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Sample records for single traumatic event

  1. Adult eyewitness memory for single versus repeated traumatic events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, T.P.M.; Meyer, T.; Memon, A.; Weinsheimer, C.C.

    2017-01-01

    Reports from individuals who have witnessed multiple, similar emotional events may differ from reports from witnesses of only a single event. To test this, we had participants (N = 65) view a video of a road traffic accident. Half of the participants saw two additional (similar) aversive films.

  2. Traumatic events and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over and over again Know the Signs of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Half of the children who survive traumatic events ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child Mental Health Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  3. Traumatic stress symptomatology after child maltreatment and single traumatic events: different profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, Caroline S.; Verlinden, Eva; Bolle, Eva A.; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.

    2013-01-01

    The sequelae of child maltreatment tend to extend current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. This study examined this assumption, hypothesizing that (a) PTSD and trauma-related symptoms are more severe after single trauma than after child maltreatment; (b) symptoms unrelated to trauma

  4. Traumatic-event headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas David C

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic headaches from head trauma and whiplash injury are well-known and common, but chronic headaches from other sorts of physical traumas are not recognized. Methods Specific information was obtained from the medical records of 15 consecutive patients with chronic headaches related to physically injurious traumatic events that did not include either head trauma or whiplash injury. The events and the physical injuries produced by them were noted. The headaches' development, characteristics, duration, frequency, and accompaniments were recorded, as were the patients' use of pain-alleviative drugs. From this latter information, the headaches were classified by the diagnostic criteria of the International Headache Society as though they were naturally-occurring headaches. The presence of other post-traumatic symptoms and litigation were also recorded. Results The intervals between the events and the onset of the headaches resembled those between head traumas or whiplash injuries and their subsequent headaches. The headaches themselves were, as a group, similar to those after head trauma and whiplash injury. Thirteen of the patients had chronic tension-type headache, two had migraine. The sustained bodily injuries were trivial or unidentifiable in nine patients. Fabrication of symptoms for financial remuneration was not evident in these patients of whom seven were not even seeking payments of any kind. Conclusions This study suggests that these hitherto unrecognized post-traumatic headaches constitute a class of headaches characterized by a relation to traumatic events affecting the body but not including head or whiplash traumas. The bodily injuries per se can be discounted as the cause of the headaches. So can fabrication of symptoms for financial remuneration. Altered mental states, not systematically evaluated here, were a possible cause of the headaches. The overall resemblance of these headaches to the headaches after

  5. Coping with a Traumatic Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic events are marked by a sense of horror, helplessness, serious injury, or the threat of serious ... The symptoms of PTSD fall into three broad types: re-living, avoidance and increased arousal. • Symptoms of ...

  6. Traumatic Childhood Events and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Connor Morrow; Newschaffer, Craig J.; Berkowitz, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic childhood events are associated with a wide range of negative physical, psychological and adaptive outcomes over the life course and are one of the few identifiable causes of psychiatric illness. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be at increased risk for both encountering traumatic events and developing traumatic sequelae;…

  7. Predictors of tonic immobility during traumatic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Bados

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tonic immobility (TI is a possible reaction to danger that is facilitated by intense fear, physical restraint and perceived inability to escape. Other variables that could affect TI, such as the type and characteristics of traumatic events and personal characteristics have been little or no studied. The present study evaluated the power of these variables to predict TI in a sample of 273 college students who had experienced at least one traumatic event. Of the sample, 7.7% and 13.2% responded with TI according to the two stricter definitions adopted. Most of the variables were significantly associated with TI in univariate analyses. However, in a multiple regression analysis, only certain features of the events (occurrence of physical/sexual abuse, number of different types of events experienced and certain reactions to them (perception of how traumatic were the events, severe fear response were significant predictors of TI. Since these predictors explained only 25% of the variance, the influence of other variables -such as neuroticism, negative affectivity and perceived lack of personal control or resources to cope with traumatic events- should be investigated.

  8. Sex differences in the appraisal of traumatic events and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharska, Justyna

    2017-09-01

    The current study is an investigation of the relationship between the appraisal of traumatic events and mental disorder symptoms: internalizing symptoms and externalizing/substance-abuse symptoms. Cumulative trauma over the lifetime was taken into account. Also, specific effects related to traumatic events of various types (i.e., betrayal trauma, accident involving a family member, physical violence, and natural disaster) were assessed. Participants, 190 young men and 277 young women, were asked to evaluate the strength with which the traumatic event impacted their lives. It was hypothesized that the relationship between traumatic experiences and mental disorder symptoms would be stronger in women than in men, and also that cognitive appraisal, in interaction with gender, would be related to the severity of the symptoms. Women showed higher levels of internalizing symptoms, but lower levels of externalizing/substance-abuse symptoms than men. Still, the correlation between cumulative trauma and both types of symptoms was stronger in women. For all types of trauma, women reported a stronger negative appraisal of the event than men. Interaction of sex and cognitive appraisal was demonstrated to be related to the severity of internalizing disorders. In the present study, women, as compared with men, evaluated traumatic events more negatively (for all types of trauma) and the relationship between trauma and mental disorder symptoms was also stronger in women. These results show the importance of the appraisal of trauma in the development of psychiatric symptoms in women and men following trauma. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Witnessing traumatic events and post-traumatic stress disorder: Insights from an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patki, Gaurav; Salvi, Ankita; Liu, Hesong; Salim, Samina

    2015-07-23

    It is becoming increasingly recognized that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be acquired vicariously from witnessing traumatic events. Recently, we published an animal model called the "Trauma witness model" (TWM) which mimics PTSD-like symptoms in rats from witnessing daily traumatic events (social defeat of cage mate) [14]. Our TWM does not result in any physical injury. This is a major procedural advantage over the typical intruder paradigm in which it is difficult to delineate the inflammatory response of tissue injury and the response elicited from emotional distress. Using TWM paradigm, we examined behavioral and cognitive effects in rats [14] however, the long-term persistence of PTSD-like symptoms or a time-course of these events (anxiety and depression-like behaviors and cognitive deficits) and the contribution of olfactory and auditory stress vs visual reinforcement were not examined. This study demonstrates that some of the features of PTSD-like symptoms in rats are reversible after a significant time lapse of the witnessing of traumatic events. We also have established that witnessing is critical to the PTSD-like phenotype and cannot be acquired solely due to auditory or olfactory stresses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing traumatic event exposure: general issues and preliminary findings for the Stressful Life Events Screening Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, L A; Corcoran, C; Turner, K; Yuan, N; Green, B L

    1998-07-01

    This article reviews the psychometric properties of the Stressful Life Events Screening Questionnaire (SLESQ), a recently developed trauma history screening measure, and discusses the complexities involved in assessing trauma exposure. There are relatively few general measures of exposure to a variety of types of traumatic events, and most of those that exist have not been subjected to rigorous psychometric evaluation. The SLESQ showed good test-retest reliability, with a median kappa of .73, adequate convergent validity (with a lengthier interview) with a median kappa of .64, and good discrimination between Criterion A and non-Criterion A events. The discussion addresses some of the challenges of assessing traumatic event exposure along the dimensions of defining traumatic events, assessment methodologies, reporting consistency, and incident validation.

  11. Children's Vantage Point of Recalling Traumatic Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Katie S; Bryant, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the recollections of child survivors of the 2004 Asian tsunami in terms of their vantage point and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) responses. Five years after the tsunami, 110 children (aged 7-13 years) living in Aceh, Indonesia were assessed for source of memories of the tsunami (personal memory or second-hand source), vantage point of the memory, and were administered the Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale-13. Fifty-three children (48%) met criteria for PTSD. Two-thirds of children reported direct memories of the tsunami and one-third reported having memories based on reports from other people. More children (97%) who reported an indirect memory of the tsunami recalled the event from an onlooker's perspective to some extent than those who recalled the event directly (63%). Boys were more likely to rely on stories from others to reconstruct their memory of the tsunami, and to adopt an observer perspective. Boys who adopted an observer's perspective had less severe PTSD than those who adopted a field perspective. These findings suggest that, at least in the case of boys, an observer perspectives of trauma can be associated with levels of PTSD.

  12. Sibling relationships as a resource for coping with traumatic events

    OpenAIRE

    Perricone, Giovanna; Fontana, Valentina; Burgio, Sofia; Polizzi, Concetta

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the correlation between the perception of sibling relationship to cope an adverse occurrence – the partial collapse of a primary school – and the indicators related to the traumatic impact set off by the event, by soliciting the child’s reminiscence of the catastrophic experience. One hundred trauma-exposed children were recruited from a Sicilian primary school and were administered the following research instruments: the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC-A), ...

  13. Crystal ball single event display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosnick, D.; Gibson, A.; Allgower, C.; Alyea, J.; Argonne National Lab., IL

    1997-01-01

    The Single Event Display (SED) is a routine that is designed to provide information graphically about a triggered event within the Crystal Ball. The SED is written entirely in FORTRAN and uses the CERN-based HICZ graphing package. The primary display shows the amount of energy deposited in each of the NaI crystals on a Mercator-like projection of the crystals. Ten different shades and colors correspond to varying amounts of energy deposited within a crystal. Information about energy clusters is displayed on the crystal map by outlining in red the thirteen (or twelve) crystals contained within a cluster and assigning each cluster a number. Additional information about energy clusters is provided in a series of boxes containing useful data about the energy distribution among the crystals within the cluster. Other information shown on the event display include the event trigger type and data about π o 's and η's formed from pairs of clusters as found by the analyzer. A description of the major features is given, along with some information on how to install the SED into the analyzer

  14. Investigation of single event latchup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Yuxiong; Yang Shengsheng; Cao Zhou; Ba Dedong; An Heng; Chen Luojing; Guo Gang

    2012-01-01

    Radiation effects on avionics microelectronics are important reliability issues for many space applications. In particular, single-event latchup (SEL) phenomenon is a major threat to CMOS integrated circuits in space systems. To effectively circumvent the failure, it is important to know the behavior of such devices during latchup. In this paper, the mechanisms for SEL in CMOS devices are investigated. Several microelectronic devices used in avionics are tested using heavy ion beams, pulsed laser and 252 Cf source. Based on the SEL test results, SEL-hardening and monitoring methods for preventing SEL from the systems design level are proposed. (authors)

  15. Single event upset test programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russen, L.C.

    1984-11-01

    It has been shown that the heavy ions in cosmic rays can give rise to single event upsets in VLSI random access memory devices (RAMs). Details are given of the programs written to test 1K, 4K, 16K and 64K memories during their irradiation with heavy charged ions, in order to simulate the effects of cosmic rays in space. The test equipment, which is used to load the memory device to be tested with a known bit pattern, and subsequently interrogate it for upsets, or ''flips'', is fully described. (author)

  16. [Posttraumatic stress disorder in patients with neurogenic amnesia for the traumatic event].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podoll, K; Kunert, H J; Sass, H

    2000-10-01

    The development of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with neurogenic amnesia for the traumatic event is recorded in 2 own patients and in 19 cases from the clinical literature. With a single exception, all patients were accident victims with closed head injuries. Only about three quarters of the patients completely fulfilled DSM-III-R criteria of PTSD. Nineteen patients displayed involuntary conscious memories of aspects of the traumatic event (presenting as recurrent intrusive thoughts, images or dreams) co-existent with a complete or partial lack of voluntary conscious memories of the trauma, suggesting that different memory systems and distinct brain mechanisms subserve these phenomena. The said clinical observations are discussed against the background of current neuropsychological models of multiple memory systems. The recorded cases demonstrate that declarative episodic memory is not necessary for symptoms of PTSD to emerge, whereas preserved functions of non-declarative memory systems represent a sufficient condition for the development of PTSD symptoms.

  17. Early traumatic life events, parental attitudes, family history, and birth risk factors in patients with depressive disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelow, Borwin; Gutermann, Julia; Peter, Helmut; Wedekind, Dirk

    2013-02-01

    Only few studies have compared the frequency of traumatic life events during childhood in inpatients with depression with a healthy control group. Consecutively admitted inpatients with depression (n = 79), most of whom belonged to the melancholic subtype (n = 73; 92.4%), and healthy controls (n = 110) were investigated using a comprehensive retrospective interview with 203 questions regarding childhood traumatic life events, parental attitudes, family history of psychiatric disorders and birth risk factors. Depressed patients had significantly more severe traumatic events (mean score 1.33; SD 1.4) than control subjects (0.85; SD 1.2) on a 0-10 point "severe trauma scale". 70.9% (n = 56) of the depressed patients, but only 48.2% (n = 53) of the controls reported at least one severe traumatic event. When looking at single events, only few differences were found between patients and controls. Compared to controls, patients described significantly higher rates of psychiatric disorders in their families, in particular depression. Parental rearing styles were rated as more unfavorable in the patient group. In a logistic regression model, of all possible etiological factors examined, only a family history of psychiatric disorders showed a significant influence (OR = 3.6). Melancholic depression seems to be less associated with traumatic events than other psychiatric disorders.

  18. The shared and specific relationships between exposure to potentially traumatic events and transdiagnostic dimensions of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Matthew; Carragher, Natacha; Chapman, Cath; Mills, Katherine; Teesson, Maree; Lockwood, Emma; Forbes, David; Slade, Tim

    2016-03-01

    The experience of traumatic events has been linked to the development of psychopathology. Changing perspectives on psychopathology have resulted in the hypothesis that broad dimensional constructs account for the majority of variance across putatively distinct disorders. As such, traumatic events may be associated with several disorders due to their relationship with these broad dimensions rather than any direct disorder-specific relationship. The current study used data from 8871 Australians to test this hypothesis. Two broad dimensions accounted for the majority of relationships between traumatic events and mental and substance use disorders. Direct relationships remained between post-traumatic stress disorder and six categories of traumatic events in the total population and between drug dependence and accidents/disasters for males only. These results have strong implications for how psychopathology is conceptualized and offer some evidence that traumatic events are associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing psychopathology in general. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sibling relationships as a resource for coping with traumatic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perricone, Giovanna; Fontana, Valentina; Burgio, Sofia; Polizzi, Concetta

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the correlation between the perception of sibling relationship to cope an adverse occurrence - the partial collapse of a primary school - and the indicators related to the traumatic impact set off by the event, by soliciting the child's reminiscence of the catastrophic experience. One hundred trauma-exposed children were recruited from a Sicilian primary school and were administered the following research instruments: the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC-A), to investigate the traumatized response that can be triggered in the children involved; the Brother as a Resource Questionnaire (BRQ), to delve into the perception of sibling relationship as a resource. The outcomes showed statistically significant negative correlations between the Anxiety scale of the TSCC-A and the Scaffolding factors (r = -.260, p Depression scale and the Scaffolding factors (r = -.147, p < .05), Emotional sharing (r = -.168, p < .05) and Decision making process (r = -.281, p < .05). The Anger scale correlated negatively with the Emotional sharing (r = -187, p < .05), the Decision making process (r = -.182, p < .05) and the Scaffolding factors (r = -.279, p < .05); the Post-traumatic Stress correlated negatively with the Scaffolding factors (r = -.203, p < .05) and the Decision making process (r = -.238, p < .05). Lastly, the Dissociation correlated negatively with the Decision making process (r = -.270, p < .05).

  20. Why autobiographical memories for traumatic and emotional events might differ: theoretical arguments and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotgiu, Igor; Rusconi, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The authors review five arguments supporting the hypothesis that memories for traumatic and nontraumatic emotional events should be considered as qualitatively different recollections. The first argument considers the objective features of traumatic and emotional events and their possible influence on the formation of memories for these events. The second argument assumes that traumatic memories distinguish from emotional ones as trauma exposure is often associated with the development of psychological disorders involving memory disturbances. The third argument is that traumatic experiences are more likely than emotional experiences to be forgotten and recovered. The fourth argument concerns the possibility that emotional memories are socially shared more frequently than traumatic memories. A fifth argument suggests that trauma exposure may impair selected brain systems implicated in memory functions. Theoretical and empirical evidence supporting these claims is reviewed. In the conclusions, the authors illustrate future research directions and discuss some conceptual issues related to the definitions of traumatic event currently employed by memory researchers.

  1. Coping with serious events at work: a study of traumatic stress among nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, Bianca M.; Mank, Arno P. M.; Beijer, Hein J. M.; Olff, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Nurses often encounter serious events during their work, which can lead to traumatic stress. To examine how serious events, demographic variables, and coping strategies are associated with traumatic stress in a sample of nurses working in the medical department of a university teaching hospital. The

  2. Single-event effect ground test issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, R.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-based single event effect (SEE) testing of microcircuits permits characterization of device susceptibility to various radiation induced disturbances, including: (1) single event upset (SEU) and single event latchup (SEL) in digital microcircuits; (2) single event gate rupture (SEGR), and single event burnout (SEB) in power transistors; and (3) bit errors in photonic devices. These characterizations can then be used to generate predictions of device performance in the space radiation environment. This paper provides a general overview of ground-based SEE testing and examines in critical depth several underlying conceptual constructs relevant to the conduct of such tests and to the proper interpretation of results. These more traditional issues are contrasted with emerging concerns related to the testing of modern, advanced microcircuits

  3. DO TESTIMONIES OF TRAUMATIC EVENTS DIFFER DEPENDING ON THE INTERVIEWER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Ehlert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While differences in witness narratives due to different interviewers may have implications for their credibility in court, this study considers how investigative interviews by different parties to the proceedings, as well as the gender and nationality of interviewers, can influence the testimony of witnesses in court who share comparable traumatic experiences. The foundation of the analysis was answers given to judges, prosecutors, civil party lawyers and defence lawyers in the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC located in Phnom Penh. Transcribed testimonies of 24 victim witnesses and civil parties which were translated from Khmer into English were analysed using a computer-based text analysis program, the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC. Results showed that when answering questions by females, witnesses used significantly more cognitive process words. When interviewed by international rather than by Cambodian parties to the proceeding witness accounts were composed of significantly more verbal expressions of affective processes and of perceptual processes. Furthermore, witnesses used most cognitive and affective process words during the interview by civil party lawyers and defence lawyers. These results may be due to a prior supportive relationship between civil parties and their lawyers and due to a more interrogative question style by the defence lawyers, who attempt to undermine the credibility of the interviewed witnesses. Data shows that LIWC analysis is an appropriate method to examine witness accounts and, therefore, contributes to a better understanding of the complex relationship between testimony in events under litigation and credibility.

  4. The impact of occupational hazards and traumatic events among Belgian emergency physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somville, Francis J; De Gucht, Véronique; Maes, Stan

    2016-04-27

    Emergency Physicians (EPs) are regularly confronted with work related traumatic events and hectic work conditions. Several studies mention a high incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychosomatic complaints in EP. The main objective of this study is to examine the contribution of demographics, traumatic events, life events, the occurrence of occupational hazards and social support to post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), psychological distress, fatigue, somatic complaints and job satisfaction in Emergency Physicians. For this study questionnaires were distributed to Belgian Emergency Physicians, These include, as determinants socio-demographic characteristics, traumatic events, life events, the occurrence of physical hazards, occurrences of violence, occurrence of situations that increase the risk of burnout and social support by supervisors and colleagues (LQWQ-Med), and as outcomes PTSS (IES), psychological distress (BSI), somatic complaints (PHQ 15), perceived fatigue (CIS20 R) and job satisfaction (LQWQ-MD). The response rate was 52.3 %. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the association between the determinants and each of the outcomes. Emergency Physicians are particularly vulnerable to post-traumatic and chronic stress consequences due to repetitive exposure to work related traumatic incidents such as serious injuries or death of a child/adolescent. One out of three Emergency Physicians met sub-clinical levels of anxiety and 14.5 % met a clinical level of PTSD, short for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Levels of fatigue were high but not directly related to traumatic events and occupational hazards. Social support from colleagues was found to have a beneficial effect on these complaints. Job satisfaction seems to have a protective factor. All of these not only affect the Emergency Physicians themselves, but can also have an adverse impact on patient care. EPs are, according to our and other studies

  5. The effect of a single recombination event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, Mikkel Heide; Jensen, Thomas Mailund; Wiuf, Carsten

    We investigate the variance in how visible a single recombination event is in a SNP data set as a function of the type of recombination event and its age. Data is simulated under the coalescent with recombination and inference is by the popular composite likelihood methods. The major determinant...

  6. Parent and Child Agreement for Acute Stress Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Other Psychopathology in a Prospective Study of Children and Adolescents Exposed to Single-Event Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Smith, Patrick; Glucksman, Edward; Yule, William; Dalgleish, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Examining parent-child agreement for Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents is essential for informing the assessment of trauma-exposed children, yet no studies have examined this relationship using appropriate statistical techniques. Parent-child agreement for these disorders was examined…

  7. What are the characteristics of perinatal events perceived to be traumatic by midwives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Kayleigh; Spiby, Helen; Slade, Pauline

    2016-09-01

    there is potential for midwives to indirectly experience events whilst providing clinical care that fulfil criteria for trauma. This research aimed to investigate the characteristics of events perceived as traumatic by UK midwives. as part of a postal questionnaire survey conducted between December 2011 and April 2012, midwives (n=421) who had witnessed and/or listened to an account of an event and perceived this as traumatic for themselves provided a written description of their experience. A traumatic perinatal event was defined as occurring during labour or shortly after birth where the midwife perceived the mother or her infant to be at risk, and they (the midwife) had experienced fear, helplessness or horror in response. Descriptions of events were analysed using thematic analysis. Witnessed (W; n=299) and listened to (H; n=383) events were analysed separately and collated to identify common and distinct themes across both types of exposure. six themes were identified, each with subthemes. Five themes were identified in both witnessed and listened to accounts and one was salient to witnessed accounts only. Themes indicated that events were characterised as severe, unexpected and complex. They involved aspects relating to the organisational context; typically limited or delayed access to resources or personnel. There were aspects relating to parents, such as having an existing relationship with the parents, and negative perceptions of the conduct of colleagues. Traumatic events had a common theme of generating feelings of responsibility and blame Finally for witnessed events those that were perceived as traumatic sometimes held personal salience, so resonated in some way with the midwife's own life experience midwives are exposed to events as part of their work that they may find traumatic. Understanding the characteristics of the events that may trigger this perception may facilitate prevention of any associated distress and inform the development of

  8. Lifetime traumatic events, health-related quality of life, and satisfaction with life in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoureux-Lamarche, Catherine; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria

    2017-10-01

    The aims were to assess the association between lifetime traumatic events and post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and satisfaction with life stratified by gender among a community-dwelling sample of older adults. Data used came from the ESA-Services study (2011-2013) and included a large convenience sample of 1811 older adults. Traumatic events were measured using a list of 14 events. PTSS was measured using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. HRQOL and life satisfaction were measured with the EQ-5D-3L and the Satisfaction With Life Scale. Multivariate regression analyses were used to assess the association between traumatic events, PTSS, and quality of life. Respondents had a mean age of 73.90 years (SD: 6.13, range 65-97). Our results showed that exposure to violence (OR 4.88, CI 2.72-8.77), an accident (OR 2.33, CI 1.29-4.22), and sexual abuse (OR 2.26 CI 1.17-4.37) was associated with PTSS only in women. No traumatic event was associated only in men. The interaction between gender and exposure to violence and life-threatening disease of a close one was significant. Experiencing violence (β = -0.04, p life-threatening disease (β = -0.04, p life-threatening disease of a close one, sexual abuse, and other type of traumatic events. A life-threatening disease (β = -0.90, p life satisfaction only in men and the exposure of violence (β = -1.18, p life satisfaction in women. Our study could help healthcare professionals to identify and monitor traumatic events that are at higher risk to be associated with PTSS and a lower quality of life for older men and women.

  9. Do It Now: Short-Term Responses to Traumatic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaria, Thomas; Schonfeld, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic crises can have a lifelong effect. The majority of children, however, will not develop lasting problems following a crisis. The immediate goal of the school is to minimize the negative impact, support coping, accelerate adjustment, and instill confidence in students that school staff is available to address their needs. Support and…

  10. Destructive Single-Event Effects in Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Megan C.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Campola, Michael J.; Wilcox, Edward P.; Phan, Anthony M.; Label, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we discuss the observed single-event effects in a variety of types of diodes. In addition, we conduct failure analysis on several Schottky diodes that were heavy-ion irradiated. High- and low-magnitude optical microscope images, infrared camera images, and scanning electron microscope images are used to identify and describe the failure locations.

  11. Single event phenomena in atmospheric neutron environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossett, C.A.; Hughlock, B.W.; Katoozi, M.; LaRue, G.S.; Wender, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    As integrated circuit technology achieves higher density through smaller feature sizes and as the airplane manufacturing industry integrates more sophisticated electronic components into the design of new aircraft, it has become increasingly important to evaluate the contribution of single event effects, primarily Single Event Upset (SEU), to the safety and reliability of commercial aircraft. In contrast to the effects of radiation on electronic systems in space applications for which protons and heavy ions are of major concern, in commercial aircraft applications the interactions of high energy neutrons are the dominant cause of single event effects. These high energy neutrons are produced by the interaction of solar and galactic cosmic rays, principally protons and heavy ions, in the upper atmosphere. This paper will describe direct experimental measurements of neutron-induced Single Event Effect (SEE) rates in commercial high density static random access memories in a neutron environment characteristic of that at commercial airplane altitudes. The first experimental measurements testing current models for neutron-silicon burst generation rates will be presented, as well as measurements of charge collection in silicon test structures as a function of neutron energy. These are the first laboratory SEE and charge collection measurements using a particle beam having a continuum energy spectrum and with a shape nearly identical to that observed during flight

  12. OP-11 DO TRAUMATIC LIFE EVENTS PREDISPOSE CHILDREN TO DEVELOP CONSTIPATION?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rrajindrajith, S; Devanarayana, N M; Rajapakshe, N N; Benninga, M A

    2015-10-01

    The aetiology of functional constipation (FC) in children is not been fully understood.Exposure to physical, emotional and sexual abuse are known to predispose children to develop FC. No paediatric study has evaluated traumatic life events other than abuse as a potential predisposing factor for FC in children. We aimed to assess the association between traumatic life events and development of FC in children. We conducted a cross sectional, school based study.Children aged 13-18 years were selected from four semi-urban schools in the Gampaha district, Sri Lanka. A validated, self-administered questionnaires were used for collect data on functional gastrointestinal disease and traumatic life events. FC was defined using the Rome III criteria. A total of1792 children were included in the analysis [males 975 (54.4%), mean age 14.4 years, SD 1.3 yearsyears]. Out of them, 138(7.7%) had FC. Prevalence of FC was significantly higher in those exposed to traumatic life events compared to controls (53.6% vs.32.9%,p children to develop FC. Parental substance abuse (12.8% vs. 7.4%), domestic violence (14.8 vs. 7.5%) were not associated with FC (p > 0.05). FC is associated with childhoodtraumatic experiences. This provides further insight intohow traumatic childhood events are associated withdevelopment and perpetuation of FC in children.

  13. Factors associated with traumatic symptoms and internalizing problems among adolescents who experienced a traumatic event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deković, M.; Koning, I.M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Buist, K.L.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify factors that are related to the traumatic symptoms and problem behavior among adolescents who experienced the New Years fire in 2001 in Volendam, The Netherlands. Three groups of factors were considered: pre-trauma (personality and coping), traumarelated

  14. The role of rumination in the occurrence of positive effects of experienced traumatic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ogińska-Bulik

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Cognitive processes play a significant role in both the negative and positive consequences of traumatic experiences. The aim of this research was to investigate the role of rumination in the occurrence of positive effects, in the form of posttraumatic growth, of experienced traumatic events. Participants and procedure Data were collected from 227 subjects who had experienced traumatic events, including cancer patients (31.30%, women who had experienced domestic violence (39.20%, and medical rescue workers exposed to traumatic events at work (29.50%. The age of participants ranged from 19 to 67 years (M = 40.12, SD = 13.28. The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory was used to measure positive changes, and the Event Related Rumination Inventory was used to assess the two types of ruminations (intrusive and deliberate. Results Both types of ruminations (intrusive and deliberate were positively correlated with the level of posttraumatic growth in the group of cancer patients, and deliberate ruminations were associated with posttraumatic growth in the group of women who had experienced domestic violence and in the medical rescue workers. The results of regression analysis confirmed a significant role of deliberate rumination. Conclusions The study of ruminations allows us to better explain the mechanisms underlying the consequences of traumatic experiences.

  15. Traumatic events, post-migration living difficulties and post-traumatic symptoms in first generation immigrants: a primary care study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Aragona

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To study potentially traumatic events (PTE, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, anxiety, depression, somatization and post-migration living difficulties (PMLD in primary care immigrants. DESIGN: Patients self-rated transculturally validated questionnaires. Those with and without PTSD were compared on all variables. The influence of the number of PTE and of PMLD on PTSD was measured. RESULTS: 391 patients completed the questionnaires. Prevalence of PTSD was 10.2%. PTE and PMLD were frequent in the whole sample but more common in PTSD subjects. Either the number of PTE and of PMLD significantly increased the likelihood to have a PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: PTE, PMLD, PTSD and related conditions (anxiety, depression and somatization are frequent among immigrants in primary care, and either PTE and PMLD significantly influence resulting psychopathology. The implications in clinical practice are discussed.

  16. Enduring somatic threat perceptions and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in survivors of cardiac events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Laura; Alcántara, Carmela; Sumner, Jennifer A; Swan, Brendan; Chang, Bernard P; Edmondson, Donald

    2017-04-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder due to acute cardiovascular events may be uniquely defined by enduring perceptions of somatic threat. We tested whether post-traumatic stress disorder at 1 month post-acute coronary syndrome indeed required both high peritraumatic threat during the acute coronary syndrome and ongoing cardiac threat perceptions. We assessed peritraumatic threat during emergency department enrollment of 284 patients with a provisional acute coronary syndrome diagnosis and cardiac threat perceptions and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms 1 month post-discharge. In a multiple regression model with adjustment for important covariates, emergency department threat perceptions were associated with higher 1 month post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms only among those with high levels of ongoing cardiac threat.

  17. Experimental Setups for Single Event Effect Studies

    OpenAIRE

    N. H. Medina; V. A. P. Aguiar; N. Added; F. Aguirre; E. L. A. Macchione; S. G. Alberton; M. A. G. Silveira; J. Benfica; F. Vargas; B. Porcher

    2016-01-01

    Experimental setups are being prepared to test and to qualify electronic devices regarding their tolerance to Single Event Effect (SEE). A multiple test setup and a new beam line developed especially for SEE studies at the São Paulo 8 UD Pelletron accelerator were prepared. This accelerator produces proton beams and heavy ion beams up to 107Ag. A Super conducting Linear accelerator, which is under construction, may fulfill all of the European Space Agency requirements to qualify electronic...

  18. Traumatic life events and development of post-traumatic stress disorder among female factory workers in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Taylor Jennelle; Yu, Xiao; Chien, Lung-Chang; Karim, Mohammad Monjurul; Alamgir, Hasanat

    2018-06-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be more prevalent and burdensome in developing countries. The goals of this study were to (1) determine the prevalence of PTSD, (2) identify types and number of traumas related to screening positive for PTSD and (3) determine other sociodemographic risk factors and health/medical conditions that may be correlated to PTSD among garment-factory workers and a comparable working population in Bangladesh. A survey was administered to a convenient sample of 607 lower socio-economic status (SES) working women in Bangladesh, 310 of who were garment workers. The primary outcome PTSD was measured by the PTSD Checklist. The Life Events Checklist determined the number and type of traumatic events. The prevalence of PTSD was found to be 17.79% - 7.25% in garment workers and 21.55% in the comparison worker group. In multivariate analysis, PTSD was found to be significantly associated with age, income, chronic pain and number of stressful events. Participants between 45-50 years of age had the greatest odds of reporting PTSD - 15.68 fold (95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.08, 60.29) compared with those younger than 24 years. PTSD was more common in those with lower income (2,000-4,000 taka) (odds ratio (OR) = 1.60; 95% CI = 0.79, 3.26), who had chronic pain (OR = 2.48; 95% CI = 1.51, 4.07) and who experienced over three traumatic life events (OR = 11.25; 95% CI = 4.59, 27.59). The mean number of traumatic events experienced by this entire population was 4.9 with PTSD being more likely in those who experienced physical assault (OR = 6.35; 95% CI = 4.07, 9.90), who caused serious harm or death to someone else (OR = 4.80; 95% CI = 1.36, 16.87) and who had exposure to combat or war (OR = 4.76; 95% CI = 1.17, 19.34). Undiagnosed and untreated PTSD impacts the quality of life and decrease worker productivity among working-age women in this developing country.

  19. Management of traumatic events: influence of emotion-centered coping strategies on the occurrence of dissociation and post-traumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Brousse

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Georges Brousse1,2, Benjamin Arnaud1, Jordane Durand Roger1, Julie Geneste1, Delphine Bourguet1, Frederic Zaplana1, Olivier Blanc1, Jeannot Schmidt1,2, Louis Jehel31CHU Clermont Ferrand, Unité Urgences Psychiatriques, 28 place Henri Dunant BP 69, 63003 Clermont-Ferrand Cedex 01, France; 2Univ Clermont 1, UFR médecine, Clermont-Ferrand, F63001 France; 3Hopital Tenon (CHU APHP 4 rue de la Chine 75020, France, INSERM U669Abstract: Our aim was to assess the influence of the coping strategies employed for the management of traumatic events on the occurrence of dissociation and traumatic disorders. We carried out a 1-year retrospective study of the cognitive management of a traumatic event in 18 subjects involved in the same road vehicle accident. The diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD was made for 33.3% of the participants. The participants with a PTSD diagnosis 1 year after the event used emotion-centered strategies during the event more often than did those with no PTSD, P < 0.02. In the year after the traumatic event, our results show a strong link between the intensity of PTSD and the severity of the post-traumatic symptoms like dissociation (P = 0.032 and the use of emotion-centered strategies (P = 0.004. Moreover, the participants who presented Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire scores above 15 made greater use of emotion-centered coping strategies than did those who did not show dissociation, P < 0.04. Our results confirm that the cognitive management of traumatic events may play an essential role in the development of a state of post-traumatic stress in the aftermath of a violent event.Keywords: trauma, coping, emotions, peritraumatic dissociation, post-traumatic stress disorder

  20. Posttraumatic stress among young urban children exposed to family violence and other potentially traumatic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusto, Cindy A; Whitson, Melissa L; Walling, Sherry M; Feinn, Richard; Friedman, Stacey R; Reynolds, Jesse; Amer, Mona; Kaufman, Joy S

    2010-12-01

    This study examines the relationship between the number of types of traumatic events experienced by children 3 to 6 years old, parenting stress, and children's posttraumatic stress (PTS). Parents and caregivers provided data for 154 urban children admitted into community-based mental health or developmental services. By parent and caregiver report, children experienced an average of 4.9 different types of potentially traumatic events. Nearly one quarter of the children evidenced clinically significant PTS. Posttraumatic stress was positively and significantly related to family violence and other family-related trauma exposure, nonfamily violence and trauma exposure, and parenting stress. Additionally, parenting stress partially mediated the relationship between family violence and trauma exposure and PTS. This study highlights the need for early violence and trauma exposure screening in help-seeking populations so that appropriate interventions are initiated. Copyright © 2010 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  1. OP-11 DO TRAUMATIC LIFE EVENTS PREDISPOSE CHILDREN TO DEVELOP CONSTIPATION?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rrajindrajith, S.; Devanarayana, N. M.; Rajapakshe, N. N.; Benninga, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    The aetiology of functional constipation (FC) in children is not been fully understood.Exposure to physical, emotional and sexual abuse are known to predispose children to develop FC. No paediatric study has evaluated traumatic life events other than abuse as a potential predisposing factor for FC

  2. Measurement Differences from Rating Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Response to Differentially Distressing Traumatic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhai, Jon D.; Fine, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    The authors explored differences in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as a result of rating symptoms from two separate, differentially distressing traumatic events. In an initial sample of 400 nonclinical participants, the authors inquired through a web survey about previous psychological trauma, instructing participants to nominate…

  3. Traumatic life events and posttraumatic stress disorder among Mexican adolescents: results from a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Ricardo; Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Medina-Mora, María Elena; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and the association of Traumatic Life Events (LEs) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) adolescent population. Adolescents aged 12 to 17 were administered the adolescent version of the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (n=3 005). Data were collected using a stratified, multistage and probability sample. Prevalence, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for LEs and PTSD (assessed with DSM-IV criteria) were obtained. The percentage of adolescents reporting at least one traumatic event in their lifetimes was 68.9%, with differences by sex. Prevalence for PTSD were 1.8% (2.4% females and 1.2% males), and sexual-related traumas were the LEs most associated with PTSD [OR=3.9 (CI95%=1.8-8.2)], adjusted by sex, education and age. Exposure to traumatic life events is not uncommon among Mexico City adolescents. Effort should be made to reduce child and adolescent sexual abuse, a very traumatic event highly associated with PTSD.

  4. Traumatic Events and Suicide-Related Outcomes among Mexico City Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Orozco, Ricardo; Molnar, Beth E.; Nock, Matthew K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: We report the prevalence and associations between traumatic events and suicidal ideation, suicide plans and suicide attempts among Mexican adolescents. Methods: The data are from a representative multistage probability household survey of 3,005 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years residing in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area that was…

  5. Virtual reality exposure and neuro-bio feedback to help coping with traumatic events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerincx, M.A.; Kallen, V.L.; Brouwer, A.-M.; Leer, L. van der; Brinke, M. ten

    2010-01-01

    Recent research shows that Virtual Reality (VR) exposure or bio-neuro feedback can help professionals to cope with possibly traumatic events. This paper presents a neuro-bio VR system that combines both methods in order to further improve the prevention and therapy of trauma-related disorders. This

  6. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Children and Adolescents Exposed to Traumatic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Wendy K.; Ortiz, Claudio D.; Viswesvaran, Chockalingham; Burns, Barbara J.; Kolko, David J.; Putnam, Frank W.; Amaya-Jackson, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    The article reviews the current status (1993-2007) of psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents who have been exposed to traumatic events. Twenty-one treatment studies are evaluated using criteria from Nathan and Gorman (2002) along a continuum of methodological rigor ranging from Type 1 to Type 6. All studies were, at a minimum, robust…

  7. Prevalence of traumatic events and PTSD symptoms among secondary school students in Baghdad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Al-Hadethe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: People in Iraq have been more or less continually exposed to war for more than three decades. Studies with Iraqi participants report high prevalence rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and related problems. Methods: The aim of this study is to measure the prevalence of traumatic events and to screen the prevalence of PTSD symptoms among Iraqi secondary school students. Four self-report scales were administered to 403 secondary school students, aged 16–19 (61% male and 31% female. These scales were Baghdad Trauma History Screen, the Scale of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms (SPTSS, Social Support Scale, and Scale of Religious Coping. Results: The results showed that 84% of participants experienced at least one traumatic event. Of these, 61% fully met the criteria for PTSD; 65% of the females and 58% of the males. PTSD symptoms were correlated with 20 positive religious coping but not with social support. Conclusions: It’s clear that traumatic events were speared widely among the participants and the result showed that the vast majority of participants were exposed to different types of traumatic events. In addition, many of the participants have met full PTSD criteria and others had partial PTSD.

  8. Neuroplasticity to a single-episode traumatic stress revealed by resting-state fMRI in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhifeng; King, Jean; Zhang, Nanyin

    2014-12-01

    Substantial evidence has suggested that the brain structures of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and amygdala (AMYG) are implicated in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. However, little is known with respect to the system-level adaptation of their neural circuitries to the perturbations of traumatic stressors. By utilizing behavioral tests and an awake animal imaging approach, in the present study we non-invasively investigated the impact of single-episode predator odor exposure in an inescapable environment on behaviors and neural circuits in rodents. We found that predator odor exposure significantly increased the freezing behavior. In addition, animals exhibited heightened anxiety levels seven days after the exposure. Intriguingly, we also found that the intrinsic functional connectivity within the AMYG-mPFC circuit was considerably compromised seven days after the traumatic event. Our data provide neuroimaging evidence suggesting that prolonged neuroadaptation induced by a single episode of traumatic stress can be non-invasively detected in rodents. These results also support the face validity and construction validity of using the paradigm of single trauma exposure in an inescapable environment as an animal model for post-traumatic stress disorder. Taken together, the present study has opened a new avenue to investigating animal models of stress-related mental disorders by going beyond static neuroanatomy, and ultimately bridging the gap between basic biomedical and human imaging research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of Traumatic Events and Symptoms of PTSD Among South Africans Receiving an HIV Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagee, Ashraf; Bantjes, Jason; Saal, Wylene

    2017-11-01

    We studied posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among a community sample of 500 persons seeking an HIV test. The majority of participants (62.2%) indicated that they had experienced at least one index event that qualified for PTSD, even though a small proportion (5%) actually met the diagnostic criteria for the disorder. Of those who reported an index event, 25 (8.04%) met the diagnostic criteria for PTSD while 286 (91.96%) did not. On average about one-third of participants who did not meet the criteria for PTSD endorsed PTSD symptoms whereas more than three quarters of those who met the full criteria did so. No demographic factors were associated with PTSD caseness, except number of traumatic events. These results are discussed in the context of the need to address traumatic events and PTSD among persons who undergo HIV testing.

  10. Helping Children with Disabilities Cope with Disaster and Traumatic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events General Information Caring for Children in a Disaster This web site from CDC has information for families, schools, and healthcare providers during and after crises and disasters. Children and Youth—SAMHSA Disaster Behavioral Health Information ...

  11. Single event upsets correlated with environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vampola, A.L.; Albin, F.; Lauriente, M.; Wilkinson, D.C.; Allen, J.

    1994-01-01

    Single Event Upset rates on satellites in different Earth orbits are correlated with solar protons and geomagnetic activity and also with the NASA AP8 proton model to extract information about satellite anomalies caused by the space environment. An extensive discussion of the SEU data base from the TOMS solid state recorder and an algorithm for correcting spontaneous upsets in it are included as an Appendix. SAMPEX and TOMS, which have the same memory chips, have similar normalized responses in the South Atlantic Anomaly. SEU rates due to solar protons over the polar caps are within expectations. No geomagnetic activity effects can be discerned in the SEU rates

  12. Multiple Traumatic Events and Psychological Distress : The South Africa Stress and Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Stacey L.; Williams, David R.; Stein, Dan J.; Seedat, Soraya; Jackson, Pamela B.; Moomal, Hashim

    2007-01-01

    Using nationally representative data from South Africa, we examine lifetime prevalence of traumas and multiple traumas (number of events). Employing multiple regression analysis, we study sociodemographic risk of trauma, and the association between trauma and distress. Results indicate most South Africans experience at least one traumatic event during their lives, with the majority reporting multiple. Consistent variation in risk is evident for gender and marital status but not other sociodem...

  13. Changes in event-related potential functional networks predict traumatic brain injury in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlan, Lorre S; Lan, Ingrid S; Smith, Colin; Margulies, Susan S

    2018-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of cognitive and behavioral deficits in children in the US each year. None of the current diagnostic tools, such as quantitative cognitive and balance tests, have been validated to identify mild traumatic brain injury in infants, adults and animals. In this preliminary study, we report a novel, quantitative tool that has the potential to quickly and reliably diagnose traumatic brain injury and which can track the state of the brain during recovery across multiple ages and species. Using 32 scalp electrodes, we recorded involuntary auditory event-related potentials from 22 awake four-week-old piglets one day before and one, four, and seven days after two different injury types (diffuse and focal) or sham. From these recordings, we generated event-related potential functional networks and assessed whether the patterns of the observed changes in these networks could distinguish brain-injured piglets from non-injured. Piglet brains exhibited significant changes after injury, as evaluated by five network metrics. The injury prediction algorithm developed from our analysis of the changes in the event-related potentials functional networks ultimately produced a tool with 82% predictive accuracy. This novel approach is the first application of auditory event-related potential functional networks to the prediction of traumatic brain injury. The resulting tool is a robust, objective and predictive method that offers promise for detecting mild traumatic brain injury, in particular because collecting event-related potentials data is noninvasive and inexpensive. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Traumatic events involving elderly patients treated with anticoagulants for atrial fibrillation: the downside of stroke prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Riccardi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A group of oral anticoagulant-treated patients affected by permanent atrial fibrillation was evaluated after their access to the emergency room as a result of a traumatic accident. In these patients, the re-evaluation of their risk of thromboembolism and bleeding was performed together with the evaluation of their risk of falling and institutionalization. Results show that the emergency department identifies a cohort of very elderly frail patients, who should be carefully reconsidered for anticoagulant therapy after a traumatic event.

  15. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Resulting from Torture and Other Traumatic Events among Syrian Kurdish Refugees in Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hawkar; Hassan, Chiya Q

    2017-01-01

    Political violence is known to cause psychological distress. There is a large body of empirical studies drawing correlations between war trauma, torture, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there are few studies on the effects of war-related trauma among Syrian refugees after events following the 'Arab Spring' uprisings between 2010 and 2012. This study examines the association of PTSD symptoms with torture and other traumatic events among Syrian Kurdish refugees living in Kurdistan Region, Iraq. The experiences and PTSD symptoms among 91 Syrian Kurdish refugees in the Arbat camp in the Sulaymaniyah Governorate of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq were assessed using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, sections I, IV, and V. Results showed that the estimated levels of PTSD symptoms were high: between 35 and 38%. There were no significant gender differences in the occurrence of PTSD symptoms. However, men reported more general traumatic experiences than women. There were significant positive correlations between PTSD symptoms with traumatic events and torture ( r = 0.500, r = 0.366, respectively). Examining the mental health impact of torture and other traumatic events among refugees has possible implications for organizations managing rehabilitation programs for individuals who have been exposed to traumatic events.

  16. Social support and negative and positive outcomes of experienced traumatic events in a group of male emergency service workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogińska-Bulik, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates the relationship between perceived social support in the workplace and both negative (post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms) and positive outcomes (post-traumatic growth) of experienced traumatic events in a group of male emergency service workers. Data of 116 workers representing emergency services (37.1% firefighters, 37.1%, police officers and 30% medical rescue workers) who have experienced a traumatic event in their worksite were analyzed. The range of age of the participants was 21-57 years (M=35.27; SD=8.13). Polish versions of the Impact of Event Scale--Revised and the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory were used to assess the negative and positive outcomes of the experienced event. A perceived social support scale was measured by the scale What support you can count on. The data obtained from the study revealed the negative dependence of social support from supervisors with PTSD symptoms and positive--social support from co-workers with post-traumatic growth. Moreover the results of the study indicate the positive relationship between negative and positive outcomes of experienced traumatic events in the workplace. Perceived social support plays a more important role in gaining benefits from trauma than preventing negative outcomes of the experienced traumatic event. Support from co-workers, compared to support from supervisors, has greater importance.

  17. Tips for Survivors of a Traumatic Event: Managing Your Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Having trouble thinking clearly and concentrating. • Having difficulty making decisions. • Having difficulty giving or accepting help. U.S. DEPARTMENT ... feelings to loved ones and friends often. Pay Attention to Your Body, Feelings, and ... how your own past experiences affect your way of handling this event, and think ...

  18. Multiple traumatic events and psychological distress: the South Africa stress and health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stacey L; Williams, David R; Stein, Dan J; Seedat, Soraya; Jackson, Pamela B; Moomal, Hashim

    2007-10-01

    Using nationally representative data from South Africa, we examine lifetime prevalence of traumas and multiple traumas (number of events). Employing multiple regression analysis, the authors study the sociodemographic risk of trauma, and the association between trauma and distress. Results indicate most South Africans experience at least one traumatic event during their lives, with the majority reporting multiple. Consistent variation in risk is evident for gender and marital status, but not other sociodemographics. Trauma is positively related to high distress, and findings also support a cumulative effect of trauma exposure. Individuals with the most traumas (6+) appear at 5 times greater risk of high distress. This study highlights the importance of considering traumatic events in the context of other traumas in South Africa.

  19. The interplay between psychological well-being, university adjustment and previous experience of traumatic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It was shown that traumatic event that happened long ago does not have univocal connection with the current condition (intensity of post traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression, adjustment (as personality trait in general and university adaptation. Psychological well-being is not only a result of good adjustment, but at first contributes to socio-psychological adaptation of a person being connected with the way of perception and appraisal of life events. Psychological well-being is a part of adjustment potential and also reflects the level of adaptation. The most stressful events are death and/or serious illness of close others, or abuse. Special characteristics of students are described in the paper depending on the intensity of their suicidal thoughts. It is shown that the intensity of suicidal thoughts is connected with characteristics of psychological well-being showing itself in current condition, adjustment (as personality trait, university adaptation and choice of defense strategies

  20. Experimental study of single event burnout and single event gate rupture in power MOSFETs and IGBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Benqi; Wang Yanping; Geng Bin

    2001-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to determine the single event burnout and single event gate rupture sensitivities in power MOSFETs and IGBT which were exposed to heavy ions from 252 Cf source. The test method, test results, a description of observed burnout current waveforms and a discussion of a possible failure mechanism were presented. Current measurements have been performed with a specially designed circuit. The test results include the observed dependence upon applied drain or gate to source bias and versus with external capacitors and limited resistors

  1. Reflection in phraseological neology of traumatic historical events connected with the terrorist threat

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    Skorobogatova Taisiya Ivanovna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of phraseological units - neologisms which are associated with such traumatic historical events, as the implementation of terrorist acts. Particular emphasis is placed on the description of English, Russian and French phraseological units that have introduced the memory of the terrorist threat in the XX-XXI centuries.: Eng. That’s so 10th September (lit. today September 10, fig: Do not worry ahead of time about nothing; Rus. мочить в сортире (descriptor: беспощадно расправиться; фр. le prince s’est mari, le m chant est mort, c’est une semaine Walt Disney (lit. prince married the villain died, week Walt Disney; descriptor: Idyll, g n ration Bataclan (lit. Bataklan generation; descriptor: young people age of the victims who died in the “Bataklane”, i.e. young people aged 25-35. Phraseology description of new, emerging units is one of the most important problems in theoretical linguistics, namely: to illustrate and confirm the fact that the phrasebook body of a single national language is the result of the two memories - historical and linguistic. At the same time important to consider such a significant factor that determines the specificity of the national phraseological fund as memory selectivity in general and historical memory in particular.

  2. Children’s Vantage Point of Recalling Traumatic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Katie S.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the recollections of child survivors of the 2004 Asian tsunami in terms of their vantage point and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) responses. Five years after the tsunami, 110 children (aged 7–13 years) living in Aceh, Indonesia were assessed for source of memories of the tsunami (personal memory or second-hand source), vantage point of the memory, and were administered the Children’s Revised Impact of Event Scale-13. Fifty-three children (48%) met criteria for PTSD. Two-thirds of children reported direct memories of the tsunami and one-third reported having memories based on reports from other people. More children (97%) who reported an indirect memory of the tsunami recalled the event from an onlooker’s perspective to some extent than those who recalled the event directly (63%). Boys were more likely to rely on stories from others to reconstruct their memory of the tsunami, and to adopt an observer perspective. Boys who adopted an observer’s perspective had less severe PTSD than those who adopted a field perspective. These findings suggest that, at least in the case of boys, an observer perspectives of trauma can be associated with levels of PTSD. PMID:27649299

  3. The mediating effect of depression between exposure to potentially traumatic events and PTSD in news journalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klas Backholm

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: News journalists are an occupational group with a unique task at the scene of an unfolding crisis—to collect information and inform the public about the event. By being on location, journalists put themselves at risk for being exposed to the potentially traumatic event. Objective: To compare potentially traumatic exposure during work assignments at a crisis scene and in personal life as predictors of the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in news journalists. Further, to investigate the mediating effect of depression between the predictor and predicted variables. Method: With a web-based questionnaire, information from a sample of Finnish news journalists (n=407 was collected. The data collected included details on the range of potentially traumatic assignments (PTAs at the crisis scene during the past 12 months, lifetime potentially traumatic events (PTEs in personal life, PTSD symptoms, and level of depression. Results: Approximately 50% of the participants had worked with a PTA during the past 12 months. Depression had a significant indirect effect on the relationship between PTAs at the scene and symptoms of PTSD. A similar result was found regarding the relationship between personal life PTEs and PTSD. Depression had a complete indirect effect in the case of PTAs and a partial indirect effect in regard to PTE exposure in personal life. Conclusions: Exposure to PTAs is common within journalistic work. The results reflect the importance of understanding the underlying mechanisms of the measured symptoms (PTSD, depression in relation to trauma history. The main limitations of the study include the cross-sectional design and the nature of the instruments used for the collection of work-related trauma history.

  4. An Updated Perspective of Single Event Gate Rupture and Single Event Burnout in Power MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Jeffrey L.

    2013-06-01

    Studies over the past 25 years have shown that heavy ions can trigger catastrophic failure modes in power MOSFETs [e.g., single-event gate rupture (SEGR) and single-event burnout (SEB)]. In 1996, two papers were published in a special issue of the IEEE Transaction on Nuclear Science [Johnson, Palau, Dachs, Galloway and Schrimpf, “A Review of the Techniques Used for Modeling Single-Event Effects in Power MOSFETs,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 546-560, April. 1996], [Titus and Wheatley, “Experimental Studies of Single-Event Gate Rupture and Burnout in Vertical Power MOSFETs,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 533-545, Apr. 1996]. Those two papers continue to provide excellent information and references with regard to SEB and SEGR in vertical planar MOSFETs. This paper provides updated references/information and provides an updated perspective of SEB and SEGR in vertical planar MOSFETs as well as provides references/information to other device types that exhibit SEB and SEGR effects.

  5. Adler's psychology (of use) today: personal history of traumatic life events as a self-handicapping strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGree, C E; Snyder, C R

    1985-06-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that the reporting of a history of traumatic life events may serve as a strategy to control attributions about performance in an evaluative setting (i.e., self-handicapping). Following from Alfred Adler's early theorization in the psychology of use, as well as more recent theory and research on self-handicapping, we predicted that individuals would emphasize the adversity of events and experiences in their background when an uncertain evaluation was expected and when a traumatic background would serve as a suitable excuse for potential failure. Results generally supported the hypothesized self-protective reporting of traumatic life events.

  6. Posttraumatic Stress among Young Urban Children Exposed to Family Violence and Other Potentially Traumatic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusto, Cindy A.; Whitson, Melissa L.; Walling, Sherry N.; Feinn, Richard; Friedman, Stacey R.; Reynolds, Jesse; Amer, Mona; Kaufman, Joy S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the number of types of traumatic events experienced by children 3 to 6 years old, parenting stress, and children’s posttraumatic stress (PTS). Parents/caregivers provided data for 154 urban children admitted into community-based mental health and/or developmental services. By parent/caregiver report, children experienced an average of 4.9 different types of potentially traumatic events. Nearly one-quarter of the children evidenced clinically significant PTS. PTS was positively and significantly related to family violence and other family-related trauma exposure, nonfamily violence/trauma exposure, and parenting stress. Additionally, parenting stress partially mediated the relationship between family violence/trauma exposure and PTS. This study highlights the need for early violence/trauma exposure screening in help-seeking populations so that appropriate interventions are initiated. PMID:21171132

  7. Gambling Behavior and Problem Gambling Reflecting Social Transition and Traumatic Childhood Events Among Greenland Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Curtis, Tine; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    gambling behavior and problem gambling among Greenland Inuit in relation to the ongoing social transition and traumatic events during childhood. A large representative cross-sectional study was conducted among Greenland Inuit (n = 2,189). Data was collected among adults (18+) in 9 towns and 13 villages...... in Greenland from 2005 to 2010. Problem gambling, gambling behavior and traumatic childhood events were measured through a self-administered questionnaire. The lie/bet screen was used to identify past year and lifetime problem gambling. Social transition was measured as place of residence and a combination...... of residence, education and occupation. The lifetime prevalence of problem gambling was 16 % among men and 10 % among women (p ...

  8. El Salvador earthquakes: relationships among acute stress disorder symptoms, depression, traumatic event exposure, and resource loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, David N; de Alvarado, Ana Maria Glower; de Castro, Norma Blandon; Male, Robert Van; Zetino, A M; Vega, Raphael

    2006-12-01

    Four and seven weeks after powerful earthquakes in El Salvador, the authors examined the relationships among demographics, traumatic event exposure, social support, resource loss, acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms, depression, and posttraumatic growth. Participants were 253 college students (Study 1) and 83 people in the community (Study 2). In Study 1, female gender, traumatic event exposure, low social support, and loss of personal characteristic, condition, and energy resources contributed to ASD symptoms and depression. In Study 2, damage to home and loss of personal characteristic and object resources contributed to ASD symptoms and depression. Posttraumatic growth was not associated with ASD symptoms or depression. Findings support the conservation of resources stress theory (Hobfoll, 1998). Resource loss spirals, excessive demands on coping, and exposure to multiple disasters are discussed.

  9. Traumatic childhood sexual events and secondary sexual health complaints in neurotic disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Sobański, Jerzy A; Müldner-Nieckowski, Łukasz; Katarzyna Klasa,; Dembińska, Edyta; Rutkowski, Krzysztof; Cyranka, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Aim. Assessment of the association between self-reported sexual complaints and recalled childhood sexual adversities in a sample of psychotherapy patients.Material and methods. Coexistence of memories concerning traumatic events and minor sexual adversities and the currently present symptoms were analyzed on the basis of KO”0” Symptom Checklist andLife Inventory completed prior to treatment in the day hospital for neurotic disorders. Questionnaires from 3929 psychotherapy patients were analyz...

  10. Association between witnessing traumatic events and psychopathology in the South African Stress and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwoli, Lukoye; Platt, Jonathan; Williams, David R; Stein, Dan J; Koenen, Karestan C

    2015-08-01

    The high burden of witnessing traumatic events has been demonstrated in previous research in South Africa. However, previous work has focused on PTSD rather than a broader range of psychopathological outcomes. This study examined the association between witnessing trauma and multiple outcomes including mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders. Regression models measured the odds of mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders among those who reported witnessing in the South African Stress and Health Study. Discrete-time survival analysis was used to examine whether witnessing was associated with earlier onset of mental disorders. Witnessing trauma was more commonly reported among males and those with low-average education. Posttraumatic stress disorder, mood, and anxiety disorders varied significantly with witnessing status, and witnessing was associated with exposure to a higher number of traumatic events compared to other types of traumatic events. Respondents reporting witnessing trauma had elevated odds of mood and anxiety disorders, but not substance use disorders. Witnessing trauma is common in the South African population and results in increased risk of mood and anxiety disorders. Interventions aimed at reducing the burden of trauma and its outcomes must now increase their focus on bystanders and other observers, rather than just focusing on those directly affected.

  11. Are memories for sexually traumatic events "special"? A within-subjects investigation of trauma and memory in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace, Kristine A; Porter, Stephen; ten Brinke, Leanne

    2008-01-01

    According to a long-standing clinical tradition, sexually traumatic experiences are processed and recalled differently from other experiences, often leading to memory impairment. In this study, we compared the characteristics of traumatic memories for sexual violence and two other types of emotional experiences. N=44 women recruited from a local sexual trauma agency were asked to recall and describe three autobiographical events: sexual abuse/assault, a non-sexual trauma, and a positive emotional event. The characteristics of the three memory types were compared on both subjective and objective measures. Further, the potential influences of level of traumatic impact and dissociation were assessed. Results indicated that memories for sexual trauma were not impaired or fragmented relative to other memories. Instead, memories for sexual trauma were associated with a remarkably high level of vividness, detail, and sensory components. Further, high levels of traumatic impact were not associated with memory impairment. Implications for the ongoing traumatic memory debate are discussed.

  12. Equivalent properties of single event burnout induced by different sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shiyu; Cao Zhou; Da Daoan; Xue Yuxiong

    2009-01-01

    The experimental results of single event burnout induced by heavy ions and 252 Cf fission fragments in power MOSFET devices have been investigated. It is concluded that the characteristics of single event burnout induced by 252 Cf fission fragments is consistent to that in heavy ions. The power MOSFET in the 'turn-off' state is more susceptible to single event burnout than it is in the 'turn-on' state. The thresholds of the drain-source voltage for single event burnout induced by 173 MeV bromine ions and 252 Cf fission fragments are close to each other, and the burnout cross section is sensitive to variation of the drain-source voltage above the threshold of single event burnout. In addition, the current waveforms of single event burnouts induced by different sources are similar. Different power MOSFET devices may have different probabilities for the occurrence of single event burnout. (authors)

  13. Experiences of Traumatic Events and Associations with PTSD and Depression Development in Urban Health Care-seeking Women

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Jessica M.; Page, Gayle G.; Sharps, Phyllis; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2008-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that occurs after a traumatic event and has been linked to psychiatric and physical health declines. Rates of PTSD are far higher in individuals with low incomes and who reside in urban areas compared to the general population. In this study, 250 urban health care-seeking women were interviewed for a diagnosis of PTSD, major depressive disorder, and also the experience of traumatic events. Multivariate logistic regressions were used ...

