Sternesjö,. 2001). The β-lactam group of antimicrobials are in particular commonly utilised in lactating animals (Mandell.

  6. Inhibition of Microbial Growth by Fatty Amine Catalysts from Polyurethane Foam Test Tube Plugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, John A.; Wnuk, Richard J.; Martin, Delano G.

    1975-01-01

    When polyurethane foam test tube plugs are autoclaved, they release volatile fatty amines that inhibit the growth of some microorganisms. The chemical structures of these amines were determined by the use of a gas chromatographmass spectrometer. They are catalysts used to produce the foam. The problem of contaminating growth media with toxic substances released from polymeric materials is discussed. PMID:1096816

  7. Using an indwelled test tube as a good "navigator" during enterostomy closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Ryuichiro; Tojigamori, Manabu; Obata, Satoshi; Tatsuta, Kyosuke; Kawakubo, Naonori; Arima, Toru

    2012-11-01

    Surgeons often have difficulty in identifying a suitable incision line to enter the peritoneal cavity for stoma mobilization during enterostomy closure. A mini-size test tube that is preoperatively placed into the stoma can act as an efficient guide in finding a free area to enter the peritoneal cavity, by supplying efficient counter traction and a palpable marker of the intestinal wall.

  8. Testing external surface of fuel element tubes for power nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naugol'nykh, O.G.; Nelyubin, Yu.V.

    1987-01-01

    Optical methods are regarded perspective for discovery and detection of flaws of external surfaces of fuel element tubes. The TV method has highest information content among them. Two mock-ups of facilities based on the TV method using a ''dissector'' type TV device and a TV tube with charge accumulation (vidikon) have been developed. It is concluded that complex testing - combination of ultrasonic, photoelectric and TV methods in a facility is necessary for discovery and analysis of the whole variety of flaws, though sensitivity of the TV method is enough for disclosure of all the main defects

  9. Estimation of fracture toughness and critical crack length of zircaloy pressure tube from ring tension test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, S.; Anantharaman, S.; Balakrishnan, K.S.; Sriharsha, H.K.

    1999-09-01

    Transverse fracture, toughness data of zircaloy pressure tubes are needed for assuring leak-before-break, if any, during their in-reactor residence. These data are conventionally computed from burst tests and/or using compact tension specimens. A study was undertaken to derive fracture toughness of zircaloy in the temperature range ambient to 300 deg C, from the transverse tensile properties. The fracture toughness properties so derived were used to estimate the values of critical crack length of zircaloy pressure tubes in the above temperature range. (author)

  10. FY 1997 Progress report on tube propagation testing of tank waste using the PRSST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtold, D.B.

    1997-01-01

    The subject of this FY 1997 progress report is tube propagation tests of actual, dried tank waste to verify the contact temperature ignition (CTI) criterion for point-source ignition in the Hanford Site waste tanks. Testing is in support of the Organic Tanks Safety Project and will help resolve safety issues with waste containing organic constituents. In FY 1997, improvements were made to the laboratory apparatus and procedures for conducting the testing, and the final testing strategy was formulated. The strategy lays out details of the tests to be performed, samples to be tested, and modes of reporting results

  11. Copper hexacyanoferrate functionalized single-walled carbon nano-tubes for selective cesium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draouil, H.; Alvarez, L.; Bantignies, J.L.; Causse, J.; Cambedouzou, J.; Flaud, V.; Zaibi, M.A.; Oueslati, M.

    2017-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nano-tubes (SWCNTs) are functionalized with copper hexacyanoferrate (CuHCF) nanoparticles to prepare solid substrates for sorption of cesium ions (Cs + ) from liquid outflows. The high mechanical resistance and large electrical conductivity of SWCNTs are associated with the ability of CuHCF nanoparticles to selectively complex Cs + ions in order to achieve membrane-like buckypapers presenting high loading capacity of cesium. The materials are thoroughly characterized using electron microscopy, Raman scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analyses. Cs sorption isotherms are plotted after having measured the Cs + concentration by liquid phase ionic chromatography in the solution before and after exposure to the materials. It is found that the total sorption capacity of the material reaches 230 mg.g -1 , and that about one third of the sorbed Cs (80 mg.g -1 ) is selectively complexed in the CuHCF nanoparticles grafted on SWCNTs. The quantification of Cs + ions on different sorption sites is made for the first time, and the high sorption rates open interesting outlooks in the integration of such materials in devices for the controlled sorption and desorption of these ions. (authors)

  12. Void fraction and pressure drop measurement in a reflooded single tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deruaz, R.; Freitas, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Void fraction is a key parameter both to interpret emergency cooling experiments and to predict the clad temperature transient during a loss of coolant accident of PWR. However classical techniques to measure void fraction ask some problems, expecially in the case of large breaks for which both flooding rate and pressure are low and characterized by a wide range of void fraction associated with different two-phase flow regimes. A series of axial void fraction and pressure profiles was performed, respectively on a direct heated and an indirect heated reflooded single tube which inner diameter is very close to the hydraulic diameter of a 17 x 17 PWR assembly. This paper mainly deals with the neutron scattering technique used to investigate void fraction. Various aspects are discussed, such as radial distribution effect, energy of neutrons, measurements of scattered or transmitted neutron flux, counting technique, water temperature and axial void gradient effects. Typical results are presented as well as a comparison between experimental data and predictions of various void fraction models

  13. Enhancement of PCR Detection Limit by Single-Tube Restriction Endonuclease-PCR (RE-PCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sibnarayan; Budhauliya, Raghvendra; Chatterjee, Soumya; Vanlalhmuaka; Veer, Vijay; Chakravarty, Runu

    2016-06-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is widely used in biological research and diagnostics because of its high sensitivity and specificity. However, the sensitivity of PCR is strongly influenced by topological characteristics of the template. Supercoiled templates are known to inhibit PCR, whereas linearized forms of the same supercoiled templates facilitate PCR. This study was conducted to compare the PCR efficiency of circular supercoiled DNA templates to their restriction endonuclease (RE)-mediated linearized forms. Additionally, we also evaluated the possibility of RE digestion of the circular supercoiled templates within the complete PCR buffer. Following a systematic approach, we demonstrated that circular supercoiled templates could be efficiently linearized by RE in the complete PCR buffer itself. This allowed linearization of circular supercoiled templates and their subsequent amplification in the PCR buffer in a single-tube format. Using this extremely simple RE-PCR approach, we documented up to tenfold increases in detection efficiency of PCR with two different circular supercoiled templates of clinical origin, including an international calibration standard. This inexpensive and easy approach to increasing PCR sensitivity can be easily adapted to any standard PCR protocol aimed at amplifying circular supercoiled genomes. Apart from its application in the development of sensitive clinical diagnostic PCR assays for a large number of organisms, this method could also prove to be very useful in simplifying the existing protocols for other applications where pre-PCR restriction digestion is required, such as mutation detection, genotyping, and selective template amplification.

  14. Single-Tube Flow Cytometry Assay for the Detection of Mature Lymphoid Neoplasms in Paucicellular Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacchini, Alessandra; Demurtas, Anna; Aliberti, Sabrina; Barreca, Antonella; Novero, Domenico; Pacchioni, Donatella

    2016-01-01

    Flow cytometry (FC) has become a useful support for cytomorphologic evaluation (CM) of fine-needle aspirates (FNA) and serous cavity effusions (SCE) in cases of suspected non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). FC results may be hampered by the scarce viability and low cellularity of the specimens. We developed a single-tube FC assay (STA) that included 10 antibodies cocktailed in 8-color labeling, a cell viability dye, and a logical gating strategy to detect NHL in hypocellular samples. The results were correlated with CM and confirmed by histologic or molecular data when available. Using the STA, we detected B-type NHL in 31 out of 103 hypocellular samples (81 FNA and 22 SCE). Of these, 8 were not confirmed by CM and 2 were considered to be only suspicious. The FC-negative samples had a final diagnosis of benign/reactive process (42/72), carcinoma (27/72), or Hodgkin lymphoma (3/72). The STA approach allowed obtainment of maximum immunophenotyping data in specimens containing a low number of cells and a large amount of debris. The information obtained by STA can help cytomorphologists not only to recognize but also to exclude malignant lymphomas. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Applied research for profilometric testing of the state of interior surfaces in heat exchanger tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyongyosi, Tiberiu; Panaitescu, Valeriu Nicolae

    2009-01-01

    Generally, the surface flaws identified at heat exchangers tubing are characteristic for the heat secondary systems, located on the external surfaces of the heat exchanger tubes and are mostly the results of the ageing phenomena in systems operation. The tests performed, with the impressing replicating device confirmed the applicability of the technique, functionality of the device and resulted in replicas on metal support, these being the hard copy of the negative of the test tube surface, allowing the profile measurement. The visual inspection of the replicas on the metallic support gives information about the surface geometry replicated, pointing out the marks, which belong to the same area under observation. The minimum and maximum values for the depth of the channel worked out in the inner test tube wall have been determined by profile graphic measurement on the replicas. The paper presents the structural and functional description of the experimental devices. The first results and some conclusions are also included. Two patent applications were submitted at State Office for Inventions and Trademarks (OSIM) covering the original data to protect royalty: 'The local pit flaws, scratches, incipient micro-cracks replicating device on inner cylindrical surfaces', under no. A/00299/17.04.2008 and 'The annular local flaw, incipient micro-cracks replicating device on inner cylindrical surface' under no. A/00300/17.04.2008

  16. Method and apparatus for testing closed-end tubes in heat exchangers of nuclear reactors and the like

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyd, G.; Bergbauer, A.; Paulsen, U.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a test stopper which is insertable into a tube closed at one end for testing the tightness of the tube with a fluid under pressure, the tube being in a heat exchanger of a nuclear reactor or the like. The test stopper includes a tubular outer jacket that is expandable outwardly to tightly seat the stopper in the tube. The stopper also has front and back end-face members joined to the ends of the outer jacket to define a closed space within the jacket. With the stopper inserted into the tube, the front end-face member and the closed end portion of the tube define a closed inner region of the tube. An inner tubular member, disposed within the outer jacket, partitions the closed space within the jacket into an annular outer chamber and a cylindrical inner chamber. A pressure-fluid supply selectively supplies fluid to the chambers. The outer jacket expands in response to fluid admitted to the annular chamber and the front end-face member has a through bore to admit fluid under pressure to the inner region of the tube. A method of testing of such a tube with a fluid under pressure includes inserting the test stopper into the tube and then expanding the outer jacket of the stopper to seat the stopper firmly in the tube. A fluid under pressure is directed through the stopper and into the closed region defined by the front end-face member of the stopper and the closed end portion of the tube. The pressure of the fluid introduced into this closed region is monitored for detecting a leak in the closed-end tube

  17. Determination of a cross-sectional void fraction in a tube bundle using a single beam gamma densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guichard, J.; Mezoul, B.; Peturaud, P.; Thomas, B.

    1991-06-01

    In order to qualify 3-dimensional two-phase flow computer codes modelling average flows in tube bundles, cross-section average void fractions must be measured over sub-channels. On the VATICAN mockup, such void fractions(integrated on the mockup thickness) are determined using a single (narrow) beam gamma densitometer. But to avoid a refined exploration of each measurement mesh, for each test, empirical calibration curves have been developed in a regular mesh of the mockup, in axial flow conditions. These calibration curves, which evaluate the sought cross-sectional value as a function of a chordal void fraction (right in the inter-rod gap) depend only on heat flux density and pressure. The data are consistent with the ARMAND-MASSENA and LELLOUCHE-ZOLOTAR slip correlations, and they are fitted by 3rd degree polynomials, for each heat flux density investigated, with a good accuracy. Unfortunately, preliminary testing and analysis indicate that the use of these calibration curves in subcooled boiling and transverse mixing zones might result in significant uncertainties and errors

  18. Single-Phase Crossflow Mixing in a Vertical Tube Bundle Geometry : An Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmood, A.

    2011-01-01

    The vertical rod/tube bundle geometry has a wide variety of industrial applications. Typical examples are the core of light water nuclear reactors (LWR) and vertical tube steam generators. In the core of a LWR, primarily coolant flows upward but their also exist a flow in lateral direction, called

  19. First joint test beam of CMS Drift Tubes (DT) and Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC)

    CERN Multimedia

    Paolo Giacomelli

    2001-01-01

    The first full size muon drift tube chamber ever built for the CMS barrel with the final cell design (constructed at CIEMAT, Madrid) was succesfully tested with a muon beam in September 2001 at the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) at CERN. For the first time also both muon detectors for the CMS barrel (DT + RPC) were coupled together. The results of this test were fully succesful and confirmed the excellent performance of both detectors together in a radiation environment.

  20. Anticoagulant Carryover May Influence Clot Formation in Direct Tube Coagulase Tests from Blood Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Varettas, Kerry; Mukerjee, Chinmoy; Taylor, Peter C.

    2005-01-01

    The tube coagulase test (TCT) performed directly from positive blood culture bottles has been used to reduce the turnaround time for identifying Staphylococcus aureus. Most reports have shown the test to be specific but often lacking sufficient sensitivity to be useful. In a prospective study of blood culture bottles (BCB) signaling positive, with a Gram-stained smear showing gram-positive cocci resembling staphylococci, the sensitivity of the direct TCT was improved by diluting the BCB broth...

  1. Isothermal Amplification for MicroRNA Detection: From the Test Tube to the Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ruijie; Zhang, Kaixiang; Li, Jinghong

    2017-04-18

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that act as pivotal post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, thus involving in many fundamental cellular processes such as cell proliferation, migration, and canceration. The detection of miRNAs has attracted significant interest, as abnormal miRNA expression is identified to contribute to serious human diseases such as cancers. Particularly, miRNAs in peripheral blood have recently been recognized as important biomarkers potential for liquid biopsy. Furthermore, as miRNAs are expressed heterogeneously in different cells, investigations into single-cell miRNA expression will be of great value for resolving miRNA-mediated regulatory circuits and the complexity and heterogeneity of miRNA-related diseases. Thus, the development of miRNA detection methods, especially for complex clinic samples and single cells is in great demand. In this Account, we will present recent progress in the design and application of isothermal amplification enabling miRNA detection transition from the test tube to the clinical sample and single cell, which will significantly advance our knowledge of miRNA functions and disease associations, as well as its translation in clinical diagnostics. miRNAs present a huge challenge in detection because of their extremely short length (∼22 nucleotides) and sequence homology (even with only single-nucleotide variation). The conventional golden method for nucleic acid detection, quantitative PCR (qPCR), is not amenable to directly detecting short RNAs and hardly enables distinguishing between miRNA family members with very similar sequences. Alternatively, isothermal amplification has emerged as a powerful method for quantification of nucleic acids and attracts broad interest for utilization in developing miRNA assays. Compared to PCR, isothermal amplification can be performed without precise control of temperature cycling and is well fit for detecting short RNA or DNA. We and other

  2. Calculation of fuel element temperature TRIGA 2000 reactor in sipping test tubes using CFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudjatmi KA

    2013-01-01

    It has been calculated the fuel element temperature in the sipping test of Bandung TRIGA 2000 reactor. The calculation needs to be done to ascertain that the fuel element temperatures are below or at the limit of the allowable temperature fuel elements during reactor operation. ensuring that the implementation of the test by using this device, the temperature is still within safety limits. The calculation is done by making a model sipping test tubes containing a fuel element surrounded by 9 fuel elements. according to the position sipping test tubes in the reactor core. by using Gambit. Dimensional model adapted to the dimensions of the tube and the fuel element in the reactor core of Bandung TRIGA 2000 reactor. Sipping test Operation for each fuel element performed for 30 minutes at 300 kW power. Calculations were performed using CFD software and as input adjusted parameters of TRIGA 2000 reactor. Simulations carried out on the operation of the 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 minutes. The calculation result shows that the temperature of the fuel in tubes sipping test of 236.06 °C, while the temperature of the wall is 87.58 °C. The maximum temperature in the fuel center of TRIGA 2000 reactor in normal operation is 650 °C. and the boiling is not allowed in the reactor. So it can be concluded that the operation of the sipping test device are is very safe because the fuel center temperature is below the temperature limits the allowable fuel under normal operating conditions as well as the fuel element wall temperature is below the boiling temperature of water. (author)

  3. Preanalytical errors in primary healthcare: a questionnaire study of information search procedures, test request management and test tube labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderberg, Johan; Brulin, Christine; Grankvist, Kjell; Wallin, Olof

    2009-01-01

    Most errors in laboratory medicine occur in the preanalytical phase and are the result of human mistakes. This study investigated information search procedures, test request management and test tube labelling in primary healthcare compared to the same procedures amongst clinical laboratory staff. A questionnaire was completed by 317 venous blood sampling staff in 70 primary healthcare centres and in two clinical laboratories (response rate = 94%). Correct procedures were not always followed. Only 60% of the primary healthcare staff reported that they always sought information in the updated, online laboratory manual. Only 12% reported that they always labelled the test tubes prior to drawing blood samples. No major differences between primary healthcare centres and clinical laboratories were found, except for test tube labelling, whereby the laboratory staff reported better practices. Re-education and access to documented routines were not clearly associated with better practices. The preanalytical procedure in the surveyed primary healthcare centres was associated with a risk of errors which could affect patient safety. To improve patient safety in laboratory testing, all healthcare providers should survey their preanalytical procedures and improve the total testing process with a systems perspective.

  4. Detection of defects in cladding tubes as a function of the manufacturing and testing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufayet, J.P.; Stossel, A.; Spriet, B.; Samoel, A.

    1976-01-01

    The drastic operating conditions to which fast reactor cladding is subjected necessitate very elaborate tests. Sensitive and specific non-destructive tests were developed for this purpose, for example ultrasonic and eddy current testings and metrological diameter and thickness measurements. Appropriate selection methods based on amplitude, phase and frequency analysis of the signals were established. The results obtained show up various categories of defects which respond to the test as a function of the characteristics of the methods used. The validity of such a classification implies adequate technical examination facilities and a thorough knowledge of the tube manufacturing range [fr

  5. Single-Tube Reaction Using Perfluorocarbons: A Prerequisite Step Leading to the Whole-Slide In Situ Technique on Histopathological Slides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chang Chen

    Full Text Available Developing a robust, novel method for performing multiple reactions in a single tube is not only time- and cost-saving but also critical for future high-throughput whole-slide in situ techniques on diseased tissues. In this study, we introduce the use of perfluorocarbons and compound-coated magnetic particles to create pseudochambers in a single tube, allowing different reactions to be performed in different phases. Perfluorocarbons also serve as cell lysis buffer and polymerase chain reaction (PCR buffer owing to their highly penetrating, repellent and emulsifiable properties. Using this method, nucleic acids can be isolated and purified from various sample types and sizes, followed by PCR, real-time PCR, or multiplex PCR in the same tube. No incubation or enzyme digesting time is needed and the risk of cross-contamination is reduced. Tests can be performed in microemulsions (water-in-oil droplets containing sequence-specific captures and probes for further high-throughput detection. We present a simple, quick, and robust procedure as a prerequisite step to future high-throughput in situ techniques.

  6. An asymmetric PCR-based, reliable and rapid single-tube native DNA engineering strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Widely used restriction-dependent cloning methods are labour-intensive and time-consuming, while several types of ligase-independent cloning approaches have inherent limitations. A rapid and reliable method of cloning native DNA sequences into desired plasmids are highly desired. Results This paper introduces ABI-REC, a novel strategy combining asymmetric bridge PCR with intramolecular homologous recombination in bacteria for native DNA cloning. ABI-REC was developed to precisely clone inserts into defined location in a directional manner within recipient plasmids. It featured an asymmetric 3-primer PCR performed in a single tube that could robustly amplify a chimeric insert-plasmid DNA sequence with homologous arms at both ends. Intramolecular homologous recombination occurred to the chimera when it was transformed into E.coli and produced the desired recombinant plasmids with high efficiency and fidelity. It is rapid, and does not involve any operational nucleotides. We proved the reliability of ABI-REC using a double-resistance reporter assay, and investigated the effects of homology and insert length upon its efficiency. We found that 15 bp homology was sufficient to initiate recombination, while 25 bp homology had the highest cloning efficiency. Inserts up to 4 kb in size could be cloned by this method. The utility and advantages of ABI-REC were demonstrated through a series of pig myostatin (MSTN) promoter and terminator reporter plasmids, whose transcriptional activity was assessed in mammalian cells. We finally used ABI-REC to construct a pig MSTN promoter-terminator cassette reporter and showed that it could work coordinately to express EGFP. Conclusions ABI-REC has the following advantages: (i) rapid and highly efficient; (ii) native DNA cloning without introduction of extra bases; (iii) restriction-free; (iv) easy positioning of directional and site-specific recombination owing to formulated primer design. ABI-REC is a novel approach to

  7. An asymmetric PCR-based, reliable and rapid single-tube native DNA engineering strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Yanzhen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Widely used restriction-dependent cloning methods are labour-intensive and time-consuming, while several types of ligase-independent cloning approaches have inherent limitations. A rapid and reliable method of cloning native DNA sequences into desired plasmids are highly desired. Results This paper introduces ABI-REC, a novel strategy combining asymmetric bridge PCR with intramolecular homologous recombination in bacteria for native DNA cloning. ABI-REC was developed to precisely clone inserts into defined location in a directional manner within recipient plasmids. It featured an asymmetric 3-primer PCR performed in a single tube that could robustly amplify a chimeric insert-plasmid DNA sequence with homologous arms at both ends. Intramolecular homologous recombination occurred to the chimera when it was transformed into E.coli and produced the desired recombinant plasmids with high efficiency and fidelity. It is rapid, and does not involve any operational nucleotides. We proved the reliability of ABI-REC using a double-resistance reporter assay, and investigated the effects of homology and insert length upon its efficiency. We found that 15 bp homology was sufficient to initiate recombination, while 25 bp homology had the highest cloning efficiency. Inserts up to 4 kb in size could be cloned by this method. The utility and advantages of ABI-REC were demonstrated through a series of pig myostatin (MSTN promoter and terminator reporter plasmids, whose transcriptional activity was assessed in mammalian cells. We finally used ABI-REC to construct a pig MSTN promoter-terminator cassette reporter and showed that it could work coordinately to express EGFP. Conclusions ABI-REC has the following advantages: (i rapid and highly efficient; (ii native DNA cloning without introduction of extra bases; (iii restriction-free; (iv easy positioning of directional and site-specific recombination owing to formulated primer design. ABI

  8. Improving Single Event Effects Testing Through Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banker, M. W.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation encountered in space environments can be damaging to microelectronics and potentially cause spacecraft failure. Single event effects (SEE) are a type of radiation effect that occur when an ion strikes a device. Single event gate rupture (SEGR) is a type of SEE that can cause failure in power transistors. Unlike other SEE rates in which a constant linear energy transfer (LET) can be used, SEGR rates sometimes require a non-uniform LET to be used to be accurate. A recent analysis shows that SEGR rates are most easily calculated when the environment is described as a stopping rate per unit volume for each ion species. Stopping rates in silicon for pertinent ions were calculated using the Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) software and CREME-MC software. A reference table was generated and can be used by others to calculate SEGR rates for a candidate device. Additionally, lasers can be used to simulate SEEs, providing more control and information at lower cost than heavy ion testing. The electron/hole pair generation rate from a laser pulse in a semiconductor can be related to the LET of an ion. MATLAB was used to generate a plot to easily make this comparison.

  9. Calculations following voltage breakdown in a single-ended Van de Graaff with an accelerator tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staniforth, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Calculation of voltages and voltage gradients in the terminal, along the insulating column and the accelerating tube are described for various breakdown positions. The method uses a number of inverted-L network sections to represent the machine assuming that the tube is coupled to the column. Various forms of coupling are examined. The calculations use an iterative computer program which calculates the voltages and currents in the networks at successive small time intervals. (author)

  10. [Efficient and rapid non-test tube cloning of Jatropha curcas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao-Yu; Lin, Jing-Ming; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2007-08-01

    To develop a new technique for efficient and rapid non-test tube cloning of the medicinal and energy- producing plant Jatropha curcas. Using the mini-stem fragment (2-3 cm) of Jatropha curcas with merely one axillary bud as the explant, the effect of an auxin IBA concentration on the plantlet regeneration was studied. When treated with 1 mg/LIBA for 1h, the explants showed the most rapid propagation. The mini-stem fragments high root regeneration ratio (96.7%), short root regeneration period (18.2-/+2.0 d), large number of new roots per explant (6.3-/+1.8), and long total root length (6.8-/+3.5 cm), demonstrating that this technique can be a simple and efficient method for rapid non-test tube cloning of Jatropha curcas of potential industrial value.

  11. Testing Procedure for the Single Fiber Fragmentation Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feih, Stefanie; Wonsyld, Karen; Minzari, Daniel

    , specimens with one E-glass fiber placed inside an epoxy or polyester matrix were used. Elongating the specimens with a mini tensile tester, which was placed under a microscope, leads to fiber fragmentations. Different bonding strengths between fiber and matrix result in differences in the critical fracture......This report describes the details of the single fiber fragmentation test as conducted at the materials research department (AFM) at Risø. The equipment and specimen manufacture is described in detail. Furthermore, examples of results interpretation are given. For the experiments in this report...... length for the fiber and fracture characteristics....

  12. Processing of cartography from steam generator tubes using eddy current testing with an absolute coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attaoui, P.; Benoist, B.; Besnard, R.; Sollier, T.; Gaillard, P.; Lengelle, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with the processing of electromagnetic cartography from steam generator tubes testing. These images are disturbed by background noise due to probe lift-off changes and by the rolling transition zone signal. Procedures which allow to obtain a flat cartography will be presented in part one. Then, using mathematical morphology tools on the cartography, expose the first results dealing with sizing and orientation of the defects. (author)

  13. Influence of Aroclor 1242 Concentration on Polychlorinated Biphenyl Biotransformations in Hudson River Test Tube Microcosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, K. M.

    1996-01-01

    When 93.3 to 933 (mu)mol of Aroclor 1242 per kg was added to Hudson River sediment test tube microcosms, the rates of polychlorinated biphenyl biotransformations increased with increasing Aroclor 1242 concentration after a 4- to 8-week acclimation period. In contrast, when 37.3 (mu)mol of Aroclor 1242 per kg was added, polychlorinated biphenyl biotransformations occurred at slow constant rates. PMID:16535387

  14. Optimizing and accelerating the assignation of lineages in Mycobacterium tuberculosis using novel alternative single-tube assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carcelén

    Full Text Available The assignation of lineages in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB provides valuable information for evolutionary and phylogeographic studies and makes for more accurate knowledge of the distribution of this pathogen worldwide. Differences in virulence have also been found for certain lineages. MTB isolates were initially assigned to lineages based on data obtained from genotyping techniques, such as spoligotyping or MIRU-VNTR analysis, some of which are more suitable for molecular epidemiology studies. However, since these methods are subject to a certain degree of homoplasy, other criteria have been chosen to assign lineages. These are based on targeting robust and specific SNPs for each lineage. Here, we propose two newly designed multiplex targeting methods-both of which are single-tube tests-to optimize the assignation of the six main lineages in MTB. The first method is based on ASO-PCR and offers an inexpensive and easy-to-implement assay for laboratories with limited resources. The other, which is based on SNaPshot, enables more refined standardized assignation of lineages for laboratories with better resources. Both methods performed well when assigning lineages from cultured isolates from a control panel, a test panel, and a problem panel from an unrelated population, Mexico, which included isolates in which standard genotyping was not able to classify lineages. Both tests were also able to assign lineages from stored isolates, without the need for subculture or purification of DNA, and even directly from clinical specimens with a medium-high bacilli burden. Our assays could broaden the contexts where information on lineages can be acquired, thus enabling us to quickly update data from retrospective collections and to merge data with those obtained at the time of diagnosis of a new TB case.

  15. Development and evaluation of one step single tube multiplex RT-PCR for rapid detection and typing of dengue viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Parida Manmohan; Shrivastava Ambuj; Santhosh SR; Dash Paban; Saxena Parag; Rao PV

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Dengue is emerging as a major public health concern in many parts of the world. The development of a one-step, single tube, rapid, and multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (M-RT-PCR) for simultaneous detection and typing of dengue virus using serotype specific primers during acute phase of illness is reported. Results An optimal assay condition with zero background was established having no cross-reaction with closely related members of flavivirus (Jap...

  16. [Changes in the structure and clinical significance of the positive results of pretransfusion testing during the switching from tube test agglutination to gel microcolumn technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrusić-Kafedzić, Alma; Ivanković, Zdravko; Ekinović, Sabahudin; Hutinović, Aida; Ibrahimagić-Seper, Lejla

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the changes in pretransfusion testing during the switch from the agglutination tube test to the gel test. Clinical significance of positive results has been analyzed in 7667 pretransfusion tests (with 16610 cross-matches) performed by the tube test in 2005-2006, and in 7372 pretransfusion tests (with 17294 cross-matches) performed in 2007-2008 by the gel test. In both analyzed periods antibody detection was positive in 1.3% and cross-matching in 0.3% cases. At least one test was positive in 1.4% pretransfusions tested by the tube test and in 1.3% by the gel test, with >75% positive results in women. Analyzing cases with positive cross-matching but negative antibody detection, eight of ten such cases found by the tube test were caused by 'cold antibodies' whereas 'warm non-specific antibodies' caused all three cases found by the gel test. The gel test detected higher proportion of immune antibodies than the tube test (69.8% vs 41.3%, p antibodies. The tube test detected 24 cases of clinically non-significant antibodies, as compared with no cases found by the gel test (p antibodies' more often caused positive cross-matches than antibody detection (42.6% vs. 29.9% by the tube test, 28.9% vs. 18.3% by the gel test). Despite of being close in the detection of irregular antibodies (p=0.062), the difference between the tube and gel test was not significant. 'Non-specific antibodies' were found by both tests more often in women, while clinical departments were of no significance. The gel test has proved to be a more optimal technique of pretransfusion testing. The detection of irregular antibodies is recommended as an obligatory part of pretransfusion testing.

  17. The Aphrodite boiling crisis program. Analysis of CHF tests performed on a vertical tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souyri, A.; Conan, S.; Portesse, A.; Tremblay, D.

    1992-09-01

    In order to develop a comprehensive modelling of the boiling crisis phenomenon, the APHRODITE experimental program has been set up at ELECTRICITE DE FRANCE. Aiming at a better mechanistic understanding of this phenomenon, this program will investigate the influence of the experimental conditions (among which the mockup geometry and the boundary conditions) and the two-phase flow patterns via void fraction distributions. It has involved the construction of a R12 test loop, which can deliver a large thermal-hydraulic parameter ranges, and the development of a gamma-ray tomograph. The first experiments have been carried out on a vertical Inconel tube, 6 meters long with a bore diameter of 13 mm and a thickness of 0.5 mm. This electrically heated test section is heavily instrumented with 168 thermocouples welded along the tube, on its outer surface. After a refined calibration of the experimental procedure, a critical heat flux data bank has been collected within large pressure, mass velocity and critical steam quality ranges. These results are firstly compared with other CHF data obtained in similar conditions. Then several empirical correlations and a theoretical model for similar prediction in tubes are tested against these data

  18. A single-tube 27-plex SNP assay for estimating individual ancestry and admixture from three continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yi-Liang; Wei, Li; Zhao, Lei; Sun, Qi-Fan; Jiang, Li; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Hai-Bo; Chen, Jian-Gang; Ye, Jian; Hu, Lan; Li, Cai-Xia

    2016-01-01

    A single-tube multiplex assay of a small set of ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) for effectively estimating individual ancestry and admixture is an ideal forensic tool to trace the population origin of an unknown DNA sample. We present a newly developed 27-plex single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel with highly robust and balanced differential power to perfectly assign individuals to African, European, and East Asian ancestries. Evaluating 968 previously described intercontinental AIMs from three HapMap population genotyping datasets (Yoruban in Ibadan, Nigeria (YRI); Utah residents with Northern and Western European ancestry from the Centre de'Etude du Polymorphism Humain (CEPH) collection (CEU); and Han Chinese in Beijing, China (CHB)), the best set of markers was selected on the basis of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p > 0.00001), population-specific allele frequency (two of three δ values >0.5), according to linkage disequilibrium (r (2) ancestry of the 11 populations in the HapMap project. Then, we tested the 27-plex SNP assay with 1164 individuals from 17 additional populations. The results demonstrated that the SNP panel was successful for ancestry inference of individuals with African, European, and East Asian ancestry. Furthermore, the system performed well when inferring the admixture of Eurasians (EUR/EAS) after analyzing admixed populations from Xinjiang (Central Asian) as follows: Tajik (68:27), Uyghur (49:46), Kirgiz (40:57), and Kazak (36:60). For individual analyses, we interpreted each sample with a three-ancestry component percentage and a population match probability sequence. This multiplex assay is a convenient and cost-effective tool to assist in criminal investigations, as well as to correct for the effects of population stratification for case-control studies.

  19. Operational experience in the Langley expansion tube with various test gases. [for atmospheric entry simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. G.

    1977-01-01

    The Langley Expansion Tube is an operational facility capable of producing good quality, highly repeatable, quasi-steady flow for test times sufficient to establish flow about blunt axisymmetric and two-dimensional models. Due to the capability of testing with arbitrary test gases, a wide range of real-gas, hypersonic-hypervelocity flow conditions may be generated. However, for a given test gas, the range of operating conditions producing useful flow is shown to be rather limited; hence, the facility yields a given flow condition for a given test gas, and variation in flow conditions comes about by using different test gases. Data are presented for operations using air and carbon dioxide as test gases. The driver gas was unheated helium at a nominal pressure of 5000 psi (34.5 MN sq m).

  20. Reflections on "YouTestTube.com": An Online Video-Sharing Platform to Engage Students with Chemistry Laboratory Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClean, Stephen; McCartan, Kenneth G.; Meskin, Sheryl; Gorges, Beronia; Hagan, W. Paul

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the construction and development of YouTestTube.com, a YouTube clone website to facilitate video-sharing, social networking, and reflections of chemistry laboratory classes for year one students within the School of Biomedical Sciences at Ulster University. The practice was first introduced in the 2008/09 academic year and has…

  1. Test of a proportional tube modulus used to localize the electromagnetic showers in a calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lees, J.-P.

    1981-01-01

    In this work are given results of a test in an electron-hadron beam (5-92 GeV) of the prototype of a position detector. This position detector consists of proportional tubes with charge division readout; it will be used in the end cap electromagnetic calorimeter ('bouchon') of the UA1 experiment at CERN (pantip collisions at a center of mass energy of 540 GeV). This detector gives the position of the showers, and also a coarse value of their energy. Results about properties of the tubes (saturation phenomena, position and energy accuracies) and, then, results about the development of high energy electromagnetic showers in lead-plastic sandwich are given here [fr

  2. Application of numerical analysis techniques to eddy current testing for steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Kazuo; Satake, Koji; Araki, Yasui; Morimura, Koichi; Tanaka, Michio; Shimizu, Naoya; Iwahashi, Yoichi

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the application of numerical analysis to eddy current testing (ECT) for steam generator tubes. A symmetrical and three-dimensional sinusoidal steady state eddy current analysis code was developed. This code is formulated by future element method-boundary element method coupling techniques, in order not to regenerate the mesh data in the tube domain at every movement of the probe. The calculations were carried out under various conditions including those for various probe types, defect orientations and so on. Compared with the experimental data, it was shown that it is feasible to apply this code to actual use. Furthermore, we have developed a total eddy current analysis system which consists of an ECT calculation code, an automatic mesh generator for analysis, a database and display software for calculated results. ((orig.))

  3. Effect of Resistance Tube Exercises on Kicking Accuracy, Vertical Jump and 40-Yard Technical Test in Competitive Football Players – An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirumala Alekhya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Kicking, jumping and agility are important skills in football. These activities require adequate lower limb strength, which can be enhanced with resistance training. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of resistance tube exercises on kicking accuracy, vertical jump performance and 40-yard technical test results in competitive football players. Methods. The study involved 23 competitive football players (11 males, 12 females aged from 18-20 years recruited from three different universities in Belgaum, Karnataka, India. Back heel kick accuracy, vertical jump height and 40-yard technical test time were evaluated before and after a 2-week resistance tube exercise program. Results. Significant improvements in post-intervention kicking accuracy were found when males and females were treated as a single group (p = 0.01. Vertical jump height also showed a highly significant post-intervention improvement in the males and for the combined group of males and females (p = 0.001. The 40-yard technical test values significantly improved in the females and in the combined results for males and females (p = 0.001. Conclusions. The two-week resistance tube exercise program was found to have an effect on kicking accuracy, vertical jump height and 40-yard technical test performance in competitive football players. Resistance tube exercises can thus be included as a component of a regular strength training program for such athletes.

  4. Long term testing of materials for tube shielding, stage 2; Laangtidsprovning av tubskyddsmaterial, etapp 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norling, Rikard; Hjoernhede, Anders; Mattsson, Mattias

    2012-02-15

    temperature. It varies from a few months to several years. The cost of replacing tube shielding is significant, which calls for improved materials. In a previous study [1] various materials have been tested in the WtE CFB-boiler P14 at Haendeloe in Norrkoeping, Sweden. The study showed that several materials may be cost effective candidates for replacing 253MA, but the test period was too short for safe predictions. This work includes exposures at the same position, but with extended test period up to almost 12000 h to verify the previous results. In addition results from exposures in the WtE CFB-boiler Hoegdalen P6 in Stockholm, Sweden is included. This boiler suffers in particular from severe erosion of the tube shielding requiring it to be exchanged every few months

  5. 49 CFR 238.311 - Single car test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Single car test. 238.311 Section 238.311... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.311 Single car test. (a) Except for self-propelled passenger cars, single car tests of all passenger cars and all unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains shall...

  6. Camera Embedded Single Lumen Tube as a Rescue Device for Airway Handling during Lung Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg Holm, Jimmy; Andersen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    endotracheal tube (SLT, ID 7.0 mm, OD 10.0 mm) with embedded camera (VivaSight-SLTM, ET-View Ltd, Misgav, Israel) (Figure 1), and with this secured in the trachea, lung isolation was obtained with the use of an bronchial blocker (VivaSight-EB, 9 Fr) on the left side, resulting in total lung collapse, allowing...

  7. Standard practice for ultrasonic testing of the Weld Zone of welded pipe and tubing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes general ultrasonic testing procedures for the detection of discontinuities in the weld and adjacent heat affected zones of welded pipe and tubing by scanning with relative motion between the search unit and pipe or tube. When contact or unfocused immersion search units are employed, this practice is intended for tubular products having specified outside diameters ≥2 in. (≥50 mm) and specified wall thicknesses of 1/8to 11/16 in. (3 to 27 mm). When properly focused immersion search units are employed, this practice may also be applied to material of smaller diameter and thinner wall. Note 1—When contact or unfocused immersion search units are used, precautions should be exercised when examining pipes or tubes near the lower specified limits. Certain combinations of search unit size, frequency, thin–wall thicknesses, and small diameters could cause generation of unwanted sound waves that may produce erroneous examination results. 1.2 All surfaces of material to be examined in ...

  8. Pressure drop-flow rate curves for single-phase steam in Combustion Engineering type steam generator U-tubes during severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fynan, Douglas A.; Ahn, Kwang-Il, E-mail: kiahn@kaeri.re.kr

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Pressure drop-flow rate curves for superheated steam in U-tubes were generated. • Forward flow of hot steam is favored in the longer and taller U-tubes. • Reverse flow of cold steam is favored in short U-tubes. • Steam generator U-tube bundle geometry and tube diameter are important. • Need for correlation development for natural convention heat transfer coefficient. - Abstract: Characteristic pressure drop-flow rate curves are generated for all row numbers of the OPR1000 steam generators (SGs), representative of Combustion Engineering (CE) type SGs featuring square bend U-tubes. The pressure drop-flow rate curves are applicable to severe accident natural circulations of single-phase superheated steam during high pressure station blackout sequences with failed auxiliary feedwater and dry secondary side which are closely related to the thermally induced steam generator tube rupture event. The pressure drop-flow rate curves which determine the recirculation rate through the SG tubes are dependent on the tube bundle geometry and hydraulic diameter of the tubes. The larger CE type SGs have greater variation of tube length and height as a function of row number with forward flow of steam favored in the longer and taller high row number tubes and reverse flow favored in the short low row number tubes. Friction loss, natural convection heat transfer coefficients, and temperature differentials from the primary to secondary side are dominant parameters affecting the recirculation rate. The need for correlation development for natural convection heat transfer coefficients for external flow over tube bundles currently not modeled in system codes is discussed.

  9. General correlations for pressure drop and heat transfer for single-phase turbulent flow in internally ribbed tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravigururajan, T.S.; Bergles, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    General correlations for friction factors and heat transfer coefficients for single-phase turbulent flow in internally ribbed tubes are presented. Data from previous investigations are gathered for a wide range of tube parameters with e/d: 0.01 to 0.2; p/d: 0.1 to 7.0; α/90: 0.3 to 1.0, and flow parameters Re: 5000 to 250,000 and Pr: 0.66 to 37.6. The data were applied to a linear model to get normalized correlations that were then modified to fit tubes with extremely small parametric values. A shape function was included in the friction correlation to account for different rib profiles. The friction correlation predicts 96% of the data base to within +. 50% and 77% of the data base to within +. 20%. Corresponding figures for the heat transfer correlation are 99% and 69%. The present correlations are superior, for this extensive data base, to those presented by other investigators

  10. Application of automatic inspection system to nondestructive test of heat transfer tubes of primary pressurized water cooler in the high temperature engineering test reactor. Joint research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Takeshi; Furusawa, Takayuki

    2001-07-01

    Heat transfer tubes of a primary pressurized water cooled (PPWC) in the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) form the reactor pressure boundary of the primary coolant, therefore are important from the viewpoint of safety. To establish inspection techniques for the heat transfer tubes of the PPWC, an automatic inspection system was developed. The system employs a bobbin coil probe, a rotating probe for eddy current testing (ECT) and a rotating probe for ultrasonic testing (UT). Nondestructive test of a half of the heat transfer tubes of the PPWC was carried out by the automatic inspection system during reactor shutdown period of the HTTR (about 55% in the maximum reactor power in this paper). The nondestructive test results showed that the maximum signal-to-noise ratio was 1.8 in ECT. Pattern and phase of Lissajous wave, which were obtained for the heat transfer tube of the PPWC, were different from those obtained for the artificially defected tube. In UT echo amplitude of the PPWC tubes inspected was lower than 20% of distance-amplitude calibration curve. Thus, it was confirmed that there was no defect in depth, which was more than the detecting standard of the probes, on the outer surface of the heat transfer tubes of the PPWC inspected. (author)

  11. A Simple Test Tube-Based ELISA Experiment for the High-School Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokaw, Ann; Cobb, Brian A

    2009-07-01

    Immunology is gaining prominence both in the media as well as on the Advanced Placement (AP) exam in Biology. One of the challenges of teaching modern biological topics such as immunology and biochemistry in the high-school setting is the increased reliance on expensive technology in the research world. To begin to bridge this widening gap, we devised an experiment using a novel macroscale enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that is suitable for AP-level high-school biology classrooms as well as entry-level collegiate laboratories. This novel method does not require a plate reader for data analysis, but instead relies on more common and inexpensive equipment such as a clinical test tube centrifuge and a simple test tube spectrophotometer. The experimental plan focuses on students measuring antibody concentrations in "unknown" samples and includes the collection and analysis of a standard curve using reagents prepared by the instructor. Students will be introduced to enzyme action, quantitative laboratory technique, antibodies, and the immune system, with the overall goal being to explore and highlight the inherent connections within the fields of biochemistry and immunology.

