WorldWideScience

Sample records for single transverse mode

  1. Single transverse mode selectively oxidized vertical cavity lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHOQUETTE,KENT D.; GEIB,KENT M.; BRIGGS,RONALD D.; ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.; HINDI,JANA JO

    2000-04-26

    Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) which operate in multiple transverse optical modes have been rapidly adopted into present data communication applications which rely on multi-mode optical fiber. However, operation only in the fundamental mode is required for free space interconnects and numerous other emerging VCSEL applications. Two device design strategies for obtaining single mode lasing in VCSELs based on mode selective loss or mode selective gain are reviewed and compared. Mode discrimination is attained with the use of a thick tapered oxide aperture positioned at a longitudinal field null. Mode selective gain is achieved by defining a gain aperture within the VCSEL active region to preferentially support the fundamental mode. VCSELs which exhibit greater than 3 mW of single mode output power at 850 nm with mode suppression ratio greater than 30 dB are reported.

  2. Transverse Mode Multi-Resonant Single Crystal Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Kevin A. (Inventor); Liang, Yu (Inventor); Luo, Jun (Inventor); Hackenberger, Wesley S. (Inventor); Sahul, Raffi (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A transducer is disclosed that includes a multiply resonant composite, the composite having a resonator bar of a piezoelectric single crystal configured in a d(sub 32) transverse length-extensional resonance mode having a crystallographic orientation set such that the thickness axis is in the (110) family and resonance direction is the (001) family.

  3. CW single transverse mode all-fiber Tm3+-doped silica fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, E. Z.; Li, W. H.; You, L.

    2012-04-01

    The CW 25.6 W output power with a slope efficiency of 30.6% respected to the pump power from a CW single transverse mode all-fiber Tm3+-doped Silica Fiber Laser is reported. The all-fiber laser is made up by progressively splicing the pigtail fiber, matched FBG fiber and Tm fiber. The reflective FBG and Tm3+-doped fiber end Fresnel reflection build up the laser resonance cavity. Due to the multi-mode FBG as the reflective mirror, the output laser spectrum is multi-peaks at high output power, but the spectrum width is less than 2 nm at 1.94 μm. We estimate the beam quality to be M 2 = 2.39, clearly indicating nearly diffraction-limited beam propagation.

  4. TRANSVERSITY SINGLE SPIN ASYMMETRIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOER,D.

    2001-04-27

    The theoretical aspects of two leading twist transversity single spin asymmetries, one arising from the Collins effect and one from the interference fragmentation functions, are reviewed. Issues of factorization, evolution and Sudakov factors for the relevant observables are discussed. These theoretical considerations pinpoint the most realistic scenarios towards measurements of transversity.

  5. 502 Watt, single transverse mode, narrow linewidth, bidirectionally pumped Yb-doped fiber amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Stuart; Liu, Anping; Walton, Donnell T; Wang, Ji; Li, Ming-Jun; Chen, Xin; Ruffin, A Boh; Demeritt, Jeffrey A; Zenteno, Luis A

    2007-12-10

    High power operation of narrow linewidth optical fiber amplifiers is usually limited by the onset of stimulated Brillouin scattering. In this paper, we present results demonstrating over 500 Watts of power in a single mode beam from a fiber designed to suppress stimulated Brillouin scattering through a reduction in the overlap of the optical and acoustic fields. Simulations demonstrate the potential for this fiber to achieve greater than 1000 Watts of output power.

  6. Quantum interference between transverse spatial waveguide modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Aseema; Zhang, Mian; Dutt, Avik; Ramelow, Sven; Nussenzveig, Paulo; Lipson, Michal

    2017-01-20

    Integrated quantum optics has the potential to markedly reduce the footprint and resource requirements of quantum information processing systems, but its practical implementation demands broader utilization of the available degrees of freedom within the optical field. To date, integrated photonic quantum systems have primarily relied on path encoding. However, in the classical regime, the transverse spatial modes of a multi-mode waveguide have been easily manipulated using the waveguide geometry to densely encode information. Here, we demonstrate quantum interference between the transverse spatial modes within a single multi-mode waveguide using quantum circuit-building blocks. This work shows that spatial modes can be controlled to an unprecedented level and have the potential to enable practical and robust quantum information processing.

  7. Robustness versus thermal effects of single-mode operation of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with engineered leakage of high-order transverse optical modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalosha, V. P.; Shchukin, V. A.; Ledentsov, N. N.; Kropp, J.-R.; Ledentsov, N. N.

    2017-02-01

    Design of the oxide-confined vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) with enhanced engineered lateral leakage of high-order transverse optical modes is studied by three-dimensional optical modeling to evaluate the robustness of the leakage selection approach with respect to thermal effects. Both Joule heat and heat generated by the free carrier absorption of the optical mode in the doped semiconductor layers and their impact on the refractive index profile are considered. We show that for typical regimes of the VCSEL design and operation absorption-induced heat exceeds by several times the Joule heat while the shape of the generated heated domains strongly differ. Modeling shows that well defined spectral separation between the transverse optical modes persists upon increase in injection current. Further, upon increase in current the lateral extension of the fundamental mode decreases and the mode shrinks towards the center of the VCSEL structure thus reducing the lateral leakage and increasing the mode lifetime, whereas similar effect for high-order transverse modes is much weaker. Thus the preferred conditions for the lasing of the fundamental mode persist and even improve upon current increase. At high currents the fundamental mode becomes favorable at all aperture diameters, also for those where the cold cavity approximation predicts preference for the excited mode lasing.

  8. Transverse mode-locking in microcavity lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, R.; Heberle, A. P.; Cleaver, J. R. A.

    2002-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate mode-locking between the transverse modes of a laser. A vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with evenly-spaced transverse modes is shown to emit a train of 2.1±0.1 ps pulses with an 11 ps repetition rate and a timing jitter of 235±30 fs. Transverse mode-locking in microcavity lasers has potential to improve the compactness, stability, integrability, repetition rate tunability, and efficiency of ultrafast optical communication sources.

  9. Transverse mode coupling instability of colliding beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. White

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In high brightness circular colliders, coherent and incoherent beam dynamics are dominated by beam-beam interactions. It is generally assumed that the incoherent tune spread introduced by the beam-beam interactions is sufficiently large to cure any instabilities originating from impedance. However, as the two counterrotating beams interact they can give rise to coherent dipole modes and therefore modify the coherent beam dynamics and stability conditions. In this case, coherent beam-beam effects and impedance cannot be treated independently and their interplay should be taken into account in any realistic attempt to study the beam stability of colliding beams. Due to the complexity of these physics processes, numerical simulations become an important tool for the analysis of this system. Two approaches are proposed in this paper: a fully self-consistent multiparticle tracking including particle-in-cell Poisson solver for the beam-beam interactions and a linearized model taking into account finite bunch length effects. To ensure the validity of the results a detailed benchmarking of these models was performed. It will be shown that under certain conditions coherent beam-beam dipole modes can couple with higher order headtail modes and lead to strong instabilities with characteristics similar to the classical transverse mode coupling instability originating from impedance alone. Possible cures for this instability are explored both for single bunch and multibunch interactions. Simulation results and experimental evidences of the existence of this instability at the LHC will be presented for the specific case of offset collisions.

  10. Transverse dipole spin modes in quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipparini, E.; Barranco, M.; Emperador, A.; Pi, M.; Serra, Ll.

    1999-09-01

    We have carried out a systematic analysis of the transverse dipole spin response of a large-size quantum dot within time-dependent current density functional theory. Results for magnetic fields corresponding to integer filling factors are reported, as well as a comparison with the longitudinal dipole spin response. As in the two-dimensional electron gas, the spin response at high-spin magnetization is dominated by a low-energy transverse mode.

  11. Performance of Ar+-milled Ti:Sapphire rib waveguides as single transverse-mode broadband fluorescence sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grivas, C.; Shepherd, D.P.; May-Smith, T.C.; Eason, R.W.; Pollnau, Markus; Crunteanu, A.; Jelinek, M.

    2003-01-01

    Rib waveguides have been fabricated in pulsed-laser-deposited Ti:sapphire layers using photolithographic patterning and subsequent Ar+-beam milling. Fluorescence output powers up to 300 W have been observed from the ribs following excitation by a 3-W multiline argon laser. Mode intensity profiles

  12. Transverse multibunch modes for non-rigid bunches, including mode coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J.S.; Ruth, R.D. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    A method for computing transverse multibunch growth rates and frequency shifts in rings, which has been described previously, is applied to the PEP-II B factory. The method allows multibunch modes with different internal-bunch oscillation modes to couple to one another, similar to single-bunch mode coupling. Including coupling between the multibunch modes gives effects similar to those seen in single-bunch mode coupling. These effects occur at currents that are lower than the single-bunch mode coupling threshold. (author)

  13. Transverse Mode Dynamics of VCSELs Undergoing Current Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorjian, Peter M.; Ning, C. Z.; Agrawal, Govind

    2000-01-01

    Transverse mode dynamics of a 20-micron-diameter vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) undergoing gain switching by deep current modulation is studied numerically. The direct current (dc) level is set slightly below threshold and is modulated by a large alternating current (ac). The resulting optical pulse train and transverse-mode patterns are obtained numerically. The ac frequency is varied from 2.5 GHz to 10 GHz, and the ac amplitude is varied from one-half to four times that of the dc level. At high modulation frequencies, a regular pulse train is not generated unless the ac amplitude is large enough. At all modulation frequencies, the transverse spatial profile switches from single-mode to multiple-mode pattern as the ac pumping level is increased. Optical pulse widths vary in the range 5-30 ps. with the pulse width decreasing when either the frequency is increased or the ac amplitude is decreased. The numerical modeling uses an approximation form of the semiconductor Maxwell-Bloch equations. Temporal evolution of the spatial profiles of the laser (and of carrier density) is determined without any assumptions about the type or number of modes. Keywords: VCSELs, current modulation, gain switching, transverse mode dynamics, computational modeling

  14. Fiber amplifiers under thermal loads leading to transverse mode instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette Marie; Hansen, Kristian Rymann; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard

    2014-01-01

    Transverse mode instability (TMI) in rare-earth doped fiber amplifiers operating above an average power threshold is caused by intermodal stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering due to quantum defect heating. We investigate thermally induced longitudinal waveguide perturbations causing power trans...

  15. Single transverse spin asymmetry of forward neutrons

    OpenAIRE

    Kopeliovich, B.Z.; Potashnikova, I K; Schmidt, Ivan; Soffer, J

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the single transverse spin asymmetry $A_N(t)$, for inclusive neutron production in $pp$ collisions at forward rapidities relative to the polarized proton in the energy range of RHIC. Absorptive corrections to the pion pole generate a relative phase between the spin-flip and non-flip amplitudes, leading to a transverse spin asymmetry which is found to be far too small to explain the magnitude of $A_N$ observed in the PHENIX experiment. A larger contribution, which does not vanish ...

  16. Transverse intrinsic localized modes in monatomic chain and in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hizhnyakov, V. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Klopov, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Shelkan, A., E-mail: shell@ut.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia)

    2016-03-06

    In this paper an analytical and numerical study of anharmonic vibrations of monatomic chain and graphene in transverse (perpendicular) with respect to the chain/plane direction is presented. Due to the lack of odd anharmonicities and presence of hard quartic anharmonicity for displacements in this direction, there may exist localized anharmonic transverse modes with the frequencies above the spectrum of the corresponding phonons. Although these frequencies are in resonance with longitudinal (chain) or in-plane (graphene) phonons, the modes can decay only due to a weak anharmonic process. Therefore the lifetime of these vibrations may be very long. E.g. in the chain, according to our theoretical and numerical calculations it may exceed 10{sup 10} periods. We call these vibrations as transverse intrinsic localized modes. - Highlights: • In a stretched monatomic chain, long-living nonlinear transverse localized modes may exist. • Transverse vibrations of a chain slowly decay due to creation of longitudinal phonons. • Lifetime of transverse vibrations of a chain may exceed billion periods of vibrations. • In stretched graphene, long-living out-of-plain localized vibrations may exist.

  17. Fluting Modes in Transversely Nonuniform Solar Flux Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Roberto

    2017-12-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic waves of different types are frequently observed in magnetic flux tubes of the solar atmosphere and are often modeled using simple models. In the standard flux tube model made of a straight uniform tube with an abrupt boundary, transverse wave modes are classified according to their azimuthal wavenumber, m. Sausage (m = 0) and kink (m = 1) modes produce pulsations of the cross section and transverse oscillations of tube axis, respectively. Both sausage and kink modes have been observed in the solar atmosphere. Fluting (m≥slant 2) modes produce perturbations that are essentially confined around the boundary of the tube, I.e., they have a strong surface-like character. Unlike sausage and kink modes, the detection of fluting modes remains elusive. Here we show that the inclusion of transverse inhomogeneity in the flux tube model dramatically affects the properties of fluting modes. Even in a thin tube, kink and fluting modes are no longer degenerate in frequency when the tube has a smooth boundary. In addition, fluting modes become heavily damped by resonant absorption in a timescale shorter than the oscillation period. The perturbations loose their global shape and their distinctive surface-like appearance. As a consequence of that, we argue that nonuniform flux tubes with smooth boundaries may not be able to support fluting-like perturbations as coherent, global modes.

  18. Switchable narrow linewidth fiber laser with LP11 transverse mode output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ya; Ren, Guobin; Yang, Yuguang; Yao, Shuzhi; Wu, Yue; Jiang, Youchao; Xu, Yao; Jin, Wenxing; Zhu, Bofeng; Jian, Shuisheng

    2018-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a switchable narrow linewidth single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) erbium-doped fiber (EDF) ring laser with LP11 transverse mode output. The laser is based on a mode selective all-fiber fused coupler which is composed of a single-mode fiber (SMF) and a two-mode fiber (TMF). By controlling the polarization state of the output light, the laser can provide narrow linewidth SLM output with LP11 transverse mode at two specific wavelengths, which correspond to two transmission peaks of the chirped moiré fiber grating (CMFBG). The 20 dB linewidth of the fiber laser for each wavelength is approximately 7.2 and 6.4 kHz.

  19. Longitudinal and transverse modes dispersion in two-dimensional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... two-dimensional Yukawa fluids in the domain of weak and intermediate coupling parameters were analyzed through molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The dispersion relation for both the longitudinal and transverse modes were obtained and compared with random phase approximation (RPA) and harmonic phonons ...

  20. Single transverse spin asymmetry of forward neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Iván; Soffer, J.

    2011-12-01

    We calculate the single transverse spin asymmetry AN(t), for inclusive neutron production in pp collisions at forward rapidities relative to the polarized proton in the energy range of RHIC. Absorptive corrections to the pion pole generate a relative phase between the spin-flip and nonflip amplitudes, leading to a transverse spin asymmetry which is found to be far too small to explain the magnitude of AN observed in the PHENIX experiment. A larger contribution, which does not vanish at high energies, comes from the interference of pion and a1-Reggeon exchanges. The unnatural parity of a1 guarantees a substantial phase shift, although the magnitude is strongly suppressed by the smallness of diffractive πp→a1p cross section. We replace the Regge a1 pole by the Regge cut corresponding to the πρ exchange in the 1+S state. The production of such a state, which we treat as an effective pole a, forms a narrow peak in the 3π invariant mass distribution in diffractive πp interactions. The cross section is large, so one can assume that this state saturates the spectral function of the axial current and we can determine its coupling to nucleons via the partially conserved axial-vector-current constraint Goldberger-Treiman relation and the second Weinberg sum rule. The numerical results of the parameter-free calculation of AN are in excellent agreement with the PHENIX data.

  1. Transverse magnetic mode along THz waveguides with biased superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceituno, P. [Dpto. Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna, 38206 Tenerife (Spain)], E-mail: paceitun@ull.es; Hernandez-Cabrera, A. [Dpto. Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna, 38206 Tenerife (Spain); Vasko, F.T. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, NAS Ukraine, Pr. Nauki 41, Kiev 03028 (Ukraine)

    2008-05-15

    We study the propagation of transverse magnetic modes arising from a waveguide consisting on a GaAs-based superlattice located at vacuum-dielectric interface. The transverse mode is generated by the ultrafast intersubband response of the superlattice subjected to a high-frequency electric field. The superlattice is also subjected to a homogeneous bias potential to get a biased superlattice with equipopulated levels. The heterostructure is analyzed through the tight-binding approximation, and considering the level broadening caused by different scattering processes (homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadening mechanisms). We pay special attention to the dispersion relations of the complex dielectric permittivity because of real and imaginary parts of this function play a key role in wide miniband superlattices.

  2. Nonlinear Interaction of Transversal Modes in a CO2 Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Ruiz, Ricardo; Mindlin, G. B.; Perez-Garcia, C.; Tredicce, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    We show the possibility of achieving experimentally a Takens-Bogdanov bifurcation for the nonlinear interaction of two transverse modes ($l = \\pm 1$) in a $CO_2$ laser. The system has a basic O(2) symmetry which is perturbed by some symmetry-breaking effects that still preserve the $Z_2$ symmetry. The pattern dynamics near this codimension two bifurcation under such symmetries is described. This dynamics changes drastically when the laser properties are modified.

  3. Transverse mode analysis of optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy of canine hemangiosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weina; Thamm, Douglas H.; Kisker, David W.; Lear, Kevin L.

    2010-02-01

    The label-free technique of optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy (OFIS) uses the optical transmission spectrum of a cell in a microfluidic optical resonator to distinguish cancerous and non-cancerous cells. Based on their distinctive characteristic transmission spectra, canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) cancer cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) have been differentiated using the OFIS technique with high statistical significance (p<10- 6). 95% sensitivity and 98% specificity were achieved simultaneously. A cell lens model explains trends in the transverse mode pattern in the transmission spectra of HSA cells and allows extraction of cell focal length.

  4. Single Spin Asymmetries at COMPASS with transverse target polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Schill, C

    2011-01-01

    COMPASS is a fixed target experiment at CERN investigating the spin structure of the nucleon and performing hadron spectroscopy. The transverse spin structure of the nucleon is studied in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering of 160 GeV/c muons off a transversely polarized proton or deuteron target. In 2002-2005, a transversely polarized 6LiD, and in 2007 a transversely polarized NH3 target were used. To get access to the transversity distribution, different single-spin asymmetries have been measured: The Collins asymmetry, the hadron-pair asymmetry and the transverse lambda polarization have been analyzed. In addition, transverse momentum effects of quarks have been studied by the Sivers effect. New results for the Collins and the Sivers asymmetry on the proton for identified pions and kaons will be presented.

  5. Statistics of transverse mode turn-on dynamics in VCSEL's

    OpenAIRE

    Dellunde i Clavé, Jaume; Torrent, M. C. (Maria Carme); Sancho, José M.; Shore, K. A.

    1997-01-01

    The turn-on process of a multimode VCSEL is investigated from a statistical point of view. Special attention is paid to quantities such as time jitter and bit error rate. The single-mode performance of VCSEL¿s during current modulation is compared to that of edge-emitting lasers.

  6. Debonding problem of a transversely loaded single lap joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, J.H.; Sridhar, I.; Tan, G.E.B. [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore)

    2012-07-01

    This paper aims to describe the debonding problem of transversely loaded single lap joint using fracture mechanics approach. This is achieved by first solving the deflection problem of the single lap joint. By evaluating the bending moments at the vicinity of crack tip, non-dimensional energy release rate required for the debonding can be found. The effects of relative position of transverse load and overlap length on the debonding propensity are discussed. As for design consideration, any transverse load moving towards critical side of square edge of the joint should be avoided. Increasing the overlap length improves the joint's strength, particularly when the joint is also axially loaded. (Author)

  7. Transverse mode coupling instability threshold with space charge and different wakefields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbekov, V.

    2017-03-01

    Transverse mode coupling instability of a single bunch with space charge (SC) and a wakefield is considered within the framework of the boxcar model. Eigenfunctions of the bunch without a wake are used as a basis for the solution of the equations with the wakefield included. A dispersion equation for a constant wake is presented in the form of an infinite continued fraction and also as the recursive relation with an arbitrary number of basis functions. Realistic wakefields are considered as well including resistive wall, square, and oscillating wakes. It is shown that the transverse mode coupling instability threshold of the negative wake grows in absolute value when the SC tune shift increases. The threshold of the positive wake goes down at increasing the SC tune shift. The explanation is developed by an analysis of the bunch spectrum.

  8. Single-mode optical fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Cancellieri, G

    1991-01-01

    This book describes signal propagation in single-mode optical fibres for telecommunication applications. Such description is based on the analysis of field propagation, considering waveguide properties and also some of the particular characteristics of the material fibre. The book covers such recent advances as, coherent transmissions; optical amplification; MIR fibres; polarization maintaining; polarization diversity and photon counting.

  9. Transverse mode coupling instability for leptons in the CERN SPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linnecar, T.; Shaposhnikova, E.N. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1996-08-01

    The intensity of leptons accelerated in the SPS machine is limited by a vertical transverse instability. The results of measurements of the thresholds for this transverse instability are compared with theoretical predictions for different broad band impedance models of the SPS. The threshold intensities found for the transverse instability and the position of the losses in the cycle enable the parameters of the broadband resonant impedance to be specified. (author)

  10. High power and single mode quantum cascade lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bismuto, Alfredo; Bidaux, Yves; Blaser, Stéphane; Terazzi, Romain; Gresch, Tobias; Rochat, Michel; Muller, Antoine; Bonzon, Christopher; Faist, Jerome

    2016-05-16

    We present a single mode quantum cascade laser with nearly 1 W optical power. A buried distributed feedback reflector is used on the back section for wavelength selection. The laser is 6 mm long, 3.5 μm wide, mounted episide-up and the laser facets are left uncoated. Laser emission is centered at 4.68 μm. Single-mode operation with a side mode suppression ratio of more than 30 dB is obtained in whole range of operation. Farfield measurements prove a symmetric, single transverse-mode emission in TM00-mode with typical divergences of 41° and 33° in the vertical and horizontal direction respectively. This work shows the potential for simple fabrication of high power lasers compatible with standard DFB processing.

  11. Higher order mode spectra and the dependence of localized dipole modes on the transverse beam position in third harmonic superconducting cavities at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pei [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Baboi, Nicoleta [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Jones, Roger M. [The Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-15

    An electron beam entering an accelerating cavity excites a wakefield. This wakefield can be decomposed into a series of multi-poles or modes. The dominant component of the transverse wakefield is dipole. This report summarizes the higher order mode (HOM) signals of the third harmonic cavities of FLASH measured at various stages: transmission measurements in the single cavity test stand at Fermilab, at CMTB (Cryo- Module Test Bench) and at FLASH, and beam-excited measurements at FLASH. Modes in the first two dipole bands and the fifth dipole band have been identified using a global Lorentzian fit technique. The beam-pipe modes at approximately 4 GHz and some modes in the fifth dipole band have been observed as localized modes, while the first two dipole bands, containing some strong coupling cavity modes, propagate. This report also presents the dependence of the localized dipole modes on the transverse beam position. Linear dependence for various modes has been observed. This makes them suitable for beam position diagnostics. These modes, together with some propagating, strong coupling modes, have been considered in the design of a dedicated electronics for beam diagnostics with HOMs for the third harmonic cavities.

  12. Role of Inelastic Transverse Compressive Behavior and Multiaxial Loading on the Transverse Impact of Kevlar KM2 Single Fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Subramani Sockalingam; John W., Gillespie; Michael Keefe

    2017-01-01

    High-velocity transverse impact of ballistic fabrics and yarns by projectiles subject individual fibers to multi-axial dynamic loading. Single-fiber transverse impact experiments with the current state-of-the-art experimental capabilities are challenging due to the associated micron length-scale. Kevlar® KM2 fibers exhibit a nonlinear inelastic behavior in transverse compression with an elastic limit less than 1.5% strain. The effect of this transverse behavior on a single KM2 fiber subjected...

  13. Ultrahigh-Q circular-side square resonator lasers with enhanced transverse mode interval

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, Hai-Zhong; Yang, Yue-De; Ma, Xiu-Wen; Xiao, Jin-Long; Du, Yun

    2015-01-01

    A mechanism of transverse mode control is proposed for circular-side square resonator (CSR) with the flat sides replaced by arcs, which results in ultrahigh-Q factors and large transverse mode intervals according to two and three dimensional (2D and 3D) simulations. A 2D numerical optimization shows that mode Q factors up to 1011 can be obtained for the 16-{\\mu}m-side-length CSR with a 1.5-{\\mu}m-width output waveguide. Dual-mode lasing with frequency intervals in THz range in agreement with simulated results is achieved for AlGaInAs/InP CSR lasers.

  14. Higher order mode spectra and the dependence of localized dipole modes on the transverse beam position in third harmonic superconducting cavities at FLASH

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, P; Jones, R M

    2012-01-01

    An electron beam entering an accelerating cavity excites a wakefield. This wakefield can be decomposed into a series of multi-poles or modes. The dominant component of the transverse wakefield is dipole. This report summarizes the higher order mode (HOM) signals of the third harmonic cavities of FLASH measured at various stages: transmission measurements in the single cavity test stand at Fermilab, at CMTB (Cryo-Module Test Bench) and at FLASH, and beam-excited measurements at FLASH. Modes in the first two dipole bands and the fifth dipole band have been identified using a global Lorentzian fit technique. The beam-pipe modes at approximately 4 GHz and some modes in the fifth dipole band have been observed as localized modes, while the first two dipole bands, containing some strong coupling cavity modes, propagate. This report also presents the dependence of the localized dipole modes on the transverse beam position. Linear dependence for various modes has been observed. This makes them suitable for beam posit...

  15. Transverse modes and instabilities of a bunched beam with space charge and resistive wall impedance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbekov, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-11-01

    Transverse instability of a bunch in a ring accelerator is considered with space charge and wakefield taken into account. It is assumed that space charge tune shift significantly exceeds the synchrotron tune. Bunch spectrum, instability growth rate, and effects of chromaticity are studied with different bunch and wake forms. Fast instability caused by coupling of transverse modes is studied in detail. It is shown that, for monotonic wakes, the transverse mode coupling instability is possible only with a certain sign of the wake. Its threshold and growth rate are calculated precisely over a wide range of parameters.

  16. Transverse mode selection in a monolithic microchip laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Darryl

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines an approach to mode selection in a microchip laser through judicious shaping of the pump light to create a high modal overlap with the desired mode. The authors demonstrate the principle by creating a donut-shaped pump profile...

  17. Transverse Mode Coupling Instability Measurements at Transition Crossing in the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Aumon, S; Freyermuth, P; Gilardoni, S; Metral, E; Rumolo, G; Salvant, B; Steerenberg, R

    2010-01-01

    Transition crossing in the CERN PS is critical for the stability of high intensity beams, even with the use of a second order gamma jump scheme. The intense single bunch beam used for the neutron Time-of-Flight facility (n-ToF) needs a controlled longitudinal emittance blowup at flat bottom to prevent a fast single-bunch vertical instability from developing near transition. This instability is believed to be of Transverse Mode Coupling (TMCI) type. A series of measurements taken throughout 2009 and 2010 aim at using this TMCI observed on the ToF beam at transition, as a tool for estimating the transverse global impedance of the PS. For this purpose, we compare the measurement results with the predictions of the HEADTAIL code and find the matching parameters. This procedure also allows a better understanding of the differentmechanisms involved and can suggest how to improve the gamma jump scheme for a possible intensity upgrade of the n-ToF beam.

  18. Calculation of TMD Evolution for Transverse Single Spin Asymmetry Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mert Aybat, Ted Rogers, Alexey Prokudin

    2012-06-01

    In this letter, we show that it is necessary to include the full treatment of QCD evolution of Transverse Momentum Dependent parton densities to explain discrepancies between HERMES data and recent COMPASS data on a proton target for the Sivers transverse single spin asymmetry in Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS). Calculations based on existing fits to TMDs in SIDIS, and including evolution within the Collins-Soper-Sterman with properly defined TMD PDFs are shown to provide a good explanation for the discrepancy. The non-perturbative input needed for the implementation of evolution is taken from earlier analyses of unpolarized Drell-Yan (DY) scattering at high energy. Its success in describing the Sivers function in SIDIS data at much lower energies is strong evidence in support of the unifying aspect of the QCD TMD-factorization formalism.

  19. Observation of Single Isolated Electrons of High Transverse Momentum in Events with Missing Transverse Energy at the CERN pp Collider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banner, M.; Kofoed-Hansen, O.

    1983-01-01

    We report the results of a search for single isolated electrons of high transverse momentum at the CERN collider. Above 15 GeV/c, four events are found having large missing transverse energy along a direction opposite in azimuth to that of the high-pT electron. Both the configuration of the events...

  20. Topology optimized design of a transverse electric higher order mode converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frellsen, Louise Floor; Ding, Yunhong; Sigmund, Ole

    2016-01-01

    present the possibility of employing topology optimization (TO) to design a device that allows for reversible conversion between the transverse electric fundamental even (TE0) mode and the second higher order odd mode (TE2). Topology optimization is an iterative inverse design process, where repeated...

  1. Towards the transverse mode-locking of oxide-confined VCSELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Botao; Snoke, David W.; Heberle, Albert P.

    2012-09-01

    We have investigated the lasing modes of oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs). The individual Laguerre-Gaussian modes have been spectrally and spatially resolved with scanning confocal microscope with time resolution of 4 ps. Subject to the injection of ultrafast laser pulses, the VCSEL showed irregular pulsed emission which indicates the potential for transverse mode-locking of the VCSEL.

  2. Transverse mode control in proton-implanted and oxide-confined VCSELs via patterned dielectric anti-phase filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Benjamin; O'Brien, Thomas; Dallesasse, John M.

    2017-02-01

    A novel method for controlling the transverse lasing modes in both proton implanted and oxide-confined vertical- cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with a multi-layer, patterned, dielectric anti-phase (DAP) filter is pre- sented. Using a simple photolithographic liftoff process, dielectric layers are deposited and patterned on individual VCSELs to modify (increase or decrease) the mirror reflectivity across the emission aperture via anti-phase reflections, creating spatially-dependent threshold material gain. The shape of the dielectric pattern can be tailored to overlap with specific transverse VCSEL modes or subsets of transverse modes to either facilitate or inhibit lasing by decreasing or increasing, respectively, the threshold modal gain. A silicon dioxide (SiO2) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) anti-phase filter is used to achieve a single-fundamental-mode, continuous-wave output power greater than 4.0 mW in an oxide-confined VCSEL at a lasing wavelength of 850 nm. A filter consisting of SiO2 and TiO2 is used to facilitate injection-current-insensitive fundamental mode and lower order mode lasing in proton implanted VCSELs at a lasing wavelength of 850 nm. Higher refractive index dielectric materials such as amorphous silicon (a-Si) can be used to increase the effectiveness of the anti-phase filter on proton implanted devices by reducing the threshold modal gain of any spatially overlapping modes. This additive, non-destructive method allows for mode selection at any lasing wavelength and for any VCSEL layer structure without the need for semiconductor etching or epitaxial regrowth. It also offers the capability of designing a filter based upon available optical coating materials.

  3. Role of Inelastic Transverse Compressive Behavior and Multiaxial Loading on the Transverse Impact of Kevlar KM2 Single Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramani Sockalingam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available High-velocity transverse impact of ballistic fabrics and yarns by projectiles subject individual fibers to multi-axial dynamic loading. Single-fiber transverse impact experiments with the current state-of-the-art experimental capabilities are challenging due to the associated micron length-scale. Kevlar® KM2 fibers exhibit a nonlinear inelastic behavior in transverse compression with an elastic limit less than 1.5% strain. The effect of this transverse behavior on a single KM2 fiber subjected to a cylindrical and a fragment-simulating projectile (FSP transverse impact is studied with a 3D finite element model. The inelastic behavior results in a significant reduction of fiber bounce velocity and projectile-fiber contact forces up to 38% compared to an elastic impact response. The multiaxial stress states during impact including transverse compression, axial tension, axial compression and interlaminar shear are presented at the location of failure. In addition, the models show a strain concentration over a small length in the fiber under the projectile-fiber contact. A failure criterion, based on maximum axial tensile strain accounting for the gage length, strain rate and multiaxial loading degradation effects are applied to predict the single-fiber breaking speed. Results are compared to the elastic response to assess the importance of inelastic material behavior on failure during a transverse impact.

  4. Longitudinal, transverse, and single-particle dynamics in liquid Zn: Ab initio study and theoretical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rio, B. G.; González, L. E.

    2017-06-01

    We perform ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of liquid Zn near the melting point in order to study the longitudinal and transverse dynamic properties of the system. We find two propagating excitations in both of them in a wide range of wave vectors. This is in agreement with some experimental observations of the dynamic structure factor in the region around half the position of the main peak. Moreover, the two-mode structure in the transverse and longitudinal current correlation functions had also been previously observed in high pressure liquid metallic systems. We perform a theoretical analysis in order to investigate the possible origin of such two components by resorting to mode-coupling theories. They are found to describe qualitatively the appearance of two modes in the dynamics, but their relative intensities are not quantitatively reproduced. We suggest some possible improvements of the theory through the analysis of the structure of the memory functions. We also analyze the single-particle dynamics embedded in the velocity autocorrelation function, and explain its characteristics through mode-coupling concepts.

  5. Ion temperature gradient driven mode in presence of transverse velocity shear in magnetized plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, N.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Michelsen, Poul

    2005-01-01

    The effect of sheared poloidal flow on the toroidal branch of the ion temperature gradient driven mode of magnetized nonuniform plasma is studied. A novel "nonmodal" calculation is used to analyze the problem. It is shown that the transverse shear flow considerably reduced the growth...

  6. Aerial Ultrasonic Source Using Stripe-Mode Transverse Vibrating Plate with Jutting Driving Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Hikaru; Ishikawa, Hitoshi

    2009-07-01

    Ultrasonic sources using a stripe-mode rectangular transverse vibrating plate have been used as acoustic sources emitting intense acoustic waves in air. Because these sources are based on the resonance of transverse vibration, their electric-acoustic conversion rate is as high as 90%, which is a merit. In this study, a vibrating plate with a unique shape was developed to enhance the effectiveness of acoustic sources. It is called a stripe-mode transverse vibrating plate with a jutting driving point. The advantage of this plate shape is that the acoustic source does not interfere with the emission of acoustic waves since the driving point is outside the plate, and there is no need to distinguish between the front and back sides of the vibrating plate. The conditions effective for driving the stripe-mode transverse vibrating plate were clarified. That is, the length of the side parallel to the node lines of the plate is an odd number times the length between the nodes in the stripe mode, and the length of the side perpendicular is at least 6 times but not a multiple of 3 greater than or equal to 15 times, subtracted by 0.5 times, the length between the nodes. Moreover, the length between the driving point and the edge of the plate is a positive integer with a noninteger value of 0.9.

  7. Simulation with Python on transverse modes of the symmetric confocal resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing Hua; Qi, Jing; Ji, Yun Jing; Song, Yang; Li, Zhenhua

    2017-08-01

    Python is a popular open-source programming language that can be used to simulate various optical phenomena. We have developed a suite of programs to help teach the course of laser principle. The complicated transverse modes of the symmetric confocal resonator can be visualized in personal computers, which is significant to help the students understand the pattern distribution of laser resonator.

  8. EMISAR single pass topographic SAR interferometer modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Nørvang; Skou, Niels; Woelders, Kim

    1996-01-01

    The Danish Center for Remote Sensing (DCRS) has augmented its dual-frequency polarimetric synthetic aperture radar system (EMISAR) with single pass across-track interferometric (XTI) modes. This paper describes the system configuration, specifications and the operating modes. Analysis of data...

  9. Single transverse extended incision for radical neck dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Sales Chagas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to assess the efficacy of the single transverse extended cervical incision in radical neck dissection. Method: we conducted a prospective study, from January 2008 to January 2009, with 18 patients undergoing surgical treatment of malignant tumors of the upper aero-digestive tract. The primary lesion was located in the oral cavity in eight cases, in the oropharynx in three, in the hypopharynx in three, in the larynx in two, in the maxillary sinus, and in one case, the primary injury was hidden. There were 29 neck dissections, eight bilateral and 10 unilateral (26 radical and three selective. Staging revealed nine patients with T4 tumor, one T3, six T2, one T1 and one Tx. Five patients were N0, nine N2b, one N2c and three N3. The average number of dissected lymph nodes was 34.25. We performed the neck dissection through a single incision located in the middle neck, coincident with the skinfold, with a length of about 2 to 3 cm behind the anterior edge of the trapezius muscle and 3 to 4 cm from the midline for the unilateral neck dissections. Results: as complications, there were myocutaneous flap necrosis in one patient with prior radiation therapy, one lymphatic fistula, one dehiscence of the tracheostomy, one cervical abscess, one salivary fistula and one suture dehiscence. Conclusions: the single extended incision provides adequate exposure of the neck structures, without compromising surgical time, even in bilateral dissections. It does not compromise the resection of all cervical lymph nodes; it has excellent aesthetic and functional results and is easily associated with other approaches to resection of the primary tumor.

  10. On the ambiguity in the notion of transverse traceless modes of gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Bonga, Béatrice

    2017-09-01

    Somewhat surprisingly, in many of the widely used monographs and review articles the term Transverse-Traceless modes of linearized gravitational waves is used to denote two entirely different notions. These treatments generally begin with a decomposition of the metric perturbation that is local in the momentum space (and hence non-local in physical space), and denote the resulting transverse traceless modes by h_{ab}^{TT}. However, while discussing gravitational waves emitted by an isolated system—typically in a later section—the relevant modes are extracted using a `projection operator' that is local in physical space. These modes are also called transverse-traceless and again labeled h_{ab}^{TT}, implying that this is just a reformulation of the previous notion. But the two notions are conceptually distinct and the difference persists even in the asymptotic region. We show that this confusion arises already in Maxwell theory that is often discussed as a prelude to the gravitational case. Finally, we discuss why the distinction has nonetheless remained largely unnoticed, and also point out that there are some important physical effects where only one of the notions gives the correct answer.

  11. Localized sagittal modes of variable transverse and longitudinal components in one-dimensional phononic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Arce, L.; Manzanares-Martínez, B.; Ramos-Mendieta, F.

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, we study the polarization states of the localized sagittal modes in a solid/solid one-dimensional phononic crystal with a defect layer. We have found that the well defined polarization of these modes, either transverse or longitudinal, for propagation in the direction of periodicity is completely modified for the case of oblique propagation. Thus for practical applications the polarization—the transverse/longitudinal component rate—of the defect modes will depend on the angle of incidence. For calculations, we use the supercell method; the criterion of energy balance is employed to determine the polarization state of all the acoustic waves. The results show the existence of localized elastic modes in the band gaps and resonant vibrations inside the allowed bands. By analyzing the amplitude profiles, we conclude that the displacement localization of both transverse and longitudinal components can be different. Consequently, the polarization of the transmission peaks could depend on the thickness of the sample. The interesting effect of change in polarization (from quasitransverse to quasilongitudinal) of some transmission peaks as function of the angle of incidence is reported. Calculations were made for an Epoxy/Sn superlattice with Zn as defect layer.

  12. Transverse mode tailoring in diode lasers based on coupled large optical cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeev, N. Yu; Maximov, M. V.; E Zhukov, A.

    2017-08-01

    The key principles of transverse mode engineering in edge-emitting lasers with broadened waveguides based on coupled large optical cavity (CLOC) structures are presented. The CLOC laser design is shown to be an effective approach for reducing the optical loss, broadening the waveguide, and lowering the beam divergence. Having simulated the sensitivity of the CLOC design to variations in layer thicknesses and compositions we have shown its high robustness. Advanced versions of the CLOC laser structures having two extra passive waveguides have been treated and shown to effectively eliminate several transverse modes. We have considered an application of the CLOC concept for waveguides with shifted active regions aimed at reducing laser thermal and electric resistances.

  13. Single atom cavity quantum electrodynamics with non-transversally polarized light fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junge, Christian; O' Shea, Danny; Volz, Juergen; Rauschenbeutel, Arno [Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, TU Wien, Atominstitut, Stadionallee 2, A-1020 Wien (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    Whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) microresonators are versatile devices for enhancing light-matter interaction. They combine ultra high quality factors and small mode volumes with near lossless in- and out-coupling of light via tapered fiber couplers. Here, we report on a cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) experiment in which single {sup 85}Rb atoms interact in the strong coupling regime with a WGM in an ultra high-Q bottle microresonator. We present optical transmission spectra of our system that fundamentally deviate from the predictions of the established theoretical model for CQED in ring resonators. We identify the non-transversal character of the field of WGMs as the origin of this discrepancy. Excellent agreement is found between our data and the predictions of an extended theoretical model that accounts for the full vectorial description of the WGMs. Our studies demonstrate that the non-transversal character of WGMs allows one to realize a paradigmatic quantum system that is ideally suited for basic studies as well as for technological applications.

  14. Single-transverse-mode Ti:sapphire rib waveguide laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grivas, C.; Shepherd, D.P.; May-Smith, T.C.; Eason, R.W.; Pollnau, Markus

    2005-01-01

    Laser operation of Ti:sapphire rib waveguides fabricated using photolithography and ion beam etching in pulsed laser deposited layers is reported. Polarized laser emission was observed at 792.5 nm with an absorbed pump power threshold of 265 mW, which is more than a factor of 2 lower in comparison

  15. Single-mode coherent synchrotron radiation instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Heifets

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The microwave instability driven by the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR has been previously studied [S. Heifets and G. V. Stupakov, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 5, 054402 (2002] neglecting effect of the shielding caused by the finite beam pipe aperture. In practice, the unstable mode can be close to the shielding threshold where the spectrum of the radiation in a toroidal beam pipe is discrete. In this paper, the CSR instability is studied in the case when it is driven by a single synchronous mode. A system of equations for the beam-wave interaction is derived and its similarity to the 1D free-electron laser theory is demonstrated. In the linear regime, the growth rate of the instability is obtained and a transition to the case of continuous spectrum is discussed. The nonlinear evolution of the single-mode instability, both with and without synchrotron damping and quantum diffusion, is also studied.

  16. Single-mode biological distributed feedback laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Maier-Flaig, Florian; Lemmer, Uli

    2013-01-01

    Single-mode second order distributed feedback (DFB) lasers of riboflavin (vitamin B2) doped gelatine films on nanostructured low refractive index material are demonstrated. Manufacturing is based on a simple UV nanoimprint and spin-coating. Emission wavelengths of 543 nm and 562 nm for two differ...

  17. Single transverse extended incision for radical neck dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, José Francisco Sales; Pascoal, Maria Beatriz Nogueira; Aquino, José Luís Braga; Brandi, Luís Antônio; Previtale, Evandro Von Zuben; Trillo, Ana Sofia Pontes; Curioni, Otávio Alberto; Rapoport, Abrão; Dedivitis, Rogério Aparecido

    2016-01-01

    to assess the efficacy of the single transverse extended cervical incision in radical neck dissection. we conducted a prospective study, from January 2008 to January 2009, with 18 patients undergoing surgical treatment of malignant tumors of the upper aero-digestive tract. The primary lesion was located in the oral cavity in eight cases, in the oropharynx in three, in the hypopharynx in three, in the larynx in two, in the maxillary sinus, and in one case, the primary injury was hidden. There were 29 neck dissections, eight bilateral and 10 unilateral (26 radical and three selective). Staging revealed nine patients with T4 tumor, one T3, six T2, one T1 and one Tx. Five patients were N0, nine N2b, one N2c and three N3. The average number of dissected lymph nodes was 34.25. We performed the neck dissection through a single incision located in the middle neck, coincident with the skinfold, with a length of about 2 to 3 cm behind the anterior edge of the trapezius muscle and 3 to 4 cm from the midline for the unilateral neck dissections. as complications, there were myocutaneous flap necrosis in one patient with prior radiation therapy, one lymphatic fistula, one dehiscence of the tracheostomy, one cervical abscess, one salivary fistula and one suture dehiscence. the single extended incision provides adequate exposure of the neck structures, without compromising surgical time, even in bilateral dissections. It does not compromise the resection of all cervical lymph nodes; it has excellent aesthetic and functional results and is easily associated with other approaches to resection of the primary tumor. verificar a eficácia da incisão cervical única, transversa e estendida, para o esvaziamento cervical radical. estudo prospectivo, de janeiro de 2008 a janeiro de 2009, de 18 pacientes submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico de tumores malignos da via aero-digestiva superior. A lesão primária se situava na cavidade oral em oito casos, na orofaringe em três, no seio

  18. Large-mode-area single-polarization single-mode photonic crystal fiber: design and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajeet; Saini, Than Singh; Naik, Kishor Dinkar; Sinha, Ravindra Kumar

    2016-07-01

    A rectangular core photonic crystal fiber structure has been presented and analyzed for single-polarization single-mode operation. Single-polarization is obtained with asymmetric design and by introducing different loss for x-polarization and y-polarization of fundamental modes. Single-polarization single-mode operation of the proposed photonic crystal fiber is investigated in detail by using a full vector finite element method with an anisotropic perfectly matched layer. The variations of the confinement loss and effective mode area of x-polarization and y-polarization of fundamental modes have been simulated by varying the structural parameters of the proposed photonic crystal fiber. At the optimized parameters, confinement loss and effective mode area is obtained as 0.94 dB/m and 60.67  μm2 for y-polarization as well as 26.67 dB/m and 67.23  μm2 for x-polarization of fundamental modes, respectively, at 1.55 μm. Therefore simulation results confirmed that, 0.75 m length of fiber will be sufficient to get a y-polarized fundamental mode with an effective mode area as large as 60.67  μm2.

  19. Transverse Single Spin and Azimuthal Asymmetries in Hadronic Collisions at STAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vossen Anselm

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hadronic collisions with transversely polarized protons are an important part of the quest to understand the transverse spin structure of the proton. Experiments at RHIC collected large datasets at center of mass energies of 200 GeV and 500 GeV, accessing a kinematic regime where factorization is expected to hold. The STAR detector at RHIC, due to its azimuthal symmetry, particle identification capabilities and large acceptance compared with other experiments with polarized protons, is in a unique position to study transverse spin phenomena in p + p↑. This contribution will highlight measurements of transversity using di-hadron correlations, transverse single spin asymmetries in jets, measurements sensitive to the origins of the large single spin asymmetries measured in the forward direction, transverse spin asymmetries in W production, which are sensitive to modified universality effects of Sivers function as well as short and long-term upgrades at STAR.

  20. Modelling and Studies for a Wideband Feedback System for Mitigation of Transverse Single Bunch Instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Li, K S B; Rumolo, G; Cesaratto, J; Dusatko, J; Fox, J; Pivi, M; Pollock, K; Rivetta, C; Turgut, O

    2013-01-01

    As part of the LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU) Project [1], a wideband feedback system is under study for mitigation of coherent single bunch instabilities. This type of system may provide a generic way of shifting the instability threshold to regions that are currently inaccessible, thus, boosting the brightness of future beams. To study the effectiveness of such systems, a numerical model has been developed that constitutes a realistic feedback system including real transfer functions for pickup and kicker, realistic N-tap FIR and IIR filters as well as noise and saturation effects. Simulations of SPS cases have been performed with HEADTAIL to evaluate the feedback effectiveness in the presence of transverse mode coupling and electron clouds. Some results are presented addressing bandwidth limitations and amplifier power requirements.

  1. Quark-photon-quark correlation and transverse target single spin asymmetry in inclusive DIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkardt, Matthias; Alhalholy, Tareq

    2017-07-01

    We calculate the q γ q correlation function associated to transverse target lepton-nucleon inclusive deep-inelastic scattering by direct evaluation of the corresponding matrix element utilizing the electromagnetic impact parameter fields for a transversely polarized nucleon. The results are compared with the two existing models for the q γ q correlator. Using the calculated q γ q correlation function, we estimate the transverse target single-spin asymmetry in an inclusive DIS process.

  2. Transverse-mode-selectable microlens vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Debernardi, Pierluigi; Lee, Yong Tak

    2010-01-01

    A new vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structure employing a thin microlens is suggested and numerically investigated. The laser can be made to emit in either a high-power Gaussian-shaped single-fundamental mode or a high-power doughnut-shaped higher-order mode. The physical origin...

  3. Transverse single spin asymmetry in Drell-Yan production in polarized pA collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, J.

    2015-01-01

    We study the transverse single spin asymmetry in Drell-Yan production in pA collisions with incoming protons being transversely polarized. We carry out the calculation using a newly developed hybrid approach. The polarized cross section computed in the hybrid approach is consistent with that

  4. Transverse Single Spin Asymmetries in Hadronic Interactions: An Experimental Overview and Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bland L.C.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transverse single-spin asymmetries (SSA are expected to be small in perturbative QCD because of the chiral nature of the theory. Experiment shows there are large transverse SSA for particles produced in special kinematics. This contribution reviews the experimental situation and provides an outlook for future measurements.

  5. Single transverse-spin asymmetries in Drell-Yan processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Re Calegari, Gabriele [Universita degli Studi dell' Insubria-sede di Como, Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia, Como (Italy); Ratcliffe, Philip G. [Universita degli Studi dell' Insubria-sede di Como, Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia, Como (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    The asymmetry in the angular distribution of Drell-Yan dilepton pairs in collisions where just one nucleon is transversely polarised has been examined in the literature with a variety of results, differing mainly by factors of 2. We re-evaluate the asymmetry via twist-3 contributions in collinear factorisation. In order to allow complete and in-depth comparison with existing calculations, we supply all calculational details. (orig.)

  6. Coupling, controlling, and processing non-transversal photons with a single atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenbeutel, Arno

    2014-05-01

    I will report on recent experimental investigations of the interaction between single rubidium atoms and light that is confined by continuous total internal reflection in a whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) bottle microresonator. These resonators offer the advantage of very long photon lifetimes in conjunction with near lossless in- and out-coupling of light via tapered fiber couplers. We discovered that the non-transversal polarization of WGMs fundamentally alters the physics of light-matter interaction. Taking advantage of this effect, we recently demonstrated switching of signals between two distinct optical fibers controlled by a single atom. Owing to the excellent optical properties of our bottle microresonator, the scheme yields high switching fidelities and low losses. Furthermore, we exploited the strong birefringence of the bottle microresonator and implemented a single-atom-controlled polarization flip of the light that is guided through the coupling fiber. And finally, we made use of the strong nonlinear response of the atom-resonator system and experimentally realized an optical Kerr nonlinearity at the level of single photon. Analyzing the transmitted light, we observe a nonlinear phase shift of π between the cases of one and of two photons passing the resonator. This phase shift leads to entanglement between previously independent fiber-guided photons, which we verify by performing a full quantum state tomography of the transmitted two-photon state.

  7. Single higher-order mode ring-shaped VCSEL with surface relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Hao, Yongqin; Wang, Zhiwei; Xie, Jianlai; Zou, Yonggang; Feng, Yuan; Ma, Xiaohui

    2017-10-01

    A novel vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with single mode, high-power, low divergence, and temperature stability is presented. The most prominent structural feature of the device is that the high optical loss region is formed by an anti-phase surface relief above the top Distributed Bragg Reflectors (DBRs) and the light-emitting aperture is ringshaped with larger region. The simulation results show the device with 15μm oxide aperture and 5μm width ring light emitting region achieves stable single-higher-order transverse mode emission with a side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of more than 80dB. The maximum continuous-wave (CW) single mode power is up to 15.2 mW and far-field divergence angle (FWHM) is lower than 4.5°. Moreover, the VCSEL maintains CW single mode emission up to a record high temperature of 450K.

  8. Singl/multiple Global Geodesic Acoustic Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tianchun

    2017-10-01

    Both experiments and simulations reveal that there exist single/multiple global geodesic acoustic modes that have constant frequencies over radial extension in the tokamak plasmas. In the framework of ideal MHD, the global structure of the mode emerges as the requirement the momenta associated with the second poloidal harmonics inside the coupling between the magnetic (geodesic) curvature and the leading pressure perturbations be balanced by the Alfven perturbations, which involve the plasma displacements of higher order: the normal displacement and the second poloidal harmonic component of the geodesic displacement. The analytical and numerical solutions to the eigen-mode equation will be presented for typical q and temperature profiles. This theory is extended to the case where single local GAM splits into multiple branches as a result of plasma rotations. The rotation also induces richer poloidal harmonic structures and it eventually leads to two coupled ODEs of 2nd order. Multiple global GAMs occur naturally as the solutions of this eigen-value problem. This work is supported by National Magnetic Fusion Project China under Grant No. 2015GB110004.