  14. "One Scar Too Many:" The Associations Between Traumatic Events and Psychological Distress Among Undocumented Mexican Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcini, Luz M; Peña, Juan M; Gutierrez, Angela P; Fagundes, Christopher P; Lemus, Hector; Lindsay, Suzanne; Klonoff, Elizabeth A

    2017-10-01

    Undocumented immigration often presents with multiple stressors and contextual challenges, which may diminish mental health. This study is the first to provide population-based estimates for the prevalence of traumatic events and its association to clinically significant psychological distress among undocumented Mexican immigrants in the United States. This cross-sectional study used respondent-driven sampling to obtain and analyze data from clinical interviews with 248 undocumented Mexican immigrants residing in high-risk neighborhoods near the California-Mexico border. Overall, 82.7% of participants reported a history of traumatic events, with 47.0% of these meeting the criteria for clinically significant psychological distress. After controlling for relevant covariates, having experienced material deprivation, odds ratio (OR) = 2.26, 95% CI [1.18, 4.31], p = .013, and bodily injury, OR = 2.96, 95% CI [1.50, 5.83], p = .002, and not having a history of deportation, OR = 0.36, 95% CI [0.17, 0.79], p = .011, were associated with clinically significant psychological distress. These results support the need to revisit health and immigration policies and to devise solutions grounded in empirical evidence aimed at preventing the negative effects of trauma and psychological distress in this population. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  15. [Personal resources and negative and positive effects of traumatic events in a group of medical rescuers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogińska-Bulik, Nina

    The purpose of the research was to investigate the role of personal resources, such as optimism and sense of selfefficacy in both negative (posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms) and positive (posttraumatic growth - PTG) effects of experienced trauma in a group of emergency service representatives. Data of 100 medical rescue workers, mostly men (59%) who have experienced traumatic events in their worksite were analyzed. The age of the participants ranged from 24 to 60 years (mean = 37.43; standard deviation = 8.73). Polish versions of the Impact of Event Scale - Revised and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory were used to assess the negative and positive effects of experienced events. Optimism was assessed by the Life Orientation Test and sense of self-efficacy by the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale. The obtained results revealed that optimism is negatively associated with symptoms of PTSD in men, and sense of self-efficacy - positively with the severity of growth after trauma in women. The analyzed personal resources play a diverse role in the emergence of negative and positive effects of experienced traumatic events, depending on the gender of the respondents. Med Pr 2016;67(5):635-644. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  16. Personal resources and negative and positive effects of traumatic events in a group of medical rescuers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ogińska-Bulik

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of the research was to investigate the role of personal resources, such as optimism and sense of selfefficacy in both negative (posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms and positive (posttraumatic growth – PTG effects of experienced trauma in a group of emergency service representatives. Material and Methods: Data of 100 medical rescue workers, mostly men (59% who have experienced traumatic events in their worksite were analyzed. The age of the participants ranged from 24 to 60 years (mean = 37.43; standard deviation = 8.73. Polish versions of the Impact of Event Scale – Revised and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory were used to assess the negative and positive effects of experienced events. Optimism was assessed by the Life Orientation Test and sense of self-efficacy by the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale. Results: The obtained results revealed that optimism is negatively associated with symptoms of PTSD in men, and sense of self-efficacy – positively with the severity of growth after trauma in women. Conclusions: The analyzed personal resources play a diverse role in the emergence of negative and positive effects of experienced traumatic events, depending on the gender of the respondents. Med Pr 2016;67(5:635–644

  17. [Links between life events, traumatism and dementia; an open study including 565 patients with dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, E; Bouby-Serieys, V; Thomas, P; Clément, J-P

    2006-10-01

    Ageing is due to a progressive loss of the person's adaptation capability, whereas during this period environmental aggression increases. In the elderly, life events re-present a psychological traumatism that overwhelms the old person and related family, disrupting and fragilising homeostatic balance. A number of authors have suggested a possible link between life traumatisms and the dementia processes. The aim of this study is to reveal the presence of life traumatisms preceding the apparition of the dementia syndrome. This is a retrospective and comparative work based on the PIXEL study on complaints and demands from the principle informal caregivers of Alzheimer patients. It includes 565 patients presenting the criterion of dementia as defined by the DSM IV, and questionnaires filled out by the principle caregivers. One item of the questionnaire referred to life events which could have played a part in the development of the disorder. In a second stage, the reported events were classified into 4 distinct categories: loss, repeated or prolonged stress, psychotraumatism and depression-inducing events. The statistics were produced using SAS and Stat 10 software. Student's test, ANOVA and chi2-test were used. 372 caregivers answered the first item (65%); 76 of them believed there was no event while 296 related the disorder to one or several life events (79% of responders, 52% of the sample). These results confirm Persson and Clement's study which evidenced a higher frequency of stressing life events for subjects afflicted with dementia as compared with older people without any psychic disorder. Reported events and their respective frequency: spouse death (15.39%), parents' death (15%), familial difficulty (10.08%), anaesthesia (8.49%), child's death (4.42%), somatic disturbance (4%), depression (3.89%), retirement (3.89%), financial problems (2.65%), loneliness (2.65%), removal (1.76%), fall (1%), alcohol (0.8%), traumatism (0.53%), spouse care (0.35%), leaving for

  18. A periodic inspection and replacement policy for systems subject to competing failure modes due to degradation and traumatic events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, K.T., E-mail: tuan.huynh@utt.f [Universite de technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279-12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Barros, A., E-mail: anne.barros@utt.f [Universite de technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279-12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Berenguer, C., E-mail: christophe.berenguer@utt.f [Universite de technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279-12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Castro, I.T., E-mail: inmatorres@unex.e [Departamento de Matematicas, Escuela Politecnica, 10071 Caceres (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    This paper deals with the condition-based maintenance of single-unit systems which are subject to the competing and dependent failures due deterioration and traumatic shock events. The main aim is to provide a model to assess the value of condition monitoring information for the maintenance decision-making. A condition-based periodic inspection/replacement policy is developed and compared with a benchmark time-based block replacement policy. Numerical results show that it is indeed useful to follow closely the actual evolution of the system to adapt the maintenance decisions to the true system state to improve the performance of maintenance policies. The analysis of the maintenance costs savings can be used to justify or not the choice to implement a policy based on condition monitoring information and to invest in condition monitoring devices.

  19. A periodic inspection and replacement policy for systems subject to competing failure modes due to degradation and traumatic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh, K.T.; Barros, A.; Berenguer, C.; Castro, I.T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the condition-based maintenance of single-unit systems which are subject to the competing and dependent failures due deterioration and traumatic shock events. The main aim is to provide a model to assess the value of condition monitoring information for the maintenance decision-making. A condition-based periodic inspection/replacement policy is developed and compared with a benchmark time-based block replacement policy. Numerical results show that it is indeed useful to follow closely the actual evolution of the system to adapt the maintenance decisions to the true system state to improve the performance of maintenance policies. The analysis of the maintenance costs savings can be used to justify or not the choice to implement a policy based on condition monitoring information and to invest in condition monitoring devices.

  20. Gambling behavior and problem gambling reflecting social transition and traumatic childhood events among Greenland Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Curtis, Tine; Bjerregaard, Peter

    Aims: An increase in social pathologies is a key feature in indigenous populations undergoing transition. The Greenland Inuit are a large indigenous population constituting a majority in their own country, which makes it possible to investigate differences within the population. This led us to st...... of social pathologies in Greenland. A significant association between lifetime problem gambling, social transition and traumatic childhood events suggests people caught between tradition and modern ways of life are more vulnerable to gambling problems....... was measured as place of residence and a combination of residence, education and occupation. Findings: The lifetime prevalence of problem gambling was 16% among men and 10% among women (p

  1. Pre-event trajectories of mental health and health-related disabilities, and post-event traumatic stress symptoms and health : A 7-wave population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, Peter; Bosmans, Mark; van der Meulen, Erik; Vermunt, J.K.

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown to what extent classes of trajectories of pre-event mental health problems (MHP) and health-related disabilities (HRD), predict post-event traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), MHP and HRD. Aim of the present 7-wave study was to assess the predictive values using a representative sample of

  2. National Estimates of Exposure to Traumatic Events and PTSD Prevalence Using DSM-IV and DSM-5 Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Milanak, Melissa E.; Miller, Mark W.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Friedman, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) defined according to the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual fifth edition (DSM-5; 2013) and fourth edition (DSM-IV; 1994) was compared in a national sample of U.S. adults (N = 2,953) recruited from an online panel. Exposure to traumatic events, PTSD symptoms, and functional impairment were assessed online using a highly structured, self-administered survey. Traumatic event exposure using DSM-5 criteria was high (89.7%), and exposure to multiple traumatic event types was the norm. PTSD caseness was determined using Same Event (i.e., all symptom criteria met to the same event type) and Composite Event (i.e., symptom criteria met to a combination of event types) definitions. Lifetime, past-12-month, and past 6-month PTSD prevalence using the Same Event definition for DSM-5 was 8.3%, 4.7%, and 3.8% respectively. All 6 DSM-5 prevalence estimates were slightly lower than their DSM-IV counterparts, although only 2 of these differences were statistically significant. DSM-5 PTSD prevalence was higher among women than among men, and prevalence increased with greater traumatic event exposure. Major reasons individuals met DSM-IV criteria, but not DSM-5 criteria were the exclusion of nonaccidental, nonviolent deaths from Criterion A, and the new requirement of at least 1 active avoidance symptom. PMID:24151000

  3. Potentially traumatic events as predictors of disability pension: A 10-year follow-up study in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassemo, Eva; Sandanger, Inger

    2018-05-01

    Are potentially traumatic events associated with subsequent disability pension? Traumatic exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may represent a disabling state with both personal and professional consequences for the affected individual. Despite this, there is a scarcity of research studying the effects of traumatic exposure on disability pension. This study examined the differences in risk for disability pension among unexposed, exposed to trauma and PTSD cases. An ambidirectional Norwegian cohort study, consisting of 1238 individuals aged 18-66 years who were at risk of disability pension, were interviewed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, and linked with registry data on disability pension. Registry follow-up in the Norwegian Insurance Database lasted ten years following interview in 2000-01. The risk of disability pension after traumatic exposure, divided into accidental and premeditated, was assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. In 10 years, 9.5% of the cohort had been granted disability pension. Overall exposure to traumatic events did not alter the risk of disability pension. However, among women, exposure to premeditated traumas did increase the risk (HR 2.96 (95% CI 1.54-5.68)), and was an independent risk factor. Fulfilling criteria for PTSD caseness further increased the risk (HR 4.69 (95% CI 1.78-12.40)). There was no increased risk found between traumatic exposure and disability pension for men. Exposure to trauma, particularly premeditated trauma, seems to be an independent risk factor for disability pension in women.

  4. Single event burnout sensitivity of embedded field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, R.; Crain, S.H.; Crawford, K.B.; Yu, P.; Gordon, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    Observations of single event burnout (SEB) in embedded field effect transistors are reported. Both SEB and other single event effects are presented for several pulse width modulation and high frequency devices. The microscope has been employed to locate and to investigate the damaged areas. A model of the damage mechanism based on the results so obtained is described

  5. Measuring Single Event Upsets in the ATLAS Inner Tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    When the HL-LHC starts collecting data, the electronics inside will be subject to massive amounts of radiation. As a result, single event upsets could pose a threat to the ATLAS readout chain. The ABC130, a prototype front-end ASIC for the ATLAS inner tracker, must be tested for its susceptibility to single event upsets.

  6. Single event burnout sensitivity of embedded field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, R.; Crain, S.H.; Crawford, K.B.; Yu, P.; Gordon, M.J.

    1999-12-01

    Observations of single event burnout (SEB) in embedded field effect transistors are reported. Both SEB and other single event effects are presented for several pulse width modulation and high frequency devices. The microscope has been employed to locate and to investigate the damaged areas. A model of the damage mechanism based on the results so obtained is described.

  7. Microbeam mapping of single event latchups and single event upsets in CMOS SRAMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barak, J.; Adler, E.; Fischer, B.E.; Schloegl, M.; Metzger, S.

    1998-01-01

    The first simultaneous microbeam mapping of single event upset (SEU) and latchup (SEL) in the CMOS RAM HM65162 is presented. The authors found that the shapes of the sensitive areas depend on V DD , on the ions being used and on the site on the chip being hit by the ion. In particular, they found SEL sensitive sites close to the main power supply lines between the memory-bit-arrays by detecting the accompanying current surge. All these SELs were also accompanied by bit-flips elsewhere in the memory (which they call indirect SEUs in contrast to the well known SEUs induced in the hit memory cell only). When identical SEL sensitive sites were hit farther away from the supply lines only indirect SEL sensitive sites could be detected. They interpret these events as latent latchups in contrast to the classical ones detected by their induced current surge. These latent SELs were probably decoupled from the main supply lines by the high resistivity of the local supply lines

  8. Impact of new traumatic or stressful life events on pre-existing PTSD in traumatized refugees: results of a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Schock

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A significant proportion of trauma survivors experience an additional critical life event in the aftermath. These renewed experiences of traumatic and stressful life events may lead to an increase in trauma-related mental health symptoms.Method: In a longitudinal study, the effects of renewed experiences of a trauma or stressful life event were examined. For this purpose, refugees seeking asylum in Germany were assessed for posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS, Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS, anxiety, and depression (Hopkins Symptom Checklist [HSCL-25] before treatment start as well as after 6 and 12 months during treatment (N=46. Stressful life events and traumatic events were recorded monthly. If a new event happened, PDS and HSCL were additionally assessed directly afterwards. Mann–Whitney U-tests were performed to calculate the differences between the group that experienced an additional critical event (stressful vs. trauma during treatment (n=23 and the group that did not (n=23, as well as differences within the critical event group between the stressful life event group (n=13 and the trauma group (n=10.Results: Refugees improved significantly during the 12-month period of our study, but remained severely distressed. In a comparison of refugees with a new stressful life event or trauma, significant increases in PTS, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were found directly after the experience, compared to the group without a renewed event during the 12 months of treatment. With regard to the different critical life events (stressful vs. trauma, no significant differences were found regarding overall PTS, anxiety, and depression symptoms. Only avoidance symptoms increased significantly in the group experiencing a stressful life event.Conclusion: Although all clinicians should be aware of possible PTS symptom reactivation, especially those working with refugees and asylum seekers, who often experience new critical life

  9. Impact of new traumatic or stressful life events on pre-existing PTSD in traumatized refugees: results of a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, Katrin; Böttche, Maria; Rosner, Rita; Wenk-Ansohn, Mechthild; Knaevelsrud, Christine

    2016-01-01

    A significant proportion of trauma survivors experience an additional critical life event in the aftermath. These renewed experiences of traumatic and stressful life events may lead to an increase in trauma-related mental health symptoms. In a longitudinal study, the effects of renewed experiences of a trauma or stressful life event were examined. For this purpose, refugees seeking asylum in Germany were assessed for posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS), Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS), anxiety, and depression (Hopkins Symptom Checklist [HSCL-25]) before treatment start as well as after 6 and 12 months during treatment ( N =46). Stressful life events and traumatic events were recorded monthly. If a new event happened, PDS and HSCL were additionally assessed directly afterwards. Mann-Whitney U -tests were performed to calculate the differences between the group that experienced an additional critical event (stressful vs. trauma) during treatment ( n =23) and the group that did not ( n =23), as well as differences within the critical event group between the stressful life event group ( n =13) and the trauma group ( n =10). Refugees improved significantly during the 12-month period of our study, but remained severely distressed. In a comparison of refugees with a new stressful life event or trauma, significant increases in PTS, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were found directly after the experience, compared to the group without a renewed event during the 12 months of treatment. With regard to the different critical life events (stressful vs. trauma), no significant differences were found regarding overall PTS, anxiety, and depression symptoms. Only avoidance symptoms increased significantly in the group experiencing a stressful life event. Although all clinicians should be aware of possible PTS symptom reactivation, especially those working with refugees and asylum seekers, who often experience new critical life events, should understand symptom

  10. The single European market - a Schumpeterian event?

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert, Horst

    1989-01-01

    It is now four years after the White Paper launched the project on the completion of the internal market [Commission, 1985]. 300 steps were packaged and sold in a manner by Delors and Lord Cockfield that "caught on". The basic strategy is simple: abolish or reduce market segmentations that still exist, facilitate free market access, as well as establish the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital (the so-called four freedoms). Will the single European market prove to be an insti...

  11. Heavy ion and proton-induced single event multiple upset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, R.A.; Carts, M.A.; Marshall, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    Individual ionizing heavy ion events are shown to cause two or more adjacent memory cells to change logic states in a high density CMOS SRAM. A majority of the upsets produced by normally incident heavy ions are due to single-particle events that causes a single cell to upset. However, for grazing angles a majority of the upsets produced by heavy-ion irradiation are due to single-particle events that cause two or more cells to change logic states. Experimental evidence of a single proton-induced spallation reaction that causes two adjacent memory cells to change logic states is presented. Results from a dual volume Monte-Carlo simulation code for proton-induced single-event multiple upsets are within a factor of three of experimental data for protons at normal incidence and 70 degrees

  12. Posttraumatic stress disorder in patients with traumatic brain injury and amnesia for the event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, D L; Labbate, L A; Salazar, A M; Nelson, R; Sheley, E; Staudenmeier, J; Martin, E

    1997-01-01

    Frequency of DSM-III-R posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was studied in 47 active-duty service members (46 male, 1 female; mean age 27 = 7) with moderate traumatic brain injury and neurogenic amnesia for the event. Patients had attained "oriented and cooperative" recovery level. When evaluated with a modified Present State Examination and other questions at various points from study entry to 24-month follow-up, no patients met full criteria for PTSD or met criterion B (reexperience); 6 (13%) met both C (avoidance) and D (arousal) criteria. Five of these 6 also had organic mood disorder, depressed type, and/or organic anxiety disorder. Posttraumatic amnesia following moderate head injury may protect against recurring memories and the development of PTSD. Some patients with neurogenic amnesia may develop a form of PTSD without the reexperiencing symptoms.

  13. Examining the link between traumatic events and delinquency among juvenile delinquent girls: A longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglio, Mary C.; Chronister, Krista M.; Gibson, Brandon; Leve, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have postulated associations between childhood trauma and delinquency, but few have examined the direction of these relationships prospectively and, specifically, with samples of delinquent girls. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between traumatic events and delinquency for girls in the juvenile justice system using a cross-lagged model. Developmental differences in associations as a function of high school entry status were also examined. The sample included 166 girls in the juvenile justice system who were mandated to community-based out-of-home care due to chronic delinquency. Overall, study results provide evidence that trauma and delinquency risk pathways vary according to high school entry status. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:25580179

  14. Future challenges in single event effects for advanced CMOS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hongxia; Wang Wei; Luo Yinhong; Zhao Wen; Guo Xiaoqiang; Zhang Keying

    2010-01-01

    SEE have became a substantial Achilles heel for the reliability of space-based advanced CMOS technologies with features size downscaling. Future space and defense systems require identification and understanding of single event effects to develop hardening approaches for advanced technologies, including changes in device geometry and materials affect energy deposition, charge collection,circuit upset, parametric degradation devices. Topics covered include the impact of technology scaling on radiation response, including single event transients in high speed digital circuits, evidence for single event effects caused by proton direct ionization, and the impact for SEU induced by particle energy effects and indirect ionization. The single event effects in CMOS replacement technologies are introduced briefly. (authors)

  15. Variations in tritium levels during single storm events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.W.

    1979-06-01

    Precipitation samples have been taken over a period of one calendar year to determine the variables in environmental tritium during single storm events. Where possible, comment is made on the hydrological implications of these variations

  16. Non Invasive Instrumentation For Single Event Effects (NIISEE), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — On this Phase 1 project, Adventium will identify and address key hurdles to achieve Radiation Hardening by Software (RHS) for Single Event Effects (SEEs) for modern...

  17. Traumatic Experiences, Stressful Events, and Alexithymia in Chronic Migraine With Medication Overuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bottiroli

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many factors are involved in the prognosis and outcome of Chronic Migraine and Medication Overuse Headache (CM+MOH, and their understanding is a topic of interest. It is well known that CM+MOH patients experience increased psychiatric comorbidity, such as anxiety, depression, or personality disorders. Other psychological factors still need to be explored. The present study is aimed to evaluate whether early life traumatic experiences, stressful life events, and alexithymia can be associated with CM+MOH.Methods: Three hundred and thirty-one individuals were recruited for this study. They belonged to one of the two following groups: CM+MOH (N = 179; 79% females, Age: 45.2 ± 9.8 and episodic migraine (EM (N = 152; 81% females; Age: 40.7 ± 11.0. Diagnosis was operationally defined according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders 3rd edition (ICHD-IIIβ. Data on early life (physical and emotional traumatic experiences, recent stressful events and alexithymia were collected by means of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Stressful life-events Questionnaire, and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20, respectively.Results: Data showed a higher prevalence of emotional (χ2 = 6.99; d.f. = 1; p = 0.006 and physical (χ2 = 6.18; d.f. = 1; p = 0.009 childhood trauma and of current stressful events of important impact (χ2 = 4.42; d.f. = 1; p = 0.025 in CM+MOH patients than in EM ones. CM+MOH patients were characterized by higher difficulties in a specific alexithymic trait (Factor 1 subscale of TAS-20 [F(1, 326 = 6.76, p = 0.01, ηp2 = 0.02] when compared to the EM group. The role of these factors was confirmed in a multivariate analysis, which showed an association of CM+MOH with emotional (OR 2.655; 95% CI 1.153–6.115, p = 0.022 or physical trauma (OR 2.763; 95% CI 1.322–5.771, p = 0.007, and a high score at the Factor 1 (OR 1.039; 95% CI 1.002–1.078, p = 0.040.Conclusions: Our findings demonstrated a clear

  18. [Frequency and Type of Traumatic Events in Children and Adolescents with a Posttraumatic Stress Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Sabine; Wolf, Saskia; Tutus, Dunja; Goldbeck, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    The risk for children and adolescents to be exposed to a potentially traumatic event (PTE) is high. The present study examines the frequency of PTEs in children and adolescents with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), the type of index trauma, and its relation to PTSD symptom severity and gender. A clinical sample of 159 children and adolescents between 7-16 years was assessed using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents (CAPS-CA). All reported PTEs from the checklist were analyzed according to frequency. The index events were categorized according to the following categories: cause (random vs. intentional), relation to offender (intrafamilial vs. extrafamilial), patient's role (victim, witness or vicarious traumatization), and type of PTE (physical or sexual violence). Relation between categories and PTSD symptom severity and sex were analyzed with inferential statistics. On average participants reported five PTEs, most frequently physical violence without weapons (57.9%), loss of loved person through death (45.9%), and sexual abuse/assaults (44%). The most frequent index traumata were intentional (76.7%). Regarding trauma type, there was a significant difference concerning higher symptom severity in children and adolescents who experienced sexual abuse/assault compared to physical violence (t=-1.913(109), p=0.05). A significantly higher symptom severity was found for girls compared to boys for the trauma categories extrafamilial offender (z=-2,27, p=0.02), victim (z=-2,11, p=0,04), and sexual abuse/assault (z=-2,43, p=0,01). Clinical and diagnostic implications are discussed in relation to the amendments of PTSD diagnostic criteria in DSM-5.

  19. Single Event Upsets in the ATLAS IBL Front End ASICs

    CERN Document Server

    Rozanov, Alexander; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    During operation at instantaneous luminosities of up to 2.1 10^{34} cm^{-2} s^{-1} the front end chips of the ATLAS innermost pixel layer (IBL) experienced single event upsets affecting its global registers as well as the settings for the individual pixels, causing, among other things loss of occupancy, noisy pixels, and silent pixels. A quantitative analysis of the single event upsets as well as the operational issues and mitigation techniques will be presented.

  20. Single Event Upsets in the ATLAS IBL Front End ASICs

    CERN Document Server

    Rozanov, Alexandre; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    During operation at instantaneous luminosities of up to 2.1 1034 cm2 s−1 frontend chips of the ATLAS innermost pixel layer (IBL) experienced single event upsets affecting its global registers as well as the settings for the individual pixels, causing, amongst other things loss of occupancy, noisy pixels, and silent pixels. A quantitative analysis of the single event upsets as well as the operational issues and mitigation techniques are presented.

  1. Helping Children and Youth Who Have Experienced Traumatic Events. National Children's Mental Health Awareness Day--May 3, 2011. HHS Publication Number SMA-11-4642

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Childhood exposure to traumatic events is a major public health problem in the United States. Traumatic events can include witnessing or experiencing physical or sexual abuse, violence in families and communities, loss of a loved one, refugee and war experiences, living with a family member whose caregiving ability is impaired, and having a…

  2. [Prevalence of violent events and post-traumatic stress disorder in the Mexican population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Mora Icaza, Maria Elena; Borges-Guimaraes, Guilherme; Lara, Carmen; Ramos-Lira, Luciana; Zambrano, Joaquín; Fleiz-Bautista, Clara

    2005-01-01

    To report the rate of exposure to different violent events, their demographic correlates, the prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and the impact on quality of life. The National Survey of Psychiatric Epidemiology is representative of the Mexican urban population aged 18 to 65. The survey was undertaken in 2001 and 2002 using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI- 15) computerized version. The statistical analyses take into account the multistage, stratified, and weighted sample design. Kaplan-Meier and logistic regressions were performed. Sixty-eight percent of the population has been exposed to at least one stressful life event. Exposure varies by sex (rape, harassment, and sexual abuse are more frequent in women; accidents and being a victim of burglary among men) and by age (more frequent in children, adolescents, young adult women, and the elderly). By sex, 2.3% of women and 0.49% of men present PTSD. Rape, harassment, kidnapping, and sexual abuse are the events most associated with PTSD. The results suggest the need to increase treatment coverage to attend the consequences of violence, taking into consideration the important gender and age variations.

  3. PTSD and Comorbid Disorders in a Representative Sample of Adolescents: The Risk Associated with Multiple Exposures to Potentially Traumatic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Alexandra; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the impact of multiple exposures to potentially traumatic events (PTEs), including sexual victimization, physical victimization, and witnessed violence, on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbid conditions (i.e., major depressive episode [MDE], and substance use [SUD]). Methods: Participants were a…

  4. Life stress versus traumatic stress: The impact of life events on psychological functioning in children with and without serious illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Victoria W; Long, Alanna; Phipps, Sean

    2016-01-01

    To determine the differential impact of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and other stressful life events on psychological functioning in 2 groups of children: those with cancer and those without history of serious illness. Children with cancer age 8-17 (n = 254) and age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-matched controls (n = 142) completed self-report measures of stressful life events and psychological functioning. Stressful life events included those that may meet Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) A1 criteria (PTEs; 9 events) and others that would likely not (other events; 21 events). Children with cancer endorsed significantly more PTEs than control children. There were no differences between groups in number of other events experienced. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that number of other events accounted for significant variance in psychological functioning, above and beyond group status, demographic factors (age and socioeconomic status), and number of PTEs. The number of cumulative other events experienced is a significant predictor of psychological functioning in both youth with serious illness and controls. In contrast, cumulative PTEs appear to have a minor (albeit significant) impact on children's psychological functioning. Assessment of psychological functioning would benefit from a thorough history of stressful life events, regardless of their potential traumatic impact. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Schema Driven Construction of Future Autobiographical Traumatic Events: The Future is Much More Troubling than the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Research on future episodic thought has produced compelling theories and results in cognitive psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and clinical psychology. To integrate these using basic concepts and methods from autobiographical memory research, 76 undergraduates remembered past and imagined future positive and negative events that had or would have a major impact on them. Correlations of the online ratings of visual and auditory imagery, emotion, and other measures demonstrated that individuals used the same processes to the same extent to remember past and construct future events. These measures predicted the theoretically important metacognitive judgment of past reliving and future ‘preliving’ in similar ways. Future negative events had much higher scores than past negative events on standardized tests of reactions to traumatic events, scores in the range that would qualify for a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which was replicated (n = 52) to check for order effects. Consistent with earlier work, future events had less sensory vividness. Thus, the imagined symptoms of future events were unlikely to be caused by sensory vividness. To confirm this, 63 undergraduates produced numerous added details between two constructions of the same negative future events, removing deficits in rated vividness with no increase in the standardized tests of reactions to traumatic events. Neuroticism predicted individuals’ reactions to negative past events but did not predict imagined reactions to future events. This set of novel methods and findings are interpreted in the contexts of the literatures of episodic future thought, autobiographical memory, PTSD, and classic schema theory. PMID:23607632

  6. Lasting consequences of traumatic events on behavioral and skeletal parameters in a mouse model for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongrun; Watt, Heather; Kesavan, Chandrasekhar; Johnson, Patrick J; Wergedal, Jon E; Mohan, Subburaman

    2012-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that not only affects mental health, but may also affect bone health. However, there have been no studies to examine the direct relationship between PTSD and bone. We employed electric shocks in mice to simulate traumatic events that cause PTSD. We also injected the anxiogenic drug FG-7142 prior to electric shocks. Electric shocks created lasting conditioned fear memory in all mice. In young mice, electric shocks elicited not only behavioral response but also skeletal response, and injection of FG-7142 appeared to increase both types of response. For example in behavioral response within the first week, mice shocked alone froze an average of 6.2 sec in 10 sec tests, and mice injected with FG-7142 froze 7.6 sec, both significantly different (PPTSD-like behavior was associated with reduced bone mass acquisition. This is the first study to document evidence that traumatic events induce lasting consequences on both behavior and skeletal growth, and electric shocks coupled with injection of anxiogenic FG-7142 in young mice can be used as a model to study the effect of PTSD-like symptoms on bone development.

  7. Potentially traumatic events and mental health problems among children of Iraqi refugees: The roles of relationships with parents and feelings about school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentacosta, Christopher J; McLear, Caitlin M; Ziadni, Maisa S; Lumley, Mark A; Arfken, Cynthia L

    2016-01-01

    This study examined mental health problems among children of Iraqi refugees, most of whom were Christian. Exposure to potentially traumatic events was hypothesized to predict more symptoms of depression and traumatic stress. Moreover, youth reports of supportive relationships with parents and positive feelings about school were examined in relation to mental health problems. These promotive factors were expected to mitigate the hypothesized association between traumatic event exposure and mental health problems. Participants were 211 youth recruited from agencies and programs serving Iraqi refugees in a large metropolitan area in the United States. The hypotheses were partially supported. Youth who reported experiencing more potentially traumatic events endorsed more traumatic stress and depression symptoms. After accounting for exposure to potentially traumatic events and other covariates, youth who reported more positive feelings about school endorsed fewer symptoms of traumatic stress, and youth who reported more supportive relationships with parents endorsed fewer symptoms of depression. In addition, there was an interaction between potentially traumatic events and relationships with parents when predicting depression symptoms. Youth endorsed higher levels of depression symptoms when they reported less supportive relationships, regardless of the amount of traumatic event exposure, whereas youth endorsed lower levels of depression symptoms when they reported more supportive relationships with parents, but only at low levels of traumatic event exposure. Otherwise, the main effects were not qualified by interactions between potentially traumatic event exposure and the promotive factors. The findings from this study have implications for future research, policy, and practice with children of refugees. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Pre-event trajectories of mental health and health-related disabilities, and post-event traumatic stress symptoms and health: A 7-wave population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, Peter G; Bosmans, Mark W G; van der Meulen, Erik; Vermunt, Jeroen K

    2016-12-30

    It is unknown to what extent classes of trajectories of pre-event mental health problems (MHP) and health-related disabilities (HRD), predict post-event traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), MHP and HRD. Aim of the present 7-wave study was to assess the predictive values using a representative sample of adult Dutch (N=4052) participating in three health-surveys in November-December 2009 (T1), 2010 (T2), 2011 (T3). In total, 2988 out of 4052 also participated in trauma-surveys in April(T4), August(T5) and December(T6) 2012 and a fourth health-survey in November-December 2012 (T7). About 10% (N=314) was confronted with potentially traumatic events (PTE) in the 4 months before T4 or T5. Latent class analyses among 4052 respondents identified four classes of pre-event MHP and HRD. Series of multivariate logistic regression analyses with class membership, peri-traumatic stress, type of event, gender, age and education as predictors, showed that classes with high levels of MHP or HRD, were more at risk for high levels of PTSS at baseline and follow-ups at 4 and 8 months, than classes with low levels of MHP or HRD. These classes were very strong predictors for high levels of post-event MHP and HRD: no differences were found between non-affected and affected respondents with different levels of peri-traumatic stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Very Large Inflammatory Odontogenic Cyst with Origin on a Single Long Time Traumatized Lower Incisor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Filipe; Andre, Saudade; Moreira, Andre; Carames, Joao

    2015-01-01

    One of the consequences of traumatic injuries is the chance of aseptic pulp necrosis to occur which in time may became infected and give origin to periapical pathosis. Although the apical granulomas and cysts are a common condition, there appearance as an extremely large radiolucent image is a rare finding. Differential diagnosis with other radiographic-like pathologies, such as keratocystic odontogenic tumour or unicystic ameloblastoma, is mandatory. The purpose of this paper is to report a very large radicular cyst caused by a single mandibular incisor traumatized long back, in a 60-year-old male. Medical and clinical histories were obtained, radiographic and cone beam CT examinations performed and an initial incisional biopsy was done. The final decision was to perform a surgical enucleation of a lesion, 51.4 mm in length. The enucleated tissue biopsy analysis was able to render the diagnosis as an inflammatory odontogenic cyst. A 2 year follow-up showed complete bone recovery. PMID:26393219

  10. Near bed suspended sediment flux by single turbulent events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirshahi, Seyed Mohammad; Kwoll, Eva; Winter, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The role of small scale single turbulent events in the vertical mixing of near bed suspended sediments was explored in a shallow shelf sea environment. High frequency velocity and suspended sediment concentration (SSC; calibrated from the backscatter intensity) were collected using an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV). Using quadrant analysis, the despiked velocity time series was divided into turbulent events and small background fluctuations. Reynolds stress and Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) calculated from all velocity samples, were compared to the same turbulent statistics calculated only from velocity samples classified as turbulent events (Reevents and TKEevents). The comparison showed that Reevents and TKEevents was increased 3 and 1.6 times, respectively, when small background fluctuations were removed and that the correlation with SSC for TKE could be improved through removal of the latter. The correlation between instantaneous vertical turbulent flux (w ‧) and SSC fluctuations (SSC ‧) exhibits a tidal pattern with the maximum correlation at peak ebb and flood currents, when strong turbulent events appear. Individual turbulent events were characterized by type, strength, duration and length. Cumulative vertical turbulent sediment fluxes and average SSC associated with individual turbulent events were calculated. Over the tidal cycle, ejections and sweeps were the most dominant events, transporting 50% and 36% of the cumulative vertical turbulent event sediment flux, respectively. Although the contribution of outward interactions to the vertical turbulent event sediment flux was low (11%), single outward interaction events were capable of inducing similar SSC ‧ as sweep events. The results suggest that on time scales of tens of minutes to hours, TKE may be appropriate to quantify turbulence in sediment transport studies, but that event characteristics, particular the upward turbulent flux need to be accounted for when considering sediment transport

  11. European accelerator facilities for single event effects testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, L; Nickson, R; Harboe-Sorensen, R [ESA-ESTEC, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Hajdas, W; Berger, G

    1997-03-01

    Single event effects are an important hazard to spacecraft and payloads. The advances in component technology, with shrinking dimensions and increasing complexity will give even more importance to single event effects in the future. The ground test facilities are complex and expensive and the complexities of installing a facility are compounded by the requirement that maximum control is to be exercised by users largely unfamiliar with accelerator technology. The PIF and the HIF are the result of experience gained in the field of single event effects testing and represent a unique collaboration between space technology and accelerator experts. Both facilities form an essential part of the European infrastructure supporting space projects. (J.P.N.)

  12. Post-traumatic stress symptoms in Swedish obstetricians and midwives after severe obstetric events: a cross-sectional retrospective survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlberg, Å; Andreen Sachs, M; Johannesson, K; Hallberg, G; Jonsson, M; Skoog Svanberg, A; Högberg, U

    2017-07-01

    To examine post-traumatic stress reactions among obstetricians and midwives, experiences of support and professional consequences after severe events in the labour ward. Cross-sectional online survey from January 7 to March 10, 2014. Members of the Swedish Society of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and the Swedish Association of Midwives. Potentially traumatic events were defined as: the child died or was severely injured during delivery; maternal near-miss; maternal mortality; and other events such as violence or threat. The validated Screen Questionnaire Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (SQ-PTSD), based on DSM-IV (1994) 4th edition, was used to assess partial post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and probable PTSD. Partial or probable PTSD. The response rate was 47% for obstetricians (n = 706) and 40% (n = 1459) for midwives. Eighty-four percent of the obstetricians and 71% of the midwives reported experiencing at least one severe event on the delivery ward. Fifteen percent of both professions reported symptoms indicative of partial PTSD, whereas 7% of the obstetricians and 5% of the midwives indicated symptoms fulfilling PTSD criteria. Having experienced emotions of guilt or perceived insufficient support from friends predicted a higher risk of suffering from partial or probable PTSD. Obstetricians and midwives with partial PTSD symptoms chose to change their work to outpatient care significantly more often than colleagues without these symptoms. A substantial proportion of obstetricians and midwives reported symptoms of partial or probable PTSD after severe traumatic events experienced on the labour ward. Support and resilience training could avoid suffering and consequences for professional carers. In a survey 15% of Swedish obstetricians and midwives reported PTSD symptoms after their worst obstetric event. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. Multiple-Event, Single-Photon Counting Imaging Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyu; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Sun, Chao; Wang, Kang L.

    2011-01-01

    The single-photon counting imaging sensor is typically an array of silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes that are monolithically integrated with CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) readout, signal processing, and addressing circuits located in each pixel and the peripheral area of the chip. The major problem is its single-event method for photon count number registration. A single-event single-photon counting imaging array only allows registration of up to one photon count in each of its pixels during a frame time, i.e., the interval between two successive pixel reset operations. Since the frame time can t be too short, this will lead to very low dynamic range and make the sensor merely useful for very low flux environments. The second problem of the prior technique is a limited fill factor resulting from consumption of chip area by the monolithically integrated CMOS readout in pixels. The resulting low photon collection efficiency will substantially ruin any benefit gained from the very sensitive single-photon counting detection. The single-photon counting imaging sensor developed in this work has a novel multiple-event architecture, which allows each of its pixels to register as more than one million (or more) photon-counting events during a frame time. Because of a consequently boosted dynamic range, the imaging array of the invention is capable of performing single-photon counting under ultra-low light through high-flux environments. On the other hand, since the multiple-event architecture is implemented in a hybrid structure, back-illumination and close-to-unity fill factor can be realized, and maximized quantum efficiency can also be achieved in the detector array.

  14. Multi-Unit Initiating Event Analysis for a Single-Unit Internal Events Level 1 PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong San; Park, Jin Hee; Lim, Ho Gon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011 highlighted the importance of considering the risks from multi-unit accidents at a site. The ASME/ANS probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) standard also includes some requirements related to multi-unit aspects, one of which (IE-B5) is as follows: 'For multi-unit sites with shared systems, DO NOT SUBSUME multi-unit initiating events if they impact mitigation capability [1].' However, the existing single-unit PSA models do not explicitly consider multi-unit initiating events and hence systems shared by multiple units (e.g., alternate AC diesel generator) are fully credited for the single unit and ignores the need for the shared systems by other units at the same site [2]. This paper describes the results of the multi-unit initiating event (IE) analysis performed as a part of the at-power internal events Level 1 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for an OPR1000 single unit ('reference unit'). In this study, a multi-unit initiating event analysis for a single-unit PSA was performed, and using the results, dual-unit LOOP initiating event was added to the existing PSA model for the reference unit (OPR1000 type). Event trees were developed for dual-unit LOOP and dual-unit SBO which can be transferred from dual- unit LOOP. Moreover, CCF basic events for 5 diesel generators were modelled. In case of simultaneous SBO occurrences in both units, this study compared two different assumptions on the availability of the AAC D/G. As a result, when dual-unit LOOP initiating event was added to the existing single-unit PSA model, the total CDF increased by 1∼ 2% depending on the probability that the AAC D/G is available to a specific unit in case of simultaneous SBO in both units.

  15. Exposures to war-related traumatic events and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms among displaced Darfuri female university students: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Alia; Crutzen, Rik; Van den Borne, H W

    2012-08-03

    With the deaths of hundreds of thousands and the displacement of up to three million Darfuris, the increasingly complex and on-going war in Darfur has warranted the need to investigate war-related severity and current mental health levels amongst its civilian population. The purpose of this study is to explore the association between war-related exposures and assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms amongst a sample of Darfuri female university students at Ahfad University for Women (AUW) in Omdurman city. An exploratory cross-sectional study among a representative sample of Darfuri female university students at AUW (N = 123) was conducted in February 2010. Using an adapted version of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ), war-related exposures and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed. Means and standard deviations illustrated the experiential severity of war exposure dimensions and PTSD symptom sub-scales, while Pearson correlations tested for the strength of association between dimensions of war exposures and PTSD symptom sub-scales. Approximately 42 % of the Darfuri participants reported being displaced and 54 % have experienced war-related traumatic exposures either as victims or as witnesses (M = 28, SD = 14.24, range 0 - 40 events). Also, there was a strong association between the experiential dimension of war-related trauma exposures and the full symptom of PTSD. Moreover, the refugee-specific self-perception of functioning sub-scale within the PTSD measurement scored a mean of 3.2 (SD = .56), well above the 2.0 cut-off. This study provides evidence for a relationship between traumatic war-related exposures and symptom rates of PTSD among AUW Darfuri female students. Findings are discussed in terms of AUW counseling service improvement.

  16. Exposures to war-related traumatic events and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms among displaced Darfuri female university students: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badri Alia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the deaths of hundreds of thousands and the displacement of up to three million Darfuris, the increasingly complex and on-going war in Darfur has warranted the need to investigate war-related severity and current mental health levels amongst its civilian population. The purpose of this study is to explore the association between war-related exposures and assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms amongst a sample of Darfuri female university students at Ahfad University for Women (AUW in Omdurman city. Methods An exploratory cross-sectional study among a representative sample of Darfuri female university students at AUW (N = 123 was conducted in February 2010. Using an adapted version of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ, war-related exposures and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms were assessed. Means and standard deviations illustrated the experiential severity of war exposure dimensions and PTSD symptom sub-scales, while Pearson correlations tested for the strength of association between dimensions of war exposures and PTSD symptom sub-scales. Results Approximately 42 % of the Darfuri participants reported being displaced and 54 % have experienced war-related traumatic exposures either as victims or as witnesses (M = 28, SD = 14.24, range 0 – 40 events. Also, there was a strong association between the experiential dimension of war-related trauma exposures and the full symptom of PTSD. Moreover, the refugee-specific self-perception of functioning sub-scale within the PTSD measurement scored a mean of 3.2 (SD = .56, well above the 2.0 cut-off. Conclusions This study provides evidence for a relationship between traumatic war-related exposures and symptom rates of PTSD among AUW Darfuri female students. Findings are discussed in terms of AUW counseling service improvement.

  17. Traumatic event exposure and gambling: associations with clinical, neurocognitive, and personality variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppink, Eric W; Grant, Jon E

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiological research has shown high comorbidity rates between at-risk/problem (ARP) gambling and trauma. However, few studies have assessed the neurocognitive implications of this comorbidity, and even fewer have been conducted with young adults. The present study sought to determine the neurocognitive, clinical, personality types associated with trauma in ARP gamblers. The present study analyzed young adult gamblers age 18 to 29 drawn from a study investigating impulsivity. Of the 230 gamblers, 52 (22.6%) reported experiencing a traumatic event during their life to which they responded with intense fear, helplessness, or horror. The remaining participants indicated no experience with trauma. ARP gamblers who had experienced trauma showed significant neurocognitive deficits on tasks related to decision-making, risk adjustment, sustained attention, and spatial working memory. We did not detect significant differences in gambling severity. Trauma was associated with lower perceived quality of life and self-esteem, and higher rates of current comorbid diagnoses, suicidality, substance use disorders, and nicotine use. This study suggests that trauma may not exacerbate the severity of gambling in ARP gamblers. However, significant differences in supplemental clinical and neurocognitive measures may indicate that trauma is an important consideration when assessing problems beyond those related directly to gambling severity.

  18. Analysing the relationship between traumatic biographical events and the current structural functioning of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiltz, L; Schiltz, J

    2008-01-01

    We present the general structure of a multi-annual research project. Our general expectancy concerns the possibilities of arts psychotherapy as a means of launching the blocked process of subjectivation with people suffering from exclusion, precarity and marginalization. The research project follows a complex research design with a sequential strategy, the first part consisting in an integrated psychosocial and clinical study using a mixed methodology. We constructed special rating scales for the analysis of the data of a semi-structured biographical interview and also for the holistic interpretation of the Rotter Blank Sentences Test, separating the associations to sentences beginning with the third and first person. The correlations between two sets of variables (biographical interview and Rotter test) were computed for the total experimental group (N=206), and for clinical subgroups. We shall analyse the matrices of correlations (Spearman's Rho) with the help of optimal scaling procedures (OVERALS). The links between traumatic biographical events and responses to the 3rd, respectively 1st person items of the Rotter test are interpreted in terms of unconscious versus conscious psychological processes and allow us analysing the expression of defence mechanisms and coping strategies. The results of the study are discussed in the light of the recent traumatogenic hypothesis of borderline functioning.

  19. Potentially Traumatic Events, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Depression among Adults in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Cassie; Berenz, Erin C; Sheerin, Christina; Amstadter, Ananda B; Canino, Glorisa; Silberg, Judy

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine the prevalence of potentially traumatic events (PTEs), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; data available in males only), and depressive symptoms in a Puerto Rican sample of 678 adult caretakers (50% female) of twins participating in the Puerto Rican Infant Twin Study. The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) was utilized to assess rates of PTEs, PTSD, and depression among male participants while an abbreviated version of the CIDI 3.0 and the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire were administered to females to assess PTEs and depressive symptoms. Significantly more males than females reported exposure to a PTE (76.6% vs. 44.2%, χ(2) = 64.44, p < 0.001). In males, endorsement of multiple PTEs was associated with increased level of PTSD symptomatology (β = 0.33, p < 0.001). With regard to depression, a similar dose-response relationship was found in both males and females, with depressive symptoms increasing as number of PTEs increased (βs = 0.15, 0.16, ps < 0.05). Exposure to an attack with a weapon was significantly associated with increased depression symptoms in both males and females (βs = 0.24, 0.20, ps < 0.01, respectively). These findings highlight the need for identification of putative risk and resilience factors among PTE-exposed individuals in Puerto Rico.

  20. Potentially Traumatic Events, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Depression among Adults in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassie eOverstreet

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to examine the prevalence of potentially traumatic events (PTEs, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; data available in males only, and depressive symptoms in a Puerto Rican sample of 678 adult caretakers (50% female of twins participating in the Puerto Rican Infant Twin Study. The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0 was utilized to assess rates of PTEs, PTSD, and depression among male participants while an abbreviated version of the CIDI 3.0 and the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire were administered to females to assess PTEs and depressive symptoms. Significantly more males than females reported exposure to a PTE (76.6% vs. 44.2%, 2=64.44, p<.001. In males, endorsement of multiple PTEs was associated with increased level of PTSD symptomatology ( = .33, p < .001. With regard to depression, a similar dose-response relationship was found in both males and females, with depressive symptoms increasing as number of PTEs increased (s = .15, .16, ps < .05. Exposure to an attack with a weapon was significantly associated with increased depression symptoms in both males and females (s=.24, .20, ps<.01, respectively. These findings highlight the need for identification of putative risk and resilience factors among PTE-exposed individuals in Puerto Rico.

  1. Psychological Effect of an Analogue Traumatic Event Reduced by Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcheret, Kate; Holmes, Emily A; Goodwin, Guy M; Foster, Russell G; Wulff, Katharina

    2015-07-01

    To examine the effect of sleep deprivation compared to sleep, immediately after experimental trauma stimuli on the development of intrusive memories to that trauma stimuli. Participants were exposed to a film with traumatic content (trauma film). The immediate response to the trauma film was assessed, followed by either total sleep deprivation (sleep deprived group, N = 20) or sleep as usual (sleep group, N = 22). Twelve hours after the film viewing the initial psychological effect of the trauma film was measured and for the subsequent 6 days intrusive emotional memories related to the trauma film were recorded in daily life. Academic sleep laboratory and participants' home environment. Healthy paid volunteers. On the first day after the trauma film, the psychological effect as assessed by the Impact of Event Scale - Revised was lower in the sleep deprived group compared to the sleep group. In addition, the sleep deprived group reported fewer intrusive emotional memories (mean 2.28, standard deviation [SD] 2.91) compared to the sleep group (mean 3.76, SD 3.35). Because habitual sleep/circadian patterns, psychological health, and immediate effect of the trauma film were similar at baseline for participants of both groups, the results cannot be accounted for by pre-existing inequalities between groups. Our findings suggest that sleep deprivation on one night, rather than sleeping, reduces emotional effect and intrusive memories following exposure to experimental trauma. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  2. Maternal posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in pediatric primary care: association with child maltreatment and frequency of child exposure to traumatic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemtob, Claude M; Gudiño, Omar G; Laraque, Danielle

    2013-11-01

    Maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be associated with increased risk for child maltreatment and child exposure to traumatic events. Exposure to multiple traumatic events is associated with a wide range of adverse health and social outcomes in children. To examine the association of probable maternal depression, PTSD, and comorbid PTSD and depression with the risk for child maltreatment and parenting stress and with the number of traumatic events to which preschool children are exposed. Cross-sectional observational design. We used analysis of variance to determine whether probable maternal psychopathology groups differed on child maltreatment, parenting stress, and children's exposure to traumatic events. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to examine the unique and interactive effects of depression and PTSD severity scores on these outcomes. Urban pediatric primary care outpatient clinic. Ninety-seven mothers of children aged 3 to 5 years. Pediatric primary care visit. Probable maternal depression and/or PTSD, parenting stress, child exposure to traumatic events, and child maltreatment. Mothers with probable comorbid PTSD and depression reported greater child-directed psychological aggression and physical assault and greater parenting stress. The children of mothers with PTSD (mean number of events the child was exposed to, 5.0) or with comorbid PTSD and depression (3.5 events) experienced more traumatic events than those of mothers with depression (1.2 events) or neither disorder (1.4 events). Severity of depressive symptoms uniquely predicted physical assault and neglect. Symptom scores for PTSD and depression interacted to predict psychological aggression and child exposure to traumatic events. When PTSD symptom severity scores were high, psychological aggression and the number of traumatic events children experienced rose. Depressive symptom severity scores predicted the risk for psychological aggression and exposure to traumatic events

  3. Physical mechanisms of single-event effects in advanced microelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrimpf, Ronald D. [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Vanderbilt University, 5635 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)]. E-mail: ron.schrimpf@vanderbilt.edu; Weller, Robert A. [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Vanderbilt University, 5635 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Mendenhall, Marcus H. [Free Electron Laser Center, Vanderbilt University, Station B 351816, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Reed, Robert A. [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Vanderbilt University, 5635 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Massengill, Lloyd W. [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Vanderbilt University, 5635 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    The single-event error rate in advanced semiconductor technologies can be estimated more accurately than conventional methods by using simulation based on accurate descriptions of a large number of individual particle interactions. The results can be used to select the ion types and energies for accelerator testing and to identify situations in which nuclear reactions will contribute to the error rate.

  4. Physical mechanisms of single-event effects in advanced microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrimpf, Ronald D.; Weller, Robert A.; Mendenhall, Marcus H.; Reed, Robert A.; Massengill, Lloyd W.

    2007-01-01

    The single-event error rate in advanced semiconductor technologies can be estimated more accurately than conventional methods by using simulation based on accurate descriptions of a large number of individual particle interactions. The results can be used to select the ion types and energies for accelerator testing and to identify situations in which nuclear reactions will contribute to the error rate

  5. Analyzing Single-Event Gate Ruptures In Power MOSFET's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoutendyk, John A.

    1993-01-01

    Susceptibilities of power metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET's) to single-event gate ruptures analyzed by exposing devices to beams of energetic bromine ions while applying appropriate bias voltages to source, gate, and drain terminals and measuring current flowing into or out of each terminal.

  6. Single-event burnout of epitaxial bipolar transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuboyama, S.; Sugimoto, K.; Shugyo, S.; Matsuda, S. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Hirao, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan)

    1998-12-01

    Single-Event Burnout (SEB) of bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) has been observed nondestructively. It was revealed that all the NPN BJTs, including small signal transistors, with thinner epitaxial layers were inherently susceptible to the SEB phenomenon. It was demonstrated that several design parameters of BJTs were responsible for SEB susceptibility. Additionally, destructive and nondestructive modes of SEB were identified.

  7. Single-event burnout of epitaxial bipolar transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuboyama, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Kenji; Matsuda, Sumio [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Ysukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Hirao, Toshio

    1998-10-01

    Single-event burnout (SEB) of bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) has been observed nondestructively. It was revealed that all the NPN BJTs including small signal transistors with thinner epitaxial layer were inherently susceptible to the SEB phenomenon. It was demonstrated that several design parameters of BJTs were responsible for SEB susceptibility. Additionally, destructive and nondestructive modes of SEB were identified. (author)

  8. Single Event Effects in FPGA Devices 2015-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth; Pellish, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of single event effects in FPGA devices 2015-2016 including commercial Xilinx V5 heavy ion accelerated testing, Xilinx Kintex-7 heavy ion accelerated testing, mitigation study, and investigation of various types of triple modular redundancy (TMR) for commercial SRAM based FPGAs.

  9. Consistency of Self-Reported Neurocognitive Symptoms, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, and Concussive Events From End of First Deployment to Veteran Health Administration Comprehensive Traumatic Brain Injury Evaluation by Operations Enduring Freedom/Iraqi Freedom/New Dawn Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Arthur C; Fingerhut, Esther C

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the consistency of self-reported symptoms and concussive events in combat veterans who reported experiencing concussive events. One hundred and forty, single deployed, Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation New Dawn combat veterans with Veteran Health Administration (VHA) Comprehensive Traumatic Brain Injury Evaluations (CTBIE) and no post-deployment head injury were examined to assess consistency of self-reported (a) traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related symptoms, (b) post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related symptoms, and (c) TBI-related concussive events from soon after deployment to time of VHA CTBIE. Compared to their self-report of symptoms and traumatic events at the time of their Post-Deployment Health Assessment, at the time of their comprehensive VHA evaluation, subjects reported significantly greater impairment in concentration, decision making, memory, headache, and sleep. In addition, although half the subjects denied any PTSD symptoms post-deployment, approximately three quarters reported experiencing all four PTSD screening symptoms near the time of the VHA CTBIEs. At the latter time, subjects also reported significantly more TBI-related concussive events, as well as more post-concussive sequelae such as loss of consciousness immediately following these concussive events. Finally, although 84% reported a level of impairment so severe as to render all but the simplest activity doable, the vast majority simultaneously reported working and/or attending college. These findings raise questions regarding the accuracy of veteran self-report of both near and distant traumatic events, and argue for the inclusion of contemporaneous Department of Defense (DOD) records in veteran assessment and treatment planning. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. Insecure attachment style and cumulative traumatic life events in patients with somatoform pain disorder: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacak, Yeliz; Morawa, Eva; Tuffner, Daniela; Erim, Yesim

    2017-12-01

    Current models assume somatoform pain disorder (SPD) to be the result of a complex interaction between bio- and psychosocial factors, but the etiology is still not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of attachment style and the frequency of traumatic life events, especially childhood adversities, in patients with SPD compared to healthy controls. We compared 65 patients with SPD (confirmed by Structured Clinical Interview, SCID-I) to 65 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. The following questionnaires were employed: Relationship Scale Questionnaire (RSQ), Essen Trauma Inventory (ETI), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-15). A logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association between SPD and psychological factors. Insecure attachment was significantly more prevalent (60%) in patients with SPD compared to healthy subjects (14%; pcumulative traumatic events emphasize their importance as risk factors of SPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Childhood traumatic events and types of auditory verbal hallucinations in first-episode schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiak, Błażej; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Kiejna, Andrzej; Frydecka, Dorota

    2016-04-01

    Evidence is accumulating that childhood trauma might be associated with higher severity of positive symptoms in patients with psychosis and higher incidence of psychotic experiences in non-clinical populations. However, it remains unknown whether the history of childhood trauma might be associated with particular types of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). We assessed childhood trauma using the Early Trauma Inventory Self-Report - Short Form (ETISR-SF) in 94 first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients. Lifetime psychopathology was evaluated using the Operational Criteria for Psychotic Illness (OPCRIT) checklist, while symptoms on the day of assessment were examined using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Based on ETISR-SF, patients were divided into those with and without the history of childhood trauma: FES(+) and FES(-) patients. FES(+) patients had significantly higher total number of AVH types and Schneiderian first-rank AVH as well as significantly higher PANSS P3 item score (hallucinatory behavior) in comparison with FES(-) patients. They experienced significantly more frequently third person AVH and abusive/accusatory/persecutory voices. These differences remained significant after controlling for education, PANSS depression factor score and chlorpromazine equivalent. Linear regression analysis revealed that the total number of AVH types was predicted by sexual abuse score after controlling for above mentioned confounders. This effect was significant only in females. Our results indicate that the history of childhood trauma, especially sexual abuse, is associated with higher number AVH in females but not in males. Third person AVH and abusive/accusatory/persecutory voices, representing Schneiderian first-rank symptoms, might be particularly related to childhood traumatic events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Charge collection and SEU (Single Event Upset) mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musseau, O.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the mechanisms of single event upset in microelectronic devices due to interaction with cosmic ions. Experimental and theoretical results are presented, and actual questions and problems are discussed. A brief introduction recalls the creation of the dense plasma of electron-hole pairs along the ion track. The basic processes for charge collection in a simple np junction (drift and diffusion) are presented. The funneling-field effect is discussed and experimental results are compared to numerical simulations and semi-empirical models. Charge collection in actual microelectronic structures is then presented. Single event upset of memory cells is discussed, based on numerical and experimental data. The main parameters for device characterization are presented. From the physical interpretation of charge collection mechanisms, the intrinsic sensitivity of various microelectronic technologies is determined and compared to experimental data. Scaling laws and future trends are discussed. (author)

  13. Lifetime Exposure to Traumatic and Other Stressful Life Events and Hair Cortisol in a Multi-Racial/Ethnic Sample of Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Hannah M. C.; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Ritz, Thomas; Coull, Brent A.; Gennings, Chris; Wright, Robert O.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether lifetime exposure to stressful and traumatic events alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, as indexed by hair cortisol, regardless of associated psychopathology, among pregnant women of different racial/ethnic backgrounds. 180 women provided hair samples for measurement of integrated cortisol levels throughout pregnancy and information regarding their lifetime exposure to stressful and traumatic life events. Results indicate that increased lifetime exposure to traumatic events was associated with significantly greater hair cortisol over the course of pregnancy. Similarly, greater lifetime exposure to stressful and traumatic events weighted by reported negative impact (over the previous 12 months) was associated with significantly greater hair cortisol during pregnancy. All analyses controlled for maternal age, education, body mass index (BMI), use of inhaled corticosteroids, race/ethnicity, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms. Following stratification by race/ethnicity, associations between stressful and traumatic life events and hair cortisol were found among Black women only. This is the first study to consider associations between lifetime stress exposures and hair cortisol in a sociodemographically diverse sample of pregnant women. Increased exposure to stressful and traumatic events, independent of PTSD and depressive symptoms, was associated with higher cortisol production, particularly in Black women. Future research should investigate the influence of such increased cortisol exposure on developmental outcomes among offspring. PMID:26551892

  14. Applications of heavy ion microprobe for single event effects analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Robert A.; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Pellish, Jonathan A.; Sierawski, Brian; Warren, Kevin M.; Porter, Mark; Wilkinson, Jeff; Marshall, Paul W.; Niu, Guofu; Cressler, John D.; Schrimpf, Ronald D.; Tipton, Alan; Weller, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    The motion of ionizing-radiation-induced rogue charge carriers in a semiconductor can create unwanted voltage and current conditions within a microelectronic circuit. If sufficient unwanted charge or current occurs on a sensitive node, a variety of single event effects (SEEs) can occur with consequences ranging from trivial to catastrophic. This paper describes the application of heavy ion microprobes to assist with calibration and validation of SEE modeling approaches

  15. Single event effects in pulse width modulation controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzin, S.H.; Crain, W.R.; Crawford, K.B.; Hansel, S.J.; Kirshman, J.F.; Koga, R.

    1996-01-01

    SEE testing was performed on pulse width modulation (PWM) controllers which are commonly used in switching mode power supply systems. The devices are designed using both Set-Reset (SR) flip-flops and Toggle (T) flip-flops which are vulnerable to single event upset (SEU) in a radiation environment. Depending on the implementation of the different devices the effect can be significant in spaceflight hardware

  16. Single-Event Effects in Silicon Carbide Power Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan C.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Ikpe, Stanley; Topper, Alyson D.; Wilcox, Edward P.; Kim, Hak; Phan, Anthony M.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program Silicon Carbide Power Device Subtask efforts in FY15. Benefits of SiC are described and example NASA Programs and Projects desiring this technology are given. The current status of the radiation tolerance of silicon carbide power devices is given and paths forward in the effort to develop heavy-ion single-event effect hardened devices indicated.