  12. A Simple Test Tube-Based ELISA Experiment for the High-School Classroom*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokaw, Ann; Cobb, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    Immunology is gaining prominence both in the media as well as on the Advanced Placement (AP) exam in Biology. One of the challenges of teaching modern biological topics such as immunology and biochemistry in the high-school setting is the increased reliance on expensive technology in the research world. To begin to bridge this widening gap, we devised an experiment using a novel macroscale enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that is suitable for AP-level high-school biology classrooms as well as entry-level collegiate laboratories. This novel method does not require a plate reader for data analysis, but instead relies on more common and inexpensive equipment such as a clinical test tube centrifuge and a simple test tube spectrophotometer. The experimental plan focuses on students measuring antibody concentrations in “unknown” samples and includes the collection and analysis of a standard curve using reagents prepared by the instructor. Students will be introduced to enzyme action, quantitative laboratory technique, antibodies, and the immune system, with the overall goal being to explore and highlight the inherent connections within the fields of biochemistry and immunology. PMID:20689684

  13. Development of a sealing process of capsules for surveillance test tubes of the vessel in nuclear power plants; Desarrollo de proceso de sellado de capsulas para probetas de vigilancia de la vasija en nucleoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero C, J.; Fernandez T, F.; Perez R, N.; Rocamontes A, M.; Garcia R, R. [ININ, Km 36.5 Carretera Mexico-Toluca, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The surveillance capsule is composed by the support, three capsules for impact test tubes, five capsules for tension test tubes and one porta dosemeters. The capsules for test tubes are of two types: rectangular capsule for Charpy test tubes and cylindrical capsule for tension test tubes. This work describes the development of the welding system to seal the capsules for test tubes that should contain helium of ultra high purity to a pressure of 1 atmosphere. (Author)

  14. Cumulative damage fatigue tests on nuclear reactor Zircaloy-2 fuel tubes at room temperature and 3000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandarinathan, P.R.; Vasudevan, P.

    1980-01-01

    Cumulative damage fatigue tests were conducted on the Zircaloy-2 fuel tubes at room temperature and 300 0 C on the modified Moore type, four-point-loaded, deflection-controlled, rotating bending fatigue testing machine. The cumulative cycle ratio at fracture for the Zircaloy-2 fuel tubes was found to depend on the sequence of loading, stress history, number of cycles of application of the pre-stress and the test temperature. A Hi-Lo type fatigue loading was found to be very much damaging at room temperature and this feature was not observed in the tests at 300 0 C. Results indicate significant differences in damage interaction and damage propagation under cumulative damage tests at room temperature and at 300 0 C. Block-loading fatigue tests are suggested as the best method to determine the life-time of Zircaloy-2 fuel tubes under random fatigue loading during their service in the reactor. (orig.)

  15. A comparison of measured and predicted test flow in an expansion tube with air and oxygen test gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaggard, K. V.; Goad, W. K.

    1975-01-01

    Simultaneous time-resolved measurements of temperature, density, pitot pressure, and wall pressure in both air and O2 test gases were obtained in the Langley pilot model expansion tube. These tests show nonequilibrium chemical and vibrational relaxation significantly affect the test-flow condition. The use of an electromagnetic device to preopen the secondary diaphragm before the arrival of the primary shock wave resulted in an improvement in the agreement between the measured pitot pressure and the value inferred from measured density and interface velocity. Boundary-layer splitter plates used to reduce the wall boundary layer show that this disagreement in the measured and inferred pitot pressures is not a result of boundary-layer effects.

  16. Design and fabrication of hafnium tube to control the power of the irradiation test fuel in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. H.; Lee, C. B.; Kim, Y. M.; Yang, Y. S.; Jung, Y. H

    2003-05-01

    For the irradiation test at HANARO, non-instrumentation capsule was manufactured and hafnium tube was used to control LHGR of HANARO. Hafnium tube can control the irradiation condition of HANARO similar to that of commercial reactor. Hafnium tube thickness was determined by the LHGR calculated at OR-4 irradiation hole to be installed the non-instrumented capsule. To fabricate the hafnium tube with hafnium plate, the fabrication method was determined by using the hafnium mechanical properties. And the tensile strength of hafnium was confirmed by tensile test. This report is confirmed the LHGR control at the OR-4 and the Hafnium fabrication for in used which the AFPCAP non-instrumented irradiation capsule.

  17. Computer control in nondestructive testing illustrated by an automatic ultrasonic tube inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundtoft, H.E.; Nielsen, N.

    1976-06-01

    In Risoe's automatic tube inspection system, data (more than half a million per tube) from ultrasonic dimension measurements and defect inspections are fed into a computer that simultaneously calculates and evaluates the results. (author)

  18. Fever in the test tube--towards a human(e) pyrogen test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Stephanie; Fennrich, Stefan; Crameri, Reto; Jungi, Thomas W; Montag, Thomas; Hartung, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The human whole blood IL-1 test exploits the reaction of monocytes/macrophages for the detection of pyrogens: human whole blood taken from healthy volunteers is incubated in the presence of the test sample in any form, be it a solution, a powder or even solid material. Pyrogenic contaminations initiate the release of the "endogenous pyrogen" Interleukin-1beta determined by ELISA after incubation. In order to understand any differences between the pyrogenic activity in this test and the existing live rabbit test (species differences versus aberrant response of the particular blood sample), the rabbit whole blood test was developed. This approach could also help to avoid the use of putatively infectious human blood for pyrogen testing in vitro.

  19. Alterations in rotation thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) parameters: point-of-care testing vs analysis after pneumatic tube system transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J; Schuster, T; Moessmer, G; Kochs, E F; Wagner, K J

    2012-10-01

    Thromboelastometry as point-of-care (POC) testing enables the analysis of the clotting process at the bedside, providing rapid results to guide haemostatic therapy. However, POC testing utilizes medical staff who are managing critically ill patients, as non-laboratory personnel may not be sufficiently trained to run the devices. To resolve these problems, thromboelastometry can be performed in the central laboratory and rapid transport of samples can be accomplished via a pneumatic tube system (PTS). This study compares thromboelastometry parameters of blood samples analysed immediately with those analysed after PTS transport. In patients with normal haemostasis, two arterial blood samples were collected from each patient (n=92) in citrated plastic tubes to investigate the assays INTEM (n=35), EXTEM (n=27), and FIBTEM (n=30). One blood sample was analysed immediately, the other sample after PTS transport. Thromboelastometry was performed using a single ROTEM(®) device. The mean clot firmness values were significantly lower for PTS samples in both the INTEM (-0.7 mm cf. -1.1 mm) and EXTEM (-1.4 cf. -1.7 mm) assays. INTEM coagulation time (CT) was significantly lower in PTS samples with a mean difference of -13 s. EXTEM CT was significantly higher in PTS samples with a mean difference of +3.9 s. Thromboelastometry parameters of blood samples analysed after PTS transport are significantly altered compared with those analysed immediately. However, in patients with normal haemostasis, the alterations were small and without clinical consequence, implying that analysis after PTS transport is an acceptable alternative to prompt analysis at the bedside. Further studies should focus on patients with impaired haemostasis.

  20. Three-Dimensional Simulation of Traveling-Wave Tube Cold-Test Characteristics Using MAFIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kory, Carol L.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    1995-01-01

    The three-dimensional simulation code MAFIA was used to compute the cold-test parameters - frequency-phase dispersion, beam on-axis interaction impedance, and attenuation - for two types of traveling-wave tube (TWT) slow-wave circuits. The potential for this electromagnetic computer modeling code to reduce the time and cost of TWT development is demonstrated by the high degree of accuracy achieved in calculating these parameters. Generalized input files were developed for ferruled coupled-cavity and TunneLadder slow-wave circuits. These files make it easy to model circuits of arbitrary dimensions. The utility of these files was tested by applying each to a specific TWT slow-wave circuit and comparing the results with experimental data. Excellent agreement was obtained.

  1. Ferrocyanide safety program: Final report on adiabatic calorimetry and tube propagation tests with synthetic ferrocyanide materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauske, H.F.; Meacham, J.E.; Cash, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Based on Fauske and Associates, Inc. Reactive System Screening Tool tests, the onset or initiation temperature for a ferrocyanide-nitrate propagating reaction is about 250 degrees Celcius. This is at about 200 degrees Celcius higher than current waste temperatures in the highest temperature ferrocyanide tanks. Furthermore, for current ambient waste temperatures, the tube propagation tests show that a ferrocyanide concentration of 15.5 wt% or more is required to sustain a propagation reaction in the complete absence of free water. Ignoring the presence of free water, this finding rules out propagating reactions for all the Hanford flowsheet materials with the exception of the ferrocyanide waste produced by the original In Farm flowsheet

  2. Low Indeterminate Rates Associated With Use of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube Test in Children With Inflammatory Bowel Disease on Long-term Infliximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vortia, Eugene; Uko, Victor E; Yen-Lieberman, Belinda; Frawley, Jill; Worley, Sarah E; Danziger-Isakov, Lara; Kaplan, Barbara; Mahajan, Lori

    2018-03-19

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors are linked with increased risk of reactivation of active tuberculosis. The QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test is approved for screening latent tuberculosis infection in children and adults. There are limited data on the test performance in children on long-term treatment with TNF-α inhibitors. The objective of this study was to assess the proportion of indeterminate results for the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on long-term infliximab treatment and to evaluate the range of interferon-γ responses to mitogen. A single-center prospective study of children 5 to 19 years of age with IBD on long-term infliximab treatment (>3 months). Each child was assessed for tuberculosis exposure risk and had blood drawn for the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube. Data on the range of interferon-γ responses and final QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test results were collected. Ninety-three children were included, with a median age of 16 years. The median total duration of infliximab therapy was 34 months (range, 3-119 months). The QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube was indeterminate in 1 patient (1.1%), positive in 2 patients, and negative in 90 patients. The maximum interferon-γ response to mitogen (10 IU/mL) was observed in 82 patients (88%), with only 1 patient having an inadequate response. The proportion of indeterminate results was significantly lower than the prospectively hypothesized rate of 8%, based on prior studies in nonimmunosuppressed patients (P = 0.004). Pediatric patients with IBD on long-term treatment with infliximab had an adequate interferon-γ response to mitogen and a low indeterminate rate when assessed with the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test. This study demonstrates a robust interferon gamma response to phytohemagglutinin stimulation in a pediatric population on long-term therapy with infliximab. The QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test may therefore be useful as a periodic

  3. Optimization of the Divergent method for genotyping single nucleotide variations using SYBR Green-based single-tube real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilini, Fabio; Turba, Maria E

    2014-01-01

    A novel technique, called Divergent, for single-tube real-time PCR genotyping of point mutations without the use of fluorescently labeled probes has recently been reported. This novel PCR technique utilizes a set of four primers and a particular denaturation temperature for simultaneously amplifying two different amplicons which extend in opposite directions from the point mutation. The two amplicons can readily be detected using the melt curve analysis downstream to a closed-tube real-time PCR. In the present study, some critical aspects of the original method were specifically addressed to further implement the technique for genotyping the DNM1 c.G767T mutation responsible for exercise-induced collapse in Labrador retriever dogs. The improved Divergent assay was easily set up using a standard two-step real-time PCR protocol. The melting temperature difference between the mutated and the wild-type amplicons was approximately 5°C which could be promptly detected by all the thermal cyclers. The upgraded assay yielded accurate results with 157pg of genomic DNA per reaction. This optimized technique represents a flexible and inexpensive alternative to the minor grove binder fluorescently labeled method and to high resolution melt analysis for high-throughput, robust and cheap genotyping of single nucleotide variations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Changes in the structure and clinical significance of the positive results of pretransfusion testing during the switching from tube test agglutination to gel microcolumn technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić-Kafedžić Alma

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available im To investigate the changes in pretransfusion testing during the switch from the agglutination tube test to the gel test. Methods Clinical significance of positive results has been analyzed in 7667 pretransfusion tests (with 16610 cross-matches performed by the tube test in 2005-2006, and in 7372 pretransfusion tests (with17294 cross-matches performed in 2007-2008 by the gel test. ResultsIn both analyzed periods antibody detection was positive in 1.3% and cross-matching in 0.3% cases. At least one test was positive in 1.4%pretransfusions tested by the tube test and in 1.3% by the gel test,with >75% positive results in women. Analyzing cases with positive cross-matching but negative antibody detection, eight of ten such cases found by the tube test were caused by ‘cold antibodies’whereas‘warm non-specific antibodies’ caused all three cases found by the gel test. The gel test detected higher proportion of immune antibodies than the tube test (69.8% vs 41.3%, p<0.001, with a double increase in anti-K and Rh antibodies. The tube test detected 24 cases of clinically non-significant antibodies, as compared with no cases found by the gel test (p<0,001. ‘Non-specific antibodies’ more often caused positive cross-matches than antibody detection(42.6% vs. 29.9% by the tube test, 28.9% vs. 18.3% by the gel test. Despite of being close in the detection of irregular antibodies (p=0.062, the difference between the tube and gel test was not significant. ‘Non-specific antibodies’ were found by both tests more often in women, while clinical departments were of no significance.Conclusion The gel test has proved to be a more optimal technique of pretransfusion testing. The detection of irregular antibodies isrecommended as an obligatory part of pretransfusion testing.

  5. Development and validation of a simulation tool dedicated to eddy current non destructive testing of tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboud, Ch.

    2006-09-01

    Eddy current testing (ECT) technique is widely used in industrial fields such as iron and steel industry. Dedicated simulation tools provide a great assistance for the optimisation of ECT processes. CEA and the Vallourec Research Center have collaborated in order to develop a simulation tool of ECT of tubes. The volume integral method has been chosen for the resolution of Maxwell equations in a stratified medium, in order to get accurate results with a computation time short enough to carry out optimisation or inversion procedures. A fast model has been developed for the simulation of ECT of non magnetic tubes using specific external probes. New flaw geometries have been modelled: holes and notches with flat bottom. Validations of the developments, which have been integrated to the CIVA platform, have been carried out using experimental data recorded in laboratory conditions and in. industrial conditions, successively. The integral equations derived are solved using the Galerkin variant of the method of moments with pulse functions as projection functions. In order to overcome some memory limitations, other projection functions have been considered. A new discretization scheme based on non-uniform B-Splines of degree 1 or 2 has been implemented, which constitutes an original contribution to the existing literature. The decrease of the mesh size needed to get a given accuracy on the result may lead to the simulation of more complex ECT configurations. (author)

  6. In situ Raman spectroelectrochemistry as a tool for the differentiation of inner tubes of double-wall carbon nanotubes and thin single-wall carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbác, Martin; Kavan, Ladislav; Dunsch, Lothar

    2007-12-01

    In situ Raman spectroelectrochemistry has been used to distinguish between thin single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and the inner tubes of double-wall carbon nanotubes (DWCNT). The spectroelectrochemical method is based on the different change of the electronic structure of the inner tube in DWCNT and that of SWCNT during electrochemical charging, which is reflected in the Raman spectra. During electrochemical charging the inner tubes of DWCNT exhibit a delayed attenuation of the intensities of their Raman modes as referred to the behavior of SWCNT of similar diameter. The changes are pronounced for the radial breathing mode (RBM), and thus, these modes are diagnostic for the distinction of inner tubes of DWCNT from the thin SWCNT. The different sensitivities of inner and outer tubes to the applied electrochemical charging is a simple analytical tool for differentiation of SWCNT and DWCNT in a mixture. The significance of the proposed method is demonstrated on a commercial DWCNT sample.

  7. Single Event Testing on Complex Devices: Test Like You Fly versus Test-Specific Design Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework for evaluating complex digital systems targeted for harsh radiation environments such as space. Focus is limited to analyzing the single event upset (SEU) susceptibility of designs implemented inside Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices. Tradeoffs are provided between application-specific versus test-specific test structures.

  8. High-efficiency 3 W/40 K single-stage pulse tube cryocooler for space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ankuo; Wu, Yinong; Liu, Shaoshuai; Liu, Biqiang; Yang, Baoyu

    2018-03-01

    Temperature is an extremely important parameter for space-borne infrared detectors. To develop a quantum-well infrared photodetector (QWIP), a high-efficiency Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler (PTC) has been designed, manufactured and experimentally investigated for providing a large cooling power at 40 K cold temperature. Simulated and experimental studies were carried out to analyse the effects of low temperature on different energy flows and losses, and the performance of the PTC was improved by optimizing components and parameters such as regenerator and operating frequency. A no-load lowest temperature of 26.2 K could be reached at a frequency of 51 Hz, and the PTC could efficiently offer cooling power of 3 W at 40 K cold temperature when the input power was 225 W. The efficiency relative to the Carnot efficiency was approximately 8.4%.

  9. SSC 50 MM collider dipole cryostat single tube support post conceptual design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, T.H.

    1992-01-01

    Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipole magnet cold masses are connected to the cryostat vacuum vessel at five places equally spaced along their length. Five supports limit sag of the cold assembly due to its own weight to a level consistent with the final magnet alignment specifications. The design essentially consists of two composite tubes nested within each other as a means of maximizing the thermal path length. In addition it provides an ideal way to utilize materials best suited for the temperature range over which they must operate. Filament wound S-glass is used between 300K and 80K. Filament wound graphite fiber is used between 80K and 20K and between 20K and 4.5K. S-glass is a better thermal performer above approximately 40K. Graphite composites are ideally suited for operation below 40K. The designs for the 50 mm reentrant supports are well documented in the literature. The current design of the reentrant support has two major drawbacks. First, it requires very tight dimensional control on all components; composite tubes and metal attachment parts. Second, it is expensive, with cost being driven by both the tolerance constraints and by a complex assembly procedure. It seems clear that production magnets will require a support structure which is considerably less expensive than that which is currently used. It seems clear that a design alternate for reentrant support posts will be required for production dipoles primarily due to their cost. It seems less clear that injection molded composite materials are the ideal choice. This report describes the conceptual design for a support post whose function is identical to that of the current reentrant design, which requires very few modifications to surrounding cryostat components, is thermally equivalent to the current 50 mm support post, and is nearly equivalent structurally

  10. Transgenic Mouse Models Transferred into the Test Tube: New Perspectives for Developmental Toxicity Testing In Vitro?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Josephine; Luch, Andreas; Oelgeschläger, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Despite our increasing understanding of molecular mechanisms controlling embryogenesis, the identification and characterization of teratogenic substances still heavily relies on animal testing. Embryonic development depends on cell-autonomous and non-autonomous processes including spatiotemporally regulated extracellular signaling activities. These have been elucidated in transgenic mouse models harboring easily detectable reporter genes under the control of evolutionarily conserved signaling cascades. We propose combining these transgenic mouse models and cells derived thereof with existing alternative toxicological testing strategies. This would enable the plausibility of in vitro data to be verified in light of in vivo data and, ultimately, facilitate regulatory acceptance of in vitro test methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Improvement of ISI techniques by multi-frequency eddy current testing method for steam generator tube in PWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Takashi; Kamimura, Takeo; Nishihara, Masatoshi; Araki, Yasuo; Fukui, Shigetaka.

    1982-05-01

    Eddy current flaw detection techniques are applied to the in-service inspection (ISI) of steam generator tubes in pressurized water reactors (PWR) plant. To improve the reliability and operating efficiency of the plants, efforts are being made to develop eddy current testing methods of various kinds. Multi-frequency eddy current testing method, one of new method, has recently been applied to actual heat exchanger tubes, contributing to the improvement of the detectability and signal evaluation of the ISI. The outline of multi-frequency eddy current testing method and its effects on the improvement of flaw detecting and signal evaluation accuracy are described. (author)

  12. Towards single screening tests for brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.; Smith, P.; Yu, W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) and a fluorescence polarisation assay (FPA), each capable of detecting antibody in several species of hosts to smooth and rough members of the genus Brucella. The I-ELISA uses a mixture of smooth lipopolysaccharide (SLPS...... than did I-ELISA procedures using each individual antigen separately. Similarly, the assay using combined antigens detected antibody in slightly fewer animals not exposed to Brucella sp. When a universal cutoff of 10% positivity was used (relative to strongly positive control sera of each species......-ELISA and the FPA with combined antigens were suitable as screening tests for all species of Brucella in the animal species tested....

  13. Basophil activation test: food challenge in a test tube or specialist research tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Alexandra F; Lack, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    Oral food challenge (OFC) is the gold-standard to diagnose food allergy; however, it is a labour and resource-intensive procedure with the risk of causing an acute allergic reaction, which is potentially severe. Therefore, OFC are reserved for cases where the clinical history and the results of skin prick test and/or specific IgE do not confirm or exclude the diagnosis of food allergy. This is a significant proportion of patients seen in Allergy clinics and results in a high demand for OFC. The basophil activation test (BAT) has emerged as a new diagnostic test for food allergy. With high diagnostic accuracy, it can be particularly helpful in the cases where skin prick test and specific IgE are equivocal and may allow reducing the need for OFC. BAT has high specificity, which confers a high degree of certainty in confirming the diagnosis of food allergy and allows deferring the performance of OFC in patients with a positive BAT. The diagnostic utility of BAT is allergen-specific and needs to be validated for different allergens and in specific patient populations. Standardisation of the laboratory methodology and of the data analyses would help to enable a wider clinical application of BAT.

  14. COMPARISON OF DOUBLE AND SINGLE PIERCING PROCESS IN SEAMLESS STEEL TUBE MANUFACTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Chihiro, HAYASHI; Tomio, YAMAKAWA; Corporate Research and Development Laboratories, Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd.; Corporate Research and Development Laboratories, Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd.

    1997-01-01

    An investigation work was made on the influence of the piercing process on the rotary forging effects, redundant shear deformations and power consumption. In this work, a study was made to compare the double and single piercing process with reference to the Mannesmann piercing mill and the cone-type piercing mill developed by the authors. If the conventional double piercing process employing the Mannesmann piercing mill is replaced by the single piercing process employing the cone-type pierci...

  15. Time-lapse cinematography of the capillary tube cell migration inhibition test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, M A

    1980-01-01

    The kinetics of human and guinea pig cell migration inhibition have been studied using time-lapse cinematography of cells migrating from capillary tubes. Guinea pig and human cells exhibit markedly different kinetics in the absence of inhibitors. Specific antigen causes a dose-related inhibition of migration for up to 60 h using guinea pig cells and a peak of inhibition after 18 h using the human leucocyte system. The timing of measurement of maximum activity more critical for the latter test. The kinetics of lymphokine generation have been examined and the migration inhibitory activity of the plant mitogen (PHA), a Kurloff cell product and a continuous cell line supernatant have been compared with the inhibitory profiles of lymphokine preparations and specific antigen.

  16. Darwin's concepts in a test tube: parallels between organismal and in vitro evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Arenas, Carolina; Lehman, Niles

    2009-02-01

    The evolutionary process as imagined by Darwin 150 years ago is evident not only in nature but also in the manner in which naked nucleic acids and proteins experience the "survival of the fittest" in the test tube during in vitro evolution. This review highlights some of the most apparent evolutionary patterns, such as directional selection, purifying selection, disruptive selection, and iterative evolution (recurrence), and draws parallels between what happens in the wild with whole organisms and what happens in the lab with molecules. Advances in molecular selection techniques, particularly with catalytic RNAs and DNAs, have accelerated in the last 20 years to the point where soon any sort of complex differential hereditary event that one can ascribe to natural populations will be observable in molecular populations, and exploitation of these events can even lead to practical applications in some cases.

  17. Development of intelligent Eddy Current Testing (ECT) system for PWR steam generator tube inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, K.; Kawase, N.; Kurokawa, M.; Asada, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The intelligent ECT system was developed for the inspection of heat transfer tubes of the steam generator of the PWR plant. It consists of intelligent probe, data acquisition unit and data analysis system. The probe combines 24 channels inclined lay out drive coils and thin film pick-up coils with built-in electric circuits to provide high inspection capability equivalent to rotating coil ECT and high-speed inspection equivalent to conventional bobbin coil ECT. The advanced data analysis system that has filtering and automatic analysis functions is also developed to enable fast and precise analysis of large volume inspection data. The system was qualified by confirmation tests in FY 2003 to show thinned thickness sizing accuracy within ± 5%. (T. Tanaka)

  18. Study of tensile test behavior of austenitic stainless steel type 347 seamless thin-walled tubes in cold worked condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terui, Clarice, E-mail: clarice.terui@marinha.mil.br [Centro Tecnológico da Marinha em São Paulo (CINA/CTMSP), Iperó, SP (Brazil). Centro Industrial Nuclear da Marinha; Lima, Nelson B. de, E-mail: nblima@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNE-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    These austenitic stainless steel type 347 seamless thin-walled tubes are potential candidates to be used in fuel elements of nuclear power plants (as PWR - Pressurized Water Reactor). So, their metallurgical condition and mechanical properties, as the tensile strength and yield strength, normally are very restrict in demanding project and design requirements. Several full size tensile tests at room temperature and high temperature (315 deg C) were performed in these seamless tubes in cold-worked condition. The results of specified tensile and yield strengths were achieved but the elongation of the tube, in the geometry of the component, could not be measured at high temperature due to unconventional mode of rupture (helical mode without separation of parts). The average value of elongation was obtained from stress-strain curves of hot tensile tests and was around 5%. The results obtained in this research show that this behavior of the full size tensile test samples of thin-walled tube (wall thickness less than 0.5 mm) in high temperature (315°C) is due to the combination of the manufacturing process, the material (crystallographic structure and chemical composition) and the final geometry of the component. In other words, the strong crystallographic texture of material induced by tube drawing process in addition with the geometry of the component are responsible for the behavior in hot uniaxial tensile tests. (author)

  19. Testing of the effect of the entry beam tube windows of the silicon detectors of the ionisation radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopestansky, J.; Tykva, R.; Stanek, S.

    1995-01-01

    This paper deals with testing of the entry beam tube windows of the silicon detectors of the ionisation radiation with surface barrier.The influence of the parameters of basic material and modified technologic preparation on the size and homogeneity of the windows was tested

  20. Comparison of manual mycobacteria growth indicator tube and epsilometer test with agar proportion method for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Karabulut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Antimycobacterial susceptibility tests take weeks, and delayed therapy can lead to spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Therefore, rapid, accurate and cost-effective methods are required for proper therapy selection. In this study, the Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT and epsilometer test (Etest methods were compared to the agar proportion method for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: The susceptibility tests against isoniazid (INH, rifampin (RIF, streptomycin (STM and ethambutol (ETM of 51 M. tuberculosis complex isolates were analyzed by the MGIT, Etest and agar proportion methods. Results: The concordance between MGIT/Etest and agar proportion methods was 98% for INH and 100% for RIF, STM, ETM. There were not statistically significant differences in results of the susceptibility tests between MGIT/Etest and the reference agar proportion method. Conclusion: The results have shown that MGIT and Etest methods can be used instead of the agar proportion method, because these two methods are more rapid and easier than the agar proportion method.

  1. Syndromes and Disorders Associated with Omphalocele (III: Single Gene Disorders, Neural Tube Defects, Diaphragmatic Defects and Others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Omphalocele can be associated with single gene disorders, neural tube defects, diaphragmatic defects, fetal valproate syndrome, and syndromes of unknown etiology. This article provides a comprehensive review of omphalocele-related disorders: otopalatodigital syndrome type II; Melnick–Needles syndrome; Rieger syndrome; neural tube defects; Meckel syndrome; Shprintzen–Goldberg omphalocele syndrome; lethal omphalocele-cleft palate syndrome; cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome; fetal valproate syndrome; Marshall–Smith syndrome; fibrochondrogenesis; hydrolethalus syndrome; Fryns syndrome; omphalocele, diaphragmatic defects, radial anomalies and various internal malformations; diaphragmatic defects, limb deficiencies and ossification defects of skull; Donnai–Barrow syndrome; CHARGE syndrome; Goltz syndrome; Carpenter syndrome; Toriello–Carey syndrome; familial omphalocele; Cornelia de Lange syndrome; C syndrome; Elejalde syndrome; Malpuech syndrome; cervical ribs, Sprengel anomaly, anal atresia and urethral obstruction; hydrocephalus with associated malformations; Kennerknecht syndrome; lymphedema, atrial septal defect and facial changes; and craniosynostosis- mental retardation syndrome of Lin and Gettig. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert one to the possibility of omphalocele-related disorders and familial inheritance and prompt a thorough genetic counseling for these disorders.

  2. Supplemental tube feeding does not mitigate weight loss in infants with shunt-dependent single-ventricle physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, Michael V; Glatz, Andrew C; Ravishankar, Chitra; Quartermain, Michael D; Rush, Christina Hayden; Nance, Michael; William Gaynor, J; Goldberg, David J

    2013-08-01

    Infants with shunt-dependent single-ventricle (SV) physiology are at risk for poor weight gain before superior cavopulmonary connection (SCPC). Lower weight-for-age z-score is a risk factor for prolonged length of stay (LOS) after SCPC. We sought to characterize infant growth and feeding and determine the effect of method of feeding on outcomes. Chart review of infants with shunt-dependent SV physiology born between October 2007 and September 2010 was performed. The cohort was divided into three groups based on feeding method at discharge after initial palliation; 53 in the oral feeding (PO) group, 56 in the nasogastric (NG) tube group, and 26 in the gastrostomy tube (GT) group. Birth weight z-score did not differ among groups (p = 0.39), but infants fed by NG or GT were smaller than PO-fed infants at hospital discharge (p = 0.0001), a difference that persisted through SCPC (p SCPC did not differ among groups. Risk factors for longer LOS at SCPC included longer LOS and need for supplemental feeds at discharge from initial palliation as well as lower weight at SCPC. Poor growth is common among infants with shunt-dependent SV physiology. Infants who require GT have lower weight-for-age z-scores at hospital discharge and remain smaller at SCPC than those fed PO. Although GT after initial palliation is associated with longer LOS after SCPC, it is not associated with an increase in interstage morbidity or mortality.

  3. Statistical analysis of entropy generation in longitudinally finned tube heat exchanger with shell side nanofluid by a single phase approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konchada Pavan Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of nanoparticles in heat exchangers ascertained increment in heat transfer. The present work focuses on heat transfer in a longitudinal finned tube heat exchanger. Experimentation is done on longitudinal finned tube heat exchanger with pure water as working fluid and the outcome is compared numerically using computational fluid dynamics (CFD package based on finite volume method for different flow rates. Further 0.8% volume fraction of aluminum oxide (Al2O3 nanofluid is considered on shell side. The simulated nanofluid analysis has been carried out using single phase approach in CFD by updating the user-defined functions and expressions with thermophysical properties of the selected nanofluid. These results are thereafter compared against the results obtained for pure water as shell side fluid. Entropy generated due to heat transfer and fluid flow is calculated for the nanofluid. Analysis of entropy generation is carried out using the Taguchi technique. Analysis of variance (ANOVA results show that the inlet temperature on shell side has more pronounced effect on entropy generation.

  4. Stress in closed thin-walled tubes of single box subjected by shear forces and application to airfoils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebbiche Toufik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The presented work is to develop a numerical computation program to determine the distribution of the shear stress to shear in closed tubes with asymmetric single thin wall section with a constant thickness and applications to airfoils and therefore determining the position and value of the maximum stress. In the literature, there are exact analytical solutions only for some sections of simple geometries such as circular section. Hence our interest is focused on the search of approximate numerical solutions for more complex sections used in aeronautics. In the second stage the position of the shear center is determined so that the section does not undergo torsion. The analytic function of the boundary of the airfoil is obtained by using the cubic spline interpolation since it is given in the form of tabulated points.

  5. Multifrequency Eddy current testing of heat exchange tubes with a rotating probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, R.

    1982-01-01

    Multi-frequency eddy current analyses have been used in France industrially since 1975. In light of the experienced gained during many steam generator inspections, this technique was applied to the examination of sheet and tube heat exchangers featuring tubes in very different materials such as copper, stainless steel and titanium. The principle of multi-frequency Eddy current inspection is first reviewed, using the example of a condenser with nickel alloy tubes (Inconel, Incoloy). This is followed by the description of a specific application of this technique to a condenser with titanium tubes, analyzed with a rotating local probe [fr

  6. Autobiologies on YouTube: Narratives of Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anna; Kelly, Susan E.; Wyatt, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Despite a growing personal genomics market, little is known about how people engage with the possibilities offered by direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing. In order to help address this gap, this study deploys narrative analysis of YouTube videos posted by individuals who have purchased DTC genetic testing for disease. Genetic testing is said to be contributing to new states of illness, where individuals may become “patients-in-waiting.” In the videos analyzed, we found a new form of storytelling about this ambiguous state of illness, which we refer to as autobiology. Autobiology – the study of, and story about, one's own biology – concerns narratives of sense-making through forms of biological practice, as well as wayfaring narratives which interweave genetic markers and family histories of disease. These autobiologies – part of a broader shift toward public stories about genetics and other healthcare technologies – exhibit playfulness, as well as being bound with consumerist practices. PMID:24772003

  7. Estimation of the hot extrusion process pressure cycle of zircaloy tubes by torsion and compression tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, D; Banchik, D.A; Gonzalez, I; Dagradi, J; Rodriguez, C

    2002-01-01

    In the production of Zircaloy-4 tubes for nuclear reactors, the first semi-processed tubular form is obtained using the extrusion process. Empirical equations are normally used, which can be applied to extrusion with axial symmetry, or analytical ones are used such as Seibel's equation to evaluate the extrusion process based on the material flow tension. When we use the flow tension corresponding to the mean value of the velocity of extrusion deformation, the extrusion pressure is significantly underestimated, with relation to the experimentally measured pressure. This is because of the flow tension's heavy dependence on the velocity of deformation, which is typical of commercial zirconium alloys. Therefore, the pressure was estimated by calculating the power dissipated during the deformation assuming a velocity field of homogenous deformation in each stage of deformation but without considering friction forces between the work and the extrusion matrix. The flow tension for the torsion tests performed are compared with the results obtained by compression as reported in the literature. These results are compared with four extrusion sequences carried out with different: reduction rates, temperatures, and deformation velocities. The flow tension from the compression test presents greater tension values than those estimated by the torsion test. The origin of these differences is discussed and the conclusion is that they can be attributed to the different crystallography textures generated in both tests. Once the correction is made for the texture variation, the flow tension values evaluated with both testing types in samples of Zircaloy-4 are the same. The peculiarities of each test in relation to the extrusion process are discussed. Despite the very simplified hypotheses that were assumed, the extrusion pressures calculated with the compression and torsion flow tension results, considering their dependence on the speed of deformation and temperature variation during

  8. Sex in a test tube: testing the benefits of in vitro recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Diego; Lehman, Niles; de Visser, J Arjan G M

    2016-10-19

    The origin and evolution of sex, and the associated role of recombination, present a major problem in biology. Sex typically involves recombination of closely related DNA or RNA sequences, which is fundamentally a random process that creates but also breaks up beneficial allele combinations. Directed evolution experiments, which combine in vitro mutation and recombination protocols with in vitro or in vivo selection, have proved to be an effective approach for improving functionality of nucleic acids and enzymes. As this approach allows extreme control over evolutionary conditions and parameters, it also facilitates the detection of small or position-specific recombination benefits and benefits associated with recombination between highly divergent genotypes. Yet, in vitro approaches have been largely exploratory and motivated by obtaining improved end products rather than testing hypotheses of recombination benefits. Here, we review the various experimental systems and approaches used by in vitro studies of recombination, discuss what they say about the evolutionary role of recombination, and sketch their potential for addressing extant questions about the evolutionary role of sex and recombination, in particular on complex fitness landscapes. We also review recent insights into the role of 'extracellular recombination' during the origin of life.This article is part of the themed issue 'Weird sex: the underappreciated diversity of sexual reproduction'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Expert system for eddy current signal analysis: non destructive testing of steam generator tubings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, B.

    1991-01-01

    Automatic analysis, by computer, of defect signals in steam generator tubes, based on Eddy current multifrequency technique, is must often inefficient due to pilgrim noise. The first step is to use a method that allows us to eleminate the noise: the adaptative interpolation. Thanks to this method, which ensures reliable data on each channel, the analysis can be realised by taking into account the data corresponding to each basic or mixed channel. By correlating these diverse data, we can class the signals according to two types of defects: single defects (symmetrical), multiple defects (several in the same place). The second step is to use an expert system which allows a reliable diagnosis for whatever family the defect belongs to. According to this classification, analysis is continued and results in the characterization of the defect. The expert system has already been developed with the general purpose application expert system shell SUPER, which is briefly described. The knowledge base (SOCRATE) and the specific tools developed for this application are thoroughly described. The first results obtained with signals corresponding to real defects, that have been recorded in different places, are presented and discussed. The expert system is revealed efficient in all the studied cases, even with signals obtained in very noisy environments [fr

  10. Ultrananocrystalline diamond decoration on to the single wall carbon nano tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Bhavesh; Late, Datta; Jejurikar, Suhas M.

    2017-10-01

    We have demonstrated the decoration of the ultrananocrystalline diamonds on single walled carbon nanotubes using a hot filament assisted chemical vapor deposition. Study reveals the critical influence of the filament to substrate distance on the formation of ultrananocrystalline diamonds on to the single walled carbon nanotubes. It is also observed that etching of carbon nanotubes, due to the presence of unavoidable atomic hydrogen throughout the chemical vapor deposition processes, can be significantly reduced by adjusting the filament to substrate distance. Morphological and structural investigations performed using high resolution transmission electron microscope suggests the growth of ultrananocrystalline diamond is subsequent to the formation of crystalline sp2 carbon layer on the nanotube wall, enabling us to suggest a growth model. The composite synthesized can be thought not only to use as a fuel cell catalyst support but also as chemical sensors, bio-sensors and micro electromechanical systems (MEMS).

  11. Replacing a double-lumen tube with a single-lumen tube or a laryngeal mask airway device to reduce coughing at emergence after thoracic surgery: a randomized controlled single-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanoubi, Issam; Sun, Joanna Ng Man; Drolet, Pierre; Fortier, Louis-Philippe; Donati, François

    2015-09-01

    Coughing episodes occur frequently at extubation after thoracic surgery, and this may be due in part to the double-lumen tube (DLT). In this study, the DLT was replaced with either a single-lumen endotracheal tube (ETT) or a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) device or left in place, and the incidence of coughing at emergence was compared between the three groups. Fifty-eight adults scheduled for thoracic surgery with a DLT were included. Exclusion criteria were an anticipated difficult airway, obesity, and contraindication to the use of an LMA ProSeal™ (LMA-P). After surgery but before emergence, patients were randomized to having the DLT (1) removed and replaced by an LMA-P (LMA-P Group), (2) removed and replaced by an ETT (ETT Group), or (3) left in place (DLT Group). The primary outcome was the number of coughing episodes at extubation. Among 184 patients screened, 124 did not meet inclusion criteria, and two patients, both in the ETT Group, were excluded after randomization, leaving 20, 18, and 20 patients in the LMA-P, ETT, and DLT Groups, respectively. There were fewer coughing episodes (median [quartiles]) in the LMA-P Group than in the DLT Group (0[0-1] vs 2[1-3], respectively; P = 0.01). In the DLT Group, 90% of patients coughed at least once. This incidence was not significantly different in the ETT Group (83%; P = 0.222) but was significantly reduced in the LMA-P Group (35%; P replaced by an LMA-P before emergence. The number of patients in this trial was too small to evaluate the risks associated with exchanging the airway device. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00925613.

  12. Structure-activity relationships for chloro- and nitrophenol toxicity in the pollen tube growth test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueuermann, G. [UFZ Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Ecotoxicology; Somashekar, R.K. [Bangalore Univ. (India). Dept. of Botany; Kristen, U. [Univ. Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Botanik

    1996-10-01

    Acute toxicity of 10 chlorophenols and 10 nitrophenols with identical substitution patterns is analyzed with the pollen tube growth (PTG) test. Concentration values of 50% growth inhibition (IC50) between 0.1 and 300 mg/L indicate that the absolute sensitivity of this alternative biotest is comparable to conventional aquatic test systems. Analysis of quantitative structure-activity relationships using lipophilicity (log K{sub ow}), acidity (pK{sub a}), and quantum chemical parameters to model intrinsic acidity, solvation interactions, and nucleophilicity reveals substantial differences between the intraseries trends of log IC50. With chlorophenols, a narcotic-type relationship is derived, which, however, shows marked differences in slope and intercept when compared to reference regression equations for polar narcosis. Regression analysis of nitrophenol toxicity suggests interpretation in terms of two modes of action: oxidative uncoupling activity is associated with a pK{sub a} window from 3.8 to 8.5, and more acidic congeners with diortho-substitution show a transition from uncoupling to a narcotic mode of action with decreasing pK{sub a} and log K{sub ow}. Model calculations for phenol nucleophilicity suggest that differences in the phenol readiness for glucuronic acid conjugation as a major phase-II detoxication pathway have no direct influence on acute PTG toxicity of the compounds.