  9. Modes of an endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber: a finite element investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uranus, H.P.; Hoekstra, Hugo; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    2004-01-01

    Using a finite-element mode solver, the modes of a commercial endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber (ESM-PCF) were investigated. Based on the loss discrimination between the dominant and the nearest higher order mode, we set-up a criterion for the single-modeness. Using that measure, we

  10. Voltage Mode Single CDBA Based Multifunction Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Priyanka; Pandey, Rajeshwari; Pandey, Neeta

    2017-08-01

    A voltage mode multifunction second order filter topology employing single current differencing buffered amplifier (CDBA) has been proposed in this paper. This topology can be used to synthesize low pass (LP), band pass (BP), and high pass (HP) filter functions with appropriate admittance choices. This configuration is a suitable choice for implementing filters with high quality factor. The demonstration of the proposed configuration is done through PSPICE simulations. The CDBA block is realized using CMOS 0.18µm technology. The simulation results are found in close agreement with the theoretical results.

  11. Direct visualization of the in-plane leakage of high-order transverse modes in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers mediated by oxide-aperture engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledentsov, N.; Shchukin, V. A.; Kropp, J.-R.; Burger, S.; Schmidt, F.; Ledentsov, N. N.

    2016-03-01

    Oxide-confined apertures in vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) can be engineered such that they promote leakage of the transverse optical modes from the non- oxidized core region to the selectively oxidized periphery of the device. The reason of the leakage is that the VCSEL modes in the core can be coupled to tilted modes in the periphery if the orthogonality between the core mode and the modes at the periphery is broken by the oxidation-induced optical field redistribution. Three-dimensional modeling of a practical VCSEL design reveals i) significantly stronger leakage losses for high-order transverse modes than that of the fundamental one as high-order modes have a higher field intensity close to the oxide layers and ii) narrow peaks in the far-field profile generated by the leaky component of the optical modes. Experimental 850-nm GaAlAs leaky VCSELs produced in the modeled design demonstrate i) single-mode lasing with the aperture diameters up to 5μm with side mode suppression ratio >20dB at the current density of 10kA/cm2; and ii) narrow peaks tilted at 37 degrees with respect to the vertical axis in excellent agreement with the modeling data and confirming the leaky nature of the modes and the proposed mechanism of mode selection. The results indicate that in- plane coupling of VCSELs, VCSELs and p-i-n photodiodes, VCSEL and delay lines is possible allowing novel photonic integrated circuits. We show that the approach enables design of oxide apertures, air-gap apertures, devices created by impurity-induced intermixing or any combinations of such designs through quantitative evaluation of the leaky emission.

  12. Simulation of transverse modes with their intrinsic Landau damping for bunched beams in the presence of space charge

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Macridin; Alexey Burov; Eric Stern; James Amundson; Panagiotis Spentzouris

    2015-01-01

    Transverse dipole modes in bunches with space charge are simulated using the synergia accelerator modeling package and analyzed with dynamic mode decomposition. The properties of the first three space charge modes, including their shape, damping rates, and tune shifts are described over the entire range of space charge strength. The intrinsic Landau damping predicted and estimated in 2009 by one of the authors is confirmed with a reasonable scaling factor of ≃2.4. For the KV distribution, ver...

  13. SEARCH FOR DARK MATTER IN EVENTS WITH A SINGLE BOSON AND MISSING TRANSVERSE MOMENTUM WITH ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, Oleg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The presence of a non-baryonic dark matter component in the Universe is inferred from the observation of its gravitational interaction. If dark matter interacts weakly with the Standard Model it would be produced at the LHC, escaping the detector and leaving a large missing transverse momentum as their signature. The results of searches for Dark Matter with a single boson and large missing transverse momentum in 13 TeV will be presented.

  14. An investigation of interfacial stresses in adhesively-bonded single lap joints subject to transverse pulse loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwankwo, E.; Soleiman Fallah, A.; Louca, L. A.

    2013-04-01

    Debonding in adhesively-bonded lap joints is a detrimental failure mode contingent upon the level of stresses develped in the adhesive. In this work, an analytical model is developed to estimate the peel and shear stresses in an isotropic elastic adhesive in a single lap joint subjected to transverse pulse loads. The proposed analytical model is an extension of the mathematical models developed by He and Rao (Journal of Sound and Vibration 152 (3), (1992) 405-416, 417-425) to study the coupled transverse and longitudinal vibrations of a bonded lap joint system. The adhesive, in this work, is modelled as an elastic isotropic material implemented in Abaqus 6.9-1. The interfacial stresses obtained by finite element simulations were used to validate the proposed analytical model. The maximum peel and shear stresses in the adhesive as predicted by the analytical model were found to correlate well with the maximum stresses predicted by the corresponding numerical models. The peel stresses in the adhesive were found to be higher than shear stresses, a result which is consistent with intuition for transversally loaded joints. The analytical model is able to predict the maxium stresses in the edges where debonding initiates due to the highly asymetrical stress distribution as observed in the finite element simulations and experiment. This phenomenon is consistent with observations made by Vaidya et al. (International Journal of Adhesion & Adhesives 26 (2006) 184-198). The stress distribution under uniformily distributed transverse pulse loading was observed to be similarly asymetric.

  15. Optical polyimides for single-mode waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuhler, Allyson J.; Wargowski, David A.; Kowalczyk, Tony C.; Singer, Kenneth D.

    1993-07-01

    The synthesis and optical characterization of fluorinated polyimide systems with potential use in passive waveguides and electro-optic devices is reported. The effect of fluorination on optical properties such as refractive index, birefringence, and near-infrared absorbance is reviewed in terms of optical performance requirements. Synthetic methods of tuning the refractive index in order to achieve appropriate core/cladding differentials is discussed. The relation between processing parameters and refractive index for several polyimide structures also is reported. We describe the microlithographic fabrication of a multilayer polyimide rib- type waveguide that is suitable for single mode guiding. The waveguide is fabricated using photosensitive polyimide systems via negative resist imaging. A comparison of wall profiles and resolution limits afforded by the wet-chemical patterning techniques is presented. Results on channel guide coupling, propagation, and loss are described, as well as progress in producing active guides.

  16. Transverse-electric and transverse-magnetic mode slow light propagation in a two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Donglin; Yu, Zhongyuan; Liu, Yumin; Guo, Xiaotao; Shu, Changgan; Zhou, Shuai

    2013-09-10

    A two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide structure is designed for both TE- and TM-mode slow light propagation. The minimum group index of the waveguide for TE and TM modes can reach to 137.8 and 126.4, and the two polarizations have the same slow light frequency region. The designed structure can provide a large bandwidth range with very low group velocity dispersion for both TE and TM modes. The transmission property investigation for a suspended two-dimensional slab photonic crystal waveguide (PCW) indicates that such slow light character may be retained when perfect reflectors can be fixed on the horizontal surfaces of the slab. Such high group index for both TE and TM modes in two-dimensional PCWs is, to the best of our knowledge, first reported here, and may provide some useful guides for slow light research in theory.

  17. Transverse Electromagnetic Mode Conversion for High-Harmonic Self-Probing Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Camper

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on high-order harmonic (HHG two-source interferometry (TSI in molecular gases. We used a 0-\\(\\pi\\ phase plate to create two bright spots at the focus of a lens by converting a Gaussian laser beam into a TEM please define \\(_{01}\\ Transverse Electromagnetic Mode. The two bright foci produce two synchronized HHG sources. One of them is used to probe on-going dynamics in the generating medium, while the other serves to heterodyne the signal. The interference of the emissions in the far–field gives access to the phase difference between the two sources. In self–probing HHG phase spectroscopy, one of the two sources is used as a reference while the other one probes some on goin dynamics in the generating medium. We first compute overlap integrals to investigate the mode conversion efficiency. We then establish a clear relation between the laser phase-front curvature and the far-field overlap of the two HHG beams. Both Fresnel diffraction calculations and an experimental lens position scan are used to reveal variations of the phase front inclination in each source. We show that this arrangement offers \\(\\frac{\\lambda_{XUV}}{100}\\ precision, enabling extremely sensitive phase measurements. Finally, we use this compact setup for TSI and measure phase variations across the molecular alignment revival of nitrogen and in vibrating sulfur hexafluoride. In both gases, the phase variations change sign around the ionization threshold of the investigated molecule.

  18. Transverse Single-Spin Asymmetries in Proton-Proton Collisions at the AFTER@LHC Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kanazawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present results for transverse single-spin asymmetries in proton-proton collisions at kinematics relevant for AFTER, a proposed fixed-target experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. These include predictions for pion, jet, and direct photon production from analytical formulas already available in the literature. We also discuss specific measurements that will benefit from the higher luminosity of AFTER, which could help resolve an almost 40-year puzzle of what causes transverse single-spin asymmetries in proton-proton collisions.

  19. Optically controllable dual-mode switching in single-mode Fabry-Pérot laser diode subject to one side-mode feedback and external single mode injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Wei; Won, Yong Hyub

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, broadly tunable dual-mode lasing system is presented and demonstrated based on single-mode Fabry-Pérot laser diode subject to the feedback of one side mode amplified by an erbium-doped fiber amplifier in the external feedback cavity. The spacing between two resonance modes in output lasing spectrum is broadly tuned by introducing differently amplified side mode into the single-mode laser via the external cavity consisted of amplifier, filter, and polarization controller so that two difference frequencies of 1 THz and 0.6 THz are given to display the tunable behavior of dual-mode emission in this work. Therefore, under an external injection mode into the laser condition, the power dependent injection locking and optical bistability of generated dual-mode emission are discussed in detail. At different wavelength detunings, the emitted two resonance modes including the dominant and feedback modes are switched to on- or off-state by selecting proper high-low power level of the external injection mode. As a consequence, the maximum value of achieved dual-mode on-off ratio is as high as up to 45 dB.

  20. Transverse Strains in Muscle Fascicles during Voluntary Contraction: A 2D Frequency Decomposition of B-Mode Ultrasound Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Wakeling

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When skeletal muscle fibres shorten, they must increase in their transverse dimensions in order to maintain a constant volume. In pennate muscle, this transverse expansion results in the fibres rotating to greater pennation angle, with a consequent reduction in their contractile velocity in a process known as gearing. Understanding the nature and extent of this transverse expansion is necessary to understand the mechanisms driving the changes in internal geometry of whole muscles during contraction. Current methodologies allow the fascicle lengths, orientations, and curvatures to be quantified, but not the transverse expansion. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate techniques for quantifying transverse strain in skeletal muscle fascicles during contraction from B-mode ultrasound images. Images were acquired from the medial and lateral gastrocnemii during cyclic contractions, enhanced using multiscale vessel enhancement filtering and the spatial frequencies resolved using 2D discrete Fourier transforms. The frequency information was resolved into the fascicle orientations that were validated against manually digitized values. The transverse fascicle strains were calculated from their wavelengths within the images. These methods showed that the transverse strain increases while the longitudinal fascicle length decreases; however, the extent of these strains was smaller than expected.

  1. Influence of transverse mode on retinal spot size and retinal injury effect: A theoretical analysis on 532-nm laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Rui Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental transverse mode (TEM00 is preferable for experimental and theoretical study on the laser-induced retinal injury effect, for it can produce the minimal retinal image and establish the most strict laser safety standards. But actually lasers with higher order mode were frequently used in both earlier and recent studies. Generally higher order mode leads to larger retinal spot size and so higher damage threshold, but there are few quantitative analyses on this problem. In this paper, a four-surface schematic eye model is established for human and macaque. The propagation of 532-nm laser in schematic eye is analyzed by the ABCD law of Gaussian optics. It is shown that retinal spot size increases with laser transverse mode order. For relative lower mode order, the retinal spot diameter will not exceed the minimum laser-induced retinal lesion (25 ~ 30 μm in diameter, and so has little effect on retinal damage threshold. While for higher order mode, the larger retinal spot requires more energy to induce injury and so the damage threshold increases. When beam divergence is lowered, the retinal spot size decreases correspondingly, so the effect of mode order can be compensated. The retinal spot size of macaque is slightly smaller than that of human and the ratio between them is independent of mode order. We conclude that the laser mode order has significant influence on retinal spot size but limited influence on the retinal injury effect.

  2. Low-loss single-mode operation in silicon multi-mode arrayed waveguide grating with a double-etched inverse taper structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaegyu; Kwack, Myung-Joon; Joo, Jiho; Kim, Gyungock

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the single-mode operation in a silicon arrayed multi-mode waveguide grating. By introducing a double-etched structure at the boundary of a star coupler with inverse-tapered waveguides (WGs), the suppression of the mode-coupling between adjacent arrayed multi-mode WGs, and the adiabatic optical mode conversion between a FPR (free propagation region) and arrayed WGs can be achieved with a reduced phase error of the arrayed WGs. The fabricated four-channel Si arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) demonstrates a good performance level, such as a low insertion loss of 0.61 dB (0.73 dB) and low adjacent crosstalk less than -31.3 dB (-32.2 dB) for transverse-electric (TE) (transverse-magnetic, TM) polarization, in the range of ˜1300 nm wavelength.

  3. Radiation response prediction of single mode fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friebele, E. J.; Askins, Charles G.; Brambani, Louise A.; Dorsey, Kenneth L.; Griscom, David L.; Gingerich, Michael E.; Harrington, Calvin C.; Shaw, Cathy M.; Tsai, Tsung-Ein; Paek, Un-Chul

    1988-03-01

    Fiber optic transmission systems, because of their extraordinary channel capacity and decreasing cost, are rapidly becoming the preferred terrestrial transmission media of the nation's long distance, inter-city telecommunications infrastructure. Since the commercial telephone network forms the foundation for emergency communication in the event of a national crisis or emergency, additional requirements are placed on the fibers and components being installed. One of the most stressing environments for the fiber consists of fallout subsequent to a nuclear attack. The susceptibility of some of types of commercially available fiber optic cable to optical darkening (and hence increased signal loss) from exposure to ionizing radiation raises serious questions about the survivability of such systems in the reconstitution phase of a nuclear conflict. There is a large body of knowledge available on the effects of gamma radiation on the older multimode fiber cables. However, there are critically important knowledge gaps with respect to the newer single mode cables which are employed in the inter-city fiber transmission links being installed today. This document is a final report of a two year program funded by NCS at NRL, which was the first systematic study of the interrelationship of fiber fabrication parameters and radiation-induced loss. A rudimentary regression model was developed for predicting the loss induced by a fallout exposure at -35 C.

  4. Transverse target single-spin asymmetry in inclusive electroproduction of charged pions and kaons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Airapetian, A.; Blok, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Single-spin asymmetries were investigated in inclusive electroproduction of charged pions and kaons from transversely polarized protons at the Hermes experiment. The asymmetries were studied as a function of the azimuthal angle ψ about the beam direction between the target-spin direction and the

  5. Broadening the absorption bandwidth of metamaterial absorbers by transverse magnetic harmonics of 210 mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Chang; Yin, Sheng; Wang, Wei; Li, Wei; Zhu, Jianfei; Guan, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    By investigating a square-shaped metamaterial structure we discover that wave diffraction at diagonal corners of such a structure excites transverse magnetic harmonics of 210 mode (TM210 harmonics). Multi-layer overlapping and deliberately regulating period length between adjacent unit cells can significantly enhance TM210 harmonics, leading to a strong absorption waveband. On such a basis, a design strategy is proposed to achieve broadband, thin-thickness multi-layered metamaterial absorbers (MMAs). In this strategy big pyramidal arrays placed in the “white blanks” of a chessboard exhibit two isolated absorption bands due to their fundamental and TM210 harmonics, which are further connected by another absorption band from small pyramidal arrays in the “black blanks” of the chessboard. The as-designed MMA at a total thickness (h) of 4.36 mm shows an absorption of above 0.9 in the whole frequency range of 7–18 GHz, which is 38% broader with respect to previous design methods at the same h. This strategy provides an effective route to extend the absorption bandwidth of MMAs without increasing h. PMID:26888365

  6. Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber as a high resolution probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtna-Lukner, Heli; Repän, Jaagup; Valdma, Sandhra-Mirella; Piksarv, Peeter

    2016-11-20

    We sample ultra-broadband light, focused onto a diffraction-limited spot, to an endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber (ESM) and detect both the field amplitude and phase using a SEA TADPOLE interferometer. We resolve spatial features up to 2.5 times finer than the fiber mode size while sampling the periodic features of the bipolar oscillating field in the transverse section. The resolution enhancement is expected also in other types of single-mode fibers in intensity measurements and leads to an inexpensive method for characterizing the point-spread function of such optical fields, e.g., diffraction-limited spots from microscope objectives. In addition, we demonstrate the guidance of a high-NA light field in the fine structure of an ESM fiber mode. The results are especially valuable for devices where a fiber tip acts as an input slit and defines the spatial resolution, e.g., fiber-based interferometers, spectrometers, and sensors.

  7. Simulation of transverse modes with their intrinsic Landau damping for bunched beams in the presence of space charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Macridin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Transverse dipole modes in bunches with space charge are simulated using the synergia accelerator modeling package and analyzed with dynamic mode decomposition. The properties of the first three space charge modes, including their shape, damping rates, and tune shifts are described over the entire range of space charge strength. The intrinsic Landau damping predicted and estimated in 2009 by one of the authors is confirmed with a reasonable scaling factor of ≃2.4. For the KV distribution, very good agreement with PATRIC simulations performed by Kornilov and Boine-Frankenheim is obtained.

  8. Simulation of transverse modes with their intrinsic Landau damping for bunched beams in the presence of space charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macridin, Alexandru; Burov, Alexey; Stern, Eric; Amundson, James; Spentzouris, Panagiotis

    2015-07-01

    Transverse dipole modes in bunches with space charge are simulated using the synergia accelerator modeling package and analyzed with dynamic mode decomposition. The properties of the first three space charge modes, including their shape, damping rates, and tune shifts are described over the entire range of space charge strength. The intrinsic Landau damping predicted and estimated in 2009 by one of the authors is confirmed with a reasonable scaling factor of ≃2.4 . For the KV distribution, very good agreement with PATRIC simulations performed by Kornilov and Boine-Frankenheim is obtained.

  9. Crosstalk-Managed Heterogeneous Single-Mode 32-Core Fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, Y.; Fukumoto, Ryohei; Takenaga, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    A heterogeneous single-mode 32-core fibre with a cladding diameter of 243 micrometer is designed and fabricated. The highest core count in single-mode multi-core fibres and low worst-case crosstalk of less than -24 dB/1000 km in C-band are achieved simultaneously.......A heterogeneous single-mode 32-core fibre with a cladding diameter of 243 micrometer is designed and fabricated. The highest core count in single-mode multi-core fibres and low worst-case crosstalk of less than -24 dB/1000 km in C-band are achieved simultaneously....

  10. Transverse target single-spin asymmetry in inclusive electroproduction of charged pions and kaons

    CERN Document Server

    Airapetian, A; Akopov, Z; Aschenauer, E C; Augustyniak, W; Avakian, R; Avetissian, A; Avetisyan, E; Belostotski, S; Bianchi, N; Blok, H P; Borissov, A; Bowles, J; Bryzgalov, V; Burns, J; Capiluppi, M; Capitani, G P; Cisbani, E; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, P F; Deconinck, W; De Leo, R; De Nardo, L; De Sanctis, E; Diefenthaler, M; Di Nezza, P; Düren, M; Ehrenfried, M; Elbakian, G; Ellinghaus, F; Fabbri, R; Fantoni, A; Felawka, L; Frullani, S; Gabbert, D; Gapienko, G; Gapienko, V; Gavrilov, G; Gharibyan, V; Giordano, F; Gliske, S; Golembiovskaya, M; Hadjidakis, C; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Hillenbrand, A; Hoek, M; Holler, Y; Hristova, I; Ivanilov, A; Jackson, H E; Joosten, S; Kaiser, R; Karyan, G; Keri, T; Kinney, E; Kisselev, A; Korotkov, V; Kozlov, V; Kravchenko, P; Krivokhijine, V G; Lagamba, L; Lapikás, L; Lehmann, I; Lenisa, P; Ruiz, A López; Lorenzon, W; Ma, B -Q; Mahon, D; Makins, N C R; Manaenkov, S I; Mao, Y; Marianski, B; de la Ossa, A Martinez; Marukyan, H; Miller, C A; Miyachi, Y; Movsisyan, A; Muccifora, V; Murray, M; Mussgiller, A; Nappi, E; Naryshkin, Y; Nass, A; Negodaev, M; Nowak, W -D; Pappalardo, L L; Perez-Benito, R; Petrosyan, A; Raithel, M; Reimer, P E; Reolon, A R; Riedl, C; Rith, K; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, A; Rubin, J; Ryckbosch, D; Salomatin, Y; Sanftl, F; Schäfer, A; Schnell, G; Seitz, B; Shibata, T -A; Shutov, V; Stancari, M; Statera, M; Steffens, E; Steijger, J J M; Stewart, J; Stinzing, F; Taroian, S; Terkulov, A; Truty, R; Trzcinski, A; Tytgat, M; Van Haarlem, Y; Van Hulse, C; Veretennikov, D; Vikhrov, V; Vilardi, I; Wang, S; Yaschenko, S; Ye, Z; Yen, S; Yu, W; Zagrebelnyy, V; Zeiler, D; Zihlmann, B; Zupranski, P

    2013-01-01

    Single-spin asymmetries were investigated in inclusive electroproduction of charged pions and kaons from transversely polarized protons at the HERMES experiment. The asymmetries were studied as a function of the azimuthal angle $\\psi$ about the beam direction between the target-spin direction and the hadron production plane, the transverse hadron momentum relative to the direction of the incident beam, and the Feynman variable $x_F$. The $\\sin(\\psi)$ amplitudes are positive for positive pions and kaons, slightly negative for negative pions and consistent with zero for negative kaons, with particular transverse-momentum but weak $x_F$ dependences. Especially large asymmetries are observed for two small subsamples of events, where also the scattered electron was recorded by the spectrometer.

  11. Bunch-by-bunch measurement of transverse coherent beam-beam modes in the Fermilab Tevatron collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Stancari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A system for bunch-by-bunch detection of transverse proton and antiproton coherent oscillations in the Tevatron is described. It is based on the signal from a single beam-position monitor located in a region of the ring with large amplitude functions. The signal is digitized over a large number of turns and Fourier analyzed off-line with a dedicated algorithm. To enhance the signal, band-limited noise is applied to the beam for about 1 s. This excitation does not adversely affect the circulating beams even at high luminosities. The device has a response time of a few seconds, a frequency resolution of 1.6×10^{-5} in fractional tune, and it is sensitive to oscillation amplitudes of 60 nm. It complements Schottky detectors as a diagnostic tool for tunes, tune spreads, and beam-beam effects. Measurements of coherent mode spectra are presented to show the effects of betatron tunes, beam-beam parameter, and collision pattern, and to provide an experimental basis for beam-beam numerical codes. Comparisons with a simplified model of beam-beam oscillations are also described.

  12. Longitudinal and transverse propagation of surface mechanomyographic waves generated by single motor unit activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cescon, Corrado; Madeleine, Pascal; Farina, Dario

    2008-09-01

    Multi-channel surface mechanomyographic (MMG) signals generated by individual motor units were analyzed to investigate whether the surface mechanical waves induced by fiber contraction propagate over the skin surface. The MMG signals were recorded from the tibialis anterior muscle of ten healthy subjects with 13 uniaxial accelerometers, located both along and transverse to the fiber direction. Intramuscular electromyographic signals served to identify individual motor units whose action potentials were used to trigger the averaging of the MMG signals. The spike-triggered averaged MMG had similar characteristics in locations along the longitudinal direction; however, its amplitude decreased along the transverse direction. Moreover, the time-to-positive peak increased along the transverse direction, indicating a transverse wave propagation with a velocity of 2.4 +/- 1.1 m/s in the linear direction. The results support the hypothesis that the MMG signal mainly originates from muscle fiber displacement underlining a bending mode due to contraction and provide the basis for interpreting the interference MMG in relation to motor unit activity.

  13. Transverse Single-Spin Asymmetries of Direct Photons from Proton-Proton Collisions at Forward Rapidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyser, Oleg; STAR Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Transverse single-spin asymmetries in high energy collisions offer unique ways to study the nucleon structure beyond the conventional leading twist collinear picture in hard QCD processes. While transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions require two scales (hard and soft), observables with a single hard scale can be described in a collinear framework with multiparton correlations (twist-3). Both are related when the intrinsic transverse momentum is integrated. Initial and final state effects can contribute to different probes and need to be disentangled. In 2015, the STAR experiment at RHIC has extended the forward calorimeter, 2.5< η<4.0 with a preshower detector in order to study transverse asymmetries of direct photon production in proton-proton collisions at a center of mass energy of 200 GeV. This measurement will contribute to the universality test of initial state spin-orbit correlations (sign-change between hadronic collisions and deep inelastic scattering) and serve as first input to a proper evolution of higher twist functions as function of momentum transfer. We will present the status of the analysis and discuss implications on the theoretical description.

  14. Interferometric measurement of the helical mode of a single photon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvez, E J; Coyle, L E; Johnson, E; Reschovsky, B J, E-mail: egalvez@colgate.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Colgate University, 13 Oak Drive, Hamilton, NY 13346 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    We present measurements of the helical mode of single photons and do so by sending heralded photons through a Mach-Zehnder interferometer that prepares the light in a helical mode with topological charge one, and interferes it with itself in the fundamental non-helical mode. Masks placed after the interferometer were used to diagnose the amplitude and phase of the mode of the light. Auxiliary measurements verified that the light was in a non-classical state. The results are in good agreement with theory. The experiments demonstrate in a direct way that single photons carry the entire spatial helical-mode information.

  15. Single-Mode, High Repetition Rate, Compact Ho:YLF Laser for Space-Borne Lidar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong; Wong, Teh-Hwa; Chen, Songsheng; Petros, Mulugeta; Singh, Upendra N.

    2014-01-01

    A single transverse/longitudinal mode, compact Q-switched Ho:YLF laser has been designed and demonstrated for space-borne lidar applications. The pulse energy is between 34-40 mJ for 100-200 Hz operation. The corresponding peak power is >1 MW.

  16. Multipass-prism interferometer for fine-frequency-tuning, single-mode operation of TEA CO(2) lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, G; Palange, E; Salvetti, G

    1984-09-01

    A novel interferometric configuration has been used as an efficient, narrow-band output coupler for high-power lasers. Its application to a TEA CO(2) laser has resulted in extremely reliable (100%) single transverse- and longitudinal-mode operation of this laser with a fine-frequency tunability of up to 3 GHz.

  17. Single mode variable-sensitivity fiber optic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, K. A.; Fogg, B. R.; Gunther, M. F.; Claus, R. O.

    1992-01-01

    We review spatially-weighted optical fiber sensors that filter specific vibration modes from one dimensional beams placed in clamped-free and clamped-clamped configurations. The sensitivity of the sensor is varied along the length of the fiber by tapering circular-core, dual-mode optical fibers. Selective vibration mode suppression on the order of 10 dB was obtained. We describe experimental results and propose future extensions to single mode sensor applications.

  18. Transverse single-spin asymmetries for direct photon and neutral pion production in midrapidity at PHENIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nicole; Phenix Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Large transverse single spin asymmetries for hadron production in proton-proton collisions were some of the first indicators of significant nonperturbative spin-momentum correlations in the proton. They have been found to persist up to collision energies of 510 GeV, yet their origin remains poorly understood. Measurements of different final-state particles in a wide variety of collision systems over a range of kinematics can help to identify and separate contributions from the proton versus hadronization, and from different parton flavors. Depending on the rapidity pion production can provide access to both initial- and final-state effects for a mix of parton flavors, while direct photons depend only on initial-state effects and are particularly sensitive to gluon dynamics in RHIC kinematics. The status of transverse single spin measurements for neutral pions and direct photons performed for p+p, p+Al, and p+Au collisions at PHENIX will be presented.

  19. Cohesive Modeling of Transverse Cracking in Laminates with a Single Layer of Elements per Ply

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerMeer, Frans P.; Davila, Carlos G.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to bridge the gap between classical understanding of transverse cracking in cross-ply laminates and recent computational methods for the modeling of progressive laminate failure. Specifically, the study investigates under what conditions a finite element model with cohesive X-FEM cracks can reproduce the in situ effect for the ply strength. It is shown that it is possible to do so with a single element across the thickness of the ply, provided that the interface stiffness is properly selected. The optimal value for this interface stiffness is derived with an analytical shear lag model. It is also shown that, when the appropriate statistical variation of properties has been applied, models with a single element through the thickness of a ply can predict the density of transverse matrix cracks

  20. Cascaded silicon-on-insulator double-ring sensors operating in high-sensitivity transverse-magnetic mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xianxin; Ye, Junjun; Zou, Jun; Li, Mingyu; He, Jian-Jun

    2013-04-15

    We demonstrate ultrahigh-sensitivity silicon photonic sensors based on two cascaded double-ring resonators operating in transverse-magnetic mode. Both wavelength interrogation and intensity interrogation methods are experimentally investigated and the sensitivities reached 24,300 nm/RIU and 2430 dB/RIU, respectively. We also show that the double-ring sensors can be simply cascaded to realize simultaneous detection of multiple species, which is very promising for low-cost array applications.

  1. Cross-correlated imaging of single-mode photonic crystal rod fiber with distributed mode filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurila, Marko; Barankov, Roman; Jørgensen, Mette Marie

    2013-01-01

    Photonic crystal bandgap fibers employing distributed mode filtering design provide near diffraction-limited light outputs, a critical property of fiber-based high-power lasers. Microstructure of the fibers is tailored to achieve single-mode operation at specific wavelength by resonant mode coupl...

  2. Transverse mode coupling instability in the SPS: Headtail simulation and moses calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Salvant, B; Rumolo, G; Tomás, R

    2008-01-01

    Since 2003, single bunches of protons with high intensity (~ 1.2 1011 protons) and low longitudinal emittance (~ 0.2 eVs) have been observed to suffer from heavy losses in less than one synchrotron period after injection at 26 GeV/c in the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) when the vertical chromaticity is corrected (ξy ~ 0). Understanding the mechanisms underlying this instability is crucial to assess the feasibility of an anticipated upgrade of the SPS, which requires bunches of 4 1011 protons. Analytical calculations and particle tracking simulations had already agreed in predicting the intensity threshold of a fast instability. The aim of the present paper is to present a sensitive frequency analysis of the HEADTAIL simulations output using SUSSIX, which brought to light the fine structure of the mode spectrum of the bunch coherent motion. Coupling between the azimuthal modes “-2” and “-3” was clearly observed to be the reason for this fast instability.

  3. Direct experimental measurement of single-mode and mode-hopping dynamics in frequency swept lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, T P; Goulding, D; Kelleher, B; O'Shaughnessy, B; Slepneva, S; Hegarty, S P; Huyet, G

    2017-10-30

    A time-resolved study is presented of the single-mode and mode-switching dynamics observed in swept source vertical cavity surfing emitting lasers and swept wavelength short external cavity lasers. A self-delayed interferometric technique is used to experimentally measure the phase and intensity of these frequency swept lasers, allowing direct examination of the modal dynamics. Visualisation of the instantaneous optical spectrum reveals mode-hop free single mode lasing in the case of the vertical cavity laser, with a tuning rate of 6.3 GHz/ns. More complex mode-switching behaviour occurs in the external cavity laser, with the mode-hopping dynamics found to be dominated by the deterministic movement of the spectral filter. Evidence of transient multi-mode operation and mode-pulling is also presented.

  4. BEND-INDUCED LOSSES IN A SINGLE-MODE MICROSTRUCTURED FIBER WITH A LARGE CORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Gatchin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A study of bend-induced losses in a silica-based single-mode microstructured fiber with a core diameter ranging from 20 to 35 microns and increased relative air content in the holey cladding has been conducted. With the use of the equivalent step-index profile method in approximation of waveguide parameters of microstructured fiber (normalized frequency and normalized transverse attenuation constant the effect of bending on the spectral position of the fundamentalmode short-wavelength leakage boundary has been analyzed. Upon measurement of spectral characteristics of attenuation in the considered fibers good accordance of numerical and experimental data has been found out. It is shown that increase of the air content in the holey cladding leads to expansion of the mentioned boundary to lower wavelengths for the value from 150 to 800 nm depending on the core size and bending conditions. A single-transverse-mode propagation is achieved on fiber length of 5-10 meters due to a substantial difference in losses of fundamental and higher-order guided modes attained by bending. Optical losses in all studied samples are less than 10 dB/km at the wavelength λ = 1550 nm. The results of the study can be applied in the design of high-power laser systems having such basic requirements as a relatively large mode spot and high beam quality.

  5. Design and analysis of large-core single-mode windmill single crystal sapphire optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yujie; Hill, Cary; Liu, Bo; Yu, Zhihao; Xuan, Haifeng; Homa, Daniel; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary

    2016-06-01

    We present a large-core single-mode "windmill" single crystal sapphire optical fiber (SCSF) design, which exhibits single-mode operation by stripping off the higher-order modes (HOMs) while maintaining the fundamental mode. The "windmill" SCSF design was analyzed using the finite element analysis method, in which all the HOMs are leaky. The numerical simulation results show single-mode operation in the spectral range from 0.4 to 2 μm in the windmill SCSF, with an effective core diameter as large as 14 μm. Such fiber is expected to improve the performance of many of the current sapphire fiber optic sensor structures.

  6. Engineering of optical modes in vertical-cavity microresonators by aperture placement: applications to single-mode and near-field lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchukin, V. A.; Ledentsov, N. N.; Kropp, J.-R.; Steinle, G.; Ledentsov, N. N.; Choquette, K. D.; Burger, S.; Schmidt, F.

    2015-03-01

    Oxide-confined vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) are inherently leaky structures, despite the fact that the oxidized periphery region surrounding the all-semiconductor core has a lower refractive index. The reason is that the VCSEL modes in the non-oxidized core region can be coupled to tilted modes in the selectively oxidized periphery as the orthogonality between the core mode and the modes at the periphery is broken by the oxidation-induced optical field redistribution. Engineered VCSEL designs show that the overlap between the VCSEL mode of the core and the tilted mode in the periphery can reach >30% resulting in significant leakage. Three-dimensional modeling confirms that the leakage losses are much stronger for high order transverse modes which have a higher field intensity close to the oxidized region. Single mode lasing in the fundamental mode can thus proceed up to large aperture diameters. A 850-nm GaAlAs leaky VCSEL based on this concept is designed, modeled and fabricated, showing single-mode lasing with aperture diameters up to 5 μm. Side mode suppression ratio >20dB is realized at the current density of 10kA/cm2 in devices with the series resistance of 90 Ω.

  7. The single-mode CSR instability for a bunched beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heifets, Samuel A

    2003-03-19

    The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) instability at the shielding threshold may be driven by a single synchronous mode excited by the beam in the beam pipe. The instability in this case has been analyzed [1] in the coasting beam approximation neglecting synchrotron motion. The later becomes important at large time intervals in storage rings where it substantially affects the beam dynamics. The single-mode CSR instability of a bunched beam with the synchrotron motion taken into account is described in this paper both in linear and nonlinear regimes. Analysis is relevant to other instabilities where the interaction is dominated by a single mode.

  8. Longitudinal-transverse double-spin asymmetries in single-inclusive leptoproduction of hadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, K.; Metz, A.; Pitonyak, D.; Schlegel, M.

    2015-03-01

    We analyze the longitudinal-transverse double-spin asymmetry in lepton-nucleon collisions where a single hadron is detected in the final state, i.e., ℓ → N↑ → h X. This is a subleading-twist observable in collinear factorization, and we look at twist-3 effects in both the transversely polarized nucleon and the unpolarized outgoing hadron. Results are anticipated for this asymmetry from both HERMES and Jefferson Lab Hall A, and it could be measured as well at COMPASS and a future Electron-Ion Collider. We also perform a numerical study of the distribution term, which, when compared to upcoming experimental results, could allow one to learn about the "worm-gear"-type function g ˜ (x) as well as assess the role of quark-gluon-quark correlations in the initial-state nucleon and twist-3 effects in the fragmenting unpolarized hadron.

  9. Transverse target single-spin asymmetry in inclusive electroproduction of charged pions and kaons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). 2. Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Laboratory of Physics; Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Argentina); Akopov, Z. [DESY Hamburg (Germany)] [and others; Collaboration: HERMES Collaboration

    2013-10-15

    Single-spin asymmetries were investigated in inclusive electroproduction of charged pions and kaons from transversely polarized protons at the HERMES experiment. The asymmetries were studied as a function of the azimuthal angle {psi} about the beam direction between the target-spin direction and the hadron production plane, the transverse hadron momentum P{sub T} relative to the direction of the incident beam, and the Feynman variable x{sub F}. The sin {psi} amplitudes are positive for {pi}{sup +} and K{sup +}, slightly negative for {pi}{sup -} consistent with zero for K{sup -}, with particular P{sub T} but weak x{sub F} dependences. Especially large asymmetries are observed for two small subsamples of events, where also the scattered electron was recorded by the spectrometer.

  10. Interaction of solitary pulses in single mode optical fibres | Usman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interaction of solitary pulses in single mode optical fibres. A Usman, J Osman, DR Tilley. Abstract. We attempt to classify interaction of nonlinear optical pulses that propagate in form of solitary waves in single made optical fibres. Two solitary waves launched, by way of incidence, into an optical fibre from a single pulse if the ...

  11. Observation of single isolated electrons of high transverse momentum in events with missing transverse energy at the CERN anti pp collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banner, M.; Bloch, P.; Lancon, E.; Loucatos, S.; Mansoulie, B.; Polverel, M.; Roussarie, A.; Teiger, J.; Zaccone, H. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Battiston, R. (Perugia Univ. (Italy). Dipartimento di Fisica

    1983-03-17

    We report the results of a search for single isolated electrons of high transverse momentum at the CERN anti pp collider. Above 15 GeV/c, four events are found having large missing transverse energy along a direction opposite in azimuth to that of the high-psub(T) electron. Both the configuration of the events and their number are consistent with the expectations from the process anti p + p -> Wsup(+-) + anything, with W -> e/sup +/v, where Wsup(+-) is the charged Intermediate Vector Boson postulated by the unified electroweak theory.

  12. Analyses of mode filling factor of a laser end-pumped by a LD with high-order transverse modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Juhong; Wang, You; An, Guofei; Rong, Kepeng; Yu, Hang; Wang, Shunyan; Zhang, Wei; Cai, He; Xue, Liangping; Wang, Hongyuan; Zhou, Jie

    2017-05-01

    Although the concept of the mode filling factor (also named as "mode-matching efficiency") has been well discussed decades before, the concept of so-called overlap coefficient is often confused by the laser technicians because there are several different formulae for various engineering purposes. Furthermore, the LD-pumped configurations have become the mainstream of solid-state lasers since their compact size, high optical-to-optical efficiency, low heat generation, etc. As the beam quality of LDs are usually very unsatisfactory, it is necessary to investigate how the mode filling factor of a laser system is affected by a high-powered LD pump source. In this paper, theoretical analyses of an end-pumped laser are carried out based on the normalized overlap coefficient formalism. The study provides a convenient tool to describe the intrinsically complex issue of mode interaction corresponding to a laser and an end-pumped source. The mode filling factor has been studied for many cases in which the pump mode and the laser mode have been considered together in the calculation based on analyses of the rate equations. The results should be applied for analyses of any other types of lasers with the similar optical geometry.

  13. Quasi-single-mode homogeneous 31-core fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, Y.; Saitoh, S.; Amma, Y.

    2015-01-01

    A homogeneous 31-core fibre with a cladding diameter of 230 μm for quasi-single-mode transmission is designed and fabricated. LP01-crosstalk of -38.4 dB/11 km at 1550 nm is achieved by using few-mode trench-assisted cores....

  14. Single-mode fibre coupler as refractometer sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    medium. Variation of refractive index as small as 0.001 RIU can be measured with our proposed sensor. Keywords. Fibre-optic sensor; intensity modulation; ... mode field distribution of the point source from the output port of a single-mode fibre .... Refractive index of propylene glycol can be varied by adding pure water.

  15. LOPUT Laser: A novel concept to realize single longitudinal mode ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-05

    Feb 5, 2014 ... We propose a novel type of cavity design to generate single longitudinal mode laser known as LOPUT cavity. LOPUT cavity stands for linear orthogonally polarized modes resulting in unidirectional travelling wave cavity. The technique can be applied to both isotropic as well as anisotropic gain mediums.

  16. Biconical-taper single-mode fiber coupler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, B S; Hill, K O; Lamont, R G

    1981-07-01

    Single-mode fiber couplers produced as fused biconical-taper structures are reported on. The devices exhibit low loss (0.5 dB), arbitrary branching ratio, polarization independence, and broadband operation in wavelength.

  17. Adaptive coupling approach for single mode VCSELs with polymer waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, E.; Elmogi, A.; Wiegersma, S.; Berg, H. van den; Ortsiefer, M.; Daly, A.; Duis, J.; Steenberge, G. van

    2014-01-01

    A novel coupling approach for single mode VCSELs and planar optical waveguides is presented. The coupling is based on the embedding of the VCSELs inside the substrate and the adaptive fabrication of waveguides on top.

  18. Optimize Etching Based Single Mode Fiber Optic Temperature Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ajay Kumar; Dr. Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    ...) optic sensors in specified constant time and temperature. We propose a single mode optical fiber based temperature sensor, where the temperature sensing region is obtained by etching its cladding diameter over small length to a critical value...

  19. Single-Mode to Multi-Mode Crossover in Thin-Load Polymethyl Methacrylate Plasmonic Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Großmann, Malte; Thomaschewski, Martin; Klick, Alwin

    2018-01-01

    identifying a crossover from single-mode to multi-mode waveguiding as a function of excitation wavelength λ and DLSSPW cross section. Experiment and simulations yield, furthermore, indications for the formation of a surface plasmon-polariton cavity mode in the close vicinity of the waveguides.......Mode character and mode dispersion of sub-60-nm-thick polymethyl methacrylate dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides (DLSPPWs) are investigated using photoemission electron microscopy and finite element method simulations. Experiment and simulation show excellent agreement and allow...

  20. Formation of aerial standing wave field using ultrasonic sources consisting of multiple stripe-mode transverse vibrating plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Koki; Asami, Takuya; Miura, Hikaru

    2015-07-01

    Intense aerial acoustic waves can be produced by an ultrasonic source consisting of a transverse vibrating plate and an external jutting driving point. Previously, we studied the dimensional parameters of vibrating plates to produce stripe-mode patterns and thereby determine the plate dimensions that generate high-quality patterns. In this research, we use four transverse vibrating plates as ultrasonic sources to produce intense standing wave fields in air. As a result, an aerial standing wave field was formed in the field surrounded by four vibrating plates. Furthermore, for a total input power of 30 W for the two ultrasonic sources, a very strong (sound pressure level, 167 dB) wave field is obtained.

  1. Separating and combining single-mode and multimode optical beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Anthony J; Masquelier, Donald A; Cooke, Jeffery B; Kallman, Jeffery S

    2013-11-12

    Techniques for combining initially separate single mode and multimode optical beams into a single "Dual Mode" fiber optic have been developed. Bi-directional propagation of two beams that are differentiated only by their mode profiles (i.e., wavefront conditions) is provided. The beams can be different wavelengths and or contain different modulation information but still share a common aperture. This method allows the use of conventional micro optics and hybrid photonic packaging techniques to produce small rugged packages suitable for use in industrial or military environments.

  2. Single-SectionFabry-Perot Mode-Locked Semiconductor Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of the theoretical models and experimental verification of the single-section Fabry-Perot mode-locked semiconductor lasers based on multiple-spatial-mode (MSM coupling. The mode-locked operation at the repetition rates of 40 GHz and higher and the pulse width of a few picoseconds are confirmed by the intensity autocorrelation, the fast photo detection and RF spectrum, and the optical spectral interference measurement of ultrafast pulse. The spatial mode coupling theory of single-section Fabry-Perot mode-locked semiconductor lasers is also reviewed, and the results are compared with the experimental observations. The small signal modulation response of these lasers, which exhibits high-frequency responses well beyond the relaxation oscillation resonance limit, is also modeled theoretically, and the simulation is verified by the experimental measurements.

  3. Efficient multi-mode to single-mode coupling in a photonic lantern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordegraaf, Danny; Skovgaard, Peter M.; Nielsen, Martin D.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a high performance multi-mode (MM) to single-mode (SM) splitter or “photonic lantern”, first described by Leon-Saval et al. (2005). Our photonic lantern is a solid all-glass version, and we show experimentally that this device can be used to achieve efficient...

  4. Multi-mode to single-mode conversion in a 61 port photonic lantern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordegraaf, Danny; Skovgaard, Peter M.W.; Maack, Martin D.

    2010-01-01

    Efficient multi-mode (MM) to single-mode (SM) conversion in a 61 port splitter or “Photonic Lantern” is demonstrated. The coupling loss from a 100 µm core diameter MM section to an ensemble of 61 SM fibers and back to another 100 µm core MM section is measured to be as low as 0.76 d...

  5. Linear optical quantum computing in a single spatial mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Peter C; Metcalf, Benjamin J; Spring, Justin B; Moore, Merritt; Jin, Xian-Min; Barbieri, Marco; Kolthammer, W Steven; Walmsley, Ian A

    2013-10-11

    We present a scheme for linear optical quantum computing using time-bin-encoded qubits in a single spatial mode. We show methods for single-qubit operations and heralded controlled-phase (cphase) gates, providing a sufficient set of operations for universal quantum computing with the Knill-Laflamme-Milburn [Nature (London) 409, 46 (2001)] scheme. Our protocol is suited to currently available photonic devices and ideally allows arbitrary numbers of qubits to be encoded in the same spatial mode, demonstrating the potential for time-frequency modes to dramatically increase the quantum information capacity of fixed spatial resources. As a test of our scheme, we demonstrate the first entirely single spatial mode implementation of a two-qubit quantum gate and show its operation with an average fidelity of 0.84±0.07.

  6. Tunable single-mode slot waveguide quantum cascade lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Bo; Tao, Jin; Quan Zeng, Yong [NOVITAS, Nanoelectronics Centre of Excellence, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); CINTRA CNRS/NTU/THALES, UMI 3288, Research Techno Plaza, 50 Nanyang Drive, Border X Block, Level 6, 637553 Singapore (Singapore); Hui Li, Xiao [NOVITAS, Nanoelectronics Centre of Excellence, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Wu, Sheng [Power Energy and Environmental Research Institute, Covina, California, 91722 (United States); Jie Wang, Qi, E-mail: qjwang@ntu.edu.sg [NOVITAS, Nanoelectronics Centre of Excellence, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); CDPT, Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2014-05-19

    We report experimental demonstration of tunable, monolithic, single-mode quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) at ∼10 μm with a two-section etched slot structure. A single-mode tuning range of 77 cm{sup −1} (785 nm), corresponding to ∼7.8% of the relative tuning range, was realized with a ∼20 dB side mode suppression ratio within the whole tuning range. Compared with integrated distributed feedback QCLs, our devices have the advantages of easy fabrication and a broader tuning range. Further theoretical analyses and numerical simulations show that it is possible to achieve a broad continuous tuning range by optimizing the slot structures. The proposed slot-waveguide design could provide an alternative but simple approach to the existing tuning schemes for realizing broadly continuous tunable single-mode QCLs.

  7. Model of the transverse modes of stable and unstable porro–prism resonators using symmetry considerations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burger, L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple model of a Porro prism laser resonator has been found to correctly predict the formation of the “petal” mode patterns typical of these resonators. A geometrical analysis of the petals suggests that these petals are the lowest−order modes...

  8. Transverse kick in misaligned traveling wave structures driven at the fundamental mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittum, D.H. [Stanford Univ., CA (US). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Henke, H. [Technical Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    1998-04-01

    Fabrication errors in traveling wave structures result in non-axisymmetric RF fields that couple to the rf drive at the fundamental mode frequency. The authors calculate the excitation of the dipole mode and the integrated effect on the beam, using the thin iris and small hole approximation.

  9. Single mode dye-doped polymer photonic crystal lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Buss, Thomas; Smith, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    Dye-doped polymer photonic crystal (PhC) lasers fabricated by combined nanoimprint and photolithography are studied for their reproducibility and stability characteristics. We introduce a phase shift in the PhC lattice that substantially improves the yield of single wavelength emission. Single mode...

  10. Measurement of the Transverse Single-Spin Asymmetry in p^{↑}+p→W^{±}/Z^{0} at RHIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Attri, A; Averichev, G S; Bai, X; Bairathi, V; Banerjee, A; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Bouchet, J; Brandenburg, J D; Brandin, A V; Bunzarov, I; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Campbell, J M; Cebra, D; Chakaberia, I; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, X; Chen, J H; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Christie, W; Contin, G; Crawford, H J; Das, S; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Esha, R; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Federic, P; Fedorisin, J; Feng, Z; Filip, P; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Fulek, L; Gagliardi, C A; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Hamad, A; Hamed, A; Haque, R; Harris, J W; He, L; Heppelmann, S; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, X; Huang, H Z; Huang, B; Huang, T; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Jentsch, A; Jia, J; Jiang, K; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Khan, Z H; Kikoła, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Kochenda, L; Koetke, D D; Kosarzewski, L K; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kumar, L; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Li, C; Li, Y; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Lin, T; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, R; Ma, L; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Magdy, N; Majka, R; Manion, A; Margetis, S; Markert, C; McDonald, D; Meehan, K; Mei, J C; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, D; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nigmatkulov, G; Niida, T; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Okorokov, V A; Olvitt, D; Page, B S; Pak, R; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Pile, P; Pluta, J; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Posik, M; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, M K; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, Z; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Sikora, R; Simko, M; Singha, S; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solyst, W; Song, L; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stepanov, M; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Summa, B; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Sun, X M; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Tawfik, A; Thäder, J; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Todoroki, T; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Tripathy, S K; Tsai, O D; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Upsal, I; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Varma, R; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wang, J S; Wang, Y; Wang, F; Wang, Y; Wang, H; Wang, G; Webb, J C; Webb, G; Wen, L; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y; Xiao, Z G; Xie, X; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, N; Xu, Y F; Xu, Z; Xu, Q H; Xu, J; Xu, H; Yang, Q; Yang, Y; Yang, S; Yang, Y; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, S; Zhang, Z; Zhang, S; Zhang, J B; Zhang, Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J; Zhang, X P; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhou, L; Zhu, X; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2016-04-01

    We present the measurement of the transverse single-spin asymmetry of weak boson production in transversely polarized proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s]=500  GeV by the STAR experiment at RHIC. The measured observable is sensitive to the Sivers function, one of the transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution functions, which is predicted to have the opposite sign in proton-proton collisions from that observed in deep inelastic lepton-proton scattering. These data provide the first experimental investigation of the nonuniversality of the Sivers function, fundamental to our understanding of QCD.

  11. Transverse mode instability in high-power ytterbium doped fiber ampliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristian Rymann

    the otherwise nearly diffraction-limited beam quality of fiber amplifiers, was discovered. The latter effect has impeded the further power scaling of fiber lasers, since the mode instability sets in when the average power exceeds a certain threshold. The purpose of the research presented in this thesis...... based on the beam propagation method, and the second is by a formulation of a coupled-mode model of thermally induced mode instability. The former approach is used to study the effect of quantum defect heating on the guiding properties of the fiber, while the latter provides a simplified description......The last couple of decades have brought an impressive growth in the output power of rare-earth doped fiber lasers and amplifiers, reaching the kW average power regime in both CW and pulsed systems. As a result, even though fiber lasers have excellent heat dissipation properties, thermal effects due...