  17. Endovascular Repair of Traumatic Rupture of the Thoracic Aorta: Single-Center Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saratzis, Nikolaos A.; Saratzis, Athanasios N.; Melas, Nikolaos; Ginis, Georgios; Lioupis, Athanasios; Lykopoulos, Dimitrios; Lazaridis, John; Dimitrios, Kiskinis

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. Traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta secondary to blunt chest trauma is a life-threatening emergency and a common cause of death, usually following violent collisions. The objective of this retrospective report was to evaluate the efficacy of endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic disruptions with a single commercially available stent-graft. Methods. Nine men (mean age 29.5 years) were admitted to our institution between January 2003 and January 2006 due to blunt aortic trauma following violent motor vehicle collisions. Plain chest radiography, spiral computed tomography, aortography, and transesophageal echocardiography were used for diagnostic purposes in all cases. All patients were diagnosed with contained extramural thoracic aortic hematomas, secondary to aortic disruption. One patient was also diagnosed with a traumatic thoracic aortic dissection, secondary to blunt trauma. All subjects were poor surgical candidates, due to major injuries such as multiple bone fractures, abdominal hematomas, and pulmonary contusions. All repairs were performed using the EndoFit (LeMaitre Vascular) stent-graft. Results. Complete exclusion of the traumatic aortic disruption and pseudoaneurysm was achieved and verified at intraoperative arteriography and on CT scans, within 10 days of the repair in all patients. In 1 case the deployment of a second cuff was necessary due to a secondary endoleak. In 2 cases the left subclavian artery was occluded to achieve adequate graft fixation. No procedure-related deaths have occurred and no cardiac or peripheral vascular complications were observed within the 12 months (range 8-16 months) follow-up. Conclusions. This is the first time the EndoFit graft has been utilized in the treatment of thoracic aortic disruptions secondary to chest trauma. The repair of such pathologies is technically feasible and early follow-up results are promising

  18. Positive future orientation as a mediator between traumatic events and mental health among children affected by HIV/AIDS in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jintao; Zhao, Guoxiang; Li, Xiaoming; Hong, Yan; Fang, Xiaoyi; Barnett, Douglas; Lin, Xiuyun; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhang, Liying

    2009-12-01

    The current study was designed to explore the effect of future orientation in mediating the relationship between traumatic events and mental health in children affected by HIV/AIDS in rural China. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1221 children affected by HIV/AIDS (755 AIDS orphans and 466 vulnerable children). Future orientation among children was measured using three indicators (future expectation, hopefulness toward the future, and perceived control over the future). Measures of mental health consisted of depression, loneliness, and self-esteem. Children's experience of any traumatic events was measured using a modified version of the Life Incidence of Traumatic Events-Student Form. Mediation analysis was conducted using structural equation modeling (SEM) methods. Among the children surveyed, most of the traumatic indicators were negatively associated with future expectation, hopefulness, perceived control, and self-esteem, and positively associated with depression and loneliness. The SEM of mediation analysis demonstrated an adequate fit. Future orientation fully mediated the relationship between traumatic events and mental health and accounted for 67.9% of the total effect of traumatic events on mental health. Results of this study support the positive effect of future expectation in mediating the relationship between traumatic events and mental health among children affected by HIV/AIDS in China. Future mental health promotion and intervention efforts targeting children affected by HIV/AIDS should include components that can mitigate the negative impact of traumatic events on their lives. These components may aim to develop children's positive future expectations, increase their hopefulness toward the future, and improve their perceived control over the future.

  19. Analyzing System on A Chip Single Event Upset Responses using Single Event Upset Data, Classical Reliability Models, and Space Environment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth; Campola, Michael; Xapsos, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We are investigating the application of classical reliability performance metrics combined with standard single event upset (SEU) analysis data. We expect to relate SEU behavior to system performance requirements. Our proposed methodology will provide better prediction of SEU responses in harsh radiation environments with confidence metrics. single event upset (SEU), single event effect (SEE), field programmable gate array devises (FPGAs)

  20. It is highly unlikely that the development of an abdominal wall hernia can be attributable to a single strenuous event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Samir; Poston, Graeme J

    2006-03-01

    There is a commonly held belief that the development of a hernia can be attributed to a single strenuous or traumatic event. Hence, many litigants are successful in compensation claims, causing mounting financial burdens on employers, the courts, insurance companies and the tax-payer. However, there is very little scientific evidence to support this assertion. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether there was any causal link in this process. A total of 133 new patients with 135 abdominal herniae of all varieties (115 inguinal, 3 femoral, 9 umbilical, 4 incisional, and 4 ventral or epigastric), of which 25 were recurrent received structured questionnaires on arrival in the surgical clinic. These questionnaires covered all possible aetiological factors for hernia development (type of work, COAD, smoking, pregnancy, obesity, chronic bladder outflow obstruction, previous surgery including appendicectomy), in addition to any possible attribution to a single strenuous or traumatic event. We then reviewed the GP records in the surgery of all patients who answered positively to the latter possible cause. In the study group, 119 (89%) reported a gradual onset of symptoms. Of the 15 (12 male, 3 female; 11%) who believed that their hernia might be related to a single strenuous or traumatic event, 5 had no other aetiological factors. However, not one of the 15 was found to have contemporaneous forensic medical evidence to support their possible claim. We conclude that we are unable to find any clinical evidence to support the hypothesis that a hernia might develop as the result of one single strenuous or traumatic event. While we accept that this mechanism might still possibly occur, we believe that, at best, it is extremely uncommon. If a medical expert is preparing a report on such a case in a claim for personal injury, then they have a duty to the court to examine carefully all the contemporaneous medical records. If no clinical evidence exists to support the claim

  1. The roles of spirituality in the relationship between traumatic life events, mental health, and drug use among African American women from one southern state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton-Tindall, Michele; Duvall, Jamieson; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Oser, Carrie B

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the role of spirituality as a moderator of the relationship between traumatic life experiences, mental health, and drug use in a sample of African American women. It was hypothesized that there would be an inverse relationship overall between spirituality and mental health and drug use among this sample of African American women. Secondly, was expected that spirituality would moderate the relationship between traumatic life events and mental health and drug use. African American women (n = 206) were recruited from the community and from probation officers in three urban areas of a southern state, and face-to-face interviews were completed. Findings indicated that there was a main effect for spirituality (as measured by existential well-being on the Spiritual Well-Being Scale) and traumatic life events, mental health, and alcohol use. In addition, spirituality was a significant moderator of the relationship between traumatic life events and cocaine use. Discussion and implications for African American women are included.

  2. Event-by-event simulation of single-neutron experiments to test uncertainty relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raedt, H De; Michielsen, K

    2014-01-01

    Results from a discrete-event simulation of a recent single-neutron experiment that tests Ozawa's generalization of Heisenberg's uncertainty relation are presented. The event-based simulation algorithm reproduces the results of the quantum theoretical description of the experiment but does not require the knowledge of the solution of a wave equation, nor does it rely on detailed concepts of quantum theory. In particular, the data from these non-quantum simulations satisfy uncertainty relations derived in the context of quantum theory. (paper)

  3. Fast recognition of single molecules based on single-event photon statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Shuangli; Huang Tao; Liu Yuan; Wang Jun; Zhang Guofeng; Xiao Liantuan; Jia Suotang

    2007-01-01

    Mandel's Q parameter, which is determined from single-event photon statistics, provides an alternative way to recognize single molecules with fluorescence detection, other than the second-order correlation function. It is shown that the Q parameter of an assumed ideal double-molecule fluorescence with the same average photon number as that of the sample fluorescence can act as the criterion for single-molecule recognition. The influence of signal-to-background ratio and the error estimates for photon statistics are also presented. We have applied this method to ascertain single Cy5 dye molecules within hundreds of milliseconds

  4. Brief screening for traumatic life events in female university health service patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan B. Watson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El cribado rutinario de pacientes de atención primaria expuestos a sucesos vitales traumáticos y, particularmente, al trauma por ataque, puede producir beneficios para pacientes y sistemas sanitarios. Sin embargo, tal cribado no ha sido todavía ampliamente adoptado. Para examinar la validez y la utilidad clínica del cribado conciso del trauma en pacientes de atención primaria, se evaluó desde este estudio instrumental la exposición al trauma en una muestra de pacientes universitarias (N = 339. La validez discriminante de una escueta pregunta auto-administrada de cribado sobre la exposición al trauma, perteneciente al módulo de trastorno de estrés postraumático (TEPT de la Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID, fue comparada con un inventario más largo de sucesos vitales traumáticos, el Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire. Dos versiones de la escueta pregunta de cribado fueron evaluadas para determinar su grado de exactitud para identificar a las participantes que informaron de ataque sexual o físico, y/o síntomas de TEPT. La escueta pregunta identificó a más de tres cuartas partes de las supervivientes al ataque traumático y al 96% de mujeres que cumplían los criterios del TEPT. Más del 40% de las participantes informó de al menos un ataque física o sexualmente traumático. El cuatro por ciento de aquellas que no informaron de ataque traumático y una tercera parte que informó de ataque traumático cumplían los criterios para el TEPT. Los resultados sugieren que una escueta pregunta de cribado acerca del trauma por ataque puede ser útil en contextos donde más procedimientos de evaluación que requieren más tiempo no son prácticos.

  5. Surgery for bilateral large intracranial traumatic hematomas: evacuation in a single session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompheak, Heng; Hwang, Sun-Chul; Kim, Dong-Sung; Shin, Dong-Sung; Kim, Bum-Tae

    2014-06-01

    Management guidelines for single intracranial hematomas have been established, but the optimal management of multiple hematomas has little known. We present bilateral traumatic supratentorial hematomas that each has enough volume to be evacuated and discuss how to operate effectively it in a single anesthesia. In total, 203 patients underwent evacuation and/or decompressive craniectomies for acute intracranial hematomas over 5 years. Among them, only eight cases (3.9%) underwent operations for bilateral intracranial hematomas in a single session. Injury mechanism, initial Glasgow Coma Scale score, types of intracranial lesions, surgical methods, and Glasgow outcome scale were evaluated. The most common injury mechanism was a fall (four cases). The types of intracranial lesions were epidural hematoma (EDH)/intracerebral hematoma (ICH) in five, EDH/EDH in one, EDH/subdural hematoma (SDH) in one, and ICH/SDH in one. All cases except one had an EDH. The EDH was addressed first in all cases. Then, the evacuation of the ICH was performed through a small craniotomy or burr hole. All patients except one survived. Bilateral intracranial hematomas that should be removed in a single-session operation are rare. Epidural hematomas almost always occur in these cases and should be removed first to prevent the hematoma from growing during the surgery. Then, the other hematoma, contralateral to the EDH, can be evacuated with a small craniotomy.

  6. Validation of an "Intelligent Mouthguard" Single Event Head Impact Dosimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Adam; Samorezov, Sergey; Benzel, Edward; Miele, Vincent; Brett, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Dating to Colonel John Paul Stapp MD in 1975, scientists have desired to measure live human head impacts with accuracy and precision. But no instrument exists to accurately and precisely quantify single head impact events. Our goal is to develop a practical single event head impact dosimeter known as "Intelligent Mouthguard" and quantify its performance on the benchtop, in vitro and in vivo. In the Intelligent Mouthguard hardware, limited gyroscope bandwidth requires an algorithm-based correction as a function of impact duration. After we apply gyroscope correction algorithm, Intelligent Mouthguard results at time of CG linear acceleration peak correlate to the Reference Hybrid III within our tested range of pulse durations and impact acceleration profiles in American football and Boxing in vitro tests: American football, IMG=1.00REF-1.1g, R2=0.99; maximum time of peak XYZ component imprecision 3.6g and 370 rad/s2; maximum time of peak azimuth and elevation imprecision 4.8° and 2.9°; maximum average XYZ component temporal imprecision 3.3g and 390 rad/s2. Boxing, IMG=1.00REF-0.9 g, R2=0.99, R2=0.98; maximum time of peak XYZ component imprecision 3.9 g and 390 rad/s2, maximum time of peak azimuth and elevation imprecision 2.9° and 2.1°; average XYZ component temporal imprecision 4.0 g and 440 rad/s2. In vivo Intelligent Mouthguard true positive head impacts from American football players and amateur boxers have temporal characteristics (first harmonic frequency from 35 Hz to 79 Hz) within our tested benchtop (first harmonic frequencyIntelligent Mouthguard qualifies as a single event dosimeter in American football and Boxing.

  7. Single Event Upset Studies Using the ATLAS SCT

    CERN Document Server

    Weidberg, A R; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Single Event Upsets (SEU) are expected to occur during high luminosity running of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT). The SEU cross sections were measured in pion beams with momenta in the range 200 to 465 MeV/c and proton test beams at 24 GeV/c but the extrapolation to LHC conditions is non-trivial because of the range of particle types and momenta. The SEUs studied occur in the \\emph{p-i-n} photodiode and the registers in the ABCD chip. Comparisons between predicted SEU rates and those measured from ATLAS data are presented. The implications for ATLAS operation are discussed.

  8. Single Event Upset Studies Using the ATLAS SCT

    CERN Document Server

    Dafinca, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Weidberg, A R

    2014-01-01

    Single Event Upsets (SEU) are expected to occur during high luminosity running of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT). The SEU cross sections were measured in pion beams with momenta in the range 200 to 465 MeV/c and proton test beams at 24 GeV/c but the extrapolation to LHC conditions is non-trivial because of the range of particle types and momenta. The SEUs studied occur in the p-i-n photodiode and the registers in the ABCD chip. Comparisons between predicted SEU rates and those measured from ATLAS data are presented. The implications for ATLAS operation are discussed

  9. Single-event transients (SET) in analog circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Panxun; Zhou Kaiming

    2006-01-01

    A new phenomenon of single- event upset is introduced. The transient signal is produced in the output of analog circuits after a heavy ion strikes. The transient upset can influence the circuit connected with the output of analog circuits. For example, the output of operational amplifier can be connected with the input of a digital counter, and the pulse of sufficiently high transient output induced by an ion can increase counts of the counter. On the other hand, the transient voltage signal at the output of analog circuits can change the stage of other circuits. (authors)

  10. Device simulation of charge collection and single-event upset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, P.E.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper the author reviews the current status of device simulation of ionizing-radiation-induced charge collection and single-event upset (SEU), with an emphasis on significant results of recent years. The author presents an overview of device-modeling techniques applicable to the SEU problem and the unique challenges this task presents to the device modeler. He examines unloaded simulations of radiation-induced charge collection in simple p/n diodes, SEU in dynamic random access memories (DRAM's), and SEU in static random access memories (SRAM's). The author concludes with a few thoughts on future issues likely to confront the SEU device modeler

  11. Single-event burnout of power bipolar junction transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titus, J.L.; Johnson, G.H.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Galloway, K.F.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental evidence of single-event burnout of power bipolar junctions transistors (BJTs) is reported for the first time. Several commercial power BJTs were characterized in a simulated cosmic ray environment using mono-energetic ions at the tandem Van de Graaff accelerator facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Most of the device types exposed to this simulated environment exhibited burnout behavior. In this paper the experimental technique, data, and results are presented, while a qualitative model is used to help explain those results and trends observed in this experiment

  12. Thermomechanical Stresses Analysis of a Single Event Burnout Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tais, Carlos E.; Romero, Eduardo; Demarco, Gustavo L.

    2009-06-01

    This work analyzes the thermal and mechanical effects arising in a power Diffusion Metal Oxide Semiconductor (DMOS) during a Single Event Burnout (SEB) process. For studying these effects we propose a more detailed simulation structure than the previously used by other authors, solving the mathematical models by means of the Finite Element Method. We use a cylindrical heat generation region, with 5 W, 10 W, 50 W and 100 W for emulating the thermal phenomena occurring during SEB processes, avoiding the complexity of the mathematical treatment of the ion-semiconductor interaction.

  13. Exposure to traumatic events at work, posttraumatic symptoms and professional quality of life among midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ran; Leykin, Dmitry; Golan-Hadari, Dita; Lahad, Mooli

    2017-07-01

    in their line of duty, midwives are often exposed to traumatic births that may lead to symptoms of compassion fatigue (CF), which includes burnout (BO) and secondary traumatic stress (STS).Conversely, midwives derive pleasure and great satisfaction in seeing the positive effect they have on their clients. This experience is known as compassion satisfaction (CS). Together, CS and CF comprise the professional quality of life (ProQOL). The aim of this paper was to study midwives' professional quality of life and traumatic experiences. The highly stressful environment of midwives may also include primary exposure to traumatic experiences and therefore PTSD levels were also assessed. the participants (N=93) were professional midwives from four medical centers in Israel. The participants answered selfreport questionnaires that assessed their ProQOL and PTSD symptoms. results indicated relatively high levels of CS which may mitigate, at least to some degree, the negative aspects of CF. PTSD levels significantly and positively correlated with STS and BO. Sixteen per cent presented with PTSD symptoms of clinical significance. Also, seniority was significantly and positively correlated with BO and PTSD symptoms. high ProQOL was found amongst the participants, with more than 74% scoring on the high range of CS. Nevertheless, we recommend further research and implementing strategies to maintain or further enhance CS and decrease CF levels. Finally, a more comprehensive understanding of the development of PTSD amongst midwives is vital in order to minimize its occurrence in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. First, Do No Harm: Teaching Writing in the Wake of Traumatic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBacher, Sarah; Harris-Moore, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Sarah DeBacher and Deborah Harris-Moore offer their experiences with teaching in the aftermath of traumatic situations. DeBacher, who taught at the University of New Orleans in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, and Harris-Moore, who taught at UC Santa Barbara following a mass shooting, explore the difficulty of teaching writing in the wake of…

  15. Applicability of LET to single events in microelectronic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, Michael A.

    1992-12-01

    LET is often used as a single parameter to determine the energy deposited in a microelectronic structure by a single event. The accuracy of this assumption is examined for ranges of ion energies and volumes of silicon appropriate for modern microelectronics. It is shown to be accurate only under very restricted conditions. Significant differences arise because (1) LET is related to energy lost by the ion, not energy deposited in the volume; and (2) LET is an average value and does not account for statistical variations in energy deposition. Criteria are suggested for determining when factors other than LET should be considered, and new analytical approaches are presented to account for them. One implication of these results is that improvements can be made in space upset rate predictions by incorporating the new methods into currently used codes such as CREME and CRUP.

  16. Behavioral changes over time in post-traumatic stress disorder: Insights from a rat model of single prolonged stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhuoyun; Tian, Qing; Li, Feng; Gao, Junqiao; Liu, Yan; Mao, Meng; Liu, Jing; Wang, Shuyan; Li, Genmao; Ge, Dongyu; Mao, Yingqiu; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Zhaolan; Song, Yuehan

    2016-03-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is manifested as a persistent mental and emotional condition after potentially life-threatening events. Different animal models of PTSD have been developed for neuro-pathophysiology and pharmacological evaluations. A single prolonged stress (SPS) induced animal model has demonstrated to result in specific neuro-endocrinological dysregulation, and behavior abnormalities observed in PTSD. However, animal studies of PTSD have mostly been performed at one time point after SPS exposure. To better understand the development of PTSD-like behaviors in the SPS animal model, and to identify an optimal period of study, we examined depressive behavior, anxiety-like behavior, physical activity and body weight in SPS model rats for two weeks. Our results confirmed the SPS-induced PTSD-like behavior and physical activity observed in previous studies, and indicated that the most pronounced symptomatic behavior changes were observed on day 1 and 7 after SPS exposure, which may involve stress-induced acute hormone changes and unclear secondary neurobiological changes, respectively. These results provide a solid basis for further investigation into the neuro-pathophysiology of or neuropharmacology for PTSD using the SPS rat model. However, for chronic (pharmacological) studies longer than 7 days, a prolonged PTSD animal model should be developed, perhaps using enhanced stimulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Forensic mental health evaluations of military personnel with traumatic life event, in a university hospital in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balandiz, Huseyin; Bolu, Abdullah

    2017-10-01

    The definition of psychological trauma has been rephrased with the DSM-5. From now on, witnessing someone else's traumatic event is also accepted as a traumatic life event. Therefore, the psychiatric examination of forensic cases gains importance for not overlooking a psychiatric trauma. This research aims to discuss the psychiatric examinations of military personnel who had a traumatic life event and to reveal psychiatric states of soldiers after trauma. The forensic reports prepared at Gulhane Military Medical Academy (GMMA), Forensic Medicine polyclinic between January 1, 2011 and November 30, 2014 were examined, and among them the cases sent to GMMA Psychiatry polyclinic for psychiatric examination were analyzed retrospectively. There were a total of 2408 cases who applied for the arrangement of a judicial report and 167 of them required a psychological examination. Among 167 cases, 165 were male and 2 were female, and the mean age was 25.6 years. Anxiety disorder (53.9%) was the most common diagnosis as a result of the psychiatric examination, following posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (18.6%), and 3.6% had no psychopathology. It was determined that injuries caused by firearms (38.3%) and explosive materials (26.3%) had caused psychological trauma the most. On the other hand, 11 (6.6%) cases were determined to have undergone a psychological trauma on account of being a witness to their friends' injuries during the conflict without experiencing any physical injury. There were not any statistically significant relationships between the severity of physical injury and being PTSD or anxiety disorder. Development of PTSD risk is directly correlated with the nature of trauma. The trauma types of the cases in our study were in the high-risk group because of the military population. Our study is of importance in terms of putting forward the psychiatric disorders seen in the military population with traumatic life history associated with war (combat-related). In

  18. Heavy ion microbeam system for study of single event effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Tomihiro; Utsunomiya, Nobuhiro; Minehara, Eiichi; Tanaka, Ryuichi; Ohmura, Miyoshi; Kohno, Kazuhiro; Iwamoto, Eiji.

    1992-01-01

    A high-energy heavy ion microbeam system has been developed and installed on a beam line of a 3 MV tandem electrostatic accelerator mainly for analysis of basic mechanism of single event upset (SEU) of semiconductor devices in spacecraft. The SEU is now the most serious problem for highly reliable spacecraft electronics system with long space mission. However, the mechanism has not been understood on the basis of microscopic process of SEU. The SEU phenomena depends not only upon hitting particles, but also upon the hit position on the microcircuit. To observe the transient charge pulse from a SEU, a single ion particle must hit exactly the desired position of the microcircuit. Such an experiment requires the microbeam spot size within 1 μm, the beam positioning accuracy within ±1 μm, and single ion hitting. The microbeam system has been designed to meet the above technical requirements. The system is equipped with two lens systems: one to control the target beam current in a wide range down to extremely low current without any change of the beam optics, and the other to focus heavy ion beams within a spot size of 1 μm. The final goal is to hit a microscopic target area with a single 15 MeV nickel ion. The beam spot size has been evaluated by Gaussian fitting of secondary electron profiles with microbeam scanning across the fine Cu mesh. The single ion detection has been also tested to generate a trigger signal for closing beam shutter to prevent further hits. This paper outlines the new microbeam system and describes methods to realize these techniques. (author)

  19. Impact of Traumatic Events on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Danish Survivors of Sexual Abuse in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Palic, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse can be extremely traumatic and lead to lifelong symptomatology. The present study examined the impact of several demographic, abuse, and psychosocial variables on posttraumatic stress disorder severity among a consecutive sample of treatment-seeking, adult child sexual abuse...... survivors (N = 480). The child sexual abuse sample was characterized by severe trauma exposure, insecure attachment, and significant traumatization, with an estimated 77% suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, more than twice the level of the comparison group. Regression analyses revealed risk...... factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder in which the strongest predictors being additional traumas, negative affectivity, and somatization. The findings add to existing research confirming the stressful nature of child sexual abuse and the variables that contribute...

  20. Impact of traumatic events on posttraumatic stress disorder among Danish survivors of sexual abuse in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M; Palic, Sabina; Karsberg, Sidsel; Eriksen, Sara Bek

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse can be extremely traumatic and lead to lifelong symptomatology. The present study examined the impact of several demographic, abuse, and psychosocial variables on posttraumatic stress disorder severity among a consecutive sample of treatment-seeking, adult child sexual abuse survivors (N = 480). The child sexual abuse sample was characterized by severe trauma exposure, insecure attachment, and significant traumatization, with an estimated 77% suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, more than twice the level of the comparison group. Regression analyses revealed risk factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder in which the strongest predictors being additional traumas, negative affectivity, and somatization. The findings add to existing research confirming the stressful nature of child sexual abuse and the variables that contribute to the development and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder.

  1. Decreased dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate levels in adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder after single sexual trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Mirac Baris; Tuncel, Ozgur Korhan; Akbas, Seher; Aydin, Berna; Say, Gokce Nur

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can be dysregulated in chronic sexual abuse victims with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We hypothesized that PTSD in adolescents exposed to a single sexual trauma may function as a chronic stressor leading to HPA-axis dysregulation. The objective of this study was to assess dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) and cortisol levels in female adolescents |with single sexual trauma-related PTSD compared to healthy controls. We assessed 20 female adolescent (age 12-18) single sexual trauma victims with PTSD from the Ondokuz Mayis University Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry between December 2013 and December 2014. PTSD symptoms were assessed using the Child Depression Inventory (CDI) and Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPSRI). Blood cortisol and DHEA-S were measured in 20 female adolescent sexual abuse victims with PTSD and 20 healthy adolescents after 12-h fasting using the chemiluminescence method. Compared to age-matched controls, female adolescent sexual abuse victims with PTSD had significantly lower DHEA-S levels (U = 70.00, Z = - 3.517, p = 0.01, r = 0.55). There was also a significant negative correlation between DHEA-S and CDI scores (Spearman r = - 0.522, p < 0.01). Decreased DHEA-S levels and correlation with depressive symptoms are evidence for a dysregulated HPA-axis in female adolescent single sexual trauma victims with PTSD. Further research is now recommended with large patient groups in order to maximize generalizations.

  2. Single event upset threshold estimation based on local laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumakov, A.I.; Egorov, A.N.; Mavritsky, O.B.; Yanenko, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    An approach for estimation of ion-induced SEU threshold based on local laser irradiation is presented. Comparative experiment and software simulation research were performed at various pulse duration and spot size. Correlation of single event threshold LET to upset threshold laser energy under local irradiation was found. The computer analysis of local laser irradiation of IC structures was developed for SEU threshold LET estimation. The correlation of local laser threshold energy with SEU threshold LET was shown. Two estimation techniques were suggested. The first one is based on the determination of local laser threshold dose taking into account the relation of sensitive area to local irradiated area. The second technique uses the photocurrent peak value instead of this relation. The agreement between the predicted and experimental results demonstrates the applicability of this approach. (authors)

  3. Single event effect testing of the Intel 80386 family and the 80486 microprocessor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, A.; LaBel, K.; Gates, M.; Seidleck, C.; McGraw, R.; Broida, M.; Firer, J.; Sprehn, S.

    1996-01-01

    The authors present single event effect test results for the Intel 80386 microprocessor, the 80387 coprocessor, the 82380 peripheral device, and on the 80486 microprocessor. Both single event upset and latchup conditions were monitored

  4. A prospective longitudinal study of the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder resulting from childbirth events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcorn, K L; O'Donovan, A; Patrick, J C; Creedy, D; Devilly, G J

    2010-11-01

    Childbirth has been linked to postpartum impairment. However, controversy exists regarding the onset and prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childbirth, with seminal studies being limited by methodological issues. This longitudinal prospective study examined the prevalence of PTSD following childbirth in a large sample while controlling for pre-existing PTSD and affective symptomatology. Pregnant women in their third trimester were recruited over a 12-month period and interviewed to identify PTSD and anxiety and depressive symptoms during the last trimester of pregnancy, 4-6 weeks postpartum, 12 weeks postpartum and 24 weeks postpartum. Of the 1067 women approached, 933 were recruited into the study. In total, 866 (93%) were retained to 4-6 weeks, 826 (89%) were retained to 12 weeks and 776 (83%) were retained to 24 weeks. Results indicated that, uncontrolled, 3.6% of women met PTSD criteria at 4-6 weeks postpartum, 6.3% at 12 weeks postpartum and 5.8% at 24 weeks postpartum. When controlling for PTSD and partial PTSD due to previous traumatic events as well as clinically significant anxiety and depression during pregnancy, PTSD rates were less at 1.2% at 4-6 weeks, 3.1% at 12 weeks and 3.1% at 24 weeks postpartum. This is the first study to demonstrate the occurrence of full criteria PTSD resulting from childbirth after controlling for pre-existing PTSD and partial PTSD and clinically significant depression and anxiety in pregnancy. The findings indicate that PTSD can result from a traumatic birth experience, though this is not the normative response.

  5. Causal relationships between solar proton events and single event upsets for communication satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmeyer, W. Q.; Cahoy, K.; Liu, Shiyang

    In this work, we analyze a historical archive of single event upsets (SEUs) maintained by Inmarsat, one of the world's leading providers of global mobile satellite communications services. Inmarsat has operated its geostationary communication satellites and collected extensive satellite anomaly and telemetry data since 1990. Over the course of the past twenty years, the satellites have experienced more than 226 single event upsets (SEUs), a catch-all term for anomalies that occur in a satellite's electronics such as bit-flips, trips in power supplies, and memory changes in attitude control systems. While SEUs are seemingly random and difficult to predict, we correlate their occurrences to space weather phenomena, and specifically show correlations between SEUs and solar proton events (SPEs). SPEs are highly energetic protons that originate from solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs). It is thought that when these particles impact geostationary (GEO) satellites they can cause SEUs as well as solar array degradation. We calculate the associated statistical correlations that each SEU occurs within one day, one week, two weeks, and one month of 10 MeV SPEs between 10 - 10,000 particle flux units (pfu). However, we find that SPEs are most prevalent at solar maximum and that the SEUs on Inmarsat's satellites occur out of phase with the solar maximum. Ultimately, this suggests that SPEs are not the primary cause of the Inmarsat SEUs. A better understanding of the causal relationship between SPEs and SEUs will help the satellite communications industry develop component and operational space weather mitigation techniques as well as help the space weather community to refine radiation models.

  6. Forensic applications of cerebral single photon emission computed tomography in mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortzel, Hal S; Filley, Christopher M; Anderson, C Alan; Oster, Timothy; Arciniegas, David B

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a substantial source of mortality and morbidity world wide. Although most such injuries are relatively mild, accurate diagnosis and prognostication after mild TBI are challenging. These problems are complicated further when considered in medicolegal contexts, particularly civil litigation. Cerebral single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) may contribute to the evaluation and treatment of persons with mild TBI. Cerebral SPECT is relatively sensitive to the metabolic changes produced by TBI. However, such changes are not specific to this condition, and their presence on cerebral SPECT imaging does not confirm a diagnosis of mild TBI. Conversely, the absence of abnormalities on cerebral SPECT imaging does not exclude a diagnosis of mild TBI, although such findings may be of prognostic value. The literature does not demonstrate consistent relationships between SPECT images and neuropsychological testing or neuropsychiatric symptoms. Using the rules of evidence shaped by Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., and its progeny to analyze the suitability of SPECT for forensic purposes, we suggest that expert testimony regarding SPECT findings should be admissible only as evidence to support clinical history, neuropsychological test results, and structural brain imaging findings and not as stand-alone diagnostic data.

  7. Livestock/animal assets buffer the impact of conflict-related traumatic events on mental health symptoms for rural women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Glass

    Full Text Available In the context of multiple adversities, women are demonstrating resilience in rebuilding their futures, through participation in microfinance programs. In addition to the economic benefits of microfinance, there is evidence to suggest that it is an effective vehicle for improving health.The parent study is a community-based trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a livestock microfinance intervention, Pigs for Peace (PFP, on health and economic outcomes with households in 10 villages in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The analysis for this manuscript includes only baseline data from female participants enrolled in the ongoing parent study. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine if livestock/animal asset value moderates the relationship between conflict-related traumatic events and current mental health symptoms.The majority of women are 25 years or older, married, have on average 4 children in the home and have never attended school. Nearly 50% of women report having at least one livestock/animal asset at baseline. Over the past 10 years, women report on average more than 4 (M = 4.31, SD 3·64 traumatic events (range 0-18. Women reported symptoms consistent with PTSD with a mean score of ·2.30 (SD = 0·66 range 0-4 and depression with a mean score of 1.86 (SD = 0·49, range 0-3.47. The livestock/animal asset value by conflict-related traumatic events interaction was significant for both the PTSD (p = 0·021 and depression (p = 0·002 symptom models.The study provides evidence of the moderating affect of livestock/animal assets on mental health symptoms for women who have experienced conflict. The findings supports evidence about the importance of livestock/animal assets to economics in rural households but expands on previous research by demonstrating the psychosocial effects of these assets on women's health.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02008708.

  8. Traumatic events, other operational stressors and physical and mental health reported by Australian Defence Force personnel following peacekeeping and war-like deployments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waller Michael

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between stressful events on warlike deployments and subsequent mental health problems has been established. Less is known about the effects of stressful events on peacekeeping deployments. Methods Two cross sectional studies of the Australian Defence Force were used to contrast the prevalence of exposures reported by a group deployed on a peacekeeping operation (Bougainville, n = 1704 and those reported by a group deployed on operations which included warlike and non-warlike exposures (East Timor, n = 1333. A principal components analysis was used to identify groupings of non-traumatic exposures on deployment. Multiple regression models were used to assess the association between self-reported objective and subjective exposures, stressors on deployment and subsequent physical and mental health outcomes. Results The principal components analysis produced four groups of non-traumatic stressors which were consistent between the peacekeeping and more warlike deployments. These were labelled ‘separation’, ‘different culture’, ‘other people’ and ‘work frustration’. Higher levels of traumatic and non-traumatic exposures were reported by veterans of East Timor compared to Bougainville. Higher levels of subjective traumatic exposures were associated with increased rates of PTSD in East Timor veterans and more physical and psychological health symptoms in both deployed groups. In Bougainville and East Timor veterans some non-traumatic deployment stressors were also associated with worse health outcomes. Conclusion Strategies to best prepare, identify and treat those exposed to traumatic events and other stressors on deployment should be considered for Defence personnel deployed on both warlike and peacekeeping operations.

  9. I-123 iomazenil single photon emission computed tomography for detecting loss of neuronal integrity in patients with traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Abiko, Kagari; Ikoma, Katsunori; Shiga, Tohru; Katoh, Chietsugu; Hirata, Kenji; Kuge, Yuji; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Tamaki, Nagara

    2017-01-01

    Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes brain dysfunction in many patients. Using C-11 flumazenil (FMZ) positron emission tomography (PET), we have detected and reported the loss of neuronal integrity, leading to brain dysfunction in TBI patients. Similarly to FMZ PET, I-123 iomazenil (IMZ) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is widely used to determine the distribution of the benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) in the brain cortex. The purpose of this study is to examine whet...

  10. Monetary Incentive Effects on Event-Based Prospective Memory Three Months after Traumatic Brain Injury in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza, Claudia; Chapman, Sandra B.; Cook, Lori G.; Vásquez, Ana C.; Levin, Harvey S.

    2011-01-01

    Information regarding the remediation of event-based prospective memory (EB-PM) impairments following pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is scarce. Addressing this, two levels of monetary incentives were used to improve EB-PM in children ages 7 to 16 years with orthopedic injuries (OI, n = 51), or moderate (n = 25), and severe (n = 39) TBI at approximately three months postinjury. The EB-PM task consisted of the child giving a specific verbal response to a verbal cue from the examiner while performing a battery of neuropsychological measures (ongoing task). Significant effects were found for Age-at-Test, Motivation Condition, Period, and Group. Within-group analyses indicated OI and moderate TBI groups performed significantly better under the high-versus low-incentive condition, but the severe TBI group demonstrated no significant improvement. These results indicate EB-PM can be significantly improved at three months postinjury in children with moderate, but not severe, TBI. PMID:21347945

  11. Stressful Life Events and Predictors of Post-traumatic Growth among High-Risk Early Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpawong, Thalida E; Rohrbach, Louise A; Milam, Joel E; Unger, Jennifer B; Land, Helen; Sun, Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Sussman, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Stressful life events (SLEs) may elicit positive psychosocial change among youth, referred to as Post-traumatic Growth (PTG). We assessed types of SLEs experienced, degree to which participants reported PTG, and variables predicting PTG across 24 months among a sample of high risk, ethnically diverse early emerging adults. Participants were recruited from alternative high schools ( n = 564; mean age=16.8; 65% Hispanic). Multi-level regression models were constructed to examine the impact of environmental (SLE quantity, severity) and personal factors (hedonic ability, perceived stress, developmental stage, future time orientation) on a composite score of PTG. The majority of participants reported positive changes resulted from their most life-altering SLE of the past two years. Predictors of PTG included fewer SLEs, less general stress, having a future time perspective, and greater identification with the developmental stage of Emerging Adulthood. Findings suggest intervention targets to foster positive adaptation among early emerging adults who experience frequent SLEs.

  12. Mental states as part of countertransference responses in psychotherapists facing reports of traumatic events of mourning and sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfeld, Patricia; Terra, Luciana; Abuchaim, Claudio; Sordi, Anne; Wiethaeuper, Daniela; Bouchard, Marc-Andrè; Mardini, Victor; Baumgardt, Rosana; Lauerman, Marta; Ceitlin, Lúcia Helena

    2008-09-01

    The study aims to compare the mental states and countertransference responses of 92 psychodynamically oriented psychotherapists, male and female, experienced and inexperienced, facing written reports of real patients who experienced traumatic events. Two vignettes were presented: one of a sexual violence, the other the sudden death of a significant person. The Mental States Rating System (MSRS; Bouchard, Picard, Audet, Brisson, & Carrier, 1998), the MSRS Self-Report (Goldfeld & Bouchard, 2004), and the Inventory of Countertransference Behavior (ICB; Friedman & Gelso, 2000) were used. Results showed that the mourning vignette led to more reflective responses (MSRS) and the rape case was associated with more negative countertransference reactions (ICB). Female participants were more reflective (MSRS); male therapists used less mentalized states (MSRS Self-Report) and expressed more negative reactions (ICB) for both scenarios. Experienced therapists showed more positive reactions on the ICB. The construct validity of the instruments is discussed in relation to the findings.

  13. Approaches to proton single-event rate calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, E.L.

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses the fundamentals of proton-induced single-event upsets and of the various methods that have been developed to calculate upset rates. Two types of approaches are used based on nuclear-reaction analysis. Several aspects can be analyzed using analytic methods, but a complete description is not available. The paper presents an analytic description for the component due to elastic-scattering recoils. There have been a number of studies made using Monte Carlo methods. These can completely describe the reaction processes, including the effect of nuclear reactions occurring outside the device-sensitive volume. They have not included the elastic-scattering processes. The article describes the semiempirical approaches that are most widely used. The quality of previous upset predictions relative to space observations is discussed and leads to comments about the desired quality of future predictions. Brief sections treat the possible testing limitation due to total ionizing dose effects, the relationship of proton and heavy-ion upsets, upsets due to direct proton ionization, and relative proton and cosmic-ray upset rates

  14. Search for Flavour Changing Neutral Currents in single top events

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    A study of top-quark anomalous couplings is performed through the search for a single top-quark produced in association with a $Z$ boson. The event selection requires the presence of three isolated leptons, electrons or muons, and of at least one jet. The signal extraction is done using kinematic variables and information related to b-tagging, combined using a Boosted Decision Tree. The search is performed in a data sample corresponding to about 5 fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV recorded with the CMS detector. No evidence of flavor-changing neutral currents is observed and upper limits at 95\\% confidence level are determined. The corresponding upper limits on the coupling strengths of an effective model are found to be $\\kappa_{gut}/\\Lambda < 0.10$ TeV$^{-1}$, $\\kappa_{gct}/\\Lambda < 0.35$ TeV$^{-1}$, $\\kappa_{Zut}/\\Lambda < 0.45$ TeV$^{-1}$ and $\\kappa_{Zct}/\\Lambda < 2.27$ TeV$^{-1}$, where $\\Lambda$ is the expected scale at which new physics could appear. The equivalen...

  15. Versatile single-chip event sequencer for atomic physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyler, Edward

    2010-03-01

    A very inexpensive dsPIC microcontroller with internal 32-bit counters is used to produce a flexible timing signal generator with up to 16 TTL-compatible digital outputs, with a time resolution and accuracy of 50 ns. This time resolution is easily sufficient for event sequencing in typical experiments involving cold atoms or laser spectroscopy. This single-chip device is capable of triggered operation and can also function as a sweeping delay generator. With one additional chip it can also concurrently produce accurately timed analog ramps, and another one-chip addition allows real-time control from an external computer. Compared to an FPGA-based digital pattern generator, this design is slower but simpler and more flexible, and it can be reprogrammed using ordinary `C' code without special knowledge. I will also describe the use of the same microcontroller with additional hardware to implement a digital lock-in amplifier and PID controller for laser locking, including a simple graphics-based control unit. This work is supported in part by the NSF.

  16. The single event upset environment for avionics at high latitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, A.J.; Dyer, C.S.; Peerless, C.L.; Farren, J.

    1994-01-01

    Modern avionic systems for civil and military applications are becoming increasingly reliant upon embedded microprocessors and associated memory devices. The phenomenon of single event upset (SEU) is well known in space systems and designers have generally been careful to use SEU tolerant devices or to implement error detection and correction (EDAC) techniques where appropriate. In the past, avionics designers have had no reason to consider SEU effects but is clear that the more prevalent use of memory devices combined with increasing levels of IC integration will make SEU mitigation an important design consideration for future avionic systems. To this end, it is necessary to work towards producing models of the avionics SEU environment which will permit system designers to choose components and EDAC techniques which are based on predictions of SEU rates correct to much better than an order of magnitude. Measurements of the high latitude SEU environment at avionics altitude have been made on board a commercial airliner. Results are compared with models of primary and secondary cosmic rays and atmospheric neutrons. Ground based SEU tests of static RAMs are used to predict rates in flight

  17. Factorial structure of complicated grief: associations with loss-related traumatic events and psychosocial impacts of mass conflict amongst West Papuan refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Rees, Susan; Chen, Jack; Kareth, Moses; Silove, Derrick

    2016-03-01

    Definitions of complicated grief vary across diagnostic systems, being represented as persistent complex bereavement (PCB) in DSM-5 and prolonged grief disorder (PGD) in the proposed revision of the ICD system. A past study in a high-income country has identified a six-factor structure for complicated grief, but there are no data testing this or any other model across cultures. The present study reports findings from a survey amongst West Papuan refugees (n = 230, response rate = 92 %) residing in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. We applied culturally adapted measures of conflict-related traumatic event (TEs) (drawing specifically on domains of conflict and loss), symptoms of complicated grief adapted and modified to the culture, and a multidimensional psychosocial index of the broader effects of conflict and displacement. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded a single higher order construct of complicated grief comprising six factors of yearning/preoccupation; shock/disbelief; anger/negative appraisal; behavioural change; estrangement from others/impairment; and a novel dimension of confusion/diminished identity. In contrast, our analysis failed to support DSM or ICD models of PCB or PGD. A Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model revealed that traumatic loss and the sense of injustice each were associated with the unitary construct of complicated grief and its subdomains of yearning/preoccupation; shock/disbelief; anger/negative appraisal (exclusive to injustice); and estrangement from others/social impairment (exclusive to TE domain of conflict and loss). Conflict and loss associated with feelings of injustice may be especially pathogenic in generating the anger/negative appraisal component of complicated grief amongst refugees.

  18. Episodic and semantic components of autobiographical memories and imagined future events in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adam D; Addis, Donna Rose; Romano, Tracy A; Marmar, Charles R; Bryant, Richard A; Hirst, William; Schacter, Daniel L

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) tend to retrieve autobiographical memories with less episodic specificity, referred to as overgeneralised autobiographical memory. In line with evidence that autobiographical memory overlaps with one's capacity to imagine the future, recent work has also shown that individuals with PTSD also imagine themselves in the future with less episodic specificity. To date most studies quantify episodic specificity by the presence of a distinct event. However, this method does not distinguish between the numbers of internal (episodic) and external (semantic) details, which can provide additional insights into remembering the past and imagining the future. This study employed the Autobiographical Interview (AI) coding scheme to the autobiographical memory and imagined future event narratives generated by combat veterans with and without PTSD. Responses were coded for the number of internal and external details. Compared to combat veterans without PTSD, those with PTSD generated more external than internal details when recalling past or imagining future events, and fewer internal details were associated with greater symptom severity. The potential mechanisms underlying these bidirectional deficits and clinical implications are discussed.

  19. The Role of Traumatic Event History in Non-Medical Use of Prescription Drugs among a Nationally Representative Sample of US Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Jenna L.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Smith, Daniel W.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Building on previous research with adolescents that examined demographic variables and other forms of substance abuse in relation to non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD), the current study examined potentially traumatic events, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), other substance use, and delinquent behavior as…

  20. Psychosocial interventions for children exposed to traumatic events in low- and middle-income countries: study protocol of an individual patient data meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purgato, M.; Gross, A.L.; Jordans, M.J.D.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.; Barbui, C.; Tol, W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The burden of mental health and psychosocial problems in children exposed to traumatic events in humanitarian settings in low- and middle-income countries is substantial. An increasing number of randomized studies has shown promising effects of psychosocial interventions, but this

  1. Menace of childhood non-accidental traumatic brain injuries: A single unit report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI has high rate of mortality and morbidity worldwide. There are dearths of reports from developing countries with large paediatric population on trauma; neurosurgery trauma of nonaccidental origin is not an exemption. This study analysed menace of non-accidental TBI in the paediatric population from our center. Materials and Methods: This is a single unit, retrospective study of the epidemiology of non-accidental TBI in children starting from September, 2008 to March, 2014. The management outcomes of the epidemiology of the non-accidental TBI were analysed. Results: Total of 109 children age range from 0 (intra-natal to 16 years with a mean of 5.8 ± 4.6 years (median, 5 years were enrolled into the study. 34 (31.2% were domestic violence, 26 (23.9% street assaults, 16 (14.7% were due to animal assaults and mishaps, 17 (15.6% fall from heights. Seven (6.4% cases of collapsed buildings were also seen during the period. Four (3.7% industrial accidents and two (1.8% were self-inflicted injuries. There were also three (2.8% cases of iatrogenic TBI out of which two infants (1.8% sustained TBI from cesarean section procedure while one patient (0.9% under general anaesthesia felt from the operation bed resulting to severe TBI. Conclusion: Child abuse, unprotected child labour, parental/care-givers negligence are the main cause of nonaccidental TBI. Human right activists and government agents should be incorporated in curtailing the menace.

  2. Antidepressant-like activity of venlafaxine and clonidine in mice exposed to single prolonged stress - A model of post-traumatic stress disorder. Pharmacodynamic and molecular docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malikowska, Natalia; Fijałkowski, Łukasz; Nowaczyk, Alicja; Popik, Piotr; Sałat, Kinga

    2017-10-15

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a growing issue worldwide characterized by stress and anxiety in response to re-experiencing traumatic events which strongly impair patient's quality of life and social functions. Available antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs are not efficacious in the majority of treated individuals. This necessitates a significant medical demand to develop novel therapeutic strategies for PTSD. Animal model of PTSD was induced using a mouse single prolonged stress protocol (mSPS). To assess the activity of venlafaxine and clonidine, the forced swim test (FST) was used repeatedly 24h, 3days, 8days, 15days and 25days after mSPS. To get insight into a possible mechanism of anti-PTSD action, molecular docking procedure was utilized for the most active drug. This in silico part comprised molecular docking of enantiomers of venlafaxine to human transporters for serotonin (hSERT), norepinephrine (hNET) and dopamine (hDAT). In mSPS-subjected mice FST revealed the effectiveness of venlafaxine, however in non SPS-subjected mice both venlafaxine and clonidine were active. Molecular docking studies indicated that the affinity of venlafaxine to monoamine transporters is growing in the following rank order: hDATPTSD. Its mechanism of action, i.e., SERT, NET and DAT inhibition indicates potential drug targets for PTSD treatment. We expect that these results will contribute to a broader application of VLX in PTSD patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Traumatic childhood in a private male population of liberty events: prevalence study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Miguel; Bertone, Matias Salvador

    2016-01-01

    We have observed, in several studies, high rates of psychiatric disorders and traumatic childhood experiences in people who are deprived of their freedom in prison institutions. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of different types of adverse childhood experiences and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patient-internal male in a prison psychiatric institution. An epidemiological study was conducted between March and July 2011 in which 59 inmates-patients were evaluated in the observation room and Psychiatric Evaluation (SOEP) of the unit 20 in the Central Psychiatric Service Men, which was located on the campus of J.T. Borda Hospital of the City of Buenos Aires, in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. SCID I and II, and ACE (Adverse Experience Childhood) scales were used. 91% of participants had suffered any adverse experience in childhood. Physical (59%), emotional (54%), sexual (18%) and negligence (66%): a high rate of abuse in its various forms was found At the same time it was observed that all patients had a mental disorder. The most common diagnosis is personality disorder (69.4%). It was observed that most of the abuses were perpetrated by people in your household. high prevalence rates of adverse childhood experiences and psychiatric disorders private individuals of their liberty were observed to coincide with that shown in other studies in similar populations.

  4. Potentially traumatic events have negative and positive effects on loneliness, depending on PTSD-symptom levels: evidence from a population-based prospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, Peter G; Pijnappel, Bas; van der Meulen, Erik

    2018-02-01

    Examine to what extent adults affected by recent potentially traumatic events (PTE) with different PTSD-symptom levels are more at risk for post-event loneliness than non-affected adults are in the same study period. We extracted data from the Dutch longitudinal LISS panel to measure pre-event loneliness (2011) and post-event loneliness (2013 and 2014), pre-event mental health problems (2011), PTE and PTSD symptoms (2012). This panel is based on a traditional random sample drawn from the population register by Statistics Netherlands. Results of the multinomial logistic regression analyses showed that affected adults with high levels of PTSD symptoms were more at risk for high levels of post-event loneliness than affected adults with very low PTSD-symptom levels and non-affected adults, while controlling for pre-event loneliness, pre-event mental health problems and demographics. However, affected adults with very low levels of PTSD symptoms compared to non-affected adults were less at risk for medium and high levels of post-event loneliness while controlling for the same variables. Yet, pre-event loneliness appeared to be the strongest independent predictor of loneliness at later stages: more than 80% with high pre-event levels had high post-event levels at both follow-ups. Remarkably, potentially traumatic events have depending on PTSD-symptom levels both negative and positive effects on post-event loneliness in favor of affected adults with very low PTSD symptoms levels. However, post-event levels at later stages are predominantly determined by pre-event loneliness levels.

  5. Utilizing the PREPaRE Model When Multiple Classrooms Witness a Traumatic Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Lisa J.; Rittle, Carrie; Roberts, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an account of how the Charleston County School District responded to an event by utilizing the PREPaRE model (Brock, et al., 2009). The acronym, PREPaRE, refers to a range of crisis response activities: P (prevent and prepare for psychological trauma), R (reaffirm physical health and perceptions of security and safety), E…

  6. Development of Guidelines for Use of Proton Single-Event Test Data to Bound Single-Event Effect Susceptibility Due to Light Ions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Conventional methods for Single-Event Effects (SEE) Hardness Assurance have proven difficult to adapt to Explorer, Cubesat and other risk tolerant platforms with...

  7. Single event effects induced by 15.14 MeV/u 136Xe ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Mingdong; Zhang Qingxiang; Liu Jie; Wang Zhiguang; Jin Yunfan; Zhu Zhiyong; Zhen Honglou; Liu Changlong; Chen Xiaoxi; Wei Xinguo; Zhang Lin; Fan Youcheng; Zhu Zhourong; Zhang Yiting

    2002-01-01

    Single event effects induced by 15.14 MeV/u 136 Xe ions in different batches of 32k x 8 bits static random access memory are studied. The incident angle dependences of the cross sections for single event upset and single event latch up are presented. The SEE cross sections are plotted versus energy loss instead of linear energy transfer value in sensitive region. The depth of sensitive volume and thickness of 'dead' layer above the sensitive volume are estimated

  8. Fear of childbirth and obstetrical events as predictors of postnatal symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbrother, Nichole; Woody, Sheila R

    2007-12-01

    This prospective study examined psychological and obstetrical predictors of enduring postpartum symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Contrary to prediction, prenatal fear of childbirth did not significantly predict symptoms of depression or post-traumatic stress disorder at one month postpartum, but anxiety sensitivity was an unexpected predictor that merits further investigation. Several obstetrical and neonatal variables significantly predicted symptoms of post-traumatic disorder, but not depression.

  9. Work-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other emotional diseases as consequence of traumatic events in public transportation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarner, Annika; Graessel, Elmar; Scholz, Johanna; Niedermeier, Alexander; Uter, Wolfgang; Drexler, Hans

    2015-07-01

    Drivers in public transportation are at risk of experiencing potential traumatic events such as accidents involving persons, collisions, or suicides. In this context, the question arises to what extent psychological traumatization and posttraumatic diseases occur. The aim of this systematic review was to describe the frequency and nature of work-related posttraumatic disorders, to analyze risk and prognostic factors after potentially traumatic events (accidents resulting in damage to property and/or in injury or death), and address sick leave after such events in the realm of public transportation, based on the available literature. Systematic review based on four databases (PubMed, PSYNDEX/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, PILOTS) between 1980 and June 2013. We identified seven studies (four longitudinal, three cross-sectional) that examine employees after person under train (PUT) events. PTSD prevalences varied broadly between 0.7 and 17 %. The same applies to dysthymia/neurotic depression (1-26 %). However, similarly low prevalences of major depression (1.3-2.8 %) and panic disorder (0.5-1.3 %) have been observed. Risk factors of PTSD comprised individual, work-related, event-related, and prognostic aspects. Following the traumatic event, a total of 69-81 % of the drivers were absent, and if sick leave occurs, this was on average 3-19 days. It became evident that drivers in public transportation run a high risk of sick leave. It was also striking that despite the immense impact of PUT and high number of suicides, only an infinitesimal number of studies exists. Due to various differences (period of follow-up, instrument of measurement and study period), it turned out that the comparability of the results of the studies is limited. For various reasons, further research is urgently needed, as from an occupational health point of view the issue of posttraumatic diseases and implications for fitness for service should be addressed.

  10. The single-event effect evaluation technology for nano integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hongchao; Zhao Yuanfu; Yue Suge; Fan Long; Du Shougang; Chen Maoxin; Yu Chunqing

    2015-01-01

    Single-event effects of nano scale integrated circuits are investigated. Evaluation methods for single-event transients, single-event upsets, and single-event functional interrupts in nano circuits are summarized and classified in detail. The difficulties in SEE testing are discussed as well as the development direction of test technology, with emphasis placed on the experimental evaluation of a nano circuit under heavy ion, proton, and laser irradiation. The conclusions in this paper are based on many years of testing at accelerator facilities and our present understanding of the mechanisms for SEEs, which have been well verified experimentally. (paper)

  11. Race/ethnic differences in exposure to traumatic events, development of post-traumatic stress disorder, and treatment-seeking for post-traumatic stress disorder in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A L; Gilman, S E; Breslau, J; Breslau, N; Koenen, K C

    2011-01-01

    To identify sources of race/ethnic differences related to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), we compared trauma exposure, risk for PTSD among those exposed to trauma, and treatment-seeking among Whites, Blacks, Hispanics and Asians in the US general population. Data from structured diagnostic interviews with 34 653 adult respondents to the 2004-2005 wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were analysed. The lifetime prevalence of PTSD was highest among Blacks (8.7%), intermediate among Hispanics and Whites (7.0% and 7.4%) and lowest among Asians (4.0%). Differences in risk for trauma varied by type of event. Whites were more likely than the other groups to have any trauma, to learn of a trauma to someone close, and to learn of an unexpected death, but Blacks and Hispanics had higher risk of child maltreatment, chiefly witnessing domestic violence, and Asians, Black men, and Hispanic women had higher risk of war-related events than Whites. Among those exposed to trauma, PTSD risk was slightly higher among Blacks [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.22] and lower among Asians (aOR 0.67) compared with Whites, after adjustment for characteristics of trauma exposure. All minority groups were less likely to seek treatment for PTSD than Whites (aOR range: 0.39-0.61), and fewer than half of minorities with PTSD sought treatment (range: 32.7-42.0%). When PTSD affects US race/ethnic minorities, it is usually untreated. Large disparities in treatment indicate a need for investment in accessible and culturally sensitive treatment options.

  12. Traumatic partial avulsion of a single right subclavian artery from the aortic arch and definitive repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Emmanouil I; Sears-Rogan, Pamela; Young, Richard S; Kanda, Louis T; Ellis, Jennifer L

    2006-01-01

    Blunt injury to the right subclavian artery is a rare complication of severe deceleration trauma often associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We describe an atypical presentation in a patient who sustained a traumatic avulsion of his right subclavian artery arising off the aortic arch. An interposition graft was used to restore the continuity of the artery to the ascending thoracic aorta.

  13. Zinc supplementation in rats impairs hippocampal-dependent memory consolidation and dampens post-traumatic recollection of stressful event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contestabile, Antonio; Peña-Altamira, Emiliano; Virgili, Marco; Monti, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Zinc is a trace element important for synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Zinc deficiency, both during pregnancy and after birth, impairs cognitive performance and, in addition to memory deficits, also results in alterations of attention, activity, neuropsychological behavior and motor development. The effects of zinc supplementation on cognition, particularly in the adult, are less clear. We demonstrate here in adult rats, that 4 week-long zinc supplementation given by drinking water, and approximately doubling normal daily intake, strongly impairs consolidation of hippocampal-dependent memory, tested through contextual fear conditioning and inhibitory avoidance. Furthermore, the same treatment started after memory consolidation of training for the same behavioral tests, substantially dampens the recall of the stressful event occurred 4 weeks before. A molecular correlate of the amnesic effect of zinc supplementation is represented by a dysregulated function of GSK-3ß in the hippocampus, a kinase that participates in memory processes. The possible relevance of these data for humans, in particular regarding post-traumatic stress disorders, is discussed in view of future investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  14. Single Event Burnout in DC-DC Converters for the LHC Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claudio H. Rivetta et al.

    2001-09-24

    High voltage transistors in DC-DC converters are prone to catastrophic Single Event Burnout in the LHC radiation environment. This paper presents a systematic methodology to analyze single event effects sensitivity in converters and proposes solutions based on de-rating input voltage and output current or voltage.

  15. Cosmic and terrestrial single-event radiation effects in dynamic random access memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massengill, L.W.

    1996-01-01

    A review of the literature on single-event radiation effects (SEE) on MOS integrated-circuit dynamic random access memories (DRAM's) is presented. The sources of single-event (SE) radiation particles, causes of circuit information loss, experimental observations of SE information upset, technological developments for error mitigation, and relationships of developmental trends to SE vulnerability are discussed

  16. Single-well moment tensor inversion of tensile microseismic events

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grechka, V.; Li, Z.; Howell, B.; Vavryčuk, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 6 (2016), KS219-KS229 ISSN 0016-8033 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP210/12/1491; GA ČR(CZ) GC16-19751J Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : microseismic events * moment tensor inversion * mathematical formulation Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.391, year: 2016

  17. Prevalence of potentially traumatic events, depression, alcohol use, and social network supports among Chinese migrants: an epidemiological study in Guangzhou, China

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Brian J.; Chen, Wen; Wu, Yan; Zhou, Fangjing; Latkin, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Background: Addressing the health needs of Chinese migrants is a critical public health concern. Epidemiological studies are needed to establish the prevalence of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and common mental disorders among Chinese migrants and identify protective community and social resources.Method: Utilizing random household sampling, we are in the process of recruiting a representative sample of Chinese adults (N=1,000) in two districts home to a large number of internal migrant...

  18. Stressful Life Event Experiences of Homeless Adults: A Comparison of Single Men, Single Women, and Women with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugazaga, Carole

    2004-01-01

    This article describes stressful life events experienced by a multi-shelter sample of 162 homeless adults in the Central Florida area. Participants included homeless single men (n = 54), homeless single women (n = 54), and homeless women with children (n = 54). Subjects were interviewed with a modified version of the List of Threatening…

  19. Anthology of the development of radiation transport tools as applied to single event effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkerman, A.; Barak, J.; Murat, M.; Duzellier, S.; Hubert, G.; Gaillardin, M.; Raine, M.; Jordan, T.; Jun, I.; Koontz, S.; Reddell, B.; O'Neill, P.; Foster, C.; Culpepper, W.; Lei, F.; McNulty, P.; Nieminen, P.; Saigne, F.; Wrobel, F.; Santin, G.; Sihver, L.; Tang, H.H.K.; Truscott, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    This anthology contains contributions from eleven different groups, each developing and/or applying Monte Carlo-based radiation transport tools to simulate a variety of effects that result from energy transferred to a semiconductor material by a single particle event. The topics span from basic mechanisms for single-particle induced failures to applied tasks like developing web sites to predict on-orbit single event failure rates using Monte Carlo radiation transport tools. (authors)

  20. Anthology of the Development of Radiation Transport Tools as Applied to Single Event Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R. A.; Weller, R. A.; Akkerman, A.; Barak, J.; Culpepper, W.; Duzellier, S.; Foster, C.; Gaillardin, M.; Hubert, G.; Jordan, T.; Jun, I.; Koontz, S.; Lei, F.; McNulty, P.; Mendenhall, M. H.; Murat, M.; Nieminen, P.; O'Neill, P.; Raine, M.; Reddell, B.; Saigné, F.; Santin, G.; Sihver, L.; Tang, H. H. K.; Truscott, P. R.; Wrobel, F.