  13. Anticoagulant carryover may influence clot formation in direct tube coagulase tests from blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varettas, Kerry; Mukerjee, Chinmoy; Taylor, Peter C

    2005-09-01

    The tube coagulase test (TCT) performed directly from positive blood culture bottles has been used to reduce the turnaround time for identifying Staphylococcus aureus. Most reports have shown the test to be specific but often lacking sufficient sensitivity to be useful. In a prospective study of blood culture bottles (BCB) signaling positive, with a Gram-stained smear showing gram-positive cocci resembling staphylococci, the sensitivity of the direct TCT was improved by diluting the BCB broth 1:10 in saline before inoculating 0.1 ml into 1.0 ml of 10% pooled human plasma. It was hypothesized that the improved sensitivity might be explained by reduced carryover of the anticoagulant sodium polyanetholesulfonate (SPS) used in blood culture media. By titrating the inoculum size and the concentration of SPS in an in vitro checkerboard assay, it was shown that concentrations of SPS >0.0008% prevented plasma coagulation. The 1:10 dilution of blood culture broth reduced the amount of residual SPS carried over to the TCT to a level (0.0005%) that did not impair plasma coagulation. The direct TCT inoculated with a 1:10 saline dilution of blood culture broth achieved 100% specificity and sensitivity within 4 h of inoculation without reducing the quality or quantity of coagulum.

  14. Elastic characterization of closed cell foams from impedance tube absorption tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevillotte, F; Panneton, R

    2007-11-01

    A method is presented to determine the bulk elastic properties of isotropic elastic closed-cell foams from impedance tube sound absorption tests. For such foams, a resonant sound absorption is generally observed, where acoustic energy is transformed into mechanical vibration, which in turn is dissipated into heat due to structural damping. This article shows how the bulk Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and damping loss factor can be deduced from the resonant absorption. Also, an optimal damping loss factor yielding 100% of absorption at the first resonance is defined from the developed theory. The method is introduced for a sliding edge condition which is an ideal condition. Then, the method is extended to a bonded edge condition which is more easily achievable and additionally enables the identification of the Poisson's ratio. The method is experimentally tested on expanding closed-cell foams to find their elastic properties in both cases. Using the found properties, sound absorption predictions using an equivalent solid model with and without surface absorption are compared to measurements. Good correlations are obtained when considering surface absorption.

  15. Atmospheres in a Test Tube: state of the art at the Astronomical Observatory of Padova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erculiani, M. S.; Claudi, R.; Cocola, L.; Giro, E.; La Rocca, N.; Morosinotto, T.; Poletto, L.; Barbisan, D.; Billi, D.; Bonato, M.; D'Alessandro, M.; Galletta, G.; Meneghini, M.; Trivellin, N.; Cestelli Guidi, M.; Pace, E.; Schierano, D.; Micela, G.

    At the Astronomical observatory of Padova we are trying to answer some questions about the detectability of biosignatures in the exoplanetary atmospheres, working in the framework of the project Atmosphere in a Test Tube. In particular we are investigating how the presence of photosynthetic biota living on the surface of a planet orbiting in the HZ of an M type star may modify the atmospheric gas abundances. This can be achieved in laboratory with an environmental simulator called MINI - LISA. The simulator allows to modify the temperature and the pressure inside a test chamber, where a selected population of photosynthetic bacteria is arranged. We'll focalize our experiments on the following bacteria: Acaryochloris marina, Halomicronema hongdechloris, Leptolyngbya sp.1 and Chlorogloeopsis fritschii. The first two bacteria are naturally provided with NIR light metabolizers, like Chl-d and Chl-f, while the last two can develop such pigments if grown in NIR light. The experiment will lead us to obtain useful data to be compared with the ones expected either by the future space missions (JWST, ARIEL) and ground based new instrumentation (SPHERE@VLT; GPI@GEMINI; PCS@E-ELT). In this talk we discuss the layout of the experiment and its state of art.

  16. Tube Current Modulation Between Single- and Dual-Energy CT With a Second-Generation Dual-Source Scanner: Radiation Dose and Image Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Kosuke; Takata, Tadanori; Kobayashi, Masanao; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Koshida, Kichiro; Gabata, Toshifumi

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of tube current modulation between single- and dual-energy CT with a second-generation dual-source scanner. Custom-made elliptic polymethylmethacrylate phantoms for slim and large patients were used. Absorbed radiation dose at the central point of the phantoms was measured with a solid-state detector while the phantoms were scanned in single-energy (120 kV) and dual-energy (100/Sn140, 80/Sn140, and 140/80 kV) modes with a second-generation dual-source CT scanner. Tube current modulation was activated in both modes, and quality reference tube current-time settings of 150, 300, 450, and 600 mAs were selected. Scanning was performed three times under the same conditions, and image noise was evaluated by measuring the SD of CT numbers in four separate regions of three adjacent images of the phantoms. Absorbed dose increased and image noise decreased with an increase in quality reference tube current-time setting when the slim phantom was scanned. For the large phantom, the radiation dose and noise level reached a plateau above quality reference tube current-time settings of 300 mAs for 100/Sn140 kV and 450 mAs for 120 kV. The radiation dose was small and the noise level was large with 80/Sn140 kV compared with that obtained with 120 and 100/Sn140 kV at all quality reference tube current-time settings. When a large phantom is scanned with 100/Sn140 kV, exposure demand for tube current modulation exceeds system limits at a lower quality reference tube current-time setting than for scanning 120 kV.

  17. A comparison of the test tube and the dialysis tubing in vitro methods for estimating the bioavailability of phosphorus in feed ingredients for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, David W; Tsunoda, Atsushi; Ledoux, David R; Ellersieck, Mark R; Veum, Trygve L

    2005-05-04

    The validity of a simplified in vitro test tube (TT) method was compared with a more complicated dialysis tubing (DT) method to estimate the percentage of available phosphorus (P) in 41 plant origin and five animal origin feed ingredients for swine. The TT method using 1.0 or 0.25 g samples was compared with the DT method using 1.0 g samples at two pancreatic incubation times (2 vs 4 h) in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Each DT and TT method treatment was replicated three and six times, respectively. Both methods utilize three enzymatic digestions: (i) predigestion with endoxylanase and beta-glucanase for 1 h, (ii) pepsin digestion for 2 h, and (iii) pancreatin digestion for 2 or 4 h. For the TT method, the entire procedure was conducted in a 50 mL conical centrifuge tube and replicated six times. For the DT method, the first two digestions were conducted in a 10 mL plastic syringe before the contents were quantitatively transferred into a segment of DT for the pancreatic digestion. The percentages of hydrolyzed P for plant origin ingredients measured by the DT method using 1.0 g samples and the TT method using 0.25 g samples were highly correlated (r = 0.94-0.97, P or = 0.4) with published in vivo available P values. In conclusion, the accuracy and validity of the TT method using 0.25 g samples with a 2 h pancreatic digestion time was equal to or superior to the DT method using 1.0 g samples with a 4 h pancreatic digestion time for estimating P availability in plant origin feed ingredients.

  18. BRCA Testing by Single-Molecule Molecular Inversion Probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neveling, K.; Mensenkamp, A.R.; Derks, R; Kwint, M.P.; Ouchene, H.; Steehouwer, M.; Lier, L.A. van; Bosgoed, E.A.J.; Rikken, A.; Tychon, M.W.J.; Zafeiropoulou, D.; Castelein, S.; Hehir-Kwa, J.Y.; Thung, G.W.; Hofste, T.; Lelieveld, S.H.; Bertens, S.M.; Adan, I.B.; Eijkelenboom, A.; Tops, B.B.J.; Yntema, H.G.; Stokowy, T.; Knappskog, P.M.; Hoberg-Vetti, H.; Steen, V.M.; Boyle, E.; Martin, B.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Shendure, J.; Nelen, M.R.; Hoischen, A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite advances in next generation DNA sequencing (NGS), NGS-based single gene tests for diagnostic purposes require improvements in terms of completeness, quality, speed, and cost. Single-molecule molecular inversion probes (smMIPs) are a technology with unrealized potential in the

  19. Single-shell tank riser resistance to ground test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiewert, L.R.

    1996-01-01

    This Test Procedure provides the general directions for conducting Single-Shell Tank Riser to Earth Measurements which will be used by engineering as a step towards providing closure for the Lightning Hazard Issue

  20. Dynamic loads on human and animal surrogates at different test locations in compressed-gas-driven shock tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alay, E.; Skotak, M.; Misistia, A.; Chandra, N.

    2017-10-01

    Dynamic loads on specimens in live-fire conditions as well as at different locations within and outside compressed-gas-driven shock tubes are determined by both static and total blast overpressure-time pressure pulses. The biomechanical loading on the specimen is determined by surface pressures that combine the effects of static, dynamic, and reflected pressures and specimen geometry. Surface pressure is both space and time dependent; it varies as a function of size, shape, and external contour of the specimens. In this work, we used two sets of specimens: (1) anthropometric dummy head and (2) a surrogate rodent headform instrumented with pressure sensors and subjected them to blast waves in the interior and at the exit of the shock tube. We demonstrate in this work that while inside the shock tube the biomechanical loading as determined by various pressure measures closely aligns with live-fire data and shock wave theory, significant deviations are found when tests are performed outside.

  1. Dynamic loads on human and animal surrogates at different test locations in compressed-gas-driven shock tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alay, E.; Skotak, M.; Misistia, A.; Chandra, N.

    2018-01-01

    Dynamic loads on specimens in live-fire conditions as well as at different locations within and outside compressed-gas-driven shock tubes are determined by both static and total blast overpressure-time pressure pulses. The biomechanical loading on the specimen is determined by surface pressures that combine the effects of static, dynamic, and reflected pressures and specimen geometry. Surface pressure is both space and time dependent; it varies as a function of size, shape, and external contour of the specimens. In this work, we used two sets of specimens: (1) anthropometric dummy head and (2) a surrogate rodent headform instrumented with pressure sensors and subjected them to blast waves in the interior and at the exit of the shock tube. We demonstrate in this work that while inside the shock tube the biomechanical loading as determined by various pressure measures closely aligns with live-fire data and shock wave theory, significant deviations are found when tests are performed outside.

  2. A single hole tracer test to determine longitudinal dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noy, D.J.; Holmes, D.C.

    1986-03-01

    The paper concerns a single hole tracer test to determine longitudinal dispersion, which is an important parameter in assessing the suitability of a site for radioactive waste disposal. The theory, equipment and procedure for measuring longitudinal dispersion in a single borehole is described. Results are presented for field trials conducted in an aquifer, where the technique produced good results. The measured value of longitudinal dispersion, from a single hole test, relates only to a limited volume of rock immediately adjacent to the borehole. (U.K.)

  3. A relativistic smoothed particle hydrodynamics method tested with the shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Patrick J.

    1991-12-01

    The smoothed particle hydrodynamics method is applied to an ADM 3 + 1 formulation of the equations for relativistic fluid flow. In particular the one-dimensional shock tube is addressed. Three codes are described. The first is a straightforward extension of classic SPH, while the other two are modifications which allow for time-dependent smoothing lengths. The first of these modifications approximates the internal energy density, while the second approximates the total energy density. Two smoothing forms are tested: an artificial viscosity and the direct method of A.J. Baker [Finite Element Computation Fluid Mechanics (Hemisphere, New York, 1983)]. The results indicate that the classic SPH code with particle-particle based artificial viscosity is reasonably accurate and very consistent. It gives quite sharp edges and flat plateaus, but the velocity plateau is significantly overestimated, and an oscillation can appear in the rarefaction wave. The modified versions with Baker smoothing procedure better results for moderate initial conditions, but begin to show spikes when the initial density jump is large. Generally the results are comparable to simple finite element and finite difference methods.

  4. Manufacturing immunity to disease in a test tube: the magic bullet realized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard A

    2006-12-11

    Although it took over one hundred years, Ehrlich's concept of the magic bullet is now a reality. Today, therapeutic antibodies are, arguably, the most important class of new drugs for the treatment of illnesses ranging from Alzheimer's disease to cancer. The emergence of therapeutic antibodies had to wait for advances in immunochemistry that allowed construction of antibodies in vitro. The centerpiece of the new technology is the combinatorial antibody library, which essentially allows one to synthesize an artificial immune system with a diversity that exceeds that of the natural repertoire. The construction of such libraries was perceived to be difficult because, if the natural immune system was to be used as the starting material, construction of the libraries would entail protocols that are the opposite of usual cloning. In gene cloning one starts with complexity and reduces it to a singularity. In the generation of diversity by construction of combinatorial antibody libraries, one starts with a collection of clones, randomly expands their complexity, and then returns them to recoverable singularities. The methods developed to accomplish this seemingly formidable task now allow construction of antibodies in a test tube to any antigen. These synthetic antibodies may be qualitatively and quantitatively superior to those of nature.

  5. Association between maternal single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes regulating glucose metabolism and risk for neural tube defects in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yunting; Wang, Lin-lin; Yi, Deqing; Jin, Lei; Liu, Jufen; Zhang, Yali; Ren, Aiguo

    2015-06-01

    Maternal pregestational hyperglycemia, diabetes, and obesity are well-established risk factors for neural tube defects (NTDs). As a common underlying mechanism, the imbalance of glucose homeostasis is directly related to the development of NTDs. Polymorphisms in genes regulating glucose metabolism in women may impact their chance of having an NTD-affected pregnancy. We conducted a two-stage case-control study to investigate the association between maternal genetic variants in genes regulating glucose metabolism and risk for NTDs. The cases were 547 women who gave birth to a child with an NTD (anencephaly, spina bifida, or encephalocele); the controls were 543 women who gave birth to a full-term healthy infant. In the first stage, 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in 160 cases and 162 controls. In the second stage, five single nucleotide polymorphisms found in the first stage and potentially associated with NTD risk were genotyped for validation, in an additional 387 cases and 381 controls. Combined analysis of data from the two stages showed an association between maternal AA genotype of GCKR rs780094 and increased risk for total NTDs [odds ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-2.59) and spina bifida subtype [odds ratio, 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-2.88). No association was found between the other four single nucleotide polymorphisms (LEPR rs1137100, HK1 rs748235, HHEX rs5015480, KCNQ1 rs2237892) and NTD risk. The AA genotype in maternal GCKR rs780094 is associated with an increased risk for NTDs and spina bifida in the Chinese population. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Comparison of pneumatic tube system with manual transport for routine chemistry, hematology, coagulation and blood gas tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupek, Alex; Matthewson, Beverly; Whitman, Erin; Fullarton, Rachel; Chen, Yu

    2017-08-28

    The pneumatic tube system (PTS) is commonly used in modern clinical laboratories to provide quick specimen delivery. However, its impact on sample integrity and laboratory testing results are still debatable. In addition, each PTS installation and configuration is unique to its institution. We sought to validate our Swisslog PTS by comparing routine chemistry, hematology, coagulation and blood gas test results and sample integrity indices between duplicate samples transported either manually or by PTS. Duplicate samples were delivered to the core laboratory manually by human courier or via the Swisslog PTS. Head-to-head comparisons of 48 routine chemistry, hematology, coagulation and blood gas laboratory tests, and three sample integrity indices were conducted on 41 healthy volunteers and 61 adult patients. The PTS showed no impact on sample hemolysis, lipemia, or icterus indices (all pcoagulation and blood gas (in syringe and capillary tube) laboratory tests.

  7. [Partial thyroxine binding globulin deficiency in test tube infants: report of cases and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Y L; Wang, C L; Liang, L

    2016-06-02

    To investigate the clinical characteristics of twins with thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) deficiency and to find SERPINA7 gene mutations. Data(2015) related to clinical characteristics, serum biochemistry, gene mutations and pedigree of two children with TBG deficiency were collected in the First Affiliated Hospital of College of Medicine, Zhejiang University. The related literature was searched form China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, National Center for Biotechnology Information and PubMed (up to December 2015) by using search terms "Thyroxine binding globulin deficiency, gene, mutation" . Both patients were diagnosed as central hypothyroidism at the beginning and treated with L-thyroxine. Both of the identical twins of the triplet were observed for mutation in exon3, c. 631G﹥A(p.A211T), a new mutation had not been reported, but their parents and another non-identical triplet brother were normal. Literature review showed that 23 foreign cases with SERPINA7 gene mutation had been reported, however, no Chinese with SERPINA7 gene mutation had been reported. Among reported cases it was shown that SERPINA7 gene mutations located in exon, intron, promoter and enhancer. Up to now, 49 variants had been identified, 41 of them located in the mutated genes. Including these two cases, patients with thyroxine binding globulin deficiency were characterized by reduced serum TH levels, but normal free TH and TSH and absence of clinical manifestations. The new mutation of SERPINA7 gene c. 631G﹥A(p.A211T)is not transmitted via the known X chromosome linked heredity, and as the cases were test tube triplet infants, it is a de novo mutation. The serum thyroid function tests of TBG deficiency showed decreased TT4, TT3 and normal TSH and TBG deficiency is often misdiagnosed as central hypothyroidism.

  8. Thermal-hydraulic tests of steam-generator tube-support-plate crevices. Volume 2. Appendixes I through S. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassell, D.S.; Vroom, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    A test program was conducted to determine for selected steam generator tube supports the thermal/hydraulic conditions at the inception of dryout as indicated by a tube wall temperature excursion, to determine the pressure drop across the supports, and to obtain photographic documentation of the flow upstream and downstream of the supports. A multi-tube steam generator model was used and testing performed over the range of typcal PWR steam generator operating conditions. These appendices contain information on instrumentation calibration, test model and loop calibration, error analysis, test model thermal-hydraulic analyses, index of lab materials and log sheets, index of two-phase flow still photographs, index of high speed movies and video, test data printouts, test model and loop fabrication drawings, procedure for silver brazing tubewall thermocouples, and procedure for esablishing tube-tube support line contact

  9. Wastage-resistant characteristics of 12Cr steel tube material. Small leak sodium-water reaction test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoyama, Kazuhito

    2004-03-01

    In the water leak accident of a steam generator designed for a sodium cooled reactor in the Feasibility Study, the localization of tube failure propagation by using an advanced water leak detector will be required from the viewpoints of the safety and economical efficiency of the plant. So far, the conventional knowledge and analytical tools have been used in the investigation and evaluation of water leak phenomenon; nevertheless, there was neither test data nor the study of quantitative evaluation on the corrosion behavior, so-called wastage-resistant characteristics, of 12Cr steel tube material in sodium-water reactions. Wastage tests for the 12Cr steel tube material were conducted in small water leaks by use of the Sodium-Water Reaction Test Rig (SWAT-1R), and the data of wastage rate were obtained in the parameter of water leak rate under the constant sodium temperature and distance between leak and target tubes. The test results lead to the following conclusions: (1) The wastage-resistibility of 12Cr steel is 1.6 times greater than that of 9Cr steel and is 2.7 times greater than that of 2.25Cr-1Mo steel. (2)The wastage-resistibility of 12Cr steel increases in smaller water leaks; especially in water leak rates of 1 g/sec or less, it is more excellent than that of SUS321 stainless steel used as Monju superheater tube material. (3) Based on the correlation of wastage rate for the 9Cr steel, the correlation for the 12Cr steel has been obtained to be used for the evaluation of tube failure propagation. As the correlation of wastage rate for the 12Cr steel is based on the correlation for the 9Cr steel, it gives enough conservatism in smaller water leaks. To serve in accurately evaluating the tube failure propagation in smaller water leaks, it is necessary to obtain new correlation of wastage rate for the 12Cr steel based on the data in the wide range of water leak rates. (author)

  10. A simple in vitro test tube method for estimating the bioavailability of phosphorus in feed ingredients for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, David W; Tsunoda, Atsushi; Ledoux, David R; Ellersieck, Mark R; Veum, Trygve L

    2004-04-07

    A simplified in vitro test tube (TT) method was developed to estimate the percentage of available P in feed ingredients for swine. The entire digestion procedure with the TT method consists of three consecutive enzymatic digestions carried out in a 50-mL conical test tube: (1) Pre-digestion with endo-xylanase and beta-glucanase for 1 h, (2) peptic digestion for 2 h, and (3) pancreatic digestion for 2 or 4 h. The TT method is simpler and much easier to perform compared to the dialysis tubing (DT) method, because dialysis tubing is not used. Reducing sample size from 1.0 to 0.25 g for the TT method improved results. In conclusion, the accuracy and validity of the TT method is equal to that of our more complicated DT method (r = 0.97, P < 0.001), designed to mimic the digestive system of swine, for estimating the availability of P in plant-origin feed ingredients.

  11. Non-Destructive Testing Methods Applied to Multi-Finned SAP Tubing for Nuclear-Fuel Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, S.A.; Knudsen, P.

    1965-01-01

    The Danish Atomic Energy Commission has undertaken a design study oi an organic-cooled, heavy- water-moderated power reactor. The fuel element for the reactor is a 19-rod bundle; the fuel rods contain sintered uranium-dioxide pellets canned in 2-m long, helically-finned tubes of Sintered Aluminium Product (SAP). A very high quality of the canning tubes is necessary to obtain the optimum heat-transfer conditions and to maintain the integrity of the fuel element during reactor service. Two examples of tube design illustrate the narrow dimensional tolerances. In order to ensure an adequate quality of the canning tubes, a stringent quality control has been established, to a wide extent based upon non-destructive methods. An account is presented of the non-destructive techniques developed for measuring wall thickness and diameters and for detecting defects. The complex 24-finned cross-section prevents the application of ultrasonic or eddy-current methods for wall-thickness measurements. Therefore, a special recording beta-gauge has been developed, based upon the attenuation of beta radiation from a Sr 90 source placed inside the tube. An ultrasonic immersion resonance method is used for the continuous recording of the wall thickness of the more simple 12-finned tube design. Inner and outer (across fin tips) diameters are continuously recorded by rapid air-gauge systems. Flaw detection is carried out by the ultrasonic pulse-echo immersion technique and by eddy-current inspection.. Transverse cracks can easily be detected by the ultrasonic method whereas inspection for longitudinal flaws has not appeared feasible with this method. Therefore, eddy-current inspection is applied in addition to the ultrasonic testing. (author) [fr

  12. Inner tube growth and electronic properties of metallicity-sorted nickelocene-filled semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharlamova, M. V.; Kramberger, C.; Sauer, M.; Yanagi, K.; Saito, T.; Pichler, T.

    2018-03-01

    In the present work, we have obtained metallicity-sorted nickelocene-filled semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by density gradient separation of metallicity mixed filled nanotubes. Double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) were obtained by annealing of filled SWCNTs in vacuum. The diameter distribution of inner tubes was analyzed by multifrequency Raman spectroscopy. The chemical transformation of nickelocene upon annealing was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) at the Ni 2 p core level. The thermally-induced transformation of nickelocene to nickel carbides and metallic nickel was revealed. The electronic properties of the filled SWCNTs and DWCNTs were investigated by XPS at the C 1 s core level. By tracing the C 1 s binding energy, it was shown that the annealing of nickelocene-filled SWCNTs at low temperatures (360-600 °C) led to electron doping of SWCNTs, whereas annealing at high temperatures and formation of DWCNTs (680-1200 °C) resulted in hole doping of nanotubes.

  13. Development and validation of a single-tube multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis for Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette A T P Brink

    Full Text Available Genotyping of Klebsiella pneumoniae is indispensable for management of nosocomial infections, monitoring of emerging strains--including extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producers-, and general epidemiology. Such objectives require a high-resolution genotyping method with a fixed scheme that allows (1 long-term retrospective and prospective assessment, (2 objective result readout and (3 library storage for database development and exchangeable results. We have developed a multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA using a single-tube fluorescently primed multiplex PCR for 8 Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTRs and automated fragment size analysis. The type allocation scheme was optimized using 224 K. pneumoniae clinical isolates, which yielded 101 MLVA types. The method was compared to the gold standard multilocus sequence typing (MLST using a subset of these clinical isolates (n = 95 and found to be highly concordant, with at least as high a resolution but with considerably less hands-on time. Our results position this MLVA scheme as an appropriate, high-throughput and relatively low-cost tool for K. pneumoniae epidemiology.

  14. Evaluation of a new single-tube multiprobe real-time PCR for diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shih-Yu; Hsia, Kan-Tai; Chan, Yun-Hsien; Fan, Chia-Kwung; Jiang, Donald Dah-Shyong; Landt, Olfert; Ji, Dar-Der

    2010-08-01

    A single-tube multiprobe real-time PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar was developed. One primer pair with 2 species-specific probes was designed based on new SSU RNA regions of the ribosomal DNA-containing episome. The sensitivity is 1 parasite per milliliter of feces and thus superior to the conventional nested PCR and comparable to other published real-time PCR protocols. The applicability for clinical diagnosis was validated with 218 stool specimens from patients. A total of 51 E. histolytica and 39 E. dispar positive samples was detected by the multiprobe real-time PCR compared to 39 and 22 by routine nested PCR diagnosis. The detection rate of Entamoeba species for the multiprobe real-time PCR assays was significantly higher than the nested PCR (40.8% vs. 28.0%, P Entamoeba moshkovskii, Giardia lamblia , Cryptosporidium sp., Escherichia coli , or other nonpathogenic enteric parasites. The multiprobe real-time PCR assay is simple and rapid and has high specificity and sensitivity. The assay could streamline the laboratory diagnosis procedure and facilitate epidemiological investigation.

  15. Development and evaluation of one step single tube multiplex RT-PCR for rapid detection and typing of dengue viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parida Manmohan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue is emerging as a major public health concern in many parts of the world. The development of a one-step, single tube, rapid, and multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (M-RT-PCR for simultaneous detection and typing of dengue virus using serotype specific primers during acute phase of illness is reported. Results An optimal assay condition with zero background was established having no cross-reaction with closely related members of flavivirus (Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, Yellow fever and alphavirus (Chikungunya. The feasibility of M-RT-PCR assay for clinical diagnosis was validated with 620 acute phase dengue patient sera samples of recent epidemics in India. The comparative evaluation vis a vis conventional virus isolation revealed higher sensitivity. None of the forty healthy serum samples screened in the present study revealed any amplification, thereby establishing specificity of the reported assay for dengue virus only. Conclusion These findings clearly suggested that M-RT-PCR assay reported in the present study is the rapid and cost-effective method for simultaneous detection as well as typing of the dengue virus in acute phase patient serum samples. Thus, the M-RT-PCR assay developed in this study will serve as a very useful tool for rapid diagnosis and typing of dengue infections in endemic areas.

  16. 49 CFR 232.305 - Single car air brake tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... from a train or when placed on a shop or repair track, as defined in § 232.303(a); (2) A car is on a shop or repair track, as defined in § 232.303(a), for any reason and has not received a single car air... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Single car air brake tests. 232.305 Section 232...

  17. Ultrasonic testing of canning tubes in stainless steel of the EL 4 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prot, A.; Monnier, P.

    1964-01-01

    From all the methods possible for controlling thin cans the one chosen, for numerous reasons, vas that making use of ultrasonic techniques. A method has been developed which should make it possible to carry out a rapid and efficient industrial control of canning tubes, The reasons for the choice of the ultrasonic method are given in detail, together with the principles of the method and the actual control parameters. In the present state of our research, it should be possible to control at least 50 000 tubes a year. Improvements brought about in the details of the control technique itself should make it possible to increase this rate considerably. (authors) [fr

  18. Validation of the minimal citrate tube fill volume for routine coagulation tests on ACL TOP 500 CTS®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ver Elst, K; Vermeiren, S; Schouwers, S; Callebaut, V; Thomson, W; Weekx, S

    2013-12-01

    CLSI recommends a minimal citrate tube fill volume of 90%. A validation protocol with clinical and analytical components was set up to determine the tube fill threshold for international normalized ratio of prothrombin time (PT-INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and fibrinogen. Citrated coagulation samples from 16 healthy donors and eight patients receiving vitamin K antagonists (VKA) were evaluated. Eighty-nine tubes were filled to varying volumes of >50%. Coagulation tests were performed on ACL TOP 500 CTS(®) . Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) plot, with Total error (TE) and critical difference (CD) as possible acceptance criteria, was used to determine the fill threshold. Receiving Operating Characteristic was the most accurate with CD for PT-INR and TE for aPTT resulting in thresholds of 63% for PT and 80% for aPTT. By adapted ROC, based on threshold setting at a point of 100% sensitivity at a maximum specificity, CD was best for PT and TE for aPTT resulting in thresholds of 73% for PT and 90% for aPTT. For fibrinogen, the method was only valid with the TE criterion at a 63% fill volume. In our study, we validated the minimal citrate tube fill volumes of 73%, 90% and 63% for PT-INR, aPTT and fibrinogen, respectively. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Technical communication: design and in vitro testing of a pressure-sensing syringe for endotracheal tube cuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Alexander H; Slocum, Alexander H; Spiegel, Joan E

    2012-05-01

    Endotracheal intubation is a frequently performed procedure in the prehospital setting, intensive care unit, and for patients undergoing surgery. The endotracheal tube cuff must be inflated to a pressure that prevents air leaks without compromising tracheal mucosal blood flow. For simultaneous endotracheal tube cuff inflation and measurement, we designed and tested a novel pressure-sensing syringe in vitro. The prototype was developed using a standard 10-mL polycarbonate syringe body that houses a plunger and a silicone rubber bellows, the pressure-sensing element. Bellow feasibility was determined and modeled using finite element analysis. Repeatability testing at each pressure measurement for each bellows (pressure versus deflection) was within an average standard deviation of 0.3 cm to 1.61 cm (1%-5% error). Using an aneroid manometer for comparison, there was excellent linear correlation with a Spearman rank of 0.99 (P < 0.001), up to 30 cm H(2)O.

  20. Liquid scintillation systems and apparatus for measuring high-energy radiation emitted by samples in standard laboratory test tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benvenutti, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    Liquid scintillation detection system employs improved sample holders in which the cap of a glass vial is provided with a well for receiving a standard laboratory test tube containing a radioactive sample. The well is immersed in a liquid scintillator in the vial, the scintillator containing lead acetate solution to enhance its efficiency. A commercially available beta-counting liquid scintillation apparatus is modified to provide gamma-counting with the improved sample holders

  1. Improvement of Eddy Current testing methods of steam generator tubings due to field experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comby, R.; Meurgey, P.; David, B.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the main stages of the long rotating probe developed by EDF, this probe detects stress corrosion cracks. The method has been validated by the examination of numerous cracked tubes that the probe detected before. Methods to better characterize the signals with regard to the defects are being improved to avoid a complementary examination of the rolling zone more particularly [fr

  2. Fast and Accurate Non-destructive Testing System for Inspection of Canning Tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundtoft, Hans Erik; Nielsen, E.

    1973-01-01

    The authors describe the development of an inspection bench for the non-destructive examination of canning tubes. The bench is original in that the internal diameter is calculated from exact measurement of the outer diameter and the wall thickness. The transducers for inspection and control are r...

  3. Hybrid Testing of Composite Structures with Single-Axis Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldbjørn, Jacob Paamand; Høgh, Jacob Herold; Stang, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid testing is a substructuring technique where a structure is emulated by modelling a part of it in a numerical model while testing the remainder experimentally. Previous research in hybrid testing has been performed on multi-component structures e.g. damping fixtures, however in this paper...... a hybrid testing platform is introduced for single-component hybrid testing. In this case, the boundary between the numerical model and experimental setup is defined by multiple Degrees-Of-Freedoms (DOFs) which highly complicate the transferring of response between the two substructures. Digital Image...... Correlation (DIC) is therefore implemented for displacement control of the experimental setup. The hybrid testing setup was verified on a multicomponent structure consisting of a beam loaded in three point bending and a numerical structure of a frame. Furthermore, the stability of the hybrid testing loop...

  4. European accelerator facilities for single event effects testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, L.; Nickson, R.; Harboe-Sorensen, R. [ESA-ESTEC, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Hajdas, W.; Berger, G.

    1997-03-01

    Single event effects are an important hazard to spacecraft and payloads. The advances in component technology, with shrinking dimensions and increasing complexity will give even more importance to single event effects in the future. The ground test facilities are complex and expensive and the complexities of installing a facility are compounded by the requirement that maximum control is to be exercised by users largely unfamiliar with accelerator technology. The PIF and the HIF are the result of experience gained in the field of single event effects testing and represent a unique collaboration between space technology and accelerator experts. Both facilities form an essential part of the European infrastructure supporting space projects. (J.P.N.)

  5. Model tests on single piles in soft clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, J.L. [Durham Univ., Durham, (United Kingdom). School of Engineering; Goh, A.T.C.; Wong, K.S.; Teh, C.I. [Nanyang Technological Univ., (Singapore). Geotechnical Research Centre

    2000-08-04

    The behaviour of single stainless steel piles subjected to lateral soft clay soil movement was investigated in laboratory model tests in an effort to determine the ultimate soil pressure acting along the pile shaft. A custom designed apparatus was manufactured and calibrated for the test which measured the limiting soil pressures acting along the model pile shaft. The ultimate soil pressure was determined based on the maximum value of this measurement. The results show that the ultimate soil pressure for single passive piles was about 10 times the undrained shear strength, and the magnitude of the soil translation needed to fully mobilize the ultimate soil pressure on the single passive piles was about half the pile width. Further experimental study is needed to examine the effects of the pile end fixity, flexibility and shape and to confirm the effects of sample size and the disturbance due to soil sample preparation. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Opinion and knowledge among hospital medical staff regarding diagnosis of diabetes and proper usage of a specific test tube for glucose analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Dayan, Y; Bogaiov, A; Boaz, M; Landau, Z; Wainstein, J

    2014-02-01

    Accuracy of blood sugar values, as examined by glucose analysis, has significant importance on the diagnosis of diabetes and follow up of diabetes treatment. Usage of a designated test tube significantly improves the accuracy of measurement. Knowledge of the medical staff is a major determinant in the current usage of such a technology. The aim of the study was to assess the level of knowledge exhibited by medical staff in the diabetes field and specifically for the usage of a designated tube to test blood glucose level. A prospective study. The staff of the internal and surgical departments and outpatient clinics at the Wolfson Medical Center completed a questionnaire that assessed the level of knowledge about the designated glucose test tube, other randomly used test tubes, the parameters that influence the blood glucose values in a non-designated tube and the diagnosis of diabetes. A number of 160 questionnaires (50% from internal departments, 36% from surgical departments and 14% from outpatient clinics) were analysed. The majority of the staff members (65%) knew that diabetes is diagnosed by glucose levels in blood. Of the 35% that did not know, 91% were nurses. The majority (75%) knew that diabetes is diagnosed during fasting conditions; however, most of the staff indicated that 12 h is needed. Only 25% knew of the designated test tube, and most of the staff indicated that a regular chemistry tube was the tube of choice for them. The staff exhibited poor level of knowledge regarding the parameters that influence the quality of the test. Staff members are not aware of the various aspects of diabetes diagnosis and the designated test tube for glucose measurements, and most of them use a tube that gives inaccurate measurements, therefore there is an urgent need to improve diabetes knowledge among staff members. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Test and evaluation of the BBC CQK 200-4 modulator tube for the MFTF sustaining neutral beam power supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckard, R.D.; Van Ness, H.W.; Hesselgrave, D.

    1979-01-01

    The BBC CQK 200-4 Tube was tested by Aydin at LLL, to confirm that it would switch 90 kV after conducting 88 amperes for 30 seconds. The CQK 200-4 is a recent modification of the CQK 200-3, an Rf transmitter tube designed for continuous loading, to increase the anode hold-off voltage to 150 kV. During the design life of the tube it will be subjected to 10 5 to 10 6 cyclic thermal loads. Two concerns are that (1) during the 30 second high current load, the screen grid may have excessive dissipation causing a loss of control of the tube, and (2) the cyclic temperature-induced stresses in the anode may cause fatigue failures that will reduce the tube's useful life. The first concern was addressed by performing full scale tests at the LLL test facility

  8. Test and evaluation of the BBC CQK 200-4 modulator tube for the MFTF sustaining neutral beam power supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckard, R.D.; Van Ness, H.W.; Hesselgrave, D.

    1979-11-12

    The BBC CQK 200-4 Tube was tested by Aydin at LLL, to confirm that it would switch 90 kV after conducting 88 amperes for 30 seconds. The CQK 200-4 is a recent modification of the CQK 200-3, an Rf transmitter tube designed for continuous loading, to increase the anode hold-off voltage to 150 kV. During the design life of the tube it will be subjected to 10/sup 5/ to 10/sup 6/ cyclic thermal loads. Two concerns are that (1) during the 30 second high current load, the screen grid may have excessive dissipation causing a loss of control of the tube, and (2) the cyclic temperature-induced stresses in the anode may cause fatigue failures that will reduce the tube's useful life. The first concern was addressed by performing full scale tests at the LLL test facility.

  9. Contribution to perfecting eddy current testing of steam generator tubes of sodium cooled breeders: description of the Monacault loop for the study of sodium deposit influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapicore, A.; Lemarquis, J.C.; Oberlin, C.; Pigeon, M.

    1981-12-01

    In the event of sodium-water reaction in the steam generator of a sodium cooled breeder reactor, it is essential to be able to monitor the local loss of thickness of the tubes located in the reaction area. A method for monitoring the tubes by an eddy current probe is being developed for Super Phenix. The sodium deposits on the outer wall of the tubes, as well as their prolonged contact with high temperature sodium are likely to bring about a change in the signals picked up. A test loop, Monacault, has been built in order to clarify the importance of these parameters (effect of sodium deposits, reproducibility of the wetting at different temperatures). It includes three test cells containing the sample tubes having a total of 61 standard defects to be tested. The first results on the wetting of tubes are given and discussed [fr

  10. A novel and highly sensitive real-time nested RT-PCR assay in a single closed tube for detection of enterovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xin-Xin; Qiu, Fang-Zhou; Zhao, Huai-Long; Yang, Meng-Jie; Hong, Liu; Xu, Song-Tao; Zhou, Shuai-Feng; Li, Gui-Xia; Feng, Zhi-Shan; Ma, Xue-Jun

    2018-03-01

    The sensitivity of qRT-PCR assay is not adequate for the detection of the samples with lower viral load, particularly in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients. Here, we present the development of a highly sensitive real-time nested RT-PCR (RTN RT-PCR) assay in a single closed tube for detection of human enterovirus (HEV). The clinical performance of both RTN RT-PCR and qRT-PCR was also tested and compared using 140 CSF and fecal specimens. The sensitivities of RTN RT-PCR assay for EV71, Coxsackievirus A (CVA)16, CVA6 and CVA10 achieved 10 -8 dilution with a corresponding Ct value of 38.20, 36.45, 36.75, and 36.45, respectively, which is equal to traditional two-step nested RT-PCR assay and approximately 2-10-fold lower than that of qRT-PCR assay. The specificity of RTN RT-PCR assay was extensively analyzed insilico and subsequently verified using the reference isolates and clinical samples. Sixteen qRT-PCR-negative samples were detected by RTN RT-PCR and a variety of enterovirus serotypes was identified by sequencing of inner PCR products. We conclude RTN RT-PCR is more sensitive than qRT-PCR for the detection of HEV in clinical samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Flow mixing inside a control-rod guide tube – Experimental tests and CFD simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angele, Kristian; Odemark, Ylva; Cehlin, Mathias; Hemström, Bengt; Högström, Carl-Maikel; Henriksson, Mats; Tinoco, Hernan; Lindqvist, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This paper covers a combined experimental and computational effort carried out at Vattenfall Research and Development AB in order to study the thermal mixing in the annular region between a top tube and a control-rod stem. The low frequency thermal fluctuations in this region can result in problems with thermal fatigue and have caused cracks in the control-rod stems of several nuclear reactors (). The flow in the vertical annular region formed by the top tube and the control-rod stem is characterized by the mixing of hot bypass flow with cold crud-removal flow. The crud-removal flow is flowing upwards along the control-rod stem, and the warmer bypass flow is entering through eight horizontal holes positioned in the lower part of the guide tube and four holes in the upper part of the top tube, forming jets. Two full-scale models of a control rod, including the control-rod stem and the guide tube, were constructed. The first model, designed to work at atmospheric conditions, was made of Plexiglass, in order to be able to visualize the mixing process, whereas the second one was made of steel to allow for a higher temperature difference between the two flows, and the heating of the top tube. CFD simulations of the case at atmospheric conditions were also carried out. Both the experiments and the simulations showed that the mixing region between the cold crud-removal flow and the warm bypass flow is dominated by large flow structures coming from above. The process is characterized by low frequency, high amplitude temperature fluctuations. The process is basically hydrodynamic, caused by the downward transport of flow structures originated at the upper bypass inlets. The damping thermal effects through buoyancy is of secondary importance, as also the scaling analysis shows, however a slight damping of the temperature fluctuations can be seen due to natural convection due to a pre-heating of the cold crud-removal flow. The comparison between numerical and experimental

  12. Numerical simulations of eddy current testing signals of steam generator tubes by 3-D finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takayuki; Soneda, Naoki

    1996-01-01

    In every inspection of Japanese PWR plants, all of steam generator tubes are inspected using Eddy Current Testing (ECT) method. However, the relationships between the ECT signals and the defect shapes are known only for the representative shapes of defects. In order to improve the reliability of inspections and the capability of ECT probes, development of numerical simulation technique of the ECT signals for arbitrarily shaped defects is essential. In this study, three-dimensional finite element code is developed to simulate the ECT signals for any kinds of defects in the SG tubes. The code is fully vectorized so that it runs on the supercomputers very efficiently. The simulation results agree very well with the experimental results. Sensitivity analyses are performed to investigate the relationships between the defect shapes and the ECT signals. (author)

  13. Study on chromosome aberrations test determinated by micro-whole blood culture in vacuum blood collection tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Zhihong; Han Fang'an; Ge Qinjuan; Wu Xiao; Chen Juan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To develop an easier and efficient method of culturing the chromosome and analyzing the aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes. Methods: Micro whole was cultured for 54 hours in home-made vacuum blood collection tube, and then collection, slice-making, microscopy detection for the chromosome aberrations was done. The difference of the results was analysed by comparing with the common method. Results: For 60 radiologists and 30 contrasts, the chromosome aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes were examed by this system, the lymphocytes and chromosome were clear and alive and easier to analyse. Compared with the common method, there was no significantly difference between the two analyzing results. Conclusion: The chromosome aberrations test by micro whole blood culture in vacuum blood collection tube is easier and efficient, and is worthy of being widely popularized. (authors)

  14. Magnesium diboride on inner wall of copper tube: A test case for superconducting radio frequency cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenura K. Withanage

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Superconductor magnesium diboride is considered one of the viable materials to substitute bulk niobium for superconducting radio frequency cavities. Utilizing a MgB_{2} coating on the inner wall of a copper cavity will allow operation at higher temperatures (20–25 K than Nb cavities due to the high transition temperature of MgB_{2} (39 K and the high thermal conductivity of Cu. In this paper, we present results of MgB_{2} coating on Cu tubes with similar dimensions to a 3 GHz cavity, as the first step towards coating the actual cavity, using the hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition technique. The results show successful coating of a uniform MgB_{2} layer on the inner wall of the Cu tubes with T_{c} as high as 37 K.