  12. Transverse preputial onlay island flap urethroplasty for single-stage correction of proximal hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Arbinder Kumar; Dubey, Manish; Jain, Viral

    2016-07-01

    Transverse preputial onlay island flap urethroplasty (TPOIF) was described initially for distal hypospadias, but has seen extended application for proximal hypospadias. We describe a set of modifications in the technique and results in a large series of proximal hypospadias. All children who underwent TPOIF repair for proximal hypospadias (proximal penile, penoscrotal and scrotal) from June 2006 to June 2013 by a single surgeon were prospectively followed till June, 2014. A standard technique and postoperative protocol were followed. Salient points to be emphasized in the technique: (1) dissection of the dartos pedicle till penopubic junction to prevent penile torsion, (2) incorporation of the spongiosum in the urethroplasty, (3) midline urethral plate incision in glans (hinging the plate), (4) Dartos blanket cover on whole urethroplasty. Out of 136 children with proximal hypospadias, 92 children who underwent TPOIF formed the study group. Out of 92 children, 48 (52 %) children required a tunica albuginea plication for chordee correction. In total, 16 (17 %) patients developed 24 complications and 11 children (12 %) required second surgeries: fistula closure in 7 (with meatoplasty in 5), glansplasty for glans dehiscence in 2 and excision of diverticulum in 2. Two children required a third surgery. Only 5 children had a noticeable penile torsion (less than 30 degree), and 7 had a patulous meatus. Transverse preputial onlay island flap urethroplasty can deliver reliable cosmetic and functional outcomes in proximal hypospadias.

  13. Transverse parton momenta in single inclusive hadron production in e+e- annihilation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boglione, M.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J. O.; Taghavi, R.

    2017-09-01

    We study the transverse momentum distributions of single inclusive hadron production in e+e- annihilation processes. Although the only available experimental data are scarce and quite old, we find that the fundamental features of transverse momentum dependent (TMD) evolution, historically addressed in Drell-Yan processes and, more recently, in Semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering processes, are visible in e+e- annihilations as well. Interesting effects related to its non-perturbative regime can be observed. We test two different parameterizations for the p⊥ dependence of the cross section: the usual Gaussian distribution and a power-law model. We find the latter to be more appropriate in describing this particular set of experimental data, over a relatively large range of p⊥ values. We use this model to map some of the features of the data within the framework of TMD evolution, and discuss the caveats of this and other possible interpretations, related to the one-dimensional nature of the available experimental data.

  14. Search for Dark Matter in Events with a Single Boson and Missing Transverse Momentum using the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Okawa, Hideki; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The presence of a non-baryonic dark matter component in the Universe is inferred from the observation of its gravitational interaction. If dark matter interacts weakly with the Standard Model it would be produced at the LHC, escaping the detector and leaving a large missing transverse momentum as their signature. The results of searches with a single boson and large missing transverse momentum in 13 TeV will be presented.

  15. 2-kW single-mode fiber laser employing bidirectional-pump scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Zheng, Wenyou; Shi, Pengyang; Zhang, Xinhai

    2018-01-01

    2kW single-mode fiber laser with two cascade home-made cladding light strippers (CLSs) by employing bidirectionalpump scheme has been demonstrated. 2.009 kW signal power is obtained when pump power is 2.63 kW and the slope efficiency is 76.6%. Raman Stokes light is less than -47 dB at 2.009 kW even with a 10-m delivery fiber with core/inner cladding diameter of 20/400um. The beam quality M2<=1.2 and the spectral FWHM bandwidth is 4.34nm. There is no transverse mode instability and the output power stability of +/-0.14% is achieved by special thermal management for a more uniform temperature distribution on the Yb-doped gain fiber.

  16. Efficient multi-mode to single-mode conversion in a 61 port photonic lantern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordegraaf, Danny; Skovgaard, Peter M. W.; Dybendahl Maack, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a multi-mode (MM) to 61 port single-mode (SM) splitter or "Photonic Lantern". Low port count Photonic Lanterns were first described by Leon-Saval et al. (2005). These are based on a photonic crystal fiber type design, with air-holes defining the multi-mode fiber...... (MMF) cladding. Our fabricated Photonic Lanterns are solid all-glass versions, with the MMF defined by a low-index tube surrounding the single-mode fibers (SMFs). We show experimentally that these devices can be used to achieve efficient and reversible coupling between a MMF and 61 SMFs, when perfectly...... of astrophotonics for coupling MM star-light to an ensemble of SM fibers in order to perform fiber Bragg grating based spectral filtering....

  17. Optical injection locking of transverse modes in 1.3-µm wavelength coupled-VCSEL arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, C M; Mutter, L; Dwir, B; Mereuta, A; Caliman, A; Sirbu, A; Iakovlev, V; Kapon, E

    2014-09-08

    Optical injection locking of 1.3-µm phase-locked VCSEL arrays defined by patterned tunnel junctions and wafer fusion is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The impact of the overlap between the master laser injection beam and the injected modes is demonstrated and explained with a rate equation model that incorporates the spatial variations.

  18. Single-sided mobile NMR apparatus using the transverse flux of a single permanent magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Hao; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Hwang, Lian-Pin

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a simple design for a mobile, single-sided nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) apparatus which uses the magnetic flux parallel to the magnetization direction of a single, disc-shaped permanent magnet polarized in radial direction. The stray magnetic field above the magnet is approximately parallel to the magnetization direction of the magnet and is utilized as the B(0) magnetic field of the apparatus. The apparatus weighs 1.8 kg, has a compact structure and can be held in one's palm. The apparatus generates a B(0) field strength of about 0.279 T at the center of apparatus surface and can acquire a clear Hahn echo signal of a pencil eraser block lying on the RF coil in one shot. Moreover, a strong static magnetic field gradient exists in the direction perpendicular to the apparatus surface. The strength of the static magnetic field gradient near the center of the apparatus surface is about 10.2 T/m; one-dimensional imaging of thin objects and liquid self-diffusion coefficient measurements can be performed therein. The available spatial resolution of the one-dimensional imaging experiments using a 5 x 5 mm horizontal sample area is about 200 mum. Several nondestructive inspection applications of the apparatus, including distinguishing between polyethylene grains of different densities, characterizing epoxy putties of distinct set times and evaluating the fat content percentages of milk powders, are also demonstrated. Compared with many previously published designs, the proposed design bears a simple structure and generates a B(0) magnetic field parallel to the apparatus surface, simplifying apparatus construction and simultaneously rendering the selection of the radiofrequency coil relatively flexible.

  19. Coulomb singularity in the transverse momentum distribution for strong-field single ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudenko, A; Zrost, K; Ergler, Th; Voitkiv, A B; Najjari, B; Jesus, V L B de; Feuerstein, B; Schroeter, C D; Moshammer, R; Ullrich, J [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2005-06-14

    We present high-resolution momentum distributions of ions and electrons created in single ionization of He, Ne and Ar targets by intense (0.15-2 PW cm{sup -2}) short-pulsed (25 fs) linearly polarized laser fields in the direction perpendicular to the polarization. Instead of a Gaussian shape predicted by standard tunnelling theory, the experimental data exhibit a sharp cusp-like peak at zero transverse momentum. The comparison of experimental data with (i) calculations performed within the strong-field approximation employing a Coulomb-Volkov wavefunction to model the final electron state and (ii) results of recent semiclassical calculations, shows that the 'cusp' appears due to the long-range Coulomb interaction between the emitted electron and the remaining ion. A similar structure was previously observed for ion-atom collisions. (letter to the editor)

  20. Transverse electric field–induced deformation of armchair single-walled carbon nanotube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Ningyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The deformation of armchair single-walled carbon nanotube under transverse electric field has been investigated using density functional theory. The results show that the circular cross-sections of the nanotubes are deformed to elliptic ones, in which the tube diameter along the field direction is increased, whereas the diameter perpendicular to the field direction is reduced. The electronic structures of the deformed nanotubes were also studied. The ratio of the major diameter to the minor diameter of the elliptic cross-section was used to estimate the degree of the deformation. It is found that this ratio depends on the field strength and the tube diameter. However, the field direction has little role in the deformation. (See supplementary material 1 Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11671-010-9617-y contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Click here for file

  1. Transverse Vibration of Tapered Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Embedded in Viscoelastic Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Y. J.; Zhang, D. P.; Shen, Z. B.

    2017-10-01

    Based on the nonlocal theory, Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and Kelvin viscoelastic foundation model, free transverse vibration is studied for a tapered viscoelastic single-walled carbon nanotube (visco-SWCNT) embedded in a viscoelastic medium. Firstly, the governing equations for vibration analysis are established. And then, we derive the natural frequencies in closed form for SWCNTs with arbitrary boundary conditions by applying transfer function method and perturbation method. Numerical results are also presented to discuss the effects of nonlocal parameter, relaxation time and taper parameter of SWCNTs, and material property parameters of the medium. This study demonstrates that the proposed model is available for vibration analysis of the tapered SWCNTs-viscoelastic medium coupling system.

  2. Transverse Vibration of Tapered Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Embedded in Viscoelastic Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Y. J.; Zhang, D. P.; Shen, Z. B.

    2017-12-01

    Based on the nonlocal theory, Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and Kelvin viscoelastic foundation model, free transverse vibration is studied for a tapered viscoelastic single-walled carbon nanotube (visco-SWCNT) embedded in a viscoelastic medium. Firstly, the governing equations for vibration analysis are established. And then, we derive the natural frequencies in closed form for SWCNTs with arbitrary boundary conditions by applying transfer function method and perturbation method. Numerical results are also presented to discuss the effects of nonlocal parameter, relaxation time and taper parameter of SWCNTs, and material property parameters of the medium. This study demonstrates that the proposed model is available for vibration analysis of the tapered SWCNTs-viscoelastic medium coupling system.

  3. Characteristics of SBS dynamics in single-mode optical fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordeev, A A; Efimkov, V F; Zubarev, I G; Mikhailov, S I; Sobolev, V B [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-31

    The characteristics of the gain of Stokes pulses in single-mode optical fibres by stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) of monochromatic and nonmonochromatic pump signals have been investigated by numerical simulation using a spectral approach. Conditions under which 'slow light' (caused by a group delay) can be implemented are found (it is reasonable to apply this term to a process in which a pulse is delayed with conservation of its shape). The plane-wave interaction model is shown to describe adequately the dynamics of this process in single-mode fibres. A number of gain modes are investigated for Stokes pulses with different time structures upon monochromatic and nonmonochromatic excitation. A new data transfer technique is proposed, which is based on the conversion of stepwise phase modulation of the input Stokes signal into amplitude modulation of the output signal. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  4. Single-mode dispersive waves and soliton microcomb dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Xu; Zhang, Xueyue; Yang, Ki Youl; Vahala, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Dissipative Kerr solitons are self-sustaining optical wavepackets in resonators. They use the Kerr nonlinearity to both compensate dispersion and to offset optical loss. Besides providing insights into nonlinear resonator physics, they can be applied in frequency metrology, precision clocks, and spectroscopy. Like other optical solitons, the dissipative Kerr soliton can radiate power in the form of a dispersive wave through a process that is the optical analogue of Cherenkov radiation. Dispersive waves typically consist of an ensemble of optical modes. A limiting case is demonstrated in which the dispersive wave is concentrated into a single cavity mode. In this limit, its interaction with the soliton is shown to induce bistable behavior in the spectral and temporal properties of the soliton. Also, an operating point of enhanced repetition-rate stability is predicted and observed. The single-mode dispersive wave can therefore provide quiet states of soliton comb operation useful in many applications.

  5. Physics and technology of tunable pulsed single longitudinal mode ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... Design and technology demonstration of compact, narrow bandwidth, high repetition rate, tunable SLM dye lasers in two different configurations, namely Littrow and grazing incidence grating (GIG), were carried out in our lab at BARC, India. The single longitudinal mode (SLM) dye laser generates ...

  6. Measurement of flow fluctuations in single longitudinal mode pulsed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-12

    Feb 12, 2014 ... A simple technique had been demonstrated for measuring flow-induced fluctuations in the single longitudinal mode (SLM) pulsed dye laser. Two prominent frequency components of 10.74 Hz and 48.83 Hz were present in the output of the Nd:YAG-pumped SLM dye laser. The flow-induced frequency ...

  7. mode of collapse of square single panel reinforced concrete space

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    MODE OF COLLAPSE OF SQUARE SINGLE PANEL REINFORCED CONCRETE SPACE- FRAMED STRUCTURES.... L. M. Olantori, et al. Nigerian Journal of Technology. Vol. 35, No. 1, January 2016. 17 particularly in exterior joints where additional sources of shear transfer within the joint region cannot develop after first ...

  8. 14 MeV neutron-induced transverse mode shifts in multimode VCSELs

    CERN Document Server

    Pailharey, E; D'Hose, C; Musseau, O

    2000-01-01

    Research on optical communication behavior in radiative environments is a key point for the design of diagnostic links for the large physical instruments (Laser MegaJoule at CEA, Large Hadron Collider at CERN). For years, the radiation tolerance of several types of emitters (LED and LD) have been tested with promising results for the LDs. New technologies and devices (VCSEL) have recently appeared as promising candidates to replace conventional edge emitting LDs. The shorter wavelength VCSELs (below 1 mu m) are well adapted for short distance data links, due to their low threshold current, high efficiency and large possibilities for integration. 850 nm VCSELs are tested under 14 MeV neutron irradiation. Three different aperture (8 mu m monomode, 15 mu m and 20 mu m multimode) COTS devices are irradiated up to 3.4*10/sup 13/ n/cm/sup 2/. Transverse pattern behavior is studied using infrared camera imaging, while optical power modifications are measured as a function of bias current. Displacement damage induces...

  9. Wave Propagation Solution for Transverse Electric Mode in a Graded Interface between Left-Handed and Right-Handed Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Pratiwi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wave propagation for transverse electric (TE mode in a graded interface between left-handed and right-handed material has been investigated by using asymptotic iteration method. By using hyperbolic functions for negative permittivity and negative permeability, we obtained the graded graphs of permittivity and permeability as a function of material thickness. Maxwell equation for the dielectric with the hyperbolic function in permittivity and permeability has been reduced to second orde differential equation. The second orde differential equation has been solved by using asymptotic iteration method with the eigen functions in complementary error functions. The eigen functions explained about the wave propagation in a graded interface of material. The distribution of the electric field and the wave vector were given in approximate solution.

  10. Measurement of transverse single-spin asymmetries in inclusive electroproduction at HERMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Ruiz, Alejandro

    2012-12-15

    This dissertation describes the measurement of two single-spin asymmetries (SSAs) in the production of particles from inelastic lepton-proton collisions. SSAs are a convenient observable for investigating the spin-dependent part of the electron-proton cross section. The analyzed data were taken by the HERMES experiment at DESY, using a 27.6 GeV electron/positron beam and a static hydrogen target in which the proton spin was polarized transversely to the direction of the beam. In the first case, SSAs were investigated in the inclusive electroproduction of charged pions and kaons. The asymmetries were studied as a function of the hadron momentum, p{sub T}, relative to the direction of the incident beam, and the Feynman variable x{sub F}. In the kinematic range 0.08 GeVtransversely polarized proton. Transverse SSAs were also measured in inclusive DIS, where only the scattered beam lepton is detected. In this case, non-zero SSAs would arise from two-photon exchange contributions to

  11. Mapping vibrational surface and bulk modes in a single nanocube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Maureen J.; Trügler, Andreas; Hohenester, Ulrich; Batson, Philip E.

    2017-03-01

    Imaging of vibrational excitations in and near nanostructures is essential for developing low-loss infrared nanophotonics, controlling heat transport in thermal nanodevices, inventing new thermoelectric materials and understanding nanoscale energy transport. Spatially resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy has previously been used to image plasmonic behaviour in nanostructures in an electron microscope, but hitherto it has not been possible to map vibrational modes directly in a single nanostructure, limiting our understanding of phonon coupling with photons and plasmons. Here we present spatial mapping of optical and acoustic, bulk and surface vibrational modes in magnesium oxide nanocubes using an atom-wide electron beam. We find that the energy and the symmetry of the surface polariton phonon modes depend on the size of the nanocubes, and that they are localized to the surfaces of the nanocube. We also observe a limiting of bulk phonon scattering in the presence of surface phonon modes. Most phonon spectroscopies are selectively sensitive to either surface or bulk excitations; therefore, by demonstrating the excitation of both bulk and surface vibrational modes using a single probe, our work represents advances in the detection and visualization of spatially confined surface and bulk phonons in nanostructures.

  12. A finite element characterization of a commercial endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber: is it really single mode?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uranus, H.P.; Hoekstra, Hugo; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    2007-01-01

    One of interesting properties of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) is their possibility to be single-moded over a wide wavelength range, down to UV, while still having a reasonably large modal profile. Such properties are attractive for applications like optical sensing, interferometry, and transport

  13. Modeling Transverse Cracking in Laminates With a Single Layer of Elements Per Ply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Meer, Frans P.; Davila, Carlos G.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present paper is to investigate the ability of mesolevel X-FEM models with a single layer of elements per ply to capture accurately all aspects of matrix cracking. In particular, we examine whether the model can predict the insitu ply thickness effect on crack initiation and propagation, the crack density as a function of strain, the strain for crack saturation, and the interaction between delamination and transverse cracks. Results reveal that the simplified model does not capture correctly the shear-lag relaxation of the stress field on either side of a crack, which leads to an overprediction of the crack density. It is also shown, however, that after onset of delamination many of the inserted matrix cracks close again, and that the density of open cracks becomes similar to the density predicted by the detailed model. The degree to which the spurious cracks affect the global response is quantified and the reliability of the mesolevel approach with a single layer of elements per ply is discussed.

  14. A novel high-efficiency single-mode quantum dot single photon source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerard, J.M.; Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Torben Roland

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel single-mode single photon source exploiting the emission of a semiconductor quantum dot (QD) located inside a photonic wire. Besides an excellent coupling (>95%) of QD spontaneous emission to the fundamental guided mode [1], we show that a single photon collection efficiency...... above 80% within a 0.5 numerical aperture can be achieved using a bottom Bragg mirror and a tapering of the nanowire tip. Because this photon collection strategy does not exploit the Purcell effect, it could also be efficiently applied to broadband single photon emitters such as F-centers in diamond....

  15. High-peak-power, single-frequency, single-mode, linearly polarized, nanosecond all-fiber laser based on self-phase modulation compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Rongtao; Zhou, Pu; Ma, Pengfei; Lü, Haibin; Xu, Xiaojun

    2013-10-20

    We demonstrated a high-peak-power, single-frequency, single-mode, linearly polarized, nanosecond all-fiber laser in master oscillator power amplifier configuration. The pulsed seed was generated by modulating a single-frequency continuous wave laser at 1064 nm. The short pulse width (∼3.2  ns) of the pulsed seed prevented the onset of stimulated Brillouin scattering in the 10 μm-core single-transverse-mode polarization-maintaining ytterbium-doped fiber of the main amplifier. In order to compensate self-phase modulation-induced spectral broadening, a phase modulator was employed to control the phase of the pulsed seed, and the linewidth of the output pulses were reduced from ∼1.22  GHz to ∼185  MHz at the peak power of 1.47 kW.

  16. Low-loss single-mode terahertz waveguiding using Cytop

    OpenAIRE

    Los Reyes Glenda, De; Alex, Quema; Carlito Jr., Ponseca; Romeric, Pobre; Reuben, Quiroga; Shingo, Ono; Hidetoshi, Murakami; Elmer Surat, Estacio; Nobuhiko, SARUKURA; Ko, Aosaki; Yoshihiko, Sakane; Hideki, Sato

    2006-01-01

    A polymer-based, Cytop planar photonic crystal waveguide (PPCW) was designed for guiding terahertz radiation. Results indicate that the propagation and coupling losses in the 0.2-1.1 THz range are relatively small for a sheetlike thickness design. Spectral analysis of the transmission data reveals frequency selectivity of the PPCW. Calculations of the spatial distribution of the terahertz electric field through the waveguide show evidence of single-mode propagation at a 0.45 THz central frequ...

  17. Holograms for laser diode: Single mode optical fiber coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhr, P. L.

    1982-01-01

    The low coupling efficiency of semiconductor laser emissions into a single mode optical fibers place a severe restriction on their use. Associated with these conventional optical coupling techniques are stringent alignment sensitivities. Using holographic elements, the coupling efficiency may be increased and the alignment sensitivity greatly reduced. Both conventional and computer methods used in the generation of the holographic couplers are described and diagrammed. The reconstruction geometries used are shown to be somewhat restrictive but substantially less rigid than their conventional optical counterparts. Single and double hologram techniques are examined concerning their respective ease of fabrication and relative merits.

  18. Dual collection mode optical microscope with single-pixel detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A. D.; Clemente, P.; Fernández-Alonso, Mercedes; Tajahuerce, E.; Lancis, J.

    2015-07-01

    In this work we have developed a single-pixel optical microscope that provides both re ection and transmission images of the sample under test by attaching a diamond pixel layout DMD to a commercial inverted microscope. Our system performs simultaneous measurements of re ection and transmission modes. Besides, in contrast with a conventional system, in our single-element detection system both images belong, unequivocally, to the same plane of the sample. Furthermore, we have designed an algorithm to modify the shape of the projected patterns that improves the resolution and prevents the artifacts produced by the diamond pixel architecture.

  19. Single-Transverse-Spin-Asymmetry studies with a fixed-target experiment using the LHC beams (AFTER@LHC)

    CERN Document Server

    Lansberg, J.P.; Arnaldi, R.; Brodsky, S.J.; Chambert, V.; Da Silva, C.; Didelez, J.P.; Echevarria, M. G; Ferreiro, E.G.; Fleuret, F.; Gao, Y.; Genolini, B.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hřivnáčová, I.; Kikola, D.; Klein, A.; Kurepin, A.; Kusina, A.; Lorcé, C.; Lyonnet, F.; Massacrier, L.; Nass, A.; Pisano, C.; Robbe, P.; Schienbein, I.; Schlegel, M.; Scomparin, E.; Seixas, J.; Shao, H.S.; Signori, A.; Steffens, E.; Topilskaya, N.; Trzeciak, B.; Uggerhøj, U.I.; Uras, A.; Ulrich, R.; Yang, Z.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the potential of AFTER@LHC to measure single-transverse-spin asymmetries in open-charm and bottomonium production. With a HERMES-like hydrogen polarised target, such measurements over a year can reach precisions close to the per cent level. This is particularly remarkable since these analyses can probably not be carried out anywhere else

  20. Current-Mode Universal Filters Employing Single FDCCII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kacar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, to realize current-mode multifunction filters, three new circuit configurations are presented. The circuits include fully differential current conveyor (FDCCII and four passive components. First proposed circuit is a universal filter with single-input and three-outputs, which can simultaneously realize current mode low-pass, band-pass and high-pass filter responses employing all grounded passive components. The last two proposed are universal filters with three-inputs single-output, which can realize current mode low-pass, band-pass, high-pass, band-stop and all-pass filter responses employing single FDCCII. Furthermore, each of the proposed circuits still enjoys realization using a minimum number of active and passive components. First and last of the proposed circuits have no requirement with the component choice conditions to realize specific filtering functions. No parameter matching condition is required. Active and passive sensitivities of filters are investigated and calculated 5 percentage hangings. Simulation results are found in close agreement with the theoretical results.

  1. Analysis of multi-mode to single-mode conversion at 635 nm and 1550 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Vanessa; Bogatzki, Angelina; Arndt-Staufenbiel, Norbert; Hofmann, Jens; Schröder, Henning

    2016-03-01

    We propose two low-cost and robust optical fiber systems based on the photonic lantern (PL) technology for operating at 635 nm and 1550 nm. The PL is an emerging technology that couples light from a multi-mode (MM) fiber to several single-mode (SM) fibers via a low-loss adiabatic transition. This bundle of SM fibers is observed as a MM fiber system whose spatial modes are the degenerate supermodes of the bundle. The adiabatic transition allows that those supermodes evolve into the modes of the MM fiber. Simulations of the MM fiber end structure and its taper transition have been performed via functional mode solver tools in order to understand the modal evolution in PLs. The modelled design consists of 7 SM fibers inserted into a low-index capillary. The material and geometry of the PLs are chosen such that the supermodes match to the spatial modes of the desired step-index MM fiber in a moderate loss transmission. The dispersion of materials is also considered. These parameters are studied in two PL systems in order to reach a spectral transmission from 450 nm to 1600 nm. Additionally, an analysis of the geometry and losses due to the mismatching of modes is presented. PLs are typically used in the fields of astrophotonics and space photonics. Recently, they are demonstrated as mode converters in telecommunications, especially focusing on spatial division multiplexing. In this study, we show the use of PLs as a promising interconnecting tool for the development of miniaturized spectrometers operating in a broad wavelength range.

  2. Search for supersymmetry with jets, missing transverse momentum, and a single tau at CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Friederike

    2012-06-15

    This thesis presents a search for physics beyond the Standard Model with jets, missing transverse momentum, and a single tau. It aims especially at a cosmological favored region in Supersymmetry, the stau-LSP co-annihilation region with an enhanced production of taus. It is performed with data taken 2011 by the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5 fb{sup -1}. The background was divided in two different contributions, one with real and one with fake taus. Both estimates were derived with data-driven techniques. The final measurement yields 28 events, while the number of background events was predicted to be 28.5 {+-} 2.6 (stat) {+-} 2.4 (syst), and thus, no deviation from the Standard Model could be found. As a result, exclusion limits on the supersymmetric cMSSM have been calculated. Data taking and distribution imposes a challenge to the computing grid. To monitor the stability of the infrastructure, modules for Tier 2 operations within the HappyFace Project have been developed, tested, and taken into usage.

  3. Transverse-target single-spin azimuthal asymmetry in hard exclusive electroproduction of single pions at HERMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hristova, I.

    2007-12-15

    We present the analysis of data taken in the years 2002-2004 with the 27.56 GeV positron beam of the HERA storage ring at DESY and the internal transversely polarised hydrogen fixed target of the HERMES experiment. Events with a scattered positron and a produced pion are selected. Exclusive production of single pions, e{sup +}p{yields}e{sup +'}n{pi}{sup +}, is ensured by requiring the missing mass in the event to be equal to the mass of the neutron, which is not detected. The cross section for this process depends on the Bjorken scaling variable, the four-momentum transfer, and the transverse four-momentum transfer, whose average values for our sample are left angle x right angle =0.12, left angle Q{sup 2} right angle =2.3 GeV{sup 2}, left angle t' right angle =-0.18 GeV{sup 2}, respectively, and two azimuthal angles: the angle {phi} between the scattering and production planes (their common line contains the virtual photon), and the angle {phi}{sub S} between the scattering plane and the target polarisation vector. The hard scattering is selected by requiring Q{sup 2}>1 GeV{sup 2}. The asymmetry, also called transverse-target single-spin azimuthal asymmetry, is defined as the ratio of the difference to the sum of the cross sections for positive and negative target polarisation. It is characterised by six azimuthal sine modulations, whose amplitudes can vary from -1 to 1. We measure the asymmetry from a sample of 2093 events with a signal-to-background ratio of 1: 1. At average kinematics, the values of the amplitudes are found to be small or consistent with zero, except for the amplitude A{sup sin{phi}{sub SUT,meas}}=0.38{+-}0.06(stat){sup +0.12}{sub -0.06}(syst). The amplitude of main interest for comparison with theory, A{sup sin({phi}-{phi}{sub S})}{sub UT,meas}=0.09{+-}0.05(stat){sup +0.10}{sub -0.03}(syst), after correction for the background contribution becomes A{sup sin({phi}-{phi}{sub S})}{sub UT,bg.cor}=0.22 {+-}0.13(stat){sup +0.10}{sub -0

  4. Polarization and mode changes depending on the environmental stress in single mode fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkung, Juock; Hoke, Mike; Wilkins, Gregory; Werniki, Chris

    2009-05-01

    The research discussed below describes experiments and computer simulations involving propagation of polarized radiation in optical fiber cables designed for use in aircraft environments. The main concern of this effort is optical fiber link systems that are installed in military aircraft. Propagation of polarized radiation in a single mode fiber can be theoretically described with electromagnetic field equations for a bounded system. The state of propagation of the radiation polarization will be affected by environmental stress and strain on the fiber, by imperfections within the fiber, cracks or breaks in the fiber across the fiber optical axis, and by a variety of discontinuities at fiber connectors. The transmission, reflection, and scattering of radiation within an optical fiber affected by these various effects results in mode changing of propagating radiation within the fiber. Mode changing effects by imperfection in the fiber link system have been experimentally measured. The experimental results discussed below are preliminary results and applicable to modeling techniques in the future.

  5. Semiconductor laser engineering, reliability and diagnostics a practical approach to high power and single mode devices

    CERN Document Server

    Epperlein, Peter W

    2013-01-01

    This reference book provides a fully integrated novel approach to the development of high-power, single-transverse mode, edge-emitting diode lasers by addressing the complementary topics of device engineering, reliability engineering and device diagnostics in the same book, and thus closes the gap in the current book literature. Diode laser fundamentals are discussed, followed by an elaborate discussion of problem-oriented design guidelines and techniques, and by a systematic treatment of the origins of laser degradation and a thorough exploration of the engineering means to enhance the optical strength of the laser. Stability criteria of critical laser characteristics and key laser robustness factors are discussed along with clear design considerations in the context of reliability engineering approaches and models, and typical programs for reliability tests and laser product qualifications. Novel, advanced diagnostic methods are reviewed to discuss, for the first time in detail in book literature, performa...

  6. Single-mode theory of diffusive layers in thermohaline convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, D. O.; Toomre, J.

    1982-01-01

    A two-layer configuration of thermohaline convection is studied, with the principal aim of explaining the observed independence of the buoyancy-flux ratio on the stability parameter when the latter is large. Temperature is destabilizing and salinity is stabilizing, so diffusive interfaces separate the convecting layers. The convection is treated in the single-mode approximation, with a prescribed horizontal planform and wavenumber. Surveys of numerical solutions are presented for a selection of Rayleigh numbers R, stability parameters lambda and horizontal wavenumbers. The solutions yield a buoyancy flux ratio chi that is insensitive to lambda, in accord with laboratory experiments. However chi increases with increasing R, in contradiction to laboratory observations.

  7. Analysis of a fused biconical single-mode star coupler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, M; Weidel, E

    1989-08-01

    A new type of star coupler for single-mode optical fibers is proposed. The geometrical configuration of the coupler is intended to be a tapered cylindrical ring structure. A numerical analysis yields the evolution of the light distribution along the coupling region and the spectral characteristics of the coupler. For a star coupler with 8 x 8 ports and a length of 14 mm a spectral width of 90 nm was calculated, if an additional loss of 0.5 dB is tolerated.

  8. Coupled-Mode Theory derivation of the formal equivalence between a three-mode waveguide and a set of three mutually coupled single-mode waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boucher Yann G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The formal identification between a two-mode waveguide and a system of two mutually coupled single-mode waveguides stems from the symmetries of the evolution operator. When the gap tends to zero, the super-modes of the coupled system merge continuously into the modes of the multimode waveguide. For modelling purposes, it is very tempting to extend the analogy to three-mode waveguides (and beyond. But not without some precautions…

  9. Single Active Element Based Voltage-Mode Multifunction Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new voltage-mode multifunction filter. The proposed filter employs single modified fully differential second generation current conveyor (FDCCII, two grounded capacitors, and three resistors. The proposed circuit enjoys the employment of two grounded capacitors (attractive for absorbing shunt parasitic capacitance and ideal for IC implementation. The proposed circuit provides all five generic filter responses (low pass (LP, high pass (HP, band pass (BP, notch (NH, and all pass (AP filter responses simultaneously with single input. The novel proposed filter has low active and passive sensitivities. A number of time domain and frequency domain simulation results depicted through PSPICE using 0.18 µm TSMC process parameters are included to validate the theory. The proposed circuit is expected to enhance the existing knowledge on the subject.

  10. Multiplexing 200 spatial modes with a single hologram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Guzmán, Carmelo; Bhebhe, Nkosiphile; Mahonisi, Nyiku; Forbes, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    The on-demand tailoring of light's spatial shape is of great relevance in a wide variety of research areas. Computer-controlled devices, such as spatial light modulators (SLMs) or digital micromirror devices, offer a very accurate, flexible and fast holographic means to this end. Remarkably, digital holography affords the simultaneous generation of multiple beams (multiplexing), a tool with numerous applications in many fields. Here, we provide a self-contained tutorial on light beam multiplexing. Through the use of several examples, the readers will be guided step by step in the process of light beam shaping and multiplexing. Additionally, we provide a quantitative analysis on the multiplexing capabilities of SLMs to assess the maximum number of beams that can be multiplexed on a single SLM, showing approximately 200 modes on a single hologram.

  11. Aperture masking interferometry and single-mode fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, Sylvestre; Perrin, Guy S.; Woillez, Julien M.; Assemat, Francois; Thiebault, Eric M.

    2004-10-01

    Since the pioneering work of Haniff et al. (1987), aperture-masking interferometry has been demonstrated on large class telescopes. The usual implementation lays in the avoidance of redundancies in the pupil plane, which, in presence of aberrations and turbulence, depress the transfer function of the telescope. In a recent experiment on Keck I, a non-redundant pupil geometry allowed diffraction-limited imaging, with dynamic range in excess of 200:1 (Tuthill et al., 2000). Yet, the final image quality is still limited by the optical defects induced by turbulence in sub-pupils. We propose to overcome this issue by using the same technique of spatial filtering by single-mode fibers that we have used in long-baseline interferometry. Each sub-pupil element is focused in a single-mode fiber thus eliminating spatial phase fluctuations and trading these against instantaneous intensity fluctuations which can be directly measured. Therefore, each sub-pupil becomes spatially coherent. Simulations show that the dynamic range would be dramatically increased. Moreover, the idea of using fibers in the pupil plane could lead to outstanding prospects, like filtering the whole aperture, sub-divided into a filled array of sub-apertures.

  12. Over 19 W Single-Mode 1545 nm Er,Yb Codoped All-Fiber Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiadong Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a high-power cladding-pumped Er,Yb codoped all-fiber laser with truly single transverse mode output. The fiber laser is designed to operate at 1545 nm by the use of a pair of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs to lock and narrow the output spectrum, which can be very useful in generating the eye-safe ~1650 nm laser emission through the Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS in silica fibers that is of interest in many applications. Two pieces of standard single-mode fibers are inserted into the laser cavity and output port to guarantee the truly single-mode output as well as good compatibility with other standard fiber components. We have obtained a maximum output power of 19.2 W at 1544.68 nm with a FWHM spectral width of 0.08 nm, corresponding to an average overall slope efficiency of 31.9% with respect to the launched pump power. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest output power reported from simple all-fiber single-mode Er,Yb codoped laser oscillator architecture.

  13. On-chip Mode Multiplexer Based on a Single Grating Coupler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Ou, Haiyan; Xu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    A two-mode multiplexer based on a single grating coupler is proposed and demonstrated on a silicon chip. The LP01 and LP11 modes of a few-mode fiber are excited from TE0 and TE1 silicon waveguide modes.......A two-mode multiplexer based on a single grating coupler is proposed and demonstrated on a silicon chip. The LP01 and LP11 modes of a few-mode fiber are excited from TE0 and TE1 silicon waveguide modes....

  14. Asymmetric large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber structure with effective single-mode operation: design and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Than Singh; Kumar, Ajeet; Sinha, Ravindra Kumar

    2016-03-20

    The asymmetrical structure of photonic crystal fiber has been reported for a large mode area with the single-mode operation. The design works on the principle of bend-induced mode filtering. The proposed structure can be designed (i) by introducing down-doped material rods in place of nine air holes of the inner ring near the core of the structure and (ii) by increasing the diameter of the rest of the three air holes of the same ring in the direction of bending. These three air holes together with nine down-doped material rods control the mode field inside the core region and hence the bending losses of the modes. The single-mode operation is ensured by introducing high bend loss for the first higher order mode and very low bend loss for the fundamental mode. The finite-element-method-based anisotropic perfectly matched layer boundary condition has been applied for accurate analysis of bend loss of the structure. Numerical results show that effective single-mode operation can be ensured with a mode area as large as 1530  μm2 at bend state with a bend radius of 30 cm. The proposed photonic crystal optical fiber with such a large mode area can have potential applications in compact high-power delivery devices such as high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers.

  15. The physics of transverse mode instability-induced nonlinear phase distortions in large area optical fiber amplifiers and their mitigation with applications in scaling of pulsed and continuous wave high-energy lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-13

    saturation may be avoided by amplifying the signal using multiple stages. The large- mode area (LMA) double-clad fibers facilitate high-power multimode ...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0001 The physics of transverse mode instability-induced nonlinear phase distortions in large area optical fiber amplifiers and...2017 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 24 Sep 2015 to 23 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The physics of transverse mode instability

  16. Ultrasonic Motor Using Bending Modes with Single Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new ultrasonic motor using bending modes with single foot is proposed in this study. Two groups of PZT elements are clamped between two horns and two ending caps, respectively, by bolts. Two horns are connected by the driving foot in the middle of the motor. Two orthogonal 3rd bending vibrations of the motor are superimposed and generate elliptical movement at the driving foot. The structure and working principle of the proposed motor are introduced. The structure parameters of the motor are obtained via the ANSYS software. A prototype is fabricated and tested using an impedance analyzer and a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. The maximum mechanical output force and power of the prototype are measured to be 23 N and 2.9 W, respectively.

  17. Single-Mode, Distributed Feedback Interband Cascade Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frez, Clifford F. (Inventor); Borgentun, Carl E. (Inventor); Briggs, Ryan M. (Inventor); Bagheri, Mahmood (Inventor); Forouhar, Siamak (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Single-mode, distributed feedback interband cascade lasers (ICLs) using distributed-feedback gratings (e.g., lateral Bragg gratings) and methods of fabricating such ICLs are provided. The ICLs incorporate distributed-feedback gratings that are formed above the laser active region and adjacent the ridge waveguide (RWG) of the ICL. The ICLs may incorporate a double-ridge system comprising an optical confinement structure (e.g., a RWG) disposed above the laser active region that comprises the first ridge of the double ridge system, a DFB grating (e.g., lateral Bragg grating) disposed above the laser active region and adjacent the optical confinement structure, and an electric confinement structure that passes at least partially through the laser active region and that defines the boundary of the second ridge comprises and the termination of the DFB grating.

  18. Decrease of contractile properties and transversal stiffness of single fibers in human soleus after 7-day “dry” immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogneva, I. V.; Ponomareva, E. V.; Kartashkina, N. L.; Altaeva, E. G.; Fokina, N. M.; Kurushin, V. A.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Shenkman, B. S.

    2011-05-01

    The simulation model of "dry" immersion was used to evaluate the effects of plantar mechanical stimulation (PMS) and high frequency electromyostimulation (EMS) on the mechanical properties of human soleus fibers under the conditions of gravitational unloading. We examined contractile properties of single fibers by means of tensometry, transversal stiffness of sarcolemma and different areas of the contractile apparatus by means of atomic force microscopy. It was shown that there is a reduction of transversal stiffness in single muscle fibers under hypogravitational conditions. Application of different countermeasures could compensate this effect. Meanwhile pneumostimulation and electro stimulation act in quite different way. Therefore, pneumostimulation seems to be more effective. The data obtained can be considered as the evidence of the fact that such countermeasures as PMS and electromyostimulation influence on muscle fibers in quite different ways and PMS efficiency is likely to be higher. On the basis of our experimental data on transverse stiffness of mechanotransductional nodes and the contractile apparatus, we can assume that support stimulation allows prevention of destructive processes in muscle fibers. Electrostimulation seems to stimulate contractile activity only without suppression of impairment of the fiber mechanical properties.

  19. Single Spin Asymmetries in l p(transv. pol.) --> h X processes and transverse momentum dependent factorization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anselmino, Mauro; Mariaelena, Boglione; D' Alesio, Umberto; Melis, Stefano; Murgia, Francesco; Prokudin, Alexey [JLAB

    2014-06-01

    Some estimates for the transverse Single Spin Asymmetry, A_N, in the inclusive processes l p(transv. Pol.) --> h X, given in a previous paper, are expanded and compared with new experimental data. The predictions are based on the Sivers distributions and the Collins fragmentation functions which fit the azimuthal asymmetries measured in Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS) processes (l p(transv. Pol.) --> l' h X). The factorisation in terms of Transverse Momentum Dependent distribution and fragmentation functions (TMD factorisation) -- i.e., the theoretical framework in which SIDIS azimuthal asymmetries are analysed -- is assumed to hold also for the inclusive process l p --> h X at large P_T. The values of A_N thus obtained agree in sign and shape with the data. Some predictions are given for future experiments.

  20. Single ion implantation for single donor devices using Geiger mode detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielejec, E.; Seamons, J. A.; Carroll, M. S.

    2010-02-01

    Electronic devices that are designed to use the properties of single atoms such as donors or defects have become a reality with recent demonstrations of donor spectroscopy, single photon emission sources, and magnetic imaging using defect centers in diamond. Ion implantation, an industry standard for atom placement in materials, requires augmentation for single ion capability including a method for detecting a single ion arrival. Integrating single ion detection techniques with the single donor device construction region allows single ion arrival to be assured. Improving detector sensitivity is linked to improving control over the straggle of the ion as well as providing more flexibility in lay-out integration with the active region of the single donor device construction zone by allowing ion sensing at potentially greater distances. Using a remotely located passively gated single ion Geiger mode avalanche diode (SIGMA) detector we have demonstrated 100% detection efficiency at a distance of >75 µm from the center of the collecting junction. This detection efficiency is achieved with sensitivity to ~600 or fewer electron-hole pairs produced by the implanted ion. Ion detectors with this sensitivity and integrated with a thin dielectric, for example a 5 nm gate oxide, using low energy Sb implantation would have an end of range straggle of 98% for counting one and only one ion for a false count probability of 10-4 at an average ion number per gated window of 0.015.

  1. Enhancement mode single electron transistor in pure silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Binhui; Yang, C. H.; Jones, G. M.; Yang, M. J.

    2007-03-01

    Solid state implementations of lateral qubits offer the advantage of being scalable and can be easily integrated by existing main stream IC technologies. In addition, the two Zeeman states of an electron spin in a quantum dot (QD) provide a promising candidate for a qubit. Spins in lateral QDs in the GaAs/AlGaAs single electron transistors (SETs) have been intensively investigated. In contrast, Si provides a number of advantages, including long spin coherence time, large g-factor, and small spin-orbit coupling effect. We have demonstrated Si SET in the few electron regime.* In this talk, we will report the isolation of a single electron in a Si QD using a fabrication technique that incorporates the standard Al/SiO2/Si system with an enhancement mode SET structure. Our SET is built in highly resistive Si substrates with bilayer gates. The high purity Si minimizes the potential disorder from impurities. The top gate induces 2D electrons, and several side gates help define the tunneling barriers, fine tune the shape of the QD, and control the number of electrons in it. We will discuss the operating principle, computer simulation, and low temperature transport data. *APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 89, 073106 (2006)

  2. Using multi-ring structure for suppression of mode competition in stable single-longitudinal-mode erbium fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Huang, Tzu-Jung; Yang, Zi-Qing; Chow, Chi-Wai

    2017-12-01

    In this demonstration, a stable and tunable single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser with multiple-ring configuration is proposed and investigated. The proposed compound-ring structure can create different free spectrum ranges (FSRs) to result in the mode-filter effect based on the Vernier effect for suppressing the other modes. Additionally, the output stabilization of power and wavelength in the proposed EDF multiple-ring laser are also discussed.

  3. Frequency Stabilization of a Single Mode Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser to the Kilohertz Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-27

    Frequency stabilization of a single mode terahertz quantum cascade laser to the kilohertz level 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...primarily in a single-longitudinal mode (SLM) up to a bias voltage of 3.7 V and a multi-lodgitudinal mode ( MLM ) at higher voltages. It was mounted in a

  4. Large-area single-mode photonic bandgap vcsels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Dan; Gregersen, N.; Bischoff, S.

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate that the photonic bandgap effect can be used to control the modes of large area vertical cavity surface emitting lasers. We obtain more than 20 dB side mode suppression ratios in a 10-micron area device....

  5. A deflection formula for single-span beams of constant section subjected to combined axial and transverse loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Walter F

    1935-01-01

    In this paper there is presented a deflection formula for single-span beams of constant section subjected to combined axial and transverse loads of the types commonly encountered in airplane design. The form of the equation is obtainable by dimensional analysis. Tables and curves of the non dimensional coefficients are appended to facilitate the use of the formula. The equation is applied to the determination of the spring constant of a beam. Tables and curves are presented to show the variation of the spring constant with changes in the axial load and position along the beam.

  6. On the scaling law of single bunch transverse instability threshold current vs. the chromaticity in electron storage rings

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, J

    2002-01-01

    Based on the single bunch transverse instability theory established by Gao (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 416 (1998) 186), it is shown that the functional relation between the instability threshold bunch current and the chromaticity of the machine is I sub t sub h propor to xi sub c sup d , with d approx 1.3 and d approx 2.3 at potential well and microwave instability dominated bunch lengthening regimes, respectively. These scaling laws are confirmed by the experimental results from ESRF.

  7. Simulation Results of a Feedback Control System to Damp Electron Cloud Single-Bunch Transverse Instabilities In The Cern SPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secondo, R.; Vay, J. L.; Venturini, M.; Fox, J. D.; Rivetta, C. H.; Hofle, W.

    2011-03-28

    Transverse Single-Bunch Instabilities due to the Electron Cloud effect are limiting the operation at high current of the SPS at CERN. Recently a high-bandwidth Feedback System has been proposed as a possible solution to stabilize the beam and is currently under study. We analyze the dynamics of the bunch actively damped with a simple model of the Feedback in the macro-particle code WARP, in order to investigate the limitations of the System such as the minimum amount of power required to maintain stability. We discuss the feedback model, report on simulation results and present our plans for further development of the numerical model.

  8. Toward single mode, atomic size electron vortex beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivanek, Ondrej L; Rusz, Jan; Idrobo, Juan-Carlos; Lovejoy, Tracy J; Dellby, Niklas

    2014-06-01

    We propose a practical method of producing a single mode electron vortex beam suitable for use in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The method involves using a holographic "fork" aperture to produce a row of beams of different orbital angular momenta, as is now well established, magnifying the row so that neighboring beams are separated by about 1 µm, selecting the desired beam with a narrow slit, and demagnifying the selected beam down to 1-2 Å in size. We show that the method can be implemented by adding two condenser lenses plus a selection slit to a straight-column cold-field emission STEM. It can also be carried out in an existing instrument, the monochromated Nion high-energy-resolution monochromated electron energy-loss spectroscopy-STEM, by using its monochromator in a novel way. We estimate that atom-sized vortex beams with ≥ 20 pA of current should be attainable at 100-200 keV in either instrument.

  9. Highly efficient high power single-mode fiber amplifier utilizing the distributed mode filtering bandgap rod fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurila, Marko; Alkeskjold, Thomas T.; Jørgensen, Mette Marie

    2012-01-01

    We report on an ytterbium doped single mode distributed mode filtering rod fiber in an amplifier configuration delivering high average output power, up to 292 watts, using a mode-locked 30ps source at 1032nm with good power conversion efficiency. We study the modal stability of the output beam...... at high average output power levels and demonstrate a 44% power improvement before the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities by operating the rod fiber in a leaky waveguide regime. We investigate the guiding dynamics of the rod fiber and explain the improved performance by thermally induced...

  10. Single mode 1.3 μm InGaAs VCSELs for access network applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbergh, Petter; Söderberg, Emma; Gustavsson, Johan S.; Modh, Peter; Larsson, Anders; Zhang, Zhenzhong; Berggren, Jesper; Hammar, Mattias

    2008-04-01

    GaAs-based VCSELs emitting near 1.3 μm are realized using highly strained InGaAs quantum wells and a large detuning of the cavity resonance with respect to the gain peak. The VCSELs have an oxide aperture for current and optical confinement and an inverted surface relief for suppression of higher-order transverse modes. The inverted surface relief structure also has the advantage of suppressing oxide modes that otherwise appear in VCSELs with a large detuning between the cavity resonance and the gain peak. Under large signal, digital modulation, clear and open eyes and error free transmission over 9 km of single mode fiber have been demonstrated at the OC-48 and 10 GbE bit rates up to 85°C. Here we review these results and present results from a complementary study of the RF modulation characteristics, including second order harmonic and third order intermodulation distortion, relative intensity noise (RIN), and spurious free dynamic range (SFDR). RIN levels comparable to those of single mode VCSELs emitting at 850 nm are demonstrated, with values from -140 to -150 dB/Hz. SFDR values of 100 and 95 dB•Hz 2/3 were obtained at 2 and 5 GHz, respectively, which is in the range of those required in radio-over-fiber systems.

  11. 59 fs mode-locked Yb:KGW oscillator pumped by a single-mode laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, M.; Sotor, J.; Abramski, K. M.

    2016-03-01

    In this letter we present a passively mode-locked Yb:KGW oscillator pumped by a low power single-mode laser diode. Contrary to high power operation, single-mode pumping enabled us to suppress parasitic thermal effects, while keeping the setup compact and its alignment straightforward. Undisturbed mode-locking (ML) stability was achieved without active cooling of the gain medium and the laser was entirely self-starting. Pulses 59 fs in duration were obtained in a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM)-assisted Kerr-lens mode-locked regime. The corresponding spectrum was 20.2 nm broad at a central wavelength of 1036 nm approaching the performance limit of the crystal. To the best of our knowledge, these are the shortest pulses generated from a Yb:KGW laser.

  12. Soft-gluon resummation for single-particle inclusive hadroproduction at high transverse momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catani, Stefano [INFN, Sezione di Firenze and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Grazzini, Massimiliano, E-mail: grazzini@physik.uzh.ch [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Zürich, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Torre, Alessandro [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Zürich, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2013-09-21

    We consider the cross section for one-particle inclusive production at high transverse momentum in hadronic collisions. We present the all-order resummation formula that controls the logarithmically-enhanced perturbative QCD contributions to the partonic cross section in the threshold region, at fixed rapidity of the observed parton (hadron). The explicit resummation up to next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy is supplemented with the computation of the general structure of the near-threshold contributions to the next-to-leading order cross section. This next-to-leading order computation allows us to extract the one-loop hard-virtual amplitude that enters into the resummation formula. This is a necessary ingredient to explicitly extend the soft-gluon resummation beyond the next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy. These results equally apply to both spin-unpolarized and spin-polarized scattering processes.

  13. Towards an explanation of transverse single-spin asymmetries in proton-proton collisions: The role of fragmentation in collinear factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Koichi; Koike, Yuji; Metz, Andreas; Pitonyak, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    We study the transverse single-spin asymmetry for single-hadron production in proton-proton collisions within the framework of collinear twist-3 factorization in quantum chromodynamics. By taking into account the contribution due to parton fragmentation, we obtain a very good description of all high transverse-momentum data for neutral and charged pion production from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Our study may provide the crucial step toward a final solution to the long-standing problem of what causes transverse single-spin asymmetries in hadronic collisions within quantum chromodynamics. We show for the first time that it is possible to simultaneously describe spin/azimuthal asymmetries in proton-proton collisions, semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering, and electron-positron annihilation by using collinear twist-3 factorization in the first process along with transverse-momentum-dependent functions extracted from the latter two reactions.

  14. Single-mode quantum cascade lasers employing a candy-cane shaped monolithic coupled cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peter Q.; Sladek, Kamil; Wang, Xiaojun; Fan, Jen-Yu; Gmachl, Claire F.

    2011-12-01

    We demonstrate single-mode quantum cascade lasers emitting at ˜4.5 μm by employing a monolithic "candy-cane" shaped coupled-cavity consisting of a straight section connecting at one end to a spiral section. The fabrication process is identical to those for simple Fabry-Perot-type ridge lasers. Continuously tunable single-mode emission across ˜8 cm-1 with side mode suppression ratio up to ˜25 dB and a single-mode operating current range of more than 70% above the threshold current is achieved when the lasers are operated in pulsed-mode from 80 K to 155 K.