    2013-06-01

    This anthology contains contributions from eleven different groups, each developing and/or applying Monte Carlo-based radiation transport tools to simulate a variety of effects that result from energy transferred to a semiconductor material by a single particle event. The topics span from basic mechanisms for single-particle induced failures to applied tasks like developing websites to predict on-orbit single event failure rates using Monte Carlo radiation transport tools.

  1. Research on generation mechanism of single event transient current generated in the semiconductor using ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirao, Toshio

    2007-01-01

    Single-event upset (SEU) is triggered when an amount of electric charges induced by energetic ion incidence exceeds a value known as a critical charge in a very short time period. Therefore, accurate evaluation of electric charge and understanding of basic mechanism of SEU are necessary for the improvement of SEU torrance of electronic devices. In this paper, the collected charges for the single event transient current induced on semiconductor by heavy ion microbeams, and application to use microbeam for single event studies are presented. (author)

  2. Traumatic Pneumatocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Ching Yang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic pneumatocele is a rare complication of blunt chest trauma with uncertain pathogenesis. It occurs primarily in pediatric patients and is characterized by single or multiple pulmonary cystic lesions concomitant with other type of injuries of the lung parenchyma. Herein we present a case of traumatic pneumatocele in a 3-year-old boy, together with a brief review of the literature. This rare entity should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions complicating blunt chest trauma, especially in young adults. The disease generally has a benign and self-limiting course.

  3. Understanding Traumatic Stress in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Experts Careers Contracting Contact Search form Search American Institutes for Research About Us Our Topics Client Services News & Events You are here Home 22 Apr 2013 Report Understanding Traumatic Stress in Children Supporting Children and Families After Traumatic ...

  4. Single-trial event-related potentials to significant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushby, Jacqueline A; Barry, Robert J

    2009-11-01

    The stimulus-response pattern of the skin conductance response (SCR) was used as a model of the Orienting Reflex (OR) to assess the P1, N1, P2, N2 and late positive complex (LPC/P300) components of the ERP in a simple habituation paradigm, in which a single series of 12 innocuous tones were presented at a very long interstimulus interval (2 min). To maintain their waking state during this boring task, participants were instructed to alternately close or open their eyes to each stimulus. None of the baseline-to-peak ERP measures showed trials effects comparable with the marked habituation over trials shown by the SCRs. Principal Components Analysis was used to decompose the ERP, yielding factors identified as the N1, N2, P3a, P3b and Novelty P3 components. An additional factor represented later eye-movement activity. No trial effects were apparent for the N1, N2, P3a or P3b components. The Novelty P3 showed marked response decrement over trials. These results are discussed in relation to current conceptualisations of the OR.

  5. Does Traumatic Donor Cause of Death Influence Outcome after Lung Transplantation? A Single-Centre Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarczyk, Kevin; Heckmann, Jens; Carstens, Henning; Lubarski, Jura; Jakob, Heinz; Pizanis, Nikolaus; Kamler, Markus

    2017-08-01

    Background  Owing to the shortage of donor organs in lung transplantation (LuTX), liberalization of donor selection criteria has been proposed. However, some studies suggested that donor traumatic brain damage might influence posttransplantation allograft function. This article aimed to investigate the association of donor cause of death (DCD) and outcome after LuTX. Methods  A retrospective analysis of 186 consecutive double LuTXs at our institution from January 2000 to December 2008 was performed. DCD was categorized into traumatic brain injury (TBI) and nontraumatic brain injury (NTBI). In addition, NTBI was sub classified as spontaneous intracerebral bleeding (B), hypoxic brain damage (H), and intracerebral neoplasia (N). Results  DCD was classified as TBI in 50 patients (26.9%) and NTBI in 136 patients (73.1%): B in 112 patients (60.2%), H in 21 patients (11.3%), and N in 3 patients (1.6%). Young male donors predominated in group TBI (mean age 36.0 ± 14.5 vs. 42.8 ± 10.7, p  donor ventilation time, or paO 2 /FiO 2 before harvesting. TBI donors received significantly more blood (3.4 ± 3.8 vs. 1.8 ± 1.9, p  = 0.03). A chest trauma was evident only in group T ( n  = 7 [3.7%] vs. 0 [0%], p  donor death did not affect the following indices of graft function: length of postoperative ventilation, paO 2 /FiO 2 ratio up to 48 hours, and lung function up to 36 months. One- and three-year survival was comparable with 84.4 and 70.4% for TBI donors versus 89.4% and 69.2% for NTBI donors. Five-year survival tended to be lower in the TBI group but did not reach statistical significance (43.4 vs. 53.9%). Conclusion  This study indicates that traumatic DCD does not affect outcome after LuTX. These results can be achieved with an ideal donor management combined with an individual case-to-case evaluation by an experienced LuTX surgeon. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. A single geophone to locate seismic events on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roques, Aurélien; Berenguer, Jean-Luc; Bozdag, Ebru

    2016-04-01

    Knowing the structure of Mars is a key point in understanding the formation of Earth-like planets as plate tectonics and erosion have erased the original suface of the Earth formation. Installing a seismometer on Mars surface makes it possible to identify its structure. An important step in the identification of the structure of a planet is the epicenter's location of a seismic source, typically a meteoric impact or an earthquake. On Earth, the classical way of locating epicenters is triangulation, which requires at least 3 stations. The Mars InSight Project plans to set a single station with 3 components. We propose a software to locate seismic sources on Mars thanks to the 3-components simulated data of an earthquake given by Geoazur (Nice Sophia-Antipolis University, CNRS) researchers. Instrumental response of a sensor is crucial for data interpretation. We study the oscillations of geophone in several situations so as to awaken students to the meaning of damping in second order modeling. In physics, car shock absorbers are often used to illustrate the principle of damping but rarely in practical experiments. We propose the use of a simple seismometer (a string with a mass and a damper) that allows changing several parameters (inductive damping, temperature and pressure) so as to see the effects of these parameters on the impulse response and, in particular, on the damping coefficient. In a second step, we illustrate the effect of damping on a seismogram with the difficulty of identifying and interpreting the different phase arrival times with low damping.

  7. Coping with Traumatic Events

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-11-10

    Tragedies affect all of us in different ways. Some people might react to the stress immediately, while others may not experience stress until later.  Created: 11/10/2009 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.   Date Released: 11/10/2009.

  8. Calculation of cosmic ray induced single event upsets: Program CRUP (Cosmic Ray Upset Program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, P.

    1983-09-01

    This report documents PROGRAM CRUP, COSMIC RAY UPSET PROGRAM. The computer program calculates cosmic ray induced single-event error rates in microelectronic circuits exposed to several representative cosmic-ray environments.

  9. Single-Event Effects in Silicon and Silicon Carbide Power Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan C.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Topper, Alyson D.; Wilcox, Edward P.; Kim, Hak; Phan, Anthony M.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Electronics Parts and Packaging program-funded activities over the past year on single-event effects in silicon and silicon carbide power devices are presented, with focus on SiC device failure signatures.

  10. Current Single Event Effects Results for Candidate Spacecraft Electronics for NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBryan, Martha V.; Seidleck, Christina M.; Carts, Martin A.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Marshall, Cheryl J.; Reed, Robert A.; Sanders, Anthony B.; Hawkins, Donald K.; Cox, Stephen R.; Kniffin, Scott D.

    2004-01-01

    We present data on the vulnerability of a variety of candidate spacecraft electronics to proton and heavy ion induced single event effects. Devices tested include digital, analog, linear bipolar, and hybrid devices, among others.

  11. Single event monitoring system based on Java 3D and XML data binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liang; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Zhu Kejun; Zhao Jingwei

    2007-01-01

    Online single event monitoring is important to BESIII DAQ System. Java3D is extension of Java Language in 3D technology, XML data binding is more efficient to handle XML document than SAX and DOM. This paper mainly introduce the implementation of BESIII single event monitoring system with Java3D and XML data binding, and interface for track fitting software with JNI technology. (authors)

  12. NEPP Update of Independent Single Event Upset Field Programmable Gate Array Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; Label, Kenneth; Campola, Michael; Pellish, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    This presentation provides a NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program update of independent Single Event Upset (SEU) Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) testing including FPGA test guidelines, Microsemi RTG4 heavy-ion results, Xilinx Kintex-UltraScale heavy-ion results, Xilinx UltraScale+ single event effect (SEE) test plans, development of a new methodology for characterizing SEU system response, and NEPP involvement with FPGA security and trust.

  13. Emotional nonacceptance within the context of traumatic event exposure: The explanatory role of anxiety sensitivity for traumatic stress symptoms and disability among Latinos in a primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Andres G; Paulus, Daniel J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garza, Monica; Valdivieso, Jeanette; Ochoa-Perez, Melissa; Lemaire, Chad; Cardoso, Jodi Berger; Zvolensky, Michael J

    Research has found that Latinos (versus non-Latino Whites) evince higher rates of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), yet little attention has been given to intra-individual, emotion-related processes to explicate the higher incidence of these symptoms among Latinos. Participants included 183 trauma-exposed adult Latinos (88.5% female; Mage=37.7, SD=10.7 and 93.4% reported Spanish as their first language) who attended a community-based primary healthcare clinic in Houston. It was hypothesized that anxiety sensitivity would explain the relation between emotional nonacceptance and traumatic stress symptoms, namely re-experiencing, avoidance, and arousal difficulties as well as overall disability. Additionally, it was expected that the observed effects would be evident above and beyond the variance accounted for by number of traumas reported, gender, age, marital status, educational status, years living in the U.S., and negative affectivity. Consistent with our hypotheses, difficulties accepting negative emotions were associated with increased trauma-related re-experiencing, avoidance, and arousal difficulties. Additionally, anxiety sensitivity was an underlying mechanism in the association between emotional nonacceptance and all but one facet of traumatic stress symptoms (i.e., re-experiencing symptoms) and disability. Alternative models yielded no significant effects, providing greater confidence in the direction of the hypothesized effects. Findings are discussed in the context of their significance for informing the development of specialized intervention strategies that target anxiety sensitivity for Latinos in primary care with elevated risk for PTS and PTSD by their heightened levels of emotional nonacceptance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Laparoendoscopic single-site repair of bladder rupture using a home-made single-port device: initial experience of treatment for a traumatic intraperitoneal bladder rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Yong; Kang, Dong Hyuk; Lee, Seung Wook

    2012-06-01

    We report our initial experience with a laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) repair of a bladder rupture using a home-made single-port device. A 37-year-old man presented to the emergency department with complaints of voiding difficulty and gross hematuria after blunt trauma. Cystography and computed tomography revealed an intraperitoneal bladder rupture. The patient underwent LESS repair of a bladder rupture using the Alexis wound retractor, which was inserted through the umbilical incision. A home-made single-port device was made by fixing 6½ surgical gloves to the outer rim of the retractor and securing the glove finger to the end of 3 trocars with a tie. Using the flexible laparoscopic instruments and rigid instruments, LESS surgery was performed using a procedure similar to conventional laparoscopic surgery. The patient did not have any voiding problem after removal of the urethral Foley catheter on the 10th postoperative day. To our knowledge, this is the first published report of LESS repair of a traumatic bladder rupture using a home-made single-port device in the literature.

  15. Comparison of the New Adult Ventilator-Associated Event Criteria to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Pediatric Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Definition (PNU2) in a Population of Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirulis, Meghan M; Hamele, Mitchell T; Stockmann, Chris R; Bennett, Tellen D; Bratton, Susan L

    2016-02-01

    The new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention paradigm for ventilator-associated events is intended to simplify surveillance of infectious and noninfectious complications of mechanical ventilation in adults. We assessed the ventilator-associated events algorithm in pediatric patients. A retrospective observational cohort study. This single-center study took place in a PICU at an urban academic medical facility. Pediatric (ages 0-18 yr old) trauma patients with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury ventilated for greater than or equal to 2 days. We assessed for pediatric ventilator-associated pneumonia (as defined by current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention PNU2 guidelines), adult ventilator-associated events, and an experimental ventilator-associated events definition modified for pediatric patients. We compared ventilator-associated events to ventilator-associated pneumonia to calculate the test characteristics. Thirty-nine of 119 patients (33%) developed ventilator-associated pneumonia. Sensitivity of the adult ventilator-associated condition definition was 23% (95% CI, 11-39%), which increased to 56% (95% CI, 40-72%) using the modified pediatric ventilator-associated pneumonia criterion. Specificity reached 100% for both original and modified pediatric probable ventilator-associated pneumonia using ventilator-associated events criteria. Children who developed ventilator-associated pneumonia or ventilator-associated condition had similar baseline characteristics: age, mechanism of injury, injury severity scores, and use of an intracranial pressure monitor. Diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia and ventilator-associated condition portended similarly unfavorable outcomes: longer median duration of ventilation, ICU and hospital length of stay, and more discharges to rehabilitation, home health, or nursing care compared with patients with no pulmonary complication. Both current and modified ventilator-associated events criteria have poor

  16. Heavy Ion Irradiation Fluence Dependence for Single-Event Upsets of NAND Flash Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dakai; Wilcox, Edward; Ladbury, Raymond; Kim, Hak; Phan, Anthony; Seidleck, Christina; LaBel, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the single-event effect (SEE) susceptibility of the Micron 16 nm NAND flash, and found the single-event upset (SEU) cross section varied inversely with fluence. The SEU cross section decreased with increasing fluence. We attribute the effect to the variable upset sensitivities of the memory cells. The current test standards and procedures assume that SEU follow a Poisson process and do not take into account the variability in the error rate with fluence. Therefore, heavy ion irradiation of devices with variable upset sensitivity distribution using typical fluence levels may underestimate the cross section and on-orbit event rate.

  17. Single-event effects in analog and mixed-signal integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turflinger, T.L.

    1996-01-01

    Analog and mixed-signal integrated circuits are also susceptible to single-event effects, but they have rarely been tested. Analog circuit single-particle transients require modified test techniques and data analysis. Existing work is reviewed and future concerns are outlined

  18. "Am I too emotional for this job?" An exploration of student midwives' experiences of coping with traumatic events in the labour ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldridge, Liz; Davies, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    midwifery is emotionally challenging work, and learning to be a midwife brings its own particular challenges. For the student midwife, clinical placement in a hospital labour ward is especially demanding. In the context of organisational tensions and pressures the experience of supporting women through the unpredictable intensity of the labour process can be a significant source of stress for student midwives. Although increasing attention is now being paid to midwives' traumatic experiences and wellbeing few researchers have examined the traumatic experiences of student midwives. Such research is necessary to support the women in their care as well as to protect and retain future midwives. this paper develops themes from a research study by Davies and Coldridge (2015) which explored student midwives' sense of what was traumatic for them during their undergraduate midwifery education and how they were supported with such events. It examines the psychological tensions and anxieties that students face from a psychotherapeutic perspective. a qualitative descriptive study using semi-structured interviews. a midwifery undergraduate programme in one university in the North West of England. 11second and third year students. interviews were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. the study found five themes related to what the students found traumatic. The first theme Wearing the Blues referred to their enculturation within the profession and experiences within practice environments. A second theme No Man's Land explored students' role in the existential space between the woman and the qualified midwives. Three further themes described the experiences of engaging with emergency or unforeseen events in practice and how they coped with them ("Get the Red Box!", The Aftermath and Learning to Cope).This paper re-examines aspects of the themes from a psychotherapeutic perspective. researchers have suggested that midwives' empathic relationships with women may

  19. Single-Event Transgene Product Levels Predict Levels in Genetically Modified Breeding Stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gampala, Satyalinga Srinivas; Fast, Brandon J; Richey, Kimberly A; Gao, Zhifang; Hill, Ryan; Wulfkuhle, Bryant; Shan, Guomin; Bradfisch, Greg A; Herman, Rod A

    2017-09-13

    The concentration of transgene products (proteins and double-stranded RNA) in genetically modified (GM) crop tissues is measured to support food, feed, and environmental risk assessments. Measurement of transgene product concentrations in breeding stacks of previously assessed and approved GM events is required by many regulatory authorities to evaluate unexpected transgene interactions that might affect expression. Research was conducted to determine how well concentrations of transgene products in single GM events predict levels in breeding stacks composed of these events. The concentrations of transgene products were compared between GM maize, soybean, and cotton breeding stacks (MON-87427 × MON-89034 × DAS-Ø15Ø7-1 × MON-87411 × DAS-59122-7 × DAS-40278-9 corn, DAS-81419-2 × DAS-44406-6 soybean, and DAS-21023-5 × DAS-24236-5 × SYN-IR102-7 × MON-88913-8 × DAS-81910-7 cotton) and their component single events (MON-87427, MON-89034, DAS-Ø15Ø7-1, MON-87411, DAS-59122-7, and DAS-40278-9 corn, DAS-81419-2, and DAS-44406-6 soybean, and DAS-21023-5, DAS-24236-5, SYN-IR102-7, MON-88913-8, and DAS-81910-7 cotton). Comparisons were made within a crop and transgene product across plant tissue types and were also made across transgene products in each breeding stack for grain/seed. Scatter plots were generated comparing expression in the stacks to their component events, and the percent of variability accounted for by the line of identity (y = x) was calculated (coefficient of identity, I 2 ). Results support transgene concentrations in single events predicting similar concentrations in breeding stacks containing the single events. Therefore, food, feed, and environmental risk assessments based on concentrations of transgene products in single GM events are generally applicable to breeding stacks composed of these events.

  20. Investigation of the Semicoa 2N7616 and 2N7425 and the Microsemi 2N7480 for Single-Event Gate Rupture and Single-Event Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheick, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Single-event-effect test results for hi-rel total-dose-hardened power MOSFETs are presented in this report. The 2N7616 and the 2N7425 from Semicoa and the 2N7480 from International Rectifier were tested to NASA test condition standards and requirements. The 2N7480 performed well and the data agree with the manufacture's data. The 2N7616 and 2N7425 were entry parts from Semicoa using a new device architecture. Unfortunately, the device performed poorly and Semicoa is withdrawing power MOSFETs from it line due to these data. Vertical metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) are the most commonly used power transistor. MOSFETs are typically employed in power supplies and high current switching applications. Due to the inherent high electric fields in the device, power MOSFETs are sensitive to heavy ion irradiation and can fail catastrophically as a result of single-event gate rupture (SEGR) or single-event burnout (SEB). Manufacturers have designed radiation-hardened power MOSFETs for space applications. See [1] through [5] for more information. The objective of this effort was to investigate the SEGR and SEB responses of two power MOSFETs recently produced. These tests will serve as a limited verification of these parts. It is acknowledged that further testing on the respective parts may be needed for some mission profiles.

  1. Relation between traumatic experience and post-traumatic symptomatics in Lithuanian Afghanistan war veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Domanskaitė Gota, Vėjūnė; Gailienė, Danutė; Kazlauskas, Evaldas

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess what potential traumatic life-events and experiences are related to PTSD in the Lithuanian Afghanistan war veterans (N = 174). [...]. The following variables were investigated: demographics, traumatic life-events or conditions, PTSD and sub-clinical level of PTSD.The Lithuanian Afghanistan war veterans with PTSD and sub-clinical level of PTSD reported significantly more lifetime traumatic events and conditions. The average number of traumatic events per man ...

  2. High Decision Latitude at Work Combined with Traumatic Life Events in Private Life is Associated with Reduced Sleep Quality: Results from the GAZEL Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Dich

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial stress, both at work and at home, plays a role in sleep disturbances. Theoretical models of stress underscore the cumulative effect of stress from different domains in affecting health and well-being. However, previous research has not considered how work stress and stress in private life might interact to affect sleep. The study investigated potential synergistic effects of work stress and traumatic events in private life on sleep quality. Participants ('N' = 6552, average baseline age = 52 were a subset of the French GAZEL cohort who were working in 1999. Work stress was operationalized as high job demands and low decision latitude. These working conditions were self-reported in 1999 (study baseline. Traumatic events in the past 12 months were reported in 2000. Sleep quality was assessed in 2000 as disturbed sleep in the past 12 months, and current sleep problems was indexed by the sleep subscale of the Nottingham Health Profile questionnaire. The results showed that recent events interacted with decision latitude, but not job demands, in predicting sleep quality. However, contrary to our expectations, it was 'high' and not low decision latitude at work that amplified the negative association between stressful events and sleep quality. Adjusted for baseline health, individuals with highest numbers of events and highest levels of decision latitude were at highest risk for impaired sleep. These results challenge the idea that high decision latitude always serves as a protective factor, and underscore the necessity for considering a broader life context when studying stress in a particular domain of life.

  3. Can tokamaks PFC survive a single event of any plasma instabilities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanein, A., E-mail: hassanein@purdue.edu [Center for Materials under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Sizyuk, V.; Miloshevsky, G.; Sizyuk, T. [Center for Materials under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Plasma instability events such as disruptions, edge-localized modes (ELMs), runaway electrons (REs), and vertical displacement events (VDEs) are continued to be serious events and most limiting factors for successful tokamak reactor concept. The plasma-facing components (PFCs), e.g., wall, divertor, and limited surfaces of a tokamak as well as coolant structure materials are subjected to intense particle and heat loads and must maintain a clean and stable surface environment among them and the core/edge plasma. Typical ITER transient events parameters are used for assessing the damage from these four different instability events. HEIGHTS simulation showed that a single event of a disruption, giant ELM, VDE, or RE can cause significant surface erosion (melting and vaporization) damage to PFC, nearby components, and/or structural materials (VDE, RE) melting and possible burnout of coolant tubes that could result in shut down of reactor for extended repair time.

  4. Can tokamaks PFC survive a single event of any plasma instabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanein, A.; Sizyuk, V.; Miloshevsky, G.; Sizyuk, T.

    2013-07-01

    Plasma instability events such as disruptions, edge-localized modes (ELMs), runaway electrons (REs), and vertical displacement events (VDEs) are continued to be serious events and most limiting factors for successful tokamak reactor concept. The plasma-facing components (PFCs), e.g., wall, divertor, and limited surfaces of a tokamak as well as coolant structure materials are subjected to intense particle and heat loads and must maintain a clean and stable surface environment among them and the core/edge plasma. Typical ITER transient events parameters are used for assessing the damage from these four different instability events. HEIGHTS simulation showed that a single event of a disruption, giant ELM, VDE, or RE can cause significant surface erosion (melting and vaporization) damage to PFC, nearby components, and/or structural materials (VDE, RE) melting and possible burnout of coolant tubes that could result in shut down of reactor for extended repair time.

  5. Can tokamaks PFC survive a single event of any plasma instabilities?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.; Sizyuk, V.; Miloshevsky, G.; Sizyuk, T.

    2013-01-01

    Plasma instability events such as disruptions, edge-localized modes (ELMs), runaway electrons (REs), and vertical displacement events (VDEs) are continued to be serious events and most limiting factors for successful tokamak reactor concept. The plasma-facing components (PFCs), e.g., wall, divertor, and limited surfaces of a tokamak as well as coolant structure materials are subjected to intense particle and heat loads and must maintain a clean and stable surface environment among them and the core/edge plasma. Typical ITER transient events parameters are used for assessing the damage from these four different instability events. HEIGHTS simulation showed that a single event of a disruption, giant ELM, VDE, or RE can cause significant surface erosion (melting and vaporization) damage to PFC, nearby components, and/or structural materials (VDE, RE) melting and possible burnout of coolant tubes that could result in shut down of reactor for extended repair time

  6. Decreased sexual motivation and heightened anxiety in male Long-Evans rats are correlated with the memory for a traumatic event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Wayne R; Grissom, Elin M; Belkin, Mark N; James, Thomas F; Dohanich, Gary P

    2013-05-01

    Individuals suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently report disturbances in sexual functioning in addition to alterations in their affective behaviors. Notably, maladaptive cognitions and dysfunctional behaviors are perpetuated by the emergence of the intrusive thoughts that characterize the disorder. In rats, reminders of a traumatic event designed to simulate intrusive thoughts are associated with impairments in affective, social, and sexual behaviors. The current study examined the relationship between the memory for a traumatic event and changes in sexual and affective behaviors in male Long-Evans rats (N = 36). The trauma featured a combination stressor consisting of simultaneous exposure to a footshock and the odor of soiled cat litter. Memory for the trauma was reactivated by re-exposures to the context of the trauma in the absence of stressors and confirmed by assessing the percentage of time spent freezing. Following the second and final reminder, traumatized males exhibited reduced sexual motivation and increased anxiety, signified by longer latencies to achieve their first mount on a post-stress test of sexual behavior, and longer latencies to begin feeding in a novel environment, respectively. Correlational analyses revealed that decreased sexual motivation and heightened anxiety were predicted by the memory for the trauma as indicated by the time spent freezing during the re-exposures. The findings from the current study have implications for understanding the relationship between stress and sexual functioning and indicate that the impairments in sexual behavior that often occur in individuals with PTSD may be impacted by their memory for the trauma.

  7. Family Violence and Other Potentially Traumatic Interpersonal Events Among 9- to 17-Year-Old Children Attending an Outpatient Psychiatric Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultmann, Ole; Broberg, Anders G

    2016-11-01

    Among children visiting child and adolescent mental health care (CAM), the prevalence of exposure to family violence (FV) is reported to exceed prevalence in community samples, as are potentially traumatic interpersonal events (IPE) outside the family. The aim of the study was to relate CAM patients' self-reported experiences of violence exposure to their current psychiatric symptoms and to compare patients exposed to violence with patients who reported no exposure. We asked 305 consecutive 9- to 17-year-old patients in CAM about their current and previous exposure to violence in and outside of the family. Prevalence of exposure to any kind of violence was 67%. Reported exposures were 19% to IPE, 21% to FV, and 27% to both. Children exposed to both FV and IPE were more negatively affected by the events than children exposed to FV or IPE only. Children in the FV + IPE group reported more mental health symptoms than those in the no violence (33%) group. In general, IPE was related to the outcome measures only in combination with FV. Degree of violence exposure seemed to have a dose-response relationship with the diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Low-energy neutron-induced single-event upsets in static random access memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xiaoqiang; Guo Hongxia; Wang Guizhen; Ling Dongsheng; Chen Wei; Bai Xiaoyan; Yang Shanchao; Liu Yan

    2009-01-01

    The visual analysis method of data process was provided for neutron-induced single-event upset(SEU) in static random access memory(SRAM). The SEU effects of six CMOS SRAMs with different feature size(from 0.13 μm to 1.50 μm) were studied. The SEU experiments were performed using the neutron radiation environment at Xi'an pulsed reactor. And the dependence of low-energy neutron-induced SEU cross section on SRAM's feature size was given. The results indicate that the decreased critical charge is the dominant factor for the increase of single event effect sensitivity of SRAM devices with decreased feature size. Small-sized SRAM devices are more sensitive than large-sized ones to single event effect induced by low-energy neutrons. (authors)

  9. Single event effects and total ionizing dose effects of typical VDMOSFET devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Jianshe; Cai Nan; Liu Jiaxin; Wu Qinzhi; Wang Jia

    2012-01-01

    In this work, single event effects and total ionizing dose effects of typical VDMOSFET irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays and 252 Cf source were studied. The single event burnout and single event gate rupture (SEB/SEGR) effects were investigated, and the relationship between drain-source breakdown voltage and ionizing dose was obtained. The results showed that the VDMOSFET devices were sensitive to SEB and SEGR, and measures to improve their resistance to SEB and SEGR should be considered seriously for their space applications. The drain-source breakdown voltage was sensitive to total ionizing dose effects as the threshold voltage. In assessing the devices' resistance to the total ionizing dose effects, both the threshold voltage and the drain-source breakdown voltage should be taken into account. (authors)

  10. Modeling and simulation of single-event effect in CMOS circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Suge; Zhang Xiaolin; Zhao Yuanfu; Liu Lin; Wang Hanning

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of research in modeling and simulation of single-event effects (SEE) in digital devices and integrated circuits. After introducing a brief historical overview of SEE simulation, different level simulation approaches of SEE are detailed, including material-level physical simulation where two primary methods by which ionizing radiation releases charge in a semiconductor device (direct ionization and indirect ionization) are introduced, device-level simulation where the main emerging physical phenomena affecting nanometer devices (bipolar transistor effect, charge sharing effect) and the methods envisaged for taking them into account are focused on, and circuit-level simulation where the methods for predicting single-event response about the production and propagation of single-event transients (SETs) in sequential and combinatorial logic are detailed, as well as the soft error rate trends with scaling are particularly addressed. (review)

  11. Heavy Ion Irradiation Fluence Dependence for Single-Event Upsets in a NAND Flash Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dakai; Wilcox, Edward; Ladbury, Raymond L.; Kim, Hak; Phan, Anthony; Seidleck, Christina; Label, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the single-event effect (SEE) susceptibility of the Micron 16 nm NAND flash, and found that the single-event upset (SEU) cross section varied inversely with cumulative fluence. We attribute the effect to the variable upset sensitivities of the memory cells. Furthermore, the effect impacts only single cell upsets in general. The rate of multiple-bit upsets remained relatively constant with fluence. The current test standards and procedures assume that SEU follow a Poisson process and do not take into account the variability in the error rate with fluence. Therefore, traditional SEE testing techniques may underestimate the on-orbit event rate for a device with variable upset sensitivity.

  12. Laser capture microdissection of enriched populations of neurons or single neurons for gene expression analysis after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Deborah R; Sell, Stacy L; Hellmich, Helen Lee

    2013-04-10

    Long-term cognitive disability after TBI is associated with injury-induced neurodegeneration in the hippocampus-a region in the medial temporal lobe that is critical for learning, memory and executive function. Hence our studies focus on gene expression analysis of specific neuronal populations in distinct subregions of the hippocampus. The technique of laser capture microdissection (LCM), introduced in 1996 by Emmert-Buck, et al., has allowed for significant advances in gene expression analysis of single cells and enriched populations of cells from heterogeneous tissues such as the mammalian brain that contains thousands of functional cell types. We use LCM and a well established rat model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) to investigate the molecular mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of TBI. Following fluid-percussion TBI, brains are removed at pre-determined times post-injury, immediately frozen on dry ice, and prepared for sectioning in a cryostat. The rat brains can be embedded in OCT and sectioned immediately, or stored several months at -80 °C before sectioning for laser capture microdissection. Additionally, we use LCM to study the effects of TBI on circadian rhythms. For this, we capture neurons from the suprachiasmatic nuclei that contain the master clock of the mammalian brain. Here, we demonstrate the use of LCM to obtain single identified neurons (injured and degenerating, Fluoro-Jade-positive, or uninjured, Fluoro-Jade-negative) and enriched populations of hippocampal neurons for subsequent gene expression analysis by real time PCR and/or whole-genome microarrays. These LCM-enabled studies have revealed that the selective vulnerability of anatomically distinct regions of the rat hippocampus are reflected in the different gene expression profiles of different populations of neurons obtained by LCM from these distinct regions. The results from our single-cell studies, where we compare the transcriptional profiles of dying and adjacent surviving

  13. The impact of potentially traumatic events on the mental health of males who have served in the military: Findings from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Darryl; Mewton, Louise; Varker, Tracey; Phelps, Andrea; Forbes, David

    2017-07-01

    The study investigated the impact of potentially traumatic events on mental health outcomes among males who had ever served in the Australian Defence Force. Data from a nationally representative household survey of Australian residents, the 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing, were used for this study. Compared with community members, Australian Defence Force males were significantly more likely to have experienced not only deployment and other war-like events but also accidents or other unexpected events, and trauma to someone close. For non-deployed males, Australian Defence Force members were at increased risk of accidents or other unexpected events compared to community members. After controlling for the effect of potentially traumatic events that were more prevalent among all Australian Defence Force members, the increased risk of mental disorders among Australian Defence Force members was no longer evident. For non-deployed males, Australian Defence Force and community members were at comparable risk of poor mental health outcomes. A significant minority of Australian Defence Force members had onset of a mental disorder prior to their first deployment. Deployment and other potentially traumatic events among Australian Defence Force members can help to explain their increased vulnerability to mental disorders compared with community members. Providers should routinely enquire about a range of potentially traumatic events among serving and ex-serving military personnel.

  14. Multifragmentation of a very heavy nuclear system (I): selection of single-source events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankland, J.D.; Bacri, Ch.O.; Borderie, B. [Paris-11 Univ., Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    A sample of 'single-source' events, compatible with the multifragmentation of very heavy fused systems, are isolated among well-measured {sup 155}Gd + {sup nat}U 36 A.MeV reactions by examining the evolution of the kinematics of fragments with Z {>=} 5 as a function of the dissipated energy and loss of memory of the entrance channel. Single-source events are found to be the result of very central collisions. Such central collisions may also lead to multiple fragment emission due to the decay of excited projectile- and target-like nuclei and so-called 'neck' emission, and for this reason the isolation of single-source events is very difficult. Event-selection criteria based on centrality of collisions, or on the isotropy of the emitted fragments in each event, are found to be inefficient to separate the two mechanisms, unless they take into account the redistribution of fragments' kinetic energies into directions perpendicular to the beam axis. The selected events are good candidates to look for bulk effects in the multifragmentation process. (authors)

  15. Multifragmentation of a very heavy nuclear system (I): selection of single-source events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankland, J.D.; Bacri, Ch.O.; Borderie, B.; Rivet, M.F.; Squalli, M.; Auger, G.; Bellaize, N.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buchet, Ph.; Chbihi, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Dayras, R.; Demeyer, A.; Dore, D.; Durand, D.; Galichet, E.; Genouin-Duhamel, E.; Gerlic, E.; Guinet, D.; Lautesse, Ph.; Laville, J.L.; Lecolley, J.F.; Legrain, R.; Le Neindre, N.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Maskay, A.M.; Nalpas, L.; Nguyen, A.D.; Parlog, M.; Peter, J.; Plagnol, E.; Rosato, E.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Salou, S.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Stern, M.; Tabacaru, G.; Tamain, B.; Tirel, O.; Tassan-Got, L.; Vient, E.; Volant, C.; Wieleczko, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    A sample of 'single-source' events, compatible with the multifragmentation of very heavy fused systems, are isolated among well-measured 155 Gd+ nat U 36 A MeV reactions by examining the evolution of the kinematics of fragments with Z≥5 as a function of the dissipated energy and loss of memory of the entrance channel. Single-source events are found to be the result of very central collisions. Such central collisions may also lead to multiple fragment emission due to the decay of excited projectile- and target-like nuclei and so-called 'neck' emission, and for this reason the isolation of single-source events is very difficult. Event-selection criteria based on centrality of collisions, or on the isotropy of the emitted fragments in each event, are found to be inefficient to separate the two mechanisms, unless they take into account the redistribution of fragments' kinetic energies into directions perpendicular to the beam axis. The selected events are good candidates to look for bulk effects in the multifragmentation process

  16. Impact of NBTI Aging on the Single-Event Upset of SRAM Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Bagatin, M; Gerardin, Simone; Paccagnella, Alessandro; Bagatin, Marta

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the impact of negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) on the single-event upset rate of SRAM cells through experiments and SPICE simulations. We performed critical charge simulations introducing different degradation patterns in the cells, in three technology nodes, from 180 to 90 nm. The simulations results were checked with alpha-particle and heavy-ion irradiations on a 130-nm technology. Both simulations and experimental results show that NBTI degradation does not significantly affect the single-event upset SRAM cell rate as long as the parametric drift induced by aging is within 10\\%.

  17. Experimental study on heavy-ion single event effect on nanometer DDR SRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yinhong; Zhang Fengqi; Guo Hongxia; Zhou Hui; Wang Yanping; Zhang Keying

    2013-01-01

    Single event effect experimental study on 90 nm and 65 nm DDR SRAM were carried out, single event upset (SEU) cross section was discussed as a function of several parameters such as feature size, test pattern, incidence angle, supply voltage. Key influence factors and effect rule were analyzed. Feasibility of the current test method was discussed. Results indicate that, SEU cross section reduces as technologies scale down; the influence of test pattern and power supply on SEU cross section is small; tilt angle increases SEU cross section due to multiple upset increasement. The applicability of cosine tilt test method is correlative to ion species and linear energy transfer (LET) values. (authors)

  18. Investigation of photobleaching and saturation of single molecules by fluorophore recrossing events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrows, Sean M.; Reif, Randall D. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409-1061 (United States); Pappas, Dimitri [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409-1061 (United States)], E-mail: d.pappas@ttu.edu

    2007-08-15

    A method for investigation of photobleaching and saturation of single molecules by fluorophore recrossing events in a laser beam is described. The diffraction-limited probe volumes encountered in single-molecule detection (SMD) produce high excitation irradiance, which can decrease available signal. The single molecules of several dyes were detected and the data was used to extract interpeak times above a defined threshold value. The interpeak times revealed the number of fluorophore recrossing events. The number of molecules detected that were within 2 ms of each other represented a molecular recrossing for this work. Calcein, fluorescein and R-phycoerythrin were analyzed and the saturation irradiance and photobleaching effects were determined as a function of irradiance. This approach is simple and it serves as a method of optimizing experimental conditions for single-molecule detection.

  19. Safety of a DVT chemoprophylaxis protocol following traumatic brain injury: a single center quality improvement initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickele, Christopher M; Kamps, Timothy K; Medow, Joshua E

    2013-04-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a complication that affects approximately 30 % of moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients when pharmacologic prophylaxis is not used. Following TBI, specifically in the case of contusions, the safety and efficacy of pharmacologic thromboembolism prophylaxis (PTP) has been studied only in small sample sizes. In this study, we attempt to assess the safety and efficacy of a PTP protocol for TBI patients, as a quality improvement (QI) initiative, in the neuroscience intensive care unit (NSICU). Between January 1st and December 31st, 2009, consecutive patients discharged from the University of Wisconsin NSICU after >a 48 h minimum stay were evaluated as part of a QI project. A protocol for the initiation of PTP was designed and implemented for NSICU patients. The protocol did not vary based on type of intracranial injury. The rate of VTE was reported as was heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and PTP-related expansion of intracranial hemorrhage (IH) requiring reoperation. The number of patients receiving PTP and the timing of therapy were tracked. Patients were excluded for persistent coagulopathy, other organ system bleeding (such as the gastrointestinal tract), or pregnancy. Faculty could opt out of the protocol without reason. Using the same criteria, patients discharged during the preceding 6 months, from July 1st to December 31st, 2008, were evaluated as controls as the PTP protocol was not in effect during this time. During the control period, there were 48 head trauma admissions who met the inclusion criteria. In 22 patients (45.8 %), PTP was initiated at an average of 4.9 ± 5.4 days after admission. During the protocol period, there were 87 head trauma admissions taken from 1,143 total NSICU stays who met criteria. In 63 patients (72.4 %), the care team in the NSICU successfully initiated PTP, at an average of 3.4 ± 2.8 days after admission. All 87 trauma patients were analyzed, and the rate of clinically

  20. The treatment of chronic post-traumatic nightmares using psychodynamic-interpersonal psychotherapy: a single-case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, S; Beail, N

    1997-03-01

    This article presents a single-case experimental study of a woman suffering a traumatized reaction to a road traffic accident (RTA). In addition to meeting the DSM-IV (APA, 1994) criteria for the diagnosis of PTSD, the client suffered recurrent bizarre nightmares. The client reported at assessment, that each night her dreams were dominated by a terrifying hooded cloaked faceless figure. The central aim of the study therefore was to assess the efficacy of a psychodynamic-interpersonal (PI) style psychotherapy in the context of an unusual PTSD reaction. The methodology employed an A/B multiple baseline time series design, with six month follow-up. A and B represent a series of dream diary observations under two conditions: assessment/baseline (A) and treatment/intervention (B). Treatment consisted of a manualized psychodynamic-interpersonal (PI) psychotherapy to facilitate insight into the content and meaning of the nightmares. The intervention reduced the frequency and associated distress of the nightmares to zero. Follow-up at six months noted the long-term efficacy of the psychotherapy. The study is discussed with reference to the assimilation model of psychotherapeutic change.

  1. Impact of repeated single-metal and multi-metal pollution events on soil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burges, Aritz; Epelde, Lur; Garbisu, Carlos

    2015-02-01

    Most frequently, soil metal pollution results from the occurrence of repeated single-metal and, above all, multi-metal pollution events, with concomitant adverse consequences for soil quality. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the impact of repeated single-metal and multi-metal (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) pollution events on soil quality, as reflected by the values of a variety of soil microbial parameters with potential as bioindicators of soil functioning. Specifically, parameters of microbial activity (potentially mineralizable nitrogen, β-glucosidase and acid phosphatase activity) and biomass (fungal and bacterial gene abundance by RT-qPCR) were determined, in the artificially metal-polluted soil samples, at regular intervals over a period of 26 weeks. Similarly, we studied the evolution over time of CaCl2-extractable metal fractions, in order to estimate metal bioavailability in soil. Different metals showed different values of bioavailability and relative bioavailability ([metal]bio/[metal]tot) in soil throughout the experiment, under both repeated single-metal and multi-metal pollution events. Both repeated Zn-pollution and multi-metal pollution events led to a significant reduction in the values of acid phosphatase activity, and bacterial and fungal gene abundance, reflecting the negative impact of these repeated events on soil microbial activity and biomass, and, hence, soil quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High-energy heavy ion testing of VLSI devices for single event ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    per describes the high-energy heavy ion radiation testing of VLSI devices for single event upset (SEU) ... The experimental set up employed to produce low flux of heavy ions viz. silicon ... through which they pass, leaving behind a wake of elec- ... for use in Bus Management Unit (BMU) and bulk CMOS ... was scheduled.

  3. Single Event Upset Energy Dependence In a Buck-Converter Power Supply Design

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Gopalakrishnan, A; Mahadik, S; Mellado, B; Proudfoot, J; Reed, R; Senthilkumaran, A; Stanek, R

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of Single Event Upsets (SEU) performed on a commercial pulse-width modulator controller chip for switching power supplies. We performed tests to study the probability of an SEU occurring as a function of incident particle (hadron) energy. We discuss the performance of the circuit, and present a solution using external circuitry to effectively eliminate the effect.

  4. Single Event Effects (SEE) for Power Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Single-event gate rupture (SEGR) continues to be a key failure mode in power MOSFETs. (1) SEGR is complex, making rate prediction difficult SEGR mechanism has two main components: (1) Oxide damage-- Reduces field required for rupture (2) Epilayer response -- Creates transient high field across the oxide.

  5. First nondestructive measurements of power MOSFET single event burnout cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberg, D.L.; Wert, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    A new technique to nondestructively measure single event burnout cross sections for N-channel power MOSFETs is presented. Previous measurements of power MOSFET burnout susceptibility have been destructive and thus not conducive to providing statistically meaningful burnout probabilities. The nondestructive technique and data for various device types taken at several accelerators, including the LBL Bevalac, are documented. Several new phenomena are observed

  6. Single-event burnout of power MOSFET devices for satellite application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Yuxiong; Tian Kai; Cao Zhou; Yang Shiyu; Liu Gang; Cai Xiaowu; Lu Jiang

    2008-01-01

    Single-event burnout (SEB) sensitivity was tested for power MOSFET devices, JTMCS081 and JTMCS062, which were made in Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, using californium-252 simulation source. SEB voltage threshold was found for devices under test (DUT). It is helpful for engineers to choose devices used in satellites. (authors)

  7. Re-Verification of the IRHN57133SE and IRHN57250SE for Single Event Gate Rupture and Single Event Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheick, Leif

    2010-01-01

    The vertical metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) is a widely used power transistor onboard a spacecraft. The MOSFET is typically employed in power supplies and high current switching applications. Due to the inherent high electric fields in the device, power MOSFETs are sensitive to heavy ion irradiation and can fail catastrophically as a result of single event gate rupture (SEGR) or single event burnout (SEB). Manufacturers have designed radiation-hardened power MOSFETs for space applications. These radiation hardened devices are not immune to SEGR or SEB but, rather, can exhibit them at a much more damaging ion than their non-radiation hardened counterparts. See [1] through [5] for more information.This effort was to investigate the SEGR and SEB responses of two power MOSFETs from IR(the IRHN57133SE and the IRHN57250SE) that have recently been produced on a new fabrication line. These tests will serve as a limited verification of these parts, but it is acknowledged that further testing on the respective parts may be needed for some mission profiles.

  8. Single Event Effects Test Facility Options at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemer, Bernie [ORNL; Gallmeier, Franz X [ORNL; Dominik, Laura J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Increasing use of microelectronics of ever diminishing feature size in avionics systems has led to a growing Single Event Effects (SEE) susceptibility arising from the highly ionizing interactions of cosmic rays and solar particles. Single event effects caused by atmospheric radiation have been recognized in recent years as a design issue for avionics equipment and systems. To ensure a system meets all its safety and reliability requirements, SEE induced upsets and potential system failures need to be considered, including testing of the components and systems in a neutron beam. Testing of integrated circuits (ICs) and systems for use in radiation environments requires the utilization of highly advanced laboratory facilities that can run evaluations on microcircuits for the effects of radiation. This paper provides a background of the atmospheric radiation phenomenon and the resulting single event effects, including single event upset (SEU) and latch up conditions. A study investigating requirements for future single event effect irradiation test facilities and developing options at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is summarized. The relatively new SNS with its 1.0 GeV proton beam, typical operation of 5000 h per year, expertise in spallation neutron sources, user program infrastructure, and decades of useful life ahead is well suited for hosting a world-class SEE test facility in North America. Emphasis was put on testing of large avionics systems while still providing tunable high flux irradiation conditions for component tests. Makers of ground-based systems would also be served well by these facilities. Three options are described; the most capable, flexible, and highest-test-capacity option is a new stand-alone target station using about one kW of proton beam power on a gas-cooled tungsten target, with dual test enclosures. Less expensive options are also described.

  9. Single event effects and performance predictions for space applications of RISC processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimbrough, J.R.; Colella, N.J.; Denton, S.M.; Shaeffer, D.L.; Shih, D.; Wilburn, J.W.; Coakley, P.G.; Casteneda, C.; Koga, R.; Clark, D.A.; Ullmann, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Proton and ion Single Event Phenomena (SEP) tests were performed on 32-b processors including R3000A's from all commercial manufacturers along with the Performance PR3400 family, Integrated Device Technology Inc. 79R3081, LSI Logic Corporation LR33000HC, and Intel i80960MX parts. The microprocessors had acceptable upset rates for operation in a low earth orbit or a lunar mission such as CLEMENTINE with a wide range in proton total dose failure. Even though R3000A devices are 60% smaller in physical area than R3000 devices, there was a 340% increase in device Single Event Upset (SEU) cross section. Software tests of varying complexity demonstrate that registers and other functional blocks using register architecture dominate the cross section. The current approach of giving a single upset cross section can lead to erroneous upset rates depending on the application software

  10. Properties of Coronal Shocks at the Origin of SEP events Observed by Only One Single Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lario, D.; Kwon, R.

    2017-12-01

    The simultaneous observation of solar energetic particle (SEP) events by multiple spacecraft distributed in the interplanetary medium depends not only on the spatial separation among the different spacecraft, but also on the properties of the particle sources and the characteristics of the SEP transport in interplanetary space. Among the SEP events observed by STEREO-A, STEREO-B and/or near-Earth spacecraft during solar cycle 24, we select SEP events observed by a single spacecraft (specifically, the SEP events observed only by near-Earth spacecraft on 2012 April 5, 2011 September 4, and 2013 August 17). We analyze whether the properties of the coronal shock associated with the origin of the events (as seen in extreme-ultraviolet and white-light coronal images) differ from those associated with SEP events observed by two or three spacecraft. For the selected events we find that the associated CMEs are, in general, narrower than those associated with SEP events observed by two or three spacecraft. The confined extension of the parent coronal shock and the absence of magnetic connection between distant spacecraft and the regions of the expanding coronal shock able to efficiently accelerate SEPs seem to be the conditions leading to intense SEP events observed only over narrow regions of interplanetary space by spacecraft magnetically connected to regions close to the parent eruption site. Weak and gradual intensity increases observed in extended regions of space might involve transport processes and/or later connections established with interplanetary shocks. Systematic analyses of a larger number of events are required before drawing firm conclusions.

  11. Neural correlates of the modified Stroop effect in post-traumatic stress disorder: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyi; Wei, Dongtao; Dupuis-Roy, Nicolas; Du, Xue; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin

    2012-12-19

    Previous studies have provided electrophysiological evidence for attentional abnormalities in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present study examined the electrophysiological activity of trauma-exposed patients with or without a PTSD during a modified Stroop task. The PTSD group showed a reduced P2 and P3 amplitude relative to the non-PTSD group under both the earthquake-related and earthquake-unrelated words conditions. Importantly, the earthquake-related words elicited a greater P3 amplitude (350-450 ms after stimulus) than did unrelated words in the non-PTSD group, whereas no significant difference was found in the PTSD group. This indicates that PTSD patients had some attention deficits compared with non-PTSD individuals, and that these attention deficits were not just limited to earthquake-related words.

  12. I-123 iomazenil single photon emission computed tomography for detecting loss of neuronal integrity in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiko, Kagari; Ikoma, Katsunori; Shiga, Tohru; Katoh, Chietsugu; Hirata, Kenji; Kuge, Yuji; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Tamaki, Nagara

    2017-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes brain dysfunction in many patients. Using C-11 flumazenil (FMZ) positron emission tomography (PET), we have detected and reported the loss of neuronal integrity, leading to brain dysfunction in TBI patients. Similarly to FMZ PET, I-123 iomazenil (IMZ) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is widely used to determine the distribution of the benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) in the brain cortex. The purpose of this study is to examine whether IMZ SPECT is as useful as FMZ PET for evaluating the loss of neuronal integrity in TBI patients. The subjects of this study were seven patients who suffered from neurobehavioral disability. They underwent IMZ SPECT and FMZ PET. Nondisplaceable binding potential (BP ND ) was calculated from FMZ PET images. The uptake of IMZ was evaluated on the basis of lesion-to-pons ratio (LPR). The locations of low uptake levels were visually evaluated both in IMZ SPECT and FMZ PET images. We compared FMZ BP ND and (LPR-1) of IMZ SPECT. In the visual assessment, FMZ BP ND decreased in 11 regions. In IMZ SPECT, low uptake levels were observed in eight of the 11 regions. The rate of concordance between FMZ PET and IMZ SPECT was 72.7%. The mean values IMZ (LPR-1) (1.95 ± 1.01) was significantly lower than that of FMZ BP ND (2.95 ± 0.80 mL/mL). There was good correlation between FMZ BP ND and IMZ (LPR-1) (r = 0.80). IMZ SPECT findings were almost the same as FMZ PET findings in TBI patients. The results indicated that IMZ SPECT is useful for evaluating the loss of neuronal integrity. Because IMZ SPECT can be performed in various facilities, IMZ SPECT may become widely adopted for evaluating the loss of neuronal integrity.

  13. Differences in cerebral perfusion deficits in mild traumatic brain injury and depression using single-photon emission computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Kristoffer; Black, Sandra E; Feinstein, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown decreased perfusion in the prefrontal cortex following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). However, similar hypoperfusion can also be observed in depression. Given the high prevalence of depressive symptoms following mTBI, it is unclear to what extent depression influences hypoperfusion in TBI. Mild TBI patients without depressive symptoms (mTBI-noD, n = 39), TBI patients with depressive symptoms (mTBI-D, n = 13), and 15 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), but no TBI were given 99m T-ECD single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans within 2 weeks of injury. All subjects completed tests of information processing speed, complex attention, and executive functioning, and a self-report questionnaire measuring symptoms of psychological distress. Between-group comparisons of quantified SPECT perfusion were undertaken using univariate and multivariate (partial least squares) analyses. mTBI-D and mTBI-noD groups did not differ in terms of cerebral perfusion. However, patients with MDD showed hypoperfusion compared to both TBI groups in several frontal (orbitofrontal, middle frontal, and superior frontal cortex), superior temporal, and posterior cingulate regions. The mTBI-D group showed poorer performance on a measure of complex attention and working memory compared to both the mTBI-noD and MDD groups. These results suggest that depressive symptoms do not affect SPECT perfusion in the sub-acute phase following a mild TBI. Conversely, MDD is associated with hypoperfusion primarily in frontal regions.

  14. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes. Young adults born from/raised by parents with drug problems and diagnosed with a Substance Used Disorder (SUD) themselves might display a particularly severe condition in terms of cognitive deficits and impaired personality function. This preliminary study aims to investigate the role of early exposure to drugs as a traumatic event, capable of affecting the psychological status of young drug addicts. In particular, it intends to examine the neuropsychological functioning and personality profile of young adults with severe SUDs who were exposed to drugs early in their family context. The research involved three groups, each consisting of 15 young adults (aged 18-24): a group of inpatients diagnosed with SUDs and exposed to drugs early, a comparison group of non-exposed inpatients and a group of non-exposed youth without SUDs. A neuropsychological battery (Esame Neuropsicologico Breve-2), an assessment procedure for personality disorders (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200) and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised were administered. According to present preliminary results, young drug addicts exposed to drugs during their developmental age were characterized by elevated rates of neuropsychological impairments, especially at the expense of attentive and executive functions (EF); personality disorders were also common but did not differentiate them from non-exposed youth with SUDs. Alternative multi-focused prevention and

  15. From traumatic events and dissociation to body image and depression symptoms - in search of self-destruction syndrome in adolescents who engage in nonsuicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziwiłłowicz, Wioletta; Lewandowska, Magdalena

    2017-04-30

    The aim of the study was to analyze relationships between the variables: severity of depression symptoms, feelings towards one's own body, dissociation, the number and type of traumatic life events experienced by adolescents who engage in deliberate self-injury and are psychiatrically hospitalized. We examined 60 patients aged 13-17 (M = 15.48, SD = 1.19). More than a half (55%) were diagnosed with a mixed disturbance of emotions and conduct, 23.5% with depressive behavior disorders, 10% were diagnosed a depressive episode. The research tools: a socio-demographic survey; original Feelings Towards the Body Questionnaire created on the basis of Tomkiewicz's description; Kovacs's CDI; Scharfetter's Ego-Psychopathology questionnaire. The examined individuals have negative feelings toward their bodies, more than half of them experience severe depression symptoms. There are links between traumatic events, dissociation, body image and the severity of depression symptoms. The strongest links were found: between dissociation vis-a-vis the severity of depression symptoms and the feelings towards one's body; and between the severity of depression symptoms and the feelings towards one's body. Two thirds of the examined individuals attempted suicide. Various forms of direct self-destructive behaviors very often occur simultaneously. It also provokes reflection about the conditions under which self-inflicted injury does (or does not) prevent suicide attempts. Self-mutilation along with the interaction between clinical variables may form a self-destruction syndrome in various mental disorders and contribute to clinical pictures of these disorders, this should be taken into account in diagnosing and treatment of adolescents.

  16. Accessibility of medical and psychosocial services following disasters and other traumatic events: experiences of Deaf and hard-of-hearing individuals in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skøt, Lotte; Jeppesen, Tina; Mellentin, Angelina Isabella; Elklit, Ask

    2017-12-01

    This descriptive study sought to explore barriers faced by Deaf and hard-of-hearing (D/HH) individuals in Denmark when accessing medical and psychosocial services following large-scale disasters and individual traumatic experiences. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine D/HH individuals who had experienced at least one disaster or other traumatic event. Difficulties were encountered during interactions with first response and healthcare services, which centered on: (1) lack of Deaf awareness among professionals, (2) problems accessing interpreter services, (3) professionals relying on hearing relatives to disseminate information, and (4) professionals who were unwilling to adjust their speech or try different forms of communication. Barriers reported in relation to accessing psychosocial services included: (1) lack of all-Deaf or hard-of-hearing support groups, and (2) limited availability of crisis psychologists who are trained to service the needs of the hearing impaired. Suggestions for improvements to service provision were provided, including a list of practical recommendations for professionals. This study has identified significant gaps in post-disaster service provision for D/HH individuals. Results can inform policy makers and other authorities in the position to enhance existing services and/or develop new services for this vulnerable target population. Implications for Rehabilitation Being Deaf or hard-of-hearing compromises a person's ability to obtain and share vital information during times of disaster. Medical and psychosocial services are expected to play critical response roles in times of disaster, and, should be properly equipped to assist Deaf and hard-of-hearing (D/HH) individuals. In a relatively small sample, this study highlights barriers faced by D/HH individuals in Denmark when accessing first response, healthcare, and psychosocial services following large-scale disasters and individual traumatic events, all of which centered

  17. Relationship between single-event upset immunity and fabrication processes of recent memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, N.; Shindou, H.; Kuboyama, S.; Matsuda, S.; Itoh, H.; Okada, S.; Nashiyama, I.

    1999-01-01

    Single-Event upset (SEU) immunity for commercial devices were evaluated by irradiation tests using high-energy heavy ions. We show test results and describe the relationship between observed SEU and structures/fabrication processes. We have evaluated single-even upset (SEU) tolerance of recent commercial memory devices using high energy heavy ions in order to find relationship between SEU rate and their fabrication process. It was revealed that the change of the process parameter gives much effect for the SEU rate of the devices. (authors)

  18. Simulating single-event burnout of n-channel power MOSFET's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.H.; Hohl, J.H.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Galloway, K.F.

    1993-01-01

    Heavy ions are ubiquitous in a space environment. Single-event burnout of power MOSFET's is a sudden catastrophic failure mechanism that is initiated by the passage of a heavy ion through the device structure. The passage of the heavy ion generates a current filament that locally turns on a parasitic n-p-n transistor inherent to the power MOSFET. Subsequent high currents and high voltage in the device induce second breakdown of the parasitic bipolar transistor and hence meltdown of the device. This paper presents a model that can be used for simulating the burnout mechanism in order to gain insight into the significant device parameters that most influence the single-event burnout susceptibility of n-channel power MOSFET's

  19. Capillary electrophoretic study of individual exocytotic events in single mast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Andrea Ming-Wei [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-02-12

    The peak profile of individual degranulation events from the on-column release of serotonin from single rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs) was monitored using capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced native fluorescence detection (CE-LINF). Serotonin, an important biogenic amine, is contained in granules (0.25 fL) within RPMCs and is extruded by a process termed exocytosis. The secretagogue, Polymyxin B sulfate, was used as the CE running buffer after injection of a single RPMC into the separation capillary to stimulate the release of the granules. Because the release process occurs on a ms time scale, monitoring individual exocytotic events is possible with the coupling of high-speed CE and LINF detection.

  20. Evaluation of single-event upset tolerance on 64Mbit DRAM and 16Mbit DRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, N; Shindou, H; Matsuzaki, K; Akutsu, T; Matsuda, S [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Hirao, T; Itoh, H; Nashiyama, I

    1997-11-01

    In recent years, reduction in the mission cost is regarded as one of the most important matters, and thus much effort has been made to reduce the cost of electronic components used in spacecrafts without diminishing their performance. On this policy, there has been a growing interest in space application of commercial devices such as highly integrated memory ICs because of low prices and high performance of such devices. To ensure success in this application, it is indispensable to investigate radiation effects, e.g., single-event and total-dose effects, on commercial devices precisely. In the present study, we have evaluated single-event upset (SEU) tolerance for 1Mbit, 4Mbit SRAM and 16Mbit, 64Mbit DRAM by irradiation of high energy heavy ions such as 175MeV-Ar{sup 8+} and 450MeV-Xe{sup 23+}. We observed these SEU tolerance in space. (author)

  1. NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Field Programmable Gate Array Single Event Effects Test Guideline Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie D.; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2018-01-01

    The following are updated or new subjects added to the FPGA SEE Test Guidelines manual: academic versus mission specific device evaluation, single event latch-up (SEL) test and analysis, SEE response visibility enhancement during radiation testing, mitigation evaluation (embedded and user-implemented), unreliable design and its affects to SEE Data, testing flushable architectures versus non-flushable architectures, intellectual property core (IP Core) test and evaluation (addresses embedded and user-inserted), heavy-ion energy and linear energy transfer (LET) selection, proton versus heavy-ion testing, fault injection, mean fluence to failure analysis, and mission specific system-level single event upset (SEU) response prediction. Most sections within the guidelines manual provide information regarding best practices for test structure and test system development. The scope of this manual addresses academic versus mission specific device evaluation and visibility enhancement in IP Core testing.

  2. Development of heavy-ion irradiation technique for single-event in semiconductor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Norio; Akutsu, Takao; Matsuda, Sumio [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Space Center; Naitoh, Ichiro; Itoh, Hisayoshi; Agematsu, Takashi; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Nashiyama, Isamu

    1997-03-01

    Heavy-ion irradiation technique has been developed for the evaluation of single-event effects on semiconductor devices. For the uniform irradiation of high energy heavy ions to device samples, we have designed and installed a magnetic beam-scanning system in a JAERI cyclotron beam course. It was found that scanned area was approximately 4 x 2 centimeters and that the deviation of ion fluence from the average value was less than 7%. (author)

  3. Prediction Methodology for Proton Single Event Burnout: Application to a STRIPFET Device

    CERN Document Server

    Siconolfi, Sara; Oser, Pascal; Spiezia, Giovanni; Hubert, Guillaume; David, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a single event burnout (SEB) sensitivity characterization for power MOSFETs, independent from tests, through a prediction model issued from TCAD analysis and the knowledge of device topology. The methodology is applied to a STRIPFET device and compared to proton data obtained at PSI, showing a good agreement in the order of magnitude of proton SEB cross section, and thus validating the prediction model as an alternative device characterization with respect to SEB.