  15. A Test Condenser to Measure Condensate Inundation Effects in a Tube Bundle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    total weight of a steam propulsion plant by reducing the size and amount of material required. Depending upon the condenser material , initial and...water heater ( feedwater tank) (not required) 4. #4 - Condensate pumps 5 #5 - Boiler (not required) 6. #6 - Cooling tower 7. #7 - Cooling water pump...coefficient for a column of N tubes (W/m 2 -OK) - Heat transfer coefficient calculated from the hNu Nusselt equation (W/m2-°K) h I - Experimentally determined

  16. Design of a Kaplan turbine for a wide range of operating head -Curved draft tube design and model test verification-

    Science.gov (United States)

    KO, Pohan; MATSUMOTO, Kiyoshi; OHTAKE, Norio; DING, Hua

    2016-11-01

    As for turbomachine off-design performance improvement is challenging but critical for maximising the performing area. In this paper, a curved draft tube for a medium head Kaplan type hydro turbine is introduced and discussed for its significant effect on expanding operating head range. Without adding any extra structure and working fluid for swirl destruction and damping, a carefully designed outline shape of draft tube with the selected placement of center-piers successfully supresses the growth of turbulence eddy and the transport of the swirl to the outlet. Also, more kinetic energy is recovered and the head lost is improved. Finally, the model test results are also presented. The obvious performance improvement was found in the lower net head area, where the maximum efficiency improvement was measured up to 20% without compromising the best efficiency point. Additionally, this design results in a new draft tube more compact in size and so leads to better construction and manufacturing cost performance for prototype. The draft tube geometry parameter designing process was concerning the best efficiency point together with the off-design points covering various water net heads and discharges. The hydraulic performance and flow behavior was numerically previewed and visualized by solving Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with Shear Stress Transport turbulence model. The simulation was under the assumption of steady-state incompressible turbulence flow inside the flow passage, and the inlet boundary condition was the carefully simulated flow pattern from the runner outlet. For confirmation, the corresponding turbine efficiency performance of the entire operating area was verified by model test.

  17. Construction and Test of New Precision Drift-Tube Chambers for the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00218480

    2017-02-11

    ATLAS muon detector upgrades aim for increased acceptance for muon triggering and precision tracking and for improved rate capability of the muon chambers in the high-background regions of the detector with increasing LHC luminosity. The small-diameter Muon Drift Tube (sMDT) chambers have been developed for these purposes. With half of the drift-tube diameter of the MDT chambers and otherwise unchanged operating parameters, sMDT chambers share the advantages of the MDTs, but have an order of magnitude higher rate capability and can be installed in detector regions where MDT chambers do not fit in. The chamber assembly methods have been optimized for mass production, minimizing construction time and personnel. Sense wire positioning accuracies of 5 ?micons have been achieved in serial production for large-size chambers comprising several hundred drift tubes. The construction of new sMDT chambers for installation in the 2016/17 winter shutdown of the LHC and the design of sMDT chambers in combination with new R...

  18. Report of technical testing laboratory at Oppau Number 543, investigation of finned tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1943-06-21

    A piece of finned tube from the hairpin G72 was cut out from a gas preheater at Gelsenberg after 15,040 hours of operation and was investigated thermally. The crust closely adhering to the inside was 8 mm thick and reduced the heat transfer by about one-half. The share of the heat resistance of the crust in the total heat transfer had become so large that the finning of the hairpin had but little effect upon the heat transfer. The temperature in the wall of the high pressure tubes was measured with movable thermocouples and the drop in temperature in the parts of the tube without fins was established. The error of measurement of temperature in relation to the number of missing fins was represented by a curve. After many experiments, the heat conductivity was found to be 0.9 k cal/mhr//sup 0/C. This approximate value was considered sufficient for practical calculations when it was considered that even large differences could be caused by differences in composition or porosity of the crust in the gas preheater.

  19. A Study on the Small Punch Test for Fracture Strength Evaluation of CANDU Pressure Tube Embrittled by Hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nho, Seung Hwan; Ong, Jang Woo; Yu, Hyo Sun; Chung, Se Hi

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the usefulness of small punch(SP) test using miniaturized specimens as a method for fracture strength evaluation of CANDU pressure tube embrittled by hydrogen. According to the test results, the fracture strength evaluation as a function of hydrogen concentration at -196 .deg. C was much better than that at room temperature, as the difference of SP fracture energy(Esp) with hydrogen concentration was more significant at -196 .deg. C than at room temperature for the hydrogen concentration up to 300ppm-H. It was also observed that the peak of average AE energy, the cumulative average AE energy and the cumulative average AE energy per equivalent fracture, strain increased with the increase of hydrogen concentration. From the results of load-displacement behaviors, Esp behaviors, macro- and micro-SEM fractographs and AE test it has been concluded that the SP test method using miniaturized specimen(10mmx10mmx0.5mm) will be a useful test method to evaluate the fracture strength for CANDU pressure tube embrittled by hydrogen

  20. Ideal Characteristics of a Laser-Protected Endotracheal Tube: ABEA and AHNS Member Survey and Biomechanical Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Aaron D; Gerber, Mark E; Bhayani, Mihir K; Kuchta, Kristine; Kumar, Kanav; Ma, Aobo; Ren, Yupeng; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2018-04-01

    To determine the characteristics of laser-protected endotracheal tubes (LPETs) valued by otolaryngologists performing transoral laser surgery in the head and neck and to measure LPET stiffness. An online questionnaire was completed by American Broncho-Esophagological Association (ABEA) and American Head and Neck Society (AHNS) members. LPET distal end compliance was measured in a biomechanics laboratory. A total of 228 out of 2109 combined ABEA and AHNS members completed the survey. The following LPET characteristics, which were properties of the Medtronic Laser-Shield II tube (MLST), were highly valued: softness and flexibility, surface smoothness, and a tight-to-shaft balloon (all P < .01). Prior to industry-driven discontinuation of the MLST, 52% of surgeons (78% of fellowship-trained laryngologists [FTLs]) reported using it; afterward, 58% reported using the stainless steel, Mallinckrodt Laser-Flex tube (MLFT). Forty-six percent of all respondents (69% of FTLs) did not consider cost being a factor in LPET choice. Biomechanical testing revealed the distal end of the MLST to be 3.45 times more compliant than the MLFT ( P < .01). Members of the ABEA and AHNS, particularly FTLs, highly value distinguishing properties of the now discontinued MLST. Manufacturers should consider this in the design of new LPETs.

  1. Earthquake acceleration amplification based on single microtremor test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya Syahbana, Arifan; Kurniawan, Rahmat; Soebowo, Eko

    2018-02-01

    Understanding soil dynamics is needed to understand soil behaviour, including the parameters of earthquake acceleration amplification. Many researchers now conduct single microtremor tests to obtain amplification of velocity and natural periods of soil at test sites. However, these amplification parameters are rarely used, so a method is needed to convert the velocity amplification to acceleration amplification. This paper will discuss the proposed process of changing the value of amplification. The proposed method is to integrate the time histories of the synthetic earthquake acceleration of the soil surface under the deaggregation at that location so the time histories of the velocity earthquake will be obtained. Next is to conduct a “fitting curve” between amplification by a single microtremor test with amplification of the synthetic earthquake velocity time histories. After obtaining the fitting curve time histories of velocity, differentiation will be conducted to obtain fitting curve acceleration time histories. The final step after obtaining the fitting curve is to compare the acceleration of the “fitting curve” against the histories time of the acceleration of synthetic earthquake at bedrocks to obtain single microtremor acceleration amplification factor.

  2. Scramjet test flow reconstruction for a large-scale expansion tube, Part 1: quasi-one-dimensional modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildfind, D. E.; Jacobs, P. A.; Morgan, R. G.; Chan, W. Y. K.; Gollan, R. J.

    2017-11-01

    Large-scale free-piston driven expansion tubes have uniquely high total pressure capabilities which make them an important resource for development of access-to-space scramjet engine technology. However, many aspects of their operation are complex, and their test flows are fundamentally unsteady and difficult to measure. While computational fluid dynamics methods provide an important tool for quantifying these flows, these calculations become very expensive with increasing facility size and therefore have to be carefully constructed to ensure sufficient accuracy is achieved within feasible computational times. This study examines modelling strategies for a Mach 10 scramjet test condition developed for The University of Queensland's X3 facility. The present paper outlines the challenges associated with test flow reconstruction, describes the experimental set-up for the X3 experiments, and then details the development of an experimentally tuned quasi-one-dimensional CFD model of the full facility. The 1-D model, which accurately captures longitudinal wave processes, is used to calculate the transient flow history in the shock tube. This becomes the inflow to a higher-fidelity 2-D axisymmetric simulation of the downstream facility, detailed in the Part 2 companion paper, leading to a validated, fully defined nozzle exit test flow.

  3. Effect of Oil on the Onset of Nucleate Pool Boiling of R-124 from a Single Horizontal Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    et al [Ref. 7] investigated the onset of nucleate boiling of R-113 under atmospheric conditions using an electrically heated 0.13 mm diameter chromel...brushing the porous surface with a soft bristle brush (i.e. toothbrush ) using ethyl alcohol and then with acetone. The tube was then allowed to air-dry

  4. In-service examination of IHX tubing with eddy current NDT equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.

    1972-01-01

    Single and multiple frequency eddy current (ET) nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques and equipment were investigated for in-service inspection of sodium-contaminated intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) tubing. A four frequency technique, demonstrated in the laboratory, was relatively insensitive to signals caused by probe motion, tube support plates, and residual sodium on the outer surface of the tubes. No method was found to avoid the signals from residual sodium on the inside surfaces of the tube. (U.S.)

  5. Long tube heat exchanger: the facility and some preliminary tests on the down center/up annular flow configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.O.; Johnson, R.W.; Weatherbee, R.L.

    1980-03-01

    A test facility was designed and constructed to study forced flow boiling heat transfer in a closed loop long tube heat exchanger which is a two concentric-tube vertical design. The system consists of a 12 m long heat exchanger which can be operated at pressures to 689.3 kPa with pumped or natural convection flow rates from 0.0631 to 0.631 liters/second and which can be irradiated with a maximum steady heat flux rate of 50 kW/m/sup 2/ by a set of resistive heaters operable at temperatures up to 1250/sup 0/C. The facility was also designed so that other heat exchanger configurations can be tested with minimum difficulty (i.e., little or no modification of the system other than to replace the heat exchanger). The preliminary tests indicate that the system can be operated in a stable mode. This facility was motivated primarily by the magma energy research program where energy is extracted from magma by heat exchangers similar to the configuration in this report.

  6. Performance test results of mock-up model test facility with a full-scale reaction tube for HTTR hydrogen production system. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Koji; Kato, Michio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others

    2003-03-01

    Research on a hydrogen production system by steam reforming of methane, chemical reaction; CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2}O {yields} 3H{sub 2}O + CO, has been carried out to couple with the HTTR for establishment of high-temperature nuclear heat utilization technology and contribution to hydrogen energy society in future. The mock-up test facility with a full-scale reaction tube test facility, a model simulating one reaction tube of a steam reformer of the HTTR hydrogen production system in full scale, was fabricated to perform tests on controllability, hydrogen production performance etc. under the same pressure and temperature conditions as those of the HTTR hydrogen production system. The design and fabrication of the test facility started from 1997, and the all components were installed until September in 2001. In a performance test conducted from October in 2001 to February in 2002, performance of each component was examined and hydrogen of 120m{sup 3}{sub N}/h was successfully produced with high-temperature helium gas. This report describes the performance test results on components performance, hydrogen production characteristics etc., and main troubles and countermeasures. (author)

  7. Inversion of lithium heparin gel tubes after centrifugation is a significant source of bias in clinical chemistry testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Danese, Elisa; Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Brocco, Giorgio; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2014-09-25

    This study was planned to establish whether random orientation of gel tubes after centrifugation may impair sample quality. Eight gel tubes were collected from 17 volunteers: 2 Becton Dickinson (BD) serum tubes, 2 Terumo serum tubes, 2 BD lithium heparin tubes and 2 Terumo lithium heparin tubes. One patient's tube for each category was kept in a vertical, closure-up position for 90 min ("upright"), whereas paired tubes underwent bottom-up inversion every 15 min, for 90 min ("inverted"). Immediately after this period of time, 14 clinical chemistry analytes, serum indices and complete blood count were then assessed in all tubes. Significant increases were found for phosphate and lipaemic index in all inverted tubes, along with AST, calcium, cholesterol, LDH, potassium, hemolysis index, leukocytes, erythrocytes and platelets limited to lithium heparin tubes. The desirable quality specifications were exceeded for AST, LDH, and potassium in inverted lithium heparin tubes. Residual leukocytes, erythrocytes, platelets and cellular debris were also significantly increased in inverted lithium heparin tubes. Lithium heparin gel tubes should be maintained in a vertical, closure-up position after centrifugation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Testing the Tube Super-Dielectric Material Hypothesis: Increased Energy Density Using NaCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, Jonathan; Cortes, Francisco Javier Quintero; Phillips, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    The focus of the present work is the evaluation of the low-frequency dielectric performance of titanium dioxide nanotube arrays, created by anodization, filled with aqueous NaCl solutions. At low frequency (ca. capacitors made up of this so-called tube super-dielectric material were found to have extreme dielectric constants, greater than 1 billion. The same capacitors also registered unprecedented energy densities, nearly 400 J/cm3, better than that observed (<250 J/cm3) for the same type of anodized titania filled with an aqueous solution of NaNO3, and about an order of magnitude better than commercial supercapacitors. Sufficient data were collected to propose a correlation relating dielectric thickness and salt concentration to overall energy density.

  9. Thin walled Nb tubes for suspending test masses in interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.H. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA (Australia)]. E-mail: bhl@physics.uwa.edu.au; Ju, L. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA (Australia); Blair, D.G. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA (Australia)

    2006-02-13

    In a previous Letter, we have shown that the use of orthogonal ribbons could provide a better mirror suspension technique in interferometric gravitational wave antennas. One of the key improvements presented by the orthogonal ribbon is the reduction in the number of violin string modes in the direction of the laser. We have considered more elaborate geometries in recent simulations and obtained a suspension that provides further reduction in the number of violin string modes in the direction of the laser, as well as in the direction orthogonal to the laser. This thin walled niobium tube suspension exhibits a reduction in the number of violin modes to 5 in each direction up to a frequency of 5 kHz. Furthermore, the violin mode thermal noise peaks can be reduced in amplitude by 30 dB.

  10. Thin walled Nb tubes for suspending test masses in interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.H.; Ju, L.; Blair, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    In a previous Letter, we have shown that the use of orthogonal ribbons could provide a better mirror suspension technique in interferometric gravitational wave antennas. One of the key improvements presented by the orthogonal ribbon is the reduction in the number of violin string modes in the direction of the laser. We have considered more elaborate geometries in recent simulations and obtained a suspension that provides further reduction in the number of violin string modes in the direction of the laser, as well as in the direction orthogonal to the laser. This thin walled niobium tube suspension exhibits a reduction in the number of violin modes to 5 in each direction up to a frequency of 5 kHz. Furthermore, the violin mode thermal noise peaks can be reduced in amplitude by 30 dB

  11. Thin walled Nb tubes for suspending test masses in interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B. H.; Ju, L.; Blair, D. G.

    2006-02-01

    In a previous Letter, we have shown that the use of orthogonal ribbons could provide a better mirror suspension technique in interferometric gravitational wave antennas. One of the key improvements presented by the orthogonal ribbon is the reduction in the number of violin string modes in the direction of the laser. We have considered more elaborate geometries in recent simulations and obtained a suspension that provides further reduction in the number of violin string modes in the direction of the laser, as well as in the direction orthogonal to the laser. This thin walled niobium tube suspension exhibits a reduction in the number of violin modes to 5 in each direction up to a frequency of 5 kHz. Furthermore, the violin mode thermal noise peaks can be reduced in amplitude by 30 dB.

  12. Test of multi-anode photomultiplier tubes for the LHCb scintillator pad detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aguiló, Ernest; Comerma-Montells, A; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Graciani, Ricardo; Grauges, Eugeni; Vilasis Cardona, Xavier; Xirgu, Xavier; Bohner, Gerard; Bonnefoy, Romeo; Borras, David; Cornat, Remi; Crouau, Michel; Deschamps, Olivier; Jacquet, Philippe; Lecoq, Jacques; Monteil, Stephane; Perret, Pascal; Reinmuth, Guy

    2005-01-01

    The LHCb experiment (The LHCb Technical Proposal, CERN/LHCC 98-4) is designed to study B meson physics in the LHC proton-proton collider at CERN. The Scintillator Pad Detector (SPD) has been designed to complete the calorimeter information performing an e/gamma identification for the experiment level-0 trigger system. The detection technology consists in transmitting scintillation light by means of both Wavelength Shifting and clear fibers to fast multi- anode photomultiplier tubes. In this paper, it is described the instrumentation and setup used to characterize the baseline photomultiplier solution (Hamamatsu R5900-00-M64) together with the scintillators and optical fibers for the SPD at LHCb.

  13. Fragile X mice have robust mGluR5-dependent alterations of social behaviour in the Automated Tube Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Esch, C E F; van den Berg, W E; Buijsen, R A M; Jaafar, I A; Nieuwenhuizen-Bakker, I M; Gasparini, F; Kushner, S A; Willemsen, R

    2015-03-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common monogenetic form of intellectual disability and autism. Although the Fmr1 knockout mouse model recapitulates many aspects of the human FXS condition, the establishment of robust social behavioural phenotypes suitable for drug screening has been difficult. Here, we describe a novel social behavioural paradigm, the Automated Tube Test (ATT), for which Fmr1 knockout mice demonstrate a highly reliable and robust phenotype. Fmr1 KO mice show highly dominant behaviour over wild-type littermates in the ATT. Consistent with previous findings, we observed a highly significant, albeit partial, rescue of the altered social behaviour of Fmr1 knockout mice in the ATT, using genetic (mGluR5 deletion) or pharmacological inhibition (mGluR5 antagonist) of mGluR5 signalling independently. Together, our results validate the Automated Tube Test as a robust outcome measure for social behaviour in preclinical research for FXS, and confirm the pathophysiological relevance of mGluR5 signalling. Moreover, our findings highlight the strategy of initiating pharmacological intervention in adulthood as holding significant clinical potential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of pH on organic acid production by Clostridium sporogenes in test tube and fermentor cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montville, T J; Parris, N; Conway, L K

    1985-01-01

    The influence of pH on the growth parameters of and the organic acids produced by Clostridium sporogenes 3121 cultured in test tubes and fermentors at 35 degrees C was examined. Specific growth rates in the fermentor maintained at a constant pH ranged from 0.20 h-1 at pH 5.00 to 0.86 h-1 at pH 6.50. Acetic acid was the primary organic acid in supernatants of 24-h cultures; total organic acid levels were 2.0 to 22.0 mumol/ml. Supernatants from pH 5.00 and 5.50 cultures had total organic acid levels less than one-third of those found at pH 6.00 to 7.00. The specific growth rates of the test tube cultures ranged from 0.51 h-1 at pH 5.00 to 0.95 h-1 at pH 6.50. The pH of the medium did not affect the average total organic acid content (51.5 mumol/ml) but did affect the distribution of the organic acids, which included formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, 3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propionic, and 3-phenylpropionic acids. Butyric acid levels were lower, but formic and propionic acid levels were higher, at pH 5.00 than at other pHs. PMID:4004207

  15. Single specimen fracture toughness determination procedure using instrumented impact test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintamaa, R.

    1993-04-01

    In the study a new single specimen test method and testing facility for evaluating dynamic fracture toughness has been developed. The method is based on the application of a new pendulum type instrumented impact tester equipped with and optical crack mouth opening displacement (COD) extensometer. The fracture toughness measurement technique uses the Double Displacement Ratio (DDR) method, which is based on the assumption that the specimen is deformed as two rigid arms that rotate around an apparent centre of rotation. This apparent moves as the crack grows, and the ratio of COD versus specimen displacement changes. As a consequence the onset ductile crack initiation can be detected on the load-displacement curve. Thus, an energy-based fracture toughness can be calculated. In addition the testing apparatus can use specimens with the Double ligament size as compared with the standard Charpy specimen which makes the impact testing more appropriate from the fracture mechanics point of view. The novel features of the testing facility and the feasibility of the new DDR method has been verified by performing an extensive experimental and analytical study. (99 refs., 91 figs., 27 tabs.)

  16. Evaluation of a single leg stance balance test in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumbrunn, Thomas; MacWilliams, Bruce A; Johnson, Barbara A

    2011-06-01

    Balance is a major determinate of gait. In high functioning individuals without significant vestibular or vision impairments, a ceiling effect may be present when using a double limb support protocol to assess balance function. For these populations, a single leg stance protocol may be more suitable. 47 typically developing (TD) subjects and 10 patients with CEV performed a single leg stance test on a force plate. The center of pressure (COP) was determined and several COP derived variables were calculated. Included measurements were: standard deviation, maximum excursion, area, average radial displacement, path velocity and frequency of the COP. Directional components of suitable variables were used to analyze anterior/posterior and medial/lateral contributions. Correlations with age of TD subjects indicated that all balance variables except frequency were significantly correlated. Most parameters were highly inter-correlated. Age adjusted COP balance variables also correlated to the Bruininks-Oseretsky balance subtest. Highest correlations were determined by the maximum excursion and velocity of the COP in the anterior/posterior direction. Statistical comparisons between the CEV group and a 4-6 TD group indicated significant differences between groups for most COP balance parameters. These results indicated that a single limb balance assessment may be a useful assessment for determining balance impairments in higher functioning children with orthopedic impairments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Reduction of residual stresses in internal skin of transient zones of PWR steam generator expanded tubes: tests with a ''rotating brush''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, P.

    1984-04-01

    A process aiming at preventing or suppressing cracks under stress corrosion on the primary side in the expanded zones of PWR steam generator tubes has been studied; it consists in hammering the internal skin of tubes in these zones what reduces the level of residual expanding stresses to lower values around 100-150 MPa without modifying the stress level in external skin. Tests in magnesium chloride to estimate the residual stresses of tubes in low carbon stainless austenitic steel 18% Cr-12% Ni with molybdene [fr

  18. Simple test system for single molecule recognition force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riener, Christian K.; Stroh, Cordula M.; Ebner, Andreas; Klampfl, Christian; Gall, Alex A.; Romanin, Christoph; Lyubchenko, Yuri L.; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Gruber, Hermann J.

    2003-01-01

    We have established an easy-to-use test system for detecting receptor-ligand interactions on the single molecule level using atomic force microscopy (AFM). For this, avidin-biotin, probably the best characterized receptor-ligand pair, was chosen. AFM sensors were prepared containing tethered biotin molecules at sufficiently low surface concentrations appropriate for single molecule studies. A biotin tether, consisting of a 6 nm poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chain and a functional succinimide group at the other end, was newly synthesized and covalently coupled to amine-functionalized AFM tips. In particular, PEG 800 diamine was glutarylated, the mono-adduct NH 2 -PEG-COOH was isolated by ion exchange chromatography and reacted with biotin succinimidylester to give biotin-PEG-COOH which was then activated as N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester to give the biotin-PEG-NHS conjugate which was coupled to the aminofunctionalized AFM tip. The motional freedom provided by PEG allows for free rotation of the biotin molecule on the AFM sensor and for specific binding to avidin which had been adsorbed to mica surfaces via electrostatic interactions. Specific avidin-biotin recognition events were discriminated from nonspecific tip-mica adhesion by their typical unbinding force (∼40 pN at 1.4 nN/s loading rate), unbinding length (<13 nm), the characteristic nonlinear force-distance relation of the PEG linker, and by specific block with excess of free d-biotin. The convenience of the test system allowed to evaluate, and compare, different methods and conditions of tip aminofunctionalization with respect to specific binding and nonspecific adhesion. It is concluded that this system is well suited as calibration or start-up kit for single molecule recognition force microscopy

  19. Development and assessment of multiplex high resolution melting assay as a tool for rapid single-tube identification of five Brucella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopaul, Krishna K; Sells, Jessica; Lee, Robin; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M; Foster, Jeffrey T; Whatmore, Adrian M

    2014-12-11

    The zoonosis brucellosis causes economically significant reproductive problems in livestock and potentially debilitating disease of humans. Although the causative agent, organisms from the genus Brucella, can be differentiated into a number of species based on phenotypic characteristics, there are also significant differences in genotype that are concordant with individual species. This paper describes the development of a five target multiplex assay to identify five terrestrial Brucella species using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequent high resolution melt curve analysis. This technology offers a robust and cost effective alternative to previously described hydrolysis-probe Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)-based species defining assays. Through the use of Brucella whole genome sequencing five species defining SNPs were identified. Individual HRM assays were developed to these target these changes and, following optimisation of primer concentrations, it was possible to multiplex all five assays in a single tube. In a validation exercise using a panel of 135 Brucella strains of terrestrial and marine origin, it was possible to distinguish the five target species from the other species within this panel. The HRM multiplex offers a number of diagnostic advantages over previously described SNP-based typing approaches. Further, and uniquely for HRM, the successful multiplexing of five assays in a single tube allowing differentiation of five Brucella species in the diagnostic laboratory in a cost-effective and timely manner is described. However there are possible limitations to using this platform on DNA extractions direct from clinical material.

  20. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intubation, feeding tube, gastroenterostomy tube, Levine tube, nasogastric tube, single lumen tube with... § 876.9. (2) Class I (general controls) for the dissolvable nasogastric feed tube guide for the nasogastric tube. The class I device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part...

  1. 49 CFR 40.245 - What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.245 What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using a saliva ASD or... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD? 40.245 Section 40.245 Transportation Office of the...

  2. Modern radiographic testing using filmless radiography and LSAW tubes; Moderne Roentgenpruefung mittels filmloser Radiographie an LSAW Grossrohren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersting, Thomas; Liessem, Andreas; Oesterlein, Ludwig; Schuster, Stefan [EUROPIPE, Muelheim a.d. Ruhr (Germany); Schoenartz, Norbert [Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung, Duisburg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Large-diameter pipes with longitudinal welds that are used for transporting highly combustible fluids are subject to rigid safety specifications. For further improvement of the non-destructive testing procedure, EUROPIPE, the leading provider of large-diameter pipes for the oil and gas industry, invested in digital radiogaphy, abandoning the classic X-ray film. The new test facility comprises two separate X-raying chambers that make it possible to keep in time with the production process. Each X-raying chamber in turn comprises two digital detector arrays and two X-ray tubes. EUROPIPE is one of the first industrial enterprises to introduce this technology in the automatic serial production process of large-diameter pipes. (orig.)

  3. Dynamics of tubes in fluid with tube-baffle interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.S.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.

    1983-09-01

    Three series of tests are performed to evaluate the effects of tube to tube-support-plate (TSP) clearance on tube dynamic characteristics and instability phenomena for tube arrays in crossflow. Test results show that, for relatively large clearances, tubes may possess TSP-inactive modes in which the tubes rattle inside some of the tube-support-plate holes, and that the natural frequencies of TSP-inactive modes are lower than those of TSP-active modes, in which the support plates provide knife-edge type support. Tube response characteristics associated with TSP-inactive modes are sensitive to tube-to-TSP clearance, TSP thickness, excitation amplitude, tube alignment, and the fluid inside the clearance. In addition, tube response is intrinsically nonlinear, with the dominance of TSP-inactive or TSP-active modes depending on the magnitudes of different system parameters. In general, such a system is difficult to model; only a full-scale test can provide all the necessary characteristics. A tube array supported by TSPs with relatively large clearances may be subjected to dynamic instability in some of the TSP-inactive modes; tube response characteristics and impact forces on TSPs for a tube row are studied in detail in this report. Tube displacements associated with the instability of a TSP-inactive mode are small; however, impacts of the tube against TSPs may result in significant damage in a relatively short time. 52 figures

  4. Definition of the minimum longitude of insert in the rebuilding of Charpy test tubes for surveillance and life extension of vessels in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero C, J.; Hernandez C, R.; Rocamontes A, M.

    2011-11-01

    In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (Mexico) a welding system for the rebuilding of Charpy test tubes has been developed, automated, qualified and used for the surveillance of the mechanical properties (mainly embrittlement) of the vessel. This system uses the halves of the rehearsed Charpy test tubes of the surveillance capsules extracted of the reactors, to obtain, of a rehearsed test tube, two reconstituted test tubes. This rebuilding process is used so much in the surveillance program like in the potential extension of the operation license of the vessel. To the halves of Charpy test tubes that have been removed the deformed part by machine are called -insert- and in a very general way the rebuilding consists in weld with the welding process -Stud Welding- two metallic implants in the ends of the insert, to obtain a reconstituted test tube. The main characteristic of this welding are the achieved small dimensions, so much of the areas welded as of the areas affected by the heat. The applicable normative settles down that the minim longitude of the insert for the welding process by Stud Welding it should be of 18 mm, however according to the same normative this longitude can diminish if is demonstrated analytic or experimentally that the central volume of 1 cm 3 in the insert is not affected. In this work the measurement of the temperature profiles to different distances of the welding interface is presented, defining an equation for the maximum temperatures reached in function of the distance, on the other hand the real longitude affected in the test tube by means of metallography is determined and this way the minimum longitude of the insert for this developed rebuilding system was determined. (Author)

  5. Construction and Test of Muon Drift Tube Chambers for High Counting Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Schwegler, Philipp; Dubbert, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Since the start of operation of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN on 20 November 2009, the instantaneous luminosity is steadily increasing. The muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at the LHC is instrumented with trigger and precision tracking chambers in a toroidal magnetic field. Monitored Drift-Tube (MDT) chambers are employed as precision tracking chambers, complemented by Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC) in the very forward region where the background counting rate due to neutrons and γ's produced in shielding material and detector components is too high for the MDT chambers. After several upgrades of the CERN accelerator system over the coming decade, the instantaneous luminosity is expected to be raised to about five times the LHC design luminosity. This necessitates replacement of the muon chambers in the regions with the highest background radiation rates in the so-called Small Wheels, which constitute the innermost layers of the muon spectrometer end-caps, by new detectors with higher rate cap...

  6. A new structure design and the basic radiation characteristics test of the intense current tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyuan; Ai, Xianyun; Fu, Li; Cui, Hui

    2018-02-01

    As a kind of special G-M counter, the intense current tube (ICT) is characterized by small ratio of cathode to anode radius, high working current or count rate, and can be used as the detection units of ultra-high range radiation instruments. In this paper, a new design of ICT structure is introduced, not only does it have a minimum ratio of cathode to anode but it also has a cathode which directly sticks out from the sensitive gas. Using COMSOL Multiphysics, we simulated the electric field between the anode and cathode and finalized the optimal structure. The results of processes and experiments show that the structure has better properties, with plateau slope reaching up to 7.4% within 100V, and it also has a wider range of dose rate. The linear data between the bottom limit of 0.2mGy/h and the upper limit of 1Gy/h is quite accurate but it becomes less reliable beyond 1Gy/h. By using Paralyzable model, we deduce that the dead time of the said ICT is less than 13.4 µs, and we will further optimize the readout circuit in order to reduce the resolution time of the circuit in the near future.

  7. Design and microwave test of an ultrawideband input/output structure for sheet beam travelling wave tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Guoxiang; Wang, Jianxun; Liu, Guo; Yang, Liya; Luo, Yong; Wang, Shafei

    2015-01-01

    Broadband operation is of great importance for the applications of travelling wave tubes such as high-data communication and wideband radar. An input/output (I/O) structure operating with broadband property plays a significant role to achieve these applications. In this paper, a Y-type branch waveguide (YTBW) coupler and its improvements are proposed and utilized to construct an extremely wideband I/O structure to ensure the broadband operation for sheet beam travelling wave tubes (SB-TWTs). Cascaded reflection resonators are utilized to improve the isolation characteristic and transmission efficiency. Furthermore, to minimize the reflectivity of the port connected with the RF circuit, wave-absorbing material (WAM) is loaded in the resonator. Simulation results for the YTBW loaded with WAM predict an excellent performance with a 50.2% relative bandwidth for port reflectivity under −15 dB, transmission up to −1.5 dB, and meanwhile isolation under −20 dB. In addition, the coupler has a relatively compact configuration and the beam tunnel can be widened, which is beneficial for the propagation of the electrons. A Q-band YTBW loaded with two reflection resonators is fabricated and microwave tested. Vector network analyzer (VNA) measured results have an excellent agreement with our simulation, which verify our theoretical analysis and simulation calculation

  8. Single Stage Contactor Testing Of The Next Generation Solvent Blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D. T.; Peters, T. B.; Duignan, M. R.; Williams, M. R.; Poirier, M. R.; Brass, E. A.; Garrison, A. G.; Ketusky, E. T.

    2014-01-06

    The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is actively pursuing the transition from the current BOBCalixC6 based solvent to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS)-MCU solvent to increase the cesium decontamination factor. To support this integration of NGS into the MCU facility the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed testing of a blend of the NGS (MaxCalix based solvent) with the current solvent (BOBCalixC6 based solvent) for the removal of cesium (Cs) from the liquid salt waste stream. This testing utilized a blend of BOBCalixC6 based solvent and the NGS with the new extractant, MaxCalix, as well as a new suppressor, tris(3,7dimethyloctyl) guanidine. Single stage tests were conducted using the full size V-05 and V-10 liquid-to-liquid centrifugal contactors installed at SRNL. These tests were designed to determine the mass transfer and hydraulic characteristics with the NGS solvent blended with the projected heel of the BOBCalixC6 based solvent that will exist in MCU at time of transition. The test program evaluated the amount of organic carryover and the droplet size of the organic carryover phases using several analytical methods. The results indicate that hydraulically, the NGS solvent performed hydraulically similar to the current solvent which was expected. For the organic carryover 93% of the solvent is predicted to be recovered from the stripping operation and 96% from the extraction operation. As for the mass transfer, the NGS solvent significantly improved the cesium DF by at least an order of magnitude when extrapolating the One-stage results to actual Seven-stage extraction operation with a stage efficiency of 95%.

  9. Feeding Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the TPN. Tubes Used for Enteral Feeds NG (Nasogastric Tube) A flexible tube is placed via the nose, ... portion of the small intestine Naso – nose NG – Nasogastric Tube -ostomy – new opening Percutaneous – through the skin PEJ – ...

  10. Rapid tube CAMP test for identification of Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, E A; Tapsall, J W; Smith, D D

    1980-01-01

    A rapid CAMP test for the presumptive identification of Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B) is described. Sheep erythrocytes, sensitized by staphylococcal beta-lysin and suspended in phosphate-buffered saline, were used to determine the lytic capacity of the neutralized supernatant fluids of 4-h broth cultures of streptococci being tested. A total of 96.2% of 130 group B streptococci gave positive CAMP tests, that is, lysis of the sheep erythrocytes after 10 min of exposure of streptococcal supernatants, whereas none of 381 non-group B streptococci tested produced any lysis. The test described provides presumptive identification of group B streptococci within 4 h and eliminates problems of intermediate reactions so that a positive test is indicative only of CAMP factor production. PMID:7014603

  11. Laboratory testing on infiltration in single synthetic fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Claudia; Pastore, Nicola; Li, Jiawei; Giasi, Concetta I.; Li, Ling

    2017-04-01

    An understanding of infiltration phenomena in unsaturated rock fractures is extremely important in many branches of engineering for numerous reasons. Sectors such as the oil, gas and water industries are regularly interacting with water seepage through rock fractures, yet the understanding of the mechanics and behaviour associated with this sort of flow is still incomplete. An apparatus has been set up to test infiltration in single synthetic fractures in both dry and wet conditions. To simulate the two fracture planes, concrete fractures have been moulded from 3D printed fractures with varying geometrical configurations, in order to analyse the influence of aperture and roughness on infiltration. Water flows through the single fractures by means of a hydraulic system composed by an upstream and a downstream reservoir, the latter being subdivided into five equal sections in order to measure the flow rate in each part to detect zones of preferential flow. The fractures have been set at various angles of inclination to investigate the effect of this parameter on infiltration dynamics. The results obtained identified that altering certain fracture parameters and conditions produces relevant effects on the infiltration process through the fractures. The main variables influencing the formation of preferential flow are: the inclination angle of the fracture, the saturation level of the fracture and the mismatch wavelength of the fracture.

  12. Testing the single degenerate channel for supernova Ia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Steven

    2014-10-01

    The progenitors of supernova Ia are close binaries containing white dwarfs. Of crucial importance to the evolution of these systems is how much material the white dwarf can stably accrete and hence grow in mass. This occurs during a short-lived intense phase of mass transfer known as the super soft source (SSS) phase. The short duration of this phase and large extinction to soft X-rays means that only a handful are known in our Galaxy. Far more can be learned from the underlying SSS progenitor population of close white dwarf plus FGK type binaries. Unfortunately, these systems are hard to find since the main-sequence stars completely outshine the white dwarfs at optical wavelengths. Because of this, there are currently no known close white dwarf binaries with F, G or early K type companions, making it impossible to determine the contribution of the single degenerate channel towards supernova Ia. Using the GALEX and RAVE surveys we have now identified the first large sample of FGK stars with UV excesses, a fraction of which are these illusive, close systems. Following an intense ground based spectroscopic investigation of these systems, we have identified 5 definite close binaries, with periods of less than a few days. Here we apply for COS spectroscopic observations to measure the mass and temperature of the white dwarfs in order to determine the future evolution of these systems. This will provide a crucial test for the single degenerate channel towards supernova Ia.

  13. Simultaneous detection of five notifiable viral diseases of cattle by single-tube multiplex real-time RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Multiplexed real-time PCR (qPCR) assays enable the detection of several target genes in a single reaction, which is applicable for simultaneous testing for the most important viral diseases in samples obtained from ruminants with unspecific clinical symptoms. Here, reverse transcription qPCR (RT-qPCR) systems for the detection of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and bluetongue virus (BTV) were combined with an internal control system based on the beta-actin gene. Additionally, a background screening for three further major pathogens of cloven-hoofed animals reportable to the World Organisation for Animal Health, namely foot-and-mouth disease virus, epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus, and Rift Valley fever virus, was integrated using the identical fluorophore for the respective RT-qPCR assays. Every pathogen-specific assay had an analytical sensitivity of at least 100 genome copies per reaction within the multiplex approach, and a series of reference samples and clinical specimens obtained from cattle, but also from small ruminants, were detected reliably. The qPCR systems integrated in the background screening were even not influenced by the simultaneous amplification of very high BVDV and BTV genome copy numbers. The newly developed multiplex qPCR allows the specific and sensitive detection of five of the most important diseases of ruminants and could be used in the context of monitoring programs or for differential diagnostics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. ASSERT validation against the Stern Laboratories' single-phase pressure drop tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddington, G.M.; Kiteley, J.C.; Carver, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the preliminary validation of ASSERT-IV against the single-phase pressure drop tests from the 37-element CHF (critical heat flux) experiments conducted at Stern Laboratories, and shows how this study fits into the overall ASSERT validation plan. The effects on the pressure drop of several friction and form loss models are evaluated, including the geometry-based K-factor model. The choice of friction factor has a small effect on the predicted channel pressure drop, compared to the form loss model choice. Using the uniform K-factors of Hameed, the computed pressure drops are in excellent agreement with the experimental results from the nominal pressure tube tests. For future ASSERT applications, either Hameed's uniform K-factors or the geometry-based model using Idelchik's thick-edged orifice equation are recommended, as are the friction factor correlations of Colebrook-White, Selander, and Aly and Groeneveld. More analysis of the geometry-based K-factor model is required. (author). 23 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs

  15. Crystal plasticity study of single crystal tungsten by indentation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Weizhi

    2012-01-01

    Owing to its favorable material properties, tungsten (W) has been studied as a plasma-facing material in fusion reactors. Experiments on W heating in plasma sources and electron beam facilities have shown an intense micro-crack formation at the heated surface and sub-surface. The cracks go deep inside the irradiated sample, and often large distorted areas caused by local plastic deformation are present around the cracks. To interpret the crack-induced microscopic damage evolution process in W, one needs firstly to understand its plasticity on a single grain level, which is referred to as crystal plasticity. In this thesis, the crystal plasticity of single crystal tungsten (SCW) has been studied by spherical and Berkovich indentation tests and the finite element method with a crystal plasticity model. Appropriate values of the material parameters included in the crystal plasticity model are determined by fitting measured load-displacement curves and pile-up profiles with simulated counterparts for spherical indentation. The numerical simulations reveal excellent agreement with experiment. While the load-displacement curves and the deduced indentation hardness exhibit little sensitivity to the indented plane at small indentation depths, the orientation of slip directions within the crystals governs the development of deformation hillocks at the surface. It is found that several factors like friction, indentation depth, active slip systems, misoriented crystal orientation, misoriented sample surface and azimuthal orientation of the indenter can affect the indentation behavior of SCW. The Berkovich indentation test was also used to study the crystal plasticity of SCW after deuterium irradiation. The critical load (pop-in load) for triggering plastic deformation under the indenter is found to depend on the crystallographic orientation. The pop-in loads decrease dramatically after deuterium plasma irradiation for all three investigated crystallographic planes.