  15. Tripartite entanglement of bosonic systems in a noninertial frame beyond the single- mode approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Soltani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we generalize the entanglement of three-qbit Bosonic systems beyond the single-mode approximation when one of the observers is accelerated. For this purpose, we review the effects of acceleration on field modes and quantum states. The single-mode approximation and beyond the single-mode approximation methods are introduced. After this brief introduction, the main problem of this paper, tripartite entanglement of bosonic systems in a noninertial frame beyond the single- mode approximation is investigated. The tripartite entangled states have different classes with GHZ and W states being most important. Here, we choose &pi-tangle as a measure of tripartite entanglement. If the three parties share GHZ state, the corresponding &pi-tangle will increase by increasing acceleration for some Unruh modes. This phenomenon, increasing entanglement, has never been observed in the single-mode approximation for bosonic case. Moreover, the &pi-tangle dose not exhibit a monotonic behavior with increasing acceleration. In the infinite acceleration limit, the &pi-tangle goes to different nonzero values for distinct Unruh modes. Unlike GHZ state, the entanglement of the W state shows only monotonically increasing and decreasing behaviors with increasing acceleration. Also, the entanglement for all possible choices of Unruh modes approaches only 0.176 in the high acceleration limit. Therefore, according to the quantum entanglement, there is no distinction between the single-mode approximation and beyond the single-mode approximation methods in this limit.

  16. Single-mode ytterbium-doped large-mode-area photonic bandgap rod fiber amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Scolari, Lara; Broeng, Jes

    2011-01-01

    bandgap structure. The structure allows resonant coupling of higher-order modes from the core and acts as a spatially Distributed Mode Filter (DMF). With this approach, we demonstrate passive SM performance in an only ~50cm long and straight ytterbium-doped rod fiber. The amplifier has a mode field...

  17. The First Transverse Single Spin Measurement in High Energy Polarized Proton-Nucleus Collision at the PHENIX experiment at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, I.

    2016-08-01

    Large single spin asymmetries in very forward neutron production seen using the PHENIX zero-degree calorimeters are a long established feature of transversely polarized proton-proton collisions at RHIC. Neutron production near zero degrees is well described by the one-pion exchange framework. The absorptive correction to the OPE generates the asymmetry as a consequence of a phase shift between the spin flip and non-spin flip amplitudes. However, the amplitude predicted by the OPE is too small to explain the large observed asymmetries. A model introducing interference of pion and a 1-Reggeon exchanges has been successful in reproducing the experimental data. During the RHIC experiment in year 2015, RHIC delivered polarized proton collisions with Au and Al nuclei for the first time, enabling the exploration of the mechanism of transverse single-spin asymmetries with nuclear collisions. The observed asymmetries showed surprisingly strong A-dependence in the inclusive forward neutron production, while the existing framework which was successfull in p+p only predicts moderate A- dependence. Thus the observed data are absolutely unexpected and unpredicted. In this report, experimental and theoretical efforts are discussed to disentangle the observed A-dependence using somewhat semi-inclusive type measurements and Monte-Carlo study, respectively.

  18. Tunable continuous wave single-mode dye laser directly pumped by a diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanska, D.; Suski, M.; Furmann, B.

    2017-04-01

    In this work, a tunable continuous wave single-mode ring dye laser (a modified version of Coherent model CR 699-21), directly optically pumped by an economy-class diode laser, has been set up. The laser was operated on Coumarin 498, and its generation profile covered part of the green spectral region not easily accessible in single-mode operation. The performance of the laser in both broad-band and single-mode operation regimes was studied. It was proved that optical pumping by diode lasers allows one to obtain single-mode operation of dye lasers that is sufficiently stable for high-resolution spectroscopy applications.

  19. Lasing mode regulation and single-mode realization in ZnO whispering gallery microcavities by the Vernier effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y Y; Xu, C X; Jiang, M M; Li, J T; Dai, J; Lu, J F; Li, P L

    2016-10-07

    The wide direct bandgap and strong exciton binding energy of ZnO have inspired examinations of ultraviolet lasing over the previous decades. However, regulation of the lasing mode, especially the realization of single mode lasing, is still a challenge. In this study, a ZnO comb-like structure with an array of microrods was selected to design coupled whispering-gallery-mode cavities, wherein the naturally varied air-gap between the adjacent microrods created a flexible condition for optical field coupling without any complicated micromanipulation. Spectral behaviour of lasing and coupling interaction between coupled ZnO microrods were systematically investigated. By regulating the nano-scale inter-space of dual coupled microrods, stable single-mode lasing with a higher Q factor and lower threshold was obtained successfully based on the Vernier effect. The formation conditions and the mechanism of single-mode lasing derived from the coupled ZnO microrods were discussed in detail. It also demonstrated an approach to construct high quality single-mode lasing by tuning the diameters of the coupled ZnO microrods.

  20. Measurement of the transverse single-spin asymmetry in $p^\\uparrow+p \\to W^{\\pm}/Z^0$ at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Adamczyk, L; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Attri, A; Averichev, G S; Bai, X; Bairathi, V; Banerjee, A; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Bouchet, J; Brandenburg, J D; Brandin, A V; Bunzarov, I; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Sánchez, M Calderón de la Barca; Campbell, J M; Cebra, D; Chakaberia, I; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, J H; Chen, X; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Christie, W; Contin, G; Crawford, H J; Das, S; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Esha, R; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Federic, P; Fedorisin, J; Feng, Z; Filip, P; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Fulek, L; Gagliardi, C A; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, S; Gupta, A; Guryn, W; Hamad, A I; Hamed, A; Haque, R; Harris, J W; He, L; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Horvat, S; Huang, H Z; Huang, X; Huang, B; Huang, T; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Jentsch, A; Jia, J; Jiang, K; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Khan, Z H; Kikoła, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Kochenda, L; Koetke, D D; Kosarzewski, L K; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kumar, L; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Li, X; Li, C; Li, W; Li, Y; Lin, T; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, L; Ma, R; Ma, Y G; Magdy, N; Majka, R; Manion, A; Margetis, S; Markert, C; McDonald, D; Meehan, K; Mei, J C; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, D; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nigmatkulov, G; Niida, T; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Okorokov, V A; Olvitt, D; Page, B S; Pak, R; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Pile, P; Pluta, J; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Posik, M; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, S; Raniwala, R; Ray, R L; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, M K; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, Z; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Sikora, R; Simko, M; Singha, S; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solyst, W; Song, L; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stepanov, M; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Summa, B; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Tang, Z; Tang, A H; Tarnowsky, T; Tawfik, A; Thäder, J; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Todoroki, T; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Tripathy, S K; Tsai, O D; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Upsal, I; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Varma, R; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wang, H; Wang, G; Wang, F; Wang, Y; Wang, J S; Webb, J C; Webb, G; Wen, L; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y; Xiao, Z G; Xie, W; Xie, G; Xin, K; Xu, J; Xu, Z; Xu, Y F; Xu, Q H; Xu, H; Xu, N; Yang, Q; Yang, Y; Yang, S; Yang, C; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I -K; Yu, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J; Zhang, Y; Zhang, S; Zhang, J B; Zhang, Z; Zhang, X P; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhou, L; Zhu, X; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2015-01-01

    We present the measurement of the transverse single-spin asymmetry of weak boson production in transversely polarized proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 500~\\text{GeV}$ by the STAR experiment at RHIC. The measured observable is sensitive to the Sivers function, one of the transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions, which is predicted to have the opposite sign in proton-proton collisions from that observed in deep inelastic lepton-proton scattering. These data provide the first experimental investigation of the non-universality of the Sivers function, fundamental to our understanding of QCD.

  1. Single orbital angular momentum mode emission from vertical cavity surface emitting laser by optical feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Y.; Moriya, H.; Shigematsu, K.; Yamane, K.; Morita, R.; Awaji, Y.

    2017-04-01

    Single angular momentum (OAM) mode emissions from a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) were demonstrated by an external optical feedback using computer generated holograms, which are optimized on the OAM modal gain of the free-running VCSEL. Side-mode suppression ratio of more than 23 dB was achieved for the OAM modes with l = +/-1.

  2. Single Spin Asymmetries of Inclusive Hadrons Produced in Electron Scattering from a Transversely Polarized $^3$He Target

    CERN Document Server

    Allada, K; Aniol, K; Annand, J R M; Averett, T; Benmokhtar, F; Bertozzi, W; Bradshaw, P C; Bosted, P; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Cates, G D; Chen, C; Chen, J -P; Chen, W; Chirapatpimol, K; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; Cornejo, J C; Cusanno, F; Dalton, M; Deconinck, W; de Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deng, X; Deur, A; Ding, H; Dolph, P A M; Dutta, C; Dutta, D; Fassi, L El; Frullani, S; Gao, H; Garibaldi, F; Gaskell, D; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Golge, S; Guo, L; Hamilton, D; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Huang, J; Huang, M; Ibrahim, H F; Iodice, M; Jiang, X; Jin, G; Jones, M K; Katich, J; Kelleher, A; Kim, W; Kolarkar, A; Korsch, W; LeRose, J J; Li, X; Li, Y; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Long, E; Lu, H -J; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; McNulty, D; Meziani, Z -E; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Camacho, C Munoz; Nanda, S; Narayan, A; Nelyubin, V; Norum, B; Oh, Y; Osipenko, M; Parno, D; Peng, J -C; Phillips, S K; Posik, M; Puckett, A J R; Qian, X; Qiang, Y; Rakhman, A; Ransome, R; Riordan, S; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Schulte, E; Shahinyan, A; Shabestari, M H; Sirca, S; Stepanyan, S; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Tang, L -G; Tobias, A; Urciuoli, G M; Vilardi, I; Wang, K; Wang, Y; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yan, X; Yao, H; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Yuan, L; Zhan, X; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y -W; Zhao, B; Zheng, X; Zhu, L; Zhu, X; Zong, X

    2013-01-01

    We report the first measurement of target single-spin asymmetries (A$_N$) in the inclusive hadron production reaction, $e $+$ ^3\\text{He}^{\\uparrow}\\rightarrow h+X$, using a transversely polarized $^3$He target at an electron-nucleon center-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}$=3.45 GeV. The experiment was conducted at Jefferson Lab in Hall A using a 5.9-GeV electron beam. Three types of hadrons ($\\pi^{\\pm}$, $\\text{K}^{\\pm}$ and proton) were detected with an average momentum $$=2.35 GeV/c, and an average transverse momentum $$=0.64 GeV/c. The observed asymmetry strongly depends on the type of hadron. A positive asymmetry is observed for $\\pi^+$ and $\\text{K}^+$. A negative asymmetry is observed for $\\pi^{-}$. The magnitudes of the asymmetries follow $|A^{\\pi^-}| < |A^{\\pi^+}| < |A^{K^+}|$. The K$^{-}$ and proton asymmetries are consistent with zero within the experimental uncertainties. The $\\pi^{+}$ and $\\pi^{-}$ asymmetries measured for the $^3$He target and extracted for neutrons are opposite in sign with a sma...

  3. Single Mode Photonic Crystal Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent D. Choquette

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the design, fabrication, and performance of photonic crystal vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs. Using a periodic pattern of etched holes in the top facet of the VCSEL, the optical cavity can be designed to support the fundamental mode only. The electrical confinement is independently defined by proton implantation or oxide confinement. By control of the refractive index and loss created by the photonic crystal, operation in the Gaussian mode can be insured, independent of the lasing wavelength.

  4. Broad-band robustly single-mode hollow-core PCF by resonant filtering of higher order modes

    CERN Document Server

    Günendi, Mehmet C; Frosz, Michael H; Russell, Philip St J

    2015-01-01

    We propose and theoretically analyse a novel hollow-core photonic crystal fibre (PCF) that is engineered so as to strongly suppress higher order modes, i.e., to provide robust LP$_{01}$ single-mode guidance in all the wavelength ranges where the fibre guides with low loss. Encircling the core is a single ring of non-touching glass elements whose modes are tailored to ensure resonant phase-matched coupling to higher-order core modes, causing them to leak at a very high rate into the supporting solid glass sheath. Using a model based on coupled capillary waveguides, as well as full vectorial finite element modelling, we show that this modal filtering effect depends on only one dimensionless geometrical parameter, akin to the well-known $d/{\\Lambda}$ parameter for endlessly single-mode solid-core PCF. The design is scalable up to large core sizes and is predicted to deliver LP$_{01}$ mode losses of some $10$s of dB/km in multiple transmission windows, the broadest of which spans more than an octave. At the same ...

  5. Single-longitudinal mode Nd:YVO4 microchip laser with orthogonal-polarization bidirectional traveling-waves mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingjun; Wu, Li; Wu, Hehui; Chen, Weimin; Wang, Yanli; Gu, Shijie

    2008-11-10

    We present a single longitudinal mode, diode pumped Nd:YVO(4) microchip laser where a pair of quarter-wave plates (QWPs) sandwich Nd:YVO(4) and the principle axes of QWPs are oriented at 45 degrees to the c-axis of Nd:YVO(4). Three pieces of crystals were optically bonded together as a microchip without adhesive. Owing to large birefringence of Nd:YVO(4), two standing waves with orthogonal polarizations compensate their hole-burning effects with each other, which diminish total spatial hole-burning effects in Nd:YVO(4). The maximum pump power of greater than 25 times the threshold for single longitudinal mode operation has been theoretically shown and experimentally demonstrated. The power of output, slope efficiencies and temperature range of single longitudinal mode operation are greater than 730 mw (at 1.25 W pump), 60% and 30 degrees C, respectively.

  6. Surface plasmon resonance-based refractometry using whispering gallery modes in bent metalized single-mode optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyshlyuk, Anton V.; Mitsai, Evgeniy V.; Vitrik, Oleg B.

    2017-09-01

    The work is devoted to the numerical and experimental study of surface plasmon resonance in a bent single-mode optical fiber with metalized cladding. It was shown that with a proper combination of metal film thickness and bend radius one can achieve coupling between fundamental and surface plasmon modes through an intermediary of whispering gallery mode supported by the bent fiber's optical cladding. This brings about a dip in the transmission spectrum of the fiber at the resonant wavelength which depends strongly on the external medium refractive index, so that refractometric measurements can be performed with a sensitivity of ˜5 μm/RIU and resolution ˜4.10-6.

  7. About the selection of transverse modes in the X-band oversized oscillator with 2.5 GW output power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsygankov, R. V.; Rostov, V. V.; Gunin, A. V.; Elchaninov, A. A.; Markov, A. B.; Ozur, G. E.

    2017-05-01

    The paper describes the numerical and experimental results of the microwave O-type oscillator based on an oversized slow wave structure (SWS). The feedback is applied to the design scheme, which provides intense modulation of the electron beam in the cathode-anode region and two special cavities before SWS. The selectivity of TM02 operating mode occurs due to increased diffraction loss of parasitic modes in the cathode part. The slow wave structure consists of two identical sections with the phase-shifting region in between. The use of this configuration leads to the formation of a locked TM01 wave, having good conditions for the transformation into the working mode TM02. In the experiments, a stable generation regime with pure TM02 mode at a frequency of 10 GHz with an efficiency of about 30% and the output power of 2.5 GW in the magnetic field below the cyclotron resonance was obtained.

  8. Equivalence relations for the classical capacity of single-mode Gaussian quantum channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Joachim; Karpov, Evgueni; García-Patrón, Raúl; Pilyavets, Oleg V; Cerf, Nicolas J

    2013-07-19

    We prove the equivalence of an arbitrary single-mode Gaussian quantum channel and a newly defined fiducial channel preceded by a phase shift and followed by a Gaussian unitary operation. This equivalence implies that the energy-constrained classical capacity of any single-mode Gaussian channel can be calculated based on this fiducial channel, which is furthermore simply realizable with a beam splitter, two identical single-mode squeezers, and a two-mode squeezer. In a large domain of parameters, we also provide an analytical expression for the Gaussian classical capacity, exploiting its additivity, and prove that the classical capacity cannot exceed it by more than 1/ln2 bits.

  9. Single vs. dual mode stimulation in spinal cord stimulation - what is the difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manola, L.; Holsheimer, J.

    Objectives. Stimulation with dual percutaneous leads is often used in SCS. Either a single generator gives pulses to both leads simultaneously (single mode), or two generators give pulses to each lead alternately (dual mode) [1]. The aim was to compare theoretically the performance of these

  10. Tomography of a Mode-Tunable Coherent Single-Photon Subtractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sik Ra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Single-photon subtraction plays important roles in optical quantum information processing as it provides a non-Gaussian characteristic in continuous-variable quantum information. While the conventional way of implementing single-photon subtraction based on a low-reflectance beam splitter works properly for a single-mode quantum state, it is unsuitable for a multimode quantum state because a single photon is subtracted from all multiple modes without maintaining their mode coherence. Here, we experimentally implement and characterize a mode-tunable coherent single-photon subtractor based on sum-frequency generation. It can subtract a single photon exclusively from one desired time-frequency mode of light or from a coherent superposition of multiple time-frequency modes. To experimentally characterize the time-frequency modes of the single-photon subtractor, we employ quantum process tomography based on coherent states. The mode-tunable coherent single-photon subtractor will be an essential element for realizing non-Gaussian quantum networks necessary to get a quantum advantage in information processing.

  11. Effect of a Transverse Magnetic Field on Stray Grain Formation of Ni-Based Single Crystal Superalloy During Directional Solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Weidong; Liu, Huan; Lan, Jian; Li, Chuanjun; Zhong, Yunbo; Li, Xi; Cao, Guanghui; Ren, Zhongming

    2016-12-01

    The effect of a transverse magnetic field on stray grain formation during directional solidification of superalloy was investigated. Experimental results indicated that the transverse magnetic field effectively suppressed the stray grain formation on the side the primary dendrite diverges from the mold wall. Moreover, the quenched experimental results indicated that the solid/liquid interface shape was obviously changed in a transverse magnetic field. The effect of a transverse magnetic field on stray grain formation was discussed.

  12. Single Shot Measurements of the 4-Dimensional Transverse Phase Space Distribution of Intense Ion Beams at the UNILAC at GSI

    CERN Document Server

    Groening, L

    2003-01-01

    The UNILAC is used as an injector for the synchrotron SIS. It is designed to fill the synchrotron up to its space charge limit. The upper limit for the useful beam emittance of the UNILAC is given by the finite acceptance of the SIS during the injection process. In order to remain within this acceptance the emittance growth during beam acceleration and transportation due to space charge effects must be minimized by applying an appropriate beam focusing. Therefore, the influence of the magnetic focusing strength on the beam emittance growth was investigated experimentally for different beam currents. Measurements of transverse phase space distributions were performed before and after the Alvarez accelerator with a periodic focusing channel, respectively. In order to perform such a wide parameter scan within a reasonable time with respect to machine stability, the pepper pot technique was applied. The pepper pot method allows for single-pulse measurements. For comparison several measurements using the slit-grid...

  13. Single-mode glass waveguide technology for optical interchip communication on board level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusberg, Lars; Neitz, Marcel; Schröder, Henning

    2012-01-01

    The large bandwidth demand in long-distance telecom networks lead to single-mode fiber interconnects as result of low dispersion, low loss and dense wavelength multiplexing possibilities. In contrast, multi-mode interconnects are suitable for much shorter lengths up to 300 meters and are promising for optical links between racks and on board level. Active optical cables based on multi-mode fiber links are at the market and research in multi-mode waveguide integration on board level is still going on. Compared to multi-mode, a single-mode waveguide has much more integration potential because of core diameters of around 20% of a multi-mode waveguide by a much larger bandwidth. But light coupling in single-mode waveguides is much more challenging because of lower coupling tolerances. Together with the silicon photonics technology, a single-mode waveguide technology on board-level will be the straight forward development goal for chip-to-chip optical interconnects integration. Such a hybrid packaging platform providing 3D optical single-mode links bridges the gap between novel photonic integrated circuits and the glass fiber based long-distance telecom networks. Following we introduce our 3D photonic packaging approach based on thin glass substrates with planar integrated optical single-mode waveguides for fiber-to-chip and chip-to-chip interconnects. This novel packaging approach merges micro-system packaging and glass integrated optics. It consists of a thin glass substrate with planar integrated singlemode waveguide circuits, optical mirrors and lenses providing an integration platform for photonic IC assembly and optical fiber interconnect. Thin glass is commercially available in panel and wafer formats and characterizes excellent optical and high-frequency properties. That makes it perfect for microsystem packaging. The paper presents recent results in single-mode waveguide technology on wafer level and waveguide characterization. Furthermore the integration in a

  14. Slanted annular aperture arrays as enhanced-transmission metamaterials: Excitation of the plasmonic transverse electromagnetic guided mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndao, Abdoulaye; Salut, Roland; Baida, Fadi I., E-mail: fbaida@univ-fcomte.fr [Département d' Optique P.M. Duffieux, Institut FEMTO-ST, UMR 6174 CNRS, Université de Franche–Comté, 25030 Besançon Cedex (France); Belkhir, Abderrahmane [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Université Mouloud Mammeri, Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria)

    2013-11-18

    We present here the fabrication and the optical characterization of slanted annular aperture arrays engraved into silver film. An experimental enhanced transmission based on the excitation of the cutoff-less plasmonic guided mode of the nano-waveguides (the transmission electron microscopy mode) is demonstrated and agrees well with the theoretical predicted results. By the way, even if it is less efficient (70% → 20%), an enhanced transmission can occur at larger wavelength value (720 nm–930 nm) compared to conventional annular aperture arrays structure by correctly setting the metal thickness.

  15. Measurement of Transverse Single-Spin Asymmetries for J/psi Production in Polarized p+p Collisions at sqrt(s) = 200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Al-Ta'ani, H; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Aphecetche, L; Aramaki, Y; Asai, J; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bhom, J H; Bickley, A A; Blau, D S; Boissevain, J G; Bok, J S; Borel, H; Borggren, N; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Camacho, C M; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Chang, B S; Chang, W C; Charvet, J -L; Chen, C -H; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Churyn, A; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; del Valle, Z Conesa; Connors, M; Constantin, P; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Dayananda, M K; Denisov, A; d'Enterria, D; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Orazio, L D; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Dubey, A K; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Dzhordzhadze, V; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Eyser, K O; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Garishvili, I; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H -Å; Henni, A Hadj; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Hanks, J; Han, R; Hartouni, E P; Haruna, K; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; He, X; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Iinuma, H; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Imrek, J; Inaba, M; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kang, J H; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E J; Kim, E; Kim, S H; Kim, Y -J; Kinney, E; Kiriluk, K; Kiss, Á; Kistenev, E; Klay, J; Klein-Boesing, C; Kochenda, L; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kozlov, A; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Layton, D; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, T; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Lenzi, B; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Levy, L A Linden; Liška, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Li, X; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Mašek, L; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Mikeš, P; Miki, K; Milov, A; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moukhanova, T V; Mukhopadhyay, D; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Niita, T; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Okada, K; Oka, M; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, J; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J -C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Ružička, P; Rykov, V L; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, S; Sakashita, K; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sato, T; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Semenov, A Yu; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T -A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunečka, M; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sukhanov, A; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Taneja, S; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Tarján, P; Themann, H; Thomas, D; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tomášek, L; Tomita, Y; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tram, V-N; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Vinogradov, A A; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Wei, F; Wessels, J; White, S N; Winter, D; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Xie, W; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Younus, I; You, Z; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zaudtke, O; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zolin, L

    2010-01-01

    We report the first measurement of transverse single-spin asymmetries in $J/\\psi$ production from transversely polarized $p+p$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 200$ GeV with data taken by the PHENIX experiment in 2006 and 2008. The measurement was performed over the rapidity ranges $1.2 < |y| < 2.2$ and $ |y| < 0.35$ for transverse momenta up to 6 GeV/$c$. $J/\\psi$ production at RHIC is dominated by processes involving initial-state gluons, and transverse single-spin asymmetries of the $J/\\psi$ can provide access to gluon dynamics within the nucleon. Such asymmetries may also shed light on the long-standing question in QCD of the $J/\\psi$ production mechanism. Asymmetries were obtained as a function of $J/\\psi$ transverse momentum and Feynman-$x$, with a value of $-0.086 \\pm 0.026^{\\rm stat} \\pm 0.003^{\\rm syst}$ in the forward region. This result suggests possible nonzero trigluon correlation functions in transversely polarized protons and, if well defined in this reaction, a nonzero gluon Sivers distribut...

  16. Design and Analysis of 19 cell PCF for Robust Single Mode Operation usingAvoided-Crossing Modes Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyadh MwadNaife

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Double-cladding large mode area rod-type photonic crystal fibers have become a key component for power scaling in high power fiber laser systems to provide an ultra large effective area. By a careful design, the single-mode regime can be obtained insuch large core active fibers. In this paper, the 19-cell photonic crystal fibers with 3 rings in the fiber inner cladding have been investigated with the avoided-crossing approach, in order to find guidelines for the design of single-mode fibers. The air-hole diameter and the wavelength have been changed.In a certain point of air-holes diameter and the wavelength for 19cell PCF, the avoided crossing between HOMs has been occurred. In this point, the confinement loss of HOMs is increased which is more ensured for SM operation

  17. Choosing a Better Delay Line Medium between Single-Mode and Multi-Mode Optical Fibers: the Effect of Bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auwal Mustapha Imam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Optical fiber cables are materials whose core is made of silica and other materials such as chalcogenide glasses; they transmit a digital signal via light pulses through an extremely thin strand of glass. The light propagates and is being guided by the core which is surrounded by the cladding. Light travels in the optical fiber in the form of total internal reflection in the core of the fibers. The flexibility, low tensile strength, low signal loss, high bandwidth and other characteristics of optical fibers favors it for use as a delay medium in many applications. Another favorable characteristic of optical fiber delay lines is are their relative insensitivities to environmental effects and electromagnetic interferences. The immunity of optical fibers to interferences and their less weight added advantages to it for use as delay medium. Single-mode and multi-mode are the two most popular types of optical fibers. Single-mode fibers have good propagation and delay properties with a minimal loss that allows the signal to propagate in a large distance with insignificant distortion or attenuation. The percentage of power transmission of single-mode fibers is found to be higher than that of the multi-mode fibers. It is, therefore, a preferred type for use as a delay line. In this paper, relative studies of the two optical fibers modes, and the results of power input/output measurement of the two modes are presented with a view to coming up with a better type for use as a delay medium.

  18. A novel ultra-broadband single polarization single mode photonic crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Linghong; Zheng, Yi; Hou, Lantian; Zheng, Kai; Peng, Jiying; Zhao, Xingtao

    2017-08-01

    The concept of employing a central hole infiltrated with nematic liquid crystal (NLC) and two additional air holes in the core region is exploited to obtain an ultra-broadband single polarization single mode photonic crystal fiber (SPSM-PCF). The effects of structural parameters on the SPSM operation are studied using the full-vectorial finite element method. Numerical results show that the proposed structure can attain the SPSM operation bandwidth of 1610 nm (from 1.51 to 3.12 μm) with confinement loss lower than 0.01 dB/km. The SPSM operation range can also be widely tuned to shorter wavelengths by adjusting the structure parameters. And meanwhile, a broad dispersion-flattened SPSM PCF is also obtained around the communication wavelength. Moreover, the dual-core SPSM PCF has also been investigated, enabling potential applications in the wavelength splitter of 1.31 and 1.55 μm bands at a short fiber length of 1.629 mm with SPSM operation.

  19. Quantum dash based single section mode locked lasers for photonic integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Siddharth; Calò, Cosimo; Chimot, Nicolas; Radziunas, Mindaugas; Arkhipov, Rostislav; Barbet, Sophie; Accard, Alain; Ramdane, Abderrahim; Lelarge, Francois

    2014-05-05

    We present the first demonstration of an InAs/InP Quantum Dash based single-section frequency comb generator designed for use in photonic integrated circuits (PICs). The laser cavity is closed using a specifically designed Bragg reflector without compromising the mode-locking performance of the self pulsating laser. This enables the integration of single-section mode-locked laser in photonic integrated circuits as on-chip frequency comb generators. We also investigate the relations between cavity modes in such a device and demonstrate how the dispersion of the complex mode frequencies induced by the Bragg grating implies a violation of the equi-distance between the adjacent mode frequencies and, therefore, forbids the locking of the modes in a classical Bragg Device. Finally we integrate such a Bragg Mirror based laser with Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA) to demonstrate the monolithic integration of QDash based low phase noise sources in PICs.

  20. Improved Numerical Calculation of the Single-Mode-No-Core-Single-Mode Fiber Structure Using the Fields Far from Cutoff Approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Shi, Jia; Yang, Xianchao; Xu, Degang; Rong, Feng; Zhao, Junfa; Yao, Jianquan

    2017-09-29

    Multimode interferometers based on the single-mode-no-core-single-mode fiber (SNCS) structure have been widely investigated as functional devices and sensors. However, the theoretical support for the sensing mechanism is still imperfect, especially for the cladding refractive index response. In this paper, a modified model of no-core fiber (NCF) based on far from cut-off approximation is proposed to investigate the spectrum characteristic and sensing mechanism of the SNCS structure. Guided-mode propagation analysis (MPA) is used to analyze the self-image effect and spectrum response to the cladding refractive index and temperature. Verified by experiments, the performance of the SNCS structure can be estimated specifically and easily by the proposed method.

  1. Segmentation of a Vibro-Shock Cantilever-Type Piezoelectric Energy Harvester Operating in Higher Transverse Vibration Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Zizys

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The piezoelectric transduction mechanism is a common vibration-to-electric energy harvesting approach. Piezoelectric energy harvesters are typically mounted on a vibrating host structure, whereby alternating voltage output is generated by a dynamic strain field. A design target in this case is to match the natural frequency of the harvester to the ambient excitation frequency for the device to operate in resonance mode, thus significantly increasing vibration amplitudes and, as a result, energy output. Other fundamental vibration modes have strain nodes, where the dynamic strain field changes sign in the direction of the cantilever length. The paper reports on a dimensionless numerical transient analysis of a cantilever of a constant cross-section and an optimally-shaped cantilever with the objective to accurately predict the position of a strain node. Total effective strain produced by both cantilevers segmented at the strain node is calculated via transient analysis and compared to the strain output produced by the cantilevers segmented at strain nodes obtained from modal analysis, demonstrating a 7% increase in energy output. Theoretical results were experimentally verified by using open-circuit voltage values measured for the cantilevers segmented at optimal and suboptimal segmentation lines.

  2. Segmentation of a Vibro-Shock Cantilever-Type Piezoelectric Energy Harvester Operating in Higher Transverse Vibration Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizys, Darius; Gaidys, Rimvydas; Dauksevicius, Rolanas; Ostasevicius, Vytautas; Daniulaitis, Vytautas

    2015-12-23

    The piezoelectric transduction mechanism is a common vibration-to-electric energy harvesting approach. Piezoelectric energy harvesters are typically mounted on a vibrating host structure, whereby alternating voltage output is generated by a dynamic strain field. A design target in this case is to match the natural frequency of the harvester to the ambient excitation frequency for the device to operate in resonance mode, thus significantly increasing vibration amplitudes and, as a result, energy output. Other fundamental vibration modes have strain nodes, where the dynamic strain field changes sign in the direction of the cantilever length. The paper reports on a dimensionless numerical transient analysis of a cantilever of a constant cross-section and an optimally-shaped cantilever with the objective to accurately predict the position of a strain node. Total effective strain produced by both cantilevers segmented at the strain node is calculated via transient analysis and compared to the strain output produced by the cantilevers segmented at strain nodes obtained from modal analysis, demonstrating a 7% increase in energy output. Theoretical results were experimentally verified by using open-circuit voltage values measured for the cantilevers segmented at optimal and suboptimal segmentation lines.

  3. Complementarity in single photon interference – the role of the mode function and vacuum fields

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Menzel, R; Puhlmann, D; Heuer, A

    2017-01-01

    ...).Single photon first order interferences of spatially separated regions from the cone structure of spontaneous parametric down conversion allow for analyzing the role of the mode function in quantum...

  4. Single-mode Fabry-Perot laser with deeply etched slanted double trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xun; Zhu, Zhongshu; Xi, Yanping; Han, Lin; Ke, Cheng; Pan, Yue; Huang, Weiping

    2015-08-01

    This work proposed and demonstrated a single-mode Fabry-Perot (FP) laser structure with a pair of deeply etched slanted trenches inside the cavity. We implemented the proposed mode selection scheme in conventional 1310 nm InAlGaAs/InP strained-layer multiple-quantum-well ridge waveguide FP laser diodes and obtained single-mode operation with a side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) as high as 35 dB . The single-mode yield was approximately 55%, and other device performance measures such as the threshold and the slope efficiency were not greatly affected. Additionally, temperature cycling and aging tests show no exceptional disadvantages when compared with the performance of conventional FP lasers. Fiber-optic transmission tests show that the proposed device can send directly modulated 2.5 Gbps and 6.25 Gbps optical signals for distances of over 50 km in standard single-mode fiber. Thus, as a cost-effective solution, this device is promising as a replacement for conventional distributed feedback laser diodes in specific applications where single-mode operation is indispensable but precise control of the lasing wavelength and/or very high SMSR (e.g., > 40 dB ) are not required.

  5. Single-Mode Lasers Based on Cesium Lead Halide Perovskite Submicron Spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bing; Dong, Hongxing; Sun, Liaoxin; Zheng, Weihao; Wang, Qi; Sun, Fangfang; Jiang, Xiongwei; Pan, Anlian; Zhang, Long

    2017-11-28

    Single-mode laser is realized in a cesium lead halide perovskite submicron sphere at room temperature. All-inorganic cesium lead halide (CsPbX 3 , X = Cl, Br, I) microspheres with tunable sizes (0.2-10 μm) are first fabricated by a dual-source chemical vapor deposition method. Due to smooth surface and regular geometry structure of microspheres, whispering gallery resonant modes make a single-mode laser realized in a submicron sphere. Surprisingly, a single-mode laser with a very narrow line width (∼0.09 nm) was achieved successfully in the CsPbX 3 spherical cavity at low threshold (∼0.42 μJ cm -2 ) with a high cavity quality factor (∼6100), which are the best specifications of lasing modes in all natural nano/microcavities ever reported. By modulating the halide composition and sizes of the microspheres, the wavelength of a single-mode laser can be continuously tuned from red to violet (425-715 nm). This work illustrates that the well-controlled synthesis of metal cesium lead halide perovskite nano/microspheres may offer an alternative route to produce a widely tunable and greatly miniaturized single-mode laser.

  6. Inversed Vernier effect based single-mode laser emission in coupled microdisks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Kaiyang; Li, Jiankai; Xiao, Shumin; Song, Qinghai

    2015-09-01

    Recently, on-chip single-mode laser emissions in coupled microdisks have attracted considerable research attention due to their wide applications. While most of single-mode lasers in coupled microdisks or microrings have been qualitatively explained by either Vernier effect or inversed Vernier effect, none of them have been experimentally confirmed. Here, we studied the mechanism of single-mode laser operation in coupled microdisks. We found that the mode numbers had been significantly reduced to nearly single-mode within a large pumping power range from threshold to gain saturation. The detail laser spectra showed that the largest gain and the first lasing peak were mainly generated by one disk and the laser intensity was proportional to the wavelength detuning of two set of modes. The corresponding theoretical analysis showed that the experimental observations were dominated by internal coupling within one cavity, which was similar to the recently explored inversed Vernier effect in two coupled microrings. We believe our finding will be important for understanding the previous experimental findings and the development of on-chip single-mode laser.

  7. Bandwidth comparison of photonic crystal fibers and conventional single mode fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Dybendal; Folkenberg, Jacob Riis; Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2004-01-01

    We experimentally compare the optical bandwidth of a conventional single-mode fiber (SMF) with 3 different photonic crystal fibers (PCF) all optimized for visible applications. The spectral attenuation, single-turn bend loss, and mode-field diameters (MFD) are measured and the PCF is found to have...... a significantly larger bandwidth than the SMF for an identical MFD. It is shown how this advantage can be utilized for realizing a larger MFD for the PCF while maintaining a bending resistant fiber....

  8. Amplitude Noise Suppression and Orthogonal Multiplexing Using Injection-Locked Single-Mode VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyubopytov, Vladimir; von Lerber, Tuomo; Lassas, Matti

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate BER reduction and orthogonal modulation using an injection locked single-mode VCSEL. It allows us suppressing an amplitude noise of optical signal and/or double the capacity of an information channel.......We experimentally demonstrate BER reduction and orthogonal modulation using an injection locked single-mode VCSEL. It allows us suppressing an amplitude noise of optical signal and/or double the capacity of an information channel....

  9. AN ELASTIC STRESS ANALYSIS FOR A POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE CANTILEVER BEAM SUBJECTED TO A SINGLE TRANSVERSE FORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla TEKİN

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, elasto-plastic stress analysis is carried out in a polymer matrix composite cantilever beam of arbitrary fiber orientation subjected to a single transverse force applied to the free end by using the anisotropic elasticity theory. The residual stress component of ?x and yield points are determined for 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90° fiber orientation angles. The yielding begins for 0° and 90° fiber orientation angles at the upper and lower surfaces of the beam at the same distances from the free end. It is seen that the yielding begins for 30°, 45° and 60° fiber orientation angles at the upper surface of the beam. The intensity of the residual stress component of ?x is maximum at the upper and lower surfaces of the beam. In this study, the residual stress component of ?x obtained for the polymer matrix composite thermoplastic cantilever beam reinforced by reinforced unidirectional fibers is compared with that of the thermoplastic cantilever beam reinforced by woven Cr-Ni steel fibers.

  10. Celiac disease biodetection using lossy-mode resonances generated in tapered single-mode optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socorro, A. B.; Corres, J. M.; Del Villar, I.; Matias, I. R.; Arregui, F. J.

    2014-05-01

    This work presents the development and test of an anti-gliadin antibodies biosensor based on lossy mode resonances (LMRs) to detect celiac disease. Several polyelectrolites were used to perform layer-by-layer assembly processes in order to generate the LMR and to fabricate a gliadin-embedded thin-film. The LMR shifted 20 nm when immersed in a 5 ppm anti-gliadin antibodies-PBS solution, what makes this bioprobe suitable for detecting celiac disease. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that LMRs are used to detect celiac disease and these results suppose promising prospects on the use of such phenomena as biological detectors.

  11. Comparison of the biometric values obtained by two different A-mode ultrasound devices (Eye Cubed vs. PalmScan: A Transversal, descriptive, and comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiroz-Mercado Hugo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the reliability of the measurements obtained with the PalmScan™, when compared with another standardized A-mode ultrasound device, and assess the consistency and correlation between the two methods. Methods Transversal, descriptive, and comparative study. We recorded the axial length (AL, anterior chamber depth (ACD and lens thickness (LT obtained with two A-mode ultrasounds (PalmScan™ A2000 and Eye Cubed™ using an immersion technique. We compared the measurements with a two-sample t-test. Agreement between the two devices was assessed with Bland-Altman plots and 95% limits of agreement. Results 70 eyes of 70 patients were enrolled in this study. The measurements with the Eye Cubed™ of AL and ACD were shorter than the measurements taken by the PalmScan™. The differences were not statistically significant regarding AL (p Conclusions The values of AL and LT, obtained with both devices are not identical, but within the limits of agreement. The agreement is not affected by the magnitude of the ocular dimensions (but only between range of 20 mm to 27 mm of AL and 3.5 mm to 5.7 mm of LT. A correction of about 0.5 D could be considered if an intraocular lens is being calculated. However due to the large variability of the results, the authors recommend discretion in using this conversion factor, and to adjust the power of the intraocular lenses based upon the personal experience of the surgeon.

  12. In-line fiber optic interferometric sensors in single-mode fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tao; Wu, Di; Liu, Min; Duan, De-Wen

    2012-01-01

    In-line fiber optic interferometers have attracted intensive attention for their potential sensing applications in refractive index, temperature, pressure and strain measurement, etc. Typical in-line fiber-optic interferometers are of two types: Fabry-Perot interferometers and core-cladding-mode interferometers. It's known that the in-line fiber optic interferometers based on single-mode fibers can exhibit compact structures, easy fabrication and low cost. In this paper, we review two kinds of typical in-line fiber optic interferometers formed in single-mode fibers fabricated with different post-processing techniques. Also, some recently reported specific technologies for fabricating such fiber optic interferometers are presented.

  13. Low-NA single-mode LMA photonic crystal fiber amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Scolari, Lara; Broeng, Jes

    2011-01-01

    Enabling Single-Mode (SM) operation in Large-Mode-Area (LMA) fiber amplifiers and lasers is critical, since a SM output ensures high beam quality and excellent pointing stability. In this paper, we demonstrate and test a new design approach for achieving ultra-low NA SM rod fibers by using...... a spatially Distributed Mode Filter (DMF). This approach achieves SM performance in a short and straight rod fiber and allows preform tolerances to be compensated during draw. A low-NA SM rod fiber amplifier having a mode field diameter of ~60μm at 1064nm and a pump absorption of 27dB/m at 976nm...

  14. Single mode Lamb wave phased array beamforming with hybrid PZT-SLDV sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Yu, Lingyu

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a single Lamb mode phased array beamforming by using a hybrid piezoelectric transducer (PZT)-scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) system. The array system consists of a surface mounted PZT to generate Lamb waves and a non-contact SLDV to acquire high spatial resolution time-space wavefield remotely. The time-space wavefield contains Lamb waves which can be generated from the PZT excitation, damage scattering, mode conversion, etc. A frequency-wavenumber (f-k) decomposition technique is used to decompose the miscellaneous Lamb waves into individual wave mode components and wave propagations in different directions. The f-k decomposition allows using a single wave component as the phased array input for beamforming. The single mode array beamforming methodology was verified through PZT-SLDV experimental tests on an aluminum plate with a bonded quartz rod as a simulated damage

  15. Quantum correlations of helicity entangled states in non-inertial frames beyond single mode approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harsij, Zeynab, E-mail: z.harsij@ph.iut.ac.ir; Mirza, Behrouz, E-mail: b.mirza@cc.iut.ac.ir

    2014-12-15

    A helicity entangled tripartite state is considered in which the degree of entanglement is preserved in non-inertial frames. It is shown that Quantum Entanglement remains observer independent. As another measure of quantum correlation, Quantum Discord has been investigated. It is explicitly shown that acceleration has no effect on the degree of quantum correlation for the bipartite and tripartite helicity entangled states. Geometric Quantum Discord as a Hilbert–Schmidt distance is computed for helicity entangled states. It is shown that living in non-inertial frames does not make any influence on this distance, either. In addition, the analysis has been extended beyond single mode approximation to show that acceleration does not have any impact on the quantum features in the limit beyond the single mode. As an interesting result, while the density matrix depends on the right and left Unruh modes, the Negativity as a measure of Quantum Entanglement remains constant. Also, Quantum Discord does not change beyond single mode approximation. - Highlights: • The helicity entangled states here are observer independent in non-inertial frames. • It is explicitly shown that Quantum Discord for these states is observer independent. • Geometric Quantum Discord is also not affected by acceleration increase. • Extending to beyond single mode does not change the degree of entanglement. • Beyond single mode approximation the degree of Quantum Discord is also preserved.

  16. Reliability and criterion validity of measurements using a smart phone-based measurement tool for the transverse rotation angle of the pelvis during single-leg lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sung-Hoon; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Jeon, In-Cheol; Hwang, Ui-Jae; Weon, Jong-Hyuck

    2018-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the intra-rater test-retest reliability of a smart phone-based measurement tool (SBMT) and a three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis system for measuring the transverse rotation angle of the pelvis during single-leg lifting (SLL) and the criterion validity of the transverse rotation angle of the pelvis measurement using SBMT compared with a 3D motion analysis system (3DMAS). Seventeen healthy volunteers performed SLL with their dominant leg without bending the knee until they reached a target placed 20 cm above the table. This study used a 3DMAS, considered the gold standard, to measure the transverse rotation angle of the pelvis to assess the criterion validity of the SBMT measurement. Intra-rater test-retest reliability was determined using the SBMT and 3DMAS using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) [3,1] values. The criterion validity of the SBMT was assessed with ICC [3,1] values. Both the 3DMAS (ICC = 0.77) and SBMT (ICC = 0.83) showed excellent intra-rater test-retest reliability in the measurement of the transverse rotation angle of the pelvis during SLL in a supine position. Moreover, the SBMT showed an excellent correlation with the 3DMAS (ICC = 0.99). Measurement of the transverse rotation angle of the pelvis using the SBMT showed excellent reliability and criterion validity compared with the 3DMAS.

  17. Large Mode Area Single Trench Fiber for 2 mu m Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Deepak; Sahu, Jayanta K.

    2016-01-01

    Performance of single trench fibers has been investigated using finite-element method at 2 mu m wavelength. Numerical investigations show that an effective single mode operation for large effective area between 3000-4000 mu m(2) and 2000-3000 mu m(2) can be achieved at similar to 40 and similar t...

  18. Single-molecule electronics: Cooling individual vibrational modes by the tunneling current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykkebo, Jacob; Romano, Giuseppe; Gagliardi, Alessio; Pecchia, Alessandro; Solomon, Gemma C

    2016-03-21

    Electronic devices composed of single molecules constitute the ultimate limit in the continued downscaling of electronic components. A key challenge for single-molecule electronics is to control the temperature of these junctions. Controlling heating and cooling effects in individual vibrational modes can, in principle, be utilized to increase stability of single-molecule junctions under bias, to pump energy into particular vibrational modes to perform current-induced reactions, or to increase the resolution in inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy by controlling the life-times of phonons in a molecule by suppressing absorption and external dissipation processes. Under bias the current and the molecule exchange energy, which typically results in heating of the molecule. However, the opposite process is also possible, where energy is extracted from the molecule by the tunneling current. Designing a molecular "heat sink" where a particular vibrational mode funnels heat out of the molecule and into the leads would be very desirable. It is even possible to imagine how the vibrational energy of the other vibrational modes could be funneled into the "cooling mode," given the right molecular design. Previous efforts to understand heating and cooling mechanisms in single molecule junctions have primarily been concerned with small models, where it is unclear which molecular systems they correspond to. In this paper, our focus is on suppressing heating and obtaining current-induced cooling in certain vibrational modes. Strategies for cooling vibrational modes in single-molecule junctions are presented, together with atomistic calculations based on those strategies. Cooling and reduced heating are observed for two different cooling schemes in calculations of atomistic single-molecule junctions.

  19. Piezoelectric d36 in-plane shear-mode of lead-free BZT-BCT single crystals for torsion actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berik, P.; Chang, W.-Y.; Jiang, X.

    2017-01-01

    We report the study of piezoelectric direct torsion actuation mechanism using lead-free piezoelectric d36 in-plane shear-mode BZT-BCT single crystals. The generated angle of twist of the piezoelectric torsion actuator was obtained from the transverse deflection measurement using a laser vibrometer. The bi-morph torsional actuator, consisting of two lead-free piezoelectric BZT-BCT in-plane shear-mode single crystals with a giant piezoelectric d36 shear strain coefficient of 1590 pC/N, provided a rate of twist of 34.12 mm/m under a quasi-static 15 V drive. The experimental benchmark was further modelled and verified by the ANSYS software using three dimensional (3D) piezoelectric finite elements. The experimental results revealed that lead-free piezoelectric BZT-BCT d36-mode single crystal is a superior candidate for piezoelectric torsion actuation. This lead-free piezoelectric BZT-BCT d36-mode torsion actuator can be effectively applied in torsional deformation control by taking into account the environmental considerations.

  20. Temperature sensing on tapered single mode fiber using mechanically induced long period fiber gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrujo-García, Sigifredo; Velázquez-González, Jesús Salvador; Pulido-Navarro, María. Guadalupe; González-Ocaña, Ernesto; Mújica-Ascencio, Saúl; Martínez-Piñón, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    The modeling of a temperature optical fiber sensor is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in this work. The suggested structure to obtain the sensing temperature characteristics is by the use of a mechanically induced Long Period Fiber Grating (LPFG) on a tapered single mode optical fiber. A biconical fiber optic taper is made by applying heat using an oxygen-propane flame burner while stretching the single mode fiber (SMF) whose coating has been removed. The resulting geometry of the device is important to analyze the coupling between the core mode to the cladding modes, and this will determine whether the optical taper is adiabatic or non-adiabatic. On the other hand, the mechanical LPFG is made up of two plates, one grooved and other flat, the grooved plate was done on an acrylic slab with the help of a computerized numerical control machine (CNC). In addition to the experimental work, the supporting theory is also included.

  1. M-strings and transverse orbifold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Amer [Government College University, Abdus Salam School of Mathematical Sciences, Lahore (Pakistan); Shabbir, Khurram [Government College University, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2016-11-15

    We discuss the partition function of a single M5-brane on a circle with transverse orbifold of ADE type and show that the modes captured by the partition function are those of the tensor multiplet and the three form field. We show that the bound states of M-strings corresponding to pair of simple roots appear, for all ADE, only when the momentum on the circle is turned on. (orig.)

  2. Wavelength-selectable and steady single-mode erbium-doped fiber multiple ring laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Yang, Zi-Qing; Huang, Tzu-Jung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Chen, Jing-Heng; Chen, Kun-Huang

    2017-11-01

    To achieve a stable and selectable C-band erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser with single-longitudinal-mode output, a multiple ring architecture is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. In this work, we design a passively quadruple-ring structure in the cavity of an EDF laser to produce a Vernier effect with a mode filter for suppressing the multimode spikes significantly. In addition, the output performance and stability of the proposed EDF ring laser are discussed.

  3. Analysis of the multi-component pseudo-pure-mode qP-wave inversion in vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) media

    KAUST Repository

    Djebbi, Ramzi

    2014-08-05

    Multi-parameter inversion in anisotropic media suffers from the inherent trade-off between the anisotropic parameters, even under the acoustic assumption. Multi-component data, often acquired nowadays in ocean bottom acquisition and land data, provide additional information capable of resolving anisotropic parameters under the acoustic approximation assumption. Based on Born scattering approximation, we develop formulas capable of characterizing the radiation patterns for the acoustic pseudo-pure mode P-waves. Though commonly reserved for the elastic fields, we use displacement fields to constrain the acoustic vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) representation of the medium. Using the asymptotic Green\\'s functions and a horizontal reflector we derive the radiation patterns for perturbations in the anisotropic media. The radiation pattern for the anellipticity parameter η is identically zero for the horizontal displacement. This allows us to dedicate this component to invert for velocity and δ. Computing the traveltime sensitivity kernels based on the unwrapped phase confirms the radiation patterns observations, and provide the model wavenumber behavior of the update.

  4. Dual-color single-mode lasing in axially coupled organic nanowire resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhuan; Zou, Chang-Ling; Dong, Haiyun; Yan, Yongli; Yao, Jiannian; Zhao, Yong Sheng

    2017-07-01

    Miniaturized lasers with multicolor output and high spectral purity are of crucial importance for yielding more compact and more versatile photonic devices. However, multicolor lasers usually operate in multimode, which largely restricts their practical applications due to the lack of an effective mode selection mechanism that is simultaneously applicable to multiple wavebands. We propose a mutual mode selection strategy to realize dual-color single-mode lasing in axially coupled cavities constructed from two distinct organic self-assembled single-crystal nanowires. The unique mode selection mechanism in the heterogeneously coupled nanowires was elucidated experimentally and theoretically. With each individual nanowire functioning as both the laser source and the mode filter for the other nanowire, dual-color single-mode lasing was successfully achieved in the axially coupled heterogeneous nanowire resonators. Furthermore, the heterogeneously coupled resonators provided multiple nanoscale output ports for delivering coherent signals with different colors, which could greatly contribute to increasing the integration level of functional photonic devices. These results advance the fundamental understanding of the lasing modulation in coupled cavity systems and offer a promising route to building multifunctional nanoscale lasers for high-level practical photonic integrations.