  4. TDRS-1 single event upsets and the effect of the space environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, D.C.; Daughtridge, S.C.; Stone, J.L.; Sauer, H.H.; Darling, P.

    1991-01-01

    The systematic recording of Single Event Upsets on TDRS-1 from 1984 to 1990 allows correlations to be drawn between those upsets and the space environment. In this paper, ground based neutron monitor data are used to illustrate the long-term relationship between galactic cosmic rays and TDRS-1 upsets. The short-term effects of energetic solar particles are illustrated with space environment data from GOES-7

  5. Estimation of the LET threshold of single event upset of microelectronics in experiments with Cf-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, N.V.; Nymmik, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    A method is proposed for analyzing single event upsets (SEU) in large scale integration circuits of random access memory (RAM) when exposed to Cf-252 fission fragments. The method makes is possible to find the RAM linear energy transfer (LET) threshold to be used for estimations of RAM SEU rates in space. The method is illustrated by analyzing experimental data for the 2 x 8 kbit CMOS/bulk RAM. (author)

  6. In-flight and ground testing of single event upset sensitivity in static RAMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, K.; Dyreklev, P.; Granbom, B.; Calvet, C.; Fourtine, S.; Feuillatre, O.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the results from in-flight measurements of single event upsets (SEU) in static random access memories (SRAM) caused by the atmospheric radiation environment at aircraft altitudes. The memory devices were carried on commercial airlines at high altitude and mainly high latitudes. The SEUs were monitored by a Component Upset Test Equipment (CUTE), designed for this experiment. The in flight results are compared to ground based testing with neutrons from three different sources

  7. Results of single-event multilevel orthopedic surgery in children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmed Tomov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Single-event multilevel orthopedic surgery is a modern approach in the operative treatment of children with cerebral palsy. Methods: Single-event multilevel orthopedic surgery was carried out in 108 patients with cerebral palsy. Patients’ average age was 11.3±1.7 years. Surgical results were analyzed at follow-up after 18 to 24 months, by way of detailed physical examination, functional assessment, imaging, the Edinburgh Visual Gait Score and Gillette Functional Assessment Questionnaire. Results: In our series, 647 procedures were performed during 141 surgeries. Patients had an average of 4.59 procedures per surgery. Observational gait analysis showed an improvement in stance and swing gait phases in ambulatory children. According to the Gillette Functional Assessment Questionnaire, an increase of functional level was noted in 50 patients but did not change in 32 patients. Conclusions: For children with cerebral palsy, single-event multilevel surgery is defined as two or more surgical procedures of the soft tissue or bone at two or more anatomical levels during one operative procedure. In cases where a large volume of surgery is required, two separate operations with a short break in between, but requiring only one hospital admission and one rehabilitation period, are also included. This approach requires adapted methods of surgical intervention, and appropriate methods of anesthesia and pain control in the postoperative period to the start of rehabilitation. Compliance with the above principles allowed the necessary correction of orthopedic complications to be achieved in all cases.

  8. Victimization from workplace bullying after a traumatic event: time-lagged relationships with symptoms of posttraumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Hansen, Marianne Bang; Knardahl, Stein; Heir, Trond

    2017-07-01

    This study examined relationships between victimization from bullying and symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTSS) after exposure to a terror attack at the workplace. It was hypothesized that (1) victims of bullying report higher and more stable levels of PTSS over time compared to their non-bullied colleagues and (2) that PTSS provides an increased risk of subsequent victimization from bullying. The hypotheses were tested in a two-wave prospective sample comprising 2337 employees from Norwegian governmental ministries who were exposed to the 2011 Oslo terror attack. The two waves of data collection were conducted 10 and 22 months after the terror attack. Hypothesis 1 was partially supported: victims of bullying reported significantly higher levels of PTSS than non-bullied employees at both measurement points, but bullying was not related to the stability in PTSS over time. In support of hypothesis 2, PTSS at 10 months was significantly associated with an increased risk of feeling victimized by bullying 1 year later. The results indicate that victimization from bullying is associated with elevated levels of PTSS in the aftermath of a workplace terror attack, but that bullying does not have any impact on the long-term development of PTSS. PTSS may be a potential antecedent of bullying. These findings suggest that organizations must give high priority to the psychosocial work environment of traumatized employees to prevent further detrimental health consequences.

  9. Parasitic bipolar amplification in a single event transient and its temperature dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zheng; Chen Shu-Ming; Chen Jian-Jun; Qin Jun-Rui; Liu Rong-Rong

    2012-01-01

    Using three-dimensional technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation, parasitic bipolar amplification in a single event transient (SET) current of a single transistor and its temperature dependence are studied. We quantify the contributions of different current components in a SET current pulse, and it is found that the proportion of parasitic bipolar amplification in total collected charge is about 30% in both 130-nm and 90-nm technologies. The temperature dependence of parasitic bipolar amplification and the mechanism of the SET pulse are also investigated and quantified. The results show that the proportion of charge induced by parasitic bipolar increases with rising temperature, which illustrates that the parasitic bipolar amplification plays an important role in the charge collection of a single transistor

  10. Computing in the presence of soft bit errors. [caused by single event upset on spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that single-event-upsets (SEUs) due to cosmic rays are a significant source of single bit error in spacecraft computers. The physical mechanism of SEU, electron hole generation by means of Linear Energy Transfer (LET), it discussed with reference made to the results of a study of the environmental effects on computer systems of the Galileo spacecraft. Techniques for making software more tolerant of cosmic ray effects are considered, including: reducing the number of registers used by the software; continuity testing of variables; redundant execution of major procedures for error detection; and encoding state variables to detect single-bit changes. Attention is also given to design modifications which may reduce the cosmic ray exposure of on-board hardware. These modifications include: shielding components operating in LEO; removing low-power Schottky parts; and the use of CMOS diodes. The SEU parameters of different electronic components are listed in a table.

  11. Single-Prolonged Stress: A Review of Two Decades of Progress in a Rodent Model of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisieski, Michael J.; Eagle, Andrew L.; Conti, Alana C.; Liberzon, Israel; Perrine, Shane A.

    2018-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common, costly, and often debilitating psychiatric condition. However, the biological mechanisms underlying this disease are still largely unknown or poorly understood. Considerable evidence indicates that PTSD results from dysfunction in highly-conserved brain systems involved in stress, anxiety, fear, and reward. Pre-clinical models of traumatic stress exposure are critical in defining the neurobiological mechanisms of PTSD, which will ultimately aid in the development of new treatments for PTSD. Single prolonged stress (SPS) is a pre-clinical model that displays behavioral, molecular, and physiological alterations that recapitulate many of the same alterations observed in PTSD, illustrating its validity and giving it utility as a model for investigating post-traumatic adaptations and pre-trauma risk and protective factors. In this manuscript, we review the present state of research using the SPS model, with the goals of (1) describing the utility of the SPS model as a tool for investigating post-trauma adaptations, (2) relating findings using the SPS model to findings in patients with PTSD, and (3) indicating research gaps and strategies to address them in order to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of PTSD. PMID:29867615

  12. Pathways from assaultive violence to post-traumatic stress, depression, and generalized anxiety symptoms through stressful life events: longitudinal mediation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, S R; Joshi, S; Galea, S; Aiello, A E; Uddin, M; Koenen, K C; Cerdá, M

    2017-10-01

    Assaultive violence events are associated with increased risk for adverse psychiatric outcomes, including post-traumatic stress (PTS), depression, and generalized anxiety. Prior research has indicated that economic, legal, and social stressors that could follow assaultive events may explain the increased risk for adverse psychiatric outcomes, yet longitudinal studies have not adequately examined this pathway. In the current study, we aimed to address this limitation. Participants (N = 1360) were part of a longitudinal population-based study of adults living in Detroit. At three waves, participants indicated their exposure to assaultive violence and economic, legal, and social stressors, and completed inventories of PTS, depression, and generalized anxiety. Longitudinal mediation models were used to test the hypothesized pathway from assaultive violence to each psychiatric outcome. The hypothesized models evidenced good fit with the data and, in each, the paths from Wave 1 (W1) assaultive violence to W2 stressors, and from W2 stressors to W3 symptoms were significant (range of Standardized Estimates: 0.09-0.15, all p violence to W3 symptoms were significant (range of Standardized Estimates: 0.01-0.02, all p violence increase risk for a range of psychiatric symptoms. Although future research is needed, the results suggest that investment in interventions that prevent and mitigate assaultive violence survivors' exposure to such stressors may be an effective way to prevent mental illness in the aftermath of violent assaults.

  13. Alterations in autobiographical memory for a blast event in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans with mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palombo, Daniela J; Kapson, Heather S; Lafleche, Ginette; Vasterling, Jennifer J; Marx, Brian P; Franz, Molly; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2015-07-01

    Although loss of consciousness associated with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is thought to interfere with encoding of the TBI event, little is known about the effects of mild TBI (mTBI), which typically involves only transient disruption in consciousness. Blast-exposed Afghanistan and Iraq War veterans were asked to recall the blast event. Participants were stratified based on whether the blast was associated with probable mTBI (n = 50) or not (n = 25). Narratives were scored for organizational structure (i.e., coherence) using the Narrative Coherence Coding Scheme (Reese et al., 2011) and episodic recollection using the Autobiographical Interview Coding Procedures (Levine et al., 2002). The mTBI group produced narratives that were less coherent but contained more episodic details than those of the no-TBI group. These results suggest that mTBI interferes with the organizational quality of memory in a manner that is independent of episodic detail generation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The effect of counseling on anxiety after traumatic childbirth in nulliparous women; a single blind randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Azizi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic birthing mothers may expose more susceptible to experiences posttraumatic mental disorder such as anxiety. This study aimed to determine the effect of midwifery counseling intervention on the anxiety level after traumatic childbirth of primiparous women.Methods: In a randomized control trial 180 woman who had experienced traumatic childbirth based on DSM-IV criteria have been selected. The subjects were randomly divided into an intervention (n=90 and control (n=90 groups. The intervention group received midwifery counseling during two sessions and control group just received routin health care after childbirth. Both groups were followed up with partial – blind technique and compared 4-6 weeks and 3 months post partum. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics by SPSS software. Results: Demographic characteristics, pregnancy complications and social support level were the same in both groups. In addition, there was no significant difference between two groups according to stress, depression and anxiety level before intervention (P>0.05. There was significant difference between two groups in anxiety level after 4-6 weeks and 3 months followup (P<0.001.Conclusion: Findings of this research shows that performing midwifery-counseling program may have significant effect on decreasing of anxiety level after traumatic childbirth.

  15. A new method for explicit modelling of single failure event within different common cause failure groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kančev, Duško; Čepin, Marko

    2012-01-01

    Redundancy and diversity are the main principles of the safety systems in the nuclear industry. Implementation of safety components redundancy has been acknowledged as an effective approach for assuring high levels of system reliability. The existence of redundant components, identical in most of the cases, implicates a probability of their simultaneous failure due to a shared cause—a common cause failure. This paper presents a new method for explicit modelling of single component failure event within multiple common cause failure groups simultaneously. The method is based on a modification of the frequently utilised Beta Factor parametric model. The motivation for development of this method lays in the fact that one of the most widespread softwares for fault tree and event tree modelling as part of the probabilistic safety assessment does not comprise the option for simultaneous assignment of single failure event to multiple common cause failure groups. In that sense, the proposed method can be seen as an advantage of the explicit modelling of common cause failures. A standard standby safety system is selected as a case study for application and study of the proposed methodology. The results and insights implicate improved, more transparent and more comprehensive models within probabilistic safety assessment.

  16. Soft error rate analysis methodology of multi-Pulse-single-event transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Bin; Huo Mingxue; Xiao Liyi

    2012-01-01

    As transistor feature size scales down, soft errors in combinational logic because of high-energy particle radiation is gaining more and more concerns. In this paper, a combinational logic soft error analysis methodology considering multi-pulse-single-event transients (MPSETs) and re-convergence with multi transient pulses is proposed. In the proposed approach, the voltage pulse produced at the standard cell output is approximated by a triangle waveform, and characterized by three parameters: pulse width, the transition time of the first edge, and the transition time of the second edge. As for the pulse with the amplitude being smaller than the supply voltage, the edge extension technique is proposed. Moreover, an efficient electrical masking model comprehensively considering transition time, delay, width and amplitude is proposed, and an approach using the transition times of two edges and pulse width to compute the amplitude of pulse is proposed. Finally, our proposed firstly-independently-propagating-secondly-mutually-interacting (FIP-SMI) is used to deal with more practical re-convergence gate with multi transient pulses. As for MPSETs, a random generation model of MPSETs is exploratively proposed. Compared to the estimates obtained using circuit level simulations by HSpice, our proposed soft error rate analysis algorithm has 10% errors in SER estimation with speed up of 300 when the single-pulse-single-event transient (SPSET) is considered. We have also demonstrated the runtime and SER decrease with the increment of P0 using designs from the ISCAS-85 benchmarks. (authors)

  17. Rapid formation of a modern bedrock canyon by a single flood event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Michael P.; Fonstad, Mark A.

    2010-07-01

    Deep river canyons are thought to form slowly over geological time (see, for example, ref. 1), cut by moderate flows that reoccur every few years. In contrast, some of the most spectacular canyons on Earth and Mars were probably carved rapidly during ancient megaflood events. Quantification of the flood discharge, duration and erosion mechanics that operated during such events is hampered because we lack modern analogues. Canyon Lake Gorge, Texas, was carved in 2002 during a single catastrophic flood. The event offers a rare opportunity to analyse canyon formation and test palaeo-hydraulic-reconstruction techniques under known topographic and hydraulic conditions. Here we use digital topographic models and visible/near-infrared aerial images from before and after the flood, discharge measured during the event, field measurements and sediment-transport modelling to show that the flood moved metre-sized boulders, excavated ~7m of limestone and transformed a soil-mantled valley into a bedrock canyon in just ~3days. We find that canyon morphology is strongly dependent on rock type: plucking of limestone blocks produced waterfalls, inner channels and bedrock strath terraces, whereas abrasion of cemented alluvium sculpted walls, plunge pools and streamlined islands. Canyon formation was so rapid that erosion might have been limited by the ability of the flow to transport sediment. We suggest that our results might improve hydraulic reconstructions of similar megafloods on Earth and Mars.

  18. Top quark polarization in t-channel single top-quark events with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Chitishvili, Mariam

    2017-01-01

    This summary presents the measurement of the top‐quark polarization in t-channel single top quarks with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Monte Carlo simulated events are used. Selected events contain one lepton, large missing transverse momentum and exactly two jets, with one of them identified as b-jet. Selection cuts are used to identify the t-channel topology at reconstruction level. The polarization is measured, from an asymmetry in an angular distribution, at parton level by correcting the reconstructed angular distribution for detector effects. This project provides an overview on how a "standard" physics analysis is performed within ATLAS. The analysis is performed in ROOT. Simulation data is reconstructed to perform an unfolded measurement of a given property of a fundamental particle within the Standard Model. Finally results are compared with theoretical predictions.

  19. Discrete event model-based simulation for train movement on a single-line railway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiao-Ming; Li Ke-Ping; Yang Li-Xing

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a discrete event model-based approach to simulate train movement with the considered energy-saving factor. We conduct extensive case studies to show the dynamic characteristics of the traffic flow and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The simulation results indicate that the proposed discrete event model-based simulation approach is suitable for characterizing the movements of a group of trains on a single railway line with less iterations and CPU time. Additionally, some other qualitative and quantitative characteristics are investigated. In particular, because of the cumulative influence from the previous trains, the following trains should be accelerated or braked frequently to control the headway distance, leading to more energy consumption. (general)

  20. Effectiveness Analysis of a Non-Destructive Single Event Burnout Test Methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Oser, P; Spiezia, G; Fadakis, E; Foucard, G; Peronnard, P; Masi, A; Gaillard, R

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to characterize power MosFETs regarding their tolerance to destructive Single Event Burnouts (SEB). Therefore, several non-destructive test methods have been developed to evaluate the SEB cross-section of power devices. A power MosFET has been evaluated using a test circuit, designed according to standard non-destructive test methods discussed in the literature. Guidelines suggest a prior adaptation of auxiliary components to the device sensitivity before the radiation test. With the first value chosen for the de-coupling capacitor, the external component initiated destructive events and affected the evaluation of the cross-section. As a result, the influence of auxiliary components on the device cross-section was studied. This paper presents the obtained experimental results, supported by SPICE simulations, to evaluate and discuss how the circuit effectiveness depends on the external components.

  1. Prevalence of potentially traumatic events, depression, alcohol use, and social network supports among Chinese migrants: an epidemiological study in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brian J; Chen, Wen; Wu, Yan; Zhou, Fangjing; Latkin, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the health needs of Chinese migrants is a critical public health concern. Epidemiological studies are needed to establish the prevalence of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and common mental disorders among Chinese migrants and identify protective community and social resources. Utilizing random household sampling, we are in the process of recruiting a representative sample of Chinese adults (N=1,000) in two districts home to a large number of internal migrants. Data are collected using face-to-face interviews and participant self-report methods. Chinese versions of the Life Events Checklist, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Patient Health Questionnaire and the Social Support Rating Scale measured exposure to PTEs, alcohol use disorder, depression, and social support networks. Preliminary results indicate a high proportion (68%) of the sample was exposed directly or indirectly to at least one PTE. The most commonly reported events were transportation accidents (43%), natural disasters (39%), and physical assault (26%). A total of 17% of the sample reported drinking consistent with having an alcohol use disorder. Moderate or severe depression was reported by 9% of the sample. The majority (75%) reported having three or more people to rely on for support, and 41% reported active participation in civic groups. Despite these strengths, only half the sample reported having trust in their community. Preliminary evidence from this population-level survey indicates high exposure to PTEs and a high potential burden of alcohol use disorders. The role of social networks will be explored as potentially useful for community-based intervention development.

  2. Prevalence of potentially traumatic events, depression, alcohol use, and social network supports among Chinese migrants: an epidemiological study in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Hall

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Addressing the health needs of Chinese migrants is a critical public health concern. Epidemiological studies are needed to establish the prevalence of potentially traumatic events (PTEs and common mental disorders among Chinese migrants and identify protective community and social resources. Method: Utilizing random household sampling, we are in the process of recruiting a representative sample of Chinese adults (N=1,000 in two districts home to a large number of internal migrants. Data are collected using face-to-face interviews and participant self-report methods. Chinese versions of the Life Events Checklist, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Patient Health Questionnaire and the Social Support Rating Scale measured exposure to PTEs, alcohol use disorder, depression, and social support networks. Results: Preliminary results indicate a high proportion (68% of the sample was exposed directly or indirectly to at least one PTE. The most commonly reported events were transportation accidents (43%, natural disasters (39%, and physical assault (26%. A total of 17% of the sample reported drinking consistent with having an alcohol use disorder. Moderate or severe depression was reported by 9% of the sample. The majority (75% reported having three or more people to rely on for support, and 41% reported active participation in civic groups. Despite these strengths, only half the sample reported having trust in their community. Conclusion: Preliminary evidence from this population-level survey indicates high exposure to PTEs and a high potential burden of alcohol use disorders. The role of social networks will be explored as potentially useful for community-based intervention development.

  3. Cumulative life events, traumatic experiences, and psychiatric symptomatology in transition-aged youth with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Gotham, Katherine O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Co-occurring mood and anxiety symptomatology is commonly observed among youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) during adolescence and adulthood. Yet, little is known about the factors that might predispose youth with ASD to mood and anxiety problems. In this study, we focus on the role of cumulative stressful life events and trauma in co-occurring psychopathology among youth with ASD who are preparing to exit high school. Specifically, we examined the distribution of cumulative...

  4. Single event upsets in semiconductor devices induced by highly ionising particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannikov, A V

    2004-01-01

    A new model of single event upsets (SEUs), created in memory cells by heavy ions and high energy hadrons, has been developed. The model takes into account the spatial distribution of charge collection efficiency over the cell area not considered in previous approaches. Three-dimensional calculations made by the HADRON code have shown good agreement with experimental data for the energy dependence of proton SEU cross sections, sensitive depths and other SEU observables. The model is promising for prediction of SEU rates for memory chips exposed in space and in high-energy experiments as well as for the development of a high-energy neutron dosemeter based on the SEU effect.

  5. Calculation of neutron-induced single-event upset cross sections for semiconductor memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeuchi, Taketo; Watanabe, Yukinobu; Nakashima, Hideki; Sun, Weili

    2001-01-01

    Neutron-induced single-event upset (SEU) cross sections for semiconductor memory devices are calculated by the Burst Generation Rate (BGR) method using LA150 data and QMD calculation in the neutron energy range between 20 MeV and 10 GeV. The calculated results are compared with the measured SEU cross sections for energies up to 160 MeV, and the validity of the calculation method and the nuclear data used is verified. The kind of reaction products and the neutron energy range that have the most effect on SEU are discussed. (author)

  6. Analysis of cosmic ray neutron-induced single-event phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukamoto, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Yukinobu; Nakashima, Hideki

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a database of cross sections for the n+ 28 Si reaction in the energy range between 2 MeV and 3 GeV in order to analyze single-event upset (SEU) phenomena induced by cosmic-ray neutrons in semiconductor memory devices. The data are applied to calculations of SEU cross sections using the Burst Generation Rate (BGR) model including two parameters, critical charge and effective depth. The calculated results are compared with measured SEU cross-sections for energies up to 160 MeV, and the reaction products that provide important effects on SEU are mainly investigated. (author)

  7. Single Event Upset Energy Dependence In a Buck-Converter Power Supply Design

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, G; The ATLAS collaboration; De Lurgio, P; Stanek, R; Mellado, B; Gopalakrishnan, A; Mahadik, S; Reed, R; Senthilkumaran, A

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of Single Event Upsets performed on a commercial pulse-width modulator controller chip that we are using for a switching power supply design for the Atlas Tile Calorimeter at the LHC. We performed tests to study the probability of an SEU occurring as a function of incident particle (hadron) energy. We compare the results with prediction from theory. We discuss the performance of the circuit, and perform an analysis using Bendel parameters. We also present a solution that we found using external circuitry that eliminates the effect.

  8. An analog cell to detect single event transients in voltage references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, F.J., E-mail: fjfranco@fis.ucm.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada III, Facultad de Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), 28040 Madrid (Spain); Palomar, C. [Departamento de Física Aplicada III, Facultad de Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), 28040 Madrid (Spain); Izquierdo, J.G. [Centro de Láseres Ultrarrápidos, Facultad de Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), 28040 Madrid (Spain); Agapito, J.A. [Departamento de Física Aplicada III, Facultad de Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-01-11

    A reliable voltage reference is mandatory in mixed-signal systems. However, this family of components can undergo very long single event transients when operating in radiation environments such as space and nuclear facilities due to the impact of heavy ions. The purpose of the present paper is to demonstrate how a simple cell can be used to detect these transients. The cell was implemented with typical COTS components and its behavior was verified by SPICE simulations and in a laser facility. Different applications of the cell are explored as well.

  9. Discussions On Worst-Case Test Condition For Single Event Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sandra; Zafrani, Max; Sherman, Phillip

    2011-10-01

    This paper discusses the failure characteristics of single- event burnout (SEB) on power MOSFETs based on analyzing the quasi-stationary avalanche simulation curves. The analyses show the worst-case test condition for SEB would be using the ion that has the highest mass that would result in the highest transient current due to charge deposition and displacement damage. The analyses also show it is possible to build power MOSFETs that will not exhibit SEB even when tested with the heaviest ion, which have been verified by heavy ion test data on SEB sensitive and SEB immune devices.

  10. Search for new phenomena using single photon events in the DELPHI detector at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Agasi, E; Ajinenko, I; Aleksan, Roy; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barate, R; Barbi, M S; Barbiellini, Guido; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Blyth, S; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Bosworth, S; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brillault, L; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Buys, A; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerrito, L; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Chauveau, J; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contreras, J L; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Dönszelmann, M; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Dufour, Y; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Ershaidat, N; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrer, A; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gerdyukov, L N; Gibbs, M; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Gumenyuk, S A; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hao, W; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khokhlov, Yu A; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Korcyl, K; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Kramer, P H; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamblot, S; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Last, I; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemoigne, Y; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Lokajícek, M; Loken, J G; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Maio, A; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Maron, T; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Merk, M; Meroni, C; Meyer, S; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Petrovykh, M; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Pindo, M; Plaszczynski, S; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Prest, M; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Rybicki, K; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schimmelpfennig, M; Schneider, H; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Siccama, I; Siegrist, P; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Solovyanov, O; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zuberi, R; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G; Charpentier, Ph; Gavillet, Ph

    1997-01-01

    Data are presented on the reaction \\epem~\\into~\\gamma + no other detected particle at center-of-mass energies, \\sqs = 89.48 GeV, 91.26 GeV and 93.08 GeV. The cross section for this reaction is related directly to the number of light neutrino generations which couple to the \\zz boson, and to several other phenomena such as excited neutrinos, the production of an invisible `X' particle, a possible magnetic moment of the tau neutrino, and neutral monojets. Based on the observed number of single photon events, the number of light neutrinos which couple to the \\zz is measured to be N_\

  11. Monte Carlo study for the dynamical fluctuations inside a single jet in 2-jet events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kunshi; Liu Lianshou; Yin Jianwu; Chen Gang; Liu Chao

    2002-01-01

    The dynamical fluctuations inside a single jet in the 2-jet events produced in e + e - collisions at 91.2 GeV have been studied using Monte Carlo method. The results show that, the anisotropy of dynamical fluctuations inside a single jet changes remarkably with the variation of the cut parameter y cut . A transition point (γ p t = γ ψ ≠γ y ) exists, where the dynamical fluctuations are anisotropic in the longitudinal-transverse plan and isotropic in the transverse planes. It indicates that the y cut corresponding to the transition point is a physically reasonable cutting parameter for selecting jets and, meanwhile, the relative transverse momentum k t at the transition point is the scale for the determination of physical jets. This conclusion is in good agreement with the experimental fact that the third jet (gluon jet) was historically first discovered in the energy region 17-30 GeV in e + e - collisions

  12. Compendium of Single Event Effects, Total Ionizing Dose, and Displacement Damage for Candidate Spacecraft Electronics for NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; OBryan, Martha V.; Chen, Dakai; Campola, Michael J.; Casey, Megan C.; Pellish, Jonathan A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Wilcox, Edward P.; Topper, Alyson D.; Ladbury, Raymond L.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present results and analysis investigating the effects of radiation on a variety of candidate spacecraft electronics to proton and heavy ion induced single event effects (SEE), proton-induced displacement damage (DD), and total ionizing dose (TID). Introduction: This paper is a summary of test results.NASA spacecraft are subjected to a harsh space environment that includes exposure to various types of ionizing radiation. The performance of electronic devices in a space radiation environment is often limited by its susceptibility to single event effects (SEE), total ionizing dose (TID), and displacement damage (DD). Ground-based testing is used to evaluate candidate spacecraft electronics to determine risk to spaceflight applications. Interpreting the results of radiation testing of complex devices is quite difficult. Given the rapidly changing nature of technology, radiation test data are most often application-specific and adequate understanding of the test conditions is critical. Studies discussed herein were undertaken to establish the application-specific sensitivities of candidate spacecraft and emerging electronic devices to single-event upset (SEU), single-event latchup (SEL), single-event gate rupture (SEGR), single-event burnout (SEB), single-event transient (SET), TID, enhanced low dose rate sensitivity (ELDRS), and DD effects.

  13. Use of the Spine Adverse Events Severity System (SAVES) in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury. A comparison with institutional ICD-10 coding for the identification of acute care adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, J T; Thorogood, N P; Cheung, A; Noonan, V K; Chen, J; Fisher, C G; Dvorak, M F

    2013-06-01

    Observational cohort comparison. To compare the previously validated Spine Adverse Events Severity system (SAVES) with International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision codes (ICD-10) codes for identifying adverse events (AEs) in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI). Quaternary Care Spine Program. Patients discharged between 2006 and 2010 were identified from our prospective registry. Two consecutive cohorts were created based on the system used to record acute care AEs; one used ICD-10 coding by hospital coders and the other used SAVES data prospectively collected by a multidisciplinary clinical team. The ICD-10 codes were appropriately mapped to the SAVES. There were 212 patients in the ICD-10 cohort and 173 patients in the SAVES cohort. Analyses were adjusted to account for the different sample sizes, and the two cohorts were comparable based on age, gender and motor score. The SAVES system identified twice as many AEs per person as ICD-10 coding. Fifteen unique AEs were more reliably identified using SAVES, including neuropathic pain (32 × more; Ppatient age and severity of paralysis were more reliably correlated to AEs collected through SAVES than ICD-10. Implementation of the SAVES system for patients with TSCI captured more individuals experiencing AEs and more AEs per person compared with ICD-10 codes. This study demonstrates the utility of prospectively collecting AE data using validated tools.

  14. Kernel PLS Estimation of Single-trial Event-related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosipal, Roman; Trejo, Leonard J.

    2004-01-01

    Nonlinear kernel partial least squaes (KPLS) regressior, is a novel smoothing approach to nonparametric regression curve fitting. We have developed a KPLS approach to the estimation of single-trial event related potentials (ERPs). For improved accuracy of estimation, we also developed a local KPLS method for situations in which there exists prior knowledge about the approximate latency of individual ERP components. To assess the utility of the KPLS approach, we compared non-local KPLS and local KPLS smoothing with other nonparametric signal processing and smoothing methods. In particular, we examined wavelet denoising, smoothing splines, and localized smoothing splines. We applied these methods to the estimation of simulated mixtures of human ERPs and ongoing electroencephalogram (EEG) activity using a dipole simulator (BESA). In this scenario we considered ongoing EEG to represent spatially and temporally correlated noise added to the ERPs. This simulation provided a reasonable but simplified model of real-world ERP measurements. For estimation of the simulated single-trial ERPs, local KPLS provided a level of accuracy that was comparable with or better than the other methods. We also applied the local KPLS method to the estimation of human ERPs recorded in an experiment on co,onitive fatigue. For these data, the local KPLS method provided a clear improvement in visualization of single-trial ERPs as well as their averages. The local KPLS method may serve as a new alternative to the estimation of single-trial ERPs and improvement of ERP averages.

  15. Differences in cerebral perfusion deficits in mild traumatic brain injury and depression using single photon emission computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Kristoffer eRomero; Sandra E Black; Sandra E Black; Anthony eFeinstein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have shown decreased perfusion in the prefrontal cortex following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). However, similar hypoperfusion can also be observed in depression. Given the high prevalence of depressive symptoms following mTBI, it is unclear to what extent depression influences hypoperfusion in TBI.Methods: Mild TBI patients without depressive symptoms (mTBI-noD, n = 39), TBI patients with depressive symptoms (mTBI-D, n = 13), and 15 patients with major depr...

  16. Single event effects induced by 15.14 MeV/u sup 1 sup 3 sup 6 Xe ions

    CERN Document Server

    Hou Ming Dong; LiuJie; Wang Zhi Guang; Jin Yun Fan; Zhu Zhi Yong; Zhen Hong Lou; Liu Chang Long; Chen Xiao Xi; Wei Xin Guo; Zhang Li; Fan You Cheng; Zhu Zhou Rong; Zhang Yiting

    2002-01-01

    Single event effects induced by 15.14 MeV/u sup 1 sup 3 sup 6 Xe ions in different batches of 32k x 8 bits static random access memory are studied. The incident angle dependences of the cross sections for single event upset and single event latch up are presented. The SEE cross sections are plotted versus energy loss instead of linear energy transfer value in sensitive region. The depth of sensitive volume and thickness of 'dead' layer above the sensitive volume are estimated

  17. Single event effect hardness for the front-end ASICs in the DAMPE satellite BGO calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan-Shan; Jiang, Di; Feng, Chang-Qing; Xi, Kai; Liu, Shu-Bin; An, Qi

    2016-01-01

    The Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is a Chinese scientific satellite designed for cosmic ray studies with a primary scientific goal of indirect detection of dark matter particles. As a crucial sub-detector, the BGO calorimeter measures the energy spectrum of cosmic rays in the energy range from 5 GeV to 10 TeV. In order to implement high-density front-end electronics (FEE) with the ability to measure 1848 signals from 616 photomultiplier tubes on the strictly constrained satellite platform, two kinds of 32-channel front-end ASICs, VA160 and VATA160, are customized. However, a space mission period of more than 3 years makes single event effects (SEEs) become threats to reliability. In order to evaluate SEE sensitivities of these chips and verify the effectiveness of mitigation methods, a series of laser-induced and heavy ion-induced SEE tests were performed. Benefiting from the single event latch-up (SEL) protection circuit for power supply, the triple module redundancy (TMR) technology for the configuration registers and the optimized sequential design for the data acquisition process, 52 VA160 chips and 32 VATA160 chips have been applied in the flight model of the BGO calorimeter with radiation hardness assurance. Supported by Strategic Priority Research Program on Space Science of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA04040202-4) and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (WK2030040048)

  18. Single-Event Effect Performance of a Conductive-Bridge Memory EEPROM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dakai; Wilcox, Edward; Berg, Melanie; Kim, Hak; Phan, Anthony; Figueiredo, Marco; Seidleck, Christina; LaBel, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the heavy ion single-event effect (SEE) susceptibility of the industry’s first stand-alone memory based on conductive-bridge memory (CBRAM) technology. The device is available as an electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM). We found that single-event functional interrupt (SEFI) is the dominant SEE type for each operational mode (standby, dynamic read, and dynamic write/read). SEFIs occurred even while the device is statically biased in standby mode. Worst case SEFIs resulted in errors that filled the entire memory space. Power cycle did not always clear the errors. Thus the corrupted cells had to be reprogrammed in some cases. The device is also vulnerable to bit upsets during dynamic write/read tests, although the frequency of the upsets are relatively low. The linear energy transfer threshold for cell upset is between 10 and 20 megaelectron volts per square centimeter per milligram, with an upper limit cross section of 1.6 times 10(sup -11) square centimeters per bit (95 percent confidence level) at 10 megaelectronvolts per square centimeter per milligram. In standby mode, the CBRAM array appears invulnerable to bit upsets.

  19. Automatic Single Event Effects Sensitivity Analysis of a 13-Bit Successive Approximation ADC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, F.; Muñoz, F.; Palomo, F. R.; Sanz, L.; López-Morillo, E.; Aguirre, M. A.; Jiménez, A.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents Analog Fault Tolerant University of Seville Debugging System (AFTU), a tool to evaluate the Single-Event Effect (SEE) sensitivity of analog/mixed signal microelectronic circuits at transistor level. As analog cells can behave in an unpredictable way when critical areas interact with the particle hitting, there is a need for designers to have a software tool that allows an automatic and exhaustive analysis of Single-Event Effects influence. AFTU takes the test-bench SPECTRE design, emulates radiation conditions and automatically evaluates vulnerabilities using user-defined heuristics. To illustrate the utility of the tool, the SEE sensitivity of a 13-bits Successive Approximation Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) has been analysed. This circuit was selected not only because it was designed for space applications, but also due to the fact that a manual SEE sensitivity analysis would be too time-consuming. After a user-defined test campaign, it was detected that some voltage transients were propagated to a node where a parasitic diode was activated, affecting the offset cancelation, and therefore the whole resolution of the ADC. A simple modification of the scheme solved the problem, as it was verified with another automatic SEE sensitivity analysis.

  20. A review of the number and severity of injuries sustained following a single motocross event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Charles G; White, Simon; Bopf, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Competitive and recreational motocross is an increasingly popular sport in Australia and worldwide. Children as young as 4-year-old can participate in this activity. It is recognised that this is a high risk sport despite the use of protective equipment and developments in course design. Injuries sustained range from minor contusions and fractures to severe life threatening spine and head injuries in adults and the paediatric population. In addition organised events can generate a surge of trauma that can burden small local hospitals, resulting in an unpredicted increase in the workload with subsequent delays to treatment. We present the trauma workload generated in a district hospital following a single motocross event. All patients attending a district hospital emergency department with injuries sustained during a single motocross event were identified through hospital and ambulance records. The nature of their injuries and the treatment required, the length of hospital stay and operative theatre time generated by their injuries were obtained from hospital and theatre records. 14 patients attended the emergency department over a 24-hour period, requiring 5 ambulances from the scene. 7 patients required hospital admission with 7 operations performed, consuming 12.2 h of operating theatre time and 21 days of hospital beds. 2 patients sustained head injuries requiring observation, one of which was transferred to a spinal unit for management of their spinal injuries. Motocross is a popular sport and at times has unacceptable risks of injury in organised competitions, especially with regards to paediatric injuries. Better course design, restrictions on participant age and limitations in vehicle speeds may help reduce the number of severe injuries. These events can also generate a sudden trauma burden to local hospital facilities with knock on effects on waiting times for theatre and potentially compromising not only treatment of the injured participants but also

  1. Aftershock Sequences and Seismic-Like Organization of Acoustic Events Produced by a Single Propagating Crack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizee, D.; Bonamy, D.

    2017-12-01

    In inhomogeneous brittle solids like rocks, concrete or ceramics, one usually distinguish nominally brittle fracture, driven by the propagation of a single crack from quasibrittle one, resulting from the accumulation of many microcracks. The latter goes along with intermittent sharp noise, as e.g. revealed by the acoustic emission observed in lab scale compressive fracture experiments or at geophysical scale in the seismic activity. In both cases, statistical analyses have revealed a complex time-energy organization into aftershock sequences obeying a range of robust empirical scaling laws (the Omori-Utsu, productivity and Bath's law) that help carry out seismic hazard analysis and damage mitigation. These laws are usually conjectured to emerge from the collective dynamics of microcrack nucleation. In the experiments presented at AGU, we will show that such a statistical organization is not specific to the quasi-brittle multicracking situations, but also rules the acoustic events produced by a single crack slowly driven in an artificial rock made of sintered polymer beads. This simpler situation has advantageous properties (statistical stationarity in particular) permitting us to uncover the origins of these seismic laws: Both productivity law and Bath's law result from the scale free statistics for event energy and Omori-Utsu law results from the scale-free statistics of inter-event time. This yields predictions on how the associated parameters are related, which were analytically derived. Surprisingly, the so-obtained relations are also compatible with observations on lab scale compressive fracture experiments, suggesting that, in these complex multicracking situations also, the organization into aftershock sequences and associated seismic laws are also ruled by the propagation of individual microcrack fronts, and not by the collective, stress-mediated, microcrack nucleation. Conversely, the relations are not fulfilled in seismology signals, suggesting that

  2. R-process enrichment from a single event in an ancient dwarf galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Alexander P; Frebel, Anna; Chiti, Anirudh; Simon, Joshua D

    2016-03-31

    Elements heavier than zinc are synthesized through the rapid (r) and slow (s) neutron-capture processes. The main site of production of the r-process elements (such as europium) has been debated for nearly 60 years. Initial studies of trends in chemical abundances in old Milky Way halo stars suggested that these elements are produced continually, in sites such as core-collapse supernovae. But evidence from the local Universe favours the idea that r-process production occurs mainly during rare events, such as neutron star mergers. The appearance of a plateau of europium abundance in some dwarf spheroidal galaxies has been suggested as evidence for rare r-process enrichment in the early Universe, but only under the assumption that no gas accretes into those dwarf galaxies; gas accretion favours continual r-process enrichment in these systems. Furthermore, the universal r-process pattern has not been cleanly identified in dwarf spheroidals. The smaller, chemically simpler, and more ancient ultrafaint dwarf galaxies assembled shortly after the first stars formed, and are ideal systems with which to study nucleosynthesis events such as the r-process. Reticulum II is one such galaxy. The abundances of non-neutron-capture elements in this galaxy (and others like it) are similar to those in other old stars. Here, we report that seven of the nine brightest stars in Reticulum II, observed with high-resolution spectroscopy, show strong enhancements in heavy neutron-capture elements, with abundances that follow the universal r-process pattern beyond barium. The enhancement seen in this 'r-process galaxy' is two to three orders of magnitude higher than that detected in any other ultrafaint dwarf galaxy. This implies that a single, rare event produced the r-process material in Reticulum II. The r-process yield and event rate are incompatible with the source being ordinary core-collapse supernovae, but consistent with other possible sources, such as neutron star mergers.

  3. Single event upsets calculated from new ENDF/B-VI proton and neutron data up to 150 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    Single-event upsets (SEU) in microelectronics are calculated from newly-developed silicon nuclear reaction recoil data that extend up to 150 MeV, for incident protons and neutrons. Calculated SEU cross sections are compared with measured data

  4. Characterization of System Level Single Event Upset (SEU) Responses using SEU Data, Classical Reliability Models, and Space Environment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; Label, Kenneth; Campola, Michael; Xapsos, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method for the application of single event upset (SEU) data towards the analysis of complex systems using transformed reliability models (from the time domain to the particle fluence domain) and space environment data.

  5. Single-Event Effect Testing of the Cree C4D40120D Commercial 1200V Silicon Carbide Schottky Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, J.-M.; Casey, M. C.; Wilcox, E. P.; Kim, Hak; Topper, A. D.

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the single event effect (SEE) susceptibility of the commercial silicon carbide 1200V Schottky diode manufactured by Cree, Inc. Heavy-ion testing was conducted at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron Single Event Effects Test Facility (TAMU). Its purpose was to evaluate this device as a candidate for use in the Solar-Electric Propulsion flight project.

  6. Differences in Cerebral Perfusion Deficits in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Depression Using Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Kristoffer; Black, Sandra E.; Feinstein, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have shown decreased perfusion in the prefrontal cortex following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). However, similar hypoperfusion can also be observed in depression. Given the high prevalence of depressive symptoms following mTBI, it is unclear to what extent depression influences hypoperfusion in TBI. Methods: Mild TBI patients without depressive symptoms (mTBI-noD, n = 39), TBI patients with depressive symptoms (mTBI-D, n = 13), and 15 patients with major ...

  7. Observation of Single Isolated Electrons of High Transverse Momentum in Events with Missing Transverse Energy at the CERN pp Collider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banner, M.; Kofoed-Hansen, O.

    1983-01-01

    We report the results of a search for single isolated electrons of high transverse momentum at the CERN collider. Above 15 GeV/c, four events are found having large missing transverse energy along a direction opposite in azimuth to that of the high-pT electron. Both the configuration of the events...

  8. Catecholamines in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    CONTRACT NUMBER Catecholamines in post - traumatic stress disorder 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0327 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...emotionally arousing experiences are typically vivid and persistent. The recurrent, intrusive memories of traumatic events in post - traumatic stress disorder ...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-08-1-0327 TITLE: Catecholamines in post - traumatic stress

  9. New insight into the parasitic bipolar amplification effect in single event transient production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jian-Jun; Chen Shu-Ming; Liang Bin; Deng Ke-Feng

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new method is proposed to study the mechanism of charge collection in single event transient (SET) production in 90 nm bulk complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. We find that different from the case in the pMOSFET, the parasitic bipolar amplification effect (bipolar effect) in the balanced inverter does not exist in the nMOSFET after the ion striking. The influence of the substrate process on the bipolar effect is also studied in the pMOSFET. We find that the bipolar effect can be effectively mitigated by a buried deep P + -well layer and can be removed by a buried SO 2 layer. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  10. Influence of edge effects on single event upset susceptibility of SOI SRAMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Song; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Fazhan; Zhang, Zhangang; Bi, Jinshun; Geng, Chao; Hou, Mingdong; Liu, Gang; Liu, Tianqi; Xi, Kai

    2015-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the single event upset (SEU) susceptibility for heavy ions at tilted incidence was performed. The differences of SEU cross-sections between tilted incidence and normal incidence at equivalent effective linear energy transfer were 21% and 57% for the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) static random access memories (SRAMs) of 0.5 μm and 0.18 μm feature size, respectively. The difference of SEU cross-section raised dramatically with increasing tilt angle for SOI SRAM of deep-submicron technology. The result of CRÈME-MC simulation for tilted irradiation of the sensitive volume indicates that the energy deposition spectrum has a substantial tail extending into the low energy region. The experimental results show that the influence of edge effects on SEU susceptibility cannot be ignored in particular with device scaling down

  11. Single Event Upset in Static Random Access Memories in Atmospheric Neutron Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Yutaka; Takai, Mikio; Ogawa, Izumi; Kishimoto, Tadafumi

    2003-07-01

    Single-event upsets (SEUs) in a 0.4 μm 4 Mbit complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) static random access memory (SRAM) were investigated in various atmospheric neutron environments at sea level, at an altitude of 2612 m mountain, at an altitude of commercial airplane, and at an underground depth of 476 m. Neutron-induced SEUs increase with the increase in altitude. For a device with a borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG) film, SEU rates induced by thermal neutrons increase with the decrease in the cell charge of a memory cell. A thermal neutron-induced SEU is significant in SRAMs with a small cell charge. With the conditions of small cell charge, thermal neutron-induced SEUs account for 60% or more of the total neutron-induced SEUs. The SEU rate induced by atmospheric thermal neutrons can be estimated by an acceleration test using 252Cf.

  12. Single-Event Effects in High-Frequency Linear Amplifiers: Experiment and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinolabedinzadeh, Saeed; Ying, Hanbin; Fleetwood, Zachary E.; Roche, Nicolas J.-H.; Khachatrian, Ani; McMorrow, Dale; Buchner, Stephen P.; Warner, Jeffrey H.; Paki-Amouzou, Pauline; Cressler, John D.

    2017-01-01

    The single-event transient (SET) response of two different silicon-germanium (SiGe) X-band (8-12 GHz) low noise amplifier (LNA) topologies is fully investigated in this paper. The two LNAs were designed and implemented in 130nm SiGe HBT BiCMOS process technology. Two-photon absorption (TPA) laser pulses were utilized to induce transients within various devices in these LNAs. Impulse response theory is identified as a useful tool for predicting the settling behavior of the LNAs subjected to heavy ion strikes. Comprehensive device and circuit level modeling and simulations were performed to accurately simulate the behavior of the circuits under ion strikes. The simulations agree well with TPA measurements. The simulation, modeling and analysis presented in this paper can be applied for any other circuit topologies for SET modeling and prediction.

  13. A simple analytical model of single-event upsets in bulk CMOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sogoyan, Armen V.; Chumakov, Alexander I.; Smolin, Anatoly A., E-mail: aasmol@spels.ru; Ulanova, Anastasia V.; Boruzdina, Anna B.

    2017-06-01

    During the last decade, multiple new methods of single event upset (SEU) rate prediction for aerospace systems have been proposed. Despite different models and approaches being employed in these methods, they all share relatively high usage complexity and require information about a device that is not always available to an end user. This work presents an alternative approach to estimating SEU cross-section as a function of linear energy transfer (LET) that can be further developed into a method of SEU rate prediction. The goal is to propose a simple, yet physics-based, approach with just two parameters that can be used even in situations when only a process node of the device is known. The developed approach is based on geometrical interpretation of SEU cross-section and an analytical solution to the diffusion problem obtained for a simplified IC topology model. A good fit of the model to the experimental data encompassing 7 generations of SRAMs is demonstrated.

  14. Radiation Fields in High Energy Accelerators and their impact on Single Event Effects

    CERN Document Server

    García Alía, Rubén; Wrobel, Frédéric; Brugger, Markus

    Including calculation models and measurements for a variety of electronic components and their concerned radiation environments, this thesis describes the complex radiation field present in the surrounding of a high-energy hadron accelerator and assesses the risks related to it in terms of Single Event Effects (SEE). It is shown that this poses not only a serious threat to the respective operation of modern accelerators but also highlights the impact on other high-energy radiation environments such as those for ground and avionics applications. Different LHC-like radiation environments are described in terms of their hadron composition and energy spectra. They are compared with other environments relevant for electronic component operation such as the ground-level, avionics or proton belt. The main characteristic of the high-energy accelerator radiation field is its mixed nature, both in terms of hadron types and energy interval. The threat to electronics ranges from neutrons of thermal energies to GeV hadron...

  15. Talys calculations for evaluation of neutron-induced single-event upset cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourselier, Jean-Christophe

    2005-08-15

    The computer code TALYS has been used to calculate interactions between cosmic-ray neutrons and silicon nuclei with the goal to describe single-event upset (SEU) cross sections in microelectronics devices. Calculations for the Si(n,X) reaction extend over an energy range of 2 to 200 MeV. The obtained energy spectra of the resulting residuals and light-ions have been integrated using several different critical charges as SEU threshold. It is found that the SEU cross section seems largely to be dominated by {sup 28}Si recoils from elastic scattering. Furthermore, the shape of the SEU cross section as a function of the energy of the incoming neutron changes drastically with decreasing critical charge. The results presented in this report stress the importance of performing studies at mono-energetic neutron beams to advance the understanding of the underlying mechanisms causing SEUs.

  16. Single event upset studies on the CMS tracker APV25 readout chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noah, E.; Bauer, T.; Bisello, D.; Faccio, F.; Friedl, M.; Fulcher, J.R.; Hall, G.; Huhtinen, M.; Kaminsky, A.; Pernicka, M.; Raymond, M.; Wyss, J.

    2002-01-01

    The microstrip tracker for the CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider will be read out using APV25 chips. During high luminosity running the tracker will be exposed to particle fluxes up to 10 7 cm -2 s -1 , which raises concerns that the APV25 could occasionally suffer Single Event Upsets (SEUs). The effect of SEU on the APV25 has been studied to investigate implications for CMS detector operation and from the viewpoint of detailed circuit operation, to improve the understanding of its origin and what factors affect its magnitude. Simulations were performed to reconstruct the effects created by highly ionising particles striking sensitive parts of the circuits, along with consideration of the underlying mechanisms of charge deposition, collection and the consequences. A model to predict the behaviour of the memory circuits in the APV25 has been developed and data collected from dedicated experiments using both heavy ions and hadrons have been shown to support it

  17. Experimental setup for Single Event Effects at the São Paulo 8UD Pelletron Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, V. A. P.; Added, N.; Medina, N. H.; Macchione, E. L. A.; Tabacniks, M. H.; Aguirre, F. R.; Silveira, M. A. G.; Santos, R. B. B.; Seixas, L. E.

    2014-08-01

    In this work we present an experimental setup mounted in one of the beam lines at the São Paulo 8UD Pelletron Accelerator in order to study Single Event Effects in electronic devices. The basic idea is to use elastic scattering collisions to achieve a low-flux with a high-uniformity ion beam to irradiate several devices. 12C, 16O, 28Si, 35Cl and 63Cu beams were used to test the experimental setup. In this system it is possible to use efficiently LET values of 17 MeV/mg/cm2 for an external beam arrangement and up to 32 MeV/mg/cm2 for in-vacuum irradiation.

  18. Experimental setup for Single Event Effects at the São Paulo 8UD Pelletron Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, V.A.P. [Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Added, N., E-mail: nemitala@if.usp.br [Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Medina, N.H.; Macchione, E.L.A.; Tabacniks, M.H.; Aguirre, F.R. [Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silveira, M.A.G.; Santos, R.B.B. [Centro Universitário da FEI, São Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil); Seixas, L.E. [Centro de Tecnologia da Informação Renato Archer, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-01

    In this work we present an experimental setup mounted in one of the beam lines at the São Paulo 8UD Pelletron Accelerator in order to study Single Event Effects in electronic devices. The basic idea is to use elastic scattering collisions to achieve a low-flux with a high-uniformity ion beam to irradiate several devices. {sup 12}C, {sup 16}O, {sup 28}Si, {sup 35}Cl and {sup 63}Cu beams were used to test the experimental setup. In this system it is possible to use efficiently LET values of 17 MeV/mg/cm{sup 2} for an external beam arrangement and up to 32 MeV/mg/cm{sup 2} for in-vacuum irradiation.

  19. Talys calculations for evaluation of neutron-induced single-event upset cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourselier, Jean-Christophe

    2005-08-01

    The computer code TALYS has been used to calculate interactions between cosmic-ray neutrons and silicon nuclei with the goal to describe single-event upset (SEU) cross sections in microelectronics devices. Calculations for the Si(n,X) reaction extend over an energy range of 2 to 200 MeV. The obtained energy spectra of the resulting residuals and light-ions have been integrated using several different critical charges as SEU threshold. It is found that the SEU cross section seems largely to be dominated by 28 Si recoils from elastic scattering. Furthermore, the shape of the SEU cross section as a function of the energy of the incoming neutron changes drastically with decreasing critical charge. The results presented in this report stress the importance of performing studies at mono-energetic neutron beams to advance the understanding of the underlying mechanisms causing SEUs

  20. Acquisition and classification of static single-event upset cross section for SRAM-based FPGAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Zhibin; Fan Ruyu; Guo Hongxia; Wang Zhongming; He Baoping; Zhang Fengqi; Zhang Keying

    2011-01-01

    In order to evaluate single event upsets (SEUs) in SRAM-based FPGAs and to find the sensitive resource in configuration memory, a heavy ions irradiation experiment was carried out on a Xilinx FPGAs device XCV300PQ240. The experiment was conducted to gain the static SEU cross section and classify the SEUs in configurations memory according to different resource uses. The results demonstrate that the inter-memory of SRAM-based FPGAs is extremely sensitive to heavy-ion-induced SEUs. The LUT and routing resources are the main source of SEUs in the configuration memory, which covers more than 97.46% of the total upsets. The SEU sensitivity of various resources is different. The IOB control bit and LUT elements are more sensitive,and more attention should be paid to the LUT elements in radiation hardening,which account for a quite large proportion of the configuration memory. (authors)

  1. Neutron-induced single event upsets in static RAMS observed at 10 km flight altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, J.; Becher, P.E.; Fynbo, P.B.; Raaby, P. Schultz, J.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron induced single event upsets (SEUs) in static memory devices (SRAMs) have so far been seen only in laboratory environments. The authors report observations of 14 neutron induced SEUs at commercial aircraft flight altitudes as well. The observed SEU rate at 10 km flight altitude based on exposure of 160 standard 256 Kbit CMOS SRAMs is 4.8 · 10 -8 upsets/bit/day. In the laboratory 117 SRAMs of two different brands were irradiated with fast neutrons from a Pu-Be source. A total of 176 SEUs have been observed, among these are two SEU pairs. The upset rates from the laboratory tests are compared to those found in the airborne SRAMS

  2. Simulation study on single event burnout in linear doping buffer layer engineered power VDMOSFET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Yunpeng; Su Hongyuan; Hu Dongqing; Wu Yu; Jin Rui

    2016-01-01

    The addition of a buffer layer can improve the device's secondary breakdown voltage, thus, improving the single event burnout (SEB) threshold voltage. In this paper, an N type linear doping buffer layer is proposed. According to quasi-stationary avalanche simulation and heavy ion beam simulation, the results show that an optimized linear doping buffer layer is critical. As SEB is induced by heavy ions impacting, the electric field of an optimized linear doping buffer device is much lower than that with an optimized constant doping buffer layer at a given buffer layer thickness and the same biasing voltages. Secondary breakdown voltage and the parasitic bipolar turn-on current are much higher than those with the optimized constant doping buffer layer. So the linear buffer layer is more advantageous to improving the device's SEB performance. (paper)

  3. Engaged patients, engaged partnerships: singles and partners dealing with an acute cardiac event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Anna; Donato, Silvia; Graffigna, Guendalina; Barello, Serena; Parise, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    A few studies examine patients' (and partners') individual and relational functioning after an acute cardiac event and no research focuses on the individual and relational factors associated with the patient's engagement in his/her disease management. The present study aimed at exploring these variables in male and female patients as well as their partners. We pursued our objectives by taking advantage of a dyadic research design that involved both partners in the data collection, when present, and by including women patients in the sample. Findings showed that patients in a couple, compared to single patients, perceive that their illness had less serious consequences for their life and they were more engaged in their health care; that patients and partners showed comparable levels of distress; and that less depressed, more confident, and better informed patients were more likely to actively engage in their treatment. Findings are discussed in light of their implications for clinical practice.

  4. Single event upset in static random access memories in atmospheric neutron environments

    CERN Document Server

    Arita, Y; Ogawa, I; Kishimoto, T

    2003-01-01

    Single-event upsets (SEUs) in a 0.4 mu m 4Mbit complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) static random access memory (SRAM) were investigated in various atmospheric neutron environments at sea level, at an altitude of 2612 m mountain, at an altitude of commercial airplane, and at an underground depth of 476m. Neutron-induced SEUs increase with the increase in altitude. For a device with a borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG) film, SEU rates induced by thermal neutrons increase with the decrease in the cell charge of a memory cell. A thermal neutron-induced SEU is significant in SRAMs with a small cell charge. With the conditions of small cell charge, thermal neutron-induced SEUs account for 60% or more of the total neutron-induced SEUs. The SEU rate induced by atmospheric thermal neutrons can be estimated by an acceleration test using sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf. (author)

  5. Study on relations between heavy ions single event upset cross sections and γ accumulated doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Chaohui; Geng Bin; Wang Yanping; Peng Honglun; Yang Hailiang; Chen Xiaohua; Li Guozheng

    2002-01-01

    Experiments were done under 252 Cf and 60 Co γ source to study the relation between heavy ion Single Event Upset (SEU) cross sections and γ accumulated doses. There was no obvious rule and little influence of γ accumulated doses on SEU cross sections when Static Random Access Memories were in power off mode and static power on mode. In active measuring mode, the SEU cross section increased as the accumulated doses increasing when same data were written in memory cells. If reverse data, such as '55' and 'AA', were written in memory cells during the experiment, the SEU cross sections decreased to the level when memories were not irradiated under 60 Co γ source, even more small. It implied that the influence of γ accumulated doses on SEU cross sections can be set off by this method

  6. A simple analytical model of single-event upsets in bulk CMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogoyan, Armen V.; Chumakov, Alexander I.; Smolin, Anatoly A.; Ulanova, Anastasia V.; Boruzdina, Anna B.

    2017-01-01

    During the last decade, multiple new methods of single event upset (SEU) rate prediction for aerospace systems have been proposed. Despite different models and approaches being employed in these methods, they all share relatively high usage complexity and require information about a device that is not always available to an end user. This work presents an alternative approach to estimating SEU cross-section as a function of linear energy transfer (LET) that can be further developed into a method of SEU rate prediction. The goal is to propose a simple, yet physics-based, approach with just two parameters that can be used even in situations when only a process node of the device is known. The developed approach is based on geometrical interpretation of SEU cross-section and an analytical solution to the diffusion problem obtained for a simplified IC topology model. A good fit of the model to the experimental data encompassing 7 generations of SRAMs is demonstrated.

  7. Associations between lifetime potentially traumatic events and chronic physical conditions in the South African Stress and Health Survey: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwoli, Lukoye; Platt, Jonathan M; Basu, Archana; Williams, David R; Stein, Dan J; Koenen, Karestan C

    2016-07-07

    This study examined the association between the type, and cumulative number of lifetime potentially traumatic events (PTEs), and chronic physical conditions, in a South African sample. PTE exposures have been associated with an increased risk for a wide range of chronic physical conditions, but it is unclear whether psychiatric disorders mediate this association. Given the established differences in trauma occurrence, and the epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in South Africa relative to other countries, examining associations between PTEs and chronic physical conditions, particularly while accounting for psychiatric comorbidity is important. Data were drawn from the South African Stress and Health Study, a cross-sectional population-representative study of psychological and physical health of South African adults. Twenty-seven PTEs, based on the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0, DSM-IV PTSD module were grouped into seven PTE types (war events, physical violence, sexual violence, accidents, unexpected death of a loved one, network events, and witnessing PTEs). Five clusters of physical conditions (cardiovascular, arthritis, respiratory, chronic pain, and other health conditions) were examined. Logistic regressions assessed the odds of reporting a physical condition in relation to type and cumulative number of PTEs. Cochran-Armitage test for trend was used to examine dose-response effect of cumulative PTEs on physical conditions. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables and psychiatric disorders, respondents with any PTE had increased odds of all assessed physical conditions, ranging between 1.48 (95 % CI: 1.06-2.07) for arthritis and 2.07 (95 % CI: 1.57-2.73) for respiratory conditions, compared to those without PTE exposure. Sexual violence, physical violence, unexpected death of a loved one, and network PTEs significantly increased the odds of all or nearly all the physical conditions

  8. Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 9th ARRCN Symposium 2015 was held during 21st–25th October 2015 at the Novotel Hotel, Chumphon, Thailand, one of the most favored travel destinations in Asia. The 10th ARRCN Symposium 2017 will be held during October 2017 in the Davao, Philippines. International Symposium on the Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus «The Montagu's Harrier in Europe. Status. Threats. Protection», organized by the environmental organization «Landesbund für Vogelschutz in Bayern e.V.» (LBV was held on November 20-22, 2015 in Germany. The location of this event was the city of Wurzburg in Bavaria.