  16. Development and Execution of a Large-scale DDT Tube Test for IHE Material Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Gary Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Broilo, Robert M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lopez-Pulliam, Ian Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vaughan, Larry Dean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-24

    Insensitive High Explosive (IHE) Materials are defined in Chapter IX of the DOE Explosive Safety Standard (DOE-STD-1212-2012) as being materials that are massdetonable explosives that are so insensitive that the probability of accidental initiation or transition from burning to detonation is negligible1. There are currently a number of tests included in the standard that are required to qualify a material as IHE, however, none of the tests directly evaluate for the transition from burning to detonation (aka deflagration-to-detonation transition, DDT). Currently, there is a DOE complex-wide effort to revisit the IHE definition in DOE-STD-1212-2012 and change the qualification requirements. The proposal lays out a new approach, requiring fewer, but more appropriate tests, for IHE Material qualification. One of these new tests is the Deflagration-to-Detonation Test. According to the redefinition proposal, the purpose of the new deflagration-todetonation test is “to demonstrate that an IHE material will not undergo deflagration-to-detonation under stockpile relevant conditions of scale, confinement, and material condition. Inherent in this test design is the assumption that ignition does occur, with onset of deflagration. The test design will incorporate large margins and replicates to account for the stochastic nature of DDT events.” In short, the philosophy behind this approach is that if a material fails to undergo DDT in a significant over-test, then it is extremely unlikely to do so in realistic conditions. This effort will be valuable for the B61 LEP to satisfy their need qualify the new production lots of PBX 9502. The work described in this report is intended as a preliminary investigation to support the proposed design of an overly conservative, easily fielded DDT test for updated IHE Material Qualification standard. Specifically, we evaluated the aspects of confinement, geometry, material morphology and temperature. We also developed and tested a

  17. Single-portal-phase low-tube-voltage dual-energy CT for short-term follow-up of acute pancreatitis: evaluation of CT severity index, interobserver agreement and radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wichmann, Julian L. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Frankfurt, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Majenka, Pawel; Beeres, Martin; Kromen, Wolfgang; Schulz, Boris; Bauer, Ralf W.; Kerl, J.M.; Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana; Hammerstingl, Renate; Vogl, Thomas J.; Lehnert, Thomas [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Wesarg, Stefan [Fraunhofer IGD, Cognitive Computing and Medical Imaging, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    To intra-individually compare single-portal-phase low-tube-voltage (100-kVp) computed tomography (CT) with 120-kVp images for short-term follow-up assessment of CT severity index (CTSI) of acute pancreatitis, interobserver agreement and radiation dose. We retrospectively analysed 66 patients with acute pancreatitis who underwent initial dual-contrast-phase CT (unenhanced, arterial, portal phase) at admission and short-term (mean interval 11.4 days) follow-up dual-contrast-phase dual-energy CT. The 100-kVp and linearly blended images representing 120-kVp acquisition follow-up CT images were independently evaluated by three radiologists using a modified CTSI assessing pancreatic inflammation, necrosis and extrapancreatic complications. Scores were compared with paired t test and interobserver agreement was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Mean CTSI scores on unenhanced, portal- and dual-contrast-phase images were 4.9, 6.1 and 6.2 (120 kVp) and 5.0, 6.0 and 6.1 (100 kVp), respectively. Contrast-enhanced series showed a higher CTSI compared to unenhanced images (P < 0.05) but no significant differences between single- and dual-contrast-phase series (P > 0.7). CTSI scores were comparable for 100-kVp and 120-kVp images (P > 0.05). Interobserver agreement was substantial for all evaluated series and subcategories (ICC 0.67-0.93). DLP of single-portal-phase 100-kVp images was reduced by 41 % compared to 120-kVp images (363.8 versus 615.9 mGy cm). Low-tube-voltage single-phase 100-kVp CT provides sufficient information for follow-up evaluation of acute pancreatitis and significantly reduces radiation exposure. (orig.)

  18. The Development of Expansion Plug Wedge Test for Clad Tubing Structure Mechanical Property Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Jiang, Hao [ORNL

    2016-01-12

    To determine the tensile properties of irradiated fuel cladding in a hot cell, a simple test was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and is described fully in US Patent Application 20060070455, “Expanded plug method for developing circumferential mechanical properties of tubular materials.” This method is designed for testing fuel rod cladding ductility in a hot cell using an expandable plug to stretch a small ring of irradiated cladding material. The specimen strain is determined using the measured diametrical expansion of the ring. This method removes many complexities associated with specimen preparation and testing. The advantages are the simplicity of measuring the test component assembly in the hot cell and the direct measurement of the specimen’s strain. It was also found that cladding strength could be determined from the test results.

  19. Digital assistance of nasogastric tube insertion in intubated patients under general anesthesia: A single-blinded prospective randomized study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandeel, Alrefaey; Elmorhedi, Mohammed; Abdalla, Usama

    2017-01-01

    Background: Nasogastric tube (NGT) insertion may pose a special problem in patients under general anesthesia with first attempt failure rates up to 50%. To increase insertion success rate and decreases related complications, several techniques have been developed. In this study, digital assistance technique is compared to the classic insertion technique in neck flexion. Materials and Methods: In this prospective randomized study, 160 patients were randomly allocated into two groups; control group (Group C, n = 80) where NGT tube will be inserted with the neck in flexion position and digital facilitation group (Group D, n = 80). Results: Overall success rate and first attempt success were statistically higher in Group D compared to Group C (94% vs. 81%, P = 0.02, 80% vs. 62%, P = 0.01 respectively) with significantly lower insertion time in Group D (13 ± 5 s. vs. 10 ± 3 s., P = 0.00). Conclusions: Digital assistance of NGT insertion in the anesthetized or unconscious patient is an effective, fast, and safe method that can be either used as a routine technique or as a rescue in case of failed other methods. PMID:28757827

  20. Influence of pH on organic acid production by Clostridium sporogenes in test tube and fermentor cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Montville, T J; Parris, N; Conway, L K

    1985-01-01

    The influence of pH on the growth parameters of and the organic acids produced by Clostridium sporogenes 3121 cultured in test tubes and fermentors at 35 degrees C was examined. Specific growth rates in the fermentor maintained at a constant pH ranged from 0.20 h-1 at pH 5.00 to 0.86 h-1 at pH 6.50. Acetic acid was the primary organic acid in supernatants of 24-h cultures; total organic acid levels were 2.0 to 22.0 mumol/ml. Supernatants from pH 5.00 and 5.50 cultures had total organic acid l...

  1. Comparison of characteristics parameters in the evaluation of wall thickness diminishing in admiralty brass tubes of the steam condenser, tested by eddy currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrutsky, Alba E.; Mendez, Jorge A.; Acosta, Cesar D.; Scopelliti, Jose D.

    1999-01-01

    This work is aimed to appraise the measure of the wall thickness diminishing in the signals evaluation obtained in the inspection of steam condenser by eddy currents. In the analysis of the obtained signals were observed in the brass tubes a great quantity of internal defects whose signal indicates that there were diminishing of the wall thickness between 80% and 100%. With all this information and analyzing the data acquired, the tubes with more important indications were selected to make a more exhaustive study of the found defectology. As first test, it was measured the thickness of the worn tubes, comparing them with the original ones that are in stock. It was verified that the tubes separated for this study presented a 30% less thickness in comparison with the new tubes. A semiquantitative chemical test (EDAX) was made to verify if it was the same material. One of the extracted tubes (066 Y1) was reinspected in order to isolate the area with indications. Once this was performed, it was decided to cut the tube to make a visual inspection and to evaluate to what type of defect corresponds to the signals obtained. In the metallography it was confirm that it was a horseshoe type defect. When performing a dimensional control test of the found real defect, it was checked that the information obtained by eddy currents regarding the diminishing of the wall thickness diminishing was valid. At a last stage of the test, it was proceed to make an study and verification of the used parameters, probes, standards and finally determine which shall be the convenient modifications to minimize errors. (author)

  2. Radiation tests for a single-GEM-loaded gaseous detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyong Sei; Hong, Byung Sik; Park, Sung Keun [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Yeol [NoticeKorea, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    We report on a systematic study of a single-gas-electron-multiplier (GEM)-loaded gaseous detector developed for precision measurements of high-energy particle beams and for dose verification in particle therapy. In the present study, a 256-channel prototype detector having an active area of 16 x 16 cm{sup 2} and operating using a continuous current-integration-mode signal-processing method was manufactured and tested with X-rays emitted from a 70-kV X-ray generator and 43-MeV protons provided by the MC50 proton cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science(KIRAMS). The amplified detector response was measured for X-rays with an intensity of about 5 x 10{sup 6} Hz cm{sup -2}. The linearity of the detector response to the particle flux was examined and validated by using 43-MeV proton beams. The non-uniform development of the amplification for the gas electrons in space was corrected by applying a proper calibration to the channel responses of the measured beam-profile data. We conclude from the radiation tests that the detector developed in the present study will allow us to perform quality measurements of various high-energy particle beams and to apply the technology to dose-verification measurements in particle therapy.

  3. Pressure loss characteristics of LSTF steam generator heat-transfer tubes. Pressure loss increase due to tube internal instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Mitsuhiro

    1994-11-01

    The steam generator of the Large-Scale Test Facility (LSTF) includes 141 heat-transfer U-tubes with different lengths. Six U-tubes among them are furnished with 15 or 17 probe-type instruments (conduction probe with a thermocouple; CPT) protuberant into the primary side of the U-tubes. Other 135 U-tubes are not instrumented. This results in different hydraulic conditions between the instrumented and non-instrumented U-tubes with the same length. A series of pressure loss characteristics tests was conducted at a test apparatus simulating both types of U-tube. The following pressure loss coefficient (K CPT ) was reduced as a function of Reynolds number (Re) from these tests under single-phase water flow conditions. K CPT =0.16 5600≤Re≤52820, K CPT =60.66xRe -0.688 2420≤Re≤5600, K CPT =2.664x10 6 Re -2.06 1371≤Re≤2420. The maximum uncertainty is 22%. By using these results, the total pressure loss coefficients of full length U-tubes were estimated. It is clarified that the total pressure loss of the shortest instrumented U-tube is equivalent to that of the middle-length non-instrumented U-tube and also that a middle-length instrumented U-tube is equivalent to the longest non-instrumented U-tube. Concludingly. it is important to take account of the CPT pressure loss mentioned above in estimation of fluid behavior at the non-instrumented U-tubes either by using the LSTF experiment data from the CPT-installed U-tubes or by using any analytical codes. (author)

  4. Coincident steam generator tube rupture and stuck-open safety relief valve carryover tests: MB-2 steam generator transient response test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbett, K.; Mendler, O.J.; Gardner, G.C.; Garnsey, R.; Young, M.Y.

    1987-03-01

    In PWR steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) faults, a direct pathway for the release of radioactive fission products can exist if there is a coincident stuck-open safety relief valve (SORV) or if the safety relief valve is cycled. In addition to the release of fission products from the bulk steam generator water by moisture carryover, there exists the possibility that some primary coolant may be released without having first mixed with the bulk water - a process called primary coolant bypassing. The MB-2 Phase II test program was designed specifically to identify the processes for droplet carryover during SGTR faults and to provide data of sufficient accuracy for use in developing physical models and computer codes to describe activity release. The test program consisted of sixteen separate tests designed to cover a range of steady-state and transient fault conditions. These included a full SGTR/SORV transient simulation, two SGTR overfill tests, ten steady-state SGTR tests at water levels ranging from very low levels in the bundle up to those when the dryer was flooded, and three moisture carryover tests without SGTR. In these tests the influence of break location and the effect of bypassing the dryer were also studied. In a final test the behavior with respect to aerosol particles in a dry steam generator, appropriate to a severe accident fault, was investigated

  5. Steam generator tube vibration study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enderlin, W.I.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical cleaning has been proposed to remove magnetite buildup in some pressurized water reactor steam generators. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has expressed concern that such cleaning would combine with the tube denting caused by magnetite formation to enlarge tube/tube support plate clearances, increasing the level of flow-induced vibrations that could lead to unacceptably high tube wear and failure rates. In support of NRC, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory investigated whether such increased clearances would exacerbate tube fretting wear. Using a full-length scale model of a steam generator tube bundle, flow tests were conducted at an instrumented location through clearances representing as-built and post-cleaned tube conditions. Test results indicated little potential for increased tube wear as a result of chemical cleaning, under normal operating conditions at tube support locations similar to that tested

  6. Development of Cone Wedge Ring Expansion Test to Evaluate Mechanical Properties of Clad Tubing Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    To determine the hoop tensile properties of irradiated fuel cladding in a hot cell, a cone wedge ring expansion test method was developed. A four-piece wedge insert was designed with tapered angles matched to the cone shape of a loading piston. The ring specimen was expanded in the radial direction by the lateral expansion of the wedges under the downward movement of the piston. The advantages of the proposed method are that implementation of the test setup in a hot cell is simple and easy, and that it enables a direct strain measurement of the test specimen from the piston’s vertical displacement soon after the wedge-clad contact resistance is initiated.

  7. A fast position estimation method for a control rod guide tube inspection robot with a single camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae C.; Seop, Jun H.; Choi, Yu R.; Kim, Jae H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    One of the problems in the inspection of control rod guide tubes using a mobile robot is accurate estimation of the robot's position. The problem is usually explained by the question 'Where am I?'. We can solve this question by a method called dead reckoning using odometers. But it has some inherent drawbacks such that the position error grows without bound unless an independent reference is used periodically to reduce the errors. In this paper, we presented one method to overcome this drawback by using a vision sensor. Our method is based on the classical Lucas Kanade algorithm for on image tracking. In this algorithm, an optical flow must be calculated at every image frame, thus it has intensive computing load. In order to handle large motions, it is preferable to use a large integration window. But a small integration window is more preferable to keep the details contained in the images. We used the robot's movement information obtained from the dead reckoning as an input parameter for the feature tracking algorithm in order to restrict the position of an integration window. By means of this method, we could reduce the size of an integration window without any loss of its ability to handle large motions and could avoid the trade off in the accuracy. And we could estimate the position of our robot relatively fast without on intensive computing time and the inherent drawbacks mentioned above. We studied this algorithm for applying it to the control rod guide tubes inspection robot and tried an inspection without on operator's intervention.

  8. Construction and test of the final CMS barrel drift tube muon chamber prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar-Benítez, M; Arneodo, M; Banicz, K; Benettoni, M; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bethke, Siegfried; Cerrada, M; Cirio, R; Colino, N; Conti, E; Dallavalle, G M; Daniel, M; Dattola, D; Daudo, F; De Giorgi, M; Dosselli, U; Fanfani, A; Fanin, C; Fouz-Iglesias, M C; Gasparini, F; Gasparini, U; Glacomelli, P; Giordano, V; Gonella, F; Grandi, C; Guaita, P; Guerzoni, M; Lacaprara, S; Lippi, I; Marcellini, S; Marin, J; Martinelli, R; Maselli, S; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Migliore, E; Mocholí-Mocholí, J; Monaco, V; Montanari, A; Montnari, C; Odorici, F; Oller, J C; Paoletti, S; Passaseo, M; Pegoraro, M; Peroni, C; Puerta, J; Reithler, H; Romero, A; Romero, L; Ronchese, P; Rossi, A M; Rovelli, T; Sacchi, R; Salicio, J M; Staiano, A; Steinbeck, T M; Torassa, E; Travaglini, R; Ventura, L; Ventura, Sandro; Vitelli, A; Voetee, F; Wegner, M; Willmott, C; Zotto, P L; Zumerle, G

    2002-01-01

    A prototype of the CMS Barrel Muon Detector incorporating all the features of the final chambers was built using the mass production assembly procedures and tools. The performance of this prototype was studied in a muon test beam at CERN and the results obtained are presented in this paper. (12 refs).

  9. Construction and test of the final CMS Barrel Drift Tube Muon Chamber prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alberdi, J.; Arneodo, M.; Banicz, K.; Benettoni, M.; Benvenuti, A.; Bethke, S.; Cerrada, M. E-mail: cerrada@ciemat.es; Cirio, R.; Colino, N.; Conti, E.; Dallavalle, M.; Daniel, M.; Dattola, D.; Daudo, F.; De Giorgi, M.; Dosselli, U.; Fanfani, A.; Fanin, C.; Fouz, M.C.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Giacomelli, P.; Giordano, V.; Gonella, F.; Grandi, C.; Guaita, P.; Guerzoni, M.; Lacaprara, S.; Lippi, I.; Marcellini, S.; Marin, J.; Martinelli, R.; Maselli, S.; Meneguzzo, A.; Migliore, E.; Mocholi, J.; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Montanari, C.; Odorici, F.; Oller, J.C.; Paoletti, S.; Passaseo, M.; Pegoraro, M.; Peroni, C.; Puerta, J.; Reithler, H.; Romero, A.; Romero, L.; Ronchese, P.; Rossi, A.M.; Rovelli, T.; Sacchi, R.; Salicio, J.M.; Staiano, A.; Steinbeck, T.; Torassa, E.; Travaglini, R.; Ventura, L.; Ventura, S.; Vitelli, A.; Voetee, F.; Wegner, M.; Willmott, C.; Zotto, P.; Zumerle, G

    2002-03-21

    A prototype of the CMS Barrel Muon Detector incorporating all the features of the final chambers was built using the mass production assembly procedures and tools. The performance of this prototype was studied in a muon test beam at CERN and the results obtained are presented in this paper.

  10. Study of methods for testing the tubes of steam generators by means of Eddy Current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehnfeldt, C.-G.

    1982-01-01

    Comparative studies of equipment have been performed at Ringhals. Automatic testing systems, type Vincotte have been found to be flexible. Multi-frequency systems are to be preferred. The limits of detection of defects can be estimated in three classes including defects which are impossible to detect. Real defects in Ringhals-2 and Ringhals-3 were used as reference. (G.B.)

  11. Analysis of experiment testing technology for single event effects in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Chaohui

    2001-01-01

    The merit and demerit of simulation source were analyzed for Single Event Effects (SEE) experiment testing in China. Laboratory experiment systems for SEE were brief introduced and requests for SEE test system were emphasize analyzed. Test systems were presented for Single Event Upset, Single Event Latch-up, Single Event Burnout and Single Event Gate-Rupture. The attention should be in mind in SEE experiments were discussed

  12. Columbia University flow instability experimental program: Volume 6. Single annulus tests, transient test program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dougherty, T.; Maciuca, C.; McAssey, E.V. Jr.; Reddy, D.G.; Yang, B.W.

    1992-09-01

    The coolant in the Savannah River Site (SRS) production nuclear reactor assemblies is circulated as a subcooled liquid under normal operating conditions. This coolant is evenly distributed throughout multiple annular flow channels with a uniform pressure profile across each coolant flow channel. During the postulated Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), which is initiated by a hypothetical guillotine pipe break, the coolant flow through the reactor assemblies is significantly reduced. The flow reduction and accompanying power reduction (after shutdown is initiated) occur in the first 1 to 2 seconds of the LOCA. This portion of the LOCA is referred to as the Flow Instability phase. This report presents the experimental results for the transient portion of the single annulus test program. The test program was designed to investigate the onset of flow instability in an annular geometry similar to the MARK 22 reactor. The test program involved testing of both a ribless heater and a ribbed heater under steady state as well as transient conditions. The ribbed heater testing is currently underway and will be reported separately. The steady state portion of this test program with ribless heater was completed and reported in report No. CU-HTRF-T3A. The present report presents transient test results obtained from a ribless, uniform annulus test section. A total of thirty five transients were conducted with six cases in which flow excursion occurred. No unstable conditions resulted for tests in which the steady state Q{sub ratio} OFI limit was not exceeded.

  13. Lifetime prediction and reliability estimation methodology for Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerators by gaseous contamination accelerated degradation testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Fubin; Tan, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Zhenhua; Chen, Xun; Wu, Yinong; Zhao, Peng

    2017-12-01

    Lifetime and reliability are the two performance parameters of premium importance for modern space Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerators (SPTRs), which are required to operate in excess of 10 years. Demonstration of these parameters provides a significant challenge. This paper proposes a lifetime prediction and reliability estimation method that utilizes accelerated degradation testing (ADT) for SPTRs related to gaseous contamination failure. The method was experimentally validated via three groups of gaseous contamination ADT. First, the performance degradation model based on mechanism of contamination failure and material outgassing characteristics of SPTRs was established. Next, a preliminary test was performed to determine whether the mechanism of contamination failure of the SPTRs during ADT is consistent with normal life testing. Subsequently, the experimental program of ADT was designed for SPTRs. Then, three groups of gaseous contamination ADT were performed at elevated ambient temperatures of 40 °C, 50 °C, and 60 °C, respectively and the estimated lifetimes of the SPTRs under normal condition were obtained through acceleration model (Arrhenius model). The results show good fitting of the degradation model with the experimental data. Finally, we obtained the reliability estimation of SPTRs through using the Weibull distribution. The proposed novel methodology enables us to take less than one year time to estimate the reliability of the SPTRs designed for more than 10 years.

  14. Down-hill and up-hill boiling tests in helicoidal tubes (two-phase instabilities)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobremelle, M.; Duchatelle, L.; Nogre, P.; Chabert, M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews the results of up-hill and down-hill boiling experiments in the steam generator test facility (5 MW) at Grand Quevilly (Zebulon Loop). A comparison is made of experimental results with calculations using the Archange (CEA, France) and Loop (HTFS, Great Britain) codes. The chief conclusion drawn is that down-hill boiling raises no particular problems with respect to startup, control, shutdown or static stability. 8 refs

  15. Assaying embryotoxicity in the test tube: current limitations of the embryonic stem cell test (EST) challenging its applicability domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebeling, Christian; Hayess, Katrin; Peters, Annelieke K; Steemans, Margino; Spielmann, Horst; Luch, Andreas; Seiler, Andrea E M

    2012-05-01

    Testing for embryotoxicity in vitro is an attractive alternative to animal experimentation. The embryonic stem cell test (EST) is such a method, and it has been formally validated by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods. A number of recent studies have underscored the potential of this method. However, the EST performed well below the 78% accuracy expected from the validation study using a new set of chemicals and pharmaceutical compounds, and also of toxicity criteria, tested to enlarge the database of the validated EST as part of the Work Package III of the ReProTect Project funded within the 6th Framework Programme of the European Union. To assess the performance and applicability domain of the EST we present a detailed review of the substances and their effects in the EST being nitrofen, ochratoxin A, D-penicillamine, methylazoxymethanol, lovastatin, papaverine, warfarin, β-aminopropionitrile, dinoseb, furosemide, doxylamine, pravastatin, and metoclopramide. By delineation of the molecular mechanisms of the substances we identify six categories of reasons for misclassifications. Some of these limitations might also affect other in vitro methods assessing embryotoxicity. Substances that fall into these categories need to be included in future validation sets and in validation guidelines for embryotoxicity testing. Most importantly, we suggest conceivable improvements and additions to the EST which will resolve most of the limitations.

  16. An immunologic model for rapid vaccine assessment -- a clinical trial in a test tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higbee, Russell G; Byers, Anthony M; Dhir, Vipra; Drake, Donald; Fahlenkamp, Heather G; Gangur, Jyoti; Kachurin, Anatoly; Kachurina, Olga; Leistritz, Del; Ma, Yifan; Mehta, Riyaz; Mishkin, Eric; Moser, Janice; Mosquera, Luis; Nguyen, Mike; Parkhill, Robert; Pawar, Santosh; Poisson, Louis; Sanchez-Schmitz, Guzman; Schanen, Brian; Singh, Inderpal; Song, Haifeng; Tapia, Tenekua; Warren, William; Wittman, Vaughan

    2009-09-01

    While the duration and size of human clinical trials may be difficult to reduce, there are several parameters in pre-clinical vaccine development that may be possible to further optimise. By increasing the accuracy of the models used for pre-clinical vaccine testing, it should be possible to increase the probability that any particular vaccine candidate will be successful in human trials. In addition, an improved model will allow the collection of increasingly more-informative data in pre-clinical tests, thus aiding the rational design and formulation of candidates entered into clinical evaluation. An acceleration and increase in sophistication of pre-clinical vaccine development will thus require the advent of more physiologically-accurate models of the human immune system, coupled with substantial advances in the mechanistic understanding of vaccine efficacy, achieved by using this model. We believe the best viable option available is to use human cells and/or tissues in a functional in vitro model of human physiology. Not only will this more accurately model human diseases, it will also eliminate any ethical, moral and scientific issues involved with use of live humans and animals. An in vitro model, termed "MIMIC" (Modular IMmune In vitro Construct), was designed and developed to reflect the human immune system in a well-based format. The MIMIC System is a laboratory-based methodology that replicates the human immune system response. It is highly automated, and can be used to simulate a clinical trial for a diverse population, without putting human subjects at risk. The MIMIC System uses the circulating immune cells of individual donors to recapitulate each individual human immune response by maintaining the autonomy of the donor. Thus, an in vitro test system has been created that is functionally equivalent to the donor's own immune system and is designed to respond in a similar manner to the in vivo response. 2009 FRAME.

  17. RNA biology in a test tube--an overview of in vitro systems/assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Xavier; Karginov, Fedor V

    2012-01-01

    In vitro systems have provided a wealth of information in the field of RNA biology, as they constitute a superior and sometimes the unique approach to address many important questions. Such cell-free methods can be sorted by the degree of complexity of the preparation of enzymatic and/or regulatory activity. Progress in the study of pre-mRNA processing has largely relied on traditional in vitro methods, as these reactions have been recapitulated in cell-free systems. The pre-mRNA capping, editing, and cleavage/polyadenylation reactions have even been reconstituted using purified components, and the enzymes responsible for catalysis have been characterized by such techniques. In vitro splicing using nuclear or cytoplasmic extracts has yielded clues on spliceosome assembly, kinetics, and mechanisms of splicing and has been essential to elucidate the function of splicing factors. Coupled systems have been important to functionally connect distinct processes, like transcription and splicing. Extract preparation has also been adapted to cells from a variety of tissues and species, revealing general versus species-specific mechanisms. Cell-free assays have also been applied to newly discovered pathways such as those involving small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). The first two pathways have been well characterized largely by in vitro methods, which need to be developed for piRNAs. Finally, new techniques, such as single-molecule studies, are continuously being established, providing new and important insights into the field. Thus, in vitro approaches have been, are, and will continue being at the forefront of RNA research. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Tumor suppressor gene-based nanotherapy: from test tube to the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, Manish; Jin, Jiankang; Branch, Cynthia D; Miyamoto, Shinya; Grimm, Elizabeth A; Roth, Jack A; Ramesh, Rajagopal

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is a major health problem in the world. Advances made in cancer therapy have improved the survival of patients in certain types of cancer. However, the overall five-year survival has not significantly improved in the majority of cancer types. Major challenges encountered in having effective cancer therapy are development of drug resistance by the tumor cells, nonspecific cytotoxicity, and inability to affect metastatic tumors by the chemodrugs. Overcoming these challenges requires development and testing of novel therapies. One attractive cancer therapeutic approach is cancer gene therapy. Several laboratories including the authors' laboratory have been investigating nonviral formulations for delivering therapeutic genes as a mode for effective cancer therapy. In this paper the authors will summarize their experience in the development and testing of a cationic lipid-based nanocarrier formulation and the results from their preclinical studies leading to a Phase I clinical trial for nonsmall cell lung cancer. Their nanocarrier formulation containing therapeutic genes such as tumor suppressor genes when administered intravenously effectively controls metastatic tumor growth. Additional Phase I clinical trials based on the results of their nanocarrier formulation have been initiated or proposed for treatment of cancer of the breast, ovary, pancreas, and metastatic melanoma, and will be discussed.

  19. Tumor Suppressor Gene-Based Nanotherapy: From Test Tube to the Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Shanker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a major health problem in the world. Advances made in cancer therapy have improved the survival of patients in certain types of cancer. However, the overall five-year survival has not significantly improved in the majority of cancer types. Major challenges encountered in having effective cancer therapy are development of drug resistance by the tumor cells, nonspecific cytotoxicity, and inability to affect metastatic tumors by the chemodrugs. Overcoming these challenges requires development and testing of novel therapies. One attractive cancer therapeutic approach is cancer gene therapy. Several laboratories including the authors' laboratory have been investigating nonviral formulations for delivering therapeutic genes as a mode for effective cancer therapy. In this paper the authors will summarize their experience in the development and testing of a cationic lipid-based nanocarrier formulation and the results from their preclinical studies leading to a Phase I clinical trial for nonsmall cell lung cancer. Their nanocarrier formulation containing therapeutic genes such as tumor suppressor genes when administered intravenously effectively controls metastatic tumor growth. Additional Phase I clinical trials based on the results of their nanocarrier formulation have been initiated or proposed for treatment of cancer of the breast, ovary, pancreas, and metastatic melanoma, and will be discussed.

  20. 49 CFR 232.307 - Modification of the single car air brake test procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Requirements § 232.307 Modification of the single car air brake test procedures. (a) Request. The AAR or other authorized representative of the railroad industry may seek modification of the single car air brake test... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modification of the single car air brake test...

  1. Drug-mediated toxicity: illuminating the 'bad' in the test tube by means of cellular assays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tralau, Tewes; Luch, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    Health problems are rising worldwide, be it as a consequence of lifestyle and longevity in increasingly affluent societies or due to a sharp rise in bacterial antibiotic resistance. The pharmaceutical industry is caught between high rates of attrition and the rather slow pace of a historically large regulatory system for pharmacological safety. Meanwhile, the past decade has seen a tremendous evolution of the biological toolbox, most notably of cellular assays, stem-cell differentiation and organ-mimicking systems. These systems were readily adapted for lead-compound identification. However, their use as toxicological test systems is lagging behind, not least because of a lack of regulatory acceptance. This review tries to elucidate the scale of the problem and discusses the applicability of the assays currently available, with particular regard to the use of stem cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Water-storage-tube systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemker, P.

    1981-12-24

    Passive solar collection/storage/distribution systems were surveyed, designed, fabricated, and mechanically and thermally tested. The types studied were clear and opaque fiberglass tubes, metal tubes with plastic liners, and thermosyphoning tubes. (MHR)

  3. [Tuberculosis screening program for undocumented immigrant teenagers using the QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold In-Tube test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Carlos; Ballaz, Aitor; Díez, Rosa; Aguirre, Urko; Antón, Ane; Altube, Lander

    2015-07-06

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis infection in undocumented immigrant teenagers using a tuberculin skin test (TST) for initial screening and QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) as a confirmatory test. From 2007 to 2012, under 19 year-old immigrant teenagers from 2 accommodation centers of the Basque Country (Spain) were included in the study. The TST was done in all of them and the QFT-GIT was done in selected patients with a TST≥5mm. Eight hundred and forty-five immigrants were included, most of them from Africa (99.5%). Fifty-one percent of immigrants with TST ≥ 5 mm has a positive QFT-GIT. We found 2 cases of active tuberculosis (2/845: 0.24%). The concordance between TST (≥ 10 mm) and QFT-GIT was 63%, with 57% of positive concordance cases and 96% of negative concordances. There were 246 cases with TST ≥ 10 mm (29%), with significant differences between Magrebis (21.5%) and Subsaharians (67%) (Ptuberculosis infection in Subsaharian immigrants, we recommend implementing screening programs in this population. Using QFT-GIT, the number of candidates for chemoprophylaxis was reduced to 43% compared with TST alone (≥ 10 mm). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Electronic setup for fluorescence emission measurements and long-time constant-temperature maintenance of Single-Walled Carbon Nano-Tubes in water solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Rosa Matteo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In our previous research we have observed that the fluorescence emission from water solutions of Single-Walled Carbon Nano-Tubes (SWCNT, excited by a laser with a wavelength of 830nm, diminishes with the time. We have already proved that such a fading is a function of the storage time and the storage temperature. In order to study the emission of the SWCNT as a function of these two parameters we have designed and realized a special measurement compartment with a cuvette holder where the SWCNT solutions can be measured and stored at a fixed constant temperature for periods of time as long as several weeks. To maintain the measurement setup under a constant temperature we have designed special experimental setup based on two Peltier cells with electronic temperature control.

  5. Reliability testing of indirect composites as single implant restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Marcelo; Bonfante, Estevam; Silva, Nelson Rfa; Coelho, Paulo G

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the reliability and failure modes of indirect composites as single-unit implant crowns. Thirty-eight custom-milled titanium alloy locking-taper abutments were divided into two groups (n = 19 each), and crown build-up of a mandibular molar was accomplished using two indirect composite systems (Ceramage, Shofu, Kyoto, Japan; Diamond Crown, DRM, Branford, CT). Three crowns of each material were loaded until failure for determination of the step-stress profiles. Reliability testing started at a load 30% of the mean load to failure and used three profiles with increasing fatigue loading (step stress). Weibull curves with 300 N stress and 90% confidence intervals were calculated and plotted using a power-law relationship. Weibull modulus "Beta" and characteristic strength "Eta" were identified, and a contour plot was used (Beta vs. Eta) for examining differences between groups. Specimens were inspected in polarized light and scanning electron microscope for fracture analysis. Use level Weibull probability showed fatigue being a damage factor only for the Ceramage group (β= 3.39) but not for the Diamond Crown group (β= 0.40). Overlap in the confidence bounds resulted in no statistical difference. Irrespective of composite system, fracture initiated in the region immediately below the contact between the indenter and the cusp, with the crack propagating toward the margins of cohesive failure. No significant differences were observed in life and Weibull probability calculations for Ceramage and Diamond Crown veneered onto Ti alloy abutments. Failure modes comprised composite veneer chippings. © 2011 by The American College of Prosthodontists.

  6. Mock-up tests on the combustion of hydrogen air mixture in the vertical tube simulating the CNS channel of the CARR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qingfeng; Feng, Quanke; Kawai, Takeshi; Xu, Jian

    2007-01-01

    A two-phase thermo-siphon loop for removing nuclear heating and maintaining the stable liquid level in the moderator cell was adopted for the cold neutron source (CNS) of the China advanced research reactor (CARR). The moderator is liquid hydrogen. The two-phase thermo-siphon loop consists of the crescent-shape moderator cell, the moderator transfer tube, and the condenser. The hydrogen is supplied from the buffer tank to the condenser. The main feature of the loop is that the moderator cell is covered by the helium sub-cooling system. The cold helium gas from the helium refrigerator is firstly introduced into the helium sub-cooling system and then flows up through the tube covering the moderator transfer tube into the condenser. The main part of this system is installed in the CNS vertical channel made of aluminum alloy 6061 T6 (Al-6061-T6) of 6 mm in thickness, 270 mm in outer diameter and about 6 m in height. For confirming the safety of the CNS channel, the combustion tests using a tube compatible with the CNS channel were carried out using the hydrogen-air mixture under which air is introduced into the tube at 1 atmosphere, and then hydrogen gas is supplied from the gas cylinder up to the test pressures. And maximum test pressure is 0.14 MPa G. This condition is involved with the maximum design basis accident of the CARR-CNS. The peak pressure due to combustion was 1.09 MPa, and the design pressure of the CNS channel is 3 MPa. The safety of the CNS was thus verified even if the maximum design basis accident occurs. The pressure and stress distributions along the axial direction and the displacement of the tube were also measured.

  7. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle attachment on array of micro test tubes and microbeakers formed on p-type silicon substrate for biosensor applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Sufi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A uniformly distributed array of micro test tubes and microbeakers is formed on a p-type silicon substrate with tunable cross-section and distance of separation by anodic etching of the silicon wafer in N, N-dimethylformamide and hydrofluoric acid, which essentially leads to the formation of macroporous silicon templates. A reasonable control over the dimensions of the structures could be achieved by tailoring the formation parameters, primarily the wafer resistivity. For a micro test tube, the cross-section (i.e., the pore size as well as the distance of separation between two adjacent test tubes (i.e., inter-pore distance is typically approximately 1 μm, whereas, for a microbeaker the pore size exceeds 1.5 μm and the inter-pore distance could be less than 100 nm. We successfully synthesized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs, with average particle size approximately 20 nm and attached them on the porous silicon chip surface as well as on the pore walls. Such SPION-coated arrays of micro test tubes and microbeakers are potential candidates for biosensors because of the biocompatibility of both silicon and SPIONs. As acquisition of data via microarray is an essential attribute of high throughput bio-sensing, the proposed nanostructured array may be a promising step in this direction.

  8. Device for the selective positioning of a component on a tube plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to a device for the selective positioning of a component on a tube plate. It particularly applies to the positioning of a guide tube head successively opposite all the tubes of the tube bundle of a nuclear reactor steam generator. The large number of tubes in the tube bundle of the steam generator in a pressure water nuclear power station must be checked periodically for any likely corrosion. This check is effected with a Foucault current probe which is inserted in each tube in turn and is connected to a probe signal processing unit. The probe is placed in a flexible guide tube brought in turn in front of each tube of the bundle to be checked. The invention concerns a device to move the opening of a tube guide for a Foucault current detector over the entire surface of the tube plate, thereby providing access to all the tubes whilst limiting the interventions to a single positioning and a single withdrawal of the apparatus for testing all the bundle. Between the two interventions at the beginning and end of the operation, all displacements are remote controlled from outside the dangerous radioacive area [fr

  9. Diagnostic usefulness of the QuantiFERON-TB gold in-tube test (QFT-GIT) for tuberculous vertebral osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungim; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Son, Hyo-Ju; Lee, Seung Hyun; Hong, Jung Min; Kim, Min Chul; Kim, Min Jae; Chong, Yong Pil; Sung, Heungsup; Lee, Sang-Oh; Choi, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yang Soo; Woo, Jun Hee; Kim, Sung-Han

    2018-05-01

    Interferon (IFN)-γ-releasing assay for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) has shown promise; however, there are only a few reports on usefulness of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-GIT) for diagnosing TB vertebral osteomyelitis. All patients presenting at a tertiary hospital between January 2010 and July 2016 with suspected TB vertebral osteomyelitis were retrospectively enrolled to evaluate the diagnostic performance of QFT-GIT. We used QFT-GIT to measure the IFN-γ response to ESAT-6, CFP-10 and TB7.7. A total of 141 patients were enrolled; 32 (23%) were categorized as having confirmed TB, (1%) as probable TB, 14 (10%) as possible TB and 93 (66%) as not TB. Of these, 16 patients with probable and possible TB were excluded from the final analysis. Chronic granulomas with/without necrosis, acid-fast bacilli stain, M. tuberculosis polymerase chain reaction and cultures for M. tuberculosis were positive in 14 (44%), 12 (38%), 22 (69%) and 28 (88%) patients, respectively, among the 32 patients with confirmed TB. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, likelihood ratio for a positive result, and likelihood ratio for a negative result of the QFT-GIT for TB vertebral osteomyelitis were 91% (95% confidence interval [CI], 75-98%), 65% (95% CI, 54-75%), 50% (95% CI, 42-58%), 95% (95% CI, 86-98%), 2.59 (95% CI, 1.89-3.55) and 0.14 (95% CI, 0.05-0.43), respectively. The QFT-GIT appears to be a useful adjunct test for diagnosing TB vertebral osteomyelitis because the negative test results may be useful for excluding a diagnosis of active TB vertebral osteomyelitis.

  10. 21 CFR 872.6570 - Impression tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6570 Impression tube. (a) Identification. An impression tube is a device consisting of a hollow copper tube intended to take an impression of a single tooth... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Impression tube. 872.6570 Section 872.6570 Food...

  11. A new certified reference material for benzene measurement in air on a sorbent tube: development and proficiency testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caurant, A. [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais, Paris (France); Universite Paris 12 et CNRS (UMR 7583), Faculte des Sciences et Technologie, Laboratoire Inter-universitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques, Unite Mixte de Recherche Universite Paris 7 (France); Lalere, B.; Schbath, M.C.; Stumpf, C.; Sutour, C.; Mace, T.; Vaslin-Reimann, S. [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais, Paris (France); Quisefit, J.P.; Doussin, J.F. [Universite Paris 12 et CNRS (UMR 7583), Faculte des Sciences et Technologie, Laboratoire Inter-universitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques, Unite Mixte de Recherche Universite Paris 7 (France)

    2010-11-15

    A certified matrix reference material (CRM) for the measurement of benzene in ambient air has been developed at Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d'Essais. The production of these CRMs was conducted using a gravimetric method fully traceable to the International System of Units. The CRMs were prepared by sampling an accurate mass of a gaseous primary reference material of benzene, using a high-precision laminar flowmeter and a mass flow controller, with a PerkinElmer sampler filled with Carbopack trademark X sorbent. The relative standard deviations obtained for the preparation of a batch of 20 tubes loaded with 500 ng of benzene were below 0.2%. Each CRM is considered independent from the others and with its own certified value and an expanded uncertainty estimated to be within 0.5%, lower than the uncertainties of benzene CRMs already available worldwide. The stability of these materials was also established up to 12 months. These CRMs were implemented during proficiency testing, to evaluate the analytical performances of seven French laboratories involved in benzene air monitoring. (orig.)

  12. Generation of life in a test tube: Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, Bruno Straub, and the discovery of actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, Jack A

    2018-06-01

    This is a story about a great scientist, luck, great discovery that changed the future direction of muscle research, war, a clandestine war mission, postwar politics, and an attempt to rewrite scientific history. Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, at 44 yr of age, won the Nobel Prize in 1937 for his work on vitamin C and the establishment of the groundwork of the citric acid cycle. He now wanted to investigate one of the fundamental aspects of life and settled on the study of muscle contraction. The Szent-Gyorgyi laboratory in Hungary during World War II demonstrated that contraction could be reproduced in vitro by threads consisting of just two proteins, myosin and the newly discovered protein by Bruno Straub that they called actin. Szent-Gyorgyi called seeing the contraction of these threads, which occurred in the presence of ATP and ions, "the most thrilling moment" of his scientific life. This major discovery of the generation of "life" in a test tube was totally unknown for years by the rest of the world because of the war. When the discovery was finally communicated to the world, it was not immediately accepted by all as being relevant to the physiology of muscle contraction. Nonetheless, this discovery opened up the modern phase of muscle research. Serendipity played an important role in the great discovery, and much later politics would lead to a shocking controversy around the true discoverer of actin.

  13. 49 CFR 232.309 - Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... Testing Requirements § 232.309 Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests. (a) Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests shall be tested for correct operation at...

  14. Numerical simulation and experimental validation of gap supported tube subjected to fluid-elastic coupling forces for hybrid characterization tests

    OpenAIRE

    Benmalek , Wissam; Collet , Manuel; Foltête , Emmanuel; Ouisse , Morvan; Corus , Mathieu; Negreanu , Ionut

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In steam generators, the primary loop tubes are subjected to fluid coupling forces and impacts. Understanding the behavior of these tubes is crucial when designing steam generators. In fact, it can afford an optimization of produced energy and a long average life of the structure. Up to now, the effect of the coupling forces on structural behavior was identified on reduced scale structures. Thus, the aim of our research is to give a better understanding of stabilizing ...