  5. Comparison of Numerical Modelling of Degradation Mechanisms in Single Mode Optical Fibre Using MATLAB and VPIphotonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Sajgalikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models for description of physical phenomena often use the statistical description of the individual phenomena and solve those using suitable methods. If we want to develop numerical model of optical communication system based on transmission through single mode optical fibres, we need to consider whole series of phenomena that affect various parts of the system. In the single-mode optical fibre we often encounter influence of chromatic dispersion and nonlinear Kerr effects. By observing various different degradation mechanisms, every numerical model should have its own limits, which fulfil more detailed specification. It is inevitable to consider them in evaluation. In this paper, we focus on numerical modelling of degradation mechanisms in single-mode optical fibre. Numerical solution of non-linear Schroedinger equation is performed by finite difference method applied in MATLAB environment and split-step Fourier method, which is implemented by VPIphotonics software.

  6. Facile synthesis of graphene on single mode fiber via chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, C. [College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Man, B.Y., E-mail: byman@sdnu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Jiang, S.Z. [College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); State Key Lab of Crystal Materials Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Yang, C.; Liu, M.; Chen, C.S.; Xu, S.C. [College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Feng, D.J. [School of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Bi, D.; Liu, F.Y.; Qiu, H.W. [College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Direct deposition of graphene film on the standard single mode fiber is offered using a Cu-vapor-assisted chemical vapor deposition system. The gas flow of H{sub 2} and Ar before the growth process plays a crucial role for the direct deposition of the graphene film and the layers of the graphene can be controlled by the growth time. With a large gas flow, Cu atoms are carried off with the gas flow and hard to deposit on the surface of the single mode fiber before the growth process. Consequently, uniform graphene film is obtained in this case. On the contrary, with a lower one, Cu atoms is facile to deposit on the surface of the single mode fiber and form nanodots acting as active catalytic sites for the growth of carbon nanotubes. This method presents us a promising transfer-free technique for fabrication of the photonic applications.

  7. Utilizing wheel-ring architecture for stable and selectable single-longitudinal-mode erbium fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Yang, Zi-Qing; Huang, Tzu-Jung; Chow, Chi-Wai

    2018-03-01

    To achieve a steady single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser, the wheel-ring architecture is proposed in the laser cavity. According to Vernier effect, the proposed wheel-ring can produce three different free spectrum ranges (FSRs) to serve as the mode-filter for suppressing the densely multi-longitudinal-mode (MLM). Here, to complete wavelength-tunable EDF laser, an optical tunable bandpass filter (OTBF) is utilized inside the cavity for tuning arbitrarily. In addition, the entire output performances of the proposed EDF wheel-ring laser are also discussed and analyzed experimentally.

  8. Single orbital angular mode emission from externally feed-backed vertical cavity surface emitting laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Y.; Moriya, A.; Yamane, K.; Morita, R.; Shigematsu, K.; Awaji, Y.

    2017-09-01

    The single orbital angular momentum mode emission from a commercially available broad-area vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) is realized with an optical feedback technique using a spatial light modulator, where a computer generated hologram (CGH) is optimized by taking into account the mode properties of the external cavity VCSEL. The flexibility with which the chirality of the orbital angular momentum mode can be selected is also demonstrated simply by changing the chirality of the CGH. The technique is very simple and easily applicable to other VCSELs without processing.

  9. Polarization dynamics induced by parallel optical injection in a single-mode VCSEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis-le Coarer, Florian; Quirce, Ana; Valle, Ángel; Pesquera, Luis; Sciamanna, Marc; Thienpont, Hugo; Panajotov, Krassimir

    2017-06-01

    We report an experimental study of the polarization nonlinear dynamics in a 1550 nm single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) subject to parallel optical injection. Experimentally measured stability maps identifying regions of different nonlinear dynamics for various values of bias current are reported. We show that VCSELs with more than a 35 dB polarization mode suppression ratio can have rich nonlinear dynamics in both linear polarizations, including periodic and chaotic behaviors appearing simultaneously in both polarization modes.

  10. Performance Assessment of Single Electrode-Supported Solid Oxide Cells Operating in the Steam Electrolysis Mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    X. Zhang; J. E. O' Brien; R. C. O' Brien; N. Petigny

    2011-11-01

    An experimental study is under way to assess the performance of electrode-supported solid-oxide cells operating in the steam electrolysis mode for hydrogen production. Results presented in this paper were obtained from single cells, with an active area of 16 cm{sup 2} per cell. The electrolysis cells are electrode-supported, with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes ({approx}10 {mu}m thick), nickel-YSZ steam/hydrogen electrodes ({approx}1400 {mu}m thick), and modified LSM or LSCF air-side electrodes ({approx}90 {mu}m thick). The purpose of the present study is to document and compare the performance and degradation rates of these cells in the fuel cell mode and in the electrolysis mode under various operating conditions. Initial performance was documented through a series of voltage-current (VI) sweeps and AC impedance spectroscopy measurements. Degradation was determined through long-term testing, first in the fuel cell mode, then in the electrolysis mode. Results generally indicate accelerated degradation rates in the electrolysis mode compared to the fuel cell mode, possibly due to electrode delamination. The paper also includes details of an improved single-cell test apparatus developed specifically for these experiments.

  11. Monolithic 626 nm single-mode AlGaInP DBR diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, G; Nedow, O; Feise, D; Pohl, J; Paschke, K

    2013-09-09

    Single-mode lasers below 630 nm are still realized using complex laser systems. We present distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) ridge waveguide lasers (RWL) based on AlGaInP. When packaged into sealed TO-3 housings and cooled internally to about 0°C the DBR-RWL emit more than 50 mW at a wavelength of 626.0 nm into a nearly diffraction-limited single longitudinal mode with a spectral width below 1 MHz. These new monolithic diode lasers have the potential to drastically miniaturize existing set-ups e.g. for quantum information processing.

  12. Transverse Single-Spin Asymmetries in Proton-Proton Collisions at the AFTER@LHC Experiment in a TMD Factorisation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anselmino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The inclusive large-pT production of a single pion, jet or direct photon, and Drell-Yan processes, are considered for proton-proton collisions in the kinematical range expected for the fixed-target experiment AFTER, proposed at LHC. For all these processes, predictions are given for the transverse single-spin asymmetry, AN, computed according to a Generalised Parton Model previously discussed in the literature and based on TMD factorisation. Comparisons with the results of a collinear twist-3 approach, recently presented, are made and discussed.

  13. Single Mode ZnO Whispering-Gallery Submicron Cavity and Graphene Improved Lasing Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jitao; Lin, Yi; Lu, Junfeng; Xu, Chunxiang; Wang, Yueyue; Shi, Zengliang; Dai, Jun

    2015-07-28

    Single-mode ultraviolet (UV) laser of ZnO is still in challenge so far, although it has been paid great attention along the past decades. In this work, single-mode lasing resonance was realized in a submicron-sized ZnO rod based on serially varying the dimension of the whispering-gallery mode (WGM) cavities. The lasing performance, such as the lasing quality factor (Q) and the lasing intensity, was remarkably improved by facilely covering monolayer graphene on the ZnO submicron-rod. The mode structure evolution from multimodes to single-mode was investigated systematically based on the total internal-wall reflection of the ZnO microcavities. Graphene-induced optical field confinement and lasing emission enhancement were revealed, indicating an energy coupling between graphene SP and ZnO exciton emission. This result demonstrated the response of graphene in the UV wavelength region and extended its potential applications besides many previous reports on the multifunctional graphene/semiconductor hybrid materials and devices in advanced electronics and optoelectronics areas.

  14. 107.5 Gb/s 850 nm multi- and single-mode VCSEL transmission over 10 and 100 m of multi-mode fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puerta Ramírez, Rafael; Agustin, M.; Chorchos, L.

    2016-01-01

    First time successful 107.5 Gb/s MultiCAP 850 nm OM4 MMF transmissions over 10 m with multi-mode VCSEL and up to 100 m with single-mode VCSEL are demonstrated, with BER below 7% overhead FEC limit measured for each case.......First time successful 107.5 Gb/s MultiCAP 850 nm OM4 MMF transmissions over 10 m with multi-mode VCSEL and up to 100 m with single-mode VCSEL are demonstrated, with BER below 7% overhead FEC limit measured for each case....

  15. Quantum teleportation via noisy bipartite and tripartite accelerating quantum states: beyond the single mode approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zounia, M.; Shamirzaie, M.; Ashouri, A.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper quantum teleportation of an unknown quantum state via noisy maximally bipartite (Bell) and maximally tripartite (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)) entangled states are investigated. We suppose that one of the observers who would receive the sent state accelerates uniformly with respect to the sender. The interactions of the quantum system with its environment during the teleportation process impose noises. These (unital and nonunital) noises are: phase damping, phase flip, amplitude damping and bit flip. In expressing the modes of the Dirac field used as qubits, in the accelerating frame, the so-called single mode approximation is not imposed. We calculate the fidelities of teleportation, and discuss their behaviors using suitable plots. The effects of noise, acceleration and going beyond the single mode approximation are discussed. Although the Bell states bring higher fidelities than GHZ states, the global behaviors of the two quantum systems with respect to some noise types, and therefore their fidelities, are different.

  16. In-Line Fiber Optic Interferometric Sensors in Single-Mode Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Wen Duan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In-line fiber optic interferometers have attracted intensive attention for their potential sensing applications in refractive index, temperature, pressure and strain measurement, etc. Typical in-line fiber-optic interferometers are of two types: Fabry-Perot interferometers and core-cladding-mode interferometers. It’s known that the in-line fiber optic interferometers based on single-mode fibers can exhibit compact structures, easy fabrication and low cost. In this paper, we review two kinds of typical in-line fiber optic interferometers formed in single-mode fibers fabricated with different post-processing techniques. Also, some recently reported specific technologies for fabricating such fiber optic interferometers are presented.

  17. Single-Phase Microgrid with Seamless Transition Capabilities between Modes of Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Alexander; Apap, Maurice; Spiteri-Staines, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Microgrids are an effective way to increase the penetration of DG into the grid. They are capable of operating either in grid-connected or in islanded mode thereby increasing the supply reliability for the end user. This paper focuses on achieving seamless transitions from islanded to grid......-connected and vice versa for a single phase microgrid made up from voltage controlled voltage source inverters (VC-VSIs) and current controlled voltage source inverters (CC-VSIs) working together in both modes of operation. The primary control structures for the VC-VSIs and CC-VSIs is considered together...... with the secondary control loops that are used to synchronize the microgrid as a single unit to the grid. Simulation results are given that show the seamless transitions between the two modes without any disconnection times for the CC-VSIs and VC-VSIs connected to the microgrid....

  18. Single-mode monolithic GaSb Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Dorian; Cerutti, Laurent; Tournié, Eric

    2012-07-02

    We report on the fabrication and performances of an electrically-pumped GaSb monolithic VCSEL, i.e. ,a VCSEL with two epitaxial Bragg mirrors. Selective lateral etching of a tunnel junction is used to provide current and optical confinement. Laser devices with a 6 µm tunnel-junction effective diameter operate at 2.3 µm in CW up to 70 °C, with a threshold current as low as 1.9 mA at 30 °C. The laser emission is single mode with a SMSR near 25 dB and mode-hop-free electro-thermal tunability around 14 nm. This is the first demonstration of a single-mode electrically-pumped monolithic GaSb-based VCSEL.

  19. Single-mode waveguides with SU-8 polymer core and cladding for MOEMS applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Maria; Zauner, Dan; Boisen, Anja

    2007-01-01

    Fabrication and optical characterization of singlemode polymeric embedded waveguides are performed. A specific material combination (SU-8 2005 as core and the modified SU-8 mr-L 6050XP as cladding) is chosen in order to obtain a small refractive index difference for single-mode propagation combin...

  20. Single mode fibers for two stage higher-order soliton compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Cheng, Zihao

    2017-11-01

    Practical fiber designs for two stage third-order soliton compression with single mode fibers are presented. Fiber design rules as well as influences of higher-order dispersion and splicing loss are discussed. A compression factor of 85.92 is achieved with only 60.39% pedestal energy.

  1. Analytical Expression for the Electric Field of the Single Mode Laser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The simplest model of the laser is that of a single mode system homogenously broadened. The dynamical behavior of this laser is described by three differential equations, called Haken-Lorenz equations[1], similar to the Lorenz model [1] already known to predict deterministic chaos. In previous recent work [5-7] we have ...

  2. Highly optimized tunable Er3+-doped single longitudinal mode fiber ring laser, experiment and model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Christian; Sejka, Milan

    1993-01-01

    A continuous wave (CW) tunable diode-pumped Er3+-doped fiber ring laser, pumped by diode laser at wavelengths around 1480 nm, is discussed. Wavelength tuning range of 42 nm, maximum slope efficiency of 48% and output power of 14.4 mW have been achieved. Single longitudinal mode lasing...

  3. Current Mode Full-Wave Rectifier Based on a Single MZC-CDTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a current mode full-wave rectifier based on single modified Z copy current difference transconductance amplifier (MZC-CDTA and two switches. The circuit is simple and is suitable for IC implementation. The functionality of the circuit is verified with SPICE simulation using 0.35 μm TSMC CMOS technology parameters.

  4. Extremely low-loss single-mode photonic crystal fiber in the terahertz regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Raonaqul; Hasanuzzaman, G. K M; Sadath, Md Anwar

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an updated design and numerical characterization of a rotated porous-core hexagonal photonic crystal fiber (PCF) for single-mode terahertz (THz) wave guidance. The simulation results are found using an efficient finite element method (FEM) which show a better and ultra...

  5. Efficient coupling of a single diamond color center to propagating plasmonic gap modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Shailesh; Huck, Alexander; Andersen, Ulrik L

    2013-01-01

    We report on coupling of a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in a nanodiamond to the propagating gap mode of two parallel placed chemically grown silver nanowires. The coupled NV-center nanowire system is made by manipulating nanodiamonds and nanowires with the tip of an atomic force microscope...

  6. Optical Field-Strength Polarization of Two-Mode Single-Photon States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, J.; Nistal, M. C.; Barral, D.; Moreno, V.

    2010-01-01

    We present a quantum analysis of two-mode single-photon states based on the probability distributions of the optical field strength (or position quadrature) in order to describe their quantum polarization characteristics, where polarization is understood as a significative confinement of the optical field-strength values on determined regions of…

  7. Development of IR single mode optical fibers for DARWIN-nulling interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chakkalakkal Abdulla, S.M.; Cheng, L.K.; Bosch, B. van den; Dijkhuizen, N.; Nieuwland, R.A.; Gielesen, W.L.M.; Lucas, J.; Boussard-Plédel, C.; Conseil, C.; Bureau, B.; Carmo, J.P. do

    2014-01-01

    The DARWIN mission aims to detect weak infra-red emission lines from distant orbiting earth-like planets using nulling interferometry. This requires filtering of wavefront errors using single mode waveguides operating at a wavelength range of 6.5-20 μm. This article describes the optical design of

  8. Cross Section and Transverse Single-Spin Asymmetry of $\\eta$ Mesons in $p^{\\uparrow}+p$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV at Forward Rapidity

    CERN Document Server

    Adare, A; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Akimoto, R; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Alfred, M; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Aramaki, Y; Asano, H; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Bandara, N S; Bannier, B; Barish, K N; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Beaumier, M; Beckman, S; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bhom, J H; Black, D; Blau, D S; Bok, J; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Bryslawskyj, J; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Chen, C -H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; del Valle, Z Conesa; Connors, M; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; Daugherity, M S; David, G; Dayananda, M K; DeBlasio, K; Dehmelt, K; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Ding, L; Dion, A; Do, J H; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; D'Orazio, L; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Eyser, K O; Fadem, B; Feege, N; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Jr., \\,; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Gal, C; Gallus, P; Garg, P; Garishvili, I; Ge, H; Giordano, F; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gu, Y; Gunji, T; Guragain, H; Gustafsson, H -Å; Hachiya, T; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Han, S Y; Hanks, J; Hasegawa, S; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Hollis, R S; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Hoshino, T; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Imazu, Y; Inaba, M; Iordanova, A; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Ivanischev, D; Ivanishchev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jeon, S J; Jezghani, M; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, E; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kamin, J; Kang, J H; Kang, J S; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Key, J A; Khachatryan, V; Khanzadeev, A; Kihara, K; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, C; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E -J; Kim, H -J; Kim, M; Kim, Y -J; Kim, Y K; Kinney, E; Kiss, Á; Kistenev, E; Klatsky, J; Kleinjan, D; Kline, P; Koblesky, T; Kochenda, L; Kofarago, M; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotov, D; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, S H; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Leitgab, M; Li, X; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Lim, S H; Levy, L A Linden; Liška, T; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Makek, M; Malik, M D; Manion, A; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; McGlinchey, D; McKinney, C; Means, N; Meles, A; Mendoza, M; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Miki, K; Miller, A J; Milov, A; Mishra, D K; Mitchell, J T; Miyasaka, S; Mizuno, S; Mohanty, A K; Montuenga, P; Moon, H J; Moon, T; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moukhanova, T V; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Mwai, A; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakagomi, H; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Nattrass, C; Netrakanti, P K; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Niida, T; Nouicer, R; Novitzky, N; Nyanin, A S; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Oka, M; Okada, K; Onuki, Y; Koop, J D Orjuela; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozaki, H; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, S; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Patel, L; Patel, M; Pei, H; Peng, J -C; Pereira, H; Perepelitsa, D V; Perera, G D N; Peressounko, D Yu; Perry, J; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pinson, R; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Qu, H; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reygers, K; Reynolds, D; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Riveli, N; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Rowan, Z; Rubin, J G; Ružička, P; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakashita, K; Sako, H; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sarsour, M; Sato, S; Sato, T; Sawada, S; Schaefer, B; Schmoll, B K; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Sen, A; Seto, R; Sett, P; Sexton, A; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T -A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunečka, M; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sumita, T; Sun, J; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Takahara, A; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Taneja, S; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Themann, H; Thomas, D; Thomas, T L; Timilsina, A; Todoroki, T; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tomášek, L; Tomášek, M; Torii, H; Towell, M; Towell, R; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Vargyas, M; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Watanabe, Y S; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; Whitaker, S; White, S N; Winter, D; Wolin, S; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Xia, B; Xue, L; Yalcin, S; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; Yoon, I; You, Z; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zelenski, A; Zhou, S

    2014-01-01

    We present a measurement of the cross section and transverse single-spin asymmetry ($A_N$) for $\\eta$ mesons from $\\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV $p^{\\uparrow}+p$ collisions. The measured cross section for $1.5transverse momentum ($p_T$) from $1.0transverse single-spin measurements of forward $\\eta$ and $\\pi^{0}$ mesons at various energies in overlapping $x_F$ ranges. Comparison of different particle species can help to determine the origin of the large observed asymmetries in $p^{\\uparrow}+p$ collisions.

  9. Energy expended playing Xbox Kinect™ and Wii™ games: a preliminary study comparing single and multiplayer modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, C; Hirsch, E; Holohan, E; McBride, I; McManus, R; Hussey, J

    2012-09-01

    It has been reported that a higher galvanic skin response is seen when playing video games against another human player than when playing alone, which suggests increased effort. The objectives of this study were to compare energy expenditure when playing two popular active video game consoles, and to compare energy expenditure when playing in single and multiplayer modes. Crossover trial with randomised playing order. Fourteen healthy adults with a mean age of 21 [standard deviation (SD) 3] years. Energy expenditure was measured using an indirect calorimeter at rest, during 10 minutes of play on Xbox Kinect™ Reflex Ridge in both single and multiplayer modes, and during 10 minutes of play on Wii™ Sports Boxing in both single and multiplayer modes. Metabolic equivalents (METs), heart rate, oxygen consumption and kilocalories expended. The energy expenditure during all gaming conditions was of a light intensity. Playing on the Xbox Kinect elicited greater energy expenditure than playing on the Wii [mean difference=0.9 METs, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.2 to 1.5]. Playing games in multiplayer mode led to greater energy expenditure (mean difference=0.5 METs, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.9) and heart rate (mean difference=7.9 beats/minute, 95% CI 2.0 to 13.8) than playing in single player mode. No gaming condition required moderate-intensity activity in this group of young healthy adults. Potential explanations for the difference in energy expenditure seen between consoles and modes are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Experimental measurement and numerical analysis of group velocity dispersion in cladding modes of an endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baselt, Tobias; Taudt, Christopher; Nelsen, Bryan; Lasagni, Andrés. Fabián.; Hartmann, Peter

    2017-06-01

    The optical properties of the guided modes in the core of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) can be easily manipulated by changing the air-hole structure in the cladding. Special properties can be achieved in this case such as endless singlemode operation. Endlessly single-mode fibers, which enable single-mode guidance over a wide spectral range, are indispensable in the field of fiber technology. A two-dimensional photonic crystal with a silica central core and a micrometer-spaced hexagonal array of air holes is an established method to achieve endless single-mode properties. In addition to the guidance of light in the core, different cladding modes occur. The coupling between the core and the cladding modes can affect the endlessly single-mode guides. There are two possible ways to determine the dispersion: measurement and calculation. We calculate the group velocity dispersion (GVD) of different cladding modes based on the measurement of the fiber structure parameters, the hole diameter and the pitch of a presumed homogeneous hexagonal array. Based on the scanning electron image, a calculation was made of the optical guiding properties of the microstructured cladding. We compare the calculation with a method to measure the wavelength-dependent time delay. We measure the time delay of defined cladding modes with a homemade supercontinuum light source in a white light interferometric setup. To measure the dispersion of cladding modes of optical fibers with high accuracy, a time-domain white-light interferometer based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer is used. The experimental setup allows the determination of the wavelengthdependent differential group delay of light travelling through a thirty centimeter piece of test fiber in the wavelength range from VIS to NIR. The determination of the GVD using different methods enables the evaluation of the individual methods for characterizing the cladding modes of an endlessly single-mode fiber.

  11. Laser-direct writing of single mode and multi-mode polymer step index waveguide structures for optical backplanes and interconnection assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Kevin; Middlebrook, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    A laser direct writing (LDW) method is implemented as a cost efficient polymer waveguide (WG) fabrication method for prototyping large substrates for optical backplanes and optical interconnection assemblies. The LDW setup utilizes a 3-axis air-bearing motion platform to reduce WG fabrication error to within ±0.15 μm. A UV laser diode coupled single mode fiber with a focusing lens module is capable of LDW WGs at both multimode (50 μm) and single mode (6 μm) dimensions. Correlation between LDW parameters and fabricated WG dimensions using Dow Corning® OE-4140 UV-Cured Optical Elastomer (ncore = 1.5142, nclad = 1.5064) is discussed theoretically and confirmed experimentally for both applications. A theoretical model is developed and utilized for producing LDW multi-mode (0.04 dB/cm, λ = 850 nm) and single mode (0.55 dB/cm, λ = 1310 nm) WGs. Measured propagation losses of LDW WGs are comparable to losses of photolithographic multi-mode (0.04 dB/cm @ 850 nm) and single mode (0.59 dB/cm @ 1310 nm) WG builds. LDW multi-mode and single mode WG radial bend and crossing losses are evaluated for advanced optical communication channel routing capabilities and do not exhibit significant deviations from photolithographic-manufactured WG device loss.

  12. Search for supersymmetry in pp collisions at sqrt(s)=7 TeV in events with a single lepton, jets, and missing transverse momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); et al.

    2011-08-01

    Results are reported from a search for physics beyond the standard model in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, focusing on the signature with a single, isolated, high-transverse-momentum lepton (electron or muon), energetic jets, and large missing transverse momentum. The data sample comprises an integrated luminosity of 36 inverse picobarns, recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The search is motivated by models of new physics, including supersymmetry. The observed event yields are consistent with standard model backgrounds predicted using control samples obtained from the data. The characteristics of the event sample are consistent with those expected for the production of t t-bar and W +jets events. The results are interpreted in terms of limits on the parameter space for the constrained minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model.

  13. Single Spin Asymmetries in Charged Kaon Production from Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering on a Transversely Polarized $^3{\\rm{He}}$ Target

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Y X; Allada, K; Aniol, K; Annand, J R M; Averett, T; Benmokhtar, F; Bertozzi, W; Bradshaw, P C; Bosted, P; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Cates, G D; Chen, C; Chen, J -P; Chen, W; Chirapatpimol, K; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; Cornejo, J C; Cusanno, F; Dalton, M M; Deconinck, W; de Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deng, X; Deur, A; Ding, H; Dolph, P A M; Dutta, C; Dutta, D; Fassi, L El; Frullani, S; Gao, H; Garibaldi, F; Gaskell, D; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Golge, S; Guo, L; Hamilton, D; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Huang, J; Huang, M; Ibrahim, H F; Iodice, M; Jiang, X; Jin, G; Jones, M K; Katich, J; Kelleher, A; Kim, W; Kolarkar, A; Korsch, W; LeRose, J J; Li, X; Li, Y; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Long, E; Lu, H -J; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; McNulty, D; Meziani, Z -E; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Camacho, C Muñoz; Nanda, S; Narayan, A; Nelyubin, V; Norum, B; Oh, Y; Osipenko, M; Parno, D; Peng, J -C; Phillips, S K; Posik, M; Puckett, A J R; Qian, X; Qiang, Y; Rakhman, A; Ransome, R; Riordan, S; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Schulte, E; Shahinyan, A; Shabestari, M H; Širca, S; Stepanyan, S; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Tang, L -G; Tobias, A; Urciuoli, G M; Vilardi, I; Wang, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yan, X; Yao, H; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Yuan, L; Zhan, X; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y -W; Zhao, B; Zheng, X; Zhu, L; Zhu, X; Zong, X

    2014-01-01

    We report the first measurement of target single spin asymmetries of charged kaons produced in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering of electrons off a transversely polarized $^3{\\rm{He}}$ target. Both the Collins and Sivers moments, which are related to the nucleon transversity and Sivers distributions, respectively, are extracted over the kinematic range of 0.1$<$$x_{bj}$$<$0.4 for $K^{+}$ and $K^{-}$ production. While the Collins and Sivers moments for $K^{+}$ are consistent with zero within the experimental uncertainties, both moments for $K^{-}$ favor negative values. The Sivers moments are compared to the theoretical prediction from a phenomenological fit to the world data. While the $K^{+}$ Sivers moments are consistent with the prediction, the $K^{-}$ results differ from the prediction at the 2-sigma level.

  14. Search for supersymmetry in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV in events with a single lepton, jets, and missing transverse momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aguilo, Ernest; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Marcken, Gil; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Millischer, Laurent; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Anagnostou, Georgios; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Costanza, Francesco; Dammann, Dirk; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Novgorodova, Olga; Olzem, Jan; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Hermanns, Thomas; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Nowak, Friederike; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Seidel, Markus; Sibille, Jennifer; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Röcker, Steffen; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mehta, Pourus; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Hesari, Hoda; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Taroni, Silvia; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Fanelli, Cristiano; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Soffi, Livia; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Heo, Seong Gu; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dong-Chul; Son, Taejin; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Cho, Yongjin; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ansari, Muhammad Hamid; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Butt, Jamila; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Golutvin, Igor; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Popov, Andrey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Graziano, Alberto; Jorda, Clara; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Georgiou, Georgios; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Hinzmann, Andreas; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lee, Yen-Jie; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Nesvold, Erik; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sekmen, Sezen; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bäni, Lukas; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Wehrli, Lukas; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Tupputi, Salvatore; Verzetti, Mauro; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Singh, Anil; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wan, Xia; Wang, Minzu; Asavapibhop, Burin; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Cankocak, Kerem; Levchuk, Leonid; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Stoye, Markus; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Whyntie, Tom; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Houtz, Rachel; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Mall, Orpheus; Miceli, Tia; Pellett, Dave; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Yohay, Rachel; Andreev, Valeri; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Traczyk, Piotr; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Drell, Brian Robert; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kilminster, Benjamin; Klima, Boaz; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Park, Myeonghun; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Hewamanage, Samantha; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Strom, Derek; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tinti, Gemma; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Apyan, Aram; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Krajczar, Krisztian; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Nash, David; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Lusito, Letizia; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Winer, Brian L; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Jindal, Pratima; Lopes Pegna, David; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Safdi, Ben; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Robles, Jorge; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Walker, Matthew; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Roh, Youn; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Florez, Carlos; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Friis, Evan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Palmonari, Francesco; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua

    2013-05-08

    Results are reported from a search for new physics processes in events containing a single isolated high-transverse-momentum lepton (electron or muon), energetic jets, and large missing transverse momentum. The analysis is based on a 4.98 inverse femtobarn sample of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, obtained with the CMS detector at the LHC. Three separate background estimation methods, each relying primarily on control samples in the data, are applied to a range of signal regions, providing complementary approaches for estimating the background yields. The observed yields are consistent with the predicted standard model backgrounds. The results are interpreted in terms of limits on the parameter space for the constrained minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model, as well as on cross sections for simplified models, which provide a generic description of the production and decay of new particles in specific, topology based final states.

  15. Transversely Compressed Bonded Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Stang, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The load capacity of bonded joints can be increased if transverse pressure is applied at the interface. The transverse pressure is assumed to introduce a Coulomb-friction contribution to the cohesive law for the interface. Response and load capacity for a bonded single-lap joint was derived using...... non-linear fracture mechanics. The results indicated a good correlation between theory and tests. Furthermore, the model is suggested as theoretical base for determining load capacity of bonded anchorages with transverse pressure, in externally reinforced concrete structures....

  16. Suppression of high order modes employing active self-imaging mode filter in large mode area strongly pumped fiber amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiang; Bai, Gang; Zheng, Ye; Chen, Xiaolong; Yang, Yifeng; Qi, Yunfeng; He, Bing; Zhou, Jun

    2017-10-01

    To suppress high order modes and improve the beam quality, an active self-imaging mode filter based on multimode interference and self-imaging effect is proposed in large mode area (LMA) fiber amplifier. With this filter structure, transverse mode competition and individual transverse mode power distributions in strongly pumped fiber amplifiers are theoretically demonstrated. Employing this mode selection technique in 30/400 LMA strongly pumped fiber amplifier, the percentage of the fundamental mode rises from 27.8% (without filter) to 96.3%. By the modal power decomposition, the M2 parameter of beam quality decrease dramatically from 2.24 to 1.11 (0 relative phase) and from 3.01 to 1.24 (π/2 relative phase). This study provides a new method to achieve single mode in LMA fiber amplifier and this filter would be extended to larger mode area fiber amplifier to improve the beam quality.

  17. Transverse Spin and Transverse Momentum Effects at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Schill, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The investigation of transverse spin and transverse momentum effects in deep inelastic scattering is one of the key physics programs of the COMPASS collaboration. In the year 2007 COMPASS took data scattering 160 GeV muons on a transversely polarized NH3 target. Three different channels to access the transversity distribution function have been analyzed: The azimuthal distribution of single hadrons, involving the Collins fragmentation function, the azimuthal dependence of the plane containing hadron pairs, involving the two-hadron interference fragmentation function, and the measurement of the transverse polarization of lambda hyperons in the final state. Transverse quark momentum effects in a transversely polarized nucleon have been investigated by measuring the Sivers distribution function. Azimuthal asymmetries in unpolarized semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering give important information on the inner structure of the nucleon as well, and can be used to estimate both the quark transverse momentum in an...

  18. Quantum Otto engine of a two-level atom with single-mode fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhui; Wu, Zhaoqi; He, Jizhou

    2012-04-01

    We establish a quantum Otto engine (QOE) of a two-level atom, which is confined in a one-dimensional (1D) harmonic trap and is coupled to single-mode radiation fields. Besides two adiabatic processes, the QOE cycle consists of two isochoric processes, along one of which the two-level atom as the working substance interacts with a single-mode radiation field. Based on the semigroup approach, we derive the time for completing any adiabatic process and then present a performance analysis of the heat engine model. Furthermore, we generalize the results to the performance optimization for a QOE of a single two-level atom trapped in a 1D power-law potential. Our result shows that the efficiency at maximum power output is dependent on the trap exponent θ but is independent of the energy spectrum index σ.

  19. Transverse Spin Effects at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Schill, C

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of transverse spin and transverse momentum effects in deep inelastic scattering is one of the key physics programs of the COMPASS collaboration. In the years 2002-2004 COMPASS took data scattering 160 GeV muons on a transversely polarized 6LiD target. In 2007, a transversely polarized NH3 target was used. Three different channels to access the transversity distribution function have been analyzed: The azimuthal distribution of single hadrons, involving the Collins fragmentation function, the azimuthal dependence of the plane containing hadron pairs, involving the two-hadron interference fragmentation function, and the measurement of the transverse polarization of lambda hyperons in the final state. Transverse quark momentum effects in a transversely polarized nucleon have been investigated by measuring the Sivers distribution function. Azimuthal asymmetries in unpolarized semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering give important information on the inner structure of the nucleon as well, and ca...

  20. Broadband single-transverse-mode fluorescence sources based on ribs fabricated in pulsed laser deposited Ti: sapphire waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grivas, C.; May-Smith, T.C.; Shepherd, D.P.; Eason, R.W.; Pollnau, Markus; Jelinek, M.

    2004-01-01

    Active rib waveguides with depths and widths varying from 3 to 5 μm and from 9 to 24 μm, respectively, have been structured by $Ar^{+}$-beam etching in pulsed laser deposited Ti:sapphire layers. Losses in the channel structures were essentially at the same levels as the unstructured planar waveguide

  1. Transverse Myelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Division of Neuroscience Director, NIH BRAIN Initiative® Health Scientist Administrator Channels Synapses Circuits Cluster Scientific Director, Division of Intramural Research Featured Director's Message menu search Enter Search Term Submit Search Transverse Myelitis Information ...

  2. Self-selection mechanism of Fabry-Pérot micro/nanoscale wire cavity for single-mode lasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Zong, Hua; Ma, Chuang; Wei, Tiantian; Li, Junchao; Zhang, Jiang; Li, Mo; Pan, Caofeng; Hu, Xiaodong

    2017-09-04

    Developing micro/nanoscale wire (MNW) lasers with single-mode operation is critical for realizing their practical applications, however, most reported MNW lasers operate in multi-modes, because lacking of mode selection mechanisms. In this work, a simple and direct way to realize stable, single-mode MNW laser without complicated micro/nano-manipulation was demonstrated. We have found and proved that the position of the active region plays a key role in determining the lasing mode of MNW lasers, which can be used to realize single-mode lasing in MNWs. We propose self-selection mechanism of Fabry-Pérot MNW cavity for single-mode lasing due to location-dependent field distribution in MNWs, which is characterized by suppressing the multiple longitudinal mode oscillation of the MNW laser. GaN MNW lasers with different lengths and diameters have been fabricated, verifying the self-selection mechanism of the cavity experimentally. Moreover, we demonstrate the single-mode, room temperature optically pumped MNW laser with an extremely low threshold (~40 kW/cm 2 ) in condition of appropriate cavity length, opening an opportunity to realize stable single-mode, low-threshold MNW laser for easy integration in constructing micro/nanoscale photonic and optoelectronic circuits and devices.

  3. Efficacy of ipl in treatment of acne vulgaris : comparison of single- and burst-pulse mode in ipl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaresan, M; Srinivas, C R

    2010-10-01

    Intense pulsed light (IPL) has been used for the treatment of facial acne. Modifications of various parameters allow flexibility in treatment, which include energy fluence, pulse duration, and pulse delay. We compared the efficacy of burst-pulse (multiple pulse) mode with single-pulse mode in treatment of acne. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of the IPL in treatment of facial acne and to compare burst-pulse and single-pulse mode in treatment of acne. Ten patients with facial acne were subjected to monotherapy with IPL. Baseline grading of acne was done with Michelsons acne severity index; however, right and left side of face were scored separately and a total score was also taken. IPL was administered once weekly for four sessions. Right side was subjected to IPL with burst-pulse mode, and left side was subjected to single-pulse mode. Severity score assessed after the end of treatment. Clinical photographs were also obtained for evaluation. All patients revealed a reduction in number of acne for both single- and burst-pulse mode treated sides. The mean total score was 49.4 at baseline and showed 49.19% reduction after four sessions of IPL. Burst-pulse mode treated side showed a better control than that of single-pulse mode. IPL as a monotherapy showed beneficial effect in treatment of facial acne. Burst-pulse mode was better than the single-pulse mode in clearing acne.

  4. Forced Transverse Vibration of a Closed Double Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube System Containing a Fluid with Effect of Compressive Axial Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Nasirshoaibi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Rayleigh beam theory, the forced transverse vibrations of a closed double single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT system containing a fluid with a Pasternak layer in-between are investigated. It is assumed that the two single-walled carbon nanotubes of the system are continuously joined by a Pasternak layer and both sides of SWCNTs containing a fluid are closed. The dynamic responses of the system caused by arbitrarily distributed continuous loads are obtained. The effect of compressive axial load on the forced vibrations of the double single-walled carbon nanotube system is discussed for one case of particular excitation loading. The properties of the forced transverse vibrations of the system are found to be significantly dependent on the compressive axial load. The steady-state vibration amplitudes of the SWCNT decrease with increasing of length of SWCNT. Vibrations caused by the harmonic exciting forces are discussed, and conditions of resonance and dynamic vibration absorption are formulated. The SWCNT-type dynamic absorber is a new concept of a dynamic vibration absorber (DVA, which can be applied to suppress excessive vibrations of corresponding SWCNT systems.

  5. Real-Time Quadrature Measurement of a Single-Photon Wave Packet with Continuous Temporal-Mode Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hisashi; Ohdan, Hideaki; Miyata, Kazunori; Taguchi, Masahiro; Makino, Kenzo; Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Yoshikawa, Jun-Ichi; Furusawa, Akira

    2016-06-10

    Real-time controls based on quantum measurements are powerful tools for various quantum protocols. However, their experimental realization has been limited by mode mismatch between the temporal mode of quadrature measurement and that heralded by photon detection. Here, we demonstrate real-time quadrature measurement of a single-photon wave packet induced by photon detection by utilizing continuous temporal-mode matching between homodyne detection and an exponentially rising temporal mode. Single photons in exponentially rising modes are also expected to be useful resources for interactions with other quantum systems.

  6. Three-dimensional single-mode nonlinear ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, R.; Aluie, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Betti, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Sanz, J. [E.T.S.I. Aeronáuticos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Liu, B.; Frank, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The nonlinear evolution of the single-mode ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability is studied in three dimensions. As the mode wavelength approaches the cutoff of the linear spectrum (short-wavelength modes), it is found that the three-dimensional (3D) terminal bubble velocity greatly exceeds both the two-dimensional (2D) value and the classical 3D bubble velocity. Unlike in 2D, the 3D short-wavelength bubble velocity does not saturate. The growing 3D bubble acceleration is driven by the unbounded accumulation of vorticity inside the bubble. The vorticity is transferred by mass ablation from the Rayleigh-Taylor spikes to the ablated plasma filling the bubble volume.

  7. Three-dimensional single-mode nonlinear ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, R. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Betti, R. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Sanz, J. [Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Aluie, H. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Liu, B. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Frank, A. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States)

    2016-02-02

    The nonlinear evolution of the single-mode ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability is studied in three dimensions. As the mode wavelength approaches the cutoff of the linear spectrum (short-wavelength modes), it is found that the three-dimensional (3D) terminal bubble velocity greatly exceeds both the two-dimensional (2D) value and the classical 3D bubble velocity. Unlike in 2D, the 3D short-wavelength bubble velocity does not saturate. The growing 3D bubble acceleration is driven by the unbounded accumulation of vorticity inside the bubble. As a result, the vorticity is transferred by mass ablation from the Rayleigh-Taylor spikes to the ablated plasma filling the bubble volume.

  8. Gluon polarization measurements and the possible role of diffractive process in the transverse single spin asymmetry measurements in RHIC-PHENIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakagawa Itaru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two selected topics from the latest RHIC spin results are discussed here. For the transversely polarized spin program, an unexpectedly large single spin asymmetry in the very forward neutron production observed in polarized proton + nucleus collisions at √s = 200 GeV is discussed in this document. For the longitudinal program, the latest highlights from the measurements on the gluon spin components of the proton spin is discussed. After a decade of continuous efforts to hunt for the gluon polarization, the RHIC collaboration is about to catch the tail of the experimental evidence that gluon carries substantially large portion of the proton spin.

  9. Gluon polarization measurements and the possible role of diffractive process in the transverse single spin asymmetry measurements in RHIC-PHENIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Itaru

    2017-04-01

    Two selected topics from the latest RHIC spin results are discussed here. For the transversely polarized spin program, an unexpectedly large single spin asymmetry in the very forward neutron production observed in polarized proton + nucleus collisions at √s = 200 GeV is discussed in this document. For the longitudinal program, the latest highlights from the measurements on the gluon spin components of the proton spin is discussed. After a decade of continuous efforts to hunt for the gluon polarization, the RHIC collaboration is about to catch the tail of the experimental evidence that gluon carries substantially large portion of the proton spin.

  10. Simulated Performance of an FIR-Based Feedback System to Control the Electron Cloud Single-Bunch Transverse Instabilities in the CERN SPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secondo, R.; Vay, J. L.; Venturini, M.; Fox, J. D.; Rivetta, C. H.; Hofle, W.

    2011-03-28

    The operation at high current of high-energy proton machines like the SPS at CERN is affected by transverse single-bunch instabilities due to the Electron Cloud effect [1]. As a first step toward modeling a realistic feedback control system to stabilize the bunch dynamics, we investigate the use of a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter to represent the processing channel. The effect of the processing channel on the bunch dynamics is analyzed using the macro-particle simulation package Wart-Posinst. We discuss the basic features of the feedback model, report on simulation results, and present our plans for further development of the numerical model.

  11. High Power Compact Single-Frequency Volume Bragg Er-Doped Fiber Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this NASA SBIR Phase I proposal is to develop the prototype of a compact single-frequency mode one longitudinal and one transverse mode laser...

  12. Compact single-mode diode laser in the visible spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nölleke, Christian; Leisching, Patrick; Blume, Gunnar; Jedrzejczyk, Daniel; Pohl, Johannes; Feise, David; Sahm, Alexander; Paschke, Katrin

    2017-02-01

    This work reports on a compact single-mode diode laser emitting at 633 nm based on an AlGaAs/AlGaInP structure with an integrated DBR surface grating. The micro-fabricated diode laser package includes optics for beam shaping, optical isolation and single-mode fiber coupling. The miniaturized optical isolator is based on cadmium manganese telluride, which provides a large Verdet constant and thus enables the realization of a compact Faraday rotator in the visible spectral range. We discuss the performance and the technological challenges for this approach. Furthermore, we present prospects towards the integration of atomic reference cells into compact laser systems. This would enable the realization of absolute frequency-stabilized diode lasers that could be used in quantum technology devices.

  13. Self-supporting polymer pipes for low loss single-mode THz transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mingfei; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Jingling; Huang, Yidong

    2013-08-26

    In this paper, a self-supporting polymer pipe is proposed and investigated for THz wave transmission. Utilizing fiber drawing technique for polymer fiber, self-supporting pipes with wall thickness of several tens micrometers can be fabricated using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). The guiding mechanism and transmission characteristics of the self-supporting pipes are investigated theoretically, showing that it can support single-mode transmission at THz band. The self-supporting pipe samples with different structure parameters are fabricated and measured experimentally, showing that it can support single HE(11) mode transmission. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that this self-supporting polymer pipe is a promising candidate for low loss THz fibers.

  14. Whispering-gallery-mode microlaser based on self-assembled organic single-crystalline hexagonal microdisks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuedong; Liao, Qing; Kong, Qinghua; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Zhenzhen; Lu, Xiaomei; Fu, Hongbing

    2014-06-02

    Whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonators of semiconductor microdisks have been applied for achieving low-threshold and narrow-linewidth microlasers, but require sophisticated top-down processing technology. Organic single-crystalline hexagonal microdisks (HMDs) of p-distyrylbenzene (DSB) self-assembled from solution can function as WGM microresonators with a cavity quality factor (Q) of 210. Both multiple- and single-mode lasing had been achieved using DSB HMDs with an edge length of 4.3 and 1.2 μm, respectively. These organic microdisks fabricated by bottom-up self-assembly approach may offer potential applications as low-threshold microlaser sources for photonic circuit integration. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. High Energy, Single-Mode, All-Solid-State and Tunable UV Laser Transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Singh, Upendra N.; Hovis, FLoyd

    2007-01-01

    A high energy, single mode, all solid-state Nd:YAG laser primarily for pumping an UV converter is developed. Greater than 1 J/pulse at 50 HZ PRF and pulse widths around 22 ns have been demonstrated. Higher energy, greater efficiency may be possible. Refinements are known and practical to implement. Technology Demonstration of a highly efficient, high-pulse-energy, single mode UV wavelength generation using flash lamp pumped laser has been achieved. Greater than 90% pump depletion is observed. 190 mJ extra-cavity SFG; IR to UV efficiency > 21% (> 27% for 1 mJ seed). 160 mJ intra-cavity SFG; IR to UV efficiency up to 24% Fluence laser is being refined to match or exceed the above UV converter results. Currently the Nd:YAG pump laser development is a technology demonstration. System can be engineered for compact packaging.

  16. Capacity of coherent-state adaptive decoders with interferometry and single-mode detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Matteo; Mari, Andrea; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2017-07-01

    A class of adaptive decoders (ADs) for coherent-state sequences is studied, including in particular the most common technology for optical-signal processing, e.g., interferometers, coherent displacements, and photon-counting detectors. More generally we consider ADs comprising adaptive procedures based on passive multimode Gaussian unitaries and arbitrary single-mode destructive measurements. For classical communication on quantum phase-insensitive Gaussian channels with a coherent-state encoding, we show that the AD's optimal information transmission rate is not greater than that of a single-mode decoder. Our result also implies that the ultimate classical capacity of quantum phase-insensitive Gaussian channels is unlikely to be achieved with the considered class of ADs.

  17. A surface plasmon resonance sensor based on a single mode D-shape polymer optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasior, Katarzyna; Martynkien, Tadeusz; Napiorkowski, Maciej; Zolnacz, Kinga; Mergo, Pawel; Urbanczyk, Waclaw

    2017-02-01

    For the first time to our knowledge, we report a successful fabrication of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors in a specially developed single-mode birefringent polymer D-shape fiber with a core made of PMMA/PS copolymer. A small distance between the core and the cladding boundary allows to deposit a gold layer directly onto the flat fiber surface, which significantly simplifies the sensors fabrication process. The developed SPR sensor exhibits a sensitivity of 2765 nm RIU-1 for the refractive index of external medium equal to 1.410, which is similar to the sensitivity of the SPR sensors based on conventional side-polished single-mode silica fibers. Using the finite element method, we also numerically studied the sensor performance. The sensor characteristics obtained in the simulations are in a relatively good agreement with the experimental results.

  18. Ultra-low loss single-mode silica tapers manufactured by a microheater

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Lu; Ducci, Sara; Leo, Giuseppe; Favero, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Using a ceramic thermoelectric heater, we show highly reproducible fabrication of single-mode sub-wavelength silica tapers with ultra-low loss level. The reproducibility of the process is studied statistically, leading to an average taper transmission of 94%. The best tapers have a transmission superior to 99%, above common level reached by other fabrication methods. The taper profile is inspected along its length and closely follows the exponential profile predicted by the model of Birks and Li. This high degree of control over the taper shape allows a detailed analysis of the transition to the single-mode regime during tapering. As an application of this fabrication method, we present a micro-looped taper probe for evanescent coupling experiments requiring fine spatial selectivity.

  19. Modeling and optimization of single-mode vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Sandeep; Kumar, Suresh; Kaushik, Brajesh Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) plays a vital role in optical network. The present investigation reports the performance comparison of the modeling of single-mode VCSELs at room temperature for continuous wave operation. VCSEL for the study consists of InGaAsP-based cavity or active region sandwiched between GaAs/AlGaAs top mirror and GaAs/AlAs bottom mirrors with the aim of increasing the power conversion efficiency (PCE), lasing power, and decreasing the threshold current. It is observed that VCSELs with lower diameter are most suitable to achieve energy-efficient operation. The PCE obtained is ˜50% for the proposed single-mode VCSELs. The proposed VCSELs are suitable for short-reach optical interconnects such as chip-to-chip and board-to-board communication in high-performance computers.

  20. HIGHLY EFFICIENT SINGLE-LONGITUDINAL-MODE BETA-BAB2O4 OPTICAL PARAMETRIC OSCILLATOR WITH A NEW CAVITY DESIGN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonengering, J.M.; Gloster, L.A.W.; Veer, van der W.E.; McKinnie, I.T.; King, T.A.; Hogervorst, W.

    1995-01-01

    A new coupled-cavity design for single-longitudinal-mode operation of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) is presented. The OPO is based on a beta-BaB2O4 crystal and is pumped by the third harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser. With this design, we achieved single-longitudinal-mode operation of the OPO with

  1. Investigation of bending loss in a single-mode optical fibre

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Loss of optical power in a single-mode optical fibre due to bending has been investigated for a wavelength of 1550 nm. In this experiment, the effects of bending radius (4–15 mm, with steps of 1 mm), and wrapping turns (up to 40 turns) on loss have been studied. Twisting the optical fibre and its influence on power loss also ...

  2. Influence of Temperature and Pressure on Dispersion Properties of Nonlinear Single Mode Optical Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa H. Ali, Ahmed E. Elsamahy, Maher A. Farhoud and Taymour A. Hamdalla

    2012-01-01

    Near field distribution, propagation constant and dispersion characteristics of nonlinear single-mode optical fibers have been investigated. Shooting-method technique is used and implemented into a computer code for both profiles of step-index and graded-index fibers. An error function is defined to estimate the discrepancy between the expected electric-field radial derivative at the core-cladding interface and that obtained by numerically integrating the wave equation through the use of Rung...

  3. Single longitudinal mode operation of a solid-state dye laser oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, G; Kim, H S; Cha, B H; Lee, J M

    2000-01-01

    We have operated a single longitudinal mode of a solid-state dye laser oscillator in a Littman configuration. The host material of the solid-state gain medium was rhodamine dye-doped poly (methyl methacrylate). The pumping source was the second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser with a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The measured linewidth of the laser output was about 1.5 GHz.

  4. GaSb-based single-mode distributed feedback lasers for sensing (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, James A.; Bezinger, Andrew; Lapointe, Jean; Poitras, Daniel; Aers, Geof C.

    2017-02-01

    GaSb-based tunable single-mode diode lasers can enable rapid, highly-selective and highly-sensitive absorption spectroscopy systems for gas sensing. In this work, single-mode distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes were developed for the detection of various trace gases in the 2-3.3um range, including CO2, CO, HF, H2S, H2O and CH4. The lasers were fabricated using an index-coupled grating process without epitaxial regrowth, making the process significantly less expensive than conventional DFB fabrication. The devices are based on InGaAsSb/AlGaAsSb separate confinement heterostructures grown on GaSb by molecular beam epitaxy. DFB lasers were produced using a two step etch process. Narrow ridge waveguides were first defined by optical lithography and etched into the semiconductor. Lateral gratings were then defined on both sides of the ridge using electron-beam lithography and etched to produce the index-grating. Effective index modeling was used to optimize the ridge width, etch depths and the grating pitch to ensure single-lateral-mode operation and adequate coupling strength. The effective index method was further used to simulate the DFB laser emission spectrum, based on a transfer matrix model for light transmission through the periodic structure. The fabricated lasers exhibit single-mode operation which is tunable through the absorption features of the various target gases by adjustment of the drive current. In addition to the established open-path sensing applications, these devices have great potential for optoelectronic integrated gas sensors, making use of integrated photodetectors and possibly on-chip Si photonics waveguide structures.

  5. Single Longitudinal Mode, High Repetition Rate, Q-switched Ho:YLF Laser for Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong; Petzar, Paul; Petros, M.; Chen, Songsheng; Trieu, Bo; Lee, Nyung; Singh, U.