  9. Clinical and radiological outcomes after management of traumatic knee dislocation by open single stage complete reconstruction/repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorez Lukas G

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of our study was to analyze the clinical and radiological long-term outcomes of surgically treated traumatic knee dislocations and determine prognostic factors for outcome. Methods Retrospective consecutive series of patients treated surgically for traumatic knee dislocation with reconstruction/refixation of the anterior (ACL and posterior cruciate ligaments (PCL and primary complete repair of collaterals and posteromedial and posteromedial corner structures. 68 patients were evaluated clinically (IKDC score, SF36 health survey, Lysholm score, Knee Society score, Tegner score, visual analogue scale - VAS pain and satisfaction, Cooper test and radiologically (weight bearing and stress radiographs with a mean follow up of 12 ± 8 years. Instrumented anterior-posterior translation was measured (Rolimeter, KT-1000. Pearson correlation and stepwise regression analysis was used. Results 82% of patients (n = 56 returned to their previous work. At final follow-up 6 patients (9% suffered from pain VAS > 3. The mean side-to-side difference of anterior/posterior translation (KT-1000, 134N was 1.6 ± 1.6 mm and 2.6 ± 1.4 mm. Valgus and varus stress testing in 30° flexion was 40 days were significantly associated with worse outcome (p Conclusions Early complete reconstruction can achieve good functional results and patient satisfaction with overall restoration of sports and working capacity. Negative predictive factors for outcome were injury pattern, type of surgical procedure and timing of surgery.

  10. WINHAC - the Monte Carlo event generator for single W-boson production in hadronic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Placzek, W.; Jadach, P.

    2009-01-01

    The charged-current Drell-Yan process, i.e. single W-boson production with leptonic decays in hadronic collisions, will play an important role in the experimental programme at the LHC. It will be used for improved measurements of some Standard Model parameters (such as the W-boson mass and widths, etc.), for better determination of the Higgs-boson mass limits, in '' new physics '' searches, as a '' standard candle '' process, etc. In order to achieve all these goals, precise theoretical predictions for this process in terms of a Monte Carlo event generator are indispensable. In this talk the Monte Carlo event generator WINHAC for the charged-current Drell-Yan process will be presented. It features higher-order QED corrections within the exclusive Yennie-Frautschi-Suura exponentiation scheme with the 1 st order electroweak corrections. It is interfaced with PYTHIA for QCD/QED initial-state parton shower as well as hadronization. It includes options for proton-proton, proton-antiproton and nucleus-nucleus collisions. Moreover, it allows for longitudinally and transversely polarized W-boson production. It has been cross-checked numerically to high precision against independent programs/calculations. Some numerical results from WINHAC will also be presented. Finally, interplay between QCD and electroweak effects will briefly be discussed. (author)

  11. Widespread Amazon forest tree mortality from a single cross-basin squall line event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrón-Juárez, Robinson I.; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.; Guimaraes, Giuliano; Zeng, Hongcheng; Raupp, Carlos F. M.; Marra, Daniel M.; Ribeiro, Gabriel H. P. M.; Saatchi, Sassan S.; Nelson, Bruce W.; Higuchi, Niro

    2010-08-01

    Climate change is expected to increase the intensity of extreme precipitation events in Amazonia that in turn might produce more forest blowdowns associated with convective storms. Yet quantitative tree mortality associated with convective storms has never been reported across Amazonia, representing an important additional source of carbon to the atmosphere. Here we demonstrate that a single squall line (aligned cluster of convective storm cells) propagating across Amazonia in January, 2005, caused widespread forest tree mortality and may have contributed to the elevated mortality observed that year. Forest plot data demonstrated that the same year represented the second highest mortality rate over a 15-year annual monitoring interval. Over the Manaus region, disturbed forest patches generated by the squall followed a power-law distribution (scaling exponent α = 1.48) and produced a mortality of 0.3-0.5 million trees, equivalent to 30% of the observed annual deforestation reported in 2005 over the same area. Basin-wide, potential tree mortality from this one event was estimated at 542 ± 121 million trees, equivalent to 23% of the mean annual biomass accumulation estimated for these forests. Our results highlight the vulnerability of Amazon trees to wind-driven mortality associated with convective storms. Storm intensity is expected to increase with a warming climate, which would result in additional tree mortality and carbon release to the atmosphere, with the potential to further warm the climate system.

  12. Femtomolar detection of single mismatches by discriminant analysis of DNA hybridization events using gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xingyi; Sim, Sang Jun

    2013-03-21

    Even though DNA-based nanosensors have been demonstrated for quantitative detection of analytes and diseases, hybridization events have never been numerically investigated for further understanding of DNA mediated interactions. Here, we developed a nanoscale platform with well-designed capture and detection gold nanoprobes to precisely evaluate the hybridization events. The capture gold nanoprobes were mono-laid on glass and the detection probes were fabricated via a novel competitive conjugation method. The two kinds of probes combined in a suitable orientation following the hybridization with the target. We found that hybridization efficiency was markedly dependent on electrostatic interactions between DNA strands, which can be tailored by adjusting the salt concentration of the incubation solution. Due to the much lower stability of the double helix formed by mismatches, the hybridization efficiencies of single mismatched (MMT) and perfectly matched DNA (PMT) were different. Therefore, we obtained an optimized salt concentration that allowed for discrimination of MMT from PMT without stringent control of temperature or pH. The results indicated this to be an ultrasensitive and precise nanosensor for the diagnosis of genetic diseases.

  13. Applications Of Monte Carlo Radiation Transport Simulation Techniques For Predicting Single Event Effects In Microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Kevin; Reed, Robert; Weller, Robert; Mendenhall, Marcus; Sierawski, Brian; Schrimpf, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    MRED (Monte Carlo Radiative Energy Deposition) is Vanderbilt University's Geant4 application for simulating radiation events in semiconductors. Geant4 is comprised of the best available computational physics models for the transport of radiation through matter. In addition to basic radiation transport physics contained in the Geant4 core, MRED has the capability to track energy loss in tetrahedral geometric objects, includes a cross section biasing and track weighting technique for variance reduction, and additional features relevant to semiconductor device applications. The crucial element of predicting Single Event Upset (SEU) parameters using radiation transport software is the creation of a dosimetry model that accurately approximates the net collected charge at transistor contacts as a function of deposited energy. The dosimetry technique described here is the multiple sensitive volume (MSV) model. It is shown to be a reasonable approximation of the charge collection process and its parameters can be calibrated to experimental measurements of SEU cross sections. The MSV model, within the framework of MRED, is examined for heavy ion and high-energy proton SEU measurements of a static random access memory.

  14. Investigation of HZETRN 2010 as a Tool for Single Event Effect Qualification of Avionics Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Koontz, Steve; Atwell, William; Boeder, Paul

    2014-01-01

    NASA's future missions are focused on long-duration deep space missions for human exploration which offers no options for a quick emergency return to Earth. The combination of long mission duration with no quick emergency return option leads to unprecedented spacecraft system safety and reliability requirements. It is important that spacecraft avionics systems for human deep space missions are not susceptible to Single Event Effect (SEE) failures caused by space radiation (primarily the continuous galactic cosmic ray background and the occasional solar particle event) interactions with electronic components and systems. SEE effects are typically managed during the design, development, and test (DD&T) phase of spacecraft development by using heritage hardware (if possible) and through extensive component level testing, followed by system level failure analysis tasks that are both time consuming and costly. The ultimate product of the SEE DD&T program is a prediction of spacecraft avionics reliability in the flight environment produced using various nuclear reaction and transport codes in combination with the component and subsystem level radiation test data. Previous work by Koontz, et al.1 utilized FLUKA, a Monte Carlo nuclear reaction and transport code, to calculate SEE and single event upset (SEU) rates. This code was then validated against in-flight data for a variety of spacecraft and space flight environments. However, FLUKA has a long run-time (on the order of days). CREME962, an easy to use deterministic code offering short run times, was also compared with FLUKA predictions and in-flight data. CREME96, though fast and easy to use, has not been updated in several years and underestimates secondary particle shower effects in spacecraft structural shielding mass. Thus, this paper will investigate the use of HZETRN 20103, a fast and easy to use deterministic transport code, similar to CREME96, that was developed at NASA Langley Research Center primarily for

  15. Application of high energy accelerator to study of single event burn-out (SEB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hada, Takashi; Aoki, Shiro; Nakamura, Masao; Matsuda, Sumio [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Hirao, Toshio; Nashiyama, Isamu; Hirose, Takayuki; Ohira, Hideharu; Nagai, Yuki

    1996-12-01

    Hitherto, as nuclear fission fragments of 252-Cf, one of radioactive matters have been used for elucidation of single event mechanism, this method has a limit for analysis of power MOSFET with long charge collection region (generally, empty layer) and is difficult to form the experiment simulating the space environment, because of their wide LET (Linear Energy Transfer) range and of short flying distance of about 15 micrometer. As a result, some irradiation experiments using an accelerator capable of forming charged particle beam with long flying distance and single energy became essential to elucidate the SEB mechanism. In this paper, an experiment result of SEB phenomenon using high energy accelerator was reported. As a result, following items were found: (1) With increase of impressed charge, collected charge shows two peaks, and also increases, (2) commercial power MOSFET shows about 280 V in SEB resistance, and power MOSFET developed for the space use shows about 320 V, which is improved about 40 V for the commercial one, and so forth. (G.K.)

  16. Single-Trial Event-Related Potential Based Rapid Image Triage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Yu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Searching for points of interest (POI in large-volume imagery is a challenging problem with few good solutions. In this work, a neural engineering approach called rapid image triage (RIT which could offer about a ten-fold speed up in POI searching is developed. It is essentially a cortically-coupled computer vision technique, whereby the user is presented bursts of images at a speed of 6–15 images per second and then neural signals called event-related potential (ERP is used as the ‘cue’ for user seeing images of high relevance likelihood. Compared to past efforts, the implemented system has several unique features: (1 it applies overlapping frames in image chip preparation, to ensure rapid image triage performance; (2 a novel common spatial-temporal pattern (CSTP algorithm that makes use of both spatial and temporal patterns of ERP topography is proposed for high-accuracy single-trial ERP detection; (3 a weighted version of probabilistic support-vector-machine (SVM is used to address the inherent unbalanced nature of single-trial ERP detection for RIT. High accuracy, fast learning, and real-time capability of the developed system shown on 20 subjects demonstrate the feasibility of a brainmachine integrated rapid image triage system for fast detection of POI from large-volume imagery.

  17. Single charging events on colloidal particles in a nonpolar liquid with surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuer, Caspar; Vandewiele, Stijn; Brans, Toon; Strubbe, Filip; Neyts, Kristiaan; Beunis, Filip

    2018-01-01

    Electrical charging of colloidal particles in nonpolar liquids due to surfactant additives is investigated intensively, motivated by its importance in a variety of applications. Most methods rely on average electrophoretic mobility measurements of many particles, which provide only indirect information on the charging mechanism. In the present work, we present a method that allows us to obtain direct information on the charging mechanism, by measuring the charge fluctuations on individual particles with a precision higher than the elementary charge using optical trapping electrophoresis. We demonstrate the capabilities of the method by studying the influence of added surfactant OLOA 11000 on the charging of single colloidal PMMA particles in dodecane. The particle charge and the frequency of charging events are investigated both below and above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and with or without applying a DC offset voltage. It is found that at least two separate charging mechanisms are present below the critical micelle concentration. One mechanism is a process where the particle is stripped from negatively charged ionic molecules. An increase in the charging frequency with increased surfactant concentration suggests a second mechanism that involves single surfactant molecules. Above the CMC, neutral inverse micelles can also be involved in the charging process.

  18. The dual role of multiple-transistor charge sharing collection in single-event transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yang; Chen Jian-Jun; He Yi-Bai; Liang Bin; Liu Bi-Wei

    2013-01-01

    As technologies scale down in size, multiple-transistors being affected by a single ion has become a universal phenomenon, and some new effects are present in single event transients (SETs) due to the charge sharing collection of the adjacent multiple-transistors. In this paper, not only the off-state p-channel metal—oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (PMOS FET), but also the on-state PMOS is struck by a heavy-ion in the two-transistor inverter chain, due to the charge sharing collection and the electrical interaction. The SET induced by striking the off-state PMOS is efficiently mitigated by the pulse quenching effect, but the SET induced by striking the on-state PMOS becomes dominant. It is indicated in this study that in the advanced technologies, the SET will no longer just be induced by an ion striking the off-state transistor, and the SET sensitive region will no longer just surround the off-state transistor either, as it is in the older technologies. We also discuss this issue in a three-transistor inverter in depth, and the study illustrates that the three-transistor inverter is still a better replacement for spaceborne integrated circuit design in advanced technologies. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  19. Single photon and multiphoton events with missing energy in $e^{+} e^{-}$ collisions at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2004-01-01

    Single- and multi-photon events with missing energy are selected in 619/pb of data collected by the L3 detector at LEP at centre-of-mass energies between 189GeV and 209GeV. The cross sections of the process e^+e^- -> nu nu gamma (gamma) are found to be in agreement with the Standard Model expectations, and the number of light neutrino species is determined, including lower energy data, to be N_nu = 2.98 +/- 0.05 +/- 0.04. Selection results are also given in the form of tables which can be used to test future models involving single- and multi-photon signatures at LEP. These final states are also predicted by models with large extra dimensions and by several supersymmetric models. No evidence for such models is found. Among others, lower limits between 1.5TeV and 0.65TeV are set, at 95% confidence level, on the new scale of gravity for the number of extra dimensions between 2 and 8.

  20. Modeling of Single Event Transients With Dual Double-Exponential Current Sources: Implications for Logic Cell Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Dolores A.; Robinson, William H.; Wilcox, Ian Z.; Limbrick, Daniel B.; Black, Jeffrey D.

    2015-08-01

    Single event effects (SEE) are a reliability concern for modern microelectronics. Bit corruptions can be caused by single event upsets (SEUs) in the storage cells or by sampling single event transients (SETs) from a logic path. An accurate prediction of soft error susceptibility from SETs requires good models to convert collected charge into compact descriptions of the current injection process. This paper describes a simple, yet effective, method to model the current waveform resulting from a charge collection event for SET circuit simulations. The model uses two double-exponential current sources in parallel, and the results illustrate why a conventional model based on one double-exponential source can be incomplete. A small set of logic cells with varying input conditions, drive strength, and output loading are simulated to extract the parameters for the dual double-exponential current sources. The parameters are based upon both the node capacitance and the restoring current (i.e., drive strength) of the logic cell.

  1. Event-specific qualitative and quantitative detection of five genetically modified rice events using a single standard reference molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Park, Saet-Byul; Roh, Hyo-Jeong; Shin, Min-Ki; Moon, Gui-Im; Hong, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2017-07-01

    One novel standard reference plasmid, namely pUC-RICE5, was constructed as a positive control and calibrator for event-specific qualitative and quantitative detection of genetically modified (GM) rice (Bt63, Kemingdao1, Kefeng6, Kefeng8, and LLRice62). pUC-RICE5 contained fragments of a rice-specific endogenous reference gene (sucrose phosphate synthase) as well as the five GM rice events. An existing qualitative PCR assay approach was modified using pUC-RICE5 to create a quantitative method with limits of detection correlating to approximately 1-10 copies of rice haploid genomes. In this quantitative PCR assay, the square regression coefficients ranged from 0.993 to 1.000. The standard deviation and relative standard deviation values for repeatability ranged from 0.02 to 0.22 and 0.10% to 0.67%, respectively. The Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (Korea) validated the method and the results suggest it could be used routinely to identify five GM rice events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. TRAUMATIC PANCREATITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berne, Clarence J.; Walters, Robert L.

    1953-01-01

    Traumatic pancreatitis should be considered as a diagnostic possibility when trauma to the epigastrium is followed by phenomena suggestive of intra-abdominal injury. The presence or absence of hyperamylasemia should be established immediately. Even when traumatic pancreatitis is believed to exist, any suggestion of injury to other viscera should indicate laparotomy. Retroperitoneal rupture of the duodenum may simulate traumatic pancreatitis in all respects, including hyperamylasemia. X-ray studies may be of value in differentiation. Non-complicated traumatic pancreatitis is best treated conservatively. Gunshot and knife wounds of the pancreas should be drained. PMID:13094537

  3. Investigation of the Semicoa SCF9550 and the International Rectifier IRHM57260SE for Single-Event Gate Rapture and Single-Event Burnout : NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program Office of Safety and Mission Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheick, Leif

    2011-01-01

    Single-event-effect test results for hi-rel total-dose-hardened power MOSFETs are presented in this report. TheSCF9550 from Semicoa and the IRHM57260SE from International Rectifier were tested to NASA test condition/standards and requirements.The IRHM57260SE performed much better when compared to previous testing. These initial results confirm that parts from the Temecula line are marginally comparable to the El Segundo line. The SCF9550 from Semicoa was also tested and represents the initial parts offering from this vendor. Both parts experienced single-event gate rupture (SEGR) and single-event burnout (SEB). All of the SEGR was from gate to drain.

  4. The influence of occupational debriefing on post-traumatic stress symptomatology in traumatized police officers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlier, I. V.; Voerman, A. E.; Gersons, B. P.

    2000-01-01

    Certain individuals, such as police officers, are exposed to traumatic events as part of their occupational roles. In an effort to prevent psychological illnesses, notably the post-traumatic stress disorder, from arising out of work-related traumatic incidents, psychological interventions have been

  5. Single-event multilevel surgery for children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Jennifer L; Dobson, Fiona; Ganeshalingam, Rekha; Shore, Benjamin J; Rutz, Erich; Graham, H Kerr

    2012-02-01

    To conduct a systematic review of single-event multilevel surgery (SEMLS) for children with cerebral palsy, with the aim of evaluating the quality of the evidence and developing recommendations for future research. The systematic review was conducted using standard search and extraction methods in Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane electronic databases. For the purposes of this review, SEMLS was defined as two or more soft-tissue or bony surgical procedures at two or more anatomical levels during one operative procedure, requiring only one hospital admission and one period of rehabilitation. Studies were included if: (1) the primary focus was to examine the effect of SEMLS in children with cerebral palsy; (2) the results focused on multiple anatomic levels and reported findings of one or more World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) domains. Studies that focused on a single intervention or level, or on the utility of a specific outcome measure were excluded. Study quality was appraised with the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS) and the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine scale. The review also examined the reporting of surgery, adverse events, and rehabilitation. Thirty-one studies fulfilled the criteria for inclusion, over the period 1985 to October 2010. The MINORS score for these studies varied from 4 to 19, with marked variation in the quality of reporting. Study quality has improved over recent years. Valid measures of gait and function have been introduced and several of the most recent studies have addressed multiple dimensions of the ICF. A statistical synthesis of the outcome data was not conducted, although a trend towards favourable outcomes in gait was evident. Caution is advised with interpretation owing to the variable study quality. Uncontrolled studies may have resulted in an overestimation of treatment efficacy. The design and reporting of studies of SEMLS are

  6. Single Event Resolution of Plant Plasma Membrane Protein Endocytosis by TIRF Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alexander; Vert, Grégory

    2017-01-01

    Endocytosis is a key process in the internalization of extracellular materials and plasma membrane proteins, such as receptors and transporters, thereby controlling many aspects of cell signaling and cellular homeostasis. Endocytosis in plants has an essential role not only for basic cellular functions but also for growth and development, nutrient delivery, toxin avoidance, and pathogen defense. The precise mechanisms of endocytosis in plants remain quite elusive. The lack of direct visualization and examination of single events of endocytosis has greatly hampered our ability to precisely monitor the cell surface lifetime and the recruitment profile of proteins driving endocytosis or endocytosed cargos in plants. Here, we discuss the necessity to systematically implement total internal reflection fluorescence microcopy (TIRF) in the Plant Cell Biology community and present reliable protocols for high spatial and temporal imaging of endocytosis in plants using clathrin-mediated endocytosis as a test case, since it represents the major route for internalization of cell-surface proteins in plants. We developed a robust method to directly visualize cell surface proteins using TIRF microscopy combined to a high throughput, automated and unbiased analysis pipeline to determine the temporal recruitment profile of proteins to single sites of endocytosis, using the departure of clathrin as a physiological reference for scission. Using this 'departure assay', we assessed the recruitment of two different AP-2 subunits, alpha and mu, to the sites of endocytosis and found that AP2A1 was recruited in concert with clathrin, while AP2M was not. This validated approach therefore offers a powerful solution to better characterize the plant endocytic machinery and the dynamics of one's favorite cargo protein.

  7. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURIES IN RURAL JAIPUR: THE FIRST SINGLE CENTRE EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Trauma is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the Indian Population. OBJECTIVE To evaluate and describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with traumatic brain injury and their clinical outcomes following admission to a rural tertiary care teaching hospital in India. STUDY DESIGN Retrospective, cross-sectional, hospital based analysis of 1713 patients of Traumatic Brain Injury [TBI] admitted to the Department of Neurosurgery in a tertiary health centre in Jaipur from January 2014 to August 2015. METHOD The medical records of all eligible patients were reviewed and data collected on age, sex, mechanism of injury, severity of injury Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS and Outcome (GOS score, Computed Tomography (CT scan results, modality of management and type of surgical intervention and outcome. RESULTS Among the 1713 patients admitted, age of patients varied >1 year to 92 years (mean age 21 years, majority of TBI’s were reported in the age group 20–29 years (34.38%, followed by 30–39 years (26.97%, 40–49 years (16.70%, p value <0.05. Most of the patients were male (63.46%, mostly unmarried. Majority lived in sub-urban areas (51.26% followed by rural (26.85% and urban (21.89%. Patients were mostly from middle class (46.58% and poor socio-economic background (42.62%, upper class only accounted for 10.8% of the cases. In terms of occupation, servicemen and farmers accounted for the majority (54.73%. Patients were brought to the hospital mainly by known persons (68% and rest by bystanders and policemen. The most common mechanism of injury was road traffic accidents (RTA 1199 (69.99%, followed by assault 251 (14.65%, 15.35% accounted for fall from height and fall of object on head. Mean hospital stay was 7.6±9.3 days (range <1 day to 87 days. In our study, patients were classified by GCS as mild TBI in 983(57.38% patients; moderate in 488 (28.48% and severe in 242 (14.12. 1481 (86.46% patients

  8. Triggering Mechanism for Neutron Induced Single-Event Burnout in Power Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Tomoyuki; Nishida, Shuichi; Hamada, Kimimori

    2013-04-01

    Cosmic ray neutrons can trigger catastrophic failures in power devices. It has been reported that parasitic transistor action causes single-event burnout (SEB) in power metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). However, power diodes do not have an inherent parasitic transistor. In this paper, we describe the mechanism triggering SEB in power diodes for the first time using transient device simulation. Initially, generated electron-hole pairs created by incident recoil ions generate transient current, which increases the electron density in the vicinity of the n-/n+ boundary. The space charge effect of the carriers leads to an increase in the strength of the electric field at the n-/n+ boundary. Finally, the onset of impact ionization at the n-/n+ boundary can trigger SEB. Furthermore, this failure is closely related to diode secondary breakdown. It was clarified that the impact ionization at the n-/n+ boundary is a key point of the mechanism triggering SEB in power devices.

  9. Simulation study on single event burnout in linear doping buffer layer engineered power VDMOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunpeng, Jia; Hongyuan, Su; Rui, Jin; Dongqing, Hu; Yu, Wu

    2016-02-01

    The addition of a buffer layer can improve the device's secondary breakdown voltage, thus, improving the single event burnout (SEB) threshold voltage. In this paper, an N type linear doping buffer layer is proposed. According to quasi-stationary avalanche simulation and heavy ion beam simulation, the results show that an optimized linear doping buffer layer is critical. As SEB is induced by heavy ions impacting, the electric field of an optimized linear doping buffer device is much lower than that with an optimized constant doping buffer layer at a given buffer layer thickness and the same biasing voltages. Secondary breakdown voltage and the parasitic bipolar turn-on current are much higher than those with the optimized constant doping buffer layer. So the linear buffer layer is more advantageous to improving the device's SEB performance. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61176071), the Doctoral Fund of Ministry of Education of China (No. 20111103120016), and the Science and Technology Program of State Grid Corporation of China (No. SGRI-WD-71-13-006).

  10. The application of particle filters in single trial event-related potential estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohseni, Hamid R; Nazarpour, Kianoush; Sanei, Saeid; Wilding, Edward L

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, an approach for the estimation of single trial event-related potentials (ST-ERPs) using particle filters (PFs) is presented. The method is based on recursive Bayesian mean square estimation of ERP wavelet coefficients using their previous estimates as prior information. To enable a performance evaluation of the approach in the Gaussian and non-Gaussian distributed noise conditions, we added Gaussian white noise (GWN) and real electroencephalogram (EEG) signals recorded during rest to the simulated ERPs. The results were compared to that of the Kalman filtering (KF) approach demonstrating the robustness of the PF over the KF to the added GWN noise. The proposed method also outperforms the KF when the assumption about the Gaussianity of the noise is violated. We also applied this technique to real EEG potentials recorded in an odd-ball paradigm and investigated the correlation between the amplitude and the latency of the estimated ERP components. Unlike the KF method, for the PF there was a statistically significant negative correlation between amplitude and latency of the estimated ERPs, matching previous neurophysiological findings

  11. Single-event burnout hardening of planar power MOSFET with partially widened trench source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiang; Liu, Hainan; Cai, Xiaowu; Luo, Jiajun; Li, Bo; Li, Binhong; Wang, Lixin; Han, Zhengsheng

    2018-03-01

    We present a single-event burnout (SEB) hardened planar power MOSFET with partially widened trench sources by three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulation. The advantage of the proposed structure is that the work of the parasitic bipolar transistor inherited in the power MOSFET is suppressed effectively due to the elimination of the most sensitive region (P-well region below the N+ source). The simulation result shows that the proposed structure can enhance the SEB survivability significantly. The critical value of linear energy transfer (LET), which indicates the maximum deposited energy on the device without SEB behavior, increases from 0.06 to 0.7 pC/μm. The SEB threshold voltage increases to 120 V, which is 80% of the rated breakdown voltage. Meanwhile, the main parameter characteristics of the proposed structure remain similar with those of the conventional planar structure. Therefore, this structure offers a potential optimization path to planar power MOSFET with high SEB survivability for space and atmospheric applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61404161, 61404068, 61404169).

  12. 3D Thermal and Mechanical Analysis of a Single Event Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, Gabriela; Demarco, Gustavo; Romero, Eduardo; Tais, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a study related to thermal and mechanical behavior of power DMOS transistors during a Single Event Burnout (SEB) process. We use a cylindrical heat generation region for emulating the thermal and mechanical phenomena related to the SEB. In this way, it is avoided the complexity of the mathematical treatment of the ion-device interaction. This work considers locating the heat generation region in positions that are more realistic than the ones used in previous work. For performing the study, we formulate and validate a new 3D model for the transistor that maintains the computational cost at reasonable level. The resulting mathematical models are solved by means of the Finite Element Method. The simulations results show that the failure dynamics is dominated by the mechanical stress in the metal layer. Additionally, the time to failure depends on the heat source position, for a given power and dimension of the generation region. The results suggest that 3D modeling should be considered for a detailed study of thermal and mechanical effects induced by SEBs.

  13. Incorporation of aurochs into a cattle herd in Neolithic Europe: single event or breeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibler, Jörg; Elsner, Julia; Schlumbaum, Angela

    2014-07-01

    Domestication is an ongoing process continuously changing the lives of animals and humans and the environment. For the majority of European cattle (Bos taurus) genetic and archaeozoological evidence support initial domestication ca. 11'000 BP in the Near East from few founder aurochs (Bos primigenius) belonging to the mitochondrial DNA T macro-haplogroup. Gene flow between wild European aurochs of P haplogroup and domestic cattle of T haplogroup, coexisting over thousands of years, appears to have been sporadic. We report archaeozoological and ancient DNA evidence for the incorporation of wild stock into a domestic cattle herd from a Neolithic lake-dwelling in Switzerland. A complete metacarpus of a small and compact adult bovid is morphologically and genetically a female. With withers height of ca. 112 cm, it is comparable in size with small domestic cattle from contemporaneous sites in the area. The bone is directly dated to 3360-3090 cal BC and associated to the Horgen culture, a period of the secondary products revolution. The cow possessed a novel mtDNA P haplotype variant of the European aurochs. We argue this is either a single event or, based on osteological characteristics of the Horgen cattle, a rare instance of intentional breeding with female aurochs.

  14. Radiation induced Single Event Effects in the ATLAS MDT-ASD front-end chip

    CERN Document Server

    Posch, C

    2002-01-01

    Single Event Effect (SEE) tests of the MDT-ASD, the ATLAS MDT front-end chip have been performed at the Harvard Cyclotron Lab. The MDT-ASD is an 8-channel drift tube read-out ASIC fabricated in a commercial 0.5um CMOS process (AMOS14TB). The chip contains a 53 bit register which holds the setup information and an associated shift register of the same length plus some additional control logic. 10 test devices were exposed to a 160 MeV proton beam with a fluence of 1.05E9 p.cm-2.s-1 up to >4.4E p.cm-2 per device. After a total fluence of 4.46E13 p.cm-2, 7 soft SEEs (non-permanent bit flips in the registers) and 0 hard/destructive SEE (e.g. latch-ups, SEL) had occurred. The simulated fluence for 10 years of LHC operation at nominal luminosity for worst case location MDT components is 2.67E11 h.cm-2. The rate of SEUs in the ASD setup register for all of ATLAS, derived from these numbers, is 2.4 per day. It is foreseen to update the active registers of the on-detector electronics at regular intervals. Depending on...

  15. Medium-energy heavy-ion single-event-burnout imaging of power MOSFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musseau, O.; Torres, A.; Campbell, A.B.; Knudson, A.R.; Buchner, S.; Fischer, B.; Schloegl, M.; Briand, P.

    1999-12-01

    The authors present the first experimental determination of the SEB sensitive area in a power MOSFET irradiated with a high-LET heavy-ion microbeam. They used a spectroscopy technique to perform coincident measurements of the charge collected in both source and drain junctions together, with a non-destructive technique (current limitation). The resulting charge collection images are related to the physical structure of the individual cells. These experimental data reveal the complex 3-dimensional behavior of a real structure, which can not easily be simulated using available tools. As the drain voltage is increased, the onset of burnout is reached, characterized by a sudden change in the charge collection image. Hot spots are observed where the collected charge reaches its maximum value. Those spots, due to burnout triggering events, correspond to areas where the silicon is degraded through thermal effects along a single ion track. This direct observation of SEB sensitive areas as applications for, either device hardening, by modifying doping profiles or layout of the cells, or for code calibration and device simulation.

  16. Line-edge roughness induced single event transient variation in SOI FinFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Weikang; An Xia; Jiang Xiaobo; Chen Yehua; Liu Jingjing; Zhang Xing; Huang Ru

    2015-01-01

    The impact of process induced variation on the response of SOI FinFET to heavy ion irradiation is studied through 3-D TCAD simulation for the first time. When FinFET biased at OFF state configuration (V gs = 0, V ds = V dd ) is struck by a heavy ion, the drain collects ionizing charges under the electric field and a current pulse (single event transient, SET) is consequently formed. The results reveal that with the presence of line-edge roughness (LER), which is one of the major variation sources in nano-scale FinFETs, the device-to-device variation in terms of SET is observed. In this study, three types of LER are considered: type A has symmetric fin edges, type B has irrelevant fin edges and type C has parallel fin edges. The results show that type A devices have the largest SET variation while type C devices have the smallest variation. Further, the impact of the two main LER parameters, correlation length and root mean square amplitude, on SET variation is discussed as well. The results indicate that variation may be a concern in radiation effects with the down scaling of feature size. (paper)

  17. Single event upset susceptibilities of latchup immune CMOS process programmable gate arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, R.; Crain, W. R.; Crawford, K. B.; Hansel, S. J.; Lau, D. D.; Tsubota, T. K.

    Single event upsets (SEU) and latchup susceptibilities of complementary metal oxide semiconductor programmable gate arrays (CMOS PPGA's) were measured at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 88-in. cyclotron facility with Xe (603 MeV), Cu (290 MeV), and Ar (180 MeV) ion beams. The PPGA devices tested were those which may be used in space. Most of the SEU measurements were taken with a newly constructed tester called the Bus Access Storage and Comparison System (BASACS) operating via a Macintosh II computer. When BASACS finds that an output does not match a prerecorded pattern, the state of all outputs, position in the test cycle, and other necessary information is transmitted and stored in the Macintosh. The upset rate was kept between 1 and 3 per second. After a sufficient number of errors are stored, the test is stopped and the total fluence of particles and total errors are recorded. The device power supply current was closely monitored to check for occurrence of latchup. Results of the tests are presented, indicating that some of the PPGA's are good candidates for selected space applications.

  18. Position sensitive regions in a generic radiation sensor based on single event upsets in dynamic RAMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darambara, D.G.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    Modern integrated circuits are highly complex systems and, as such, are susceptible to occasional failures. Semiconductor memory devices, particularly dynamic random access memories (dRAMs), are subject to random, transient single event upsets (SEUs) created by energetic ionizing radiation. These radiation-induced soft failures in the stored data of silicon based memory chips provide the foundation for a new, highly efficient, low cost generic radiation sensor. The susceptibility and the detection efficiency of a given dRAM device to SEUs is a complicated function of the circuit design and geometry, the operating conditions and the physics of the charge collection mechanisms involved. Typically, soft error rates measure the cumulative response of all sensitive regions of the memory by broad area chip exposure in ionizing radiation environments. However, this study shows that many regions of a dynamic memory are competing charge collection centres having different upset thresholds. The contribution to soft fails from discrete regions or individual circuit elements of the memory device is unambiguously separated. Hence the use of the dRAM as a position sensitive radiation detector, with high spatial resolution, is assessed and demonstrated. (orig.)

  19. Impact of temperature on single event upset measurement by heavy ions in SRAM devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tianqi; Geng Chao; Zhang Zhangang; Gu Song; Tong Teng; Xi Kai; Hou Mingdong; Liu Jie; Zhao Fazhan; Liu Gang; Han Zhengsheng

    2014-01-01

    The temperature dependence of single event upset (SEU) measurement both in commercial bulk and silicon on insulator (SOI) static random access memories (SRAMs) has been investigated by experiment in the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). For commercial bulk SRAM, the SEU cross section measured by 12 C ions is very sensitive to the temperature. The temperature test of SEU in SOI SRAM was conducted by 209 Bi and 12 C ions, respectively, and the SEU cross sections display a remarkable growth with the elevated temperature for 12 C ions but keep constant for 209 Bi ions. The impact of temperature on SEU measurement was analyzed by Monte Carlo simulation. It is revealed that the SEU cross section is significantly affected by the temperature around the threshold linear energy transfer of SEU occurrence. As the SEU occurrence approaches saturation, the SEU cross section gradually exhibits less temperature dependency. Based on this result, the experimental data measured in HIRFL was analyzed, and then a reasonable method of predicting the on-orbit SEU rate was proposed. (semiconductor devices)

  20. Differences in cerebral perfusion deficits in mild traumatic brain injury and depression using single photon emission computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer eRomero

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Numerous studies have shown decreased perfusion in the prefrontal cortex following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI. However, similar hypoperfusion can also be observed in depression. Given the high prevalence of depressive symptoms following mTBI, it is unclear to what extent depression influences hypoperfusion in TBI.Methods: Mild TBI patients without depressive symptoms (mTBI-noD, n = 39, TBI patients with depressive symptoms (mTBI-D, n = 13, and 15 patients with major depressive disorder, but no TBI (MDD were given 99-m T-ECD SPECT scans within 2 weeks of injury. All subjects completed tests of information processing speed, complex attention, and executive functioning, and a self-report questionnaire measuring symptoms of psychological distress. Between group comparisons of quantified SPECT perfusion were undertaken, using univariate and multivariate (partial least squares analyses.Results: mTBI-D and mTBI-noD groups did not differ in terms of cerebral perfusion. However, patients with MDD showed hypoperfusion in several frontal (orbitofrontal, middle frontal, and superior frontal cortex, superior temporal, and posterior cingulate regions. The mTBI-D group showed poorer performance on a measure of complex attention and working memory, compared to both the mTBI-noD and MDD groups.Conclusions: These results suggest that depressive symptoms do not affect SPECT perfusion in the sub-acute phase following a mild TBI. Conversely, MDD is associated with hypoperfusion primarily in frontal regions.

  1. Effects of a peer support programme for youth social services employees experiencing potentially traumatic events: a protocol for a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Stephane; Tremblay, Nicole; Goncalves, Jane; Bilodeau, Henriette; Geoffrion, Steve

    2017-06-24

    The use of peer support programmes to help workers experiencing potentially traumatic events (PTE) has increased in high-risk organisations in the last decades. However, the scientific evidence of its effectiveness is still very limited. This paper aims to describe the protocol of a prospective cohort study that assesses the efficacy of a peer support programme among youth social services employees exposed to a PTE at work on psychological well-being, work functioning and needs of support. This is a mixed-methods prospective study that will examine workers' evolution four times over a 12-month period in Canada. This study involves: (1) quantitative data obtained through self-administrated questionnaires among 222 workers, and (2) qualitative in-depth interviews with a subsample of 45 workers. This study will compare findings from a cohort who received the support of a peer following a PTE (peer support-experimental protocol) as part of the experimental protocol of the Montreal Youth Social Services-University Institute (MYSS-UI), the second group of workers did not ask for the peer support (no peer support-experimental protocol) but was part of MYSS-UI, and the third group received standard organisational support from the Monteregie Youth Social Services (MYSS) (standard organisational protocol). The protocol and informed consent form complied with the ethics guidelines of the MYSS-UI. The Research Ethics Board of MYSS-UI and MYSS reviewed and accepted the protocol as required. The results of the study will be published in peer-reviewed journals, presented at research and general public conferences, disseminated via a public report for the institute that funded the project and for all workers. Results of this study will influence decision making regarding intervention policies following PTE and peer support interventions may be expanded throughout the youth social services in Canada and worldwide. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated

  2. Glucocorticoid receptor activation is involved in producing abnormal phenotypes of single-prolonged stress rats: a putative post-traumatic stress disorder model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohda, K; Harada, K; Kato, K; Hoshino, A; Motohashi, J; Yamaji, T; Morinobu, S; Matsuoka, N; Kato, N

    2007-08-10

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a stress-related mental disorder caused by traumatic experience, and presents with characteristic symptoms, such as intrusive memories, a state of hyperarousal, and avoidance, that endure for years. Single-prolonged stress (SPS) is one of the animal models proposed for PTSD. Rats exposed to SPS showed enhanced inhibition of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which has been reliably reproduced in patients with PTSD, and increased expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the hippocampus. In this study, we characterized further neuroendocrinologic, behavioral and electrophysiological alterations in SPS rats. Plasma corticosterone recovered from an initial increase within a week, and gross histological changes and neuronal cell death were not observed in the hippocampus of the SPS rats. Behavioral analyses revealed that the SPS rats presented enhanced acoustic startle and impaired spatial memory that paralleled the deficits in hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression. Contextual fear memory was enhanced in the rats 1 week after SPS exposure, whereas LTP in the amygdala was blunted. Interestingly, blockade of GR activation by administering 17-beta-hydroxy-11-beta-/4-/[methyl]-[1-methylethyl]aminophenyl/-17-alpha-[prop-1-ynyl]estra-4-9-diene-3-one (RU40555), a GR antagonist, prior to SPS exposure prevented potentiation of fear conditioning and impairment of LTP in the CA1 region. Altogether, SPS caused a number of behavioral changes similar to those described in PTSD, which marks SPS as a putative PTSD model. The preventive effects of a GR antagonist suggested that GR activation might play a critical role in producing the altered behavior and neuronal function of SPS rats.

  3. Single-Event Latchup Testing of the Micrel MIC4424 Dual Power MOSFET Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellish, J. A.; Boutte, A.; Kim, H.; Phan, A.; Topper, A.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted 47 exposures of four different MIC4424 devices and did not observe any SEL or high-current events. This included worst-case conditions with a LET of 81 MeV-sq cm/mg, applied voltage of 18.5 V, a case temperature greater than 120 C, and a final fluence of 1x10(exp 7)/sq cm. We also monitored both the outputs for the presence of SETs. While the period of the 1 MHz square wave was slightly altered in some cases, no pulses were added or deleted. 1. Purpose: The purpose of this testing is to characterize the BiCMOS/DMOS Micrel MIC4424 dual, non-inverting MOSFET driver for single-event latchup (SEL) susceptibility. These data will be used for flight lot evaluation purposes. 2. Devices Tested: The MIC4423/4424/4425 family are highly reliable BiCMOS/DMOS buffer/driver MOSFET drivers. They are higher output current versions of the MIC4426/4427/4428. They can survive up to 5V of noise spiking, of either polarity, on the ground pin. They can accept, without either damage or logic upset, up to half an amp of reverse current (either polarity) forced back into their outputs. Primarily intended for driving power MOSFETs, the MIC4423/4424/4425 drivers are suitable for driving other loads (capacitive, resistive, or inductive) which require low-impedance, high peak currents, and fast switching times. Heavily loaded clock lines, coaxial cables, or piezoelectric transducers are some examples. The only known limitation on loading is that total power dissipated in the driver must be kept within the maximum power dissipation limits of the package. Five (5) parts were provided for SEL testing. We prepared four parts for irradiation and reserved one piece as an un-irradiated control. More information about the devices can be found in Table 1. The parts were prepared for testing by removing the lid from the CDIP package to expose the target die. The parts were then soldered to small copper circuit adapter boards for easy handling. These parts are fabricated in a bulk Bi

  4. Increased Cardiovascular Events and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: 1 Year Prospective Single Centre Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Ruscitti

    Full Text Available Several studies showed the close relationship between Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA and cerebro-cardiovascular events (CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis during the course of RA and we evaluated the possible role of both traditional cardiovascular (CV and disease related risk factors to predict the occurrence of new CVEs and the onset of subclinical atherosclerosis.We designed a single centre, bias-adjusted, prospective, observational study to investigate, in a homogeneous subset of RA patients, the occurrence of new onset of CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the role of traditional CV and disease-related risk factors to predict the occurrence of new CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis.We enrolled 347 RA patients prospectively followed for 12 months. An increased percentage of patients experienced CVEs, developed subclinical atherosclerosis and was affected by systemic arterial hypertension (SAH, type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome (MS, at the end of follow up. Our analysis showed that the insurgence of both SAH and MS, during the follow up, the older age, the CVE familiarity and the lack of clinical response, were associated with a significantly increased risk to experience CVEs and to develop subclinical atherosclerosis.Our study quantifies the increased expected risk for CVEs in a cohort of RA patients prospectively followed for 1 year. The occurrence of both new CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis in RA patients may be explained by inflammatory burden as well as traditional CV risk factors.

  5. Single event upset mitigation techniques for FPGAs utilized in nuclear power plant digital instrumentation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xin; Holbert, Keith E.; Clark, Lawrence T.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Triple modular redundancy (TMR) implementation is the best solution for digital I and C. → Maximal probability of two simultaneous errors with TMR maximum partition is 4.44%. → Dual modular redundancy minimum logic partitioning design is an additional option. - Abstract: Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are integrated circuits being increasingly used for digital instrumentation and control (I and C) in nuclear power plants (NPPs) because of low cost, re-configurability and low design turn-around time. However, to ensure reliability, proper design techniques must be employed since the memory and logic in FPGAs are susceptible to single event upsets (SEUs). Triple modular redundancy (TMR) has become a common SEU mitigation design technique because of its straightforward implementation and reliable results. Partitioned TMR approaches are introduced in this paper, and formulae derived indicate that the maximum probability of two simultaneous errors [P E ] max is inversely proportional to the number of logic partitions in a TMR design, when each redundant logic block in every logic partition has the same number of sensitive nodes. However, the maximum logic partitioning design cannot completely eliminate the possibility of two simultaneous upsets. For the example test circuit it is found that [P E ] max is reduced dramatically from 66.67% for minimum logic partitioning to 4.44% for maximum logic partitioning. Because TMR introduces significant overhead due to its full hardware redundancy, a dual modular redundancy approach is also examined for application to less demanding situations. By comparative analysis this study reaches the conclusion that the maximum logic partitioning TMR implementation is the best solution for digital I and C applications in NPPs where obtaining robustness is of the highest importance, despite its higher area overhead.

  6. Swift heavy ion induced single event upsets in high density UV-EPROM's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahiwale, S.S. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 7 (India); Shinde, N.S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Mie University (Japan); Kanjilal, D. [Inter University Accelerator Center, New Delhi (India); Bhoraskar, V.N. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 7 (India); Dhole, S.D. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 7 (India)], E-mail: sanjay@physics.unipune.ernet.in

    2008-04-15

    A few high density UV-EPROM's (32Kb x 8) were irradiated with 5.41 MeV energy {alpha}-particles with fluences from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 8} alphas/cm{sup 2} and 100 MeV nickel, iodine and silver ions for low fluences between 5 x 10{sup 7} and 10{sup 8} ions/cm{sup 2}. The energy and ion species was selected on the basis of predicted threshold values of linear energy transfer (LET) in silicon. The program which was stored in the memory found to be changed from 0 to 1 and 1 to 0 state, respectively. On the basis of changed states, the cross-sections ({sigma}) were calculated to investigate the single event effects/upsets. No upset was observed in case of {alpha}-particle since it has very low LET, but the SEU cross-section found to be more in case of Iodine i.e. 2.29 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup 2} than that of nickel, 2.12 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup 2} and silver, 2.26 x 10{sup -3}. This mainly attributes that LET for iodine is more as compared to silver and nickel ions, which deposits large amount of energy near the sensitive node of memory cell in the form of electron-hole pairs required to change the state. These measured SEU cross-section were also compared with theoretically predicted values along with the Weibull distribution fit to the ion induced experimental SEU data. The theoretical predicted SEU cross-section 3.27 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup 2} found to be in good agreement with the measured SEU cross-section.

  7. Development of Single-Event Upset hardened programmable logic devices in deep submicron CMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonacini, S.

    2007-11-01

    The electronics associated to the particle detectors of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), under construction at CERN, will operate in a very harsh radiation environment. Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components cannot be used in the vicinity of particle collision due to their poor radiation tolerance. This thesis is a contribution to the effort to cover the need for radiation-tolerant SEU-robust (Single Event Upset) programmable components for application in high energy physics experiments. Two components are under development: a Programmable Logic Device (PLD) and a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The PLD is a fuse-based, 10-input, 8-I/O general architecture device in 0.25 μm CMOS technology. The FPGA under development is a 32*32 logic block array, equivalent to ∼ 25 k gates, in 0.13 μm CMOS. The irradiation test results obtained in the CMOS 0.25 μm technology demonstrate good robustness of the circuit up to an LET (Linear Energy Transfer) of 79.6 cm 2 *MeV/mg, which make it suitable for the target environment. The CMOS 0.13 μm circuit has showed robustness to an LET of 37.4 cm 2 *MeV/mg in the static test mode and has increased sensitivity in the dynamic test mode. This work focused also on the research for an SEU-robust register in both the mentioned technologies. The SEU-robust register is employed as a user data flip-flop in the FPGA and PLD designs and as a configuration cell as well in the FPGA design

  8. Traumatic life events and posttraumatic stress disorder among Mexican adolescents: results from a survey Eventos traumáticos de vida y trastorno de estrés postraumático en adolescentes mexicanos: resultados de encuesta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Orozco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and the association of Traumatic Life Events (LEs and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD among the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA adolescent population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adolescents aged 12 to 17 were administered the adolescent version of the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (n=3 005. Data were collected using a stratified, multistage and probability sample. Prevalence, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for LEs and PTSD (assessed with DSM-IV criteria were obtained. RESULTS: The percentage of adolescents reporting at least one traumatic event in their lifetimes was 68.9%, with differences by sex. Prevalence for PTSD were 1.8% (2.4% females and 1.2% males, and sexual-related traumas were the LEs most associated with PTSD [OR=3.9 (CI95%=1.8-8.2], adjusted by sex, education and age. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to traumatic life events is not uncommon among Mexico City adolescents. Effort should be made to reduce child and adolescent sexual abuse, a very traumatic event highly associated with PTSD.OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia y la asociación entre los Eventos Traumáticos (ET y Trastorno de Estrés Postraumático (TEPT en la población adolescente del Área Metropolitana de la Ciudad de México (AMCM. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: 3 005 adolescentes del AMCM entre 12 y 17 años fueron entrevistados empleando la versión para adolescentes de la Entrevista Dia gnóstica Internacional de Salud Mental, en una muestra probabilística, estratificada y multietápica. RESULTADOS: 68.9% de los adolescentes en el AMCM reportaron por lo menos un ET alguna vez en su vida, con diferencias por sexo. La prevalencia de TEPT fue 1.8% (2.4% mujeres y 1.2% hombres, y el abuso sexual se asoció al desarrollo de TEPT [OR=3.9(CI95%=1.8-8.2], independientemente del sexo, educación o edad. CONCLUSIONES: La exposición a ET es común en los adolescentes. Se debe poner énfasis en los esfuerzos

  9. Single Versus Multiple Events Error Potential Detection in a BCI-Controlled Car Game With Continuous and Discrete Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreilinger, Alex; Hiebel, Hannah; Müller-Putz, Gernot R

    2016-03-01

    This work aimed to find and evaluate a new method for detecting errors in continuous brain-computer interface (BCI) applications. Instead of classifying errors on a single-trial basis, the new method was based on multiple events (MEs) analysis to increase the accuracy of error detection. In a BCI-driven car game, based on motor imagery (MI), discrete events were triggered whenever subjects collided with coins and/or barriers. Coins counted as correct events, whereas barriers were errors. This new method, termed ME method, combined and averaged the classification results of single events (SEs) and determined the correctness of MI trials, which consisted of event sequences instead of SEs. The benefit of this method was evaluated in an offline simulation. In an online experiment, the new method was used to detect erroneous MI trials. Such MI trials were discarded and could be repeated by the users. We found that, even with low SE error potential (ErrP) detection rates, feasible accuracies can be achieved when combining MEs to distinguish erroneous from correct MI trials. Online, all subjects reached higher scores with error detection than without, at the cost of longer times needed for completing the game. Findings suggest that ErrP detection may become a reliable tool for monitoring continuous states in BCI applications when combining MEs. This paper demonstrates a novel technique for detecting errors in online continuous BCI applications, which yields promising results even with low single-trial detection rates.

  10. Application of RADSAFE to Model Single Event Upset Response of a 0.25 micron CMOS SRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Kevin M.; Weller, Robert A.; Sierawski, Brian; Reed, Robert A.; Mendenhall, Marcus H.; Schrimpf, Ronald D.; Massengill, Lloyd; Porter, Mark; Wilkerson, Jeff; LaBel, Kenneth A.; hide

    2006-01-01

    The RADSAFE simulation framework is described and applied to model Single Event Upsets (SEU) in a 0.25 micron CMOS 4Mbit Static Random Access Memory (SRAM). For this circuit, the RADSAFE approach produces trends similar to those expected from classical models, but more closely represents the physical mechanisms responsible for SEU in the SRAM circuit.

  11. Definition of Capabilities Needed for a Single Event Effects Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riemer, Bernie; Gallmeier, Franz X.

    2014-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is contemplating new regulations mandating testing of the vulnerability of flight-critical avionics to single event effects (SEE). A limited number of high-energy neutron test facilities currently serve the SEE industrial and institutional research community. The FAA recognizes that existing facilities have insufficient test capacity to meet new demand from such mandates; it desires more flexible irradiation capabilities to test complete, large systems and would like capabilities to address greater concerns for thermal neutrons. For this reason, the FAA funded this study by Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) staff with the ultimate aim of developing options for SEE test facilities using high-energy neutrons at the SNS complex. After an investigation of current SEE test practices and assessment of future testing requirements, three concepts were identified covering a range of test functionality, neutron flux levels, and fidelity to the atmospheric neutron spectrum. The costs and times required to complete each facility were also estimated. SEE testing is generally performed by accelerating the event rate to a point where the effects are still dominated by single events and double event causes of failures are negligible. In practice, acceleration factors of as high as 10 6 are applicable for component testing, whereas for systems testing acceleration factors of 10 4 seem to be the upper limit. It is strongly desirable that the irradiation facility be tunable over a large range of high-energy neutron fluxes of 10 2 - 10 4 n/cm 2 /s for systems testing and from 10 4 - 10 7 n/cm 2 /s for components testing. The most capable, most flexible, and highest-test-capacity option is a new stand-alone target station named the High-Energy neutron Test Station (HETS). It is also the most expensive option, with a cost to complete of approximately $100 million. Dual test enclosures would allow for simultaneous testing activity effectively

  12. Definition of Capabilities Needed for a Single Event Effects Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemer, Bernie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Gallmeier, Franz X. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    2014-12-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is contemplating new regulations mandating testing of the vulnerability of flight-critical avionics to single event effects (SEE). A limited number of high-energy neutron test facilities currently serve the SEE industrial and institutional research community. The FAA recognizes that existing facilities have insufficient test capacity to meet new demand from such mandates; it desires more flexible irradiation capabilities to test complete, large systems and would like capabilities to address greater concerns for thermal neutrons. For this reason, the FAA funded this study by Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) staff with the ultimate aim of developing options for SEE test facilities using high-energy neutrons at the SNS complex. After an investigation of current SEE test practices and assessment of future testing requirements, three concepts were identified covering a range of test functionality, neutron flux levels, and fidelity to the atmospheric neutron spectrum. The costs and times required to complete each facility were also estimated. SEE testing is generally performed by accelerating the event rate to a point where the effects are still dominated by single events and double event causes of failures are negligible. In practice, acceleration factors of as high as 106 are applicable for component testing, whereas for systems testing acceleration factors of 104 seem to be the upper limit. It is strongly desirable that the irradiation facility be tunable over a large range of high-energy neutron fluxes of 102 - 104 n/cm²/s for systems testing and from 104 - 107 n/cm²/s for components testing. The most capable, most flexible, and highest-test-capacity option is a new stand-alone target station named the High-Energy neutron Test Station (HETS). It is also the most expensive option, with a cost to complete of approximately $100 million. Dual test enclosures would

  13. Prediction of traumatic avascular necrosis of the femoral head by single photon emission computerized tomography and computerized tomography: an experimental study in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEN Feng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: To evaluate the femoral head perfusion and to predict the traumatic avascular necrosis (AVN of the femoral head by single photon emission computerized tomography and computerized tomography (SPECT/CT. Methods: Totally 18 adult beagle dogs were divided randomly into three equal-sized (n=6 groups. Subsequently different degrees of ischemia model were developed by destroying blood vessels of the femoral head. The left hip received sham operation as normal control and the right hip underwent blood interruption. In Group A, the ligamentum teres was cut off. In Group B, the marrow cavity of the right femoral neck was destroyed while in Group C, the soft tissues at the base of the femoral neck were stripped in addition to the resection of the ligamentum teres and destruction of the marrow cavity. Three hours after surgery, SPECT/CT was performed. Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF measurements were also obtained at three different time points (before operation, immediately and three hours after operation in order to assess the change process of blood supply to the femoral head. Results: SPECT/CT showed no significant difference in the radionuclide uptake between the right and left femoral heads in Group A (t=-0.09, P=0.94 and Group B (t= 0.52, P=0.62. However, in Group C, it was 261±62 for the right femoral head, only 12% of that in the left femoral head. LDF measurements indicated that the femoral head perfusion was decreased from (45.0±3.3 PU to (39.1±3.7 PU in Group A, from (44.0±2.7 PU to (34.3±2.6 PU in Group B, and from (47.3±2.1 PU to (4.96±0.6 PU in Group C immediately after operation. However, the perfusion was restored and returned to normal values three hours after operation except in Group C. Conclusion: SPECT/CT could assess the perfusion of the femoral head semiquantitatively, which might be useful in predicting the development of traumatic AVN. Key words: Femur head necrosis; Femoral head; Tomography, emission

  14. Potential impact of single-risk-factor versus total risk management for the prevention of cardiovascular events in Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndindjock, Roger; Gedeon, Jude; Mendis, Shanthi; Paccaud, Fred; Bovet, Pascal

    2011-04-01

    To assess the prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in Seychelles, a middle-income African country, and compare the cost-effectiveness of single-risk-factor management (treating individuals with arterial blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg and/or total serum cholesterol ≥ 6.2 mmol/l) with that of management based on total CV risk (treating individuals with a total CV risk ≥ 10% or ≥ 20%). CV risk factor prevalence and a CV risk prediction chart for Africa were used to estimate the 10-year risk of suffering a fatal or non-fatal CV event among individuals aged 40-64 years. These figures were used to compare single-risk-factor management with total risk management in terms of the number of people requiring treatment to avert one CV event and the number of events potentially averted over 10 years. Treatment for patients with high total CV risk (≥ 20%) was assumed to consist of a fixed-dose combination of several drugs (polypill). Cost analyses were limited to medication. A total CV risk of ≥ 10% and ≥ 20% was found among 10.8% and 5.1% of individuals, respectively. With single-risk-factor management, 60% of adults would need to be treated and 157 cardiovascular events per 100000 population would be averted per year, as opposed to 5% of adults and 92 events with total CV risk management. Management based on high total CV risk optimizes the balance between the number requiring treatment and the number of CV events averted. Total CV risk management is much more cost-effective than single-risk-factor management. These findings are relevant for all countries, but especially for those economically and demographically similar to Seychelles.

  15. Prevalence rate of post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD and other psychological disorders among Saudi firefighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alghamd

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Firefighters have a high probability of being exposed to a variety of traumatic events. Potentially traumatic events can occur during a single rescue such as: providing aid to seriously injured or helpless victims. Moreover, firefighters who are injured in the line of duty may have to retire as a consequence of their injury. The psychological cost of this exposure may increase the risk of long-term problems, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms, depression, and anxiety. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of PTSD symptoms, depression, anxiety, and assess related variables such as coping strategies and social support among Saudi firefighters. Method: Two hundred firefighters completed the Fire-fighter Trauma History Screen (FTHS to measure the number of traumatic events, Screen for Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms (SPTSS scale to assess the prevalence of PTSD symptoms, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS to assess depression and anxiety, Brief Cope (BC scale to measure coping strategies used, and Social Support scale was used to evaluate the firefighter's support received. Results: The results showed that 84% (169/200 of firefighters were exposed to at least one traumatic event. The result presented that 57% (96/169 of exposure firefighters fully met the DSM-IV criteria for PTSD with high levels of depression and anxiety; 39% (66/169 partially met the PTSD criteria. However, only 4% participants have not met the PTSD criteria. The results also revealed that adaptive coping strategies and higher perceived social support was associated with lower levels of PTSD. Conclusion: The high prevalence rate of PTSD related to the type and severity of the traumatic events and years of experience in the job. Accordingly, many firefighters were severely affected by their experiences, and we should be developing methods to help them.

  16. Observed differences in event structures of high-p/sub T/ π0 and single photon events produced in pp collisions at the CERN ISR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahm, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    The direct photon production in pp collisions for c.m. energies 31 less than or equal to 63 GeV and transverse momenta of up to 9 GeV/c were measured at the ISR by use of a segmented lead/liquid argon calorimeter. The observed γ/π 0 ratio was found to be a significantly larger than zero at 4 GeV/c in p/sub T/, increasing to 0.4 at 9 GeV/c. The average multiplicity on the trigger side for the single-photon events was found to be significantly lower than for π 0 events. The correlations in Δy and Δphi between the trigger particle and an additional particle were found to differe mainly at small Δy and Δphi. 3 figures

  17. Number distribution of leakage neutrons for single neutron emission event and one source emission event in multiplying medium for two variables - a GEANT4 study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Arup Singha; Raman, Anand; Chaudhury, Probal; Thomas, Renju G.