  15. Fouling of steam generator tubes in nuclear power plants. Laboratory tests to reproduce oxides deposition and chemical cleanings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goujon, C.; Bescond, A.; Mansour, C.; Delaunay, S.; Pauporte, T.; Bretelle, J-L.

    2014-01-01

    In the secondary circuit of nuclear Pressurized Water Reactors, magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) deposits lead to Steam Generators (SG) fouling decreasing thermal performances. As a counteraction, chemical cleanings, started in 1989, have become since 2006 the priority strategy to remove oxides deposited in SG of the EDF fleet. The use of chelating agents in chemical cleaning processes could affect the passive layer of SG tubes, and then modify their surface reactivity. To investigate this impact, a three steps R and D program was established: (1) reproduce deposits on SG tube surfaces using several techniques, (2) apply industrial chemical cleaning procedures and (3) study the redeposition of magnetite. First, SG tubes were fouled in a specific experimental loop, FORTRAND. In this device, magnetite and soluble iron were formed by carbon steel pipes corrosion in feedwater circuit representative conditions and released in the fluid. Then, corrosion products were flow-carried to the autoclave where their precipitation and deposition on heated SG tubes led to tubes fouling. Additional nickel base alloys substrates were also fouled by magnetite electrodeposition. Second, chemical cleaning processes were applied on fouled substrates and tubes in a specific experimental device, ECCLIPS. SG industrial cleaning processes timing and thermochemical conditions were strictly respected during these operations. Finally, fouling of cleaned substrates and tubes was performed in FORTRAND in the same experimental conditions as in the first step. At each step of the study, oxide composition and properties were investigated by surface characterizations. Comparison of oxide deposits before and after cleaning highlights the impact of chemical cleanings on tubes surface reactivity. (author)

  16. Ultrasonography for confirmation of gastric tube placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Hiraku; Tsujimoto, Yasushi; Nakata, Yukihiko; Akazawa, Mai; Kataoka, Yuki

    2017-04-17

    %) studies to have low risk of bias in the participant selection domain because they performed ultrasound after they confirmed correct position by other methods.Few data (43 participants) were available for misplacement detection (specificity) due to the low incidence of misplacement. We did not perform a meta-analysis because of considerable heterogeneity of the index test such as the difference of echo window, the combination of ultrasound with other confirmation methods (e.g. saline flush visualization by ultrasound) and ultrasound during the insertion of the tube. For all settings, sensitivity estimates for individual studies ranged from 0.50 to 1.00 and specificity estimates from 0.17 to 1.00. For settings where X-ray was not readily available and participants underwent gastric tube insertion for drainage (four studies, 305 participants), sensitivity estimates of ultrasound in combination with other confirmatory tests ranged from 0.86 to 0.98 and specificity estimates of 1.00 with wide confidence intervals.For the studies using ultrasound alone (four studies, 314 participants), sensitivity estimates ranged from 0.91 to 0.98 and specificity estimates from 0.67 to 1.00. Of 10 studies that assessed the diagnostic accuracy of gastric tube placement, few studies had a low risk of bias. Based on limited evidence, ultrasound does not have sufficient accuracy as a single test to confirm gastric tube placement. However, in settings where X-ray is not readily available, ultrasound may be useful to detect misplaced gastric tubes. Larger studies are needed to determine the possibility of adverse events when ultrasound is used to confirm tube placement.

  17. Advances in single- and multi-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers for space applications in NLIP/SITP/CAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Haizheng; Tan, Jun; Zha, Rui; Li, Jiaqi; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yibo; Gao, Zhiqian; Bao, Dingli; Li, Ning; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Yongjiang; Zhao, Bangjian

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a review of recent advances in single- and multi-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTCs) for space applications developed at the National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NLIP/SITP/CAS). A variety of single-stage SPTCs operating at 25-150 K have been developed, including several mid-sized ones operating at 80-110 K. Significant progress has been achieved in coolers operating at 30-40 K which use common stainless steel meshes as regenerator matrices. Another important advance is the micro SPTCs with an overall mass of 300-800 g operating at high frequencies varying from 100 Hz to 400 Hz. The main purpose of developing two-stage SPTCs is to simultaneously acquire cooling capacities at both stages, obviating the need for auxiliary precooling in various applications. The three-stage SPTCs are developed mainly for applications at around 10 K, which are also used for precooling the J-T coolers to achieve further lower temperatures. The four-stage SPTCs are developed to directly achieve the liquid helium temperature for cooling space low-Tc superconducting devices and for the deep space exploration as well. Several typical development programs are described and an overview of the cooler performances is presented.

  18. Pulsed laser simulation of VLSI single-event effect testing study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Yuxiong; Cao Zhou Yang Shiyu; Tian Kai; Liu Shufen; Chu Nan; Cao Haining; Shang Zhi

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a study aimed at investigating the pulsed laser simulation of Single-Event Effect (SEE) testing for VLSI Intel386EX CPU, using our laboratory LSS (laser simulation system). We have detailed SEE testing principle, testing method, testing system constituting, testing result. It validates that our laser pulses simulate may use SEE testing in VLSI, and Intel 386Ex have a large locking resistance to single event. (authors)

  19. Evaluation of single crystal LaB6 cathodes for use in a high frequency backward wave oscillator tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, L. W.; Davis, P. R.; Schwind, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of thermionic emission and evaporation studies of single crystal LaB6 cathodes are given. A comparison between the (100), (210) and (310) crystal planes shows the (310) and (210) planes to possess a work function approx 0.2 eV lower than (100). This translates into a significant increase in current density, J, at a specified temperature. Comparison with a state-of-the-art impregnated dispenser cathode shows that LaB6 (310) is a superior cathode in nearly all respects except operating temperature at j 10 A/sq cm. The 1600 K thermionic and room temperature retarding potential work functions for LaB6 (310) are 2.42 and 2.50 respectively.

  20. Pre test parametric studies on single compartment vented enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Pavan K.; Gera, B.; Singh, R.K.; Vaze, K.K.

    2011-01-01

    Establishing a proper design fire scenario is a challenging task and essential component for conducting fire safety design of buildings. A design fire scenario is a qualitative description of a fire with time identifying key events that characterize the fire (ignition, growth, flashover, fully-developed, and decay stages of fire). Proper fire safety design requires the appropriate selection of design fires against which the performance of the building is evaluated. The selection of the design fires directly impacts all aspects of fire safety performance, including the structural fire resistance, compartmentation against fire spread, egress systems, manual or automatic detection systems, suppression systems, and smoke control. The parameters affecting design fires include, the type, amount and arrangement of combustible materials, the ventilation conditions (air supply conditions, door/window open), and size of the compartment of fire origin. A design fire is a quantitative description of the characteristics of a fire, such as heat release rate (HRR), size of fire and its rate of spread, yield of products of combustion, and hot gas temperatures. Design fires are based on fire scenarios that replicate real fires. Six Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) numerical simulations were conducted in order to investigate the effect of fire load on fire dynamics in a) iso corner fire configuration b) IIT Delhi single compartment of a size of 5.0 m long, 5.0 m wide and 5.0 m high with doorway opening of 1m x 3m with centre fire of size 0.5 m x 0.5m. These types of simulation are carried out for deciding about the instrumentation scheme, safety aspect, and optimization of proposed experiments for National Fire Test Facility as pretest calculations. The simulations results are summarized in various identified applied parameter which are useful in terms of understanding the complex fire dynamics, validating the numerical tolls against experiments and using them (in form of values

  1. Single event effect testing of the Intel 80386 family and the 80486 microprocessor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, A.; LaBel, K.; Gates, M.; Seidleck, C.; McGraw, R.; Broida, M.; Firer, J.; Sprehn, S.

    1996-01-01

    The authors present single event effect test results for the Intel 80386 microprocessor, the 80387 coprocessor, the 82380 peripheral device, and on the 80486 microprocessor. Both single event upset and latchup conditions were monitored

  2. Development of a system for monitoring and diagnosis of steam generator tubes using artificial intelligence techniques on Eddy Current Test signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Roberto Navarro de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Monitoracao e Diagnostico]|[Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil); Ting, Daniel Kao Sun [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Monitoracao e Diagnostico; Cabral, Eduardo Lobo C. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil); Lopez, Luis A. Negro M. [Faculdade de Engenharia Industrial, Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil); Upadhyaya, Belle R. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2002-07-01

    New classification and feature extraction methods for steam generator tube defects are being developed by IPEN/CNEN-SP in cooperation with UTK to improve a monitoring and diagnosis system for classification and characterization of steam generator tube defects using Eddy Current Testing (ECT) signals. The first methodology being developed uses a set of feature extraction methods applied to different tube defect type ECT signals and each obtained feature vector is projected into a bi-dimensional map obtained by a Self-Organizing Map neural network. This methodology allows an optimal feature extraction method selection for the defect type classification. Other approach is being developed using tubes with different manufactured defect types which are tested using MIZ-17ET equipment with 4 sets of probes (two different diameter). A fuzzy inference system will be used to build a knowledge base for these defects. These methodology and algorithms will be integrated into an automated diagnosis system being developed with UTK, which is designed to read both on-line acquired data, as well as stored data files. These commercial software tools are the ones usually utilized in nuclear power plants. (author)

  3. Radiation-resistant camera tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahata, Takao; Manabe, Sohei; Makishima, Yasuhiro

    1982-01-01

    It was a long time ago that Toshiba launched on manufacturing black-and-white radiation-resistant camera tubes employing nonbrowning face-plate glass for ITV cameras used in nuclear power plants. Now in compliance with the increasing demand in nuclear power field, the Company is at grips with the development of radiation-resistant single color-camera tubes incorporating a color-stripe filter for color ITV cameras used under radiation environment. Herein represented are the results of experiments on characteristics of materials for single color-camera tubes and prospects for commercialization of the tubes. (author)

  4. Pseudohyperkalaemia in leukaemic patients: the effect of test tube type and form of transport to the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastych, Milan; Cermáková, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the effect of the tube type used for primary sample collection and the manner of transport prior to assessment (either manual or by pneumatic tube) on the degree of pseudohyperkalaemia in leukaemic patients. Blood from six leukaemic patients was collected into seven primary sample tubes (Monovette®, Sarstedt): sample A, heparinized blood gas syringe (potassium reference value); sample B, plasma Li-heparin without separator gel; sample C, plasma Li-heparin with separator gel; and sample D, serum with separator gel. The primary sample tubes designated B, C and D were transported to the laboratory manually. Duplicates of the same sample tubes, B(PT), C(PT) and D(PT), were sent to the laboratory by pneumatic tube. In patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), there was no increase in the concentration of potassium in samples B, C and D when compared to the reference value. Transport of the samples by pneumatic tube led to a pronounced increase in potassium concentration in samples B(PT) and C(PT), whereas there was no increase in sample D(PT) when compared to the reference value. In the patient with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), an increase in potassium concentration occurred in sample D and in samples B(PT), C(PT) and D(PT). A similar finding was observed in the patient with acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL), furthermore with an extremely high concentration of potassium in samples C and C(PT). Manual transport of non-coagulable blood (plasma Li-heparin without separator gel) to the laboratory results in the least possible artificial increase in potassium concentration in the sample.

  5. Innovation design of beta test loop system for heat transfer experiments in single-phase and two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiswanta; Edy Sumarno; Joko Prasetio W; Ainur Rosidi; G B Heru K

    2013-01-01

    Innovation design of BETA test loop has been done. BETA test loop is a research facility used as a support for experiments of reactor accident simulation. The innovation was performed to prepare experimental facilities in order to study flow of heat transfer in single-phase and two-phase flows. The design was executed by modifying new piping of UUB's primary system, addition of heat flux measurements and imaging thermal for easiness of experimental result analysis. UUB development and experiments were carried out to understand heat transfer process in the narrow gap of two-phase flow considering this phenomenon is one of the conditions postulated in PWR typed nuclear power plant accident scenario. The innovation design of BETA test loop is still in the planning stages so that the design has not been constructed. Piping systems made of SS-304 with the ability to use a maximum pressure of 10 bar with a diameter of % inch pipe to, from the calculation of minimal design that is 7.27 mm. If the tube SS-304 - ASTM B88 is the wall thickness of 0.083 inches. From this design it is indicated that the design is able to be fabricated and used for experimental study of heat transfer in single-phase and two-phase flows. (author)

  6. PENGARUH SUHU DAN LAMA PROSES SULFONASI DALAM PROSES PRODUKSI METHYL ESTER SULFONIC ACID (MESA MENGGUNAKAN SINGLE TUBE FALLING FILM REACTOR (STFR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Mujdalipah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Effects of Temperature and Sulfonation Time on Methyl Ester Sulfonic Acid (MESA Production Process usingSingle Tube Falling Film Reactor (STFR Siti Mujdalipah, Erliza Hambali, Ani Suryani, Edi Zulchaidir ABSTRAK Methyl Ester Sulfonic Acid (MESA merupakan produk antara dari surfaktan Metil Ester Sulfonat (MES. MESmemiliki beragam aplikasi dalam produk personal care, pencuci dan pembersih, dan untuk Enhanced Oil Recovery(EOR. Proses produksi MESA menggunakan gas SO3 dalam Single Tube Falling Film Reactor (STFR merupakanteknologi yang umum digunakan. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan kondisi proses sulfonasi metil ester oleinterbaik menggunakan gas SO3 dalam STFR. Kajian dilakukan dalam tiga tahap, yaitu tahap penelitian, tahap analisis,dan tahap pengolahan data. Tahap produksi MESA terdiri dari pembuatan metil ester (ME dari olein minyak sawit dankajian pengaruh suhu dan lama proses sulfonasi. Tahap analisis meliputi analisis sifat Þ siko kimia olein minyak sawit,analisa sifat Þ siko kimia ME olein sawit, dan analisis sifat Þ siko kimia MESA olein sawit. Kajian pengaruh suhu danlama proses sulfonasi terhadap proses sulfonasi metil ester olein terdiri dari suhu 70, 90, dan 110 oC dan lama prosessulfonasi 30, 60, dan 90 menit. Analisis varian pada !=0,01 menunjukan bahwa lama proses sulfonasi berpengaruh nyataterhadap kadar bahan aktif. Analisis varian pada !=0,01 juga menunjukan bahwa lama proses sulfonasi berpengaruhnyata terhadap nilai pH, bilangan asam, bilangan iod, dan kemampuan MESA dalam menurunkan tegangan antarmuka(IFT, Interfacial Tension antara air formasi dan minyak bumi. Proses sulfonasi terbaik dicapai pada suhu sulfonasi 90oCdan lama proses sulfonasi 90 menit. Kondisi proses sulfonasi terbaik dapat menghasilkan MESA dengan karakteristikkadar bahan aktif 31,44%, pH 2,66, bilangan asam 24,88 ml NaOH/g sampel, bilangan iod 11,95 mg I/g sampel, danmemiliki kemampuan menurunkan IFT antara air formasi dan minyak bumi dari 30 dyne

  7. Numerical test for single concrete armour layer on breakwaters

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasaki, E; Latham, J-P; Xiang, J

    2016-01-01

    The ability of concrete armour units for breakwaters to interlock and form an integral single layer is important for withstanding severe wave conditions. In reality, displacements take place under wave loading, whether they are small and insignificant or large and representing serious structural damage. In this work, a code that combines finite- and discrete-element methods which can simulate motion and interaction among units was used to conduct a numerical investigation. Various concrete ar...

  8. Fabrication and test of Superconducting Single Photon Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leoni, R.; Mattioli, F.; Castellano, M.G.; Cibella, S.; Carelli, P.; Pagano, S.; Perez de Lara, D.; Ejrnaes, M.; Lisitskyi, M.P.; Esposito, E.; Cristiano, R.; Nappi, C.

    2006-01-01

    We report here on the state of our fabrication process for Superconducting Single Photon Detectors (SSPDs). We have fabricated submicrometer SSPD structures by electron beam lithography using very thin (10 nm) NbN films deposited by DC-magnetron sputtering on different substrates and at room substrate temperature. The structures show a fast optical response (risetime <500 ps limited by readout electronics) and interesting self-resetting features

  9. Single-Tube Dodecaplex PCR Panel of Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers Closely Linked to theDMPKCTG Repeat for Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis of Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Mulias; Zhao, Mingjue; Lee, Caroline G; Chong, Samuel S

    2017-06-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) currently uses conventional PCR to detect nonexpanded dystrophia myotonica protein kinase ( DMPK ) alleles or triplet-primed PCR to detect the CTG-expanded alleles, coupled with analysis of linked microsatellite markers to increase diagnostic accuracy. We aimed to simplify the process of identification and selection of informative linked markers for application to DM1 PGD. An in silico search was performed to identify all markers within 1-1.5 Mb flanking the DMPK gene. Five previously known (D19S559, APOC2, D19S543, D19S112, and BV209569) and 7 novel (DM45050, DM45178, DM45209, DM45958, DM46513, DM46892, and DM47004.1) markers with potentially high heterozygosity values and polymorphism information content were selected and optimized in a single-tube multiplex PCR panel. Analysis of 184 DNA samples of Chinese and Caucasian individuals (91 from unrelated, anonymized cord blood of Chinese babies born at the National University Hospital, Singapore, and 93 Caucasian DNA samples from the Human Variation Panel HD100CAU) confirmed the high polymorphism indices of all markers (polymorphism information content >0.5), with observed heterozygosity values ranging from 0.62-0.93. All individuals were heterozygous for at least 6 markers, with 99.5% of individuals heterozygous for at least 2 markers on either side of the DMPK CTG repeat. The dodecaplex marker assay was successfully validated on 42 single cells and 12 whole genome amplified single cells. The DM1 multiplex PCR panel is suitable for use in DM1 PGD either as a standalone linkage-based assay or as a complement to DMPK CTG repeat expansion-mutation detection. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  10. Scale model test results for an inverted U-tube steam generator with comparisons to heat transfer correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    To provide data for assessment and development of thermal-hydraulic computer codes, bottom main feedwater-line-break transient simulations were performed in a scale model (Semiscale Mod-2C) of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) with conditions typical of a PWR (15.0 MPa primary pressure, 600 K steam generator inlet plenum fluid temperatures, 6.2 MPa secondary pressure). The state-of-the-art measurements in the scale model (Type III) steam generator allow for the determination of U-tube steam generator allow for the determination of U-tube steam generator secondary component interactions, tube bundle local radial heat transfer, and tube bundle and riser vapor void fractions for steady state and transient operations. To enhance the understanding of the observed phenomena, the component interactions, local heat fluxes, local secondary convective heat transfer coefficients and local vapor void fractions are discussed for steady state, full-power and transient operations. Comparisons between the measurement-derived secondary convective heat transfer coefficients and those predicted by a number of correlations, including the Chen correlation currently used in thermal-hydraulic computer codes, show that none of the correlations adequately predict the data and points out the need for the formulation of a new correlation based on this experimental data. The unique information presented herein should be of the interest to anyone involved in modeling inverted U-tube steam generator thermal-hydraulics for forced convection boiling/vaporization heat transfer. 5 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  11. Test of digital neutron–gamma discrimination with four different photomultiplier tubes for the NEutron Detector Array (NEDA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, X.L., E-mail: luo.xiaoliang@physics.uu.se [Department of Instrument Science and Technology, College of Mechatronics and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Modamio, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Nyberg, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Valiente-Dobón, J.J. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Nishada, Q. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Angelis, G. de [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Agramunt, J. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Egea, F.J. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Istanbul Sabahattin Zaim University, Istanbul (Turkey); Erduran, M.N.; Ertürk, S. [Nigde Universitesi, Fen-Edebiyat Falkültesi, Fizik Bölümü, Nigde (Turkey); France, G. de [GANIL, CEA/DSAM and CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Gadea, A. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); González, V. [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Valencia, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Hüyük, T. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Jaworski, G. [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warszawa (Poland); Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5A, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland); Moszyński, M. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5A, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland); National Centre for Nuclear Research, A. Soltana 7, PL 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); and others

    2014-12-11

    A comparative study of the neutron–γ discrimination performance of a liquid scintillator detector BC501A coupled to four different 5 in. photomultiplier tubes (ET9390kb, R11833-100, XP4512 and R4144) was carried out. Both the Charge Comparison method and the Integrated Rise-Time method were implemented digitally to discriminate between neutrons and γ rays emitted by a {sup 252}Cf source. In both methods, the neutron–γ discrimination capabilities of the four photomultiplier tubes were quantitatively compared by evaluating their figure-of-merit values at different energy regions between 50 keVee and 1000 keVee. Additionally, the results were further verified qualitatively using time-of-flight to distinguish γ rays and neutrons. The results consistently show that photomultiplier tubes R11833-100 and ET9390kb generally perform best regarding neutron–γ discrimination with only slight differences in figure-of-merit values. This superiority can be explained by their relatively higher photoelectron yield, which indicates that a scintillator detector coupled to a photomultiplier tube with higher photoelectron yield tends to result in better neutron–γ discrimination performance. The results of this work will provide reference for the choice of photomultiplier tubes for future neutron detector arrays like NEDA.

  12. Timing of tensor and levator veli palatini force application determines eustachian tube resistance patterns during the forced-response test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiali, Samir N; Bell, E David; Swarts, J Douglas

    2010-12-01

    The forced-response test (FRT) is used to assess eustachian tube (ET) function in patients with middle ear disease (otitis media). This test often documents a dynamic pattern of luminal dilation and constriction during swallowing which can be quantified as a function relating active tubal resistance with time. The goal of this study is to use a generalized finite element model (FEM) to test the hypothesis that the relative timing of muscle force application by the tensor veli palatini muscle (mTVP) and levator veli palatini muscle (mLVP) on the ET determines the form of active resistance functions. Seven resistance waveforms were obtained during the FRT in five adult subjects. A 2D FEM of the ET was constructed from an adult histological specimen and viscoelastic tissue mechanical properties were specified based on measurements obtained in each subject. Least-squared regression routines were used to vary the timing and magnitude of mTVP and mLVP force applications to the ET in order to match the active resistance functions recorded during the FRT. Variation of muscle force timing and magnitude in the FEM simulations reproduced the seven active resistance waveforms with high fidelity. Early application of mTVP force in combination with mLVP force produced a waveform characterized by an initial dilation (low resistances) followed by lumen constriction (higher resistances), while delayed mTVP force application caused an initial lumen constriction followed by dilation. These results indicate that the active resistance waveforms observed during the FRT reflect differences in the temporal pattern of mLVP and mTVP force application to the ET and emphasize that, like the mTVP, the mLVP functionally interacts with the ET. Results also indicate that in normal adults contraction of the mLVP promotes lumen constriction and that the initial lumen constriction is highly sensitive to the relative delay timing of mTVP and mLVP force application. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland

  13. Single-tube genotyping using a solid-phase method that combines alpha-phosphorothioate-mediated primer extension and ExoIII: proof of concept with the F508del cystic fibrosis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugère, Jean-François; Gobron, Stéphane; Baud, Eric; Cailloux, Fabrice

    2008-01-01

    Detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and of mutations is of importance in the field of genetics, biomedical research and in vitro diagnosis. We report here a genotyping procedure that can be virtually applied to any locus within a genome: it uses alpha-phosphorothioate deoxynucleotides in a primer-extension step followed by an ExoIII treatment. Non-extended primers are hydrolyzed whereas extended primers resist this treatment, indicating which nucleotide has been incorporated, i.e. the genotype of the locus. A 3-bp deletion in the CFTR gene (F508del, the most prevalent mutation involved in cystic fibrosis) was used as a model, in a single-tube procedure for each nucleotide to be tested. Human genomic DNA samples were correctly genotyped in less than 3h by a solid-phase PCR followed by primer extension, ExoIII treatment and an ELISA-like detection method. The same principle (primer extension with alpha-phosphorothioate deoxynucleotide, ExoIII treatment) should also be combined with other detection systems such as gel or capillary electrophoresis, mass spectrometry or DNA chips.

  14. Single well thermal tracer test, a new experimental set up for characterizing thermal transport in fractured media

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Bernardie, Jérôme; Bour, Olivier; Guihéneuf, Nicolas; Chatton, Eliot; Labasque, Thierry; Longuevergne, Laurent; Le Lay, Hugo; Koch, Floriant; Gerard, Marie-Françoise; Le Borgne, Tanguy

    2017-04-01

    Thermal transport in fractured media depends on the hydrological properties of fractures and thermal characteristics of rock. Tracer tests using heat as tracer can thus be a good alternative to characterize fractured media for shallow geothermal needs. This study investigates the possibility of implementing a new thermal tracer test set up, the single well thermal tracer test, to characterize hydraulic and thermal transport properties of fractured crystalline rock. The experimental setup is based on injecting hot water in a fracture isolated by a double straddle packer in the borehole while pumping and monitoring the temperature in a fracture crossing the same borehole at greater elevation. One difficulty comes from the fact that injection and withdrawal are achieved in the same borehole involving thermal losses along the injection tube that may disturb the heat recovery signal. To be able to well localize the heat influx, we implemented a Fiber-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (FO-DTS) which allows the temperature monitoring with high spatial and temporal resolution (29 centimeters and 30 seconds respectively). Several tests, at different pumping and injection rates, were performed in a crystalline rock aquifer at the experimental site of Ploemeur (H+ observatory network). We show through signal processing how the thermal breakthrough may be extracted thanks to Fiber-Optic distributed temperature measurements. In particular, we demonstrate how detailed distributed temperature measurements were useful to identify different inflows and to estimate how much heat was transported and stored within the fractures network. Thermal breakthrough curves of single well thermal tracer tests were then interpreted with a simple analytical model to characterize hydraulic and thermal characteristics of the fractured media. We finally discuss the advantages of these tests compared to cross-borehole thermal tracer tests.

  15. Experimental tests about the cooling/freezing of the molten salts in the receiver tubes of a solar power plant with parabolic trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggioli, Walter; Fabrizi, Fabrizio; Rinaldi, Luca; Di Ascenzi, Primo

    2017-06-01

    In 2003 ENEA realized the PCS experimental Facility at Casaccia Research Centre (Rome, Italy), in order to test in real operating conditions the components of a parabolic trough solar plant, and to evaluate the technical feasibility of using the solar molten salts mixture (60% NaNO3, 40% KNO3, melting point 220÷240°C) in such a type of plant. ENEA also had the need to assess the behaviour of the solar receiver tubes during abnormal operating situations (wrong operation, pump block, power failure, etc.), when a block of the circulation of the molten salts may occur and cause the cooling or, worse, the freezing of the salts mixture inside the pipes. Some experimental tests have been performed, aimed to examine what happens in such a cases. In fact, without quick maneuvers to restart the circulation of the molten salts or to readily empty the receiver tubes, the molten salts contained in them may cool down to temperatures near/below the solidification. In this report are shown the results of the experimental tests carried out on the receiver tubes of the PCS Facility by cooling the process fluid down to temperatures near or below its freezing point. The tests show that the solidification of the salts does not damage the components of the plant but it is manageable and reversible, provided you apply the correct procedures.

  16. Testing single point incremental forming molds for thermoforming operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Daniel; de Sousa, Ricardo Alves; Torcato, Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    Low pressure polymer processing processes as thermoforming or rotational molding use much simpler molds then high pressure processes like injection. However, despite the low forces involved with the process, molds manufacturing for this operations is still a very material, energy and time consuming operation. The goal of the research is to develop and validate a method for manufacturing plastically formed sheets metal molds by single point incremental forming (SPIF) operation for thermoforming operation. Stewart platform based SPIF machines allow the forming of thick metal sheets, granting the required structural stiffness for the mold surface, and keeping the short lead time manufacture and low thermal inertia.

  17. Double-modification of lectin using two distinct chemistries for fluorescent ratiometric sensing and imaging saccharides in test tube or in cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Eiji; Koshi, Yoichiro; Koga, Erina; Katayama, Yoshiki; Hamachi, Itaru

    2005-09-28

    The site-selective incorporation of two different fluorophores into a naturally occurring protein (lectin, a sugar-binding protein) has been successfully carried out using two distinct orthogonal chemical methods. By post-photoaffinity labeling modification, Con A, a glucose- and mannose-selective lectin, was modified with fluorescein in the proximity of the sugar binding site (Tyr100 site), and the controlled acylation reaction provided the site-selective attachment of coumarin at Lys114. In this doubly modified Con A, the fluorescein emission changed upon the binding to the corresponding sugars, such as the glucose or mannose derivatives, whereas the coumarin emission was constant. Thus, the doubly modified Con A fluorescently sensed the glucose- and mannose-rich saccharides in a ratiometric manner while retaining the natural binding selectivity and affinity, regardless of the double modification. On the benefit of the ratiometric fluorescent analysis using two distinct probes, the sugar trimming process of a glycoprotein can be precisely monitored by the engineered Con A. Furthermore, the doubly modified Con A can be used not only for the convenient fluorescent imaging of saccharides localized on a cell surface, such as the MCF-7, a breast cancer cell having rich high-mannose branch, but also for the ratiometric fluorescent sensing of the glucose concentration inside HepG2 cells. These results demonstrated that the semisynthetic lectin modified doubly by two distinct chemistries is superior to the singly modified one in function, and thus, it may be potentially useful in cell, as well as in test tube.

  18. Characterization of Multiaxial Stress-Strain Response of Tube Metal from Double-Sided Hydro-Bulging Test Based on Hosford's 1979 Yield Criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiao-Lei; Yang, Zhai-Ping; Wang, Xiao-Song

    2017-05-01

    To further explore the characterization of the multiaxial stress-strain responses of anisotropic tube metal from double-sided hydro-bulging tests, an analytical model for the equivalent stress and equivalent strain calculation was derived based on Hosford's 1979 yield criterion. Furthermore, thin-walled 5052-O aluminum alloy tubes were used to conduct the bulging experiment with an external pressure of 85 MPa. After the experimental data were substituted into the above analytical model, the Voce equation was used to fit the equivalent stress-strain relationship. It is concluded that the stress versus strain curves of the 5052-O tubes are strongly dependent on the loaded stress states, the adopted yield criteria, and the anisotropy coefficients. The external pressure of 85 MPa had little or no effect on the stress versus strain curves of the tubes, but the locations of the multiaxial stress versus strain curves were lower than that of the uniaxial stress versus strain curve. Moreover, the curve from Hosford's 1979 yield criterion not only had a higher saturation stress and material constant value than the curve from Mises and Hill's 1948 yield criteria but also had a dependence on the anisotropy coefficient.

  19. Computation of single- and two-phase heat transfer rates suitable for water-cooled tubes and subchannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeneveld, D.C.; Leung, L.K.H.; Cheng, S.C.; Nguyen, C.

    1989-01-01

    A computational method for predicting heat transfer, valid for a wide range of flow conditions (from pool boiling and laminar flow conditions to highly turbulent flow), has been developed. It correctly identifies the heat transfer modes and predicts the heat transfer rates as well as transition points (such as the critical heat flux point) on the boiling curve. The computational heat transfer method consists of a combination of carefully chosen heat transfer equations for each heat transfer mode. Each of these equations has been selected because of their accuracy, wide range of application, and correct asymptotic trends. Using a mechanistically-based heat transfer logic, these equations have been combined in a convenient software package suitable for PC or mainframe application. The computational method has been thoroughly tested against many sets of experimental data. The parametric and asymptotic trends of the prediction method have been examined in detail. Correction factors are proposed for extending the use of individual predictive techniques to various geometric configurations and upstream conditions. (orig.)

  20. Phase-scan analysis results for the first drift tube linac module in the ground test accelerator: Data reproducibility and comparison to simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.F.; Sander, O.R.; Bolme, G.O.

    1995-01-01

    The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) had the objective of producing a high-brightness, high-current H- beam. The major accelerator components were a 35 keV injector, a Radio Frequency Quadrupole, an intertank matching section, and a drift tube linac (DTL), consisting of 10 modules. This paper discusses the phase-scan technique which was used to experimentally determine the rf operating parameters for the commissioning and routine operation of the first DTL module

  1. Testing for one Generalized Linear Single Order Parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Niels Langager; Christensen, Tage Emil; Dyre, Jeppe

    work the order parameter may be chosen to have a non-exponential relaxation. The model predictions contradict the general consensus of the properties of viscous liquids in two ways: (i) The model predicts that following a linear isobaric temperature step, the normalized volume and entalpy relaxation......We examine a linear single order parameter model for thermoviscoelastic relaxation in viscous liquids, allowing for a distribution of relaxation times. In this model the relaxation of volume and entalpy is completely described by the relaxation of one internal order parameter. In contrast to prior...... functions are identical. This assumption conflicts with some (but not all) reports, utilizing the Tool-Narayanaswamy formalism to extrapolate from non-linear measurements to the linear regime. (ii) The model predicts that the theoretical "linear Prigogine-Defay" ratio is one. This ratio has never been...

  2. Kinetics of the Thermal Decomposition of Tetramethylsilane behind the Reflected Shock Waves in a Single Pulse Shock Tube (SPST) and Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parandaman, A.; Sudhakar, G.; Rajakumar, B.

    Thermal reactions of Tetramethylsilane (TMS) diluted in argon were studied behind the reflected shock waves in a single-pulse shock tube (SPST) over the temperature range of 1085-1221 K and pressures varied between 10.6 and 22.8 atm. The stable products resulting from the decomposition of TMS were identified and quantified using gas chromatography and also verified with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The major reaction products are methane (CH4) and ethylene (C2H4). The minor reaction products are ethane (C2H6) and propylene (C3H6). The initiation of mechanism in the decomposition of TMS takes plays via the Si-C bond scission by ejecting the methyl radicals (CH3) and trimethylsilyl radicals ((CH3)3Si). The measured temperature dependent rate coefficient for the total decomposition of TMS was to be ktotal = 1.66 ×1015 exp (-64.46/RT) s-1 and for the formation of CH4 reaction channel was to be k = 2.20 × 1014 exp (-60.15/RT) s-1, where the activation energies are given in kcal mol-1. A kinetic scheme containing 17 species and 28 elementary reactions was used for the simulation using chemical kinetic simulator over the temperature range of 1085-1221 K. The agreement between the experimental and simulated results was satisfactory.

  3. Detectability of single and plural flaws by ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, K.

    1985-01-01

    An outline and up-to-date test results of an eight year project of proving tests on the effectiveness of in-service inspection is described in the first part of the present paper. Effects on the detectability of such testing parameters as refraction angle, thickness of stainless steel cladding, inspectors, standard flaws in reference specimens, stress state subjected to defects are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of detection reproducibility, resolution and accuracy of inspected size of a defects. The latter part of the paper deals with up-to-date results of tests on resolution and shape determination of propagating adjacent and co-linear fatigue cracks by ultrasonic examination. It was found that real lengths of fatigue crack and EDM surface notch will be roughly estimated by 12 dB and 8 dB down methods, respectively. It is also concluded that the 10 dB down method is available for estimation of the inside distance of two co-linear surface cracks

  4. Fabrication experience of sodium bonded metallic test fuel with U-6%Zr in T91 clad tube for irradiation in FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidaran, P.; Prabhu, T.V.; Manivannan, A.; Vinod, A.V.; Padmanabhan, R.; Ravisankar, G.; Ganesan, V.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2012-01-01

    Future fast reactors in India will be fuelled by metallic alloys to achieve the enhanced breeding necessary to ensure rapid growth of power generation. Since, experience in fabrication and irradiation of metallic alloy fuel does not exist in the country, it is necessary to generate fabrication and irradiation experience before launching commercial FBRs with metallic alloy fuel. As part of this development, sodium bonded metallic test fuel pin fabrication was taken up at IGCAR. This paper describes the fabrication experience of sodium bonded metallic test fuel pin using Nat. U-6%Zr and T91 clad tube towards test irradiation in FBTR at Chemistry Group

  5. Alternative Bio-Derived JP-8 Class Fuel and JP-8 Fuel: Flame Tube Combustor Test Results Compared using a GE TAPS Injector Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert; Tedder, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from tests in a NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) flame tube facility, where a bio-derived alternate fuel was compared with JP-8 for emissions and general combustion performance. A research version of General Electric Aviation (GE) TAPS injector was used for the tests. Results include 2D, planar laser-based imaging as well as basic flow visualization of the flame. Four conditions were selected that simulate various engine power conditions relevant to NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Supersonics and Environmentally Responsible Aviation Projects were tested.

  6. Development of a test system for the analysis of the read-out electronic cabling for the CMS drift tube chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Montero, M.; Willmott, C.

    2004-01-01

    A test system has been developed for the analysis of the read-out electronics cabling for the CMS drift tube chambers. The read-out electronics will be placed inside some aluminium boxes, so-called Minicrates, which are going to be produced soon at CIEMAT. Due to the difficulty of detecting and repairing errors in the cables once they have been installed and recalling also to the large number of Minicrates that are going to be produced, it was decided to design and develop a test system for testing the cabling before its installation. (Author)

  7. Effect of using a laryngeal tube on the no-flow time in a simulated, single-rescuer, basic life support setting with inexperienced users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, O; Bucher, M; Schröder, J

    2016-03-01

    The laryngeal tube (LT) is a recommended alternative to endotracheal intubation during advanced life support (ALS). Its insertion is relatively simple; therefore, it may also serve as an alternative to bag mask ventilation (BMV) for untrained personnel performing basic life support (BLS). Data support the influence of LT on the no-flow time (NFT) compared with BMV during ALS in manikin studies. We performed a manikin study to investigate the effect of using the LT for ventilation instead of BMV on the NFT during BLS in a prospective, randomized, single-rescuer study. All 209 participants were trained in BMV, but were inexperienced in using LT; each participant performed BLS during a 4-min time period. No significant difference in total NFT (LT: mean 81.1 ± 22.7 s; BMV: mean 83.2 ± 13.1 s, p = 0.414) was found; however, significant differences in the later periods of the scenario were identified. While ventilating with the LT, the proportion of chest compressions increased significantly from 67.2 to 73.2%, whereas the proportion of chest compressions increased only marginally when performing BMV. The quality of the chest compressions and the associated ventilation rate did not differ significantly. The mean tidal volume and mean minute volume were significantly lower when performing BMV. The NFT was significantly shorter in the later periods in a single-rescuer, cardiac arrest scenario when using an LT without previous training compared with BMV with previous training. A possible explanation for this result may be the complexity and workload of alternating tasks (e.g., time loss when reclining the head and positioning the mask for each ventilation during BMV).

  8. Dynamic tensile test of single PET textile cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasco F.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The tyres conception involves for certain applications, the use of textile cables as reinforcement. During its use, the tyre undergoes temperatures variations and dynamic loading rates. The consideration of these conditions during the numeric simulations requires the knowledge of the sensitivity of the mechanical behaviour to loading rate and temperature. In this paper, we developed an experimental methodology for testing textile cable up to high strain rate. The main difficulty of testing cables is the optimization of cable fixing on the machine. For that purpose, we adapted the solution of fixing by progressive binding already used in quasi-static, while taking into account constraints inherent to high strain tests. Firstly, the mass of grips was decreased in order to get force signal less sensitive to grips inertia. The method was developed on a high speed hydraulic machine equipped with a thermal enclosure. The investigated temperatures and strain rates range from room temperature to 373 ∘K (100 ∘C and from 0,01 to 100/s, respectively. In addition, the hydraulic machine was equipped with a high speed video camera. The obtained images were analysed by a tracking technique to measure the average strain in the cable (from 50 to 20000 f/s.

  9. Development and validation of a simulation tool dedicated to eddy current non destructive testing of tubes; Developpement d'un modele electromagnetique 3D pour la simulation du controle par Courants de Foucault de tubes en fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboud, Ch

    2006-09-15

    Eddy current testing (ECT) technique is widely used in industrial fields such as iron and steel industry. Dedicated simulation tools provide a great assistance for the optimisation of ECT processes. CEA and the Vallourec Research Center have collaborated in order to develop a simulation tool of ECT of tubes. The volume integral method has been chosen for the resolution of Maxwell equations in a stratified medium, in order to get accurate results with a computation time short enough to carry out optimisation or inversion procedures. A fast model has been developed for the simulation of ECT of non magnetic tubes using specific external probes. New flaw geometries have been modelled: holes and notches with flat bottom. Validations of the developments, which have been integrated to the CIVA platform, have been carried out using experimental data recorded in laboratory conditions and in. industrial conditions, successively. The integral equations derived are solved using the Galerkin variant of the method of moments with pulse functions as projection functions. In order to overcome some memory limitations, other projection functions have been considered. A new discretization scheme based on non-uniform B-Splines of degree 1 or 2 has been implemented, which constitutes an original contribution to the existing literature. The decrease of the mesh size needed to get a given accuracy on the result may lead to the simulation of more complex ECT configurations. (author)

  10. Injection molded nanofluidic chips: Fabrication method and functional tests using single-molecule DNA experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utko, Pawel; Persson, Karl Fredrik; Kristensen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that fabrication of nanofluidic systems can be greatly simplified by injection molding of polymers. We functionally test our devices by single-molecule DNA experiments in nanochannels.......We demonstrate that fabrication of nanofluidic systems can be greatly simplified by injection molding of polymers. We functionally test our devices by single-molecule DNA experiments in nanochannels....

  11. 76 FR 34801 - Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... reference in 49 CFR 232.305) is intended for freight cars with automatic brake systems that are...] Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures In accordance with Part 232 of Title 49... Railroad Administration (FRA) grant a modification of the single car air brake test procedures as...