    2009-01-01

    Ho:YLF/LuLiF lasers have specific applications for remote sensing such as wind-speed measurement and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration measurement in the atmosphere because the operating wavelength (around 2 m) is located in the eye-safe range and can be tuned to the characteristic lines of CO2 absorption and there is strong backward scattering signal from aerosol (Mie scattering). Experimentally, a diode pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser has been successfully used as the transmitter of coherent differential absorption lidar for the measurement of with a repetition rate of 5 Hz and pulse energy of 75 mJ [1]. For highly precise CO2 measurements with coherent detection technique, a laser with high repetition rate is required to averaging out the speckle effect [2]. In addition, laser efficiency is critically important for the air/space borne lidar applications, because of the limited power supply. A diode pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser is difficult to efficiently operate in high repetition rate due to the large heat loading and up-conversion. However, a Tm:fiber laser pumped Ho:YLF laser with low heat loading can be operated at high repetition rates efficiently [3]. No matter whether wind-speed or carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration measurement is the goal, a Ho:YLF/LuLiF laser as the transmitter should operate in a single longitudinal mode. Injection seeding is a valid technique for a Q-switched laser to obtain single longitudinal mode operation. In this paper, we will report the new results for a single longitudinal mode, high repetition rate, Q-switched Ho:YLF laser. In order to avoid spectral hole burning and make injection seeding easier, a four mirror ring cavity is designed for single longitudinal mode, high repetition rate Q-switched Ho:YLF laser. The ramp-fire technique is chosen for injection seeding.

  6. Optimizing single mode robustness of the distributed modal filtering rod fiber amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette Marie; Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Laurila, Marko

    2012-01-01

    from the outer fiber diameter. However, achieving ultra low NA for single mode (SM) guidance is challenging, thus different design strategies must be applied. The distributed modal filtering (DMF) design enables SM guidance in ultra low NA fibers with very large cores, where large preform tolerances...... a large fraction of the Yb emission band including wavelengths of 1030 nm and 1064 nm. Design parameters tolerating refractive index fabrication uncertainties of ± 10-4 are targeted to yield stable SM bandwidths....

  7. High efficiency Yb3+-doped phosphate single-mode fibre laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franczyk, M.; Stępień, R.; Piechal, B.; Pysz, D.; Stawicki, K.; Siwicki, B.; Buczyński, R.

    2017-10-01

    We report on a ytterbium-doped phosphate glass single-mode fibre laser, 4 cm long, with a maximum output power of 11.6 W and a slope efficiency of 66.6%. We developed the double-clad fibre with a 19 µm diameter step-index core and a pump waveguide with a high numerical aperture due to external air-cladding. The estimated pump absorption in the fibre exceeded 700 dB m-1.

  8. Modified transmission spectrum induced by two-mode interference in a single silica microsphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Chunhua; Zou Changling; Cui Jinming; Han Zhengfu; Guo Guangcan [Key Lab of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Xiao Yunfeng, E-mail: zfhan@ustc.edu.c [State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructure and Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2009-11-14

    We theoretically and experimentally study the resonant transmission spectrum of light in a fibre taper coupled with a single silica microsphere cavity system, where two whispering-gallery modes (WGMs) are simultaneously excited. By changing the taper position (correspondingly, tuning the resonant frequencies of the two WGMs and modulating their coupling conditions with the fibre taper), a sharp electromagnetically-induced- transparency-like window can be observed in the transmission spectrum. This line shape origins from the taper-mediated interference between two co-existing WGMs in a single microsphere. This measurement result agrees well with the theoretical analysis.

  9. Self-aligned deterministic coupling of single quantum emitter to nanofocused plasmonic modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Su-Hyun; Kim, Je-Hyung; Ko, Young-Ho; Rodriguez, Christophe; Shin, Jonghwa; Lee, Yong-Hee; Dang, Le Si; Zhang, Xiang; Cho, Yong-Hoon

    2015-04-28

    The quantum plasmonics field has emerged and been growing increasingly, including study of single emitter-light coupling using plasmonic system and scalable quantum plasmonic circuit. This offers opportunity for the quantum control of light with compact device footprint. However, coupling of a single emitter to highly localized plasmonic mode with nanoscale precision remains an important challenge. Today, the spatial overlap between metallic structure and single emitter mostly relies either on chance or on advanced nanopositioning control. Here, we demonstrate deterministic coupling between three-dimensionally nanofocused plasmonic modes and single quantum dots (QDs) without any positioning for single QDs. By depositing a thin silver layer on a site-controlled pyramid QD wafer, three-dimensional plasmonic nanofocusing on each QD at the pyramid apex is geometrically achieved through the silver-coated pyramid facets. Enhancement of the QD spontaneous emission rate as high as 22 ± 16 is measured for all processed QDs emitting over ∼150-meV spectral range. This approach could apply to high fabrication yield on-chip devices for wide application fields, e.g., high-efficiency light-emitting devices and quantum information processing.

  10. Selection of a LGp0-shaped fundamental mode in a laser cavity: Phase versus amplitude masks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hasnaoui, A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser beams of a single high-order transverse mode have been of interest to the laser community for several years now. In order to achieve such a mode as the fundamental mode of the cavity, mode selecting elements in the form of a phase or amplitude...

  11. Sensitive sandwich immunoassay based on single particle mode inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Xing, Zhi; Lv, Yi; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2010-11-15

    A sensitive sandwich type immunoassay has been proposed with the detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in a single particle mode (time resolved analysis). The signal induced by the flash of ions ((197)Au(+)) due to the ionization of single Au-nanoparticle (Au-NP) label in the plasma torch can be measured by the mass spectrometer. The frequency of the transient signals is proportional to the concentration of Au-NPs labels. Characteristics of the signals obtained from Au-NPs of 20, 45 and 80 nm in diameters were discussed. The analytical figures for the determination of Au-labeled IgG using ICP-MS in conventional integral mode and single particle mode were compared in detail. Rabbit-anti-human IgG was used as a model analyte in the sandwich immunoassay. A detection limit (3 σ) of 0.1 ng mL(-1) was obtained for rabbit-anti-human IgG after immunoreactions, with a linear range of 0.3-10 ng mL(-1) and a RSD of 8.1% (2.0 ng mL(-1)). Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to spiked rabbit-anti-human IgG samples and rabbit-anti-human serum samples. The method resulted to be a highly sensitive ICP-MS based sandwich type immunoassay. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Tellurite suspended nanowire surrounded with large holes for single-mode SC and THG generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Meisong; Qin, Guanshi; Yan, Xin; Chaudhari, Chitrarekha; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2011-05-01

    For a suspended nanowire, the holes surrounding the core are expected to be as large as possible to propagate the light at wavelengths as long as possible. However, the fabrication of nanowire surrounded with large holes is still a challenge so far. In this paper, a method which involves pumping positive pressure of nitrogen gas in both the cane fabrication and fiber-drawing processes, is proposed. A suspended nanowire, with a core diameter of 480 nm and an unprecedented large diameter ratio of holey region to core (DRHC) of at least 62, is fabricated in the length of several hundred meters. Owing to the large holes, the confinement loss of the suspended nanowire is insignificant when the wavelength of light propagated in it is 1700 nm. Additionally, the tube-shaped glass cladding of the suspended nanowire shifts the singlemode cutoff wavelength to 810 nm, which is much shorter than the cutoff wavelength, 1070 nm, of a naked nanowire with the same diameter. A single-mode supercontinuum (SC) generation covering a wavelength range of 900-1600 nm is obtained under 1064 nm pump pulse with the peak power as low as 24 W. A single-mode third harmonic generation (THG) is observed by this nanowire under the pump of a 1557 nm femtosecond fiber laser. This work indicates that the suspended nanowire with large holes can provide high nonlinearity together with single-mode propagation, which leads to interesting applications in compact nonlinear devices.

  13. Precision single mode fibre integral field spectroscopy with the RHEA spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, Adam D.; Ireland, Michael J.; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Feger, Tobias; Bento, Joao; Schwab, Christian; Coutts, David W.; Guyon, Olivier; Arriola, Alexander; Gross, Simon

    2016-08-01

    The RHEA Spectrograph is a single-mode echelle spectrograph designed to be a replicable and cost effective method of undertaking precision radial velocity measurements. Two versions of RHEA currently exist, one located at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia (450 - 600nm wavelength range), and another located at the Subaru Telescope in Hawaii, USA (600 - 800 nm wavelength range). Both instruments have a novel fibre feed consisting of an integral field unit injecting light into a 2D grid of single mode fibres. This grid of fibres is then reformatted into a 1D array at the input of the spectrograph (consisting of the science fibres and a reference fibre capable of receiving a white-light or xenon reference source for simultaneous calibration). The use of single mode fibres frees RHEA from the issue of modal noise and significantly reduces the size of the optics used. In addition to increasing the overall light throughput of the system, the integral field unit allows for cutting edge science goals to be achieved when operating behind the 8.2m Subaru Telescope and the SCExAO adaptive optics system. These include, but are not limited to: resolved stellar photospheres; resolved protoplanetary disk structures; resolved Mira shocks, dust and winds; and sub-arcsecond companions. We present details and results of early tests of RHEA@Subaru and progress towards the stated science goals.

  14. Stability of hybrid modes of a single-component electron plasma containing an admixture of background gas ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeliseyev, Yu. N.

    2014-05-01

    The spectrum of eigenmodes of a waveguide completely filled with a cold electron plasma containing a small admixture of ions produced due to electron-impact ionization of background gas atoms is calculated numerically. The calculations were performed within the entire range of allowable values of the radial electric and longitudinal magnetic fields for both magnetized and unmagnetized ions by using the earlier derived nonlocal dispersion relation [Plasma Phys. Rep. 36, 563 (2010)]. The spectrum consists of three families of electron modes with frequencies equal to the Doppler-shifted upper and lower hybrid frequencies and modified ion cyclotron (MIC) modes. When the Doppler shift caused by electron rotation in the crossed electric and magnetic fields compensates for the hybrid frequency, the electron modes become low-frequency modes and interact with the ion modes. For m = 1, only the lower hybrid modes can be low-frequency ones, whereas at m ≥ 2, both lower and upper hybrid modes can be low-frequency ones. The spectrum of modes having the azimuthal number m = 2 is thoroughly analyzed. It is shown that, in this case, the lower hybrid modes behave similar to the m = 1 modes. The dispersion curves of the upper hybrid modes intersect with all harmonics of the MIC frequency (positive, negative, and zero) and are unstable in the vicinities of the intersections. The maximum value of the instability growth rate is several times higher than the ion plasma frequency. The MIC modes are unstable within a wide range of the field strengths, and their growth rates are two orders of magnitude slower. Instabilities are caused by the relative motion of electrons and ions (the transverse current) and the anisotropy of the ion distribution function.

  15. Electronic modes in carbon nanotubes with single and double impurity sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komorowski, P. G.; Cottam, M. G.

    2017-11-01

    A theoretical study of isolated and doubly-clustered impurities is presented for the electronic excitations in a carbon nanotube lattice. Using a matrix operator formalism and a tight-binding model where the interactions between atoms take place via nearest-neighbor hopping, the properties of the excitations are deduced. A geometry consisting of long, single-walled carbon nanotubes is assumed with the defects introduced in the form of substitutional impurity atoms, giving rise to the localized electronic modes of the nanotube as well as the propagating modes of the pure (host) material. The impurities are assumed to be in a low concentration, having the form of either a single, isolated defect or a small cluster of two defects close together. A tridiagonal matrix technique is employed within a Green’s function formalism to obtain the properties of the discrete modes of the system, including their frequencies and localization. The numerical examples show a dependence on the nanotube diameters and on the relative spatial configurations of the impurities. The results contrast with the previous studies of line impurities since there is no translational symmetry along the longitudinal axis of the nanotubes in the present case.

  16. Transverse Field Dispersion in the Generalized Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation: Four Wave Mixing in a Higher Order Mode Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Erland Vestergaard; Cheng, Ji; Xu, Chris

    2013-01-01

    An improved version of the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived, which takes into account the correct dispersion of the transverse field distribution. The new improved version of the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation is verified to give the same results as the standard...

  17. Coupling between flexural modes in free vibration of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Rumeng; Wang, Lifeng, E-mail: walfe@nuaa.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanical Structures, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 210016 Nanjing (China)

    2015-12-15

    The nonlinear thermal vibration behavior of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) is investigated by molecular dynamics simulation and a nonlinear, nonplanar beam model. Whirling motion with energy transfer between flexural motions is found in the free vibration of the SWCNT excited by the thermal motion of atoms where the geometric nonlinearity is significant. A nonlinear, nonplanar beam model considering the coupling in two vertical vibrational directions is presented to explain the whirling motion of the SWCNT. Energy in different vibrational modes is not equal even over a time scale of tens of nanoseconds, which is much larger than the period of fundamental natural vibration of the SWCNT at equilibrium state. The energy of different modes becomes equal when the time scale increases to the microsecond range.

  18. Report on first masing and single mode locking in a prebunched beam FEM oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, M.; Eichenbaum, A.; Kleinman, H. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Ramat-Aviv (Israel)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Radiation characteristics of a table-top free electron maser (FEM) are described in this paper. The FEM employs a prebunched electron beam and is operated as an oscillator in the low-gain collective (Raman) regime. Using electron beam prebunching single mode locking at any one of the possible oscillation modes was obtained. The electron beam is prebunched by a microwave tube section before it is injected into the wiggler. By tuning the electron beam bunching frequency, the FEM oscillation frequency can be locked to any eigen frequency of the resonant waveguide cavity which is within the frequency band of net gain of the FEM. The oscillation build up process is sped up, when the FEM operates with a prebunched electron beam, and the build-up time of radiation is shortened significantly. First measurements of masing with and without prebunching and characterization of the emitted radiation are reported.

  19. Influence of Temperature and Pressure on Dispersion Properties of Nonlinear Single Mode Optical Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa H. Ali, Ahmed E. Elsamahy, Maher A. Farhoud and Taymour A. Hamdalla

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Near field distribution, propagation constant and dispersion characteristics of nonlinear single-mode optical fibers have been investigated. Shooting-method technique is used and implemented into a computer code for both profiles of step-index and graded-index fibers. An error function is defined to estimate the discrepancy between the expected electric-field radial derivative at the core-cladding interface and that obtained by numerically integrating the wave equation through the use of Runge-Kutta method. All of the above calculations done under the ocean depth in which the depth will affect the refractive index that have a direct effect on all the optical fiber parameters.KeyWords: Nonlinear refractive index, Normalized propagation constant, Mode delay factor, Material dispersion, Waveguide dispersion.

  20. Coupling between flexural modes in free vibration of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumeng Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear thermal vibration behavior of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT is investigated by molecular dynamics simulation and a nonlinear, nonplanar beam model. Whirling motion with energy transfer between flexural motions is found in the free vibration of the SWCNT excited by the thermal motion of atoms where the geometric nonlinearity is significant. A nonlinear, nonplanar beam model considering the coupling in two vertical vibrational directions is presented to explain the whirling motion of the SWCNT. Energy in different vibrational modes is not equal even over a time scale of tens of nanoseconds, which is much larger than the period of fundamental natural vibration of the SWCNT at equilibrium state. The energy of different modes becomes equal when the time scale increases to the microsecond range.

  1. Slow light generation in single-mode rectangular core photonic crystal fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Sandeep; Saini, Than Singh; Kumar, Ajeet, E-mail: ajeetdph@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University (Formerly Delhi College of Engineering), Delhi-110 042 (India)

    2016-05-06

    In this paper, we have designed and analyzed a rectangular core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) in Tellurite material. For the designed photonics crystal fiber, we have calculated the values of confinement loss and effective mode area for different values of air filling fraction (d/Λ). For single mode operation of the designed photonic crystal fiber, we have taken d/Λ= 0.4 for the further calculation of stimulated Brillouin scattering based time delay. A maximum time delay of 158 ns has been achieved for input pump power of 39 mW. We feel the detailed theoretical investigations and simulations carried out in the study have the potential impact on the design and development of slow light-based photonic devices.

  2. Evaluation of single photon and Geiger mode Lidar for the 3D Elevation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Jason M.; Abdullah, Qassim; Nayegandhi, Amar; Winehouse, Jayna

    2016-01-01

    Data acquired by Harris Corporation’s (Melbourne, FL, USA) Geiger-mode IntelliEarth™ sensor and Sigma Space Corporation’s (Lanham-Seabrook, MD, USA) Single Photon HRQLS sensor were evaluated and compared to accepted 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) data and survey ground control to assess the suitability of these new technologies for the 3DEP. While not able to collect data currently to meet USGS lidar base specification, this is partially due to the fact that the specification was written for linear-mode systems specifically. With little effort on part of the manufacturers of the new lidar systems and the USGS Lidar specifications team, data from these systems could soon serve the 3DEP program and its users. Many of the shortcomings noted in this study have been reported to have been corrected or improved upon in the next generation sensors.

  3. Fast High-Intensity Single-Bunch Transverse Coherent Instability in Synchrotrons due to a Broad-Band Resonator Impedance

    CERN Document Server

    Métral, Elias

    2001-01-01

    The instability rise-time is computed when it is faster than the synchrotron period, using the mode-coupling formalism. The case is treated of a bunch interacting with a broad-band resonator impedance, and whose length is greater than the inverse of twice the resonance frequency. The formula is compared to the one obtained by Brandt and Gareyte in a beam break-up approach, and to the one first obtained by Ruth and Wang in a fast blow-up theory, and later re-derived by Kernel et al. in a post-head-tail formalism. Stabilisation by synchrotron oscillation is also discussed.

  4. Search for supersymmetry in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =7$ TeV in events with a single lepton, jets, and missing transverse momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Aguilo, E.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Widl, E.; Wulz, C. -E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Staykova, Z.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D’Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Marcken, G.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Verwilligen, P.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Shreyber, I.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J. -L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J. -M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Ferro, C.; Fontaine, J. -C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A. -C.; Van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Anagnostou, G.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.; Klein, K.; Merz, J.; Ostapchuk, A.; Perieanu, A.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Sprenger, D.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Caudron, J.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Erdmann, M.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Olschewski, M.; Papacz, P.; Pieta, H.; Reithler, H.; Schmitz, S. A.; Sonnenschein, L.; Steggemann, J.; Teyssier, D.; Weber, M.; Bontenackels, M.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Haj Ahmad, W.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Lingemann, J.; Nowack, A.; Perchalla, L.; Pooth, O.; Sauerland, P.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Behr, J.; Behrenhoff, W.; Behrens, U.; Bergholz, M.; Bethani, A.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Castro, E.; Costanza, F.; Dammann, D.; Diez Pardos, C.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Flucke, G.; Geiser, A.; Glushkov, I.; Gunnellini, P.; Habib, S.; Hauk, J.; Hellwig, G.; Jung, H.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, H.; Knutsson, A.; Krämer, M.; Krücker, D.; Kuznetsova, E.; Lange, W.; Lohmann, W.; Lutz, B.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Marienfeld, M.; Melzer-Pellmann, I. -A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Novgorodova, O.; Olzem, J.; Perrey, H.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Raspereza, A.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Riedl, C.; Ron, E.; Rosin, M.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Schmidt, R.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Sen, N.; Spiridonov, A.; Stein, M.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Draeger, J.; Enderle, H.; Erfle, J.; Gebbert, U.; Görner, M.; Hermanns, T.; Höing, R. S.; Kaschube, K.; Kaussen, G.; Kirschenmann, H.; Klanner, R.; Lange, J.; Mura, B.; Nowak, F.; Peiffer, T.; Pietsch, N.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schröder, M.; Schum, T.; Seidel, M.; Sibille, J.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Thomsen, J.; Vanelderen, L.; Barth, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Chwalek, T.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Feindt, M.; Guthoff, M.; Hackstein, C.; Hartmann, F.; Hauth, T.; Heinrich, M.; Held, H.; Hoffmann, K. H.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Martschei, D.; Mueller, S.; Müller, Th.; Niegel, M.; Nürnberg, A.; Oberst, O.; Oehler, A.; Ott, J.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Ratnikov, F.; Ratnikova, N.; Röcker, S.; Schilling, F. -P.; Schott, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Troendle, D.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weiler, T.; Zeise, M.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Kesisoglou, S.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Manolakos, I.; Markou, A.; Markou, C.; Mavrommatis, C.; Ntomari, E.; Gouskos, L.; Mertzimekis, T. J.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Evangelou, I.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Patras, V.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Molnar, J.; Palinkas, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Karancsi, J.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Dhingra, N.; Gupta, R.; Kaur, M.; Mehta, M. Z.; Nishu, N.; Saini, L. K.; Sharma, A.; Singh, J. B.; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, S.; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, V.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Dutta, S.; Gomber, B.; Jain, Sa.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Choudhury, R. K.; Dutta, D.; Kailas, S.; Kumar, V.; Mehta, P.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Aziz, T.; Ganguly, S.; Guchait, M.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Wickramage, N.; Banerjee, S.; Dugad, S.; Arfaei, H.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Hashemi, M.; Hesari, H.; Jafari, A.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Barbone, L.; Calabria, C.; Chhibra, S. S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pacifico, N.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Singh, G.; Venditti, R.; Zito, G.; Abbiendi, G.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Meneghelli, M.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Odorici, F.; Perrotta, A.; Primavera, F.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Travaglini, R.; Albergo, S.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D’Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Frosali, S.; Gallo, E.; Gonzi, S.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Colafranceschi, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Fabbricatore, P.; Musenich, R.; Tosi, S.; Benaglia, A.; De Guio, F.; Di Matteo, L.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Ghezzi, A.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Martelli, A.; Massironi, A.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Sala, S.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Cavallo, N.; De Cosa, A.; Dogangun, O.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Branca, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Kanishchev, K.; Lacaprara, S.; Lazzizzera, I.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Vanini, S.; Zotto, P.; Zumerle, G.; Gabusi, M.; Ratti, S. P.; Riccardi, C.; Torre, P.; Vitulo, P.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Nappi, A.; Romeo, F.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Taroni, S.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; D’Agnolo, R. T.; Dell’Orso, R.; Fiori, F.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Kraan, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Fanelli, C.; Grassi, M.; Longo, E.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Rahatlou, S.; Sigamani, M.; Soffi, L.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Costa, M.; Demaria, N.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Potenza, A.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; Marone, M.; Montanino, D.; Penzo, A.; Schizzi, A.; Heo, S. G.; Kim, T. Y.; Nam, S. K.; Chang, S.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kong, D. J.; Park, H.; Ro, S. R.; Son, D. C.; Son, T.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, Zero J.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Lee, K. S.; Moon, D. H.; Park, S. K.; Choi, M.; Kim, J. H.; Park, C.; Park, I. C.; Park, S.; Ryu, G.; Cho, Y.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Goh, J.; Kim, M. S.; Kwon, E.; Lee, B.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Seo, H.; Yu, I.; Bilinskas, M. J.; Grigelionis, I.; Janulis, M.; Juodagalvis, A.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-de La Cruz, I.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Magaña Villalba, R.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Villasenor-Cendejas, L. M.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Reyes-Santos, M. A.; Krofcheck, D.; Bell, A. J.; Butler, P. H.; Doesburg, R.; Reucroft, S.; Silverwood, H.; Ahmad, M.; Ansari, M. H.; Asghar, M. I.; Butt, J.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khalid, S.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Qazi, S.; Shah, M. A.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Gokieli, R.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Wrochna, G.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Cwiok, M.; Dominik, W.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Almeida, N.; Bargassa, P.; David, A.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Seixas, J.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Belotelov, I.; Bunin, P.; Golutvin, I.; Karjavin, V.; Konoplyanikov, V.; Kozlov, G.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Savina, M.; Shmatov, S.; Shulha, S.; Smirnov, V.; Volodko, A.; Zarubin, A.; Evstyukhin, S.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, An.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Matveev, V.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Erofeeva, M.; Gavrilov, V.; Kossov, M.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Safronov, G.; Semenov, S.; Stolin, V.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Markina, A.; Obraztsov, S.; Perfilov, M.; Petrushanko, S.; Popov, A.; Sarycheva, L.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. V.; Vinogradov, A.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Grishin, V.; Kachanov, V.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Djordjevic, M.; Ekmedzic, M.; Krpic, D.; Milosevic, J.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Arce, P.; Battilana, C.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Domínguez Vázquez, D.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Ferrando, A.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Merino, G.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Santaolalla, J.; Soares, M. S.; Willmott, C.; Albajar, C.; Codispoti, G.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Brun, H.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Chuang, S. H.; Duarte Campderros, J.; Felcini, M.; Fernandez, M.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez Sanchez, J.; Graziano, A.; Jorda, C.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Munoz Sanchez, F. J.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Benitez, J. F.; Bernet, C.; Bianchi, G.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Cerminara, G.; Christiansen, T.; Coarasa Perez, J. A.; D’Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; De Roeck, A.; Di Guida, S.; Dobson, M.; Dupont-Sagorin, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Frisch, B.; Funk, W.; Georgiou, G.; Giffels, M.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Girone, M.; Giunta, M.; Glege, F.; Gomez-Reino Garrido, R.; Govoni, P.; Gowdy, S.; Guida, R.; Hansen, M.; Harris, P.; Hartl, C.; Harvey, J.; Hegner, B.; Hinzmann, A.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kaadze, K.; Karavakis, E.; Kousouris, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lee, Y. -J.; Lenzi, P.; Lourenço, C.; Magini, N.; Mäki, T.; Malberti, M.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moser, R.; Mozer, M. U.; Mulders, M.; Musella, P.; Nesvold, E.; Orimoto, T.; Orsini, L.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Perez, E.; Perrozzi, L.; Petrilli, A.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Pimiä, M.; Piparo, D.; Polese, G.; Quertenmont, L.; Racz, A.; Reece, W.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Rolandi, G.; Rovelli, C.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Santanastasio, F.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Segoni, I.; Sekmen, S.; Sharma, A.; Siegrist, P.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Spiga, D.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Vlimant, J. R.; Wöhri, H. K.; Worm, S. D.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Gabathuler, K.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; König, S.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Meier, F.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Bäni, L.; Bortignon, P.; Buchmann, M. A.; Casal, B.; Chanon, N.; Deisher, A.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Dünser, M.; Eugster, J.; Freudenreich, K.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Lecomte, P.; Lustermann, W.; Marini, A. C.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Mohr, N.; Moortgat, F.; Nägeli, C.; Nef, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pape, L.; Pauss, F.; Peruzzi, M.; Ronga, F. J.; Rossini, M.; Sala, L.; Sanchez, A. K.; Starodumov, A.; Stieger, B.; Takahashi, M.; Tauscher, L.; Thea, A.; Theofilatos, K.; Treille, D.; Urscheler, C.; Wallny, R.; Weber, H. A.; Wehrli, L.; Amsler, C.; Chiochia, V.; De Visscher, S.; Favaro, C.; Ivova Rikova, M.; Millan Mejias, B.; Otiougova, P.; Robmann, P.; Snoek, H.; Tupputi, S.; Verzetti, M.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, K. H.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, S. W.; Lin, W.; Liu, Z. K.; Lu, Y. J.; Mekterovic, D.; Singh, A. P.; Volpe, R.; Yu, S. S.; Bartalini, P.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Dietz, C.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W. -S.; Hsiung, Y.; Kao, K. Y.; Lei, Y. J.; Lu, R. -S.; Majumder, D.; Petrakou, E.; Shi, X.; Shiu, J. G.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Wan, X.; Wang, M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Srimanobhas, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Cerci, S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Karaman, T.; Karapinar, G.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Polatoz, A.; Sogut, K.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, L. N.; Vergili, M.; Akin, I. V.; Aliev, T.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Deniz, M.; Gamsizkan, H.; Guler, A. M.; Ocalan, K.; Ozpineci, A.; Serin, M.; Sever, R.; Surat, U. E.; Yalvac, M.; Yildirim, E.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Isildak, B.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Ozkorucuklu, S.; Sonmez, N.; Cankocak, K.; Levchuk, L.; Brooke, J. J.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Frazier, R.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Kreczko, L.; Metson, S.; Newbold, D. M.; Nirunpong, K.; Poll, A.; Senkin, S.; Smith, V. J.; Williams, T.; Basso, L.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Jackson, J.; Kennedy, B. W.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Tomalin, I. R.; Womersley, W. J.; Bainbridge, R.; Ball, G.; Beuselinck, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Colling, D.; Cripps, N.; Cutajar, M.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; Della Negra, M.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Gilbert, A.; Guneratne Bryer, A.; Hall, G.; Hatherell, Z.; Hays, J.; Iles, G.; Jarvis, M.; Karapostoli, G.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A. -M.; Marrouche, J.; Mathias, B.; Nandi, R.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Papageorgiou, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Pioppi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Rogerson, S.; Rose, A.; Ryan, M. J.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Sparrow, A.; Stoye, M.; Tapper, A.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Wakefield, S.; Wardle, N.; Whyntie, T.; Chadwick, M.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Martin, W.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Scarborough, T.; Charaf, O.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Heister, A.; John, J. St.; Lawson, P.; Lazic, D.; Rohlf, J.; Sperka, D.; Sulak, L.; Alimena, J.; Bhattacharya, S.; Cutts, D.; Demiragli, Z.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Jabeen, S.; Kukartsev, G.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Luk, M.; Narain, M.; Nguyen, D.; Segala, M.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Speer, T.; Tsang, K. V.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Dolen, J.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Houtz, R.; Ko, W.; Kopecky, A.; Lander, R.; Mall, O.; Miceli, T.; Pellett, D.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Rutherford, B.; Searle, M.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Tripathi, M.; Vasquez Sierra, R.; Yohay, R.; Andreev, V.; Cline, D.; Cousins, R.; Duris, J.; Erhan, S.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Jarvis, C.; Plager, C.; Rakness, G.; Schlein, P.; Traczyk, P.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Babb, J.; Clare, R.; Dinardo, M. E.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Giordano, F.; Hanson, G.; Jeng, G. Y.; Liu, H.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Nguyen, H.; Paramesvaran, S.; Sturdy, J.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wilken, R.; Wimpenny, S.; Andrews, W.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; Evans, D.; Golf, F.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Lebourgeois, M.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Mangano, B.; Padhi, S.; Palmer, C.; Petrucciani, G.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Sudano, E.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Yoo, J.; Barge, D.; Bellan, R.; Campagnari, C.; D’Alfonso, M.; Danielson, T.; Flowers, K.; Geffert, P.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Kalavase, P.; Koay, S. A.; Kovalskyi, D.; Krutelyov, V.; Lowette, S.; Mccoll, N.; Pavlunin, V.; Rebassoo, F.; Ribnik, J.; Richman, J.; Rossin, R.; Stuart, D.; To, W.; West, C.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Chen, Y.; Di Marco, E.; Duarte, J.; Gataullin, M.; Ma, Y.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Rogan, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Timciuc, V.; Veverka, J.; Wilkinson, R.; Xie, S.; Yang, Y.; Zhu, R. Y.; Akgun, B.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carroll, R.; Ferguson, T.; Iiyama, Y.; Jang, D. W.; Liu, Y. F.; Paulini, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Drell, B. R.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Luiggi Lopez, E.; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Eggert, N.; Gibbons, L. K.; Heltsley, B.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Kreis, B.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Sun, W.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Vaughan, J.; Weng, Y.; Winstrom, L.; Wittich, P.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bloch, I.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Chetluru, V.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gao, Y.; Green, D.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Kilminster, B.; Klima, B.; Kunori, S.; Kwan, S.; Leonidopoulos, C.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Musienko, Y.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O’Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Sharma, S.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Whitmore, J.; Wu, W.; Yang, F.; Yumiceva, F.; Yun, J. C.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Das, S.; De Gruttola, M.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Dobur, D.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Fu, Y.; Furic, I. K.; Gartner, J.; Hugon, J.; Kim, B.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Matchev, K.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Park, M.; Remington, R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Sellers, P.; Skhirtladze, N.; Snowball, M.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Gaultney, V.; Hewamanage, S.; Lebolo, L. M.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Chen, J.; Diamond, B.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Jenkins, M.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Dorney, B.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Vodopiyanov, I.; Adams, M. R.; Anghel, I. M.; Apanasevich, L.; Bai, Y.; Bazterra, V. E.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Callner, J.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Khalatyan, S.; Lacroix, F.; Malek, M.; O’Brien, C.; Silkworth, C.; Strom, D.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Akgun, U.; Albayrak, E. A.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Duru, F.; Merlo, J. -P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Newsom, C. R.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Sen, S.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yetkin, T.; Yi, K.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Fehling, D.; Giurgiu, G.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Hu, G.; Maksimovic, P.; Rappoccio, S.; Swartz, M.; Whitbeck, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Kenny Iii, R. P.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Tinti, G.; Wood, J. S.; Zhukova, V.; Barfuss, A. F.; Bolton, T.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Shrestha, S.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Boutemeur, M.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kirn, M.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Marionneau, M.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Skuja, A.; Temple, J.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Twedt, E.; Apyan, A.; Bauer, G.; Bendavid, J.; Busza, W.; Butz, E.; Cali, I. A.; Chan, M.; Dutta, V.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Hahn, K. A.; Kim, Y.; Klute, M.; Krajczar, K.; Luckey, P. D.; Ma, T.; Nahn, S.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, M.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stöckli, F.; Sumorok, K.; Sung, K.; Velicanu, D.; Wenger, E. A.; Wolf, R.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Yilmaz, Y.; Yoon, A. S.; Zanetti, M.; Cooper, S. I.; Dahmes, B.; De Benedetti, A.; Franzoni, G.; Gude, A.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Sasseville, M.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Kroeger, R.; Perera, L.; Rahmat, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Eads, M.; Keller, J.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Malbouisson, H.; Malik, S.; Snow, G. R.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Jain, S.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Haley, J.; Nash, D.; Trocino, D.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Anastassov, A.; Kubik, A.; Lusito, L.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Ofierzynski, R. A.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Antonelli, L.; Berry, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Chan, K. M.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kolb, J.; Lannon, K.; Luo, W.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Morse, D. M.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Slaunwhite, J.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Vuosalo, C.; Williams, G.; Winer, B. L.; Adam, N.; Berry, E.; Elmer, P.; Gerbaudo, D.; Halyo, V.; Hebda, P.; Hegeman, J.; Hunt, A.; Jindal, P.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Raval, A.; Safdi, B.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Brownson, E.; Lopez, A.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Alagoz, E.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Everett, A.; Hu, Z.; Jones, M.; Koybasi, O.; Kress, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Leonardo, N.; Maroussov, V.; Merkel, P.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Vidal Marono, M.; Yoo, H. D.; Zablocki, J.; Zheng, Y.; Guragain, S.; Parashar, N.; Adair, A.; Boulahouache, C.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Li, W.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Chung, Y. S.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Miner, D. C.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Zielinski, M.; Bhatti, A.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Lungu, G.; Malik, S.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Rekovic, V.; Robles, J.; Rose, K.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Seitz, C.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Walker, M.; Cerizza, G.; Hollingsworth, M.; Spanier, S.; Yang, Z. C.; York, A.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Safonov, A.; Sakuma, T.; Sengupta, S.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Toback, D.; Akchurin, N.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Jeong, C.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Roh, Y.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Florez, C.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Kurt, P.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Balazs, M.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Gollapinni, S.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sakharov, A.; Anderson, M.; Belknap, D. A.; Borrello, L.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Friis, E.; Gray, L.; Grogg, K. S.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Klukas, J.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Leonard, J.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Palmonari, F.; Pierro, G. A.; Ross, I.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Swanson, J.

    2013-05-01

    Results are reported from a search for new physics processes in events containing a single isolated high-transverse-momentum lepton (electron or muon), energetic jets, and large missing transverse momentum. The analysis is based on a 4.98 fb-1 sample of proton–proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, obtained with the CMS detector at the LHC. Three separate background estimation methods, each relying primarily on control samples in the data, are applied to a range of signal regions, providing complementary approaches for estimating the background yields. The observed yields are consistent with the predicted standard model backgrounds. The results are interpreted in terms of limits on the parameter space for the constrained minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model, as well as on cross sections for simplified models, which provide a generic description of the production and decay of new particles in specific, topology based final states.

  5. In-line single-mode fiber variable optical attenuator based on electrically addressable microdroplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duduś, A.; Blue, R.; Zagnoni, M.; Stewart, G.; Uttamchandani, D.

    2014-07-01

    We report an in-line, fiber optic, broadband variable optical attenuator employing a side-polished, single-mode optical fiber integrated on a digital microfluidics platform. The system is designed to electrically translate a liquid droplet along the polished surface of an optical fiber using electrowetting forces. This fiber optic device has the advantage of no moving mechanical parts and lends itself to miniaturization. A maximum attenuation of 25 dB has been obtained in the wavelength range between 1520 nm and 1560 nm.

  6. Writing single-mode waveguides in lithium niobate by ultra-low intensity solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazio, E. [Universita degli Studi di Roma ' La Sapienza' and INFM, I-00161 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: eugenio.fazio@uniromal.it; Ramadan, W. [Physics department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Damietta (Egypt); Petris, A. [Romanian Center of Excellence in Photonics, R-76900 Bucharest (Romania); Chauvet, M. [Laboratoire d' optique P.M. Duffieux, Universite de Franche Comte, Besancon (France); Bosco, A. [Universita degli Studi di Roma ' La Sapienza' and INFM, I-00161 Rome (Italy); Vlad, V.I. [Romanian Center of Excellence in Photonics, R-76900 Bucharest (Romania); Bertolotti, M. [Universita degli Studi di Roma ' La Sapienza' and INFM, I-00161 Rome (Italy)

    2005-07-30

    Optical waveguides can be conveniently written in photorefractive materials by using spatial solitons. We have generated bright spatial solitons inside lithium niobate which allow single-mode light propagation. Efficient waveguides have been generated with CW light powers as high as few microwatts. According to the soliton formation, waveguides can be formed with different shapes. Due to the slow response time of the lithium niobate, both for soliton formation and relaxation, the soliton waveguide remains memorised for a long time, of the order of months.

  7. Optical absorption in commercial single mode optical fibres for the LHC machine

    CERN Document Server

    Wijnands, T J; Kuhnhenn, J; Hoeffgen, S K; Weinand, U; TS

    2007-01-01

    The optical absorption of light at 1310 nm and 1550 nm in various commercially available Single Mode (SM) fibres samples has been studied. The absorption was measured as a function of dose, dose rate, temperature and light power. The samples were irradiated with gamma rays from a 60Co source and exposed to a complex radiation field from high energy physics. One fibre sample with an F-doped core exhibits extreme low absorption of light at 1310 nm during irradiation up to doses of at least 100 kGy.

  8. 870nm Bragg grating in single mode TOPAS microstructured polymer optical fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Wu; Webb, David J.; Kalli, Kyriacos

    2011-01-01

    We report the fabrication and characterization of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with 870 nm resonance wavelength in a single-mode TOPAS microstructured polymer optical fiber (mPOF). The grating has been UV-written with the phase-mask technique using a 325 nm HeCd laser. The static tensile strain...... sensitivity has been measured as 0.64 pm/μstrain, and the temperature sensitivity was -60 pm/°C. This is the first 870nm FBG and the first demonstration of a negative temperature response for the TOPAS FBG, for which earlier results have indicated a positive temperature response. The relatively low material...

  9. Comparison of high order modes damping techniques for 800 MHz single cell superconducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Shashkov, Ya V; Zobov, M M

    2014-01-01

    Currently, applications of 800 MHz harmonic cavities in both bunch lengthening and shortening regimes are under consideration and discussion in the framework of the High Luminosity LHC project. In this paper we study electromagnetic characteristics of high order modes (HOM) for a single cell 800 MHz superconducting cavity and arrays of such cavities connected by drifts tubes. Different techniques for the HOM damping such as beam pipe grooves, coaxial-notch loads, fluted beam pipes etc. are investigated and compared. The influence of the sizes and geometry of the drift tubes on the HOM damping is analyzed.

  10. Efficacy of IPL in treatment of acne vulgaris : Comparison of single- and burst-pulse mode in IPL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaresan M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intense pulsed light (IPL has been used for the treatment of facial acne. Modifications of various parameters allow flexibility in treatment, which include energy fluence, pulse duration, and pulse delay. We compared the efficacy of burst-pulse (multiple pulse mode with single-pulse mode in treatment of acne. Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of the IPL in treatment of facial acne and to compare burst-pulse and single-pulse mode in treatment of acne. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with facial acne were subjected to monotherapy with IPL. Baseline grading of acne was done with Michelsons acne severity index; however, right and left side of face were scored separately and a total score was also taken. IPL was administered once weekly for four sessions. Right side was subjected to IPL with burst-pulse mode, and left side was subjected to single-pulse mode. Severity score assessed after the end of treatment. Clinical photographs were also obtained for evaluation. Results: All patients revealed a reduction in number of acne for both single- and burst-pulse mode treated sides. The mean total score was 49.4 at baseline and showed 49.19% reduction after four sessions of IPL. Burst-pulse mode treated side showed a better control than that of single-pulse mode. Conclusion: IPL as a monotherapy showed beneficial effect in treatment of facial acne. Burst-pulse mode was better than the single-pulse mode in clearing acne.

  11. Single top quarks at the Tevatron and observation of the s-channel production mode

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The presentation gives an overview of single-top-quark production at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. The talk covers measurements of the total s+t channel production cross section and the extraction of the CKM matrix element |V_tb|. Furthermore, separate analyses of the s-channel and t-channel production modes are discussed. The data correspond to total integrated luminosities of up to 9.7 fb-1 per experiment and represent in most cases the full Run-II dataset. Through a combination of the CDF and D0 measurements the first observation of single-top-quark production in the s-channel is claimed. This is particularly highlighted in the seminar.

  12. Steady-state crack growth in single crystals under Mode I loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Kristian Jørgensen; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2017-01-01

    that the largest shielding effect develops in HCP crystals, while the lowest shielding exists for FCC crystals. Rate-sensitivity is found to affect the plastic zone size, but the characteristics overall remain similar for each individual crystal structure. An increasing rate-sensitivity at low crack velocities......The active plastic zone that surrounds the tip of a sharp crack growing under plane strain Mode I loading conditions at a constant velocity in a single crystal is studied. Both the characteristics of the plastic zone and its effect on the macroscopic toughness is investigated in terms of crack tip...... shielding due to plasticity (quantified by employing the Suo, Shih, and Varias set-up). Three single crystals (FCC, BCC, HCP) are modelled in a steady-state elastic visco-plastic framework, with emphasis on the influence of rate-sensitivity and crystal structures. Distinct velocity discontinuities...

  13. The whispering gallery mode biosensor: label-free detection from virus to single protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holler, S.; Dantham, V. R.; Keng, D.; Kolchenko, V.; Arnold, S.; Mulroe, Brigid; Paspaley-Grbavac, M.

    2014-08-01

    The whispering gallery mode (WGM) biosensor is a micro-optical platform capable of sensitive label-free detection of biological particles. Described by the reactive sensing principle (RSP), this analytic formulation quantifies the response of the system to the adsorption of bioparticles. Guided by the RSP, the WGM biosensor enabling from detection of virus (e.g., Human Papillomavirus, HPV) to the ultimate goal of single protein detection. The latter was derived from insights into the RSP, which resulted in the development of a hybrid plasmonic WGM biosensor, which has recently demonstrated detection of individual protein cancer markers. Enhancements from bound gold nanoparticles provide the sensitivity to detect single protein molecules (66 kDa) with good signal-to-noise (S/N > 10), and project that detection of proteins as small as 5 kDa.

  14. New Voltage-Mode All-pass Filter Topology Employing Single Current Operational Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Çiçekli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new voltage-mode all-pass filter topology based on single current operational amplifier (COA and the implementation of COA by using current conveyors are presented. The proposed topology employs three admittances and single active circuit element. COA implementation by using current conveyor blocks as sub-circuit contributes to workability of the COA employing circuits by using commercially available integrated circuits that can be employed as current conveyor. The validity of the proposed filter is verified by PSPICE simulation programme by using the MOSIS 0.35 micron CMOS process parameters. The simulation results agree well with the theoretical analysis and the circuit achieve a good total harmonic distortion (THD performance.

  15. Surface plasmon resonance in a bent single-mode fiber with a metallized cladding experimental research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyshlyuk, A. V.; Mitsai, E. V.; Cherepakhin, A. B.; Vitrik, O. B.; Kulchin, Yu. N.

    2017-08-01

    The processes of surface plasmon resonance excitation in a bent single-mode optical fiber with a metallized cladding have been studied experimentally. It is shown that, for a certain combination of the bending radius of an optical fiber and the thickness of a metal film, a strong coupling between the fundamental and plasmon-polariton mode is achieved through a whispering gallery mode supported by the fiber cladding, which leads to the formation of a resonance dip with a depth of 30 dB or more in the transmission spectrum of an optical fiber loop. The position of the dip depends strongly on the ambient refractive index, which provides the possibility of refractometric measurements with a spectral sensitivity of 5 μm/RIU and a resolution of 4 × 10-6. Limits of measurement of the refractive index are determined by the operating spectral range and the bending radius of the optical fiber and are 1.42-1.44 for the setup used.

  16. A Comparison between Boundary and Continuous Conduction Modes in Single Phase PFC Using 600V Range Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Petersen, Lars Press; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis and comparison of boundary conduction mode (BCM) and continuous conduction mode (CCM) in single phase power factor correction (PFC) applications. The comparison is based on double pulse tester (DPT) characterization results of state-of-the-art superjunction devices...

  17. On-chip coherent combining of angled-grating diode lasers toward bar-scale single-mode lasers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhao, Yunsong; Zhu, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Single mode operation of broad-area diode lasers, which is the key to obtain high power, high brightness sources, is difficult due to highly nonlinear materials and strong coupling between gain and index...

  18. Fibre optic gyroscope with single-mode fibre and loop-back phase shift compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalský, Michal; Havránek, Zdeněk.; Fialka, Jiří

    2017-12-01

    An all-fibre optical sensor of an angular velocity (fibre-optic gyroscope) based on the Sagnac interferometer and using a loop-back phase shift compensation is presented. The sensing loop consists of 760 metres of an ordinary single-mode fibre, which makes this setup cost-effective. To ensure principles of beams reciprocity, randomly induced changes of polarization in the fibre are reduced by using an unpolarized light. This is achieved by a fibre Lyot depolarizer and a super fluorescent fibre source consisting of an erbium-doped fibre pumped by a laser diode. Unlike common approaches to the unpolarized fibre-optic gyroscope with a single-mode fibre, whose output is naturally nonlinear, we use a loop-back compensation of a rotation-induced phase shift to achieve a linear response. In most cases, this technique requires fast electro-optical modulator, which is compatible only with an expensive polarization-maintaining fibre. We use a novel loop-back modulation scheme utilizing only harmonic signals and thus compatible with a piezoelectric fibre stretcher, which can be used with any kind of optical fibre. As result of the closed-loop operation, the range of the gyroscope's linearity is greatly increased and a sensitivity to source power changes is suppressed. We describe the gyroscope setup with proposed modulation method and provide a comparison to the common open-loop setup.

  19. 2.1 kW single mode continuous wave monolithic fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Garcia, Andrea; Tobioka, Hideaki; Abedin, Kazi; Dong, Hao; Várallyay, Zoltán.; Szabó, Áron; Taunay, Thierry; Sullivan, Sean; Headley, Clifford

    2015-03-01

    A robust, alignment-free monolithic 2.1 kW single-mode continuous wave fiber laser, operating at 1083 nm is demonstrated. The laser is pumped with commercial fiber pigtailed multimode diodes through all-fiber pump-signal power combiners in a MOPA architecture. The oscillator was formed with high reflector and output coupler fiber Bragg gratings written in 11/200 μm (mode field/cladding diameter) single-mode fiber. The gain medium was a 19m OFS commercial 11/200 μm double clad Yb-doped fiber (DCY). Pump light was coupled to the oscillator using two 11/200 μm pump-signal power combiners (PSC). A total of 20 commercially available 58W pump diodes at 915 nm were used to generate 800W of signal, as measured before the amplifier. The Raman power after the oscillator was more than 60 dB below the signal power. The amplifier was built using 13 m of 14/200 µm DCY and two (18+1)x1 PSC combiners with more than 95% pump and signal light transmission. A total of 2 kW of power was used to bi-directionally pump the amplifier. The output was measured after 3 m 14/200 μm fiber, and 10 m 100/360 μm delivery cable. Total signal output power was 2.1 kW, corresponding to an amplifier slope efficiency of 77%. The Raman power is more than 30 dB below the signal power. At maximum power, no modal instabilities, thermal effects, nor power rollover were observed. With higher power pumps, it is predicted that a power level of 2.6 kW can be achieved with the Raman level below 20 dB.

  20. Measurement of the Single Top Quark Production Cross Section and |Vt b| in Events with One Charged Lepton, Large Missing Transverse Energy, and Jets at CDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Butti, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Cremonesi, M.; Cruz, D.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; d'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; de Barbaro, P.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; D'Errico, M.; Devoto, F.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; Donati, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dorigo, M.; Driutti, A.; Ebina, K.; Edgar, R.; Elagin, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Esham, B.; Farrington, S.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Frisch, H.; Funakoshi, Y.; Galloni, C.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González López, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gramellini, E.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Hahn, S. R.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Harrington-Taber, T.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hocker, A.; Hong, Z.; Hopkins, W.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kambeitz, M.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Knoepfel, K.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Kruse, M.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lannon, K.; Latino, G.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limosani, A.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucà, A.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maestro, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Marchese, L.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, P.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Nigmanov, T.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Palni, P.; Papadimitriou, V.; Parker, W.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Phillips, T. J.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Pranko, A.; Prokoshin, F.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Redondo Fernández, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodriguez, T.; Rolli, S.; Ronzani, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J. L.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Sakurai, Y.; Santi, L.; Sato, K.; Saveliev, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scuri, F.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sforza, F.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber-Tecker, I.; Simonenko, A.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Song, H.; Sorin, V.; St. Denis, R.; Stancari, M.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Thom, J.; Thomson, E.; Thukral, V.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vernieri, C.; Vidal, M.; Vilar, R.; Vizán, J.; Vogel, M.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S. M.; Waters, D.; Wester, W. C.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wilbur, S.; Williams, H. H.; Wilson, J. S.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, H.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wu, Z.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamato, D.; Yang, T.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W.-M.; Yeh, G. P.; Yi, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Zanetti, A. M.; Zeng, Y.; Zhou, C.; Zucchelli, S.; CDF Collaboration

    2014-12-01

    We report a measurement of single top quark production in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of √{s }=1.96 TeV using a data set corresponding to 7.5 fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. We select events consistent with the single top quark decay process t →W b →ℓν b by requiring the presence of an electron or muon, a large imbalance of transverse momentum indicating the presence of a neutrino, and two or three jets including at least one originating from a bottom quark. An artificial neural network is used to discriminate the signal from backgrounds. We measure a single top quark production cross section of 3.0 4-0.53+0.57 pb and set a lower limit on the magnitude of the coupling between the top quark and bottom quark |Vt b|>0.78 at the 95% credibility level.