    2018-01-01

    A quantitative knowledge about the neutron multiplying character of a neutron multiplying medium such as High enriched Uranium (HEU), Weapon Graded plutonium (WGPu) and similar special nuclear materials is essential for improving the probability of detection of these materials to check against illicit trafficking. The objective of this study is to gain a deeper insight in to the neutron and gamma multiplication behaviour of these materials. The leakage number distribution of neutron and gamma initiated by a source emission event (Spontaneous Fission) as well as single neutron emission event has been obtained in the course of this study. The computations for this study were carried out through GEANT4 simulation and also with the help of FREYA incorporated into it. This helped to carry out a detailed analysis of each history more realistically and obtain more reliable results

  18. Coagulopathy and transfusion requirements in war related penetrating traumatic brain injury. A single centre study in a French role 3 medical treatment facility in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordes, J; Joubert, C; Esnault, P; Montcriol, A; Nguyen, C; Meaudre, E; Dulou, R; Dagain, A

    2017-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury associated coagulopathy is frequent, either in isolated traumatic brain injury in civilian practice and in combat traumatic brain injury. In war zone, it is a matter of concern because head and neck are the second most frequent site of wartime casualty burden. Data focusing on transfusion requirements in patients with war related TBI coagulopathy are limited. A descriptive analysis was conducted of 77 penetrating traumatic brain injuries referred to a French role 3 medical treatment facility in Kabul, Afghanistan, deployed on the Kabul International Airport (KaIA), over a 30 months period. On 77 patients, 23 died during the prehospital phase and were not included in the study. Severe traumatic brain injury represented 50% of patients. Explosions were the most common injury mechanism. Extracranial injuries were present in 72% of patients. Traumatic brain injury coagulopathy was diagnosed in 67% of patients at role 3 admission. Red blood cell units (RBCu) were transfused in 39 (72%) patients, French lyophilized plasma (FLYP) in 41 (76%), and fresh whole blood (FWB) in 17 (31%). The results of this study support previous observations of coagulopathy as a frequent complication of traumatic brain injury. The majority of patients with war related penetrating traumatic brain injury presented with extracranial lesions. Most of them required a high level of transfusion capacity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Measuring symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder in people with intellectual disabilities: the development and psychometric properties of the Impact of Event Scale-Intellectual Disabilities (IES-IDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, James C; Jobson, Laura; Langdon, Peter E

    2014-09-01

    The aims of the study were to (1) revise the Impact of Event Scale-Revised for use with people with intellectual disabilities (IDs), creating the Impact of Event Scale-Intellectual Disabilities (IES-IDs), (2) assess the reliability of the IES-IDs, and (3) compare the IES-IDs to an existing measure trauma-related symptomatology, namely the Lancaster and Northgate Trauma Scale (LANTS), along with measures of anxiety and depression. Forty adults with IDs who had experienced at least one traumatic event were recruited and completed the IES-IDs and the LANTS on two occasions, separated by 2 weeks. Participants also completed the Glasgow Depression Scale and the Glasgow Anxiety Scale, along with the Trauma Information Form which was used to collect information about trauma history. Fifteen per cent of the sample had encountered five or more traumatic events. The IES-IDs and the LANTS had good to excellent internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Both measures correlated with self-report measures of depression and anxiety, although the strength of this correlation was greater with the LANTS. There was a significant positive correlation between trauma frequency and the IES-IDs, while trauma frequency did not correlate with the LANTS. Both the IES-IDs and the LANTS appear to have good reliability. There is a lack of well-developed questionnaires that can be used to assess symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in people with intellectual disabilities. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised was augmented creating the Impact of Event Scale-Intellectual Disabilities (IES-IDs). The IES-IDs was shown to have good psychometric properties. The IES-IDs was compared to the Lancaster and Northgate Trauma Scale (LANTS), but the LANTS did not correlate with trauma frequency. However, this study had a small sample size, and a much larger study is needed to examine the factor structure of both the IES-IDs and the LANTS. Future studies should attempt to recruit people with

  20. Detecting gait abnormalities after concussion or mild traumatic brain injury: A systematic review of single-task, dual-task, and complex gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fino, Peter C; Parrington, Lucy; Pitt, Will; Martini, Douglas N; Chesnutt, James C; Chou, Li-Shan; King, Laurie A

    2018-05-01

    While a growing number of studies have investigated the effects of concussion or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) on gait, many studies use different experimental paradigms and outcome measures. The path for translating experimental studies for objective clinical assessments of gait is unclear. This review asked 2 questions: 1) is gait abnormal after concussion/mTBI, and 2) what gait paradigms (single-task, dual-task, complex gait) detect abnormalities after concussion. Data sources included MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) accessed on March 14, 2017. Original research articles reporting gait outcomes in people with concussion or mTBI were included. Studies of moderate, severe, or unspecified TBI, and studies without a comparator were excluded. After screening 233 articles, 38 studies were included and assigned to one or more sections based on the protocol and reported outcomes. Twenty-six articles reported single-task simple gait outcomes, 24 reported dual-task simple gait outcomes, 21 reported single-task complex gait outcomes, and 10 reported dual-task complex gait outcomes. Overall, this review provides evidence for two conclusions: 1) gait is abnormal acutely after concussion/mTBI but generally resolves over time; and 2) the inconsistency of findings, small sample sizes, and small number of studies examining homogenous measures at the same time-period post-concussion highlight the need for replication across independent populations and investigators. Future research should concentrate on dual-task and complex gait tasks, as they showed promise for detecting abnormal locomotor function outside of the acute timeframe. Additionally, studies should provide detailed demographic and clinical characteristics to enable more refined comparisons across studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Monitoring of seismic events from a specific source region using a single regional array: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, S. J.; Kværna, T.; Ringdal, F.

    2005-07-01

    In the monitoring of earthquakes and nuclear explosions using a sparse worldwide network of seismic stations, it is frequently necessary to make reliable location estimates using a single seismic array. It is also desirable to screen out routine industrial explosions automatically in order that analyst resources are not wasted upon detections which can, with a high level of confidence, be associated with such a source. The Kovdor mine on the Kola Peninsula of NW Russia is the site of frequent industrial blasts which are well recorded by the ARCES regional seismic array at a distance of approximately 300 km. We describe here an automatic procedure for identifying signals which are likely to result from blasts at the Kovdor mine and, wherever possible, for obtaining single array locations for such events. Carefully calibrated processing parameters were chosen using measurements from confirmed events at the mine over a one-year period for which the operators supplied Ground Truth information. Phase arrival times are estimated using an autoregressive method and slowness and azimuth are estimated using broadband f{-} k analysis in fixed frequency bands and time-windows fixed relative to the initial P-onset time. We demonstrate the improvement to slowness estimates resulting from the use of fixed frequency bands. Events can be located using a single array if, in addition to the P-phase, at least one secondary phase is found with both an acceptable slowness estimate and valid onset-time estimate. We evaluate the on-line system over a twelve month period; every event known to have occured at the mine is detected by the process and 32 out of 53 confirmed events were located automatically. The remaining events were classified as “very likely” Kovdor events and were subsequently located by an analyst. The false alarm rate is low; only 84 very likely Kovdor events were identified during the whole of 2003 and none of these were subsequently located at a large distance from

  2. FinFET memory cell improvements for higher immunity against single event upsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajit, Ahmed Sattar

    The 21st century is witnessing a tremendous demand for transistors. Life amenities have incorporated the transistor in every aspect of daily life, ranging from toys to rocket science. Day by day, scaling down the transistor is becoming an imperious necessity. However, it is not a straightforward process; instead, it faces overwhelming challenges. Due to these scaling changes, new technologies, such as FinFETs for example, have emerged as alternatives to the conventional bulk-CMOS technology. FinFET has more control over the channel, therefore, leakage current is reduced. FinFET could bridge the gap between silicon devices and non-silicon devices. The semiconductor industry is now incorporating FinFETs in systems and subsystems. For example, Intel has been using them in their newest processors, delivering potential saving powers and increased speeds to memory circuits. Memory sub-systems are considered a vital component in the digital era. In memory, few rows are read or written at a time, while the most rows are static; hence, reducing leakage current increases the performance. However, as a transistor shrinks, it becomes more vulnerable to the effects from radioactive particle strikes. If a particle hits a node in a memory cell, the content might flip; consequently, leading to corrupting stored data. Critical fields, such as medical and aerospace, where there are no second chances and cannot even afford to operate at 99.99% accuracy, has induced me to find a rigid circuit in a radiated working environment. This research focuses on a wide spectrum of memories such as 6T SRAM, 8T SRAM, and DICE memory cells using FinFET technology and finding the best platform in terms of Read and Write delay, susceptibility level of SNM, RSNM, leakage current, energy consumption, and Single Event Upsets (SEUs). This research has shown that the SEU tolerance that 6T and 8T FinFET SRAMs provide may not be acceptable in medical and aerospace applications where there is a very high

  3. Single-Event Gate Rupture in Power MOSFETs: A New Radiation Hardness Assurance Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Almost every space mission uses vertical power metal-semiconductor-oxide field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) in its power-supply circuitry. These devices can fail catastrophically due to single-event gate rupture (SEGR) when exposed to energetic heavy ions. To reduce SEGR failure risk, the off-state operating voltages of the devices are derated based upon radiation tests at heavy-ion accelerator facilities. Testing is very expensive. Even so, data from these tests provide only a limited guide to on-orbit performance. In this work, a device simulation-based method is developed to measure the response to strikes from heavy ions unavailable at accelerator facilities but posing potential risk on orbit. This work is the first to show that the present derating factor, which was established from non-radiation reliability concerns, is appropriate to reduce on-orbit SEGR failure risk when applied to data acquired from ions with appropriate penetration range. A second important outcome of this study is the demonstration of the capability and usefulness of this simulation technique for augmenting SEGR data from accelerator beam facilities. The mechanisms of SEGR are two-fold: the gate oxide is weakened by the passage of the ion through it, and the charge ionized along the ion track in the silicon transiently increases the oxide electric field. Most hardness assurance methodologies consider the latter mechanism only. This work demonstrates through experiment and simulation that the gate oxide response should not be neglected. In addition, the premise that the temporary weakening of the oxide due to the ion interaction with it, as opposed to due to the transient oxide field generated from within the silicon, is validated. Based upon these findings, a new approach to radiation hardness assurance for SEGR in power MOSFETs is defined to reduce SEGR risk in space flight projects. Finally, the potential impact of accumulated dose over the course of a space mission on SEGR

  4. Lifetime history of traumatic events in a young adult Mexican American sample: relation to substance dependence, affective disorder, acculturation stress, and PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Kim, Corinne; Gilder, David A.; Stouffer, Gina M.; Caetano, Raul; Yehuda, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Mexican Americans comprise one of the most rapidly growing populations in the United States, and within this population, trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with physical and mental health problems. Therefore, efforts to delineate factors that may uniquely contribute to increased likelihood of trauma, PTSD, and substance use disorders over the lifetime in Mexican Americans are important to address health disparities and to develop treatment and prevention programs....

  5. Success in treating renal calculi with single-access, single-event percutaneous nephrolithotomy: is a routine "second look" necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davol, Patrick E; Wood, Craig; Fulmer, Brant

    2006-05-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is an effective procedure for the treatment of large renal calculi. An important consideration for patients undergoing PCNL is the management of any residual stone burden, which may include "second-look" nephroscopy. The utility of this practice is unproven, and we present our data on a series of patients in which second-look procedures were not performed. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 43 consecutive patients undergoing a total of 45 procedures by a single surgeon at a tertiary-care center. Patients were considered stone free if no calculi were evident by either plain film or noncontrast CT scan. Statistical analysis was used to look for correlations between radiographic stone clearance and various patient and stone characteristics. Of these procedures, 15% had immediate postoperative evidence of residual fragments. At a mean follow-up of 8 months, 32.5% had residual or recurrent stone. There were statistically significant correlations between both patient age and stone size and the risk of recurrent or residual stone. In our study, PCNL was effective for the single-stage treatment of large renal calculi. Aggressive stone clearance obviated the need for routine second-look nephroscopy. Factors leading to an increased risk of residual or recurrent calculi included the presence of a staghorn calculus and younger patient age. The excellent stone-free rates achieved suggest that routine second-look nephroscopy may not be necessary for the majority of patients undergoing PCNL.

  6. Functional outcome and quality of life after traumatic total brachial plexus injury treated by nerve transfer or single/double free muscle transfers: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satbhai, N G; Doi, K; Hattori, Y; Sakamoto, S

    2016-02-01

    Between 2002 and 2011, 81 patients with a traumatic total brachial plexus injury underwent reconstruction by double free muscle transfer (DFMT, 47 cases), single muscle transfer (SMT, 16 cases) or nerve transfers (NT, 18 cases). They were evaluated for functional outcome and quality of life (QoL) using the Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire, both pre- and post-operatively. The three groups were compared and followed-up for at least 24 months. The mean shoulder abduction and flexion were comparable in all groups, but external rotation was significantly better in the DFMT group as were range and quantitative power of elbow flexion. Patients who had undergone DFMT had reasonable total active finger movement and hook grip strength. All groups showed improvement in function at a level greater than a minimum clinically important difference. The DFMT group showed the greatest improvement. Patients in the DFMT group had a better functional outcome and QoL recovery than those in the NT and SMT groups. Double free muscle transfer procedure is capable of restoring maximum function in patients of total brachial plexus palsy. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  7. Two-dimensional numerical simulation of the effect of single event burnout for n-channel VDMOSFET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hongxia; Chen Yusheng; Wang Wei; Zhao Jinlong; Zhang Yimen; Zhou Hui

    2004-01-01

    2D MEDICI simulator is used to investigate the effect of Single Event Burnout (SEB) for n-channel power VDMOSFETs. The simulation results are consistent with experimental results which have been published. The simulation results are of great interest for a better understanding of the occurrence of events. The effects of the minority carrier lifetime in the base region, the base width and the emitter doping density on SEB susceptibility are verified. Some hardening solutions to SEB are provided. The work shows that the 2D simulator MEDICI is an useful tool for burnout prediction and for the evaluation of hardening solutions. (authors)

  8. NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) Single Event Effects (SEE) Test Guideline Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie D.; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2018-01-01

    The following are updated or new subjects added to the FPGA SEE Test Guidelines manual: academic versus mission specific device evaluation, single event latch-up (SEL) test and analysis, SEE response visibility enhancement during radiation testing, mitigation evaluation (embedded and user-implemented), unreliable design and its affects to SEE Data, testing flushable architectures versus non-flushable architectures, intellectual property core (IP Core) test and evaluation (addresses embedded and user-inserted), heavy-ion energy and linear energy transfer (LET) selection, proton versus heavy-ion testing, fault injection, mean fluence to failure analysis, and mission specific system-level single event upset (SEU) response prediction. Most sections within the guidelines manual provide information regarding best practices for test structure and test system development. The scope of this manual addresses academic versus mission specific device evaluation and visibility enhancement in IP Core testing.

  9. Investigations on heavy ion induced Single-Event Transients (SETs) in highly-scaled FinFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillardin, M., E-mail: marc.gaillardin@cea.fr [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Raine, M.; Paillet, P. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Adell, P.C. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Girard, S. [Université de Saint-Etienne, Laboratoire H. Curien, UMR-5516, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Duhamel, O. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Andrieu, F.; Barraud, S.; Faynot, O. [CEA, LETI-Minatec, 17 avenue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-12-15

    We investigate Single-Event Transients (SET) in different designs of multiple-gate devices made of FinFETs with various geometries. Heavy ion experimental results are explained by using a thorough charge collection analysis of fast transients measured on dedicated test structures. Multi-level simulations are performed to get new insights into the charge collection mechanisms in multiple-gate devices. Implications for multiple-gate device design hardening are finally discussed.

  10. Single Event Upset Rate Estimates for a 16-K CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) SRAM (Static Random Access Memory).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-30

    4 . ~**..ft.. ft . - - - ft SI TABLES 9 I. SA32~40 Single Event Upset Test, 1140-MeV Krypton, 9/l8/8~4. . .. .. .. .. .. .16 II. CRUP Simulation...cosmic ray interaction analysis described in the remainder of this report were calculated using the CRUP computer code 3 modified for funneling. The... CRUP code requires, as inputs, the size of a depletion region specified as a retangular parallel piped with dimensions a 9 b S c, the effective funnel

  11. Temperature control system for the study of single event effects in integrated circuits using a cyclotron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakerenkov, A.S., E-mail: as_bakerenkov@list.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Belyakov, V.V. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Kozyukov, A.E. [Joint-Stock Company Institute of Space Device Engineering (JSC ISDE), Moscow (Russian Federation); Pershenkov, V.S.; Solomatin, A.V.; Shurenkov, V.V. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-02-11

    The temperature control system for the study of single event disruptions produced by hard ion impacts in integrated circuits is described. Heating and cooling of the irradiated device are achieved using thermoelectric modules (Peltier modules). The thermodynamic performance of the system is estimated. The technique for the numerical estimation of the main parameters of the temperature control system for cooling and heating is considered. The results of a test of the system in a vacuum cell of an accelerator are presented.

  12. Temperature control system for the study of single event effects in integrated circuits using a cyclotron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakerenkov, A.S.; Belyakov, V.V.; Kozyukov, A.E.; Pershenkov, V.S.; Solomatin, A.V.; Shurenkov, V.V.

    2015-01-01

    The temperature control system for the study of single event disruptions produced by hard ion impacts in integrated circuits is described. Heating and cooling of the irradiated device are achieved using thermoelectric modules (Peltier modules). The thermodynamic performance of the system is estimated. The technique for the numerical estimation of the main parameters of the temperature control system for cooling and heating is considered. The results of a test of the system in a vacuum cell of an accelerator are presented

  13. Study of single tagged multihadronic γγ* events at A 2> ≅ 12 GeV2/C4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batyunya, B.; Tyapkin, I.; Todorov, T.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of single tagged two photon events was performed in the multihadronic channel. Data corresponding to a 26.0 pb -1 integrated luminosity was compared to a two component model prediction: a generalized Vector meson Dominance Model (VDM) for the non perturbative part and a Quark Parton Model (QPM) describing the perturbative regime. The obtained reasonable agreement between data and MC is the first step before unfolding the data and testing QCD. 16 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  14. A Novel Approach to Estimating Nitrous Oxide Emissions during Wetting Events from Single-Timepoint Flux Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian W; Needelman, Brian A; Cavigelli, Michel A; Yarwood, Stephanie A; Maul, Jude E; Bagley, Gwendolyn A; Mirsky, Steven B

    2017-03-01

    Precipitation and irrigation induce pulses of NO emissions in agricultural soils, but the magnitude, duration, and timing of these pulses remain uncertain. This uncertainty makes it difficult to accurately extrapolate emissions from unmeasured time periods between chamber sampling events. Therefore, we developed a modeling protocol to predict NO emissions from data collected daily for 7 d after wetting events. Within a cover crop-based corn ( L.) production system in Beltsville, MD, we conducted the 7-d time series during four time periods representing a range of corn growth stages in 2013 and 2014. Treatments included mixtures and monocultures of grass and legume cover crops that were fertilized with pelletized poultry litter or urea-ammonium nitrate solution (9-276 kg N ha). Most fluxes did not exhibit the expected exponential decay over time (82%); therefore, cumulative emissions were calculated using trapezoidal integration over 7 d after the wetting event. Cumulative 7-d emissions were well correlated with single point gas fluxes on the second day after a wetting event using a generalized linear mixed model (ln[emissions] = 0.809∙ln[flux] + 2.47). Soil chemical covariates before or after a wetting event were weakly associated with cumulative emissions. The ratio of dissolved organic C to total inorganic N was negatively correlated with cumulative emissions ( = 0.23-0.29), whereas nitrate was positively correlated with cumulative emissions ( = 0.23-0.33). Our model is an innovative approach that is calibrated using site-specific time series data, which may then be used to estimate short-term NO emissions after wetting events using only a single flux measurement. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. Impact of Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography (SPECT/CT) and Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) in the Diagnosis of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Vicenty, Irma L; Santiago-Sánchez, Michelaldemar; Vélez-Miró, Iván; Motta-Valencia, Keryl

    2016-09-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as damage to the brain resulting from an external force. TBI, a global leading cause of death and disability, is associated with serious social, economic, and health problems. In cases of mild-to-moderate brain damage, conventional anatomical imaging modalities may or may not detect the cascade of metabolic changes that have occurred or are occurring at the intracellular level. Functional nuclear medicine imaging and neurophysiological parameters can be used to characterize brain damage, as the former provides direct visualization of brain function, even in the absence of overt behavioral manifestations or anatomical findings. We report the case of a 30-year-old Hispanic male veteran who, after 2 traumatic brain injury events, developed cognitive and neuropsychological problems with no clear etiology in the presence of negative computed tomography (CT) findings.

  16. Exposure to war traumatic experiences, post-traumatic stress disorder and post-traumatic growth among nurses in Gaza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamia, N A; Thabet, A A M; Vostanis, P

    2015-12-01

    What is known on the subject? This study builds on existing research on war-related factors that may affect health-care staff by particularly focusing on trauma exposure in both professional and everyday life, as well as on correlates of later positive psychological changes. What this paper adds to existing knowledge? It shows that one in five nursing staff working in Gaza experienced post-traumatic stress symptoms within the clinical range, 2 years after an incursion on Gaza and after being exposed to substantial trauma during this period. Participants appeared to develop a variety of post-traumatic growth responses following trauma exposure. Although nurses experienced traumatic events both as civilians and in their health-care capacity, personal exposure was strongly associated with PTSD symptoms. What are the implications for practice? Support to nursing and other health-care professionals in war situations should entail different levels, remain available well after an acute conflict, and take into consideration both personal and practice-related traumatic events. Mental health nursing practitioners can play a pivotal role in this. To establish the association between war traumatic experiences, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and post-traumatic growth among nurses in the Gaza Strip, 2 years after an incursion on Gaza, and during a period of ongoing trauma exposure. This study builds on existing evidence by considering exposure to personal and work-related traumatic events, and on factors associated with later positive psychological adaptation. The sample consisted of 274 randomly selected nurses in Gaza who completed the Gaza Traumatic Events Checklist, PTSD Checklist, and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Of the nurses, 19.7% reported full PTSD. There was a significant relationship between traumatic events and PTSD scores; as well as between community-related traumatic events and post-traumatic growth. Participants reported a range of traumatic

  17. Evaluation of electrical aversion therapy for inappropriate sexual behaviour after traumatic brain injury: a single case experimental design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Mors, Bert Jan; van Heugten, Caroline M; van Harten, Peter N

    2012-01-01

    Inappropriate sexual behaviour after acquired brain injury is a severe complication. Evidence for effective treatment is not available. Electrical aversion therapy (EAT) is a behavioural therapeutic option used in persons with intellectual disabilities, which might be suitable for brain-injured individuals for whom other therapies are not effective. The effect of EAT in brain injury has not been investigated previously. A single case experimental design was used. In an ABBA (baseline-treatment-treatment-withdrawal) design the frequency of the target behaviour (ie, inappropriate sexual behaviour) in a 40-year-old man was measured daily. A total of 551 measurements were recorded. A significant reduction of the target behaviour was seen after the first treatment phase (baseline 12.18 (2.59) vs 3.15 (3.19) mean target behaviours daily); this reduction remained stable over time. We conclude that EAT was effective in this patient with inappropriate sexual behaviour due to severe brain injury. EAT can therefore be considered in therapy resistant inappropriate sexual behaviour in brain-injured patients. PMID:22922913

  18. Helicity of the $W$ boson in single - lepton $t \\bar{t}$ events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canelli, Maria Florencia [Rochester U.

    2003-08-01

    We have applied a general approach for extracting information from data to a study of top quarks produced in proton-antiproton (pp) collisions in the process pp ! tt. This reaction can be calculated in the Standard Model (SM), in which the top (or antitop) quarks decay into b quarks and W bosons: t ! W+ b, t ! W b. We examine the decays of the W boson in these events in order to establish how the spin of the W correlates with its momentum vector. This is dened by the helicity of the W boson (pro jection of its spin along its line of ight), which is also predicted by the SM. The analysis is based on a direct calculation of a probability for each event as a function of the helicity of the W bosons in top-antitop events in the lepton+jets nal state. These events correspond to one W decaying into a lepton and its neutrino, and the other W into a quark-antiquark pair, with the quarks from the W and the two b quarks evolving into jets of particles. The probability is calculated by convoluting the dierential cross section with the resolution and acceptance of the detector. This measurement uses top quarks collected by the D experiment in 125 events/pb of data in pp collisions at p s=1.8 TeV during Run I of the Fermilab TeVatron. Assuming the \\V{A" coupling of the SM decay, we obtain a longitudinal helicity fraction of F0=0.560.31(stat)0.07(syst) for the W, which is consistent with the prediction of the Standard Model of F0=0.70 for a top-quark mass of 175 GeV/c2 . The method employed in this analysis oers the possibility of increasing statistical precision by using both of the decays of W bosons in these events. Also Monte Carlo studies indicate that the approach provides an unbiased result in the limit of poor statistics. Although our measurement is severely limited by the small event sample of Run I, this powerful technique will provide far greater sensitivity to any departures from the SM in the data anticipated from Run II.

  19. Measurement of the associated production of a single top quark and a W boson in single-lepton events with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mergelmeyer, Sebastian

    2016-06-15

    The production of a single top quark in association with a W boson (Wt) is measured with the ATLAS detector using proton-proton collision events with one lepton, three jets and missing transverse energy at √(s)=8 TeV. Signal events are identified using an artificial neural network in an unconventional manner, addressing the large uncertainties due to the major background, which has an about 10 times larger cross section and a very similar signature compared with the Wt signal. State-of-the-art statistical methods are used to validate the modelling of the signal and the background, and to extract the cross section for Wt production. The cross section is found to be consistent with related measurements as well as the Standard Model prediction. In addition, a direct measurement of the CKM matrix element V{sub tb} is performed.

  20. Measurement of the associated production of a single top quark and a W boson in single-lepton events with the ATLAS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mergelmeyer, Sebastian

    2016-06-01

    The production of a single top quark in association with a W boson (Wt) is measured with the ATLAS detector using proton-proton collision events with one lepton, three jets and missing transverse energy at √(s)=8 TeV. Signal events are identified using an artificial neural network in an unconventional manner, addressing the large uncertainties due to the major background, which has an about 10 times larger cross section and a very similar signature compared with the Wt signal. State-of-the-art statistical methods are used to validate the modelling of the signal and the background, and to extract the cross section for Wt production. The cross section is found to be consistent with related measurements as well as the Standard Model prediction. In addition, a direct measurement of the CKM matrix element V_t_b is performed.

  1. Occurrence of delayed-onset post-traumatic stress disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utzon-Frank, Nicolai; Breinegaard, Nina; Bertelsen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops according to consensus criteria within the first 1-6 months after a horrifying traumatic event, but it is alleged that PTSD may develop later. The objective was to review the evidence addressing occurrence of PTSD with onset >6 months after a traumatic...

  2. The Influence of Age at Single-Event Multilevel Surgery on Outcome in Children with Cerebral Palsy Who Walk with Flexed Knee Gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svehlik, Martin; Steinwender, Gerhard; Kraus, Tanja; Saraph, Vinay; Lehmann, Thomas; Linhart, Wolfgang E.; Zwick, Ernst B.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Information on the timing and long-term outcome of single-event multilevel surgery in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP) walking with flexed knee gait is limited. Based on our clinical experience, we hypothesized that older children with bilateral spastic CP would benefit more from single-event multilevel surgery than younger…

  3. A microprocessor-based single board computer for high energy physics event pattern recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, H.; Gould, J.J.; Imossi, R.; Kopp, J.K.; Love, W.A.; Ozaki, S.; Platner, E.D.; Kramer, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    A single board MC 68000 based computer has been assembled and bench marked against the CDC 7600 running portions of the pattern recognition code used at the MPS. This computer has a floating coprocessor to achieve throughputs equivalent to several percent that of the 7600. A major part of this work was the construction of a FORTRAN compiler including assembler, linker and library. The intention of this work is to assemble a large number of these single board computers in a parallel FASTBUS environment to act as an on-line and off-line filter for the raw data from MPS II and ISABELLE experiments. (orig.)

  4. Microprocessor-based single board computer for high energy physics event pattern recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, H.; Gould, J.J.; Imossi, R.; Kopp, J.K.; Love, W.A.; Ozaki, S.; Platner, E.D.; Kramer, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    A single board MC 68000 based computer has been assembled and bench marked against the CDC 7600 running portions of the pattern recognition code used at the MPS. This computer has a floating coprocessor to achieve throughputs equivalent to several percent that of the 7600. A major part of this work was the construction of a FORTRAN compiler including assembler, linker and library. The intention of this work is to assemble a large number of these single board computers in a parallel FASTBUS environment to act as an on-line and off-line filter for the raw data from MPS II and ISABELLE experiments

  5. Single-subject-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Xiong Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military and civilian populations. However, mild TBI (mTBI can be difficult to detect using conventional MRI or CT. Injured brain tissues in mTBI patients generate abnormal slow-waves (1–4 Hz that can be measured and localized by resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG. In this study, we develop a voxel-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mTBI on a single-subject basis. A normative database of resting-state MEG source magnitude images (1–4 Hz from 79 healthy control subjects was established for all brain voxels. The high-resolution MEG source magnitude images were obtained by our recent Fast-VESTAL method. In 84 mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms (36 from blasts, and 48 from non-blast causes, our method detected abnormalities at the positive detection rates of 84.5%, 86.1%, and 83.3% for the combined (blast-induced plus with non-blast causes, blast, and non-blast mTBI groups, respectively. We found that prefrontal, posterior parietal, inferior temporal, hippocampus, and cerebella areas were particularly vulnerable to head trauma. The result also showed that MEG slow-wave generation in prefrontal areas positively correlated with personality change, trouble concentrating, affective lability, and depression symptoms. Discussion is provided regarding the neuronal mechanisms of MEG slow-wave generation due to deafferentation caused by axonal injury and/or blockages/limitations of cholinergic transmission in TBI. This study provides an effective way for using MEG slow-wave source imaging to localize affected areas and supports MEG as a tool for assisting the diagnosis of mTBI.

  6. Single-prolonged stress induces endoplasmic reticulum-dependent apoptosis in the hippocampus in a rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our previous research indicated that apoptosis induced atrophy in the hippocampus of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD rats. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress-induced apoptosis has been implicated in the development of several disorder diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether endoplasmic reticulum-related pathway is involved in single-prolonged stress (SPS induces apoptosis in the hippocampus of PTSD rats by examining the expression levels of three important indicators in the ER-related apoptotic pathway: Glucose-regulated protein (GRP 78, caspase-12 and Ca(2+/CaM/CaMkinaseIIα (CaMkIIα. METHODS: Wistar rats were sacrificed at 1, 4 and 7 days after SPS. SPS is a reliable animal model of PTSD. The apoptotic cells in the hippocampus were assessed by TUNEL method and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Free intracellular Ca(2+ concentration was measured. GRP78 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry, western blotting and RT-PCR. mRNA of caspase-12 and CaM/CaMkIIα were determined by RT-PCR. RESULTS: Our results showed that apoptotic cells were increased in the SPS rats. TEM analysis revealed characteristic morphological changes of apoptosis in these cells. We observed that GRP78 was significantly up-regulated during early PTSD, and then recovered at 7 days after SPS. By RT-PCR, we observed that the change in caspase-12 expression level was similar to that in GRP78. Moreover, the free intracellular Ca(2+ concentration was significantly higher at 1 day after SPS and decreased in 7 days. CaM expression increased significantly, while CaMKIIα expression decreased significantly in the hippocampus at 1 day after SPS. CONCLUSION: SPS induced change in the expression levels of GRP78, caspase-12 and Ca(2+/CaM/CaMkIIα in the hippocampus of PTSD rats indicated that the endoplasmic reticulum pathway may be involved in PTSD-induced apoptosis.

  7. A single-chip event sequencer and related microcontroller instrumentation for atomic physics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyler, E E

    2011-01-01

    A 16-bit digital event sequencer with 50 ns resolution and 50 ns trigger jitter is implemented by using an internal 32-bit timer on a dsPIC30F4013 microcontroller, controlled by an easily modified program written in standard C. It can accommodate hundreds of output events, and adjacent events can be spaced as closely as 1.5 μs. The microcontroller has robust 5 V inputs and outputs, allowing a direct interface to common laboratory equipment and other electronics. A USB computer interface and a pair of analog ramp outputs can be added with just two additional chips. An optional display/keypad unit allows direct interaction with the sequencer without requiring an external computer. Minor additions also allow simple realizations of other complex instruments, including a precision high-voltage ramp generator for driving spectrum analyzers or piezoelectric positioners, and a low-cost proportional integral differential controller and lock-in amplifier for laser frequency stabilization with about 100 kHz bandwidth.

  8. Brief Eclectic Psychotherapy for Traumatic Grief (BEP-TG): toward integrated treatment of symptoms related to traumatic loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, Geert E.; Kleber, Rolf J.; de la Rie, Simone M.; Bos, Jannetta B. A.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Boelen, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Traumatic events such as disasters, accidents, war, or criminal violence are often accompanied by the loss of loved ones, and may then give rise to traumatic grief. Traumatic grief refers to a clinical diagnosis of persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) with comorbid (symptoms

  9. Brief Eclectic Psychotherapy for Traumatic Grief (BEP-TG) : toward integrated treatment of symptoms related to traumatic loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, Geert E; Kleber, Rolf J; de la Rie, Simone M; Bos, Jannetta B A; Gersons, Berthold P R; Boelen, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traumatic events such as disasters, accidents, war, or criminal violence are often accompanied by the loss of loved ones, and may then give rise to traumatic grief. Traumatic grief refers to a clinical diagnosis of persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) with comorbid (symptoms

  10. [Supporting a teenager confronted with a traumatic experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchin, Clara; Benoit de Coignac, Agathe; Moro, Marie Rose

    2015-01-01

    Everyone reacts differently to a traumatic event. There is a risk of underestimating a teenager's traumatic experience by considering only the usual post-traumatic stress diagnosis criteria. However, when the trauma has not been able to be sufficiently developed, the adolescent's suffering is revealed through their behaviour. The therapeutic support of the youngster and their family enables them to reposition the traumatic event within the continuity of their history and to relaunch a thought process, often frozen by the traumatic experience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Single-cell analysis of pyroptosis dynamics reveals conserved GSDMD-mediated subcellular events that precede plasma membrane rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcelos, Nathalia M; Van Opdenbosch, Nina; Van Gorp, Hanne; Parthoens, Eef; Lamkanfi, Mohamed

    2018-04-17

    Pyroptosis is rapidly emerging as a mechanism of anti-microbial host defense, and of extracellular release of the inflammasome-dependent cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, which contributes to autoinflammatory pathology. Caspases 1, 4, 5 and 11 trigger this regulated form of necrosis by cleaving the pyroptosis effector gasdermin D (GSDMD), causing its pore-forming amino-terminal domain to oligomerize and perforate the plasma membrane. However, the subcellular events that precede pyroptotic cell lysis are ill defined. In this study, we triggered primary macrophages to undergo pyroptosis from three inflammasome types and recorded their dynamics and morphology using high-resolution live-cell spinning disk confocal laser microscopy. Based on quantitative analysis of single-cell subcellular events, we propose a model of pyroptotic cell disintegration that is initiated by opening of GSDMD-dependent ion channels or pores that are more restrictive than recently proposed GSDMD pores, followed by osmotic cell swelling, commitment of mitochondria and other membrane-bound organelles prior to sudden rupture of the plasma membrane and full permeability to intracellular proteins. This study provides a dynamic framework for understanding cellular changes that occur during pyroptosis, and charts a chronological sequence of GSDMD-mediated subcellular events that define pyroptotic cell death at the single-cell level.

  12. SEARCH FOR DARK MATTER IN EVENTS WITH A SINGLE BOSON AND MISSING TRANSVERSE MOMENTUM WITH ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, Oleg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The presence of a non-baryonic dark matter component in the Universe is inferred from the observation of its gravitational interaction. If dark matter interacts weakly with the Standard Model it would be produced at the LHC, escaping the detector and leaving a large missing transverse momentum as their signature. The results of searches for Dark Matter with a single boson and large missing transverse momentum in 13 TeV will be presented.

  13. Automated Detection of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Events from a Single-Lead Electrocardiogram Using a Convolutional Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urtnasan, Erdenebayar; Park, Jong-Uk; Joo, Eun-Yeon; Lee, Kyoung-Joung

    2018-04-23

    In this study, we propose a method for the automated detection of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) from a single-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) using a convolutional neural network (CNN). A CNN model was designed with six optimized convolution layers including activation, pooling, and dropout layers. One-dimensional (1D) convolution, rectified linear units (ReLU), and max pooling were applied to the convolution, activation, and pooling layers, respectively. For training and evaluation of the CNN model, a single-lead ECG dataset was collected from 82 subjects with OSA and was divided into training (including data from 63 patients with 34,281 events) and testing (including data from 19 patients with 8571 events) datasets. Using this CNN model, a precision of 0.99%, a recall of 0.99%, and an F 1 -score of 0.99% were attained with the training dataset; these values were all 0.96% when the CNN was applied to the testing dataset. These results show that the proposed CNN model can be used to detect OSA accurately on the basis of a single-lead ECG. Ultimately, this CNN model may be used as a screening tool for those suspected to suffer from OSA.

  14. A full-angle Monte-Carlo scattering technique including cumulative and single-event Rutherford scattering in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, Drew P.

    2017-11-01

    We describe and justify a full-angle scattering (FAS) method to faithfully reproduce the accumulated differential angular Rutherford scattering probability distribution function (pdf) of particles in a plasma. The FAS method splits the scattering events into two regions. At small angles it is described by cumulative scattering events resulting, via the central limit theorem, in a Gaussian-like pdf; at larger angles it is described by single-event scatters and retains a pdf that follows the form of the Rutherford differential cross-section. The FAS method is verified using discrete Monte-Carlo scattering simulations run at small timesteps to include each individual scattering event. We identify the FAS regime of interest as where the ratio of temporal/spatial scale-of-interest to slowing-down time/length is from 10-3 to 0.3-0.7; the upper limit corresponds to Coulomb logarithm of 20-2, respectively. Two test problems, high-velocity interpenetrating plasma flows and keV-temperature ion equilibration, are used to highlight systems where including FAS is important to capture relevant physics.

  15. Ketamine as a Rapid Treatment for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) is a debilitating anxiety disorder characterized by intrusive re-experiences of the traumatic events...08-1-0602 TITLE: Ketamine as a Rapid Treatment for Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dennis Charney...dissociative effects of ketamine but not have any sustained anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. Forty individuals diagnosed with post - traumatic

  16. Single-well monitoring of protein-protein interaction and phosphorylation-dephosphorylation events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcand, Mathieu; Roby, Philippe; Bossé, Roger; Lipari, Francesco; Padrós, Jaime; Beaudet, Lucille; Marcil, Alexandre; Dahan, Sophie

    2010-04-20

    We combined oxygen channeling assays with two distinct chemiluminescent beads to detect simultaneously protein phosphorylation and interaction events that are usually monitored separately. This novel method was tested in the ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathway. It was first used to directly monitor dissociation of MAP kinase ERK2 from MEK1 upon phosphorylation and to evaluate MAP kinase phosphatase (MKP) selectivity and mechanism of action. In addition, MEK1 and ERK2 were probed with an ATP competitor and an allosteric MEK1 inhibitor, which generated distinct phosphorylation-interaction patterns. Simultaneous monitoring of protein-protein interactions and substrate phosphorylation can provide significant mechanistic insight into enzyme activity and small molecule action.

  17. Modeling a Single SEP Event from Multiple Vantage Points Using the iPATH Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junxiang; Li, Gang; Fu, Shuai; Zank, Gary; Ao, Xianzhi

    2018-02-01

    Using the recently extended 2D improved Particle Acceleration and Transport in the Heliosphere (iPATH) model, we model an example gradual solar energetic particle event as observed at multiple locations. Protons and ions that are energized via the diffusive shock acceleration mechanism are followed at a 2D coronal mass ejection-driven shock where the shock geometry varies across the shock front. The subsequent transport of energetic particles, including cross-field diffusion, is modeled by a Monte Carlo code that is based on a stochastic differential equation method. Time intensity profiles and particle spectra at multiple locations and different radial distances, separated in longitudes, are presented. The results shown here are relevant to the upcoming Parker Solar Probe mission.

  18. Quantum theory of single events: Localized de Broglie-wavelets, Schroedinger waves and classical trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barut, A.O.

    1990-06-01

    For an arbitrary potential V with classical trajectories x-vector=g-vector(t) we construct localized oscillating three-dimensional wave lumps ψ(x-vector,t,g-vector) representing a single quantum particle. The crest of the envelope of the ripple follows the classical orbit g-vector(t) slightly modified due to potential V and ψ(x-vector,t;g-vector) satisfies the Schroedinger equation. The field energy, momentum and angular momentum calculated as integrals over all space are equal to particle energy, momentum and angular momentum. The relation to coherent states and to Schroedinger waves are also discussed. (author). 6 refs

  19. A template-free approach for determining the latency of single events of auditory evoked M100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burghoff, M [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin (Germany); Link, A [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin (Germany); Salajegheh, A [Cognitive Neuroscience of Language Laboratory, University of Maryland College Park, MD (United States); Elster, C [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin (Germany); Poeppel, D [Cognitive Neuroscience of Language Laboratory, University of Maryland College Park, MD (United States); Trahms, L [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin (Germany)

    2005-02-07

    The phase of the complex output of a narrow band Gaussian filter is taken to define the latency of the auditory evoked response M100 recorded by magnetoencephalography. It is demonstrated that this definition is consistent with the conventional peak latency. Moreover, it provides a tool for reducing the number of averages needed for a reliable estimation of the latency. Single-event latencies obtained by this procedure can be used to improve the signal quality of the conventional average by latency adjusted averaging. (note)

  20. Single-Event Upset and Scaling Trends in New Generation of the Commercial SOI PowerPC Microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irom, Farokh; Farmanesh, Farhad; Kouba, Coy K.

    2006-01-01

    Single-event upset effects from heavy ions are measured for Motorola silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microprocessor with 90 nm feature sizes. The results are compared with previous results for SOI microprocessors with feature sizes of 130 and 180 nm. The cross section of the 90 nm SOI processors is smaller than results for 130 and 180 nm counterparts, but the threshold is about the same. The scaling of the cross section with reduction of feature size and core voltage for SOI microprocessors is discussed.

  1. Single event and TREE latchup mitigation for a star tracker sensor: An innovative approach to system level latchup mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimbrough, J.R.; Colella, N.J.; Davis, R.W.; Bruener, D.B.; Coakley, P.G.; Lutjens, S.W.; Mallon, C.E.

    1994-08-01

    Electronic packages designed for spacecraft should be fault-tolerant and operate without ground control intervention through extremes in the space radiation environment. If designed for military use, the electronics must survive and function in a nuclear radiation environment. This paper presents an innovative ''blink'' approach rather than the typical ''operate through'' approach to achieve system level latchup mitigation on a prototype star tracker camera. Included are circuit designs, flash x-ray test data, and heavy ion data demonstrating latchup mitigation protecting micro-electronics from current latchup and burnout due to Single Event Latchup (SEL) and Transient Radiation Effects on Electronics (TREE)

  2. Nuclear data relevant to single event upsets in semiconductor memories induced by cosmic-ray neutrons and protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yukinobu

    2008-01-01

    The role of nuclear data is examined in the study of single event upset (SEU) phenomena in semiconductor memories caused by cosmic-ray neutrons and protons. Neutron and proton SEU cross sections are calculated with a simplified semi-empirical model using experimental heavy-ion SEU cross-sections and a dedicated database of neutron and proton induced reactions on 28 Si. Some impacts of the nuclear reaction data on SEU simulation are analyzed by investigating relative contribution of secondary ions and neutron elastic scattering to SEU and influence of simultaneous multiple ions emission on SEU. (author)

  3. Synergistic effects of total ionizing dose on single event upset sensitivity in static random access memory under proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Yao; Guo Hong-Xia; Zhang Feng-Qi; Zhao Wen; Wang Yan-Ping; Zhang Ke-Ying; Ding Li-Li; Luo Yin-Hong; Wang Yuan-Ming; Fan Xue

    2014-01-01

    Synergistic effects of the total ionizing dose (TID) on the single event upset (SEU) sensitivity in static random access memories (SRAMs) were studied by using protons. The total dose was cumulated with high flux protons during the TID exposure, and the SEU cross section was tested with low flux protons at several cumulated dose steps. Because of the radiation-induced off-state leakage current increase of the CMOS transistors, the noise margin became asymmetric and the memory imprint effect was observed. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  4. Implications of the spatial dependence of the single-event-upset threshold in SRAMs measured with a pulsed laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchner, S.; Langworthy, J.B.; Stapor, W.J.; Campbell, A.B.; Rivet, S.

    1994-01-01

    Pulsed laser light was used to measure single event upset (SEU) thresholds for a large number of memory cells in both CMOS and bipolar SRAMs. Results showed that small variations in intercell upset threshold could not explain the gradual rise in the curve of cross section versus linear energy transfer (LET). The memory cells exhibited greater intracell variations implying that the charge collection efficiency within a memory cell varies spatially and contributes substantially to the shape of the curve of cross section versus LET. The results also suggest that the pulsed laser can be used for hardness-assurance measurements on devices with sensitive areas larger than the diameter of the laser beam

  5. Simulation of thermal-neutron-induced single-event upset using particle and heavy-ion transport code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arita, Yutaka; Kihara, Yuji; Mitsuhasi, Junichi; Niita, Koji; Takai, Mikio; Ogawa, Izumi; Kishimoto, Tadafumi; Yoshihara, Tsutomu

    2007-01-01

    The simulation of a thermal-neutron-induced single-event upset (SEU) was performed on a 0.4-μm-design-rule 4 Mbit static random access memory (SRAM) using particle and heavy-ion transport code system (PHITS): The SEU rates obtained by the simulation were in very good agreement with the result of experiments. PHITS is a useful tool for simulating SEUs in semiconductor devices. To further improve the accuracy of the simulation, additional methods for tallying the energy deposition are required for PHITS. (author)

  6. Effects of drain-wall in mitigating N-hit single event transient via 45 nm CMOS process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X Y; Tang, M H; Xiao, Y G; Yan, S A; Zhang, W L; Li, Z; Xiong, Y; Zhao, W; Guo, H X

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation in a novel layout technique for N-hit single event transient (SET) mitigation based on drain-wall layout technique is proposed. Numerical simulations of both single-device and mixed-mode show that the proposed layout technique designed with 45 nm CMOS process can efficiently reduce not only charge collection but also SET pulse widths (W SET ). What is more, simulations show that impacts caused by part of ion-incidents can be shielded with this novel layout technique. When compared with conventional layout technique and guard drain layout technique, we find that the proposed novel layout technique can provide the best benefit of SET mitigation with a small sacrifice in effective area. (paper)

  7. Comparison of analytical models and experimental results for single-event upset in CMOS SRAMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mnich, T.M.; Diehl, S.E.; Shafer, B.D.

    1983-01-01

    In an effort to design fully radiation-hardened memories for satellite and deep-space applications, a 16K and a 2K CMOS static RAM were modeled for single-particle upset during the design stage. The modeling resulted in the addition of a hardening feedback resistor in the 16K remained tentatively unaltered. Subsequent experiments, using the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories' 88-inch cyclotron to accelerate krypton and oxygen ions, established an upset threshold for the 2K and the 16K without resistance added, as well as a hardening threshold for the 16K with feedback resistance added. Results for the 16K showed it to be hardenable to the higher level than previously published data for other unhardened 16K RAMs. The data agreed fairly well with the modeling results; however, a close look suggests that modification of the simulation methodology is required to accurately predict the resistance necessary to harden the RAM cell

  8. Does red noise increase or decrease extinction risk? Single extreme events versus series of unfavorable conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwager, Monika; Johst, Karin; Jeltsch, Florian

    2006-06-01

    Recent theoretical studies have shown contrasting effects of temporal correlation of environmental fluctuations (red noise) on the risk of population extinction. It is still debated whether and under which conditions red noise increases or decreases extinction risk compared with uncorrelated (white) noise. Here, we explain the opposing effects by introducing two features of red noise time series. On the one hand, positive autocorrelation increases the probability of series of poor environmental conditions, implying increasing extinction risk. On the other hand, for a given time period, the probability of at least one extremely bad year ("catastrophe") is reduced compared with white noise, implying decreasing extinction risk. Which of these two features determines extinction risk depends on the strength of environmental fluctuations and the sensitivity of population dynamics to these fluctuations. If extreme (catastrophic) events can occur (strong noise) or sensitivity is high (overcompensatory density dependence), then temporal correlation decreases extinction risk; otherwise, it increases it. Thus, our results provide a simple explanation for the contrasting previous findings and are a crucial step toward a general understanding of the effect of noise color on extinction risk.

  9. Single-Event Effect Testing of the Vishay Si7414DN n-Type TrenchFET(Registered Trademark) Power MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, J.-M.; Casey, M. C.; Campola, M. A.; Phan, A. M.; Wilcox, E. P.; Topper, A. D.; Ladbury, R. L.

    2017-01-01

    This study was being undertaken to determine the single event effect susceptibility of the commercial Vishay 60-V TrenchFET power MOSFET. Heavy-ion testing was conducted at the Texas AM University Cyclotron Single Event Effects Test Facility (TAMU) and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory BASE Cyclotron Facility (LBNL). In addition, initial 200-MeV proton testing was conducted at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Francis H. Burr Proton Beam Therapy Center. Testing was performed to evaluate this device for single-event effects from lower-LET, lighter ions relevant to higher risk tolerant space missions.

  10. Single-Event Effects in Power MOSFETs During Heavy Ion Irradiations Performed After Gamma-Ray Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busatto, G.; De Luca, V.; Iannuzzo, F.; Sanseverino, A.; Velardi, F.

    2013-10-01

    The robustness of commercial power metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors to combined gamma-heavy ion irradiation has been investigated, evidence that the degradation of the gate oxide caused by the γ irradiation can severely corrupt the robustness to single-event effects and drastically modify the physical behavior of the device under test after the impact of a heavy ion. A decrease of the critical voltages at which destructive burnouts and gate ruptures for heavy ion impact appear, has been detected in the devices under test, which were previously irradiated with γ rays. In addition, the amount of critical voltage reduction is strictly related to the amount of the absorbed γ-ray dose. Furthermore, at the failure voltage, the behavior of the device is affected by the conduction of a current through the gate oxide. Moreover, the single-event gate rupture” of the device appears at lower voltages because of the reduction of the Fowler-Nordheim limit in the γ-irradiated devices.

  11. Traumatic events, other operational stressors and physical and mental health reported by Australian Defence Force personnel following peacekeeping and war-like deployments

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, Michael; Treloar, Susan A; Sim, Malcolm R; McFarlane, Alexander C; McGuire, Annabel C L; Bleier, Jonathan; Dobson, Annette J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The association between stressful events on warlike deployments and subsequent mental health problems has been established. Less is known about the effects of stressful events on peacekeeping deployments. Methods Two cross sectional studies of the Australian Defence Force were used to contrast the prevalence of exposures reported by a group deployed on a peacekeeping operation (Bougainville, n = 1704) and those reported by a group deployed on operations which included warl...

  12. Neutron-induced Single Event Upset on the RPC front-end chips for the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbrescia, M.; Colaleo, A.; Iaselli, G.; Loddo, F.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pugliese, G.; Ranieri, A.; Romano, F.; Altieri, S.; Belli, G.; Bruno, G.; Guida, R.; Merlo, M.; Ratti, S.P.; Riccardi, C.; Torre, P.; Vitulo, P. E-mail: paolo.vitulo@pv.infn.it; De Bari, A.; Manera, S

    2002-05-21

    Neutrons from a reactor and from a cyclotron have been used to characterise the CMS Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) front-end chip to neutron-induced damaging events. Single Event Upset (SEU) cross-sections have been measured up to 60 MeV for different chip thresholds. Tests at a reactor were done with an integrated fast (E{sub n}>3 MeV) neutron fluence of 1.7x10{sup 10} cm{sup -2} and a thermal neutron fluence of 9.5x10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}. High-energy neutrons from a cyclotron were used up to a fluence of 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}. Data indicate the existence of a chip SEU sensitivity already at thermal energy and a saturated SEU cross-section from 3 to 60 MeV. Values of the SEU cross-sections from the thermal run well agree with those obtained by another CMS group that uses the same technology (0.8 {mu}m BiCMOS) though with different architecture. Cross-sections obtained with fast neutrons (from 3 MeV to about 10 MeV) are consistently higher by one order of magnitude compared to the thermal one. The average time between consecutive SEU events in each chip of the CMS barrel RPCs can be estimated to be 1 h.

  13. Search for anomalous Wtb couplings and top FCNC in t-channel single-top-quark events

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Single-top-quark events in the $t$-channel are used to probe Wtb anomalous couplings and to search for top quark Flavor Changing Neutral Current (FCNC) interactions in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV. The analyzed data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 5~fb$^{-1}$. Events with the top quark decaying into a muon, neutrino and b-quark are selected. A Bayesian neural network is used to discriminate between signal and backgrounds. The observed event yields are consistent with SM prediction, and exclusion limits at 95\\% C.L. are determined. The exclusion limits on anomalous right vector and left tensor couplings of the Wtb vertex are found to be $|f_{V}^{R}|< 0.34$ and $|f_{T}^{L}|<0.09$. In the scenarios with FCNC tcg and tug couplings, limits on the coupling strengths are found to be $\\kappa_{tug}/\\Lambda < 1.8 \\cdot 10^{-2}~ \\mathrm{TeV^{-1}},\\ \\kappa_{tcg}/\\Lambda < 5.6 \\cdot 10^{-2} ~ \\mathrm{TeV^{-1}}$ which corresponds to limits on the branching ratios $Br(t~\\rightarrow~u+g)...

  14. Role of multisensory stimuli in vigilance enhancement- a single trial event related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Nida Itrat; Bodala, Indu Prasad; Bezerianos, Anastasios; Yu Sun; Al-Nashash, Hasan; Thakor, Nitish V

    2017-07-01

    Development of interventions to prevent vigilance decrement has important applications in sensitive areas like transportation and defence. The objective of this work is to use multisensory (visual and haptic) stimuli for cognitive enhancement during mundane tasks. Two different epoch intervals representing sensory perception and motor response were analysed using minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) based single trial ERP estimation to understand the performance dependency on both factors. Bereitschaftspotential (BP) latency L3 (r=0.6 in phase 1 (visual) and r=0.71 in phase 2 (visual and haptic)) was significantly correlated with reaction time as compared to that of sensory ERP latency L2 (r=0.1 in both phase 1 and phase 2). This implies that low performance in monotonous tasks is predominantly dependent on the prolonged neural interaction with the muscles to initiate movement. Further, negative relationship was found between the ERP latencies related to sensory perception and Bereitschaftspotential (BP) and occurrence of epochs when multisensory cues are provided. This means that vigilance decrement is reduced with the help of multisensory stimulus presentation in prolonged monotonous tasks.

  15. Study of single-particle correlations in events with the total disintegration of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdinov, O.B.; Bagirov, A.M.; Sulejmanov, M.K.; Anoshin, A.I.; Bogdanowicz, J.; Kuznetsov, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    New experimental data on the behaviour of the single-particle two-dimensional correlation functions R versus Q (Q is the number of nucleons emitted from nuclei) and A p (A p is the mass of projectile nuclei) are presented. The interactions of π - -mesons (at a momentum of 40 GeV/c), protons, d, 4 He and 12 C nuclei with carbon nuclei (at a momentum of 4.2 A GeV/c) are considered. The values of R are obtained separately for π - -mesons and protons. In so doing, the values of R are normalised so that -1≤R≤1. The value of R=0 corresponds to the case of the absence of correlations. It has been found that the Q- and A p -dependence of R takes place only for weak correlations (R t and have a nonlinear character, that is the regions with different characters of the Q-dependence of R are separated: there is a change of regimes in the Q-dependences of R. The boundary values of Q=Q*, corresponding to the transitions from one dependence region to another, are determined. The correlations weaken with increasing A p , and they become minimum in 12 CC interactions. Simultaneously with weakening the correlations in the region of large Q≥Q*, the character of the Q-dependence of R changes

  16. Classification of Single-Trial Auditory Events Using Dry-Wireless EEG During Real and Motion Simulated Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eCallan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of neuro-augmentation technology based on dry-wireless EEG may be considerably beneficial for aviation and space operations because of the inherent dangers involved. In this study we evaluate classification performance of perceptual events using a dry-wireless EEG system during motion platform based flight simulation and actual flight in an open cockpit biplane to determine if the system can be used in the presence of considerable environmental and physiological artifacts. A passive task involving 200 random auditory presentations of a chirp sound was used for evaluation. The advantage of this auditory task is that it does not interfere with the perceptual motor processes involved with piloting the plane. Classification was based on identifying the presentation of a chirp sound versus silent periods. Evaluation of Independent component analysis and Kalman filtering to enhance classification performance by extracting brain activity related to the auditory event from other non-task related brain activity and artifacts was assessed. The results of permutation testing revealed that single trial classification of presence or absence of an auditory event was significantly above chance for all conditions on a novel test set. The best performance could be achieved with both ICA and Kalman filtering relative to no processing: Platform Off (83.4% vs 78.3%, Platform On (73.1% vs 71.6%, Biplane Engine Off (81.1% vs 77.4%, and Biplane Engine On (79.2% vs 66.1%. This experiment demonstrates that dry-wireless EEG can be used in environments with considerable vibration, wind, acoustic noise, and physiological artifacts and achieve good single trial classification performance that is necessary for future successful application of neuro-augmentation technology based on brain-machine interfaces.

  17. Traumatic Aortic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna Miner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 48-year-old male with unknown past medical history presents as a trauma after being hit by a car traveling approximately 25 miles per hour. On initial presentation, the patient is confused, combative, and not answering questions appropriately. The patient is hypotensive with a blood pressure of 68/40 and a heart rate of 50 beats per minute, with oxygen saturation at 96% on room air. FAST scan is positive for fluid in Morrison’s pouch, splenorenal space, and pericardial space. Significant findings: The initial chest x-ray showed an abnormal superior mediastinal contour (blue line, suggestive of a possible aortic injury. The CT angiogram showed extensive circumferential irregularity and outpouching of the distal aortic arch (red arrows compatible with aortic transection. In addition, there was a circumferential intramural hematoma, which extended through the descending aorta to the proximal infrarenal abdominal aorta (green arrow. There was also an extensive surrounding mediastinal hematoma extending around the descending aorta and supraaortic branches (purple arrows. Discussion: Traumatic aortic injury is a life-threatening event. The incidence of blunt thoracic aortic injury is low, between 1 to 2 percent of those patients with blunt thoracic trauma.1 However, approximately 80% of patients with traumatic aortic injury die at the scene.2 Therefore it is imperative to diagnose traumatic aortic injury in a timely fashion. The diagnosis can be difficult due to the non-specific signs and symptoms and other distracting injuries. Clinical suspicion should be based on the mechanism of the injury and the hemodynamic status of the patient. In any patient with blunt or penetrating trauma to the chest that is hemodynamically unstable, traumatic aortic injury should be on the differential. Chest x-ray can be used as a screening tool. A normal chest x-ray has a negative predictive value of approximately 97%. CTA chest is the

  18. Problemas de saúde mental na adolescência: características familiares, eventos traumáticos e violência Mental health problems in adolescence: family characteristics, traumatic events and violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pereira da Cruz Benetti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de situações traumáticas, exposição à violência e características das relações parentais são fatores de risco para saúde mental. Este estudo procurou identificar as situações individuais, familiares e contextuais associadas às manifestações de problemas de saúde mental em adolescentes estudantes da região metropolitana de Porto Alegre, RS. Os instrumentos utilizados foram o Inventário de Eventos Estressores na Adolescência, Triagem da Exposição de Crianças à Violência na Comunidade, Inventário de Estilos Parentais e o Child Behavior Checklist- versão YRF. Participaram 245 adolescentes, sendo 114 (46,5% do sexo masculino com idade média de 16,02 anos (DP=1,83. A análise dos dados realizou-se através de estatística descritiva e inferencial para estimar os determinantes do diagnóstico clínico. Situações de violência, práticas parentais negativas e eventos traumáticos associaram-se ao diagnóstico clínico. Aponta-se a necessidade de implantação de ações preventivas e de atenção em saúde mental na infância e adolescência.The occurrence of traumatic events, exposure to violence and characteristics of parental relationship are risk factors associated to mental health. This study aimed to identify individual, family and contextual factors associated to the manifestation of mental health problems in a sample of adolescent students from the metropolitan region of the city of Porto Alegr e, RS. The instruments used were the Stressful Adolescence Events Inventory, Screening of Exposure to Community Violence, Parental Style Inventory and the Child Behavior Checklist- YRF version. Two hundred and forty five adolescents, of which 114 (46,5% male, mean age 16,02 (DP=1,83 participated in the study. Data analysis was done through descriptive and inferential statistics to estimate the determinants of clinical diagnostics. Violence situations, negative parenting practices and traumatic events were

  19. 3-D topological signatures and a new discrimination method for single-electron events and 0νββ events in CdZnTe: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Ming; Li, Teng-Lin; Cang, Ji-Rong [Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education (China); Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zeng, Zhi, E-mail: zengzhi@tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education (China); Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Fu, Jian-Qiang; Zeng, Wei-He; Cheng, Jian-Ping; Ma, Hao; Liu, Yi-Nong [Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education (China); Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2017-06-21

    In neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay experiments, the diversity of topological signatures of different particles provides an important tool to distinguish double beta events from background events and reduce background rates. Aiming at suppressing the single-electron backgrounds which are most challenging, several groups have established Monte Carlo simulation packages to study the topological characteristics of single-electron events and 0νββ events and develop methods to differentiate them. In this paper, applying the knowledge of graph theory, a new topological signature called REF track (Refined Energy-Filtered track) is proposed and proven to be an accurate approximation of the real particle trajectory. Based on the analysis of the energy depositions along the REF track of single-electron events and 0νββ events, the REF energy deposition models for both events are proposed to indicate the significant differences between them. With these differences, this paper presents a new discrimination method, which, in the Monte Carlo simulation, achieved a single-electron rejection factor of 93.8±0.3 (stat.)% as well as a 0νββ efficiency of 85.6±0.4 (stat.)% with optimized parameters in CdZnTe.