  12. Heat transfer characteristics evaluation of heat exchangers of mock-up test facility with full-scale reaction tube for HTTR hydrogen production system (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Akira; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Kato, Michio; Hayashi, Koji; Aita, Hideki; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Inaba, Yoshitomo; Takada, Shoji; Morisaki, Norihiro; Sakaki, Akihiro; Maeda, Yukimasa; Sato, Hiroyuki; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Hanawa, Hiromi; Fujisaki, Katsuo; Yonekawa, Hideo

    2005-06-01

    Connection of hydrogen production system by steam reforming of methane to the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been surveyed until now. Mock-up test facility of this steam reforming system with full-scale reaction tube was constructed in FY 2001 and hydrogen of 120 Nm 3 /h was successfully produced in overall performance test. Totally 7 times operational tests were performed from March 2002 to December 2004. A lot of operational test data on heat exchanges were obtained in these tests. In this report specifications and structures of steam reformer, steam superheater, steam generator, condenser, helium gas cooler, feed gas heater and feed gas superheater were described. Heat transfer correlation equations for inside and outside tube were chosen from references. Spreadsheet programs were newly made to evaluate heat transfer characteristics from measured test data such as inlet and outlet temperature pressure and flow-rate. Overall heat-transfer coefficients obtained from the experimental data were compared and evaluated with the calculated values with heat transfer correlation equation. As a result, actual measurement values of all heat exchangers gave close agreement with the calculated values with correlation equations. Thermal efficiencies of the heat exchangers were adequate as they were well accorded with design value. (author)

  13. Stress corrosion crack initiation of Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes in an iodine vapor environment during creep, relaxation, and constant strain rate tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezequel, T.; Auzoux, Q.; Le Boulch, D.; Bono, M.; Andrieu, E.; Blanc, C.; Chabretou, V.; Mozzani, N.; Rautenberg, M.

    2018-02-01

    During accidental power transient conditions with Pellet Cladding Interaction (PCI), the synergistic effect of the stress and strain imposed on the cladding by thermal expansion of the fuel, and corrosion by iodine released as a fission product, may lead to cladding failure by Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC). In this study, internal pressure tests were conducted on unirradiated cold-worked stress-relieved Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes in an iodine vapor environment. The goal was to investigate the influence of loading type (constant pressure tests, constant circumferential strain rate tests, or constant circumferential strain tests) and test temperature (320, 350, or 380 °C) on iodine-induced stress corrosion cracking (I-SCC). The experimental results obtained with different loading types were consistent with each other. The apparent threshold hoop stress for I-SCC was found to be independent of the test temperature. SEM micrographs of the tested samples showed many pits distributed over the inner surface, which tended to coalesce into large pits in which a microcrack could initiate. A model for the time-to-failure of a cladding tube was developed using finite element simulations of the viscoplastic mechanical behavior of the material and a modified Kachanov's damage growth model. The times-to-failure predicted by this model are consistent with the experimental data.

  14. Building lab-scale x-ray tube based irradiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    The construction of economical x-ray tube based irradiators in a variety of configurations is described using 1000 Watt x-ray tubes. Single tube, double tube, and four tube designs are described, as well as various cabinet construction techniques. Relatively high dose rates were achieved for small s...

  15. Assessment of the toxic potential of landfill waters by the pollen tube growth test; Deponiesickerwaesser: Bestimmung zytotoxischer Wirkungen mit dem Pollenschlauchwachstumstest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, K.; Segner, H.; Schueuermann, G. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle, Leipzig (Germany). Sektion Chemische Oekotoxikologie; Kristen, U. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Botanik; Flachowsky, J. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle, Leipzig (Germany). Sektion Analytik

    1997-12-01

    For risk assessment of environmental samples, rapid and sensitive screening assays for detection of toxic potencies are required. Using leachates from waste deposits in the industrial region Leipzig-Halle (Germany) as an example, we present a simple test procedure suitable for the detection of cytotoxic effects of samples. This method, the pollen tube growth test (PTG), works as follows: Pollen of tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris Spegazz. and Comes) are suspended in mixtures of growth medium and buffered (pH 6,3 to 7,0) dumping ground leachates. After an 18 h-incubation period, growth of pollen tubes is quantified by staining with Alcian blue and subsequent measurement of optical density in a photometer. Sample induced inhibition of pollen tube growth is calculated in relation to controls maintained in pure growth medium. The PTG test shows high sensitivity towards leachates of different chemical composition, and it shows good agreement with assay results from luminescent bacteria tests. We conclude that the PTG test is well suited to assess the hazardous potential of aqueous environmental samples. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer die Risikobewertung von Umweltproben ist es notwendig, Screening-Verfahren zum schnellen und sensitiven Nachweis toxischer Wirkungen einzusetzen. Wir stellen am Beispiel von Sickerwaessern eine Deponie der Industrieregion Leipzig-Halle ein einfaches Testverfahren vor, das geeignet ist, die Zytotoxizitaet waessriger Proben abzuschaetzen. Die Methode, die als Pollenschlauchwachstumstest (Pollen Tube Growth Test, PTG-Test) bekannt ist, wird wie folgt angewendet: Pollen der Tabakpflanze (Nicotiana sylvestris Spegazz. und Comes) werden in einem Kulturmedium fuer 18 Stunden zusammen mit Deponiesickerwasser inkubiert. Die gewachsenen Pollenschlaeuche werden mit Alzianblau gefaerbt, die Menge der produzierten Pollenschlaeuche photometrisch quantifiziert und die Hemmung des Pollenschlauchwachstums im Vergleich zu unbehandelten Kontrollansaetzen berechnet. Der

  16. Some Observations on Carbon Nano tubes Susceptibility to Cell Phagocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraczek-Szczypta, A.; Menaszek, E.; Blazewicz, S.; Menaszek, E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of different types of carbon nano tubes (CNTs) on cell phagocytosis. Three kinds of carbon nano tubes: single-walled carbon nano horns (SWCNHs), multi walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs), and ultra-long single-walled carbon nano tubes (ULSWCNTs) before and after additional chemical functionalization were seeded with macrophage cell culture. Prior to biological testing, the CNTs were subjected to dispersion process with the use of phosphate buffered solution (PBS) and PBS containing surfactant (Tween 20) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The results indicate that the cells interaction with an individual nano tube is entirely different as compared to CNTs in the form of aggregate. The presence of the surfactant favors the CNTs dispersion in culture media and facilitates phagocytosis process, while it has disadvantageous influence on cells morphology. The cells phagocytosis is a more effective for MWCNTs and SWCNHs after their chemical functionalization. Moreover, these nano tubes were well dispersed in culture media without using DMSO or surfactant. The functionalized carbon nano tubes were easily dispersed in pure PBS and seeded with cells

  17. LHC BLM Single Channel Connectivity Test using the Standard Installation

    CERN Document Server

    Emery, J; Effinger, E; Ferioli, G; Zamantzas, C; Ikeda, H; Verhagen, E

    2009-01-01

    For the LHC Beam Loss Measurement system (BLM), the high voltage supply of the ionisation chambers and the secondary emission detectors is used to test their connectivity. A harmonic modulation of 0.03 Hz results in a current signal of about 100pA measured by the beam loss acquisition electronics. The signal is analyzed and the measured amplitude and phase are compared with individual channel limits for the 4000 channels. It is foreseen to execute an automatic procedure for all channels every 12 hours which takes about 20 minutes. The paper will present the design of the system, the circuit simulations, measurements of systematic dependencies of different channels and the reproducibility of the amplitude and phase measurements.

  18. Experimental programme in support of the development of the European ceramic-breeder-inside-tube test-blanket: present status and future work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proust, E.; Roux, N.; Flament, T.; Anzidei, L.; ENEA, Frascati; Casadio, S.; Dell'orco, G.

    1992-01-01

    Four DEMO blanket classes are under investigation within the framework of the European Test-Blanket Development Programme. One of them is featured by the use of lithium ceramic breeder pellets contained inside externally helium cooled tubes. This paper summarizes the main achievements to date of the experimental programme supporting the development of this class of blanket. It also gives an outline of the areas of the breeder material, beryllium, tritium control, and thermomechanical tests, the future work envisaged for the 92-94 period. 53 refs

  19. Test procedures and instructions for single shell tank saltcake cesium removal with crystalline silicotitanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, J.B.

    1997-01-07

    This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test, using Hanford Single Shell Tank Saltcake from tanks 24 t -BY- I 10, 24 1 -U- 108, 24 1 -U- 109, 24 1 -A- I 0 1, and 24 t - S-102, in a bench-scale column. The cesium sorbent to be tested is crystalline siticotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-024, Hanford Single Shell Tank Saltcake Cesium Removal Test Plan.

  20. NEPP Update of Independent Single Event Upset Field Programmable Gate Array Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; Label, Kenneth; Campola, Michael; Pellish, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    This presentation provides a NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program update of independent Single Event Upset (SEU) Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) testing including FPGA test guidelines, Microsemi RTG4 heavy-ion results, Xilinx Kintex-UltraScale heavy-ion results, Xilinx UltraScale+ single event effect (SEE) test plans, development of a new methodology for characterizing SEU system response, and NEPP involvement with FPGA security and trust.

  1. The effects of isolated single umbilical artery on first and second trimester aneuploidy screening test parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulek, Firat; Kahraman, Alper; Taskin, Salih; Ozkavukcu, Esra; Soylemez, Feride

    2015-04-01

    Reliability of first and second trimester screening tests largely depends on accurate estimation of maternal serum marker values. Reduced reliability could lead redundant invasive tests or misdiagnosis. Adjustments of serum marker values for confounding factors like insulin-dependent diabetes, maternal weight or maternal rhesus status are essential. We aimed to investigate whether isolated single umbilical artery alters first and second trimester test parameters or not. Routine detailed obstetric ultrasonographies performed were retrospectively screened for this study. Among spontaneously conceived singleton pregnancies, women who were found to have single umbilical artery without any additional structural anomalies or aneuploidies were selected. First and second trimester screening test results were accessible for 98 and 102 of the cases with isolated single umbilical artery, respectively. Among first trimester screening test parameters, PAPP-A (pregnancy-associated plasma protein A) MoMs were found significantly higher in isolated single umbilical artery group. AFP MoMs were found significantly elevated in isolated single umbilical artery group in second trimester quadruple tests. Existence of single umbilical artery could alter the estimation of MoM values of maternal serum markers. Reliability of prenatal screening tests could be improved by adjusting these parameters in accordance with isolated single umbilical artery.

  2. Morphological and functional MR imaging of the pharyngotympanic tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krombach, G.A.; Nolte-Ernsting, C.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Guenther, R.W.; Di Martino, E.; Westhofen, M.; Prescher, A.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a protocol for the anatomic depiction and functional testing of the auditory tube with the use of MR imaging. Methods: Eleven volunteers were included into this study. For the morphological assessment, the imaging protocol included axial and coronal T 2 -weighted turbo-spin echo sequences (T R /T E =3194/100 ms) and a T 1 -weighted gradient echo sequence (T R /T E =42/4.6 ms). For the functional test a dynamic turbo-gradient echo sequence (TFE) with spectral fat suppression (T R /T E =15/6,2 ms; 4 sec) was obtained using the single slice technique before and during the Valsalva manoeuvre. Results: With multi-slice sequences, the osseous part of the auditory tube, the tubal cartilage (middle and lateral lamina), the ciliated epithelium, Ostmann's adipose body and the levator and tensor veli palatini muscles were delineated in all cases. During the Valsalva test, opening of the auditory tube was demonstrated in 20 of the 22 investigated sides using the dynamic TFE single slice sequence. Conclusions: The introduced MRI protocol allow visualization of the opening of the auditory tube and provides detailed anatomical information of the nasopharynx. Comprehensive morphological and functional evaluation of the auditory tube becomes possible within a single examination. (orig.) [de

  3. Evaluation procedures for single axis sinusoidal test to design spectrum requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, P.C.; Javid, A.

    1983-01-01

    Two simple procedures are provided in this paper for the purpose of evaluating the adequacy of a single frequency single axis test. For the purpose of evaluating the adequacy of single frequency test to meet broad-band response spectrum requirements, the proposed procedure is based on the equivalence of maximum response of a dynamic system when it is subjected to either type of design input. The required information used for the evaluation is usually recorded and available in the test report. This procedure is applicable to systems with or without closely-spaced modes. When evaluating against broad-band design spectra and multi-axes requirements, an empirical procedure is proposed and it has been found conservative. These two proposed procedures provide a quick assessment on the adequacy of a single frequency test performed earlier. The use of these procedures may eliminate the need of expensive and time consuming equipment re-testing. (orig./HP)

  4. Detecting Intracranial Hemorrhage Using Automatic Tube Current Modulation With Advanced Modeled Iterative Reconstruction in Unenhanced Head Single- and Dual-Energy Dual-Source CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Wichmann, Julian L; Bennett, Dennis W; Leithner, Doris; Bauer, Ralf W; Vogl, Thomas J; Bodelle, Boris

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine diagnostic accuracy, image quality, and radiation dose of low-dose single- and dual-energy unenhanced third-generation dual-source head CT for detection of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). A total of 123 patients with suspected ICH were examined using a dual-source 192-MDCT scanner. Standard-dose 120-kVp single-energy CT (SECT; n = 36) and 80-kVp and 150-kVp dual-energy CT (DECT; n = 30) images were compared with low-dose SECT (n = 32) and DECT (n = 25) images obtained using automated tube current modulation (ATCM). Advanced modeled iterative reconstruction (ADMIRE) was used for all protocols. Detection of ICH was performed by three readers who were blinded to the image acquisition parameters of each image series. Image quality was assessed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Interobserver agreement was calculated using the Fleiss kappa. Radiation dose was measured as dose-length product (DLP). Detection of ICH was excellent (sensitivity, 94.9-100%; specificity, 94.7-100%) in all protocols (p = 1.00) with perfect interobserver agreement (0.83-0.96). Qualitative ratings showed significantly better ratings for both standard-dose protocols regarding gray matter-to-white matter contrast (p ≤ 0.014), whereas highest gray matter-to-white matter contrast-to-noise ratio was observed with low-dose DECT images (p ≥ 0.057). The lowest posterior fossa artifact index was measured for standard-dose DECT, which showed significantly lower values compared with low-dose protocols (p ≤ 0.034). Delineation of ventricular margins and sharpness of subarachnoidal spaces were rated excellent in all protocols (p ≥ 0.096). Low-dose techniques lowered radiation dose by 26% for SECT images (DLP, 575.0 ± 72.3 mGy · cm vs 771.5 ± 146.8 mGy · cm; p dual-source CT while allowing significant radiation dose reduction.

  5. Current Issues on Hydride Effects of Zr-base Cladding Tube on the Ductility in RIA simulating Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sunki; Bang, Jegeon; Lee, Chanbock; Kim, Daeho; Yang, Yongsik

    2006-01-01

    During operation in nuclear reactor the cladding tube forms a hydride rim that resides above a substrate that is relatively free of hydrides. A prediction of the ductility of such cladding tubes must take into account: the density of the hydrides as a layer/rim and the rim thickness, the ability of the hydrides to deform, their circumferential orientation within the layer, and the presence of a relatively unhydrided substrate. Recent experiments based on unirradiated cladding tubes containing hydrides in the form of a rim indicate a significant loss of ductility with (a) increasing hydrogen content and/or (b) increasing hydride rim thicknesses. These results suggest that a ductile-to brittle transition occurs with increasing hydride rim thickness. Since the hydride rim initiates a crack early in the deformation process, fracture mechanics has been recently used to predict failure on the basis of crack propagation. While this type of analysis can be applied to brittle cladding with thick hydride rims, failure of cladding with small- thickness hydride rims exhibits significant ductility; importantly, this cladding does not appear to obey fracture mechanics, as the fracture stress approaches the tensile strength of the cladding. To provide a data base for the regulatory guide of light water reactors, behavior of reactor fuels during off normal and postulated accident conditions such as reactivity-initiated accident (RIA) has been studied in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) program in Japan. A series of experiments with high burnup fuel rods were performed by using pulse irradiation capability of the NSRR. This paper presents recent results obtained from the NSRR power burst experiments with irradiated PWR fuels with ZIRLOTM and MDA (Mitsubishi Developed Alloy, Zr-0.8Sn- 0.2Fe-0.1Cr-0.5Nb) claddings, and discusses effects of pellet expansion as PCMI (Pellet-Cladding Mechanical Interaction) loading and cladding embrittlement primarily due to hydrogen

  6. Results of single borehole hydraulic testing in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory project. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daimaru, Shuji; Takeuchi, Ryuji; Onoe, Hironori; Saegusa, Hiromitsu

    2012-09-01

    This report summarize the results of the single borehole hydraulic tests of 79 sections conducted as part of the Construction phase (Phase 2) in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project. The details of each test (test interval depth, geology, etc.) as well as the interpreted hydraulic parameters and analytical method used are presented in this report. (author)

  7. NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Field Programmable Gate Array Single Event Effects Test Guideline Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie D.; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2018-01-01

    The following are updated or new subjects added to the FPGA SEE Test Guidelines manual: academic versus mission specific device evaluation, single event latch-up (SEL) test and analysis, SEE response visibility enhancement during radiation testing, mitigation evaluation (embedded and user-implemented), unreliable design and its affects to SEE Data, testing flushable architectures versus non-flushable architectures, intellectual property core (IP Core) test and evaluation (addresses embedded and user-inserted), heavy-ion energy and linear energy transfer (LET) selection, proton versus heavy-ion testing, fault injection, mean fluence to failure analysis, and mission specific system-level single event upset (SEU) response prediction. Most sections within the guidelines manual provide information regarding best practices for test structure and test system development. The scope of this manual addresses academic versus mission specific device evaluation and visibility enhancement in IP Core testing.

  8. Magnesium tube hydroforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liewald, M.; Pop, R. [Institute for Metal Forming Technology (IFU), Stuttgart (Germany)

    2008-04-15

    Magnesium alloys reveal a good strength-to-weight ratio in the family of lightweight metals and gains potential to provide up to 30% mass savings compared to aluminium and up to 75 % compared to steel. The use of sheet magnesium alloys for auto body applications is however limited due to the relatively low formability at room temperature. Within the scope of this paper, extruded magnesium tubes, which are suitable for hydroforming applications, have been investigated. Results obtained at room temperature using magnesium AZ31 tubes show that circumferential strains are limited to a maximal value of 4%. In order to examine the influence of the forming temperature on tube formability, investigations have been carried out with a new die set for hot internal high pressure (IHP) forming at temperatures up to 400 C. Earlier investigations with magnesium AZ31 tubes have shown that fractures occur along the welding line at tubes extruded over a spider die, whereby a non-uniform expansion at bursting with an elongation value of 24% can be observed. A maximum circumferential strain of approx. 60% could be attained when seamless, mechanically pre-expanded and annealed tubes of the same alloy have been used. The effect of annealing time on materials forming properties shows a fine grained structure for sufficient annealing times as well as deterioration with a large increase at same time. Hence, seamless ZM21 tubes have been used in the current investigations. With these tubes, an increased tensile fracture strain of 116% at 350 C is observed as against 19% at 20 C, obtained by tensile testing of milled specimens from the extruded tubes. This behaviour is also seen under the condition of tool contact during the IHP forming process. To determine the maximum circumferential strain at different forming temperatures and strain rates, the tubes are initially bulged in a die with square cross-section under plane stress conditions. Thereafter, the tubes are calibrated by using an

  9. A UVC Device for Intra-luminal Disinfection of Catheters: In Vitro Tests on Soft Polymer Tubes Contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Jimmy; Begovic, Tanja; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    light is possible. In this paper we present dose-response results using a newly developed UVC disinfection device, which can be connected to a Luer catheter hub. The device was tested on soft polymer tubes contaminated with a pallet of microorganisms, including Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus...... breach. Our results show UVC killing in a dose and time dependent manner, with no viable counts after 2 min of radiation for bacteria. Killing of C. albicans was obtained at >20 min in an UVC absorbing suspension. We believe our results to be transferable directly to the clinic, and we are currently...

  10. Scale-up of counter-current chromatography: demonstration of predictable isocratic and quasi-continuous operating modes from the test tube to pilot/process scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Ian; Hewitson, Peter; Ignatova, Svetlana

    2009-12-11

    Predictable scale-up from test tube derived distribution ratios and analytical-scale sample loading optimisation is demonstrated using a model sample system of benzyl alcohol and p-cresol in a heptane:ethyl acetate:methanol:water phase system with the new 18 L Maxi counter-current chromatography centrifuge. The versatility of having a liquid stationary phase with its high loading capacity and flexible operating modes is demonstrated at two different scales by separating and concentrating target compounds using a mixture of caffeine, vanillin, naringenin and carvone using a quasi-continuous technique called intermittent counter-current extraction.

  11. Pressure drop and heat transfer of a mercury single-phase flow and an air-mercury two-phase flow in a helical tube under a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Minoru; Momozaki, Yoichi

    2000-01-01

    For the reduction of a large magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop of a liquid metal single-phase flow, a liquid metal two-phase flow cooling system has been proposed. As a fundamental study, MHD pressure drops and heat transfer characteristics of a mercury single-phase flow and an air-mercury two-phase flow were experimentally investigated. A strong transverse magnetic field relevant to the fusion reactor conditions was applied to the mercury single-phase flow and the air-mercury two-phase flow in a helically coiled tube that was inserted in the vertical bore of a solenoidal superconducting magnet. It was found that MHD pressure drops of a mercury single-phase flow in the helically coiled tube were nearly equal to those in a straight tube. The Nusselt number at an outside wall was higher than that at an inside wall both in the mercury single-phase flow in the absence and presence of a magnetic field. The Nusselt number of the mercury single-phase flow decreased, increased and again decreased with an increase in the magnetic flux density. MHD pressure drops did not decrease appreciably by injecting air into a mercury flow and changing the mercury flow into the air-mercury two-phase flow. Remarkable heat transfer enhancement did not appear by the air injection. The injection of air into the mercury flow enhanced heat transfer in the ranges of high mercury flow rate and low magnetic flux density, possibly due to the agitation effect of air bubbles. The air injection deteriorated heat transfer in the range of low mercury flow rates possibly because of the occupation of air near heating wall

  12. Forecast of thermal-hydrological conditions and air injection test results of the single heater test at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholzer, J.T.; Tsang, Y.W.

    1996-12-01

    The heater in the Single Heater Test (SHT) in alcove 5 of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) was turned on August 26, 1996. A large number of sensors are installed in the various instrumented boreholes to monitor the coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical responses of the rock mass to the heat generated in the single heater. In this report the authors present the results of the modeling of both the heating and cooling phases of the Single Heater Test (SHT), with focus on the thermal-hydrological aspect of the coupled processes. Also in this report, the authors present simulations of air injection tests will be performed at different stages of the heating and cooling phase of the SHT

  13. Ear Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the ear drum or eustachian tube, Down Syndrome, cleft palate, and barotrauma (injury to the middle ear caused by a reduction of air pressure, ... specialist) may be warranted if you or your child has experienced repeated ... fluid in the middle ear, barotrauma, or have an anatomic abnormality that ...

  14. Intersection tests for single marker QTL analysis can be more powerful than two marker QTL analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doerge RW

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported in the quantitative trait locus (QTL literature that when testing for QTL location and effect, the statistical power supporting methodologies based on two markers and their estimated genetic map is higher than for the genetic map independent methodologies known as single marker analyses. Close examination of these reports reveals that the two marker approaches are more powerful than single marker analyses only in certain cases. Simulation studies are a commonly used tool to determine the behavior of test statistics under known conditions. We conducted a simulation study to assess the general behavior of an intersection test and a two marker test under a variety of conditions. The study was designed to reveal whether two marker tests are always more powerful than intersection tests, or whether there are cases when an intersection test may outperform the two marker approach. We present a reanalysis of a data set from a QTL study of ovariole number in Drosophila melanogaster. Results Our simulation study results show that there are situations where the single marker intersection test equals or outperforms the two marker test. The intersection test and the two marker test identify overlapping regions in the reanalysis of the Drosophila melanogaster data. The region identified is consistent with a regression based interval mapping analysis. Conclusion We find that the intersection test is appropriate for analysis of QTL data. This approach has the advantage of simplicity and for certain situations supplies equivalent or more powerful results than a comparable two marker test.

  15. The comparison of corrosion resistance between Baosteel's alloy 690 tube and foreign alloy 690 tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Mingjuan; Zhang Lefu; Li Yan

    2012-01-01

    Alloy 690 having excellent corrosion resistance is widely used for SG tubes. The intergranular corrosion and pitting corrosion resistance of Baosteel's alloy 690 tube, Country A alloy 690 tube and Country B alloy 690 tube have been analysed by comparison. It shows that: The intergranular corrosion of Baosteel's alloy 690 tube tested complied with ASTM G28 Standard could satisfy the technical requirement. However.some of Baosteel's alloy 690 tube in intergranular corrosion resistance had less performance than Country A. In addition, pitting corrosion tested with ASTM G48 Standard shown the Baosteel's alloy 690 tube better than Country B. (authors)

  16. A Study on the Development of Nonglass Solar Vacuum Tube Collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seung Jin

    2008-02-01

    Nature has been providing us energy from the beginning of the world. However human has hardly used it wisely. Solar energy is a kind of renewable energy from the nature. This study has been carried out to study the use of solar energy as it is harnessed in the form of thermal energy. Solar energy is one of the most promising energy resources such as hydrogen, biomass, wind and geothermal energy, because it is clean and inexhaustible. Space heating in buildings can be provided from solar energy by systems that are similar in many respects to water heater systems. By tapping into solar energy, we can not only solve the problem of energy shortage, but also can protect the environment and benefit the human beings. There are currently two types of evacuated tube; a single glass tube and a double glass tube. The former consists of a single glass tube which contains a flat or curved aluminium plate attached to a copper heat pipe or water flow pipe. The latter consists of rows of parallel transparent glass tubes, each of which contains an absorber tube. Evacuated tube collectors introduced above, however, pose some problems as they break rather easily under mechanical stresses. This paper introduces some preliminary results in design and fabrication of a non-glass solar vacuum tube collector in which the thermosyphon(heat pipe)made of copper is used as a heat transfer device. A series of tests have been performed to assess the ability of a non-glass solar vacuum tube collector. The series of experiments are as follows: 1)Vacuum level inside a vacuum tube. 2)Effects of the air remaining inside a vacuum tube on the temperature on the absorber plate. 3)Comparison of a non-glass vacuum solar collector with a single glass evacuated tube(SEIDO 5). Different vacuum levels inside non-glass vacuum tubes were applied to check any leakage or unexpected physical or chemical developments with time. The vacuum level changed from 10 -2 torr to 5torr in 5 days due to air infiltration from

  17. Confirming nasogastric tube position with electromagnetic tracking versus pH or X-ray and tube radio-opacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stephen; Allan, Kaylee; McWilliam, Helen; Manara, Alex; Brown, Jules; Toher, Deirdre; Rayner, Wendy

    Recent evidence suggests official statistics greatly underestimate the occurrence of complications from misplaced nasogastric (NG) tubes, even when detected. Current methods of confirming tube position do not provide adequate protection from misplacement. In addition, some tubes are inadequately radio-opaque. We prospectively audited placement of Cortrak polyurethane tubes (PUTs) to determine: accuracy of the electromagnetic (EM) trace in confirming tube position, radio-opacity of PUTs compared with previously placed polyvinylchloride (PVC) Ryles tubes and whether 12 French PUTs can be used to aspirate gastric residual volumes (GRVs). A total of 127 PUTs were placed in 113 patients. EM traces accurately confirmed tube position compared with X-ray (100% agreement). A 'gastric' EM trace has been defined for future use by other operators. PUTs were adequately radio-opaque with good agreement between interpreters (>98%) whereas PVC Ryles tubes were insufficiently radio-opaque (57-73%), invisible in 23% of cases and with poor agreement between interpreters leaving risk of error. The alternative of using pH confirmation was not possible in 44%. In these cases subsequent X-ray incurred a 2-hour delay to feed and medicines. In addition, neither post-placement pH testing nor X-ray warn of lung placement and potential trauma, whereas the EM trace warned of lung placement prior to damage in 7% of placements. 12 French, single-port PUTs appear adequate to aspirate large GRVs. EM tracing may be considered a standalone method of confirming NG tube position. Corflo (Cortrak) PUTs are adequately radio-opaque. Use of PVC Ryles and other inadequately radio-opaque tubes should stop.

  18. In service inspection for steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comby, R.; Eyrolles, Ph.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper the authors show the means putting in place for examination of steam generators tubes. These means (eddy current probes, ultrasonic testing) associated with a knowledge on degradation phenomena allow mapping controlled tubes and limiting undesirable obturations [fr

  19. Understanding the effect of single-fracture heterogeneity from single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Martin; Doughty, Christine; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Niemi, Auli

    2013-12-01

    The single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tracer test is a method used to estimate the tracer retardation properties of a fracture or fracture zone. The effects of single-fracture aperture heterogeneity on SWIW-test tracer breakthrough curves are examined by numerical modelling. The effects of the matrix diffusion and sorption are accounted for by using a particle tracking method through the addition of a time delay added to the advective transport time. For a given diffusion and sorption property ( P m) value and for a heterogeneous fracture, the peak concentration is larger compared to a homogeneous fracture. The cumulative breakthrough curve for a heterogeneous fracture is similar to that for a homogeneous fracture and a less sorptive/diffusive tracer. It is demonstrated that the fracture area that meets the flowing water, the specific flow-wetted surface (sFWS) of the fracture, can be determined by matching the observed breakthrough curve for a heterogeneous fracture to that for a homogeneous fracture with an equivalent property parameter. SWIW tests are also simulated with a regional pressure gradient present. The results point to the possibility of distinguishing the effect of the regional pressure gradient from that of diffusion through the use of multiple tracers with different P m values.

  20. Characterization of tube support alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaia, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    The involvement and relationship of carbon steel corrosion products in the tube denting phenomenon promoted an intensive research effort to: 1) understand, reproduce, and arrest the denting process, and 2) evaluate alternative tube support materials to provide additional corrosion resistance. The paper summarizes a corrosion testing program for the verification of type 405 stainless steel under acid or all volatile treatment conditions

  1. The Influence of Age on Interaction between Breath-Holding Test and Single-Breath Carbon Dioxide Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Trembach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare the breath-holding test and single-breath carbon dioxide test in evaluation of the peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity to carbon dioxide in healthy subjects of different age. Methods. The study involved 47 healthy volunteers between ages of 25 and 85 years. All participants were divided into 4 groups according to age: 25 to 44 years (n=14, 45 to 60 years (n=13, 60 to 75 years (n=12, and older than 75 years (n=8. Breath-holding test was performed in the morning before breakfast. The single-breath carbon dioxide (SB-CO2 test was performed the following day. Results. No correlation was found between age and duration of breath-holding (r=0.13 and between age and peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity to CO2 (r=0.07. In all age groups there were no significant differences in the mean values from the breath-holding test and peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity tests. In all groups there was a strong significant inverse correlation between breath-holding test and SB-CO2 test. Conclusion. A breath-holding test reflects the sensitivity of the peripheral chemoreflex to carbon dioxide in healthy elderly humans. Increasing age alone does not alter the peripheral ventilatory response to hypercapnia.

  2. The Influence of Age on Interaction between Breath-Holding Test and Single-Breath Carbon Dioxide Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembach, Nikita; Zabolotskikh, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Introduction . The aim of the study was to compare the breath-holding test and single-breath carbon dioxide test in evaluation of the peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity to carbon dioxide in healthy subjects of different age. Methods . The study involved 47 healthy volunteers between ages of 25 and 85 years. All participants were divided into 4 groups according to age: 25 to 44 years ( n = 14), 45 to 60 years ( n = 13), 60 to 75 years ( n = 12), and older than 75 years ( n = 8). Breath-holding test was performed in the morning before breakfast. The single-breath carbon dioxide (SB-CO 2 ) test was performed the following day. Results . No correlation was found between age and duration of breath-holding ( r = 0.13) and between age and peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity to CO 2 ( r = 0.07). In all age groups there were no significant differences in the mean values from the breath-holding test and peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity tests. In all groups there was a strong significant inverse correlation between breath-holding test and SB-CO 2 test. Conclusion . A breath-holding test reflects the sensitivity of the peripheral chemoreflex to carbon dioxide in healthy elderly humans. Increasing age alone does not alter the peripheral ventilatory response to hypercapnia.

  3. Analytical solutions for efficient interpretation of single-well push-pull tracer tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single-well push-pull tracer tests have been used to characterize the extent, fate, and transport of subsurface contamination. Analytical solutions provide one alternative for interpreting test results. In this work, an exact analytical solution to two-dimensional equations descr...

  4. Fibre reinforced concrete in flexure and single fibre pull-out test: a correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, M.; Ciancio, D.; Dight, P.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present work is to assess whether a single fibre pull-out test can be related to the behaviour of multiple fibres in fibre reinforced concrete under bending condition. A simple model based on the stress block theory is described and compared with experimental results on three point bending tests with aligned fibres.

  5. Content Coverage of Single-Word Tests Used to Assess Common Phonological Error Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Cecilia; Vigeland, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This review evaluated whether 9 single-word tests of phonological error patterns provide adequate content coverage to accurately identify error patterns that are active in a child's speech. Method: Tests in the current study were considered to display sufficient opportunities to assess common phonological error patterns if they…

  6. A single standard for in-place testing of DOE HEPA filters - not

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokler, B.V. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This article is a review of arguments against the use of a single standard for in-place testing of DOE HEPA filters. The author feels that the term `standard` entails mandatory compliance. Additionally, the author feels that the variety of DOE HEPA systems requiring in-place testing is such that the guidance for testing must be written in a permissive fashion, allowing options and alternatives. With this in mind, it is not possible to write a single document entailing mandatory compliance for all DOE facilities.

  7. A single standard for in-place testing of DOE HEPA filters - not

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokler, B.V.

    1995-01-01

    This article is a review of arguments against the use of a single standard for in-place testing of DOE HEPA filters. The author feels that the term 'standard' entails mandatory compliance. Additionally, the author feels that the variety of DOE HEPA systems requiring in-place testing is such that the guidance for testing must be written in a permissive fashion, allowing options and alternatives. With this in mind, it is not possible to write a single document entailing mandatory compliance for all DOE facilities

  8. Neutron tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo [Hercules, CA; Lou, Tak Pui [Berkeley, CA; Reijonen, Jani [Oakland, CA

    2008-03-11

    A neutron tube or generator is based on a RF driven plasma ion source having a quartz or other chamber surrounded by an external RF antenna. A deuterium or mixed deuterium/tritium (or even just a tritium) plasma is generated in the chamber and D or D/T (or T) ions are extracted from the plasma. A neutron generating target is positioned so that the ion beam is incident thereon and loads the target. Incident ions cause D-D or D-T (or T-T) reactions which generate neutrons. Various embodiments differ primarily in size of the chamber and position and shape of the neutron generating target. Some neutron generators are small enough for implantation in the body. The target may be at the end of a catheter-like drift tube. The target may have a tapered or conical surface to increase target surface area.

  9. Numerical and experimental study of an annular pulse tube used in the pulse tube cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaomin; Chen, Yanyan; Wang, Xiaotao; Dai, Wei; Luo, Ercang

    2017-12-01

    Multi-stage pulse tube coolers normally use a U-type configuration. For compactness, it is attractive to build a completely co-axial multi-stage pulse tube cooler. In this way, an annular shape pulse tube is inevitable. Although there are a few reports about previous annular pulse tubes, a detailed study and comparison with a circular pulse tube is lacking. In this paper, a numeric model based on CFD software is carried out to compare the annular pulse tube and circular pulse tube used in a single stage in-line type pulse tube cooler with about 10 W of cooling power at 77 K. The length and cross sectional area of the two pulse tubes are kept the same. Simulation results show that the enthalpy flow in the annular pulse tube is lower by 1.6 W (about 11% of the enthalpy flow) compared to that in circular pulse tube. Flow and temperature distribution characteristics are also analyzed in detail. Experiments are then conducted for comparison with an in-line type pulse tube cooler. With the same acoustic power input, the pulse tube cooler with a circular pulse tube obtains 7.88 W of cooling power at 77 K, while using an annular pulse tube leads to a cooling power of 7.01 W, a decrease of 0.9 W (11.4%) on the cooling performance. The study sets the basis for building a completely co-axial two-stage pulse tube cooler.

  10. Application of Barcoding to Reduce Error of Patient Identification and to Increase Patient's Information Confidentiality of Test Tube Labelling in a Psychiatric Teaching Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsiu-Chu; Li, Hsing; Chang, Hsin-Fei; Lu, Mei-Rou; Chen, Feng-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Learning from the experience of another medical center in Taiwan, Kaohsiung Municipal Kai-Suan Psychiatric Hospital has changed the nursing informatics system step by step in the past year and a half . We considered ethics in the original idea of implementing barcodes on the test tube labels to process the identification of the psychiatric patients. The main aims of this project are to maintain the confidential information and to transport the sample effectively. The primary nurses had been using different work sheets for this project to ensure the acceptance of the new barcode system. In the past two years the errors in the blood testing process were as high as 11,000 in 14,000 events per year, resulting in wastage of resources. The actions taken by the nurses and the new barcode system implementation can improve the clinical nursing care quality, safety of the patients, and efficiency, while decreasing the cost due to the human error.

  11. Reliability Assessment of a Single-Shot System by Use of Screen Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    unlimited. NUWC Keyport #17-002. Reliability Assessment of a Single-Shot System by Use of Screen Test Results Abstract: Field reliability prediction...approach described here assumes that the defect density during testing takes the form of an exponential decay, although other mathematical functions can...be substituted for the exponential. In order to apply the decay rate function to a discrete pass/fail test scheme, the approach provides for

  12. The Influence of Age on Interaction between Breath-Holding Test and Single-Breath Carbon Dioxide Test

    OpenAIRE

    Trembach, Nikita; Zabolotskikh, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare the breath-holding test and single-breath carbon dioxide test in evaluation of the peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity to carbon dioxide in healthy subjects of different age. Methods. The study involved 47 healthy volunteers between ages of 25 and 85 years. All participants were divided into 4 groups according to age: 25 to 44 years (n = 14), 45 to 60 years (n = 13), 60 to 75 years (n = 12), and older than 75 years (n = 8). Breath-holding test ...

  13. The thin-wall tube drift chamber operating in vacuum (prototype)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeev, G.D.; Glonti, L.N.; Kekelidze, V.D.; Malyshev, V.L.; Piskun, A.A.; Potrbenikov, Yu.K.; Rodionov, V.K.; Samsonov, V.A.; Tokmenin, V.V.; Shkarovskiy, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this work was to design drift tubes and a chamber operating in vacuum, and to develop technologies for tubes independent assembly and mounting in the chamber. These design and technology were tested on the prototype. The main features of the chamber are the following: the drift tubes are made of flexible mylar film (wall thickness 36 μm, diameter 9.80 mm, length 2160 mm) using ultrasonic welding along the generatrix; the welding device and methods were developed at JINR. Drift tubes with end plugs, anode wires and spacers were completely assembled outside the chamber. “Self-centering” spacers and bushes were used for precise setting of the anode wires and tubes. The assembled tubes were sealed with O-rings in their seats in the chamber which simplified the chamber assembling. Moreover the tube assembly and the chamber manufacture can be performed independently and in parallel; this sufficiently reduces the total time of chamber manufacture and assembling, its cost and allows tubes to be tested outside the chamber. The technology of independent tube assembling is suitable for a chamber of any shape but a round chamber is preferable for operation in vacuum. Single channel amplifier-discriminator boards which are more stable against cross talks were used for testing the tubes. Independently assembled tubes were mounted into the chamber prototype and its performance characteristic measured under the vacuum conditions. The results showed that both the structure and the tubes themselves normally operate. They are suitable for making a full-scale drift chamber for vacuum

  14. Homogeneity tests for variances and mean test under heterogeneity conditions in a single way ANOVA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales P, J.R.; Avila P, P.

    1996-01-01

    If we have consider the maximum permissible levels showed for the case of oysters, it results forbidding to collect oysters at the four stations of the El Chijol Channel ( Veracruz, Mexico), as well as along the channel itself, because the metal concentrations studied exceed these limits. In this case the application of Welch tests were not necessary. For the water hyacinth the means of the treatments were unequal in Fe, Cu, Ni, and Zn. This case is more illustrative, for the conclusion has been reached through the application of the Welch tests to treatments with heterogeneous variances. (Author)

  15. Failure analysis of boiler tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, K.; Siddiqui, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Boiler tubes are energy conversion components where heat energy is used to convert water into high pressure superheated steam, which is then delivered to a turbine for electric power generation in thermal power plants or to run plant and machineries in a process or manufacturing industry. It was reported that one of the tubes of a fire-tube boiler used in a local industry had leakage after the formation of pits at the external surface of the tube. The inner side of the fire tube was working with hot flue gasses with a pressure of 10 Kg/cm/sup 2/ and temperature 225 degree C. The outside of the tube was surrounded by feed water. The purpose of this study was to determine the cause of pits developed at the external surface of the failed boiler tube sample. In the present work boiler tube samples of steel grade ASTM AI61/ASTM A192 were analyzed using metallographic analysis, chemical analysis, and mechanical testing. It was concluded that the appearance of defects on the boiler tube sample indicates cavitation type corrosion failure. Cavitation damage superficially resembled pitting, but surface appeared considerably rougher and had many closely spaced pits. (author)

  16. Single Event Effects Test Facility Options at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemer, Bernie [ORNL; Gallmeier, Franz X [ORNL; Dominik, Laura J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Increasing use of microelectronics of ever diminishing feature size in avionics systems has led to a growing Single Event Effects (SEE) susceptibility arising from the highly ionizing interactions of cosmic rays and solar particles. Single event effects caused by atmospheric radiation have been recognized in recent years as a design issue for avionics equipment and systems. To ensure a system meets all its safety and reliability requirements, SEE induced upsets and potential system failures need to be considered, including testing of the components and systems in a neutron beam. Testing of integrated circuits (ICs) and systems for use in radiation environments requires the utilization of highly advanced laboratory facilities that can run evaluations on microcircuits for the effects of radiation. This paper provides a background of the atmospheric radiation phenomenon and the resulting single event effects, including single event upset (SEU) and latch up conditions. A study investigating requirements for future single event effect irradiation test facilities and developing options at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is summarized. The relatively new SNS with its 1.0 GeV proton beam, typical operation of 5000 h per year, expertise in spallation neutron sources, user program infrastructure, and decades of useful life ahead is well suited for hosting a world-class SEE test facility in North America. Emphasis was put on testing of large avionics systems while still providing tunable high flux irradiation conditions for component tests. Makers of ground-based systems would also be served well by these facilities. Three options are described; the most capable, flexible, and highest-test-capacity option is a new stand-alone target station using about one kW of proton beam power on a gas-cooled tungsten target, with dual test enclosures. Less expensive options are also described.