  1. Measurement of the single top quark production cross section and |Vtb| in events with one charged lepton, large missing transverse energy, and jets at CDF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Butti, P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Cremonesi, M; Cruz, D; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; D'Errico, M; Devoto, F; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; Donati, S; D'Onofrio, M; Dorigo, M; Driutti, A; Ebina, K; Edgar, R; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Esham, B; Farrington, S; Fernández Ramos, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Frisch, H; Funakoshi, Y; Galloni, C; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González López, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gramellini, E; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Hahn, S R; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Harrington-Taber, T; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hong, Z; Hopkins, W; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kambeitz, M; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S H; Kim, S B; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Knoepfel, K; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Laasanen, A T; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lannon, K; Latino, G; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Limosani, A; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Liu, H; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lucà, A; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maestro, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Marchese, L; Margaroli, F; Marino, P; Matera, K; Mattson, M E; Mazzacane, A; Mazzanti, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Noh, S Y; Norniella, O; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Palni, P; Papadimitriou, V; Parker, W; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Phillips, T J; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poprocki, S; Potamianos, K; Pranko, A; Prokoshin, F; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Redondo Fernández, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodriguez, T; Rolli, S; Ronzani, M; Roser, R; Rosner, J L; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Santi, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scuri, F; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shreyber-Tecker, I; Simonenko, A; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Song, H; Sorin, V; St Denis, R; Stancari, M; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thomson, E; Thukral, V; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vernieri, C; Vidal, M; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wilbur, S; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamato, D; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Zanetti, A M; Zeng, Y; Zhou, C; Zucchelli, S

    2014-12-31

    We report a measurement of single top quark production in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of sqrt[s]=1.96  TeV using a data set corresponding to 7.5  fb(-1) of integrated luminosity collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. We select events consistent with the single top quark decay process t→Wb→ℓνb by requiring the presence of an electron or muon, a large imbalance of transverse momentum indicating the presence of a neutrino, and two or three jets including at least one originating from a bottom quark. An artificial neural network is used to discriminate the signal from backgrounds. We measure a single top quark production cross section of 3.04(-0.53)(+0.57)  pb and set a lower limit on the magnitude of the coupling between the top quark and bottom quark |Vtb|>0.78 at the 95% credibility level.

  2. SESAM combined Kerr lens mode locked Yb:CALGO laser pumped by a 1.2 W single mode fiber coupled laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanbiao; Wang, Sha; Feng, Guoying; Zhou, Shouhuan

    2017-05-01

    In this letter, we present a passively mode locked Yb:CALGO oscillator pumped by a 1.2 W single mode fiber coupled laser diode. In semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) mode locking regime, maximum output power of 385 mW with a laser slope efficiency of 40% has been achieved. The pulse duration of the mode locked pulse is 630 fs, and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the spectrum is measured as only about 2.7 nm. By finely tuning the laser cavity, the laser starts to work in the SESAM combined Kerr lens mode locking regime. Compared with SESAM mode locking only, a maximum reduction factor of 6.33 in pulse duration has been achieved by the combined mode locking mechanism. By optimizing the group delay dispersion (GDD) inside the laser cavity, the shortest pulse duration of 70 fs and FWHM of 19.8 nm at output power of 210 mW has been realized.

  3. EFFICACY OF IPL IN TREATMENT OF ACNE VULGARIS : COMPARISON OF SINGLE- AND BURST-PULSE MODE IN IPL

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaresan M; Srinivas C

    2010-01-01

    Background: Intense pulsed light (IPL) has been used for the treatment of facial acne. Modifications of various parameters allow flexibility in treatment, which include energy fluence, pulse duration, and pulse delay. We compared the efficacy of burst-pulse (multiple pulse) mode with single-pulse mode in treatment of acne. Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of the IPL in treatment of facial acne and to compare burst-pulse and single-pulse mode in treatment of acne. Ma...

  4. Giant enhancement of the transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect through the coupling of ɛ -near-zero and surface plasmon polariton modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girón-Sedas, J. A.; Reyes Gómez, F.; Albella, Pablo; Mejía-Salazar, J. R.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate a concept for the giant enhancement of the transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect (TMOKE), with amplitudes reaching the maximum theoretical values of ±1 . The concept exploits the strong electromagnetic field localization in ɛ -near-zero metamaterials to excite surface plasmon resonances with no need of a prism or grating coupler, thus opening routes for magneto-optical devices amenable to miniaturization. A demonstration of the capability of the enhancement mechanism is presented in which giant TMOKE values can be used for sensing and biosensing.

  5. Synthesis of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement in a sequence of two single-mode squeezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Ilya A; Ulanov, Alexander E; Kurochkin, Yury V; Lvovsky, A I

    2017-01-01

    We propose and implement a new scheme of generating the optical Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled state. Parametric down-conversion in two nonlinear crystals, positioned back-to-back in the waist of a pump beam, produces single-mode squeezed vacuum states in orthogonal polarization modes; a subsequent beam splitting entangles them and generates the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state. The technique takes advantage of the strong nonlinearity associated with type-0 phase-matching configuration while, at the same time, eliminating the need for actively stabilizing the optical phase between the two single-mode squeezers. We demonstrate our method, preparing a 1.4 dB two-mode squeezed state and characterizing it via two-mode homodyne tomography.

  6. Extraction of single-trial cortical beta oscillatory activities in EEG signals using empirical mode decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Chi-Hsun

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain oscillatory activities are stochastic and non-linearly dynamic, due to their non-phase-locked nature and inter-trial variability. Non-phase-locked rhythmic signals can vary from trial-to-trial dependent upon variations in a subject's performance and state, which may be linked to fluctuations in expectation, attention, arousal, and task strategy. Therefore, a method that permits the extraction of the oscillatory signal on a single-trial basis is important for the study of subtle brain dynamics, which can be used as probes to study neurophysiology in normal brain and pathophysiology in the diseased. Methods This paper presents an empirical mode decomposition (EMD-based spatiotemporal approach to extract neural oscillatory activities from multi-channel electroencephalograph (EEG data. The efficacy of this approach manifests in extracting single-trial post-movement beta activities when performing a right index-finger lifting task. In each single trial, an EEG epoch recorded at the channel of interest (CI was first separated into a number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs. Sensorimotor-related oscillatory activities were reconstructed from sensorimotor-related IMFs chosen by a spatial map matching process. Post-movement beta activities were acquired by band-pass filtering the sensorimotor-related oscillatory activities within a trial-specific beta band. Signal envelopes of post-movement beta activities were detected using amplitude modulation (AM method to obtain post-movement beta event-related synchronization (PM-bERS. The maximum amplitude in the PM-bERS within the post-movement period was subtracted by the mean amplitude of the reference period to find the single-trial beta rebound (BR. Results The results showed single-trial BRs computed by the current method were significantly higher than those obtained from conventional average method (P Conclusions The EMD-based method is effective for artefact removal and extracting

  7. Spatiotemporal mode-locking in multimode fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Logan G.; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Wise, Frank W.

    2017-10-01

    A laser is based on the electromagnetic modes of its resonator, which provides the feedback required for oscillation. Enormous progress has been made toward controlling the interactions of longitudinal modes in lasers with a single transverse mode. For example, the field of ultrafast science has been built on lasers that lock many longitudinal modes together to form ultrashort light pulses. However, coherent superposition of longitudinal and transverse modes in a laser has received little attention. We show that modal and chromatic dispersions in fiber lasers can be counteracted by strong spatial and spectral filtering. This allows locking of multiple transverse and longitudinal modes to create ultrashort pulses with a variety of spatiotemporal profiles. Multimode fiber lasers thus open new directions in studies of nonlinear wave propagation and capabilities for applications.

  8. Micromechanisms in tension-compression fatigue of composite laminates containing transverse plies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamstedt, E.K.; Sjögren, B.A.

    1999-01-01

    to optimise fatigue resistance. In this study, glass-fibre-reinforced vinyl-ester was used. The adverse effect of compressive load excursions was verified by counting the transverse cracks in cross-ply laminates. The mechanisms were studied in low-cycle fatigue of a specimen containing a single transverse......-tension fatigue to transverse and multidirectional laminates. By analysing the debonding mechanisms and modelling thereof, the macroscopic fatigue behaviour can be better understood. Also, the dominant crack-propagation mode can be identified which may be of use in selection of constituent material properties...

  9. Scaling Fiber Lasers to Large Mode Area: An Investigation of Passive Mode-Locking Using a Multi-Mode Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Edwin; Lefrancois, Simon; Kutz, Jose Nathan; Wise, Frank W.

    2011-01-01

    The mode-locking of dissipative soliton fiber lasers using large mode area fiber supporting multiple transverse modes is studied experimentally and theoretically. The averaged mode-locking dynamics in a multi-mode fiber are studied using a distributed model. The co-propagation of multiple transverse modes is governed by a system of coupled Ginzburg–Landau equations. Simulations show that stable and robust mode-locked pulses can be produced. However, the mode-locking can be destabilized by excessive higher-order mode content. Experiments using large core step-index fiber, photonic crystal fiber, and chirally-coupled core fiber show that mode-locking can be significantly disturbed in the presence of higher-order modes, resulting in lower maximum single-pulse energies. In practice, spatial mode content must be carefully controlled to achieve full pulse energy scaling. This paper demonstrates that mode-locking performance is very sensitive to the presence of multiple waveguide modes when compared to systems such as amplifiers and continuous-wave lasers. PMID:21731106

  10. An in vitro biomechanical comparison of single-rod, dual-rod, and dual-rod with transverse connector in anterior thoracolumbar instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Chandan G; Magnetta, Michael; Dahdaleh, Nader S; Demmer, Matthew; Iyamah, Kingsley Abode; Lim, Tae-Hong; Torner, James C; Hitchon, Patrick W

    2012-04-01

    After thoracolumbar corpectomy, standard anterolateral instrumentation may consist of dual rods with cross-connectors. However, when the vertebral bodies are small or involved with disease, only 1 rod may be possible. To compare the biomechanics of an in vitro L1 corpectomy model using 1 rod, 2 rods, or 2 rods with 2 cross-connectors. Eight fresh frozen human cadaveric spines were potted from T9 to L3. Pure moments of 1.5, 3, and 4.5 Nm were applied, and the motion of the spine was measured using 3 infrared cameras. Loads were applied in flexion and extension, right and left lateral bending, and right and left axial rotation. Each spine was first tested in the intact state. After performing an L1 corpectomy and replacement with a carbon fiber reinforced polymer cage, 3 constructs were tested: single rod (1R), dual rod (2R), and dual rod with 2 transverse connectors (CC). Analysis of variance suggests significant main effects of load (P < .0001), axis (P = .022), construct (P =.0019), and individual spine (P < .0001). Overall, the single-rod construct is significantly less rigid than the intact spine in axial rotation. There is no significant difference between the intact spine and either the dual-rod construct or the dual-rod cross-connector construct. In our in vitro model of anterior spinal stabilization after corpectomy and grafting, a single-rod construct is significantly less rigid than the intact spine. Addition of a second rod returns the rigidity of the spine to the intact state. A dual-rod cross-connector construct is significantly more rigid than a single-rod construct.

  11. Twist-3 quark-gluon correlation contribution to single-transverse spin asymmetry for direct-photon and single-jet productions in pp collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, K.; Koike, Y.

    2014-01-01

    We study the contribution of the collinear twist-3 quark-gluon correlation to the single transversespin asymmetry in direct-photon and single-jet productions in pp collision. At typical RHIC kinematics we find sizable asymmetries in the forward region of the polarized nucleon while they are almost zero in the backward region. We also find the soft-fermion pole contribution is vanishingly small, suggesting the measurement of these asymmetries provides us with an unique opportunity to determine the net soft-gluon pole function.

  12. Stretching dependence of the vibration modes of a single-molecule Pt-H-2-Pt bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djukic, D.; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Untiedt, C.

    2005-01-01

    A conducting bridge of a single hydrogen molecule between Pt electrodes is formed in a break junction experiment. It has a conductance near the quantum unit, G(0)=2e(2)/h, carried by a single channel. Using point-contact spectroscopy three vibration modes are observed and their variation upon...

  13. High energy, single frequency, tunable laser source operating in burst mode for space based lidar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Alberto; Mondello, Alessia; Sapia, Adalberto; D'Ottavi, Alessandro; Brotini, Mauro; Gironi, Gianna; Suetta, Enrico

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes energetic, spatial, temporal and spectral characterization measurements of the Engineering Qualification Model (EQM) of the Laser Transmitter Assembly (TXA) used in the ALADIN instrument currently under development for the ESA ADM-AEOLUS mission (EADS Astrium as prime contractor for the satellite and the instrument). The EQM is equivalent to the Flight Model, with the exception of some engineering grade components. The Laser Transmitter Assembly, based on a diode pumped tripled Nd:YAG laser, is used to generate laser pulses at a nominal wavelength of 355 nm. This laser is operated in burst mode, with a pulse repetition cycle of 100 Hz during bursts. It is capable to operate in Single Longitudinal Mode and to be tuned over 25 GHz range. An internal "network" of sensors has been implemented inside the laser architecture to allow "in flight" monitoring of transmitter. Energy in excess of 100 mJ, with a spatial beam quality factor (M2) lower than 3, a spectral linewidth less than 50 MHz with a frequency stability better than 4 MHz on short term period have been measured on the EQM. Most of the obtained results are well within the expected values and match the Instrument requirements. They constitute an important achievement, showing the absence of major critical areas in terms of performance and the capability to obtain them in a rugged and compact structure suitable for space applications. The EQM will be submitted in the near future to an Environmental test campaign.

  14. Geometric characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states by single-mode unitary operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-10-01

    We present a geometric approach to the characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states of an arbitrary number of modes. The analysis is performed adapting to continuous variables a formalism based on single subsystem unitary transformations that has been recently introduced to characterize separability and entanglement in pure states of qubits and qutrits [S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. A 76, 042301 (2007)]. In analogy with the finite-dimensional case, we demonstrate that the 1×M bipartite entanglement of a multimode pure Gaussian state can be quantified by the minimum squared Euclidean distance between the state itself and the set of states obtained by transforming it via suitable local symplectic (unitary) operations. This minimum distance, corresponding to a , uniquely determined, extremal local operation, defines an entanglement monotone equivalent to the entropy of entanglement, and amenable to direct experimental measurement with linear optical schemes.

  15. A single-mode fiber sensor based on core-offset inter-modal interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jingli; Zhang, Jiangshan; Lu, Ping; Tian, Ming; Xu, Jun; Liu, Deming

    2014-06-01

    A single-mode fiber (SMF) sensor based on core-offset inter-modal interferometer is demonstrated. Compared with the sensing head with the two core-offset joints, the improved sensor has a special advantage that the offset direction cannot significantly affect the extinction ratio (ER) of the transmission spectrum. So the improved sensor, which is made of SMF and a very short section of multimode fiber (MMF), appears repeatable and higher extinction ratio. And the refractive index (RI) sensitivity of -64.889 nm/RIU and temperature sensitivity of 73 pm/°C, respectively can be achieved. Its ease of fabrication makes it a low cost alternative to existing sensing applications.

  16. Intrinsic pressure response of a single mode cyclo olefin polymer fiber bragg grating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Kristian Mølgaard; Woyessa, Getinet; Nielsen, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    The intrinsic pressure response of a Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) inscribed in a single-mode cyclo olefin polymer (COP) microstructured polymer optical fibre (mPOF) in the range 0-200 bar is investigated for the first time. In order to efficiently suppress the effects from changes in temperature.......982 ± 0.002 pm/bar. The corresponding fractional sensitivity is found to be 34.5·10-6 MPa-1 which is of the same order of magnitude as the results obtained for a multimode PMMA mPOF-FBG at 1562 nm previously reported in the literature. The resulting pressure resolution of our sensor is estimated to be 2...

  17. Compact two-photon fluorescence microscope based on a single-mode fiber coupler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Damian; Gu, Min

    2002-06-15

    We present a two-photon fluorescence microscope based on a three-port single-mode optical fiber coupler. It is found that the coupler behaves as a low-pass filter that can deliver an ultrashort-pulsed laser beam of as much as 150 mW of power in the wavelength range from 770 to 870 nm as well as collect a two-photon fluorescence signal in the visible range. As a result of using the fiber coupler, the new two-photon imaging system exhibts a number of advantages, including a compact arrangement, freedom from vibration from lasers and electronic devices, self-alignment, reduction of multiple scattering, and an enhanced optical sectioning effect. The effectiveness of the new instrument is demonstrated with a set of three-dimensional images of biological samples. This instrument may make two-photon fluorescence endoscopy possible for in vivo medical applications.

  18. An Integrated Photoluminescence Sensing Platform Using a Single-Multi-Mode Fiber Coupler-Based Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Long

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate an integrated fiber optic photoluminescence sensing platform using a novel single-multi-mode fiber coupler (SMFC-based probe with high collection efficiency for fluorescence signals. The SMFC, prepared using fused biconical taper technology, not only transmits excitation light, but also collects and transmits fluorescence. The entire system does not use complex optical components and rarely requires optical alignment. The simple structure of the SMFC considerably improves the light transmission efficiency, signal-to-noise ratio, and sensitivity of the system. Theoretical and experimental results show that the proposed probe increases the collection efficiency by more than eight-fold compared with a bifurcated fiber probe. The performance of the proposed probe was experimentally evaluated by measuring the fluorescence spectra of well-known targets and a fresh Tall Fescue leaf.

  19. An integrated photoluminescence sensing platform using a single-multi-mode fiber coupler-based probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Feng; Zhu, Anna; Shi, Hanchang

    2014-03-21

    We demonstrate an integrated fiber optic photoluminescence sensing platform using a novel single-multi-mode fiber coupler (SMFC)-based probe with high collection efficiency for fluorescence signals. The SMFC, prepared using fused biconical taper technology, not only transmits excitation light, but also collects and transmits fluorescence. The entire system does not use complex optical components and rarely requires optical alignment. The simple structure of the SMFC considerably improves the light transmission efficiency, signal-to-noise ratio, and sensitivity of the system. Theoretical and experimental results show that the proposed probe increases the collection efficiency by more than eight-fold compared with a bifurcated fiber probe. The performance of the proposed probe was experimentally evaluated by measuring the fluorescence spectra of well-known targets and a fresh Tall Fescue leaf.

  20. Single-mode D-type Surface Plasmon Resonance Optical Fiber Sensor: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hung Chiu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The review paper of D-type optical fiber sensor (OFS based on surface plasmon resonance principle is presented. The OFS is made of a single-mode or multimode optical fiber which was polished as a D-shape fiber and coated with an Au-film on its plane surface. The test medium could be liquid or gas and directly contacted with the sensing surface of the sensor. There are three measurement methods in this paper, such as, the phase, intensity, and relative spectrum methods. The best resolution of the refractive index measurement in these three methods is in the region of 10-5 ~ 10-6 (RIU: refractive index unit.

  1. Optical Absorption in Commercial Single Mode Optical Fibers in a High Energy Physics Radiation Field

    CERN Document Server

    Wijnands, T; Kuhnhenn, J; Hoeffgen, S K; Weinand, U

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the radiation induced attenuation of light at 1310 nm and 1550 nm in 12 commercially available single mode (SM) optical fibers. The fiber samples are exposed to gamma rays from a 60Co source and to a high energy physics radiation field. The attenuation is studied as a function of total dose, dose rate, light power and temperature. Radiation hard fibers from one manufacturer show an extraordinary low attenuation for light at 1310 nm that does not exceed 5 dB/km even after a total dose of 1 MGy. 2500 km of this type of fiber have been produced by the manufacturer and quality assurance measurements of the production batches are presently ongoing.

  2. Single mode GaSb diode lasers for sensor applications in a long wavelength regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milde, Tobias; Assmann, Christian; Jimenez, Alvaro; Honsberg, Martin; O'Gorman, James; Schade, Wolfgang; Sacher, Joachim

    2017-11-01

    The wavelength, λ, range of 1.8  μm≤λ≤3.5  μm contains strong spectral absorption lines of many gases used in health, industry, safety, and medicine and whose sensitive and quantitative detection is desirable. However, the performance of InP diode lasers markedly deteriorates beyond λ∼2  μm. In this paper we present new results on developing tunable high power single mode laser diodes based on the GaSb material system with emission in the wavelength range of 1.8  μm≤λ≤2.2  μm.

  3. Interpreting Adaptation to Concurrent Compared with Single-Mode Exercise Training: Some Methodological Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Jackson J; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2018-02-01

    Incorporating both endurance and resistance training into an exercise regime is termed concurrent training. While there is evidence that concurrent training can attenuate resistance training-induced improvements in maximal strength and muscle hypertrophy, research findings are often equivocal, with some suggesting short-term concurrent training may instead further enhance muscle hypertrophy versus resistance training alone. These observations have questioned the validity of the purported 'interference effect' on muscle hypertrophy with concurrent versus single-mode resistance training. This article aims to highlight some methodological considerations when interpreting the concurrent training literature, and, in particular, the degree of changes in strength and muscle hypertrophy observed with concurrent versus single-mode resistance training. Individual training status clearly influences the relative magnitude and specificity of both training adaptation and post-exercise molecular responses in skeletal muscle. The training status of participants is therefore likely a key modulator of the degree of adaptation and interference seen with concurrent training interventions. The divergent magnitudes of strength gain versus muscle hypertrophy induced by resistance training also suggests most concurrent training studies are likely to observe more substantial changes in (and in turn, any potential interference to) strength compared with muscle hypertrophy. Both the specificity and sensitivity of measures used to assess training-induced changes in strength and muscle hypertrophy also likely influence the interpretation of concurrent training outcomes. Finally, the relative importance of any modulation of hypertrophic versus strength adaptation with concurrent training should be considered in context with the relevance of training-induced changes in these variables for enhancing athletic performance and/or functional capacity. Taken together, these observations suggest that

  4. Interferometric measurement of refractive index modification in a single mode microfiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Farid; Ahsani, Vahid; Jun, Martin B. G.

    2017-02-01

    Efficient and cost effective measurement of the refractive index profile in an optical fiber is a significant technical job to design and manufacture in-fiber photonic devices and communication systems. For instance, to design fiber gratings, it is required to estimate the refractive index modulation to be inscribed by the fabrication apparatus such as ultraviolet or infrared lasers. Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) based quantification of refractive index change written in single mode microfiber by femtosecond laser radiation is presented in this study. The MZI is constructed by splicing a microfiber (core diameter: 3.75 μm, cladding diameter: 40 μm) between standard single mode fibers. To measure the RI inscribed by infrared femtosecond laser, 200 μm length of the core within the MZI was scanned with laser radiation. As the higher index was written within 200 μm length of the core, the transmission spectrum of the interferometer displayed a corresponding red shift. The observed spectral shift was used to calculate the amount of refractive index change inscribed by the femtosecond irradiation. For the MZI length of 3.25 mm, and spectral shift of 0.8 nm, the calculated refractive index was found to be 0.00022. The reported results display excellent agreement between theory and experimental findings. Demonstrated method provides simple yet very effective on-site measurement of index change in optical fibers. Since the MZI can be constructed in diverse fiber types, this technique offers flexibility to quantify index change in various optical fibers.

  5. Coupling single NV-centres to high-Q whispering gallery modes of a preselected frequency-matched microresonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schietinger, Stefan; Benson, Oliver [Nano-Optics, Institute of Physics, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, D-10117 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: schietinger@physik.hu-berlin.de

    2009-06-14

    In this paper, we report the controlled coupling of fluorescence from a single NV-centre in a single nanodiamond to the high-Q modes of a preselected microsphere. Microspheres from an ensemble with a finite size distribution can be characterized precisely via white light Mie-scattering. The mode spectrum of individual spheres can be determined with high precision. A sphere with an appropriate spectrum can be selected, and a nanodiamond containing a single NV-centre can be coupled to it. The spectral position of the calculated lowest order whispering gallery modes are found to be in very good agreement with the experimentally observed resonances of the coupled fluorescence from the single NV-re.

  6. Design and Characterization of 64K Pixels Chips Working in Single Photon Processing Mode

    CERN Document Server

    Llopart Cudie, Xavier; Campbell, M

    2007-01-01

    Progress in CMOS technology and in fine pitch bump bonding has made possible the development of high granularity single photon counting detectors for X-ray imaging. This thesis studies the design and characterization of three pulse processing chips with 65536 square pixels of 55 µm x 55 µm designed in a commercial 0.25 µm 6-metal CMOS technology. The 3 chips share the same architecture and dimensions and are named Medipix2, Mpix2MXR20 and Timepix. The Medipix2 chip is a pixel detector readout chip consisting of 256 x 256 identical elements, each working in single photon counting mode for positive or negative input charge signals. The preamplifier feedback provides compensation for detector leakage current on a pixel by pixel basis. Two identical pulse height discriminators are used to define an energy window. Every event falling inside the energy window is counted with a 13 bit pseudo-random counter. The counter logic, based in a shift register, also behaves as the input/output register for the pixel. Each...

  7. New method for path-length equalization of long single-mode fibers for interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M.; Monnier, J. D.; Ozdowy, K.; Woillez, J.; Perrin, G.

    2014-07-01

    The ability to use single mode (SM) fibers for beam transport in optical interferometry offers practical advantages over conventional long vacuum pipes. One challenge facing fiber transport is maintaining constant differential path length in an environment where environmental thermal variations can lead to cm-level variations from day to night. We have fabricated three composite cables of length 470 m, each containing 4 copper wires and 3 SM fibers that operate at the astronomical H band (1500-1800 nm). Multiple fibers allow us to test performance of a circular core fiber (SMF28), a panda-style polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber, and a lastly a specialty dispersion-compensated PM fiber. We will present experimental results using precision electrical resistance measurements of the of a composite cable beam transport system. We find that the application of 1200 W over a 470 m cable causes the optical path difference in air to change by 75 mm (+/- 2 mm) and the resistance to change from 5.36 to 5.50Ω. Additionally, we show control of the dispersion of 470 m of fiber in a single polarization using white light interference fringes (λc=1575 nm, Δλ=75 nm) using our method.

  8. Mode I fracture toughness analysis of a single-layer grapheme sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ky, Minh Nguyen; Yum, Young Jin [University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    To predict the fracture toughness of a single-layer graphene sheet (SLGS), analytical formulations were devised for the hexagonal honeycomb lattice using a linkage equivalent discrete frame structure. Broken bonds were identified by a sharp increase in the position of the atoms. As crack propagation progressed, the crack tip position and crack path were updated from broken bonds in the molecular dynamics (MD) model. At each step in the simulation, the atomic model was centered on the crack tip to adaptively follow its path. A new formula was derived analytically from the deformation and bending mechanism of solid-state carbon-carbon bonds so as to describe the mode I fracture of SLGS. The fracture toughness of single-layer graphene is governed by a competition between bond breaking and bond rotation at a crack tip. K-field based displacements were applied on the boundary of the micromechanical model, and FEM results were obtained and compared with theoretical findings. The critical stress intensity factor for a graphene sheet was found to be K{sub IC} = 2.63 ∼ 3.2 MPa√m for the case of a zigzag crack.

  9. Performance of Single Electrode-Supported Cells Operating in the Electrolysis Mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. E. O' Brien; G. K. Housley; D. G. Milobar

    2009-11-01

    An experimental study is under way to assess the performance of electrode-supported solid-oxide cells operating in the steam electrolysis mode for hydrogen production over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. Results presented in this paper were obtained from single cells, with an active area of 16 cm2 per cell. The electrolysis cells are electrode-supported, with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes (~10 µm thick), nickel-YSZ steam/hydrogen electrodes (~1400 µm thick), and manganite (LSM) air-side electrodes. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 – 0.6), gas flow rates, and current densities (0 to 0.6 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. On a molar basis, the steam consumption rate is equal to the hydrogen production rate. Cell performance was evaluated by performing DC potential sweeps at 800, 850, and 900°C. The voltage-current characteristics are presented, along with values of area-specific resistance as a function of current density. Long-term cell performance is also assessed to evaluate cell degradation. Details of the custom single-cell test apparatus developed for these experiments are also presented.

  10. Geiger-mode APD camera system for single-photon 3D LADAR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, Mark; Itzler, Mark A.; Chen, Jim; Owens, Mark; Patel, Ketan; Jiang, Xudong; Slomkowski, Krystyna; Rangwala, Sabbir

    2012-06-01

    The unparalleled sensitivity of 3D LADAR imaging sensors based on single photon detection provides substantial benefits for imaging at long stand-off distances and minimizing laser pulse energy requirements. To obtain 3D LADAR images with single photon sensitivity, we have demonstrated focal plane arrays (FPAs) based on InGaAsP Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GmAPDs) optimized for use at either 1.06 μm or 1.55 μm. These state-of-the-art FPAs exhibit excellent pixel-level performance and the capability for 100% pixel yield on a 32 x 32 format. To realize the full potential of these FPAs, we have recently developed an integrated camera system providing turnkey operation based on FPGA control. This system implementation enables the extremely high frame-rate capability of the GmAPD FPA, and frame rates in excess of 250 kHz (for 0.4 μs range gates) can be accommodated using an industry-standard CameraLink interface in full configuration. Real-time data streaming for continuous acquisition of 2 μs range gate point cloud data with 13-bit time-stamp resolution at 186 kHz frame rates has been established using multiple solid-state storage drives. Range gate durations spanning 4 ns to 10 μs provide broad operational flexibility. The camera also provides real-time signal processing in the form of multi-frame gray-scale contrast images and single-frame time-stamp histograms, and automated bias control has been implemented to maintain a constant photon detection efficiency in the presence of ambient temperature changes. A comprehensive graphical user interface has been developed to provide complete camera control using a simple serial command set, and this command set supports highly flexible end-user customization.

  11. Fluorescence measurement by a streak camera in a single-photon-counting mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komura, Masayuki; Itoh, Shigeru

    2009-01-01

    We describe here a recently developed fluorescence measurement system that uses a streak camera to detect fluorescence decay in a single photon-counting mode. This system allows for easy measurements of various samples and provides 2D images of fluorescence in the wavelength and time domains. The great advantage of the system is that the data can be handled with ease; furthermore, the data are amenable to detailed analysis. We describe the picosecond kinetics of fluorescence in spinach Photosystem (PS) II particles at 4-77 K as a typical experimental example. Through the global analysis of the data, we have identified a new fluorescence band (F689) in addition to the already established F680, F685, and F695 emission bands. The blue shift of the steady-state fluorescence spectrum upon cooling below 77 K can be interpreted as an increase of the shorter-wavelength fluorescence, especially F689, due to the slowdown of the excitation energy transfer process. The F685 and F695 bands seem to be thermally equilibrated at 77 K but not at 4 K. The simple and efficient photon accumulation feature of the system allows us to measure fluorescence from leaves, solutions, single colonies, and even single cells. The 2D fluorescence images obtained by this system are presented for isolated spinach PS II particles, intact leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana, the PS I super-complex of a marine centric diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis, isolated membranes of a purple photosynthetic bacterium, Acidiphilium rubrum, which contains Zn-BChl a, and a coral that contains a green fluorescent protein and an algal endosymbiont, Zooxanthella.

  12. Bone fracture characterization under mixed-mode I+II loading using the single leg bending test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, F A M; de Moura, M F S F; Dourado, N; Morais, J J L; Dias, M I R

    2014-11-01

    Fracture under mixed-mode I+II was induced in bovine cortical bone tissue using a developed miniaturized version of the single leg bending test (SLB). Due to the difficulty in crack length monitoring in the course of the test, an equivalent crack method based on specimen compliance and beam theory was adopted as a data reduction scheme. The method was applied to the experimental results in order to obtain the Resistance curves in each loading mode. The determined fracture energy is well described by an energetic power law whose exponent is below one, which means that the linear energetic criterion is not applicable to this material. The proposed procedure was numerically validated by means of a cohesive mixed-mode I+II damage model with bilinear softening. It was concluded that the miniaturized version of the SLB test is adequate for mixed-mode I+II fracture characterization of bone for a constant mode ratio.

  13. Single mode wavelength control of modulated AlGaAs lasers with external and internal etalon feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, William L.

    1989-01-01

    Single mode lasing without mode hops has been obtained for VSIS and CSP laser diodes with an external etalon attached to the laser's front facet for up to an 8 C range CW and a 4 C range pulsed, with .07 nm/C tuning. Tests of thin tapered-thickness (TTT) laser diodes show CW and pulsed single mode lasing over 10 C and 2 C ranges, respectively, with .08 nm/C tuning. An analysis of the TTT structure reveals the equivalent of an internal etalon. The time-resolved pulsed behavior for both types of lasers show single mode lasing within the proper temperature ranges with minor modes present only early in the optical pulse, if at all. The external etalon produces noticeable interference fringes in the farfield pattern, while those of the TTT lasers are smooth. Ongoing CW lifetest results indicate stability to within one longitudinal mode after a few hundred hours of operation, along with at least several thousand hours lifetime.

  14. High-power single spatial mode AlGaAs channeled-substrate-planar semiconductor diode lasers for spaceborne communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, J. C.; Carlin, D. B.; Ettenberg, M.

    1989-01-01

    A high power single spatial mode channeled substrate planar AlGaAs semiconductor diode laser was developed. The emission wavelength was optimized at 860 to 880 nm. The operating characteristics (power current, single spatial mode behavior, far field radiation patterns, and spectral behavior) and results of computer modeling studies on the performance of the laser are discussed. Reliability assessment at high output levels is included. Performance results on a new type of channeled substrate planar diode laser incorporating current blocking layers, grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, to more effectively focus the operational current to the lasing region was demonstrated. The optoelectronic behavior and fabrication procedures for this new diode laser are discussed. The highlights include single spatial mode devices with up to 160 mW output at 8600 A, and quantum efficiencies of 70 percent (1 W/amp) with demonstrated operating lifetimes of 10,000 h at 50 mW.

  15. Transverse single-spin asymmetries in p↑p →γ X from quark-gluon-quark correlations in the proton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, K.; Koike, Y.; Metz, A.; Pitonyak, D.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the transverse single-spin asymmetry in direct photon production from proton-proton collisions, denoted ANγ, within collinear twist-3 factorization. We provide a calculation of the contribution due to quark-gluon-quark correlations in the unpolarized proton as well as summarize previous studies on those effects in the polarized proton. Both soft-gluon poles and soft-fermion poles are considered. From this complete result we then estimate ANγ, including error bands due to uncertainties in the nonperturbative inputs, at kinematics relevant for planned measurements of this observable at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. We find ANγ can allow for a "clean" extraction of the Qiu-Sterman function, which could lead to a definitive solution to the so-called "sign-mismatch" crisis. Since we use the Sivers function extracted from semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering to develop our input for the Qiu-Sterman function, this reaction can also make a statement about the process dependence of the Sivers function.

  16. Non-Markovian dynamics of single- and two-qubit systems interacting with Gaussian and non-Gaussian fluctuating transverse environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Matteo A. C.; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2016-01-01

    We address the interaction of single- and two-qubit systems with an external transverse fluctuating field and analyze in detail the dynamical decoherence induced by Gaussian noise and random telegraph noise (RTN). Upon exploiting the exact RTN solution of the time-dependent von Neumann equation, we analyze in detail the behavior of quantum correlations and prove the non-Markovianity of the dynamical map in the full parameter range, i.e., for either fast or slow noise. The dynamics induced by Gaussian noise is studied numerically and compared to the RTN solution, showing the existence of (state dependent) regions of the parameter space where the two noises lead to very similar dynamics. We show that the effects of RTN noise and of Gaussian noise are different, i.e., the spectrum alone is not enough to summarize the noise effects, but the dynamics under the effect of one kind of noise may be simulated with high fidelity by the other one.

  17. Electro-opto-mechanical radio-frequency oscillator driven by guided acoustic waves in standard single-mode fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef London

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An opto-electronic radio-frequency oscillator that is based on forward scattering by the guided acoustic modes of a standard single-mode optical fiber is proposed and demonstrated. An optical pump wave is used to stimulate narrowband, resonant guided acoustic modes, which introduce phase modulation to a co-propagating optical probe wave. The phase modulation is converted to an intensity signal at the output of a Sagnac interferometer loop. The intensity waveform is detected, amplified, and driven back to modulate the optical pump. Oscillations are achieved at a frequency of 319 MHz, which matches the resonance of the acoustic mode that provides the largest phase modulation of the probe wave. Oscillations at the frequencies of competing acoustic modes are suppressed by at least 40 dB. The linewidth of the acoustic resonance is sufficiently narrow to provide oscillations at a single longitudinal mode of the hybrid cavity. Competing longitudinal modes are suppressed by at least 38 dB as well. Unlike other opto-electronic oscillators, no radio-frequency filtering is required within the hybrid cavity. The frequency of oscillations is entirely determined by the fiber opto-mechanics.

  18. Load bearing capacity, fracture mode, and wear performance of digitally veneered full-ceramic single crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Oliver; Nold, Ephraim; Obermeier, Matthias; Erdelt, Kurt; Stimmelmayr, Michael; Beuer, Florian

    Computer-aided technologies can help to minimize clinical complications of zirconia-based restorations such as veneering porcelain fractures. The aim of this study was to evaluate different veneering approaches for zirconia single crowns regarding contact wear, fracture strength, and failure mode. Six different types of computer-aided design (CAD) crowns were manufactured and conventionally cemented on 10 metal dies each: three groups with a zirconia framework and a CAD/CAM-fabricated veneering cap ("digital veneering system": DVS, CAD-on, Infix CAD), zirconia-based crowns with pressed veneering caps (Infix Press), zirconia framework containing the dentin layer with only the incisal enamel material added (dentin-core), and conventional substructure with powder buildup veneering porcelain (layering technique). All specimens were submitted to artificial aging (120,000 mechanical cycles, 50 N load, 0.7-mm sliding movement, 320 thermocycles). After contact wear was measured with a laser scanning system, fracture resistance and failure mode were examined using a universal testing machine and a scanning electron microscope. Statistical analysis was performed at a significance level of 5%. No statistical difference was revealed regarding the contact wear of the restorations (P = 0.171; ANOVA). No significant difference was found regarding the fracture resistance of the crowns (P = 0.112; ANOVA). Failure analysis revealed three different failure patterns: cohesive veneering fracture, adhesive delamination, and total fracture, with a characteristic distribution between the groups. All tested specimens survived artificial aging and exhibited clinically acceptable wear resistance and fracture resistance. Digital veneering techniques offer a promising, time- and cost-effective manufacturing process for all-ceramic restorations and may usefully complement the digital workflow.

  19. Single-mode temperature and polarisation-stable high-speed 850nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazaruk, D. E.; Blokhin, S. A.; Maleev, N. A.; Bobrov, M. A.; Kuzmenkov, A. G.; Vasil'ev, A. P.; Gladyshev, A. G.; Pavlov, M. M.; Blokhin, A. A.; Kulagina, M. M.; Vashanova, K. A.; Zadiranov, Yu M.; Fefelov, A. G.; Ustinov, V. M.

    2014-12-01

    A new intracavity-contacted design to realize temperature and polarization-stable high-speed single-mode 850 nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) grown by molecular-beam epitaxy is proposed. Temperature dependences of static and dynamic characteristics of the 4.5 pm oxide aperture InGaAlAs VCSEL were investigated in detail. Due to optimal gain-cavity detuning and enhanced carrier localization in the active region the threshold current remains below 0.75 mA for the temperature range within 20-90°C, while the output power exceeds 1 mW up to 90°C. Single-mode operation with side-mode suppression ratio higher than 30 dB and orthogonal polarization suppression ratio more than 18 dB was obtained in the whole current and temperature operation range. Device demonstrates serial resistance less than 250 Ohm, which is rather low for any type of single-mode short- wavelength VCSELs. VCSEL demonstrates temperature robust high-speed operation with modulation bandwidth higher than 13 GHz in the entire temperature range of 20-90°C. Despite high resonance frequency the high-speed performance of developed VCSELs was limited by the cut-off frequency of the parasitic low pass filter created by device resistances and capacitances. The proposed design is promising for single-mode high-speed VCSEL applications in a wide spectral range.

  20. Large ion Coulomb crystals: A near-ideal medium for coupling optical cavity modes to matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantan, Aurélien; Albert, Magnus; Marler, Joan

    2009-01-01

    We present an investigation of the coherent coupling of various transverse field modes of an optical cavity to ion Coulomb crystals. The obtained experimental results, which include the demonstration of identical collective coupling rates for different transverse modes of a cavity field to ions...... in the same large Coulomb crystal, are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. The results furthermore suggest that Coulomb crystals in the future may serve as near-ideal media for high-fidelity multimode quantum information processing and communication purposes, including the generation...... and storage of single-photon qubits encoded in different transverse modes....

  1. Highly Tm3+ doped germanate glass and its single mode fiber for 2.0 μm laser

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Wen; Guowu Tang; Qi Yang; Xiaodong Chen; Qi Qian; Qinyuan Zhang; Zhongmin Yang

    2016-01-01

    Highly Tm3+ doped optical fibers are urgently desirable for 2.0??m compact single-frequency fiber laser and high-repetition-rate mode-locked fiber laser. Here, we systematically investigated the optical parameters, energy transfer processes and thermal properties of Tm3+ doped barium gallo-germanate (BGG) glasses. Highly Tm3+ doped BGG glass single mode (SM) fibers were fabricated by the rod-in-tube technique. The Tm3+ doping concentration reaches 7.6???1020 ions/cm3, being the reported highe...

  2. Single-mode solid-state polymer dye laser fabricated with standard I-line UV lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Søren; Mironov, Andrej; Nilsson, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    We present single-mode solid-state polymer dye lasers fabricated with standard UV lithography. The lasers use a high-order Bragg grating and rely on index-tuning of a photosensitive polymer for waveguiding. The gain medium is Rhodamine 6G.......We present single-mode solid-state polymer dye lasers fabricated with standard UV lithography. The lasers use a high-order Bragg grating and rely on index-tuning of a photosensitive polymer for waveguiding. The gain medium is Rhodamine 6G....

  3. Single mode step-index polymer optical fiber for humidity insensitive high temperature fiber Bragg grating sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Woyessa, Getinet; Fasano, Andrea; Stefani, Alessio; Markos, Christos; Nielsen, Kristian; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Bang, Ole

    2016-01-01

    We have fabricated the first single-mode step-index and humidity insensitive polymer optical fiber operating in the 850 nm wavelength ranges. The step-index preform is fabricated using injection molding, which is an efficient method for cost effective, flexible and fast preparation of the fiber preform. The fabricated single-mode step-index (SI) polymer optical fiber (POF) has a 4.8µm core made from TOPAS grade 5013S-04 with a glass transition temperature of 134°C and a 150 µm cladding made f...

  4. A Novel Technique for Sterilization Using a Power Self-Regulated Single-Mode Microwave Cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverte-Ors, Juan D; Pedreño-Molina, Juan L; Fernández, Pablo S; Lozano-Guerrero, Antonio J; Periago, Paula M; Díaz-Morcillo, Alejandro

    2017-06-07

    In this paper, a novel technique to achieve precise temperatures in food sterilization has been proposed. An accurate temperature profile is needed in order to reach a commitment between the total removal of pathogens inside the product and the preservation of nutritional and organoleptic characteristics. The minimal variation of the target temperature in the sample by means of a monitoring and control software platform, allowing temperature stabilization over 100 °C, is the main goal of this work. A cylindrical microwave oven, under pressure conditions and continuous control of the microwave supply power as function of the final temperature inside the sample, has been designed and developed with conditions of single-mode resonance. The uniform heating in the product is achieved by means of sample movement and the self-regulated power control using the measured temperature. Finally, for testing the sterilization of food with this technology, specific biological validation based on Bacillus cereus as a biosensor of heat inactivation has been incorporated as a distribution along the sample in the experimental process to measure the colony-forming units (CFUs) for different food samples (laboratory medium, soup, or fish-based animal by-products). The obtained results allow the validation of this new technology for food sterilization with precise control of the microwave system to ensure the uniform elimination of pathogens using high temperatures.

  5. Single-mode, All-Solid-State Nd:YAG Laser Pumped UV Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Armstrong, Darrell, J.; Edwards, William C.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the status of a high-energy, all solid-state Nd:YAG laser pumped nonlinear optics based UV converter development is discussed. The high-energy UV transmitter technology is being developed for ozone sensing applications from space based platforms using differential lidar technique. The goal is to generate greater than 200 mJ/pulse with 10-50 Hz PRF at wavelengths of 308 nm and 320 nm. A diode-pumped, all-solid-state and single longitudinal mode Nd:YAG laser designed to provide conductively cooled operation at 1064 nm has been built and tested. Currently, this pump laser provides an output pulse energy of >1 J/pulse at 50 Hz PRF and a pulsewidth of 22 ns with an electrical-to-optical system efficiency of greater than 7% and a M(sup 2) value of UV converter arrangement basically consists of an IR Optical Parametric Oscillator (OPO) and a Sum Frequency Generator (SFG) setups that are pumped by 532 nm wavelength obtained via Second Harmonic Generation (SHG). In this paper, the operation of an inter cavity SFG with CW laser seeding scheme generating 320 nm wavelength is presented. Efforts are underway to improve conversion efficiency of this mJ class UV converter by modifying the spatial beam profile of the pump laser.

  6. Capacitive deionization of arsenic-contaminated groundwater in a single-pass mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chen-Shiuan; Liou, Sofia Ya Hsuan; Hou, Chia-Hung

    2017-10-01

    A single-pass-mode capacitive deionization (CDI) reactor was used to remove arsenic from groundwater in the presence of multiple ions. The CDI reactor involved an applied voltage of 1.2 V and six cell pairs of activated carbon electrodes, each of which was 20 × 30 cm2. The results indicate that this method achieved an effluent arsenic concentration of 0.03 mg L-1, which is lower than the arsenic concentration standard for drinking water and irrigation sources in Taiwan, during the charging stage. Additionally, the ability of the CDI to remove other coexisting ions was studied. The presence of other ions has a significant influence on the removal of arsenic from groundwater. From the analysis of the electrosorption selectivity, the preference for anion removal could be ordered as follows: NO3- > SO42- > F- > Cl- >As. The electrosorption selectivity for cations could be ordered as follows: Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Na+ ∼ K+. Moreover, monovalent cations can be replaced by divalent cations at the electrode surface in the later period of the electrosorption stage. Consequently, activated carbon-based capacitive deionization is demonstrated to be a high-potential technology for remediation of arsenic-contaminated groundwater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Novel Technique for Sterilization Using a Power Self-Regulated Single-Mode Microwave Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D. Reverte-Ors

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel technique to achieve precise temperatures in food sterilization has been proposed. An accurate temperature profile is needed in order to reach a commitment between the total removal of pathogens inside the product and the preservation of nutritional and organoleptic characteristics. The minimal variation of the target temperature in the sample by means of a monitoring and control software platform, allowing temperature stabilization over 100 °C, is the main goal of this work. A cylindrical microwave oven, under pressure conditions and continuous control of the microwave supply power as function of the final temperature inside the sample, has been designed and developed with conditions of single-mode resonance. The uniform heating in the product is achieved by means of sample movement and the self-regulated power control using the measured temperature. Finally, for testing the sterilization of food with this technology, specific biological validation based on Bacillus cereus as a biosensor of heat inactivation has been incorporated as a distribution along the sample in the experimental process to measure the colony-forming units (CFUs for different food samples (laboratory medium, soup, or fish-based animal by-products. The obtained results allow the validation of this new technology for food sterilization with precise control of the microwave system to ensure the uniform elimination of pathogens using high temperatures.

  8. Performance and future developments of the RHEA single-mode spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Joao; Feger, Tobias; Ireland, Michael J.; Rains, Adam; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Coutts, David W.; Schwab, Christian; Arriola, Alexander; Gross, Simon

    2016-08-01

    The Replicable High-resolution Exoplanet and Asteroseismology (RHEA) spectrograph is being developed to serve as a basis for multiple copies across a network of small robotic telescopes. The spectrograph operates at the diffraction-limit by using a single-mode fiber input, resulting in a compact and modal-noise-free unit. The optical design is mainly based on off-the-shelf available components and comprises a near-Littrow configuration with prism cross-disperser. The échelle format covers a wavelength range of 430-650 nm at R=75,000 resolving power. In this paper we briefly summarize the current status of the instrument and present preliminary results from the first on-sky demonstration of the prototype using a fully automated 16" telescope, where we observe stable and semi-variable stars up to V=3.5 magnitude. Future steps to enhance the efficiency and passive stability of RHEA are discussed in detail. For example, we show the concept of using a multi-fiber injection unit, akin to a photonic lantern, which not only enables increased throughput but also offers simultaneous wavelength calibration.

  9. Transverse single-spin asymmetries from p↑ + p → jet + X and p↑ + p → jet + π± + X at √s = 500 GeV at RHIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drachenberg J.L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current extractions of Sivers and transversity functions come from measurements of transverse single-spin asymmetries (SSA from SIDIS and fragmentation functions from lepton-lepton scattering. The limited kinematic reach leaves sizable uncertainty in model predictions. One way to extend knowledge to higher kinematics is through jet production from high-energy polarized-proton collisions. The STAR detector at RHIC has observed hints of non-zero SSA's for the Collins effect from p↑ + p → jet + π± + X at 0 < η < 1 and √s = 200 GeV. Extending transverse SSA measurements for the first time to mid-rapidity jet production at 500 GeV allows one to examine the Sivers and Collins effects for a different mix of partonic subprocesses. Moreover, the increased gluon participation allows a more favorable examination of the gluon Collins-like effect. Progress toward these first measurements will be shown.

  10. 978-nm square-wave in an all-fiber single-mode ytterbium-doped fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shujie; Xu, Lixin; Gu, Chun

    2018-01-01

    A 978 nm single mode passively mode-locked all-fiber laser delivering square-wave pulses was demonstrated using a figure-8 cavity and a 75 cm commercial double-clad ytterbium-doped fiber. We found the three-level system near 978 nm was able to operate efficiently under clad pumping, simultaneously oscillation around 1030 nm well inhibited. The optimized nonlinear amplifying loop mirror made the mode locking stable and performed the square-pulses shaping. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time to report the square-wave pulse fiber laser operating at 980 nm. The spectral width of the 978 mode-locked square pulses was about 4 nm, far greater than that of the mode-locked square pulses around 1060 nm reported before, which would be helpful to deeply understand the various square-wave pulses' natures and forming mechanisms. Compared with modulated single-mode or multimode 980 nm LDs, this kind of 980 nm square-wave sources having higher brightness, more steeper rising and falling edge and shorter pulse width, might have potential applications in pumping nanosecond ytterbium or erbium fiber lasers and amplifiers.

  11. Reliability, failure modes, and degradation mechanisms in high power single- and multi-mode InGaAs-AlGaAs strained quantum well lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Yongkun; Presser, Nathan; Lingley, Zachary; Brodie, Miles; Foran, Brendan; Moss, Steven C.

    2016-03-01

    High power single-mode (SM) and multi-mode (MM) InGaAs-AlGaAs strained quantum well (QW) lasers are critical components for both telecommunications and potential space satellite communications systems. However, little has been reported on failure modes of state-of-the-art SM InGaAs-AlGaAs strained QW lasers although it is crucial to understand failure modes and underlying degradation mechanisms in developing these lasers that meet lifetime requirements for space satellite systems, where extremely high reliability of these lasers is required. Our present study addresses the aforementioned issues by performing long-term life tests under different test conditions followed by failure mode analysis (FMA) and physics of failure investigation. We performed long-term accelerated life-tests on state-of-the-art SM and MM InGaAs-AlGaAs strained QW lasers under ACC (automatic current control) mode. Our life-tests have accumulated over 25,000 test hours for SM lasers and over 35,000 test hours for MM lasers. FMA was performed on failed SM lasers using electron beam induced current (EBIC). This technique allowed us to identify failure types by observing dark line defects. All the SM failures we studied showed catastrophic and sudden degradation and all of these failures were bulk failures. Our group previously reported that bulk failure or COBD (catastrophic optical bulk damage) is the dominant failure mode of MM InGaAs-AlGaAs strained QW lasers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that the dominant failure mode of both SM and MM InGaAs-AlGaAs strained QW lasers is the bulk failure. Since degradation mechanisms responsible for COBD are still not well understood, we also employed other techniques including focused ion beam (FIB) processing and high-resolution TEM to further study dark line defects and dislocations in post-aged SM and MM lasers. Our long-term life test results and FMA results are reported.

  12. Tunable single-longitudinal-mode operation of an injection-locked TEA CO2 laser. [ozone absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megie, G.; Menzies, R. T.

    1979-01-01

    The tunable single-longitudinal-mode operation of a TEA CO2 laser by an injection technique using a CW waveguide laser as the master oscillator is reported. With the experimental arrangement described, in which the waveguide laser frequency is tuned to correspond to one of the oscillating longitudinal modes of the TEA laser, single-longitudinal-mode operation was achieved with no apparent reduction in the TEA output energy, on various CO2 lines with frequency offsets from the line center as large as 300 MHz. The capability of this technique for high-resolution spectroscopy or atmospheric lidar studies is demonstrated by the recording of the absorption spectrum of a strong ozone line.