  20. Analyzing Test-As-You-Fly Single Event Upset (SEU) Responses using SEU Data, Classical Reliability Models, and Space Environment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; Label, Kenneth; Campola, Michael; Xapsos, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method for the application of single event upset (SEU) data towards the analysis of complex systems using transformed reliability models (from the time domain to the particle fluence domain) and space environment data.

  1. Compendium of Single Event Effects Test Results for Commercial Off-The-Shelf and Standard Electronics for Low Earth Orbit and Deep Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddell, Brandon D.; Bailey, Charles R.; Nguyen, Kyson V.; O'Neill, Patrick M.; Wheeler, Scott; Gaza, Razvan; Cooper, Jaime; Kalb, Theodore; Patel, Chirag; Beach, Elden R.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of Single Event Effects (SEE) testing with high energy protons and with low and high energy heavy ions for electrical components considered for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and for deep space applications.

  2. Characterization of System on a Chip (SoC) Single Event Upset (SEU) Responses Using SEU Data, Classical Reliability Models, and Space Environment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; Label, Kenneth; Campola, Michael; Xapsos, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method for the application of single event upset (SEU) data towards the analysis of complex systems using transformed reliability models (from the time domain to the particle fluence domain) and space environment data.

  3. Lifetime history of traumatic events in a young adult Mexican American sample: Relation to substance dependence, affective disorder, acculturation stress, and PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Kim, Corinne; Gilder, David A; Stouffer, Gina M; Caetano, Raul; Yehuda, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    Mexican Americans comprise one of the most rapidly growing populations in the United States, and within this population, trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with physical and mental health problems. Therefore, efforts to delineate factors that may uniquely contribute to increased likelihood of trauma, PTSD, and substance use disorders over the lifetime in Mexican Americans are important to address health disparities and to develop treatment and prevention programs. Six hundred fourteen young adults (age 18-30 yrs) of Mexican American heritage, largely second generation, were recruited from the community and assessed with the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism and an acculturation stress scale. More males (51.2%) reported experiencing traumas than females (41.1%), however, a larger proportion of females received a PTSD diagnosis (15%) than males (8%). Alcohol dependence and affective disorders, but not anxiety disorders, antisocial disorders, nicotine, marijuana, or stimulant dependence, were significantly comorbid with PTSD. Endorsing higher levels of acculturation stress was also significantly associated with both trauma exposure and a diagnosis of PTSD. Logistic regression revealed that female gender, having an affective disorder, alcohol dependence, higher levels of acculturation stress, and lower levels of education were all predictors of PTSD status. Additionally, alcohol dependence generally occurred after the PTSD diagnosis in early adulthood in this high-risk population. These studies suggest that treatment and prevention efforts should particularly focus on young adult second generation Mexican American women with higher levels of acculturation stress, who may be at higher risk for PTSD, affective disorder, and alcohol dependence following trauma exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Lifetime history of traumatic events in a young adult Mexican American sample: relation to substance dependence, affective disorder, acculturation stress, and PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Kim, Corinne; Gilder, David A.; Stouffer, Gina M.; Caetano, Raul; Yehuda, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Mexican Americans comprise one of the most rapidly growing populations in the United States, and within this population, trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with physical and mental health problems. Therefore, efforts to delineate factors that may uniquely contribute to increased likelihood of trauma, PTSD, and substance use disorders over the lifetime in Mexican Americans are important to address health disparities and to develop treatment and prevention programs. Six hundred fourteen young adults (age 18–30 yrs) of Mexican American heritage, largely second generation, were recruited from the community and assessed with the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism and an acculturation stress scale. More males (51.2%) reported experiencing traumas than females (41.1%), however, a larger proportion of females received a PTSD diagnosis (15%) than males (8%). Alcohol dependence and affective disorders, but not anxiety disorders, antisocial disorders, nicotine, marijuana, or stimulant dependence, were significantly comorbid with PTSD. Endorsing higher levels of acculturation stress was also significantly associated with both trauma exposure and a diagnosis of PTSD. Logistic regression revealed that female gender, having an affective disorder, alcohol dependence, higher levels of acculturation stress, and lower levels of education were all predictors of PTSD status. Additionally, alcohol dependence generally occurred after the PTSD diagnosis in early adulthood in this high-risk population. These studies suggest that treatment and prevention efforts should particularly focus on young adult second generation Mexican American women with higher levels of acculturation stress, who may be at higher risk for PTSD, affective disorder, and alcohol dependence following trauma exposure. PMID:27569652

  5. New method for selection and characterization of single-source events in Ni+Ni collisions at 32 A.MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maskay-Wallez, Anne-Marie

    1999-01-01

    The study of heavy ion collisions, with the help of such efficient multi-detectors as INDRA, has shown the persistence of reactions leading to single-source events, up to bombarding energies higher than the Fermi one. These events could help characterizing an expected phase transition in nuclear matter. Whatever interesting they may be, the single-source events correspond to a small part of the total cross section, which makes them difficult to isolate and therefore to analyze. That is why different selection means have been tested - thanks to the 'Simon' event generator - on a simulated Ni + Ni at 32 A·MeV sample, before any application to the INDRA experimental data. As the known methods based on global variables did not prove effective, a set of new 4-dimensional quantities has been built, whose main advantage lies in a better description of physical events. From a Discriminant Analysis performed on 625 of these new 'moments' proceeds a highly discriminant variable, called D 625 . The experimental cross section associated with D 625 -selected single-source events amounts to 170 mb at 32 A·MeV. Such quasi-fusion events are shown to disappear at about 60 A·MeV. As regards the deexcitation mode of the 32 A·MeV Ni + Ni single-source events, an extensive experimental study and comparisons of the data with two reference models seem to confirm the hypothesis of a transition between fusion-evaporation and simultaneous multifragmentation mechanisms. (author)

  6. Traumatization in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Adult Psychiatric Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øhre, Beate; Uthus, Mette Perly; von Tetzchner, Stephen; Falkum, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Deaf and hard-of-hearing persons are at risk for experiencing traumatic events and such experiences are associated with symptoms of mental disorder. We investigated the prevalence of traumatic events and subsequent traumatization in adults referred to specialized psychiatric outpatient units for deaf and hard-of-hearing patients. Sixty-two…

  7. Single-event phenomena on recent semiconductor devices. Charge-type multiple-bit upsets in high integrated memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makihara, Akiko; Shindou, Hiroyuki; Nemoto, Norio; Kuboyama, Satoshi; Matsuda, Sumio; Ohshima, Takeshi; Hirao, Toshio; Itoh, Hisayoshi

    2001-01-01

    High integrated memories are used in solid state data recorder (SSDR) of the satellite for accumulating observation data. Single event upset phenomena which turn over an accumulated data in the memory cells are caused by heavy ion incidence. Studies on single-bit upset and multiple-bit upset phenomena in the high integrated memory cells are in progress recently. 16 Mbit DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memories) and 64 Mbit DRAM are irradiated by heavy ion species, such as iodine, bromine and nickel, in comparison with the irradiation damage in the cosmic environment. Data written on the memory devices are read out after the irradiation. The memory cells in three kinds of states, all of charged state, all of discharged state, and an alternative state of charge and discharge, are irradiated for sorting out error modes caused by heavy ion incidence. The soft error in a single memory cells is known as a turn over from charged state to discharged state. Electrons in electron-hole pair generated by heavy ion incidence are captured in a diffusion region between capacitor electrodes of semiconductor. The charged states in the capacitor electrodes before the irradiation are neutralized and changed to the discharged states. According to high integration of the memories, many of the cells are affected by a single ion incidence. The multiple-bit upsets, however, are generated in the memory cells of discharged state before the irradiation, also. The charge-type multiple-bit upsets is considered as that error data are written on the DRAM during refresh cycle of a sense-up circuit and a pre-charge circuit which control the DRAM. (M. Suetake)

  8. Mild traumatic brain injury does not produce post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbordone, R J; Liter, J C

    1995-01-01

    It has been widely assumed that patients who sustain mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) or post-concussive syndrome develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to their cognitive difficulties, diminished coping skills, or other losses. This study examined 70 patients who had previously been diagnosed as having either PTSD or MTBI. Each patient was asked to provide a highly detailed chronological history of the events which preceded, followed, and occurred during the traumatic event, to indicate whether they were rendered unconscious or had amnesia for the event, and to describe the various symptoms they developed. All (100.0%) of the PTSD patients were able to provide a highly detailed and emotionally charged recollection of the events which occurred within 15 minutes of the traumatic event in comparison to none (0.0%) of the MTBI patients. None of the MTBI patients reported symptoms such as intrusive recollections of the traumatic event, nightmares, hypervigilance, phobic or startle reactions, or became upset when they were asked to describe the traumatic event or were exposed to stimuli associated with it. These data suggest that PTSD and MTBI are two mutually exclusive disorders, and that it is highly unlikely that MTBI patients develop PTSD symptoms. Furthermore, these findings suggest that clinicians should exercise considerable caution in ruling out PTSD prior to making the diagnosis of MTBI.

  9. How to quantify exposure to traumatic stress? Reliability and predictive validity of measures for cumulative trauma exposure in a post-conflict population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilker, Sarah; Pfeiffer, Anett; Kolassa, Stephan; Koslowski, Daniela; Elbert, Thomas; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    While studies with survivors of single traumatic experiences highlight individual response variation following trauma, research from conflict regions shows that almost everyone develops posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) if trauma exposure reaches extreme levels. Therefore, evaluating the effects of cumulative trauma exposure is of utmost importance in studies investigating risk factors for PTSD. Yet, little research has been devoted to evaluate how this important environmental risk factor can be best quantified. We investigated the retest reliability and predictive validity of different trauma measures in a sample of 227 Ugandan rebel war survivors. Trauma exposure was modeled as the number of traumatic event types experienced or as a score considering traumatic event frequencies. In addition, we investigated whether age at trauma exposure can be reliably measured and improves PTSD risk prediction. All trauma measures showed good reliability. While prediction of lifetime PTSD was most accurate from the number of different traumatic event types experienced, inclusion of event frequencies slightly improved the prediction of current PTSD. As assessing the number of traumatic events experienced is the least stressful and time-consuming assessment and leads to the best prediction of lifetime PTSD, we recommend this measure for research on PTSD etiology.

  10. How to quantify exposure to traumatic stress? Reliability and predictive validity of measures for cumulative trauma exposure in a post-conflict population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Wilker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: While studies with survivors of single traumatic experiences highlight individual response variation following trauma, research from conflict regions shows that almost everyone develops posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD if trauma exposure reaches extreme levels. Therefore, evaluating the effects of cumulative trauma exposure is of utmost importance in studies investigating risk factors for PTSD. Yet, little research has been devoted to evaluate how this important environmental risk factor can be best quantified. Methods: We investigated the retest reliability and predictive validity of different trauma measures in a sample of 227 Ugandan rebel war survivors. Trauma exposure was modeled as the number of traumatic event types experienced or as a score considering traumatic event frequencies. In addition, we investigated whether age at trauma exposure can be reliably measured and improves PTSD risk prediction. Results: All trauma measures showed good reliability. While prediction of lifetime PTSD was most accurate from the number of different traumatic event types experienced, inclusion of event frequencies slightly improved the prediction of current PTSD. Conclusions: As assessing the number of traumatic events experienced is the least stressful and time-consuming assessment and leads to the best prediction of lifetime PTSD, we recommend this measure for research on PTSD etiology.

  11. [Incidence rate of adverse reaction/event by Qingkailing injection: a Meta-analysis of single rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Chun-ling; Xie, Yan-ming; Li, Ming-quan; Wang, Lian-xin; Liao, Xing

    2015-12-01

    To systematically review the incidence rate of adverse drug reaction/event by Qingkailing injection. Such databases as the PubMed, EMbase, the Cochrane library, CNKI, VIP WanFang data and CBM were searched by computer from foundation to July 30, 2015. Two reviewers independently screened literature according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracted data and cross check data. Then, Meta-analysis was performed by using the R 3.2.0 software, subgroup sensitivity analysis was performed based on age, mode of medicine, observation time and research quality. Sixty-three studies involving 9,793 patients with Qingkailing injection were included, 367 cases of adverse reactions/events were reported in total. The incidence rate of adverse reaction in skin and mucosa group was 2% [95% CI (0.02; 0.03)]; the digestive system adverse reaction was 6% [95% CI(0.05; 0.07); the injection site adverse reaction was 4% [95% CI (0.02; 0.07)]. In the digestive system as the main types of adverse reactions/events, incidence of children and adults were 4.6% [0.021 1; 0.097 7] and 6.9% [0.053 5; 0.089 8], respectively. Adverse reactions to skin and mucous membrane damage as the main performance/event type, the observation time > 7 days and ≤ 7 days incidence of 3% [0.012 9; 0.068 3] and 1.9% [0.007 8; 0.046 1], respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that different types of adverse reactions, combination in the incidence of adverse reactions/events were higher than that of single drug, the difference was statistically significant (P reactions occur, and clinical rational drug use, such as combination, age and other fators, and the influence factors vary in different populations. Therefore, clinical doctors for children and the elderly use special care was required for a clear and open spirit injection, the implementation of individualized medication.

  12. Experimental and simulation studies of neutron-induced single-event burnout in SiC power diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Tomoyuki; Nishida, Shuichi; Hamada, Kimimori; Tadano, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Neutron-induced single-event burnouts (SEBs) of silicon carbide (SiC) power diodes have been investigated by white neutron irradiation experiments and transient device simulations. It was confirmed that a rapid increase in lattice temperature leads to formation of crown-shaped aluminum and cracks inside the device owing to expansion stress when the maximum lattice temperature reaches the sublimation temperature. SEB device simulation indicated that the peak lattice temperature is located in the vicinity of the n-/n+ interface and anode contact, and that the positions correspond to a hammock-like electric field distribution caused by the space charge effect. Moreover, the locations of the simulated peak lattice temperature agree closely with the positions of the observed destruction traces. Furthermore, it was theoretically demonstrated that the period of temperature increase of a SiC power device is two orders of magnitude less than that of a Si power device, using a thermal diffusion equation.

  13. Monte Carlo calculation of the cross-section of single event upset induced by 14MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Deng, J.Y.; Chang, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    High-density static random access memory may experience single event upsets (SEU) in neutron environments. We present a new method to calculate the SEU cross-section. Our method is based on explicit generation and transport of the secondary reaction products and detailed accounting for energy loss by ionization. Instead of simulating the behavior of the circuit, we use the Monte Carlo method to simulate the process of energy deposition in sensitive volumes. Thus, we do not need to know details about the circuit. We only need a reasonable guess for the size of the sensitive volumes. In the Monte Carlo simulation, the cross-section of SEU induced by 14MeV neutrons is calculated. We can see that the Monte Carlo simulation not only can provide a new method to calculate SEU cross-section, but also can give a detailed description about random process of the SEU

  14. Nuclear data relevant to single-event upsets (SEU) in microelectronics and their application to SEU simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yukinobu; Tukamoto, Yasuyuki; Kodama, Akihiro; Nakashima, Hideki

    2004-01-01

    A cross-section database for neutron-induced reactions on 28 Si was developed in the energy range between 2 MeV and 3 GeV in order to analyze single-event upsets (SEUs) phenomena induced by cosmic-ray neutrons in microelectronic devices. A simplified spherical device model was proposed for simulation of the initial process of SEUs. The model was applied to SEU cross-section calculations for semiconductor memory devices. The calculated results were compared with measured SEU cross-sections and the other simulation result. The dependence of SEU cross-sections on incident neutron energy and secondary ions having the most important effects on SEUs are discussed. (author)

  15. Comparison Elements on STG DICE cell for Content-Addressable Memory and Simulation of Single-Event Transients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ya. Stenin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Comparison elements on base the STG DICE cell and the logical element “Exclusive OR” for a content-addressable memory were designed and simulated. The comparison element contains two identical joint groups of transistors that are spaced on the chip by the distance of four micrometers, so the loss of data in STG DICE cell practically excluded. On the characteristics of the new 65-nm CMOS comparison element, we predict the hardness of these item to single event rate (SER more to hundred times compared to elements on 6-transistors cells and the standard DICE cell with distances 0.5-0.6 μm between mutually sensitive nodes.

  16. Investigation of radial dose effect on single event upset cross-section due to heavy ions using GEANT4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boorboor, S.; Feghhi, S.A.H.; Jafari, H.

    2015-01-01

    The heavy ions are the main cause to produce single event upset (SEU) damage on electronic devices since they are high LET radiations. The dimension of electronic components in new technology, arise a challenge in radiation effect estimations. Accurate investigations require fully considering the ion track in energy deposition as a radial dose distribution. In this work, the distribution of delta rays as well as LET have been calculated to determine ionization structure around ion track by a Monte Carlo code, GEANT4. The radial dose of several heavy ions with different energy in silicon was investigated and compared with the works by other authors in this field. The results showed that heavy ions with identical LET can have different SEU cross-section in silicon transistors. As a demonstrative example, according to our results, the error probability for 4.8 GeV iron was 8 times greater than that for 15 MeV carbon ions, in transistors with new process technology which have small dimension and low critical charges. Our results show that considering radial dose distribution considerably improves the accuracy of the SEU cross-section estimation in electronic devices especially for new technologies. - Highlights: • The single event upset is produced by heavy ions interaction on electronic devices. • The radial dose of several heavy ions in silicon was calculated by GEANT4. • Heavy ions with identical LET had different SEU cross-section in silicon transistors. • Low dimension and critical charge devices were more sensitive to radial dose effect

  17. Single event time series analysis in a binary karst catchment evaluated using a groundwater model (Lurbach system, Austria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayaud, C; Wagner, T; Benischke, R; Birk, S

    2014-04-16

    The Lurbach karst system (Styria, Austria) is drained by two major springs and replenished by both autogenic recharge from the karst massif itself and a sinking stream that originates in low permeable schists (allogenic recharge). Detailed data from two events recorded during a tracer experiment in 2008 demonstrate that an overflow from one of the sub-catchments to the other is activated if the discharge of the main spring exceeds a certain threshold. Time series analysis (autocorrelation and cross-correlation) was applied to examine to what extent the various available methods support the identification of the transient inter-catchment flow observed in this binary karst system. As inter-catchment flow is found to be intermittent, the evaluation was focused on single events. In order to support the interpretation of the results from the time series analysis a simplified groundwater flow model was built using MODFLOW. The groundwater model is based on the current conceptual understanding of the karst system and represents a synthetic karst aquifer for which the same methods were applied. Using the wetting capability package of MODFLOW, the model simulated an overflow similar to what has been observed during the tracer experiment. Various intensities of allogenic recharge were employed to generate synthetic discharge data for the time series analysis. In addition, geometric and hydraulic properties of the karst system were varied in several model scenarios. This approach helps to identify effects of allogenic recharge and aquifer properties in the results from the time series analysis. Comparing the results from the time series analysis of the observed data with those of the synthetic data a good agreement was found. For instance, the cross-correlograms show similar patterns with respect to time lags and maximum cross-correlation coefficients if appropriate hydraulic parameters are assigned to the groundwater model. The comparable behaviors of the real and the

  18. Sofrimento psíquico, acontecimento traumático e angústia pulsional Sufrimiento psíquico, evento traumático y angustia pulsional Psychic pain, traumatic event and neurotic anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa de Melo Carvalho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo aborda o sofrimento psíquico desencadeado por um acontecimento traumático, buscando, inicialmente, em uma perspectiva histórica, os elementos conceituais que concorrem para a delimitação do quadro clínico da neurose traumática no texto freudiano. Estuda, em seguida, sua conceituação no trabalho dos primeiros psicanalistas, em especial, Sandor Ferenczi e Karl Abraham, para então tomar alguns elementos conceituais da teoria da sedução generalizada de Jean Laplanche visando a enriquecer sua compreensão. Ao lado da discussão teórica, são apresentados dois fragmentos clínicos no intuito de ilustrar as principais ideias defendidas ao longo do artigo e que se fundamentam, em seus pontos essenciais, na tese freudiana segundo a qual toda angústia ante um acontecimento traumático, desde que se desenvolve, subentende, invariavelmente, a angústia ante o ataque pulsional.Este artículo abarca el sufrimiento psíquico desencadenado por un evento traumático, buscando, inicialmente, en una perspectiva histórica, los elementos conceptuales que convergen para la delimitación del cuadro clínico de la neurosis traumática en el texto freudiano. Estudia, enseguida, su conceptuación en el trabajo de los primeros psicoanalistas, en especial Sandor Ferenczi y Karl Abraham, para así tomar algunos elementos conceptuales de la teoría de la seducción generalizada de Jean Laplanche, pretendiendo enriquecer su comprensión. Juntamente con la discusión teórica, son presentados dos fragmentos clínicos con el objetivo de ilustrar las principales ideas defendidas a lo largo del artículo y que, en sus puntos esenciales, se fundamentan en la tesis freudiana según la cual toda angustia delante de un evento traumático, desde que se desarrolla, sobrentiende, invariablemente, la angustia delante del ataque pulsional.This article discusses the psychological distress triggered by a traumatic event and starts with a historical

  19. Psychotrauma and effective treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in soldiers and peacekeepers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quarcoo David

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Psychotrauma occurs as a result to a traumatic event, which may involve witnessing someone's actual death or personally experiencing serious physical injury, assault, rape and sexual abuse, being held as a hostage, or a threat to physical or psychological integrity. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an anxiety disorder and was defined in the past as railway spine, traumatic war neurosis, stress syndrome, shell shock, battle fatigue, combat fatigue, or post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS. If untreated, post-traumatic stress disorder can impair relationships of those affected and strain their families and society. Deployed soldiers are especially at a high risk to be affected by PTSD but often receive inadequate treatment. Reviews to date have focused only on a single type of treatment or groups of soldiers from only one country. The aim of the current review was to evaluate characteristics of therapeutic methods used internationally to treat male soldiers' PTSD after peacekeeping operations in South Eastern Europe and the Gulf wars. This systematic literature review returned results pertaining to the symptoms, diagnosis, timing and effectiveness of treatment. Sample groups and controls were relatively small and, therefore, the results lack generalizability. Further research is needed to understand the influence and unique psychological requirements of each specific military operation on the internationally deployed soldiers.

  20. What makes a life event traumatic for a child? The predictive values of DSM-Criteria A1 and A2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Verlinden

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-Criteria A1 and A2 for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD have been discussed extensively, with several studies in adults or adolescents supporting the removal of Criterion A2. However, solid research in children is missing. Objective: This study evaluated the DSM-Criteria A1 and A2 in predicting posttraumatic stress in children. Method: A sample of 588 Dutch school children, aged 8–18 years, completed a self-report questionnaire to determine if they met Criteria A1 and/or A2. Their posttraumatic stress response was assessed using the Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale. Results: The contribution of Criterion A2 to the prediction of posttraumatic stress in children is of greater importance than the contribution of Criterion A1. Children who met Criterion A2 reported significantly higher levels of posttraumatic stress and were nine times more likely to develop probable PTSD than children who did not meet Criterion A2. When Criterion A1 was met, a child was only two times more likely to develop probable PTSD as compared with those where Criterion A1 was not met. Furthermore, the low sensitivity of Criterion A1 suggests that children may regularly develop severe posttraumatic stress in the absence of Criterion A1. The remarkably high negative predictive value of Criterion A2 indicates that if a child does not have a subjective reaction during an event that it is unlikely that he or she will develop PTSD. Conclusions: In contrast to most adult studies, the findings of this study emphasize the significant contribution of Criterion A2 to the prediction of posttraumatic stress in children and raise fundamental questions about the value of the current Criterion A1.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please seeSupplementary files under Article Tools online

  1. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the event. These symptoms cause significant problems in social or work situations and in relationships. They can also interfere ... excess drinking or drug use Lacking a good support system of family and ... with a weapon An accident Many other traumatic events also can lead to ...

  2. Brain-derived neurotropic factor polymorphisms, traumatic stress, mild traumatic brain injury, and combat exposure contribute to postdeployment traumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dretsch, Michael N; Williams, Kathy; Emmerich, Tanja; Crynen, Gogce; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Chaytow, Helena; Mathura, Venkat; Crawford, Fiona C; Iverson, Grant L

    2016-01-01

    In addition to experiencing traumatic events while deployed in a combat environment, there are other factors that contribute to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in military service members. This study explored the contribution of genetics, childhood environment, prior trauma, psychological, cognitive, and deployment factors to the development of traumatic stress following deployment. Both pre- and postdeployment data on 231 of 458 soldiers were analyzed. Postdeployment assessments occurred within 30 days from returning stateside and included a battery of psychological health, medical history, and demographic questionnaires; neurocognitive tests; and blood serum for the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2), apolipoprotein E (APOE), and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) genes. Soldiers who screened positive for traumatic stress at postdeployment had significantly higher scores in depression (d = 1.91), anxiety (d = 1.61), poor sleep quality (d = 0.92), postconcussion symptoms (d = 2.21), alcohol use (d = 0.63), traumatic life events (d = 0.42), and combat exposure (d = 0.91). BDNF Val66 Met genotype was significantly associated with risk for sustaining a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and screening positive for traumatic stress. Predeployment traumatic stress, greater combat exposure and sustaining an mTBI while deployed, and the BDNF Met/Met genotype accounted for 22% of the variance of postdeployment PTSD scores (R (2)  = 0.22, P PTSD scores. These findings suggest predeployment traumatic stress, genetic, and environmental factors have unique contributions to the development of combat-related traumatic stress in military service members.

  3. Minimalist fault-tolerance techniques for mitigating single-event effects in non-radiation-hardened microcontrollers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Douglas Wyche

    Commercial microcontrollers--monolithic integrated circuits containing microprocessor, memory and various peripheral functions--such as are used in industrial, automotive and military applications, present spacecraft avionics system designers an appealing mix of higher performance and lower power together with faster system-development time and lower unit costs. However, these parts are not radiation-hardened for application in the space environment and Single-Event Effects (SEE) caused by high-energy, ionizing radiation present a significant challenge. Mitigating these effects with techniques which require minimal additional support logic, and thereby preserve the high functional density of these devices, can allow their benefits to be realized. This dissertation uses fault-tolerance to mitigate the transient errors and occasional latchups that non-hardened microcontrollers can experience in the space radiation environment. Space systems requirements and the historical use of fault-tolerant computers in spacecraft provide context. Space radiation and its effects in semiconductors define the fault environment. A reference architecture is presented which uses two or three microcontrollers with a combination of hardware and software voting techniques to mitigate SEE. A prototypical spacecraft function (an inertial measurement unit) is used to illustrate the techniques and to explore how real application requirements impact the fault-tolerance approach. Low-cost approaches which leverage features of existing commercial microcontrollers are analyzed. A high-speed serial bus is used for voting among redundant devices and a novel wire-OR output voting scheme exploits the bidirectional controls of I/O pins. A hardware testbed and prototype software were constructed to evaluate two- and three-processor configurations. Simulated Single-Event Upsets (SEUs) were injected at high rates and the response of the system monitored. The resulting statistics were used to evaluate

  4. Trending autoregulatory indices during treatment for traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam; Krasner, Alex; Kosinski, Colin; Wininger, Michael; Qadri, Maria; Kappus, Zachary; Danish, Shabbar; Craelius, William

    2016-12-01

    Our goal is to use automatic data monitoring for reliable prediction of episodes of intracranial hypertension in patients with traumatic brain injury. Here we test the validity of our method on retrospective patient data. We developed the Continuous Hemodynamic Autoregulatory Monitor (CHARM), that siphons and stores signals from existing monitors in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU), efficiently compresses them, and standardizes the search for statistical relationships between any proposed index and adverse events. CHARM uses an automated event detector to reliably locate episodes of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP), while eliminating artifacts within retrospective patient data. A graphical user interface allowed data scanning, selection of criteria for events, and calculating indices. The pressure reactivity index (PRx), defined as the least square linear regression slope of intracranial pressure versus arterial BP, was calculated for a single case that spanned 259 h. CHARM collected continuous records of ABP, ICP, ECG, SpO2, and ventilation from 29 patients with TBI over an 18-month period. Analysis of a single patient showed that PRx data distribution in the single hours immediately prior to all 16 intracranial hypertensive events, significantly differed from that in the 243 h that did not precede such events (p < 0.0001). The PRx index, however, lacked sufficient resolution as a real-time predictor of IH in this patient. CHARM streamlines the search for reliable predictors of intracranial hypertension. We report statistical evidence supporting the predictive potential of the pressure reactivity index.

  5. Theoretical and experimental studies of single event effect induced by atmospheric muons on nano-metric technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Cavoli, P.

    2016-01-01

    This study concerns the domain of the microelectronics. It consists in the study of the impact of the 3D morphology of the energy deposit on the Single Event Effect (SEE) modeling, induced by atmospheric muons. Over a first phase, the approach has consisted in the modeling of the energy deposit induced by protons in nano-metric volumes. For that purpose the use of the Monte Carlo code GEANT4 has allowed us to simulate and stock in a database the tracks characteristics of the energy deposit induced by protons. Once the approach validated for the protons, simulations of the energy deposit induced by muons have been realized. A CCD camera has been used in order to measure the radiative atmospheric environment and to constrain the modeling of the energy deposit induced by muons. This study highlights and quantify the contribution of the radial distribution of the energy deposit induced by protons in nano-metric volumes for the SEE prediction. On the other hand, the study shows that the contribution of the radial distribution of the energy deposit induced by muons in nano-metric volumes has a negligible impact on the SEE modeling. It will be interesting to realize measurements of the energy deposit induced by muons in nano-metric technologies under particle accelerator. This will allow to bring experimental data still nonexistent necessary to the development of new physical models more accurate on the modeling of the energy deposit induced by muons. (author)

  6. Feasibility of a neutron detector-dosemeter based on single-event upsets in dynamic random-access memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, G.W.; August, R.A.; Campbell, A.B.; Nelson, M.E.; Guardala, N.A.; Price, J.L.; Moscovitch, M.

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility was investigated of a solid-state neutron detector/dosemeter based on single-event upset (SEU) effects in dynamic random-access memories (DRAMs), commonly used in computer memories. Such a device, which uses a neutron converter material to produce a charged particle capable of causing an upset, would be light-weight, low-power, and could be read simply by polling the memory for bit flips. It would have significant advantages over standard solid-state neutron dosemeters which require off-line processing for track etching and analysis. Previous efforts at developing an SEU neutron detector/dosemeter have suffered from poor response, which can be greatly enhanced by selecting a modern high-density DRAM chip for SEU sensitivity and by using a thin 10 B film as a converter. Past attempts to use 10 B were not successful because the average alpha particle energy was insufficient to penetrate to the sensitive region of the memory. This can be overcome by removing the surface passivation layer before depositing the 10 B film or by implanting 10B directly into the chip. Previous experimental data show a 10 3 increase in neutron sensitivity by chips containing borosilicate glass, which could be used in an SEU detector. The results are presented of simulations showing that the absolute efficiency of an SEU neutron dosemeter can be increased by at least a factor of 1000 over earlier designs. (author)

  7. Effect of body biasing on single-event induced charge collection in deep N-well technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yi; Hu Jian-Guo; Tan Hong-Zhou; Qin Jun-Rui

    2015-01-01

    As the device size decreases, the soft error induced by space ions is becoming a great concern for the reliability of integrated circuits (ICs). At present, the body biasing technique is widely used in highly scaled technologies. In the paper, using the three-dimensional technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation, we analyze the effect of the body biasing on the single-event charge collection in deep N-well technology. Our simulation results show that the body biasing mainly affects the behavior of the source, and the effect of body biasing on the charge collection for the nMOSFET and pMOSFET is quite different. For the nMOSFET, the RBB will increase the charge collection, while the FBB will reduce the charge collection. For the pMOSFET, the effect of RBB on the SET pulse width is small, while the FBB has an adverse effect. Moreover, the differenceof the effect of body biasing on the charge collection is compared in deep N-well and twin well. (paper)

  8. Client-centred therapy, post-traumatic stress disorder and post-traumatic growth: theoretical perspectives and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Stephen

    2004-03-01

    In practice it is not unusual for client-centred therapists to work with people who have experienced traumatic events. However, client-centred therapy is not usually considered within texts on traumatic stress and questions have been raised over the appropriateness of client-centred therapy with trauma survivors. The present study shows how, although he was writing well before the introduction of the term 'post-traumatic stress disorder', Carl Rogers provided a theory of therapy and personality that contains an account of threat-related psychological processes largely consistent with contemporary trauma theory. Rogers' theory provides the conceptual underpinnings to the client-centred and experiential ways of working with traumatized people. Furthermore, Rogers' theory provides an understanding of post-traumatic growth processes, and encourages therapists to adopt a more positive psychological perspective to their understanding of how people adjust to traumatic events.

  9. Search for anomalous Wtb couplings and top FCNC in t-channel single-top-quark events in the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Tsirova, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Single-top-quark events in the t-channel are used to probe Wtb anomalous couplings and to search for top-quark Flavor-Changing Neutral Current (FCNC) interactions in proton-proton collisions with the CMS experiment. A Bayesian neural network is used to discriminate between signal and backgrounds. The observed event yields are consistent with SM prediction, and exclusion limits at 95\\% C.L. are determined.

  10. Introducing the event related fixed interval area (ERFIA) multilevel technique: a method to analyze the complete epoch of event-related potentials at single trial level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, C.J.; Vossen, H.G.M.; Marcus, M.A.E.; van Os, J.; Lousberg, R.

    2013-01-01

    In analyzing time-locked event-related potentials (ERPs), many studies have focused on specific peaks and their differences between experimental conditions. In theory, each latency point after a stimulus contains potentially meaningful information, regardless of whether it is peak-related. Based on

  11. Test Standard Revision Update: JESD57, "Procedures for the Measurement of Single-Event Effects in Semiconductor Devices from Heavy-Ion Irradiation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The JEDEC JESD57 test standard, Procedures for the Measurement of Single-Event Effects in Semiconductor Devices from Heavy-Ion Irradiation, is undergoing its first revision since 1996. In this talk, we place this test standard into context with other relevant radiation test standards to show its importance for single-event effect radiation testing for space applications. We show the range of industry, government, and end-user party involvement in the revision. Finally, we highlight some of the key changes being made and discuss the trade-space in which setting standards must be made to be both useful and broadly adopted.

  12. Pharmacotherapy for adverse events reduces the length of hospital stay in patients admitted to otolaryngology ward: a single arm intervention study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Suzuki

    Full Text Available To determine whether adverse events extend the duration of hospitalization, and to evaluate the effectiveness of medical intervention in ameliorating adverse events and reducing the prolonged hospital stay associated with adverse events.A single arm intervention study was conducted from October 2012 to March 2014 in the otolaryngology ward of a 614-bed, university-affiliated hospital. Adverse events were monitored daily by physicians, pharmacists and nurses, and recorded in the electronic medical chart for each patient. Appropriate drug management of adverse events was performed by physicians in liaison with pharmacists. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess the length of hospitalization of patients who underwent medical intervention for adverse events.Of 571 patients admitted to the otolaryngology ward in a year, 219 patients (38.4% experienced adverse events of grade ≥2. The duration of hospitalization was affected by the grade of adverse events, with a mean duration of hospital stay of 9.2, 17.2, 28.3 and 47.0 days for grades 0, 1, 2, and 3-4, respectively. Medical intervention lowered the incidence of grade ≥2 adverse events to 14.5%. The length of hospitalization was significantly shorter in patients who showed an improvement of adverse events after medical intervention than those who did not (26.4 days vs. 41.6 days, hazard ratio 1.687, 95% confidence interval: 1.260-2.259, P<0.001. A multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis indicated that insomnia, constipation, nausea/vomiting, infection, non-cancer pain, oral mucositis, odynophagia and neutropenia were significant risk factors for prolongation of hospital stay.Patients who experienced adverse events are at high risk of prolonged hospitalization. Medical intervention for adverse events was found to be effective in reducing the length of hospital stay associated with adverse events.

  13. Mixing state of particles with secondary species by single particle aerosol mass spectrometer in an atmospheric pollution event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lingling; Chen, Jinsheng

    2016-04-01

    Single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) was used to characterize size distribution, chemical composition, and mixing state of particles in an atmospheric pollution event during 20 Oct. - 5 Nov., 2015 in Xiamen, Southeast China. A total of 533,012 particle mass spectra were obtained and clustered into six groups, comprising of industry metal (4.5%), dust particles (2.6%), carbonaceous species (70.7%), K-Rich particles (20.7%), seasalt (0.6%) and other particles (0.9%). Carbonaceous species were further divided into EC (70.6%), OC (28.5%), and mixed ECOC (0.9%). There were 61.7%, 58.3%, 4.0%, and 14.6% of particles internally mixed with sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and C2H3O, respectively, indicating that these particles had undergone significant aging processing. Sulfate was preferentially mixed with carbonaceous particles, while nitrate tended to mix with metal-containing and dust particles. Compared to clear days, the fractions of EC-, metal- and dust particles remarkably increased, while the fraction of OC-containing particles decreased in pollution days. The mixing state of particles, excepted for OC-containing particles with secondary species was much stronger in pollution days than that in clear days, which revealed the significant influence of secondary particles in atmospheric pollution. The different activity of OC-containing particles might be related to their much smaller aerodynamic diameter. These results could improve our understanding of aerosol characteristics and could be helpful to further investigate the atmospheric process of particles.

  14. Imagery Rescripting of Early Traumatic Memories in Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Jennifer; Clark, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Negative self-images appear to play a role in the maintenance of social phobia and research suggests they are often linked to earlier memories of socially traumatic events. Imagery rescripting is a clinical intervention that aims to update such unpleasant or traumatic memories, and is increasingly being incorporated in cognitive behavioral therapy…

  15. Children and adolescents treated for post-traumatic stress disorder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children and adolescents can develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after exposure to a range of traumatic events, including domestic, political or community ... isolation (39%), fear or anxiety (37%), problematic family relationships (29%), emotional (27%) and physical (23%) abuse, and lack of social support (23%).

  16. Emotional Reasoning in Acutely Traumatized Children and Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verduijn, Nina J.C.; Vincken, Manon J.B.; Meesters, Cor M.G.; Engelhard, I.M.

    2015-01-01

    After a traumatic event, many children and adolescents develop post-traumatic stress disorder. Studies in adults suggest that emotional reasoning (i.e., drawing conclusions about situations on the basis of one’s emotional responses) is involved in PTSD development or maintenance. This longitudinal

  17. Post traumatic stress disorder: undiagnosed cases in a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common, debilitating anxiety disorder characterized by emotional and physical symptoms that may occur after exposure to a severely traumatic event. Since it occurs commonly as a comorbid diagnosis with other mood- and anxiety disorders, we postulated that this ...

  18. Prevalence of Secondary Traumatic Stress among Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bride, Brian E.

    2007-01-01

    Social workers are increasingly being called on to assist survivors of childhood abuse, domestic violence, violent crime, disasters, and war and terrorism. It has become increasingly apparent that the psychological effects of traumatic events extend beyond those directly affected. Secondary traumatic stress (STS) is becoming viewed as an…

  19. Complex Parts, Complex Data: Why You Need to Understand What Radiation Single Event Testing Data Does and Doesn't Show and the Implications Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Berg, Melanie D.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic parts (integrated circuits) have grown in complexity such that determining all failure modes and risks from single particle event testing is impossible. In this presentation, the authors will present why this is so and provide some realism on what this means. Its all about understanding actual risks and not making assumptions.

  20. Single and multi-photon events with missing energy in $e^+ e^-$ collisions at 161 GeV < $\\sqrt{s}$ < 172 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alverson, G; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Banicz, K; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Baschirotto, A; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Bilei, G M; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brock, I C; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Busenitz, J K; Button, A M; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chekanov, S V; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chéreau, X J; Chiefari, G; Chien, C Y; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Cohn, H O; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Commichau, V; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Dai, T S; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; DiBitonto, Daryl; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Dutta, S; Easo, S; Efremenko, Yu V; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ernenwein, J P; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Fenyi, B; Ferguson, T; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Goldstein, J; Gong, Z F; Gougas, Andreas; Gratta, Giorgio; Grünewald, M W; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Van Hoek, W C; Hofer, H; Hong, S J; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, G; Innocente, Vincenzo; Jenkes, K; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kasser, A; Khan, R A; Kamrad, D; Kamyshkov, Yu A; Kapustinsky, J S; Karyotakis, Yu; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, D H; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, A; Kirkby, D; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopp, A; Korolko, I; Koutsenko, V F; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, W; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Mangla, S; Marchesini, P A; Marin, A; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; McNally, D; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mi, Y; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A J W; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Molnár, P; Monteleoni, B; Moore, R; Morganti, S; Moulik, T; Mount, R; Müller, S; Muheim, F; Muijs, A J M; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nippe, A; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Oh, Yu D; Opitz, H; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Park, I H; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Peach, D; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Petrak, S; Pevsner, A; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Pinto, J C; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Produit, N; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Rahal-Callot, G; Raja, N; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Read, K; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Van Rhee, T; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rosselet, P; Van Rossum, W; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruschmeier, D; Rykaczewski, H; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Sarakinos, M E; Sarkar, S; Sassowsky, M; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schmitz, P; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Sciarrino, D; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Sopczak, André; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, A; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Strauch, K; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Susinno, G F; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonutti, M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tuchscherer, H; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Uwer, U; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, Gert M; Vivargent, M; Völkert, R; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Wittgenstein, F; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xu, J; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yao, X Y; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zemp, P; Zeng, Y; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Z P; Zhou, B; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, Antonino; Ziegler, F

    1997-01-01

    A search for single and multi-photon events with missing energy is performed using data collected at centre-of-mass energies between 161 GeV and 172 GeV for a total of 20.9 pb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity. The results obtained are used to derive the value for the $\

  1. High success rate and considerable adverse events of pelvic prolapse surgery with Prolift: A single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mun-Kun Hong

    2013-09-01

    Conclusions: Prolapse surgery with Prolift yielded a good anatomical outcome and satisfactory symptom improvement at different periods of follow-up, especially in uterus-sparing prolapse surgery. However, adverse events were not uncommon, and patients should be fully informed of all possible adverse events prior to surgery.

  2. The Use of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in the Subacute Evaluation of Athletes Recovering from Single and Multiple Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian; Gay, Michael; Zhang, Kai; Neuberger, Thomas; Horovitz, Silvina G.; Hallett, Mark; Sebastianelli, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Advanced neuroimaging techniques have shown promise in highlighting the subtle changes and nuances in mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) even though clinical assessment has shown a return to pre-injury levels. Here we use 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) to evaluate the brain metabolites N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), and creatine (Cr) in the corpus callosum in MTBI. Specifically, we looked at the NAA/Cho, NAA/Cr, and Cho/Cr ratios in the genu and splenium. We recruited 20 normal volunteers (NV) and 28 student athletes recovering from the subacute phase of MTBI. The MTBI group was categorized based upon the number of MTBIs and time from injury to 1H-MRS evaluation. Significant reductions in NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr ratios were seen in the genu of the corpus callosum, but not in the splenium, for MTBI subjects, regardless of the number of MTBIs. MTBI subjects recovering from their first MTBI showed the greatest alteration in NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr ratios. Time since injury to 1H-MRS acquisition was based upon symptom resolution and did not turn out to be a significant factor. We observed that as the number of MTBIs increased, so did the length of time for symptom resolution. Unexpected findings from this study are that MTBI subjects showed a trend of increasing NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr ratios that coincided with increasing number of MTBIs. PMID:22780855

  3. Search for pair production of supersymmetric top-quark partners in events with a single lepton at CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costanza, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    The analysis presented in this thesis is a search for direct pair production of supersymmetric top-quark partners at CMS. Supersymmetry is a compelling theory providing possible solutions to several of the Standard Models limitations. However, previous searches for supersymmetric particles came back with empty hands. These results and the discovery of a Higgs boson with a mass of about 125 GeV by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations strongly constrain the simplest supersymmetric models. Nevertheless, more sophisticated models with light third-generation squarks did not lose their theoretical appeal and are within the reach of the 8 TeV run of the Large Hadron Collider. In this analysis, a search for direct top-squark (t) pair production is performed in a final state consisting of a single isolated lepton, jets, among which at least one is a b-tagged jet, and large missing transverse energy. Six search regions are defined with a semi-automatic procedure to maximize the sensitivity of the analysis. The background estimation is performed using simulated samples validated in control regions with small or no signal contamination. Scale factors are measured in the control regions and used to correct the background in the search regions if needed. The observed event yields in the search regions agree with the predicted backgrounds within the uncertainties, hence no evidence for pair-produced top-squarks can be inferred. The results are used to constrain top-squark pair production in the framework of simplified models. Two possible top-squark decay modes are considered: the decay to top quark and a neutralino (chiz), t→tχ 0 , and the decay to a bottom quark and a chargino (χ + ), t→bχ + , with the subsequent χ + →W + +χ 0 decay. Exclusion limits are set for branching ratios B(t →tχ 0 )=100% and B(t → tχ 0 )=50%. In the former case, for small mass values of the lightest neutralino, the analysis probes top-squark masses up to 600 GeV and up to 500 GeV in the

  4. intimate partner violence and post-traumatic stress disorder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    In this article we will focus on the association between IPV and PTSD and discuss implications for diagnosis and management at a primary care level. WHAT IS PTSD? PTSD is an anxiety disorder resulting from exposure to traumatic events.

  5. Standardized reporting of adverse events after microvascular decompression of cranial nerves; a population-based single-institution consecutive series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartek, Jiri; Gulati, Sasha; Unsgård, Geirmund

    2016-01-01

    and 1 June 2013. Adverse events occurring within 30 days were classified according to the Landriel Ibanez classification for neurosurgical complications: grade I represents any non-life threatening complication treated without invasive procedures; grade II is complications requiring invasive management......OBJECTIVE: To investigate frequencies of adverse events occurring within 30 days after microvascular decompression (MVD) surgery using a standardized report form of adverse events. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 98 adult patients (≥16 years) treated with MVD between 1 January 1994......; grade III is life-threatening adverse events requiring treatment in an intensive care unit (ICU); grade IV is death as a result of complications. We sought to compare our results with reports from the literature. RESULTS: Patients' median age was 61 years (range 26-83), and 64 (65 %) were females...

  6. Comparison of single-word and adjective-noun phrase production using event-related brain potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Violaine Michel

    2015-01-01

    stimuli varying in complexity -black and white line drawings, coloured line drawings, and arrays of drawings-in participants producing single nouns. Whilst naming latencies were similar for single noun production between visual stimuli conditions, ERPs differed between drawing arrays and single drawings...... in a time-window extending beyond early visual analysis. In a second experiment, different participants were asked to produce either single noun or adjective-noun dual-word phrases to black-and-white and coloured line drawings, respectively. Adjective-noun phrase production (2W) resulted in naming latencies...

  7. Comparing Monte Carlo acceptance/efficiency for tt-bar single lepton events with central and plug electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotaru, M.

    2005-01-01

    The tt-bar production using MC events with one charged lepton (electron), neutrino and jets from pp-bar collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV was investigated. The aim of this work was to compare the rate of events in central (|η|<1.1) and plug (1.1<|η|<2.8) region. (author)

  8. Prevalencia de sucesos violentos y de trastorno por estrés postraumático en la población mexicana Prevalence of violent events and post-traumatic stress disorder in the Mexican population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Elena Medina-Mora

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Reportar el índice de exposición a diferentes sucesos violentos, los correlatos demográficos, la prevalencia de trastorno por estrés postraumático y el impacto sobre la calidad de vida. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: La Encuesta Nacional de Epidemiología Psiquiátrica es representativa de la población mexicana urbana de 18 a 65 años de edad. Se realizó entre 2001 y 2002, con el instrumento diagnóstico de la versión computarizada de la Entrevista Internacional Compuesta de Diagnóstico (CIDI-15, por sus siglas en inglés. Los análisis toman en cuenta el diseño complejo de la muestra aleatoria, multietápica y estratificada. Se utilizaron el Método Kaplan-Meir y regresiones logísticas. RESULTADOS: El 68% de la población ha estado expuesta al menos a un suceso estresante en su vida. La exposición varía por sexo (violación, acoso y abuso sexual son más frecuentes en mujeres; los accidentes y robos, entre los hombres y por edad (niños, adolescentes, mujeres adultas jóvenes y personas de la tercera edad. El 2.3% de las mujeres y 0.49% de los hombres presentaron un trastorno de estrés postraumático. La violación, el acoso, el secuestro y el abuso sexual son los sucesos con mayor manifestación de trastornos por estrés postraumático. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados refuerzan la necesidad de ampliar la cobertura de tratamiento para atender las secuelas de la violencia, considerando las importantes variaciones de género y estadios de desarrollo.OBJECTIVE: To report the rate of exposure to different violent events, their demographic correlates, the prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD, and the impact on quality of life MATERIAL AND METHODS: The National Survey of Psychiatric Epidemiology is representative of the Mexican urban population aged 18 to 65. The survey was undertaken in 2001 and 2002 using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI-15 computerized version. The statistical analyses take into

  9. Comparison of circadian, weekly, and seasonal variations of electrical storms and single events of ventricular fibrillation in patients with Brugada syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyasu Aizawa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In patients with Brugada syndrome (BS, VF occurred predominantly during the nocturnal period. Some patients also developed ESs. In addition to the circadian rhythm, patients showed weekly and seasonal patterns. The patients with ESs had peak episodes of VF on Saturday and in the winter and spring, while episodes of VF in patients with single VF events occurred most often on Monday with smaller seasonal variation. Except for age, there was no difference in the clinical or ECG characteristics between the patients with ESs and those with single VF episodes.

  10. Brief Eclectic Psychotherapy for Traumatic Grief (BEP-TG): toward integrated treatment of symptoms related to traumatic loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Geert E; Kleber, Rolf J; de la Rie, Simone M; Bos, Jannetta B A; Gersons, Berthold P R; Boelen, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic events such as disasters, accidents, war, or criminal violence are often accompanied by the loss of loved ones, and may then give rise to traumatic grief. Traumatic grief refers to a clinical diagnosis of persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) with comorbid (symptoms of) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or major depressive disorder (MDD) following confrontation with a traumatic loss. Trauma survivors, who are frequently from different cultural backgrounds, have often experienced multiple losses and ambiguous loss (missing family members or friends). Current evidence-based treatments for PTSD do not focus on traumatic grief. To develop a treatment for traumatic grief combining treatment interventions for PTSD and PCBD that may accommodate cultural aspects of grief. To provide a rationale for treatment, we propose a cognitive stress model of traumatic grief. Based on this model and on existing evidence-based treatments for PTSD and complicated grief, we developed Brief Eclectic Psychotherapy for Traumatic Grief (BEP-TG) for the treatment of patients with traumatic grief. The treatment is presented along with a case vignette. Processes contributing to traumatic grief include inadequately integrating the memory of the traumatic loss, negative appraisal of the traumatic loss, sensitivity to matching triggers and new stressors, and attempting to avoid distress. BEP-TG targets these processes. The BEP-TG protocol consists of five parts with proven effectiveness in the treatment of PCBD, PTSD, and MDD: information and motivation, grief-focused exposure, memorabilia and writing assignments, finding meaning and activation, and a farewell ritual. Tailored to fit the needs of trauma survivors, BEP-TG can be used to address traumatic grief symptoms related to multiple losses and ambiguous loss, as well as cultural aspects of bereavement through its different components.

  11. International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class activity allows instructors to flexibly focus on culture, social psychology, mental health, and/or research design. Background Information: People all around the world experience potentially traumatic events, including ... universal, but culture influences both the way people respond and the ...

  12. Kinetic modelling of hydrocracking catalytic reactions by the single events theory; Modelisation cinetique des reactions catalytiques d`hydrocraquage par la theorie des evenements constitutifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, J.M.

    1998-11-23

    Kinetic modelling of petroleum hydrocracking is particularly difficult given the complexity of the feedstocks. There are two distinct classes of kinetics models: lumped empirical models and detailed molecular models. The productivity of lumped empirical models is generally not very accurate, and the number of kinetic parameters increases rapidly with the number of lumps. A promising new methodology is the use of kinetic modelling based on the single events theory. Due to the molecular approach, a finite and limited number of kinetic parameters can describe the kinetic behaviour of the hydrocracking of heavy feedstock. The parameters are independent of the feedstock. However, the available analytical methods are not able to identify the products on the molecular level. This can be accounted for by means of an posteriori lamping technique, which incorporates the detailed knowledge of the elementary step network. Thus, the lumped kinetic parameters are directly calculated from the fundamental kinetic coefficients and the single event model is reduced to a re-lumped molecular model. Until now, the ability of the method to extrapolate to higher carbon numbers had not been demonstrated. In addition, no study had been published for three phase (gas-liquid-solid) systems and a complex feedstock. The objective of this work is to validate the `single events` method using a paraffinic feedstock. First of all, a series of experiments was conducted on a model compound (hexadecane) in order to estimate the fundamental kinetic parameters for acyclic molecules. To validate the single event approach, these estimated kinetic coefficients were used to simulate hydrocracking of a paraffinic mixture ranging from C11 to C18. The simulation results were then compared to the results obtained from the hydrocracking experiments. The comparison allowed to validate the model for acyclic molecules and to demonstrate that the model is applicable to compounds with higher carbon numbers. (author

  13. Search for supersymmetry in pp collisions at sqrt(s)=7 TeV in events with a single lepton, jets, and missing transverse momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); et al.

    2011-08-01

    Results are reported from a search for physics beyond the standard model in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, focusing on the signature with a single, isolated, high-transverse-momentum lepton (electron or muon), energetic jets, and large missing transverse momentum. The data sample comprises an integrated luminosity of 36 inverse picobarns, recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The search is motivated by models of new physics, including supersymmetry. The observed event yields are consistent with standard model backgrounds predicted using control samples obtained from the data. The characteristics of the event sample are consistent with those expected for the production of t t-bar and W +jets events. The results are interpreted in terms of limits on the parameter space for the constrained minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model.

  14. Single Event Upset Analysis: On-orbit performance of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer Digital Signal Processor Memory aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaqiang; Choutko, Vitaly; Xiao, Liyi

    2018-03-01

    Based on the collection of error data from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) Digital Signal Processors (DSP), on-orbit Single Event Upsets (SEUs) of the DSP program memory are analyzed. The daily error distribution and time intervals between errors are calculated to evaluate the reliability of the system. The particle density distribution of International Space Station (ISS) orbit is presented and the effects from the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) and the geomagnetic poles are analyzed. The impact of solar events on the DSP program memory is carried out combining data analysis and Monte Carlo simulation (MC). From the analysis and simulation results, it is concluded that the area corresponding to the SAA is the main source of errors on the ISS orbit. Solar events can also cause errors on DSP program memory, but the effect depends on the on-orbit particle density.

  15. Simultaneous Determination of Structure and Event Location Using Body and Surface Wave Measurements at a Single Station: Preparation for Mars Data from the InSight Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panning, M. P.; Banerdt, W. B.; Beucler, E.; Blanchette-Guertin, J. F.; Boese, M.; Clinton, J. F.; Drilleau, M.; James, S. R.; Kawamura, T.; Khan, A.; Lognonne, P. H.; Mocquet, A.; van Driel, M.

    2015-12-01

    An important challenge for the upcoming InSight mission to Mars, which will deliver a broadband seismic station to Mars along with other geophysical instruments in 2016, is to accurately determine event locations with the use of a single station. Locations are critical for the primary objective of the mission, determining the internal structure of Mars, as well as a secondary objective of measuring the activity of distribution of seismic events. As part of the mission planning process, a variety of techniques have been explored for location of marsquakes and inversion of structure, and preliminary procedures and software are already under development as part of the InSight Mars Quake and Mars Structure Services. One proposed method, involving the use of recordings of multiple-orbit surface waves, has already been tested with synthetic data and Earth recordings. This method has the strength of not requiring an a priori velocity model of Mars for quake location, but will only be practical for larger events. For smaller events where only first orbit surface waves and body waves are observable, other methods are required. In this study, we implement a transdimensional Bayesian inversion approach to simultaneously invert for basic velocity structure and location parameters (epicentral distance and origin time) using only measurements of body wave arrival times and dispersion of first orbit surface waves. The method is tested with synthetic data with expected Mars noise and Earth data for single events and groups of events and evaluated for errors in both location and structural determination, as well as tradeoffs between resolvable parameters and the effect of 3D crustal variations.

  16. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mild Traumatic Brain Injury Resilience Families with Kids Depression Families & Friendships Tobacco Life Stress Spirituality Anger Physical Injury Stigma Health & Wellness Work Adjustment Community Peer-2-Peer Forum ...

  17. Challenges in treating post-traumatic stress disorder and attachment trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jon G

    2003-06-01

    Treating women suffering from trauma poses significant challenges. The diagnostic prototype of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is based on single-event trauma, such as sexual assault in adulthood. Several effective cognitive- behavioral treatments for such traumas have been developed, although many treated patients continue to experience residual symptoms. Even more problematic is the complex developmental psychopathology stemming from a lifetime history of multiple traumas, often beginning with maltreatment in early attachment relationships. A history of attachment trauma undermines the development of capacities to regulate emotional distress and thereby complicates the treatment of acute trauma in adulthood. Such complex trauma requires a multifaceted treatment approach that must balance processing of traumatic memories with strategies to contain the intense emotions this processing evokes. Moreover, conducting such treatment places therapists at risk for secondary trauma such that trauma therapists also must process this stressful experience and implement strategies to regulate their own distress.

  18. Identification of the timing-of-events model with multiple competing exit risks from single-spell data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drepper, Bettina; Effraimidis, G.

    2016-01-01

    The identification result of the timing-of-events model (Abbring and Van den Berg, 2003b) is extended to a model with several competing exit risk equations. This extension allows e.g. to simultaneously identify the different effects a benefit sanction has on the rate of finding work and leaving t...

  19. CL-imaging and ion microprobe dating of single zircons from a high-grade rock from the Central Zone, Limpopo Belt, South Africa: Evidence for a single metamorphic event at ˜2.0 Ga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, H.; Brandl, G.; Whitehouse, M.; de Waal, S.; Guiraud, M.

    2008-02-01

    The combination of ion microprobe dating and cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging of zircons from a high-grade rock from the Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt were used to constrain the age of metamorphic events in the area. Zircon grains extracted from an orthopyroxene-gedrite-bearing granulite were prepared for single crystal CL-imaging and ion microprobe dating. The grains display complex zoning when using SEM-based CL-imaging. A common feature in most grains is the presence of a distinct core with a broken oscillatory zoned structure, which clearly appears to be the remnant of an original grain of igneous origin. This core is overgrown by an unzoned thin rim measuring about 10-30 μm in diameter, which is considered as new zircon growth during a single metamorphic event. Selected domains of the zircon grains were analysed for U, Pb and Th isotopic composition using a CAMECA IMS 1270 ion microprobe (Nordsim facility). Most of the grains define a near-concordant cluster with some evidence of Pb loss. The most concordant ages of the cores yielded a weighted mean 207Pb/ 206Pb age of 2689 ± 15 (2 σ) Ma, interpreted as the age of the protolith of an igneous origin. The unzoned overgrowths of the zircon grains yielded a considerably younger weighted mean 207Pb/ 206Pb age of ˜2006.5 ± 8.0 Ma (2 σ), and these data are interpreted to reflect closely the age of the ubiquitous high-grade metamorphic event in the Central Zone. This study shows clearly, based on both the internal structure of the zircons and the data obtained by ion microprobe dating, that only a single metamorphic event is recorded by the studied 2.69 Ga old rocks, and we found no evidence of an earlier metamorphic event at ˜2.5 Ga as postulated earlier by some workers.

  20. Effects of DNA double-strand and single-strand breaks on intrachromosomal recombination events in cell-cycle-arrested yeast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, A.; Schiestl, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    Intrachromosomal recombination between repeated elements can result in deletion (DEL recombination) events. We investigated the inducibility of such intrachromosomal recombination events at different stages of the cell cycle and the nature of the primary DNA lesions capable of initiating these events. Two genetic systems were constructed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that select for DEL recombination events between duplicated alleles of CDC28 and TUB2. We determined effects of double-strand breaks (DSBs) and single-strand breaks (SSBs) between the duplicated alleles on DEL recombination when induced in dividing cells or cells arrested in G1 or G2. Site-specific DSBs and SSBs were produced by overexpression of the I-Sce I endonuclease and the gene II protein (gIIp), respectively. I-Sce I-induced DSBs caused an increase in DEL recombination frequencies in both dividing and cell-cycle-arrested cells, indicating that G1- and G2-arrested cells are capable of completing DSB repair. In contrast, gIIp-induced SSBs caused an increase in DEL recombination frequency only in dividing cells. To further examine these phenomena we used both γ-irradiation, inducing DSBs as its most relevant lesion, and UV, inducing other forms of DNA damage. UV irradiation did not increase DEL recombination frequencies in G1 or G2, whereas γ-rays increased DEL recombination frequencies in both phases. Both forms of radiation, however, induced DEL recombination in dividing cells. The results suggest that DSBsbut not SSBs induce DEL recombination, probably via the single-strand annealing pathway. Further, DSBs in dividing cells may result from the replication of a UV or SSB-damaged template. Alternatively, UV induced events may occur by replication slippage after DNA polymerase pausing in front of the damage. (author)