  17. Ambiguity in measuring matrix diffusion with single-well injection/recovery tracer tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessoff, S.C.; Konikow, Leonard F.

    1997-01-01

    Single-well injection/recovery tracer tests are considered for use in characterizing and quantifying matrix diffusion in dual-porosity aquifers. Numerical modeling indicates that neither regional drift in homogeneous aquifers, nor heterogeneity in aquifers having no regional drift, nor hydrodynamic dispersion significantly affects these tests. However, when drift is coupled simultaneously with heterogeneity, they can have significant confounding effects on tracer return. This synergistic effect of drift and heterogeneity may help explain irreversible flow and inconsistent results sometimes encountered in previous single-well injection/recovery tracer tests. Numerical results indicate that in a hypothetical single-well injection/recovery tracer test designed to demonstrate and measure dual-porosity characteristics in a fractured dolomite, the simultaneous effects of drift and heterogeneity sometimes yields responses similar to those anticipated in a homogeneous dual-porosity formation. In these cases, tracer recovery could provide a false indication of the occurrence of matrix diffusion. Shortening the shut-in period between injection and recovery periods may make the test less sensitive to drift. Using multiple tracers having different diffusion characteristics, multiple tests having different pumping schedules, and testing the formation at more than one location would decrease the ambiguity in the interpretation of test data.

  18. Comparative Performance of Four Single Extreme Outlier Discordancy Tests from Monte Carlo Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra P. Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using highly precise and accurate Monte Carlo simulations of 20,000,000 replications and 102 independent simulation experiments with extremely low simulation errors and total uncertainties, we evaluated the performance of four single outlier discordancy tests (Grubbs test N2, Dixon test N8, skewness test N14, and kurtosis test N15 for normal samples of sizes 5 to 20. Statistical contaminations of a single observation resulting from parameters called δ from ±0.1 up to ±20 for modeling the slippage of central tendency or ε from ±1.1 up to ±200 for slippage of dispersion, as well as no contamination (δ=0 and ε=±1, were simulated. Because of the use of precise and accurate random and normally distributed simulated data, very large replications, and a large number of independent experiments, this paper presents a novel approach for precise and accurate estimations of power functions of four popular discordancy tests and, therefore, should not be considered as a simple simulation exercise unrelated to probability and statistics. From both criteria of the Power of Test proposed by Hayes and Kinsella and the Test Performance Criterion of Barnett and Lewis, Dixon test N8 performs less well than the other three tests. The overall performance of these four tests could be summarized as N2≅N15>N14>N8.

  19. Testing of the large bore single aperture 1-meter superconducting dipoles made with phenolic inserts

    CERN Document Server

    Boschmann, H; Dubbeldam, R L; Kirby, G A; Lucas, J; Ostojic, R; Russenschuck, Stephan; Siemko, A; Taylor, T M; Vanenkov, I; Weterings, W

    1998-01-01

    Two identical single aperture 1-metre superconducting dipoles have been built in collaboration with HMA Power Systems and tested at CERN. The 87.8 mm aperture magnets feature a single layer coil wound using LHC main dipole outer layer cable, phenolic spacer type collars, and a keyed two part structural iron yoke. The magnets are designed as models of the D1 separation dipole in the LHC experimental insertions, whose nominal field is 4.5 T at 4.5 K. In this report we present the test results of the two magnets at 4.3 K and 1.9 K.

  20. Crash tests of three identical low-wing single-engine airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, C. B.; Alfaro-Bou, E.

    1983-01-01

    Three identical four place, low wing single engine airplane specimens with nominal masses of 1043 kg were crash tested under controlled free flight conditions. The tests were conducted at the same nominal velocity of 25 m/sec along the flight path. Two airplanes were crashed on a concrete surface (at 10 and 30 deg pitch angles), and one was crashed on soil (at a -30 deg pitch angle). The three tests revealed that the specimen in the -30 deg test on soil sustained massive structural damage in the engine compartment and fire wall. Also, the highest longitudinal cabin floor accelerations occurred in this test. Severe damage, but of lesser magnitude, occurred in the -30 deg test on concrete. The highest normal cabin floor accelerations occurred in this test. The least structural damage and lowest accelerations occurred in the 10 deg test on concrete.

  1. External quality assurance with dried tube specimens (DTS) for point-of-care syphilis and HIV tests: experience in an indigenous populations screening programme in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzaken, Adele Schwartz; Bazzo, Maria Luiza; Galban, Enrique; Pinto, Ione Conceição Pereira; Nogueira, Christiane Lourenço; Golfetto, Lisléia; Benzaken, Nina Schwartz; Sollis, Kimberly A; Mabey, David; Peeling, Rosanna W

    2014-02-01

    The availability of point-of-care (POC) tests for infectious diseases has revolutionised the provision of healthcare for remote rural populations without access to laboratories. However, quality assurance for POC tests has been largely overlooked. We have evaluated the use and stability of dry tube specimens (DTS) for External Quality Assurance (EQA) for HIV and syphilis screening in remote indigenous populations in the Amazon region of Brazil. All healthcare workers (HCWs) participating in the community-screening were trained. We used HIV and syphilis DTS panels developed by the reference laboratory, containing samples with negative and positive results at different antibody concentrations, for both infections. DTS panels were distributed to HCWs in the communities for reconstitution and testing using POC HIV and syphilis tests. The results of testing were sent to the reference laboratory for marking and remedial action taken where necessary. In total 268 HCWs tested 1607 samples for syphilis and 1608 samples for HIV. Results from HCWs showed a concordance rate of 90% for syphilis and 93% for HIV (κ coefficients of 0.74 and 0.78, respectively) with reference laboratories. Most false negatives were in samples of very low antibody concentration. DTS syphilis specimens produced the expected results after storage at 2-8°C or at 18-24°C for up to 3 weeks. The results show that POC tests for syphilis and HIV give valid results in environments where traditional tests do not work, but errors in the interpretation of POC test results were identified by the EQA programme using DTS. EQA using DTS can help to improve the quality of screening programmes using POC tests in remote regions.

  2. photomultiplier tubes

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  3. photomultiplier tube

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  4. Flow-induced decentering and tube support interaction for steam generator tubes: experiment and physical interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, N.; Granger, S.

    1992-11-01

    Maintaining PWR components under reliable operating conditions requires a complex design to prevent various damaging processes including flow-induced vibration and wear mechanisms. To improve the prediction of tube/support interaction and wear in PWR components, EDF has undertaken a comprehensive program oriented to both experimental and computational studies. The present paper illustrates one aspect of this program, related to the determination of contact forces between steam generator tubes and anti-vibration bars (AVBs). The dynamic, nonlinear behavior of a U-tube excited by an air cross-flow is investigated on the CLAVECIN experiment. Interesting and rather unexpected results have been obtained, by varying clearances and flow velocities. The paper is focused on four main points: (i) the originality of the experiment with a force measurement device located in flow; (ii) the importance of a refined data processing for accurately measuring contact forces; (iii) the presentation of the unexpected phenomena revealed in the CLAVECIN experiment, i.e. a flow-induced decentering of the tube which changed the initial tube/AVB clearance, and the consequences on tube/support interaction; (iv) the influence of the actual tube/support clearance in flow on wear mechanisms. The work, presented in the second part of this paper, concentrates exclusively on the physical interpretation of the flow-induced decentering phenomenon and on the theoretical analysis of its consequences on dynamic tube/support interaction. We show that the flow-induced decentering phenomenon can be generated by an unstable quasi-static coupling between the flexible tube and the confined flow, in the vicinity of the support system. This phenomenon is not specific to the CLAVECIN tests and it can be expected every time that a movable obstacle is subjected to confined flow. Moreover, in single-sided impacting conditions, the theoretical analysis confirms the linear relation, found in the CLAVECIN tests

  5. TR-PIV Performance Test for a Flow Field Measurement in a Single Rod Test Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ju Yong; Shin, Chang Hwan; Lee, Chi Young; Oh, Dong Seok; In, Wang Kee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    For large enhancement of performance of Pressurized Water Reactor(PWR), dual-cooled fuel is being developed in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI). This nuclear fuel is a ring shape fuel which is different from conventional cylindrical nuclear fuel and cooling water flows both inner and outer channel. For this fuel, it widens the surface area. But it is bigger outer diameter of fuel rods. So, interval between fuel rods narrows. This because of outer channel flow is unstable. So, measurement of turbulence flow and perturbation that influence in heat transfer elevation is important.. To understand heat transfer characteristics by turbulence, measurement of flow perturbation element is necessary. To measure these turbulence characteristics, hot wire anemometer is widely used. However, it has many disadvantages such as low durability of prove, and big probe size. For these reasons, TR-PIV(Time-Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry) system is employed for better flow measurement in our research institute. TR-PIV system is consisted of laser system and high-speed camera that have high frequency. So, was judged that can measurement complicated turbulence flow and perturbation. In this paper, introduce TR-PIV system, and with results acquiring in single rod flow through this system, and wish to introduce about after this practical use plan

  6. TR-PIV Performance Test for a Flow Field Measurement in a Single Rod Test Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ju Yong; Shin, Chang Hwan; Lee, Chi Young; Oh, Dong Seok; In, Wang Kee

    2011-01-01

    For large enhancement of performance of Pressurized Water Reactor(PWR), dual-cooled fuel is being developed in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI). This nuclear fuel is a ring shape fuel which is different from conventional cylindrical nuclear fuel and cooling water flows both inner and outer channel. For this fuel, it widens the surface area. But it is bigger outer diameter of fuel rods. So, interval between fuel rods narrows. This because of outer channel flow is unstable. So, measurement of turbulence flow and perturbation that influence in heat transfer elevation is important.. To understand heat transfer characteristics by turbulence, measurement of flow perturbation element is necessary. To measure these turbulence characteristics, hot wire anemometer is widely used. However, it has many disadvantages such as low durability of prove, and big probe size. For these reasons, TR-PIV(Time-Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry) system is employed for better flow measurement in our research institute. TR-PIV system is consisted of laser system and high-speed camera that have high frequency. So, was judged that can measurement complicated turbulence flow and perturbation. In this paper, introduce TR-PIV system, and with results acquiring in single rod flow through this system, and wish to introduce about after this practical use plan

  7. [Ultrasound evaluation of the nasogastric tube position in prehospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, P-M; Chenaitia, H; Bessereau, J; Leyral, J; Barberis, C; Pradel-Thierry, A-L; Stephan, J; Benner, P; Querellou, E; Topin, F

    2012-05-01

    To assess the feasibility and actual performance of ultrasound control in verification of the correct positioning of a nasogastric tube in pre-hospital settings. Prospective, observational, single-centre study. Correct positioning of nasogastric tubes in patients intubated in a pre-hospital setting was verified by ultrasound and routinely compared with the results of two pre-hospital tests, namely a test involving insufflation of air through a syringe coupled with epigastric auscultation and a test involving aspiration of gastric fluid with a syringe. Routine x-ray control was carried out and compared with the pre-hospital results. Ninety-six patients were included. Mean age was 52 years (median: 53.5 years, SD: 23 years). In 83% of the patients (n=80), the nasogastric tube was located by ultrasound immediately during the insertion procedure. The mean times to ultrasound confirmation of correct positioning of the nasogastric tube were 7s (median: 2s; SD: 16s) and 19s for the syringe tests (median 19s, SD: 5s). Eight ultrasound control tests were negative. Location coupled with insufflation of air through a syringe allowed detection of the nasogastric tube in the stomach but without providing confirmation of the actual gastric position. The pre-hospital ultrasound results were confirmed by subsequent radiological controls at the hospital. The ultrasound test performed in our study to verify correct positioning of a nasogastric tube is feasible in a pre-hospital setting. This technique is rapid and non-irradiating and is more sensitive and specific than the syringe tests commonly used in pre-hospital settings, and it may be performed in place of the latter tests. Copyright © 2012 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. A field test for companded single sideband modulation Implications for capacity enhancement and transmission planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, E.; Adams, C.; Arnstein, D.

    A series of field tests of companded single sideband modulation (CSSB) technique for use in the Intelsat system is described. A 12-channel circuit group was tested between switches in Pittsburgh, and the Deutsche Bundespost (DBP) in Frankfurt via the Etam and Raisting satellite earth stations. A transponder bulk that included existing FDM-FM carriers was chosen to match the typical, Intelsat operating conditions, thus permitting the compatibility of FDM/FM and CSSB to be examined simultaneously. Results of objective performance tests are discussed, and a description of several subjective testing techniques is also given.

  9. A heat transfer study for vertical straight-tube steam generators heated by liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valette, M.

    1984-04-01

    A single-tube mockup of a vertical straight-tube steam generator heated by sodium-potassium alloy NaK was submitted to thermal and hydraulic testing in conditions representative of fast breeder reactor operation. The mockup consisted of a 10mm I.D. ferritic steel heat exchange tube centered inside a cylindrical stainless steel shell. The complete assembly was 20.9 meters long. Water flowed upward inside the exchange tube, and NaK flowed downward in the annular gap between the tube and the shell. The steam outlet pressure ranged from 90 to 195 bars, while the liquid metal temperature at the mockup inlet was between 480 and 580 0 C. The water flowrate in the tube ranged from 153 to 2460 kg.m -2 .s -1 . During the tests the fluid inlet and outlet temperatures, flowrate and pressures were measured, as was the NaK temperature profile over the full length of the device. The test results were subsequently compared with heat exchange and pressure drop values calculated using the standard formulas for straight-tube heat exchangers. The heat exchange coefficients predicted by these correlations in the boiling zone were found to be largely overestimated, while the calculated pressure drop values proved satisfactory. A set of modified correlations is proposed to account for the observed phenomena, and for use in designing commercial units, provided the sodium flow in the tube bundle is adequately distributed

  10. Retrospective analysis of insulin responses to standard dosed oral glucose tests (OGTs) via naso-gastric tubing towards definition of an objective cut-off value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnken, Tobias; Delarocque, Julien; Schumacher, Svenja; Huber, Korinna; Feige, Karsten

    2018-01-19

    Insulin dysregulation (ID) with basal or postprandial hyperinsulinemia is one of the key findings in horses and ponies suffering from the equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Assessment of ID can easily be performed in clinical settings by the use of oral glucose challenge tests. Oral glucose test (OGT) performed with 1 g/kg bodyweight (BW) glucose administered via naso-gastric tube allows the exact administration of a defined glucose dosage in a short time. However, reliable cut-off values have not been available so far. Therefore, the aim of the study was to describe variations in insulin response to OGT via naso-gastric tubing and to provide a clinical useful cut-off value for ID when using the insulin quantification performed with an equine-optimized insulin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data visualization revealed no clear separation in the serum insulin concentration of insulin sensitive and insulin dysregulated horses during OGT. Therefore, a model based clustering method was used to circumvent the use of an arbitrary limit for categorization. This method considered all data-points for the classification, taking into account the individual insulin trajectory during the OGT. With this method two clusters were differentiated, one with low and one with high insulin responses during OGT. The cluster of individuals with low insulin response was consistently detected, independently of the initialization parameters of the algorithm. In this cluster the 97.5% quantile of insulin is 110 µLU/mL at 120 min. We suggest using this insulin concentration of 110 µLU/mL as a cut-off value for samples obtained at 120 min in OGT. OGT performed with 1 g/kg BW glucose and administration via naso-gastric tubing can easily be performed under clinical settings. Application of the cut-off value of 110 µLU/mL at 120 min allows assessment of ID in horses.

  11. In-flight and ground testing of single event upset sensitivity in static RAMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, K.; Dyreklev, P.; Granbom, B.; Calvet, C.; Fourtine, S.; Feuillatre, O.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the results from in-flight measurements of single event upsets (SEU) in static random access memories (SRAM) caused by the atmospheric radiation environment at aircraft altitudes. The memory devices were carried on commercial airlines at high altitude and mainly high latitudes. The SEUs were monitored by a Component Upset Test Equipment (CUTE), designed for this experiment. The in flight results are compared to ground based testing with neutrons from three different sources

  12. Hydrogeological study of single water conducting fracture using a crosshole hydraulic test apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hajime; Shimo, Michito; Yamamoto, Takuya

    1998-03-01

    The Crosshole Injection Test Apparatus has been constructed to evaluate the hydraulic properties and conditions, such as hydraulic conductivity and its anisotropy, storage coefficient, pore pressure etc. within a rock near a drift. The construction started in FY93 and completed on August FY96 as a set of equipments for the use of crosshole hydraulic test, which is composed of one injection borehole instrument, one observation borehole instrument and a set of on-ground instrument. In FY96, in-situ feasibility test was conducted at a 550 m level drift in Kamaishi In Situ Test Site which has been operated by PNC, and the performance of the equipment and its applicability to various types of injection method were confirmed. In this year, a hydrogeological investigation on the single water conducting fracture was conducted at a 250 m level drift in Kamaishi In Situ Test Site, using two boreholes, KCH-3 and KCH-4, both of which are 30 m depth and inclined by 45 degrees from the surface. Pressure responses at the KCH-3 borehole during the drilling of KCH-4 borehole, the results of Borehole TV logging and core observation indicated that a major conductive single-fracture was successfully isolated by the packers. As a result of a series of the single-hole and the crosshole tests (sinusoidal and constant flowrate test), the hydraulic parameters of the single-fracture (such as hydraulic conductivity and storage coefficient) were determined. This report shows all the test result, analysed data, and also describes the hydro-geological structure near the drift. (author)

  13. Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine Tests with Unstabilized Water-in-Fuel Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    A single-cylinder, four-stroke cycle diesel engine was operated on unstabilized water-in-fuel emulsions. Two prototype devices were used to produce the emulsions on-line with the engine. More than 350 test points were run with baseline diesel fuel an...

  14. Microwave testing of high-Tc based direct current to a single flux quantum converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplunenko, V. K.; Fischer, Gerd Michael; Ivanov, Z. G.

    1994-01-01

    Design, simulation, and experimental investigations of a direct current to a single flux quantum converter loaded with a Josephson transmission line and driven by an external 70 GHz microwave oscillator are reported. The test circuit includes nine YBaCuO Josephson junctions aligned on the grain...

  15. Should the diagnosis of COPD be based on a single spirometry test?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schermer, T.R.; Robberts, B.; Crockett, A.J.; Thoonen, B.P.; Lucas, A.; Grootens, J.; Smeele, I.J.; Thamrin, C.; Reddel, H.K.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical guidelines indicate that a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) diagnosis is made from a single spirometry test. However, long-term stability of diagnosis based on forced expiratory volume in 1 s over forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratio has not been reported. In primary care

  16. Should the diagnosis of COPD be based on a single spirometry test?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schermer, T.R.J.; Robberts, B.; Crockett, A.J.; Thoonen, B.P.A.; Lucas, A.; Grootens, J.; Smeele, I.J.; Thamrin, C.; Reddel, H.K.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical guidelines indicate that a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) diagnosis is made from a single spirometry test. However, long-term stability of diagnosis based on forced expiratory volume in 1 s over forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratio has not been reported. In primary care

  17. A single well pumping and recovery test to measure in situ acrotelm transmissivity in raised bogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, van der S.

    2004-01-01

    A quasi-steady-state single pit pumping and recovery test to measure in situ the transmissivity of the highly permeable upper layer of raised bogs, the acrotelm, is described and discussed. The basic concept is the expanding depression cone during both pumping and recovery. It is shown that applying

  18. Generalized Single-Case Randomization Tests: Flexible Analyses for a Variety of Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Joel R.; Wampold, Bruce E.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a general class of single-case statistical procedures derived from previously developed nonparametric randomization tests. Designs are illustrated that focus on the general and comparative effectiveness of alternative interventions, multiple units with differentiable characteristics, and multiple outcome measures. Provides operational…

  19. A Comparison of Three-Dimensional Simulations of Traveling-Wave Tube Cold-Test Characteristics Using CST MICROWAVE STUDIO and MAFIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, C. T.; Herrmann, K. A.; Kory, C. L.; Wilson, J. D.; Cross, A. W.; Williams, W. D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Previously, it was shown that MAFIA (solutions of Maxwell's equations by the Finite Integration Algorithm), a three-dimensional simulation code, can be used to produce accurate cold-test characteristics including frequency-phase dispersion, interaction impedance, and attenuation for traveling-wave tube (TWT) slow-wave structures. In an effort to improve user-friendliness and simulation time, a model was developed to compute the cold-test parameters using the electromagnetic field simulation software package CST MICROWAVE STUDIO (MWS). Cold-test parameters were calculated for several slow-wave circuits including a ferruled coupled-cavity, a folded waveguide, and a novel finned-ladder circuit using both MWS and MAFIA. Comparisons indicate that MWS provides more accurate cold-test data with significantly reduced simulation times. Both MAFIA and MWS are based on the finite integration (FI) method; however, MWS has several advantages over MAFIA. First, it has a Windows based interface for PC operation, making it very user-friendly, whereas MAFIA is UNIX based. MWS uses a new Perfect Boundary Approximation (PBA), which increases the accuracy of the simulations by avoiding stair step approximations associated with MAFIA's representation of structures. Finally, MWS includes a Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) compatible macro language that enables the simulation process to be automated and allows for the optimization of user-defined goal functions, such as interaction impedance.

  20. Imaging of the Eustachian tube and its function: a systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.E.; Tysome, J.R. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of ENT Surgery, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Scoffings, D.J. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    The Eustachian tube is a complex and inaccessible structure, which maintains middle ear ventilation to facilitate transmission of sound from the tympanic membrane to the cochlea. A renewed interest in treatments for eustachian tube dysfunction has led to a demand for methods of imaging the Eustachian tube, and assessing tube opening non-invasively. This review aims to summarise the use of imaging in the anatomical assessment of the Eustachian tube, and to explore how radiological techniques can be used to assess tube function. A systematic review of the literature was performed with narrative data analysis. With high-resolution images, the soft and bony anatomy of the Eustachian tube can be assessed in detail. CT and MRI are best suited to identifying features associated with obstructive or patulous Eustachian tube dysfunction, though true assessments of function have only been achieved with contrast enhanced radiographs and scintigraphy. A single modality has yet to provide a complete assessment. No test has entered routine clinical use, but further development and research is underway. Significant information can be gained from imaging the Eustachian tube, and as faster acquisition techniques are developed, it is possible that dynamic imaging of tubal opening could play an important role in the assessment of patients with ET dysfunction. (orig.)

  1. Fabrication and testing of full-length single-cell externally fueled converters for thermionic reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, A.

    1994-01-01

    The preceding paper described designs and analyses of thermionic reactors employing full-core-length single-cell converters with their heated emitters located on the outside of their internally cooled collectors, and it presented results of detailed parametric analyses which illustrate the benefits of this unconventional design. The present paper describes the fabrication and testing of full-length prototypical converters, both unfueled and fueled, and presents parametric results of electrically heated tests. The unfueled converter tests demonstrated the practicality of operating such long converters without shorting across a 0.3-mm interelectrode gap. They produced a measured peak output of 751 watts(e) from a single diode and a peak efficiency of 15.4%. The fueled converter tests measured the parametric performance of prototypic UO 2 -fueled converters designed for subsequent in-pile testing. They employed revolver-shaped tungsten elements with a central emitter hole surrounded by six fuel chambers. The full-length converters were heated by a water-cooled RF-induction coil inside an ion-pumped vacuum chamber. This required development of high-vacuum coaxial RF feedthroughs. In-pile test rules required multiple containment of the UO 2 -fuel, which complicated the fabrication of the test article and required successful development of techniques for welding tungsten and other refractory components. The tests measured a peak power output of 530 watts(e) or 7.1 watts/cm 2 at an efficiency of 11.5%

  2. Experiments on ballooning in pressurized and transiently heated Zircaloy-4 tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markiewicz, M.E.; Erbacher, F.J.

    1988-02-01

    Single-rod burst tests were performed with Atucha I Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes in the REBEKA burst equipment of KfK. The objective was to investigate the ballooning and burst behavior of argentine cladding tubes obtained from NRG, Germany and CONVAR, Argentina. The burst data were compared with those of cladding tubes used in german PWR's. It was found that the burst data e.g. burst temperature, circumferential burst strain and its response to azimuthal temperature differences are identical for the Argentine and German tubing quality. The burst data are in good agreement with those of German PWR-Zircaloy tubes. Thus, the fuel rod behavior codes developed for German PWR's can also be used for the Argentine reactor Atucha I. (orig.) [de

  3. Neutron image intensifier tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verat, M.; Rougeot, H.; Driard, B.

    1983-01-01

    The most frequently used techniques in neutron radiography employ a neutron converter consisting of either a scintillator or a thin metal sheet. The radiation created by the neutrons exposes a photographic film that is in contact with the converter: in the direct method, the film is exposed during the time that the object is irradiated with neutrons; in the transfer method, the film is exposed after the irradiation of the object with neutrons. In industrial non-destructive testing, when many identical objects have to be checked, these techniques have several disadvantages. Non-destructive testing systems without these disadvantages can be constructed around neutron-image intensifier tubes. A description and the operating characteristics of neutron-image intensifier tubes are given. (Auth.)

  4. Data bank on hydrodynamics, thermal tests and tube temperature regimes of PGV-4 and PVG-1000 natural steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ageev, A.G.; Vasileva, R.V.; Nigmatulin, B.I.; Titov, V.F.; Tarankov, G.N. [EREC Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Centre of Nuclear Plants Safety, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The data bank was prepared by EREC, OKB `Hydropress` using results of static and dynamic tests of PGV-4 and PGV- 1000 natural steam generators cared out at Kolskaya, Novo-Voronezhskaya, Ugno-Ukrainskaya, Balakov-skaya and Hmelnitskaya NPP within period of 1974-1993. It is destined for making calculation codes verification. (authors).

  5. Tank selection for Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) system hot testing in a single shell tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, P.K.

    1995-01-31

    The purpose of this report is to recommend a single shell tank in which to hot test the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) in Fiscal Year 1996. The LDUA is designed to utilize a 12 inch riser. During hot testing, the LDUA will deploy two end effectors (a High Resolution Stereoscopic Video Camera System and a Still/Stereo Photography System mounted on the end of the arm`s tool interface plate). In addition, three other systems (an Overview Video System, an Overview Stereo Video System, and a Topographic Mapping System) will be independently deployed and tested through 4 inch risers.

  6. Experimental modeling of flow-induced vibration of multi-span U-tubes in a CANDU steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohany, A.; Feenstra, P.; Janzen, V.P.; Richard, R.

    2009-01-01

    Flow-induced vibration of the tubes in a nuclear steam generator is a concern for designers who are trying to increase the life span of these units. The dominant excitation mechanisms are fluidelastic instability and random turbulence excitation. The outermost U-bend region of the tubes is of greatest concern because the flow is almost perpendicular to the tube axis and the unsupported span is relatively long. The support system in this region must be well designed in order to minimize fretting wear of the tubes at the support locations. Much of the previous testing was conducted on straight single-span or cantilevered tubes in cross-flow. However, the dynamic response of steam generator multi-span U-tubes with clearance supports is expected to be different. Accurate modeling of the tube dynamics is important to properly simulate the dynamic interaction of the tube and supports. This paper describes a test program that was developed to measure the dynamic response of a bundle of steam generator U-tubes with Anti-Vibration Bar (AVB) supports, subjected to Freon two-phase cross-flow. The tube bundle has similar geometrical conditions to those expected for future CANDU steam generators. Future steam generators will be larger than previous CANDU steam generators, nearly twice the heat transfer area, with significant changes in process conditions in the U-bend region, such as increased steam quality and a broader range of flow velocities. This test program was initiated at AECL to demonstrate that the tube support design for future CANDU steam generators will meet the stringent requirements associated with a 60 year design life. The main objective of the tests is to address the issue of in-plane and out-of-plane fluidelastic instability and random turbulent excitation of a U-tube bundle with Anti-Vibration Bar (AVB) supports. Details of the test rig, measurement techniques and preliminary instrumentation results are described in the paper. (author)

  7. Measurement of impulse peak insertion loss from two acoustic test fixtures and four hearing protector conditions with an acoustic shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, William J.; Fackler, Cameron J.; Berger, Elliott H.; Shaw, Peter B.; Stergar, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Impulse peak insertion loss (IPIL) was studied with two acoustic test fixtures and four hearing protector conditions at the E-A-RCAL Laboratory. IPIL is the difference between the maximum estimated pressure for the open-ear condition and the maximum pressure measured when a hearing protector is placed on an acoustic test fixture (ATF). Two models of an ATF manufactured by the French-German Research Institute of Saint-Louis (ISL) were evaluated with high-level acoustic impulses created by an acoustic shock tube at levels of 134 decibels (dB), 150 dB, and 168 dB. The fixtures were identical except that the E-A-RCAL ISL fixture had ear canals that were 3 mm longer than the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) ISL fixture. Four hearing protection conditions were tested: Combat Arms earplug with the valve open, ETYPlugs® earplug, TacticalPro headset, and a dual-protector ETYPlugs earplug with TacticalPro earmuff. The IPILs measured for the E-A-RCAL fixture were 1.4 dB greater than the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) ISL ATF. For the E-A-RCAL ISL ATF, the left ear IPIL was 2.0 dB greater than the right ear IPIL. For the NIOSH ATF, the right ear IPIL was 0.3 dB greater than the left ear IPIL. PMID:26356380

  8. Clinical utility of QuantiFERON-TB GOLD In-Tube and tuberculin skin test in patients with tuberculous pleural effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae Ho; Han, Chang Hoon; Kim, Chong Ju; Lee, Sun Min

    2011-11-01

    Interferon gamma release assays are used for diagnosing latent tuberculosis (TB); however, their role in diagnosing tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) is not defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube assay (QFT-IT) and compare this assay with the tuberculin skin test (TST) for diagnosing TPE in settings where tuberculosis is endemic and bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination is mandatory. The TST and QFT-IT test were conducted prospectively with 101 patients presenting with clinically suspected TPE. Of the 97 evaluable subjects, 54 had TPE. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were, respectively, 76.9%, 61.1%, 74.1%, and 64.7% for QFT-IT; 72.5%, 71.7%, 77.1%, and 66.7% for TST; and 83.7%, 45.7%, 68.3%, and 66.7% for QFT-IT plus TST. Thus, the QFT-IT test may be more useful than the TST for diagnosing TPE. Although the combination of QFT-IT and TST had higher sensitivity, it had poor specificity owing to the high prevalence of latent TB in our setting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination, Standard tube agglutination and Indirect ELISA tests for detection of Brucella antibodies in Cows and Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Ghodasara

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 180 serum samples (107 cows, 73 buffaloes from cases of abortion and various reproductive disorders were collected for detection of Brucella antibody by Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination Test (RBPT, Serum Tube Agglutination Test (STAT and indirect- ELISA (i-ELISA. The overall prevalence of brucellosis by RBPT, STAT and i-ELISA were 11.21%, 16.00% and 24.30% in cows 9.59%, 12.33% and 26.03% in buffaloes respectively. Overall seroprevalence of Brucellosis in cases of abortion, R.O.P. by RBPT, STAT and i-ELISA were 11.32%, 16.04% and 32.08% respectively. When three serological tests were compared, seropositivity was found highest by i-ELISA (25%, followed by STAT (14.45% and RBPT (10.56%. The results shows higher prevalence of brucellosis in cases of abortion and R.O.P., while at lower level from various reproductive disorders as detected serologically indicating endemicity of the infection in villages around Anand city, Gujarat. [Vet. World 2010; 3(2.000: 61-64

  10. Pre-analytical effects of pneumatic tube system transport on routine haematology and coagulation tests, global coagulation assays and platelet function assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quellec, Sandra; Paris, Mickaël; Nougier, Christophe; Sobas, Frédéric; Rugeri, Lucia; Girard, Sandrine; Bordet, Jean-Claude; Négrier, Claude; Dargaud, Yesim

    2017-05-01

    Pneumatic tube system (PTS) in hospitals is commonly used for the transport of blood samples to clinical laboratories, as it is rapid and cost-effective. The aim was to compare the effects on haematology samples of a newly acquired ~2km-long PTS that links 2 hospitals with usual transport (non-pneumatic tube system, NPTS). Complete blood cell count, routine coagulation assays, platelet function tests (PFT) with light-transmission aggregometry and global coagulation assays including ROTEM® and thrombin generation assay (TGA) were performed on blood samples from 30 healthy volunteers and 9 healthy volunteers who agreed to take aspirin prior to blood sampling. The turnaround time was reduced by 31% (p<0.001) with the use of PTS. No statistically significant difference was observed for most routine haematology assays including PFT, and ROTEM® analysis. A statistically significant, but not clinically relevant, shortening of the APTT after sample transport by PTS was found (mean±SD: 30s±1.8 vs. 29.5s±2.1 for NPTS). D-dimer levels were 7.4% higher after transport through PTS but were not discordant. A statistically significant increase of thrombin generation was found in both platelet poor- and platelet rich- plasma samples after PTS transport compared to NPTS transport. PTS is suitable for the transport of samples prior to routine haematology assays including PFT, but should not be used for samples intended for thrombin generation measurement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. SHEATHED TUBE AND APPARATUS AND METHOD OF PRODUCTION THEREOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlinger, L.A.

    1959-08-18

    A tubular fuel element covered inside and out by a unitary covering tube originally about twice its length and of small enough diameter to fit snugly inside the fuel tube is described. The covering tube is then reentrantly folded back by a pressure-die mechanism over both ends of the fuel tube and againsts outside until the folded back ends of the covering tube meet where they are welded in a single seam running circumferentially around the middle of the resulting assembly.

  12. First steps towards fuel cells testing harmonisation: Procedures and parameters for single cell performance evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunghi, P. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Perugia, Via Duranti 93, Perugia (Italy); Ubertini, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Via di Torvergata, 110, Rome (Italy)

    2004-01-01

    The great interest in Fuel Cell Systems, combined with the innovation of the device itself, has led to a huge developmental effort to make the steps necessary for future FC plant commissioning. The clearest and most effective way to evaluate the performance of a fuel cell is to measure it directly and, since few fuel cell test rigs are available at the moment, standard experimental procedures have not been realized so far. Our research group is currently performing single cell testing at the University of Perugia fuel cell laboratory and particular emphasis has been put on the definition of procedures and the testing of parameterisation. The work team strongly believes that this is the key to effective system testing and reliable performance evaluation. In this work, the test parameterisation developed by the team, and the resulting advanced control procedure used for a single MCFC experimental characterization are presented. Efforts have been dedicated to obtain some relevant non-dimensional parameters to allow an easy understanding of the results and quick comparisons with other tests under different operating conditions, or with results obtained on different cells eventually tested in different laboratories. The authors strongly emphasise this topic to avoid the data that developers and research institutions collect being of no practical use due to a lack of shared rules. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Experimental results of single screw mechanical tests: a follow-up to SAND2005-6036.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sandwook; Lee, Kenneth L.; Korellis, John S.; McFadden, Sam X.

    2006-08-01

    The work reported here was conducted to address issues raised regarding mechanical testing of attachment screws described in SAND2005-6036, as well as to increase the understanding of screw behavior through additional testing. Efforts were made to evaluate fixture modifications and address issues of interest, including: fabrication of 45{sup o} test fixtures, measurement of the frictional load from the angled fixture guide, employment of electromechanical displacement transducers, development of a single-shear test, and study the affect of thread start orientation on single-shear behavior. A286 and 302HQ, No.10-32 socket-head cap screws were tested having orientations with respect to the primary loading axis of 0{sup 0}, 45{sup o}, 60{sup o}, 75{sup o} and 90{sup o} at stroke speeds 0,001 and 10 in/sec. The frictional load resulting from the angled screw fixture guide was insignificant. Load-displacement curves of A286 screws did not show a minimum value in displacement to failure (DTF) for 60{sup o} shear tests. Tests of 302HQ screws did not produce a consistent trend in DTF with load angle. The effect of displacement rate on DTF became larger as shear angle increased for both A286 and 302HQ screws.

  14. Single-well interference slug tests to assess the vertical hydraulic conductivity of unconsolidated aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Daniel; Lefebvre, René

    2013-01-01

    SummaryMeaningful understanding of flow and solute transport in general requires the knowledge of hydraulic conductivity and its anisotropy. Various field methods allow the measurement of the horizontal component (Kh), but vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) is rarely measured, for lack of practical field tests. This paper proposes vertical interference slug tests, an adaptation of inter-well interference slug tests to a single well, for the efficient field measurement of Kv. The test is carried out in a single well between a stress and an observation interval that are vertically isolated with a three-packer assembly. An instantaneous pressure pulse is induced in the stress interval and resulting drawdowns are recorded in both the stress and the observation intervals. In a proof-of-concept field study, 12 vertical interference tests were carried out sequentially along a fully-screened well across a moderately heterogeneous and highly anisotropic aquifer made up of littoral silts and sands. A direct-push method was used to install the well, which was completed without sand-pack to allow the natural collapse of sediments in the thin annular space around the screen. Direct-push wells allow the measurement of in situ hydraulic properties of sediments and minimize well construction interferences with hydraulic tests. Drawdowns measured in stress and observation intervals of multiple tests were simultaneously inverted numerically to reconstruct heterogeneous profiles of Kh, hydraulic conductivity anisotropy (Kv/Kh), and specific storage (Ss). Results were validated by comparison of observed versus predicted drawdowns and with field and laboratory measurements of Kh and Kv made along the tested well. Results indicate that the profile of Kv values obtained with vertical interference slug tests follows a similar pattern with depth than the profile with lab measurements made with a permeameter on soil samples collected in the same intervals as the interference tests, which

  15. Improving the calandria tubes for CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.E.; Fong, R.W.L.; Doubt, G.L.

    1997-01-01

    CANDU calandria tubes are made from annealed Zircaloy-2 sheet formed into a cylinder and welded along its length to make the tube. The current calandria tubes have given exemplary service for many years. With more stringent regulations and the need to accommodate warm cooling water in tropical countries, we started a development program to increase the margins for failure during postulated accidents. These improvements involve increasing the tube strength and optimising the heat-transfer from an excessively hot fuel channel to the cool moderator. If the postulated accident involves a pressure tube break, it would be desirable if the calandria tube withstood the full pressure of the heat-transport system. The weakest link in current calandria tubes is the weld. Thickening the weld can increase the strength by 20% while seamless tubes can be 45% stronger than current tubes. The latter tubes can hold full system pressure for many hours without failure. If during the postulated accident the fuel and pressure tube become excessively hot but do not touch the calandria tube, the radiant heat loss must be maximised. Current calandria tubes have an absorptivity (emissivity) of about 0.2. To protect the fuel and the fuel channel we have devised a finish to the inside surface of the calandria tube that increases the emissivity to 0.7. If during the postulated accident the hot pressure tube touches the cool calandria tube, the contact conductance and the critical heat flux must be optimised to ensure nucleate boiling of the moderator at the outside surface of the calandria tube and therefore efficient exploitation of the moderator as a heat sink. In laboratory tests small ridges on the inside surface and roughening of the outside surface have been shown to increase the margins against failure and increase the possible moderator temperatures thus providing the opportunity to decrease the cost of the moderator heat-exchange system and remove restrictions on reactor operation in

  16. Screening of nanosatellite microprocessors using californium single-event latch-up test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Takahiro; Okumura, Yuta; Masui, Hirokazu; Takamiya, Koichi; Cho, Mengu

    2016-09-01

    A single-event latch-up (SEL) test using a 252Cf radioisotope was carried out. The results were compared with those of a proton test and from observation in orbit. A radioisotope can reproduce phenomena observed in orbit that are caused by protons. Considering the inexpensive nature of the 252Cf test, it is more suitable for nanosatellites that require low cost and fast delivery. A SEL occurrence rate of a commercial-off-the-shelf microprocessor was derived from the ground test results. The 252Cf test provided a SEL rate approximately 1×106 times greater than that in orbit. This data can be used to derive the minimum SEL occurrence rate in orbit and help satellite designers to evaluate the risk of SEL and take measures if necessary.

  17. Measurement of LNAPL flux using single-well intermittent mixing tracer dilution tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tim; Sale, Tom; Lyverse, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The stability of subsurface Light Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (LNAPLs) is a key factor driving expectations for remedial measures at LNAPL sites. The conventional approach to resolving LNAPL stability has been to apply Darcy's Equation. This paper explores an alternative approach wherein single-well tracer dilution tests with intermittent mixing are used to resolve LNAPL stability. As a first step, an implicit solution for single-well intermittent mixing tracer dilution tests is derived. This includes key assumptions and limits on the allowable time between intermittent mixing events. Second, single-well tracer dilution tests with intermittent mixing are conducted under conditions of known LNAPL flux. This includes a laboratory sand tank study and two field tests at active LNAPL recovery wells. Results from the sand tank studies indicate that LNAPL fluxes in wells can be transformed into formation fluxes using corrections for (1) LNAPL thicknesses in the well and formation and (2) convergence of flow to the well. Using the apparent convergence factor from the sand tank experiment, the average error between the known and measured LNAPL fluxes is 4%. Results from the field studies show nearly identical known and measured LNAPL fluxes at one well. At the second well the measured fluxes appear to exceed the known value by a factor of two. Agreement between the known and measured LNAPL fluxes, within a factor of two, indicates that single-well tracer dilution tests with intermittent mixing can be a viable means of resolving LNAPL stability. © 2012, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  18. Vibrations of tube arrays in transversal flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, R.J.; Doyen, R.

    1981-08-01

    In this study the local forces per unit length acting in a tube in a single row and in bundle have been measured. Their modification by a given harmonic motion of the tube itself or of an adjacent tube has been particularly studied. Some complementary experiments have been performed to extend the whirling coefficient tabulation and also to precise the effect of the upstream velocity profile on the whirling critical velocities [fr

  19. Design and testing of a magnetic shield for the Thomson scattering photomultiplier tubes in the stray fields of the ERASMUS tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desoppere, E.; Van Oost, G.

    1983-01-01

    A multiple coaxial shield system has been designed for the photomultiplier tubes of the ERASMUS tokamak Thomson scattering diagnostic. A stray field of 75 x 10 -4 T was reduced to 0.01 x 10 -4 T for a field parallel to the tube axis, and to 0.03 x 10 -4 T for a perpendicular field

  20. Tracheostomy tube - eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000464.htm Tracheostomy tube - eating To use the sharing features on ... when you swallow foods or liquids. Eating and Tracheostomy Tubes When you get your tracheostomy tube, or ...