  13. Spontaneous and stimulated Brillouin scattering in single-mode silica optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeniay, Aydin

    This thesis describes an experimental investigation of Brillouin scattering in silica based single mode optical fibers at IR communication wavelengths (λ = 1550nm). We have investigated the scattering process in spontaneous and stimulated regimes by taking into account of the gain spectrum evolution, stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) threshold and polarization properties using laser sources with different spectral lineshapes. We have shown that several acoustic resonance modes, depending on the waveguide properties, exist in the spontaneous regime, but they decay as the process becomes stimulated. In the stimulated regime, only the main Brillouin peak persists with a linewidth approximately 10 times narrower than that in the spontaneous regime. Our results on the linewidth narrowing are in an agreement with the theory, which considers thermal noise fluctuations as the origin of Brillouin scattering in undepleted-pump regime. Moreover, we have found that the lineshape of the SBS light is identical to the input laser lineshape, with a resolution bandwidth that is equal to the SBS linewidth of the medium (7-12 MHz), which makes SBS a practical tool for laser linewidth measurements. In the study of polarization properties of Brillouin scattering, we specifically determined the SBS threshold and Degree of Polarization (DOP) of Brillouin light with respect to the state of polarization (SOP) and DOP of the input laser source. It is found that, for linearly polarized input signal (100% DOP); Rayleigh and Spontaneous Brillouin scattered signals have the DOP of 33%, while the Stimulated Brillouin scattered light has a DOP of 95%. On the other hand, for a depolarized input signal (DOP of 0%); Rayleigh, Spontaneous and Stimulated Brillouin scattered light have the same DOP of 5%. We also found that the depolarized signal yields 1dB higher SBS threshold than the polarized signal as oppose to earlier prediction of 3dB. A possible explanation for the discrepancy is given by

  14. Design of optical coupling systems between two-dimensional quasi-stadium laser diodes and single-mode optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Takehiro; Handa, Yoshiyuki; Miyahara, Kunihiro

    2009-09-01

    Optical coupling systems between a two-dimensional quasi-stadium laser diode and single-mode optical fibers using gradient-index rod lenses are designed for both stable and unstable laser resonators for the first time. A novel numerical approach using a combination of the extended Fox-Li calculation method and Gaussian beam transformations is proposed. In the case of a stable laser resonator, two kinds of beam propagation modes appear, namely the axis mode, in which an optical beam propagates along the cavity axis, and the ring mode, in which optical beams propagate along the diamond-shaped trajectory. The coupling efficiencies are found to be 54% for the axis mode and 52% for the ring mode. In contrast, an unstable laser resonator exhibits complicated modes, in which several highly directional beams are emitted from the end mirrors. The total coupling efficiency for these output beams is calculated to be 9.6%. The 3-dB tolerances for the lens pitch and alignment angles of the gradient-index rod lenses are also discussed.

  15. Tunable single and dual mode operation of an external cavity quantum-dot injection laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biebersdorf, A [Photonics and Optoelectronics Group, Physics Department and CeNS, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Amalienstrasse 54, D-80799 Munich (Germany); Lingk, C [Photonics and Optoelectronics Group, Physics Department and CeNS, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Amalienstrasse 54, D-80799 Munich (Germany); De Giorgi, M [Photonics and Optoelectronics Group, Physics Department and CeNS, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Amalienstrasse 54, D-80799 Munich (Germany); Feldmann, J [Photonics and Optoelectronics Group, Physics Department and CeNS, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Amalienstrasse 54, D-80799 Munich (Germany); Sacher, J [Sacher Lasertechnik GmbH, Hannah Arendt Strasse 3-7, D-35037 Marburg (Germany); Arzberger, M [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Ulbrich, C [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Boehm, G [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Amann, M-C [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Abstreiter, G [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2003-08-21

    We investigate quantum-dot (QD) lasers in an external cavity using Littrow and Littman configurations. Here, we report on a continuously tunable QD laser with a broad tuning range from 1047 to 1130 nm with high stability and efficient side mode suppression. The full-width at half-maximum of the laser line is 0.85 nm determined mainly by the quality of the external grating. This laser can be operated in a dual-mode modus, where the mode-spacing can be tuned continuously between 1.1 and 34 nm. Simultaneous emission of the two laser modes is shown by sum frequency generation experiments.

  16. A comparative study of the single-mode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, X.; Deng, X.-L.; Jiang, L.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, the single-mode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is studied numerically to find a reasonable nonlinear theoretical model which can be applied to predict the interface evolution from the linear stage to the early nonlinear stage. The cut-cell-based sharp-interface methods MuSiC+ (Chang et al. in J Comput Phys 242:946-990, 2013) and CCGF (Bai and Deng in Adv Appl Math Mech 9(5):1052-1075, 2017) are applied to generate numerical results for comparisons. Classical Air-SF6 and Air-Helium conditions are applied in this study, and initial amplitude and Atwood number are varied for comparison. Comparisons to the simulation results from the literature show the applicability of MuSiC+ and CCGF. Comparisons to the nonlinear theoretical models show that ZS (Zhang and Sohn in Phys Lett A 212:149-155, 1996; Phys Fluids 9:1106-1124, 1997), SEA (Sadot et al. in Phys Rev Lett 80:1654-1657, 1998), and DR (Dimonte and Ramaprabhu in Phys Fluids 22:014104, 2010) models are valid for both spike and bubble growth rates, and MIK (Mikaelian in Phys Rev E 67:026319, 2003) and ZG (Zhang and Guo in J Fluid Mech 786:47-61, 2016) models are valid for bubble growth rate, when the initial perturbation is small and the Atwood number is low, but only the DR model is applicable for both spike and bubble growth rates when the initial perturbation amplitude and the Atwood number are large. A new term of non-dimensional initial perturbation amplitude is presented and multiplied to the DR model to get a unified fitted DR model, which gives consistent results to the simulation ones for small and large initial amplitudes.

  17. Toward photostable multiplex analyte detection on a single mode planar optical waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukundan, Harshini [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Xei, Hongshi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, Aaron S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Grace, Wynne K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Jennifer S [NON LANL; Swanson, Basil [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a waveguide-based optical biosensor for the sensitive and specific detection of biomarkers associated with disease. Our technology combines the superior optical properties of single-mode planar waveguides, the robust nature of functionalized self-assembled monolayer sensing films and the specificity of fluorescence sandwich immunoassays to detect biomarkers in complex biological samples such as serum, urine and sputum. We have previously reported the adaptation of our technology to the detection of biomarkers associated with breast cancer and anthrax. However, these approaches primarily used phospholipid bilayers as the functional film and organic dyes (ex: AlexaFluors) as the fluorescence reporter. Organic dyes are easily photodegraded and are not amenable to multiplexing because of their narrow Stokes' shift. Here we have developed strategies for conjugation of the detector antibodies with quantum dots for use in a multiplex detection platform. We have previously evaluated dihydroxylipoic acid quantum dots for the detection of a breast cancer biomarker. In this manuscript, we investigate the detection of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen using antibodies conjugated with polymer-coated quantum dots. Kinetics of binding on the waveguide-based biosensor is reported. We compare the sensitivity of quantum dot labeled antibodies to those labeled with AlexaFluor and demonstrate the photostability of the former in our assay platform. In addition, we compare sulfydryl labeling of the antibody in the hinge region to that of nonspecific amine labeling. This is but the first step in developing a multiplex assay for such biomarkers on our waveguide platform.

  18. ESTABLISHED MODES AND STATIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THREE-PHASE ASYNCHRONOUS MOTOR POWERED WITH SINGLE PHASE NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Malyar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model is developed to study the operation of three-phase asynchronous motor with squirrel-cage rotor when the stator winding is powered from a single phase network. To create a rotating magnetic field one of the phases is fed through the capacitor. Due to the asymmetry of power feed not only transients, but the steady-state regimes are dynamic, so they are described by differential equations in any coordinate system. Their study cannot be carried out with sufficient adequacy on the basis of known equivalent circuits and require the use of dynamic parameters. In the mathematical model the state equations of the circuits of the stator and rotor are composed in the stationary three phase coordinate system. Calculation of the established mode is performed by solving the boundary problem that makes it possible to obtain the coordinate dependences over the period, without calculation of the transient process. In order to perform it, the original nonlinear differential equations are algebraized by approximating the variables with the use of cubic splines. The resulting nonlinear system of algebraic equations is a discrete analogue of the initial system of differential equations. It is solved by parameter continuation method. To calculate the static characteristics as a function of a certain variable, the system is analytically differentiated, and then numerically integrated over this variable. In the process of integration, Newton's refinement is performed at each step or at every few steps, making it possible to implement the integration in just a few steps using Euler's method. Jacobi matrices in both cases are the same. To account for the current displacement in the rods of the squirrel-cage rotor, each of them, along with the squirrel-cage rings, is divided in height into several elements. This results in several squirrel-cage rotor windings which are represented by three-phase windings with magnetic coupling between them.

  19. Self-Similar Nanocavity Design with Ultrasmall Mode Volume for Single-Photon Nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Hyeongrak; Heuck, Mikkel; Englund, Dirk R.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a photonic crystal nanocavity design with self-similar electromagnetic boundary conditions, achieving ultrasmall mode volume (V-eff). The electric energy density of a cavity mode can be maximized in the air or dielectric region, depending on the choice of boundary conditions. We illust...

  20. Fracture mode during cyclic loading of implant-supported single-tooth restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, Mandana; Kleven, Erik; Gotfredsen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Fracture of veneering ceramics in zirconia-based restorations has frequently been reported. Investigation of the fracture mode of implant-supported ceramic restorations by using clinically relevant laboratory protocols is needed. PURPOSE: This study compared the mode of frac...

  1. Excitation of surface plasmon polariton modes with multiple nitrogen vacancy centers in single nanodiamonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Shailesh; Lausen, Jens L.; Garcia-Ortiz, Cesar E.

    2016-01-01

    polariton (SPP) modes gives a base for lab-on-a-chip sensing devices, allows enhanced fluorescence emission and collection which can further enhance the precision of NV-based sensors. Here, we investigate coupling of multiple NV centers in individual NDs to the SPP modes supported by silver surfaces...

  2. Generation of higher order Gauss-Laguerre modes in single-pass 2nd harmonic generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchhave, Preben; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2008-01-01

    We present a realistic method for dynamic simulation of the development of higher order modes in second harmonic generation. The deformation of the wave fronts due to the nonlinear interaction is expressed by expansion in higher order Gauss-Laguerre modes....

  3. DNA synthesis determines the binding mode of the human mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, José A; Cerrón, Fernando; Jarillo, Javier; Beltran-Heredia, Elena; Ciesielski, Grzegorz L; Arias-Gonzalez, J Ricardo; Kaguni, Laurie S; Cao, Francisco J; Ibarra, Borja

    2017-07-07

    Single-stranded DNA-binding proteins (SSBs) play a key role in genome maintenance, binding and organizing single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) intermediates. Multimeric SSBs, such as the human mitochondrial SSB (HmtSSB), present multiple sites to interact with ssDNA, which has been shown in vitro to enable them to bind a variable number of single-stranded nucleotides depending on the salt and protein concentration. It has long been suggested that different binding modes might be used selectively for different functions. To study this possibility, we used optical tweezers to determine and compare the structure and energetics of long, individual HmtSSB-DNA complexes assembled on preformed ssDNA and on ssDNA generated gradually during 'in situ' DNA synthesis. We show that HmtSSB binds to preformed ssDNA in two major modes, depending on salt and protein concentration. However, when protein binding was coupled to strand-displacement DNA synthesis, only one of the two binding modes was observed under all experimental conditions. Our results reveal a key role for the gradual generation of ssDNA in modulating the binding mode of a multimeric SSB protein and consequently, in generating the appropriate nucleoprotein structure for DNA synthetic reactions required for genome maintenance. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. Single-mode distributed feedback laser operation with no dependence on the morphology of the gain medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umar, Muhammad [Department of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Kyungtaek [Department of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Inter-university Semiconductor Research Center, Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Heonsu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sunghwan [Department of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Organic distributed feedback (DFB) lasers can be useful photonic tools for biological applications where the roles of organic materials are important, because highly coherent single mode emission with broad tuning range can be obtained. However, the formulaic structures of organic lasers, and the uses of gain media as resonators themselves, are not suitable for inducing laser emission from irregular shaped gain media, such as dye-staining cells and tissues. Here, we report a reusable photonic template comprising an exceedingly thin and discrete titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) layer on a one-dimensional (1D) quartz grating to induce single mode DFB lasing from a variety of states of optical gain media. Using the same template, the external gain media of optically thick and thin casted film, liquid, and a free-standing thick film reveal single mode lasing with reliable performance. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the 25-nm thick TiO{sub 2} disconnected grating lines support a spatially confined DFB mode in the vertical direction, even under no index difference between superstrate and substrate. Additionally, not using the typical waveguide gain layer promises high sensitivity and detection limit in refractometric sensing. These results suggest that the photonic structure may serve as a versatile sensing platform for bioapplications. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Adaptable Optical Fiber Displacement-Curvature Sensor Based on a Modal Michelson Interferometer with a Tapered Single Mode Fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Salceda-Delgado, G.; A. Martinez-Rios; Selvas-Aguilar, R.; ?lvarez-Tamayo, R. I.; Castillo-Guzman, A.; Ibarra-Escamilla, B.; Dur?n-Ram?rez, V. M.; Enriquez-Gomez, L. F.

    2017-01-01

    A compact, highly sensitive optical fiber displacement and curvature radius sensor is presented. The device consists of an adiabatic bi-conical fused fiber taper spliced to a single-mode fiber (SMF) segment with a flat face end. The bi-conical taper structure acts as a modal coupling device between core and cladding modes for the SMF segment. When the bi-conical taper is bent by an axial displacement, the symmetrical bi-conical shape of the tapered structure is stressed, causing a change in t...

  6. A pulsed single-longitudinal-mode fiber laser based on gain control of pulse-injection-locked cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hongdan; Wu, Zhongwei; Sun, Xiaohan

    2013-06-01

    We achieve a pulsed fiber laser based on injecting a pulsed-seed into a high power fiber ring cavity consisting of two-stage amplifier chain. Through gain control of the fiber amplifier chain and adjustment of a variable optical coupler in the cavity, locking condition is satisfied which produce mode-hopping free, single-longitudinal-mode optical spectrum with 38 dB optical signal to noise ratio. The noise-free lasing RF spectrum has a 7.0 kHz 3 dB linewidth. The nanosecond lasing pulses are jittering-free with 40 W peak power at 1550 nm wavelength.

  7. TRANSVERSE POLARIZATION DISTRIBUTION AND FRAGMENTATION FUNCTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOER,D.

    2000-04-11

    The authors discuss transverse polarization distribution and fragmentation functions, in particular, T-odd functions with transverse momentum dependence, which might be relevant for the description of single transverse spin asymmetries. The role of intrinsic transverse momentum in the expansion in inverse powers of the hard scale is elaborated upon. The sin {phi} single spin asymmetry in the process e {rvec p} {r_arrow} e{prime} {pi}{sup +} X as recently reported by the HERMES Collaboration is investigated, in particular, by using the bag model.

  8. Modes of storage ring coherent instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.M.

    1986-12-01

    Longitudinal impedance in a beam and various modes of longitudinal coherent instabilities are discussed. The coasting beam coherent instability, microwave instability, and single-bunch longitudinal coherent instabilities are considered. The Vlasov equation is formulated, and a method of solving it is developed. The synchrotron modes are treated, which take the possible bunch shape distortion fully into consideration. A method of treating the synchrotron mode coupling in the case of a small bunch is discussed which takes advantage of the fact that only a few of the synchrotron modes can contribute in such a case. The effect of many bunches on the coherent motion of the beam and the longitudinal symmetric coupled bunch modes are discussed. The transverse impedance is then introduced, and the transverse coasting beam instability is discussed. Various bunched beam instabilities are discussed, including both single bunch instabilities and coupled bunch instabilities. The Vlasov equation for transverse as well as longitudinal motion of particles is introduced as well as a method of solving it within a linear approximation. Head-tail modes and short bunch instabilities and strong coupling instabilities in the long bunch case are covered. (LEW)

  9. Highly tunable large core single-mode liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate a highly tunable photonic bandgap fiber, which has a large-core diameter of 25 mu m and an effective mode area of 440 mu m(2). The tunability is achieved by infiltrating the air holes of a photonic crystal fiber with an optimized liquid-crystal mixture having a large temperature...... gradient of the refractive indices at room temperature. A bandgap tuning sensitivity of 27 nm/degrees C is achieved at room temperature. The insertion loss is estimated to be less than 0.5 dB and caused mainly by coupling loss between the index-guided mode and the bandgap-guided mode. (c) 2006 Optical...

  10. Measurement of Transverse Single-Spin Asymmetries for Di-JetProduction in Proton-Proton Collisions at sqrt s = 200 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abelev, B.I.; Adams, J.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Ahammed, Z.; Amonett,J.; Anderson, B.D.; Anderson, M.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G.S.; Bai,Y.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L.S.; Baudot, J.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V.V.; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Bhardwaj, S.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L.C.; Blyth, S.-L.; Bonner, B.E.; Botje, M.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A.V.; Bravar, A.; Bystersky, M.; Cadman, R.V.; Cai,X.Z.; Caines, H.; Calderon de la Barca Sanchez, M.; Castillo, J.; Catu,O.; Cebra, D.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen,H.F.; Chen, J.H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J.P.; Cormier, T.M.; Cosentino, M.R.; Cramer, J.G.; Crawford,H.J.; Das, D.; Das, S.; Daugherity, M.; de Moura, M.M.; Dedovich, T.G.; DePhillips, M.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Djawotho,P.; Dogra, S.M.; Dong, W.J.; Dong, X.; Draper, J.E.; Du, F.; Dunin, V.B.; Dunlop, J.C.; Dutta Mazumdar, M.R.; Eckardt, V.; Edwards, W.R.; Efimov,L.G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Filimonov, K.; Filip, P.; Finch,E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gaillard, L.; Ganti,M.S.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gonzalez, J.S.; Gorbunov, Y.G.; Gos,H.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Guertin, S.M.; Guimaraes, K.S.F.F.; Guo,Y.; Gupta, N.; Gutierrez, T.D.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J.W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Henry, T.W.; Hepplemann, S.; Hippolyte,B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A.M.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Horner, M.J.; Huang, H.Z.; Huang, S.L.; Hughes, E.W.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs,P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Jakl, P.; Jia, F.; Jiang, H.; Jones, P.G.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kang, K.; Kapitan, J.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khodyrev, V.Yu.; Kim, B.C.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Kislov, E.M.; Klein,S.R.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D.D.; et al.

    2007-10-02

    We report the first measurement of the opening angledistribution between pairs of jets produced in high-energy collisions oftransversely polarized protons. The measurement probes (Sivers)correlations between the transverse spin orientation of a proton and thetransverse momentum directions of its partons. With both beams polarized,the wide pseudorapidity (-1 leq eta leq +2) coverage for jets permitsseparation of Sivers functions for the valence and sea regions. Theresulting asymmetries are all consistent with zero and considerablysmaller than Sivers effects observed in semi-inclusive deep inelasticscattering (SIDIS). We discuss theoretical attempts to reconcile the newresults with the sizable transverse spin effects seen in SIDIS andforward hadron production in pp collisions.

  11. The Diversity and Scale Matter: Ubiquitous Transportation Mode Detection using Single Cell Tower Information

    OpenAIRE

    AbdelAziz, Ali Mohamed; Youssef, Moustafa

    2015-01-01

    Detecting the transportation mode of a user is important for a wide range of applications. While a number of recent systems addressed the transportation mode detection problem using the ubiquitous mobile phones, these studies either leverage GPS, the inertial sensors, and/or multiple cell towers information. However, these different phone sensors have high energy consumption, limited to a small subset of phones (e.g. high-end phones or phones that support neighbouring cell tower information),...

  12. High efficiency mode-locked, cylindrical vector beam fiber laser based on a mode selective coupler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hongdan; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Zuxing; Cai, Yu; Sun, Bin; Zhang, Lin

    2017-05-15

    We propose and demonstrate an all-fiber passively mode-locked laser with a figure-8 cavity, which generates pulsed cylindrical vector beam output based on a mode selective coupler (MSC). The MSC made of a two mode fiber and a standard single mode fiber is used as both the intracavity transverse mode converter and mode splitter with a low insertion loss of about 0.65 dB. The slope efficiency of the fiber laser is > 3%. Through adjusting the polarization state in the laser cavity, both radially and azimuthally polarized beams have been obtained with high mode purity which are measured to be > 94%. The laser operates at 1556.3 nm with a spectral bandwidth of 3.2 nm. The mode-locked pulses have duration of 17 ns and a repetition rate of 0.66 MHz.

  13. Optical frequency comb generation for DWDM transmission over 25- to 50-km standard single-mode fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Rahat; Bo, Liu; Yaya, Mao; Ullah, Sibghat; Khan, Muhammad Saad; Tian, Feng; Ali, Amjad; Ahmad, Ibrar; Xiangjun, Xin

    2018-01-01

    Dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) transmission equal to 1.2 Tbps over 25 to 50 km across standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) in the C band is performed based on an optical frequency comb generator. Sixty-one flattened optical frequency tones were realized with 30-GHz frequency spacing, high side-mode suppression ratio over 35 dB, and minimum amplitude difference was realized using amplitude modulator for first time in cascade mode with two Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZMs) where all the modulators were tailored by RF signals. 20×61 Gbps DWDM-based differential quadrature phase shift keying modulated signals were successfully transmitted over SSMF and analyze its transmission capability for range of 25 to 50 km with acceptable power penalties and bit error rates.

  14. Sub-100 fs single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber mode-locked Yb-laser operation near 1 microm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Andreas; Rivier, Simon; Cho, Won Bae; Yim, Jong Hyuk; Choi, Sun Young; Lee, Soonil; Rotermund, Fabian; Rytz, Daniel; Steinmeyer, Günter; Petrov, Valentin; Griebner, Uwe

    2009-10-26

    Transmission- and reflection-type single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorbers (SWCNT-SAs) were designed and fabricated for passive mode-locking of bulk lasers in the 1 microm spectral range. Mode-locked laser operation based on a diffusion-bonded Yb:KYW/KYW crystal was demonstrated, and pulses as short as 83 fs and 140 fs were achieved applying reflection-type and transmission-type SWCNT-SA, respectively. The nonlinear parameters of the absorbers were measured to be in close vicinity to those of a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror for the same wavelength range. Mode-locking performance with SWCNT-SAs and the SESAM was compared utilizing the same cavity, with the SESAM resulting in only slightly shorter pulses of 66 fs duration. The nearly identical performance indicates that well-optimized SWCNT-SAs can substitute SESAMs even in the 1 microm region.

  15. Phonon Self-Energy Corrections to Nonzero Wave-Vector Phonon Modes in Single-Layer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, P. T.; Mafra, D. L.; Sato, K.; Saito, R.; Kong, J.; Dresselhaus, M. S.

    2012-07-01

    Phonon self-energy corrections have mostly been studied theoretically and experimentally for phonon modes with zone-center (q=0) wave vectors. Here, gate-modulated Raman scattering is used to study phonons of a single layer of graphene originating from a double-resonant Raman process with q≠0. The observed phonon renormalization effects are different from what is observed for the zone-center q=0 case. To explain our experimental findings, we explored the phonon self-energy for the phonons with nonzero wave vectors (q≠0) in single-layer graphene in which the frequencies and decay widths are expected to behave oppositely to the behavior observed in the corresponding zone-center q=0 processes. Within this framework, we resolve the identification of the phonon modes contributing to the G⋆ Raman feature at 2450cm-1 to include the iTO+LA combination modes with q≠0 and also the 2iTO overtone modes with q=0, showing both to be associated with wave vectors near the high symmetry point K in the Brillouin zone.

  16. Phonon self-energy corrections to nonzero wave-vector phonon modes in single-layer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, P T; Mafra, D L; Sato, K; Saito, R; Kong, J; Dresselhaus, M S

    2012-07-27

    Phonon self-energy corrections have mostly been studied theoretically and experimentally for phonon modes with zone-center (q=0) wave vectors. Here, gate-modulated Raman scattering is used to study phonons of a single layer of graphene originating from a double-resonant Raman process with q≠0. The observed phonon renormalization effects are different from what is observed for the zone-center q=0 case. To explain our experimental findings, we explored the phonon self-energy for the phonons with nonzero wave vectors (q≠0) in single-layer graphene in which the frequencies and decay widths are expected to behave oppositely to the behavior observed in the corresponding zone-center q=0 processes. Within this framework, we resolve the identification of the phonon modes contributing to the G(⋆) Raman feature at 2450 cm(-1) to include the iTO+LA combination modes with q≠0 and also the 2iTO overtone modes with q=0, showing both to be associated with wave vectors near the high symmetry point K in the Brillouin zone.

  17. A sensitivity-enhanced refractive index sensor using a single-mode thin-core fiber incorporating an abrupt taper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jie; Xiao, Shilin; Yi, Lilin; Bi, Meihua

    2012-01-01

    A sensitivity-enhanced fiber-optic refractive index (RI) sensor based on a tapered single-mode thin-core diameter fiber is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensor head is formed by splicing a section of tapered thin-core diameter fiber (TCF) between two sections of single-mode fibers (SMFs). The cladding modes are excited at the first SMF-TCF interface, and then interfere with the core mode at the second interface, thus forming an inter-modal interferometer (IMI). An abrupt taper (tens of micrometers long) made by the electric-arc-heating method is utilized, and plays an important role in improving sensing sensitivity. The whole manufacture process only involves fiber splicing and tapering, and all the fabrication process can be achieved by a commercial fiber fusion splicer. Using glycerol and water mixture solution as an example, the experimental results show that the refractive index sensitivity is measured to be 0.591 nm for 1% change of surrounding RI. The proposed sensor structure features simple structure, low cost, easy fabrication, and high sensitivity.

  18. A Sensitivity-Enhanced Refractive Index Sensor Using a Single-Mode Thin-Core Fiber Incorporating an Abrupt Taper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Shi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A sensitivity-enhanced fiber-optic refractive index (RI sensor based on a tapered single-mode thin-core diameter fiber is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensor head is formed by splicing a section of tapered thin-core diameter fiber (TCF between two sections of single-mode fibers (SMFs. The cladding modes are excited at the first SMF-TCF interface, and then interfere with the core mode at the second interface, thus forming an inter-modal interferometer (IMI. An abrupt taper (tens of micrometers long made by the electric-arc-heating method is utilized, and plays an important role in improving sensing sensitivity. The whole manufacture process only involves fiber splicing and tapering, and all the fabrication process can be achieved by a commercial fiber fusion splicer. Using glycerol and water mixture solution as an example, the experimental results show that the refractive index sensitivity is measured to be 0.591 nm for 1% change of surrounding RI. The proposed sensor structure features simple structure, low cost, easy fabrication, and high sensitivity.

  19. Sub-micrometre accurate free-form optics by three-dimensional printing on single-mode fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissibl, Timo; Thiele, Simon; Herkommer, Alois; Giessen, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Micro-optics are widely used in numerous applications, such as beam shaping, collimation, focusing and imaging. We use femtosecond 3D printing to manufacture free-form micro-optical elements. Our method gives sub-micrometre accuracy so that direct manufacturing even on single-mode fibres is possible. We demonstrate the potential of our method by writing different collimation optics, toric lenses, free-form surfaces with polynomials of up to 10th order for intensity beam shaping, as well as chiral photonic crystals for circular polarization filtering, all aligned onto the core of the single-mode fibres. We determine the accuracy of our optics by analysing the output patterns as well as interferometrically characterizing the surfaces. We find excellent agreement with numerical calculations. 3D printing of microoptics can achieve sufficient performance that will allow for rapid prototyping and production of beam-shaping and imaging devices. PMID:27339700

  20. Tm3+ and Tm(3+)-Ho3+ co-doped tungsten tellurite glass single mode fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kefeng; Zhang, Guang; Wang, Xin; Hu, Lili; Kuan, Peiwen; Chen, Danping; Wang, Meng

    2012-04-23

    We investigated the ~2 μm spectroscopic and lasing performance of Tm(3+) and Tm(3+)-Ho(3+) co-doped tungsten tellurite glass single mode fibers with a commercial 800 nm laser diode. The double cladding single mode (SM) fibers were fabricated by using rod-in-tube method. The propagation loss of the fiber was ~2.5 dB/m at 1310 nm. The spectroscopic properties of the fibers were analyzed. A 494 mW laser operating at ~1.9 μm was achieved in a Tm(3+) doped 20 cm long fiber, the slope efficiency was 26%, and the laser beam quality factor M(2) was 1.09. A 35 mW ~2.1 μm laser output was also demonstrated in a 7 cm long of Tm(3+)-Ho(3+) co-doped tungsten tellurite SM fiber. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  1. Damage-free single-mode transmission of deep-UV light in hollow-core PCF

    CERN Document Server

    Gebert, F; Weiss, T; Wan, Y; Ermolov, A; Joly, N Y; Schmidt, P O; Russell, P St J

    2014-01-01

    Transmission of UV light with high beam quality and pointing stability is desirable for many experiments in atomic, molecular and optical physics. In particular, laser cooling and coherent manipulation of trapped ions with transitions in the UV require stable, single-mode light delivery. Transmitting even ~2 mW CW light at 280 nm through silica solid-core fibers has previously been found to cause transmission degradation after just a few hours due to optical damage. We show that photonic crystal fiber of the kagom\\'e type can be used for effectively single-mode transmission with acceptable loss and bending sensitivity. No transmission degradation was observed even after >100 hours of operation with 15 mW CW input power. In addition it is shown that implementation of the fiber in a trapped ion experiment significantly increases the coherence times of the internal state transfer due to an increase in beam pointing stability.

  2. Mode-locking of solid-state lasers by single-walled carbon-nanotube based saturable absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotermund, F; Cho, W B; Choi, S Y; Baek, I H; Yim, J H; Lee, S; Schmidt, A; Steinmeyer, G; Griebner, U; Yeom, D I; Kim, K; Petrov, V

    2012-08-31

    Universal use of single-walled carbon-nanotube based saturable absorber devices for mode-locking of bulk solid-state lasers between 0.8 and 2 {mu}m is discussed. The advantages in comparison to semiconductor saturable absorbers are emphasised. We briefly describe the manufacturing process and the essential optical properties, and review experimental results obtained with various types of femtosecond and picosecond solid-state lasers in the steady-state regime. We also demonstrate that a single hybrid saturable absorber used in transmission can be used to mode-lock four different types of lasers operating between 1 and 2 {mu}m. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  3. Single mode step-index polymer optical fiber for humidity insensitive high temperature fiber Bragg grating sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woyessa, Getinet; Fasano, Andrea; Stefani, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    We have fabricated the first single-mode step-index and humidity insensitive polymer optical fiber operating in the 850 nm wavelength ranges. The step-index preform is fabricated using injection molding, which is an efficient method for cost effective, flexible and fast preparation of the fiber...... preform. The fabricated single-mode step-index (SI) polymer optical fiber (POF) has a 4.8µm core made from TOPAS grade 5013S-04 with a glass transition temperature of 134°C and a 150 µm cladding made from ZEONEX grade 480R with a glass transition temperature of 138°C. The key advantages of the proposed...... SIPOF are low water absorption, high operating temperature and chemical inertness to acids and bases and many polar solvents as compared to the conventional poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) and polystyrene based POFs. In addition, the fiber Bragg grating writing time is short compared to microstructured...

  4. Near-Infrared Autofluorescence Imaging in Geographic Atrophy Using Spectralis Single and Combined Wavelength Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fred Kuanfu; Khoo, Ying Jo; Tang, Ivy

    2015-01-01

    The Spectralis Heidelberg retina angiography + optical coherence tomography (OCT) device often fails to acquire near-infrared autofluorescence (NI-AF) due to poor signal because of interference by the beam splitter used for aligning the laser source with the OCT diode light source. We report the rates of successful NI-AF image acquisition using indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) mode (without dye) compared with combined fluorescein angiography (FA) + ICGA mode (without dye) in patients with geographic atrophy (GA). This was a retrospective review. Two hundred images from 50 eyes of 25 patients with GA were included. All patients underwent NI-AF imaging using ICGA (787 nm) and combined FA + ICGA (488 + 787 nm) modes in both eyes. Each eye had macula- and disc-centered imaging. The rates of successful image acquisition were compared using McNemar test. Successful NI-AF acquisition using ICGA was 48% to 52% in macula-centered views and 36% to 56% in disc-centered views. Only 36% of patients had successful bilateral NI-AF imaging. This improved to 100% in all views in both eyes after switching to combined FA + ICGA mode (P < 0.001). Logistic regression showed no patient or ocular factors were predictive of NI-AF acquisition failure in ICGA mode. Acquisition of NI-AF images in GA using ICGA mode has a high failure rate, which can be eliminated by using combined FA + ICGA mode. This finding has implications on the design of imaging protocols for routine assessment and clinical trials of geographic atrophy.

  5. Single Mode Theory for Impedance Eduction in Large-Scale Ducts with Grazing Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Willie R.; Gerhold, Carl H.; Jones, Michael G.; June, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    An impedance eduction theory for a rigid wall duct containing an acoustic liner with an unknown impedance and uniform grazing flow is presented. The unique features of the theory are: 1) non-planar waves propagate in the hard wall sections of the duct, 2) input data consist solely of complex acoustic pressures acquired on a wall adjacent to the liner, and 3) multiple higher-order modes may exist in the direction perpendicular to the liner and the opposite rigid wall. The approach is to first measure the axial propagation constant of a dominant higher-order mode in the liner sample section. This axial propagation constant is then used in conjunction with a closed-form solution to a reduced form of the convected Helmholtz equation and the wall impedance boundary condition to educe the liner impedance. The theory is validated on a conventional liner whose impedance spectrum is educed in two flow ducts with different cross sections. For the frequencies and Mach numbers of interest, no higher-order modes propagate in the hard wall sections of the smaller duct. A benchmark method is used to educe the impedance spectrum in this duct. A dominant higher-order vertical mode propagates in the larger duct for similar test conditions, and the current theory is applied to educe the impedance spectrum. Results show that when the theory is applied to data acquired in the larger duct with a dominant higher-order vertical mode, the same impedance spectra is educed as that obtained in the small duct where only the plane wave mode is present and the benchmark method is used. This result holds for each higher-order vertical mode that is considered.

  6. Whispering-gallery mode lasing from patterned molecular single-crystalline microcavity array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Hong-Hua; Ding, Ran; Lu, Shi-Yang; Yang, Yue-De; Chen, Qi-Dai; Feng, Jing; Huang, Yong-Zhen; Sun, Hong-Bo; Fang, Honghua

    Organic single-crystalline materials have attracted great attention for laser applications. However, the fabrication of laser resonators and pattern of crystals are still intractable problems. Organic single crystals have been limited to fundamental property studies despite their superior photonic

  7. Highly Tm(3+) doped germanate glass and its single mode fiber for 2.0 μm laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xin; Tang, Guowu; Yang, Qi; Chen, Xiaodong; Qian, Qi; Zhang, Qinyuan; Yang, Zhongmin

    2016-02-01

    Highly Tm(3+) doped optical fibers are urgently desirable for 2.0 μm compact single-frequency fiber laser and high-repetition-rate mode-locked fiber laser. Here, we systematically investigated the optical parameters, energy transfer processes and thermal properties of Tm(3+) doped barium gallo-germanate (BGG) glasses. Highly Tm(3+) doped BGG glass single mode (SM) fibers were fabricated by the rod-in-tube technique. The Tm(3+) doping concentration reaches 7.6 × 10(20) ions/cm(3), being the reported highest level in Tm(3+) doped BGG SM fibers. Using ultra short (1.6 cm) as-drawn highly Tm(3+) doped BGG SM fiber, a single-frequency fiber laser at 1.95 μm has been demonstrated with a maximum output power of 35 mW when in-band pumped by a home-made 1568 nm fiber laser. Additionally, a multilongitudinal-mode fiber laser at 1.95 μm has also been achieved in a 10 cm long as-drawn active fiber, yielding a maximum laser output power of 165 mW and a slope efficiency of 17%. The results confirm that the as-drawn highly Tm(3+) doped BGG SM fibers are promising in applications that require high gain and high power from a short piece of active optical fiber.

  8. Ultra-high negative dispersion compensating square lattice based single mode photonic crystal fiber with high nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Ibadul; Khatun, Maksuda; Ahmed, Kawsar

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents dispersion tailoring of photonic crystal fibers creating artificial defect along one of the regular square axes. A finite element method (FEM) has been enforced for numerical investigation of several guiding properties of the PCF covering a broad wavelength range about 1340-1640 nm over the telecommunication windows. According to simulation, the proposed PCF has obtained a strictly single-mode fiber, which has an ultra-high negative dispersion of about -584.60 to -2337.60 ps/(nm-km) and also possible to cover the highest nonlinearity order of 131.91 W-1 km-1 under the operating wavelength. Moreover, the proposed PCF structure experimentally focuses on higher nonlinear coefficient, which successfully compensates the chromatic dispersion of standard single mode in entire band of interest and greatly applicable to the optical transmission system. Additionally, the single mode behavior of S-PCF is explicated by employing V parameter. In our dispersion sensitive analysis, this fiber is significantly more robust due to successfully achieve ultra-high negative dispersion, which gains more promiscuous compared to the prior best results.

  9. Theoretical and experimental study on active sound transmission control based on single structural mode actuation using point force actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanada, Akira; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2012-08-01

    This study deals with the feedforward active control of sound transmission through a simply supported rectangular panel using vibration actuators. The control effect largely depends on the excitation method, including the number and locations of actuators. In order to obtain a large control effect at low frequencies over a wide frequency, an active transmission control method based on single structural mode actuation is proposed. Then, with the goal of examining the feasibility of the proposed method, the (1, 3) mode is selected as the target mode and a modal actuation method in combination with six point force actuators is considered. Assuming that a single input single output feedforward control is used, sound transmission in the case minimizing the transmitted sound power is calculated for some actuation methods. Simulation results showed that the (1, 3) modal actuation is globally effective at reducing the sound transmission by more than 10 dB in the low-frequency range for both normal and oblique incidences. Finally, experimental results also showed that a large reduction could be achieved in the low-frequency range, which proves the validity and feasibility of the proposed method.

  10. Single-band high absorption and coupling between localized surface plasmons modes in a metamaterials absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Min; Liu, Shui Jie; Xu, Bang Li; Wang, Jie; Huang, Hua Qing

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we design and simulate a metamaterials absorbers based on the resonance of the local surface plasmon (LSP) mode. The damping constant of gold layer is optimized in simulations to eliminate the effect of the inappropriate material parameters on the electromagnetic properties of the proposed metamaterial absorber. The horizontal distance between two metal particles is optimized in simulations and a perfect absorption resonance peak is achieved due to the strong coupling of LSP modes. A new absorption peak is obtained when the horizontal distance is 0 nm. The vertical distance between the new metal particles and the bottom metal layer is reduced, which leads to the absorption peak reduce based on the reduction of the intensity of LSP modes. A new absorption peak is obtained when the new metallic particle and the bottom gold layer form a whole structure.

  11. Single-arm double-mode double-order planar waveguide interferometric sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisov, S S; Diggs, D E; Adamovsky, G; Curley, M J

    2001-01-20

    A sensor is described for which interference measurements of the phase delay between two propagating modes of different orders in a slab thin-film waveguide are used as the sensing technique. The basic building block of the sensor is a polymer film doped with an indicator dye such as Bromocresol Purple. The modes of two orders such as TM(0) and TM(1) are simultaneously excited in the light-guiding film with a focusing optics and a prism coupler. The modes are decoupled from the film and recombined to produce an interference pattern in the face of an output optical fiber. The sensitivity of the sensor to the ambient temperature change is 1.5 degrees C, and the sensitivity to NH(3) is 200 parts in 10(6) for one full oscillation of the signal.

  12. EMDLAB: A toolbox for analysis of single-trial EEG dynamics using empirical mode decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Subari, K; Al-Baddai, S; Tomé, A M; Goldhacker, M; Faltermeier, R; Lang, E W

    2015-09-30

    Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is an empirical data decomposition technique. Recently there is growing interest in applying EMD in the biomedical field. EMDLAB is an extensible plug-in for the EEGLAB toolbox, which is an open software environment for electrophysiological data analysis. EMDLAB can be used to perform, easily and effectively, four common types of EMD: plain EMD, ensemble EMD (EEMD), weighted sliding EMD (wSEMD) and multivariate EMD (MEMD) on EEG data. In addition, EMDLAB is a user-friendly toolbox and closely implemented in the EEGLAB toolbox. EMDLAB gains an advantage over other open-source toolboxes by exploiting the advantageous visualization capabilities of EEGLAB for extracted intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and Event-Related Modes (ERMs) of the signal. EMDLAB is a reliable, efficient, and automated solution for extracting and visualizing the extracted IMFs and ERMs by EMD algorithms in EEG study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Signal Processing using Nonlinear Optical Eects in Single- and Few-Mode Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Søren Michael Mørk

    candidate for another degree of freedom in transmission fibers. This thesis is two-fold: firstly, starting at Maxwell’s equations and basic principles of quantum mechanics, a semi-classical model of the noise properties of fiber optical parametric amplifiers and frequency converters is presented. The model......-wave mixing in two-mode fibers acvi counting for six simultaneous processes is derived, and the conversion efficiency from signal to idler in the four-wave mixing processes of phase conjugation and Bragg scattering in two two-mode fibers with different phase matching properties are experimentally investigated...

  14. Single-photon frequency conversion and multi-mode entanglement via constructive interference on Sagnac loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Anshou; Zhang, Guangyong; Gui, Liangwei; Liu, Jibing

    2015-06-01

    Based on constructive interference in Sagnac waveguide loop, an efficient scheme is proposed for selective frequency conversion and multifrequency modes W entanglement via input-output formalism. We can adjust the probability amplitudes of output photons by choosing parameter values properly. The tunable probability amplitude will lead to the generation of output photon with a selectable frequency and W photonic entanglement of different frequencies modes in a wide range of parameter values. Our calculations show the present scheme is robust to the deviation of parameters and spontaneous decay.

  15. Single-temporal-mode photon generation beyond the low-power regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKinstrie, C. J.; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Nondegenerate four-wave mixing in a strongly-birefringent fiber generates signal and idler photons that are associated with only one pair of temporal modes, for a wide range of pump powers. Nonlinear phase modulation degrades the heralded-signal purity only slightly.......Nondegenerate four-wave mixing in a strongly-birefringent fiber generates signal and idler photons that are associated with only one pair of temporal modes, for a wide range of pump powers. Nonlinear phase modulation degrades the heralded-signal purity only slightly....

  16. Ferroelectric Cathodes in Transverse Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander Dunaevsky; Yevgeny Raitses; Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2002-07-29

    Experimental investigations of a planar ferroelectric cathode in a transverse magnetic field up to 3 kGs are presented. It is shown that the transverse magnetic field affects differently the operation of ferroelectric plasma cathodes in ''bright'' and ''dark'' modes in vacuum. In the ''bright'' mode, when the surface plasma is formed, the application of the transverse magnetic field leads to an increase of the surface plasma density. In the ''dark'' mode, the magnetic field inhibits the development of electron avalanches along the surface, as it does similarly in other kinds of surface discharges in the pre-breakdown mode.

  17. Efficient injection from large telescopes into single-mode fibres: Enabling the era of ultra-precision astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, N.; Schwab, C.; Guyon, O.; Lozi, J.; Cvetojevic, N.; Martinache, F.; Leon-Saval, S.; Norris, B.; Gross, S.; Doughty, D.; Currie, T.; Takato, N.

    2017-08-01

    Photonic technologies offer numerous advantages for astronomical instruments such as spectrographs and interferometers owing to their small footprints and diverse range of functionalities. Operating at the diffraction-limit, it is notoriously difficult to efficiently couple such devices directly with large telescopes. We demonstrate that with careful control of both the non-ideal pupil geometry of a telescope and residual wavefront errors, efficient coupling with single-mode devices can indeed be realised. A fibre injection was built within the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) instrument. Light was coupled into a single-mode fibre operating in the near-IR (J - H bands) which was downstream of the extreme adaptive optics system and the pupil apodising optics. A coupling efficiency of 86% of the theoretical maximum limit was achieved at 1550 nm for a diffraction-limited beam in the laboratory, and was linearly correlated with Strehl ratio. The coupling efficiency was constant to within mode fibre of 50%, consistent with expectations. The coupling was >40% for 84% of the time and >50% for 41% of the time. The laboratory results allow us to forecast that extreme adaptive optics levels of correction (Strehl ratio >90% in H-band) would allow coupling of >67% (of the order of coupling to multimode fibres currently) while standard levels of wavefront correction (Strehl ratio >20% in H-band) would allow coupling of >18%. For Strehl ratios choice but the signal-to-noise, and pixel availability must be considered. These results illustrate a clear path to efficient on-sky coupling into a single-mode fibre, which could be used to realise modal-noise-free radial velocity machines, very-long-baseline optical/near-IR interferometers and/or simply exploit photonic technologies in future instrument design.

  18. Cross sections and transverse single-spin asymmetries in forward jet production from proton collisions at s=500 GeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Bland

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the production of forward jets from transversely polarized proton collisions at s=500 GeV conducted at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC are reported. Our measured jet cross section is consistent with hard scattering expectations. Our measured analyzing power for forward jet production is small and positive, and provides constraints on the Sivers functions that are related to partonic orbital angular momentum through theoretical models.

  19. Single-spin asymmetry in electro-production of {pi}{sup +} {pi}{sup -} pairs from a transversely polarized proton target at the HERMES experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiao-Rui

    2008-10-15

    In this thesis, the measurement of an azimuthal amplitude of the asymmetry in the lepto-production of {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} pairs at the HERMES experiment is reported. The experiment was carried out at DESY in Germany, utilizing the longitudinally polarized 27.6 GeV electron/positron beam of the HERA storage ring in combination with a longitudinally or transversely polarized gaseous target internal to the beam pipe. For the present measurement, the transversely polarized proton target was used and the beam polarization was averaged out in order to measure the asymmetry A{sub UT}. A Ring Imaging Cerenkov (RICH) detector allows the precise identification of pions, kaons and protons over essentially the entire momentum range of the experiment. The asymmetry A{sub UT} for {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} pair production was measured for the first time in the world by HERMES. The amplitudes are extracted as functions of different kinematic variables, which can facilitate the comparison with the theoretical models and the extraction of transversity with combination of the measurement of the dihadron fragmentation function. (orig.)

  20. 40 Gbps modulation of transverse coupled cavity VCSEL with push-pull modulation scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalir, Hamed; Koyama, Fumio

    2014-09-01

    The push-pull modulation of a transverse coupled cavity VCSEL with a bow-tie-shaped oxide aperture is demonstrated. We experimentally show the transverse-mode switching of laterally coupled VCSELs, which potentially offers a novel push-pull modulation concept. The calculated results of small-signal responses indicate an extreme expansion of the modulation bandwidth regardless of the relaxation oscillation frequency. The small-signal response was measured by tuning the RF phase of the modulation current in one cavity. A clear eye opening up to 40 Gbps with push-pull modulation has been obtained, whereas the eye pattern with the single-cavity modulation is completely closed.

  1. Single-mode visible and mid-infrared periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator amplified in perylene red doped poly(methyl methacrylate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlup, Philip; W. Baxter, Glenn; McKinnie, Iain T.

    2000-10-01

    We have demonstrated a simple grazing-incidence optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based on periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) capable of generating single-mode visible (619-640 nm) and infrared (3.16-3.77 μm) radiation. The single-mode (poly(methyl methacrylate) disc was used to amplify the signal wavelength up to 114 μJ in a single pass without broadening the optical bandwidth.

  2. Measurement of Single Spin Asymmetry in 3He↑(e, e'K±)X from a Transversely Polarized 3He Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yuxiang [Univ. of Science and Technology, Hefei (China)

    2015-05-01

    Spin-dependent observables are a powerful tool to probe the internal structure of the nucleon and to study the dynamics of the strong interaction. Experimental study of the nucleon spin structure has provided us with many exciting and often surprising results. The so-called "spin crisis" in the 1980s revealed the limitation of naive quark-parton models and led to a worldwide effort to study the nucleon spin structure. However, this effort has been focused mainly on the nucleon's longitudinal spin structure. Recently, when the pioneer work revealed the significant role that transverse spin plays in understanding the full structure of the nucleon and in understanding the dynamics of the strong interaction, the study of the transverse spin structure became the new focus of the worldwide effort. Jefferson Lab (JLab) is located at Newport News, VA, US. It is equipped with the continuous electron beam accelerator facility (CEBAF) and four experimental halls: A, B, C and D. The accelerator can provide a continuous electron beam (2 ns beam bunch) with high polarization (up to ~ 90%) and high current (up to ~ 200μA) for fixed target experiments in all experimental halls. Hall A consists of two standard high-resolution spectrometers (HRS): left HRS (LHRS) and right HRS (RHRS). Another spectrometer, the BigBite spectrometer, can be installed on request by certain experiments. The experiment E06-010 ("Transversity Experiment") at JLab Hall A is the first measurement of the transverse spin structure of the neutron using a transversely polarized 3He target and a 5.89 GeV incident electron beam. The experiment measured target single spin asymmetries (SSA) and beam-target double-pin asymmetries (DSA) in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (SIDIS) and in deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) processes. It also collected inclusive hadron (pion, kaon and proton) production data parasitically. The scattered electrons were detected in the BigBite spectrometer with

  3. Pressure-induced emergence of unusually high-frequency transverse excitations in a liquid alkali metal: Evidence of two types of collective excitations contributing to the transverse dynamics at high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryk, Taras [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Svientsitskii Street, UA-79011 Lviv (Ukraine); Lviv Polytechnic National University, 12 S. Bandera Street, UA-79013 Lviv (Ukraine); Ruocco, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, 5 Piazzale Aldo Moro, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Center for Life Nano Science @Sapienza, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, 295 Viale Regina Elena, I-00161 Roma (Italy); Scopigno, T. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, 5 Piazzale Aldo Moro, I-00185 Roma (Italy); IPCF-CNR, c/o Universita di Roma La Sapienza, 5 Piazzale Aldo Moro, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Seitsonen, Ari P. [Département de Chimie, Université de Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Département de Chimie, École Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2015-09-14

    Unlike phonons in crystals, the collective excitations in liquids cannot be treated as propagation of harmonic displacements of atoms around stable local energy minima. The viscoelasticity of liquids, reflected in transition from the adiabatic to elastic high-frequency speed of sound and in absence of the long-wavelength transverse excitations, results in dispersions of longitudinal (L) and transverse (T) collective excitations essentially different from the typical phonon ones. Practically, nothing is known about the effect of high pressure on the dispersion of collective excitations in liquids, which causes strong changes in liquid structure. Here dispersions of L and T collective excitations in liquid Li in the range of pressures up to 186 GPa were studied by ab initio simulations. Two methodologies for dispersion calculations were used: direct estimation from the peak positions of the L/T current spectral functions and simulation-based calculations of wavenumber-dependent collective eigenmodes. It is found that at ambient pressure, the longitudinal and transverse dynamics are well separated, while at high pressures, the transverse current spectral functions, density of vibrational states, and dispersions of collective excitations yield evidence of two types of propagating modes that contribute strongly to transverse dynamics. Emergence of the unusually high-frequency transverse modes gives evidence of the breakdown of a regular viscoelastic theory of transverse dynamics, which is based on coupling of a single transverse propagating mode with shear relaxation. The explanation of the observed high-frequency shift above the viscoelastic value is given by the presence of another branch of collective excitations. With the pressure increasing, coupling between the two types of collective excitations is rationalized within a proposed extended viscoelastic model of transverse dynamics.

  4. Measurements of the evaporation and hygroscopic response of single fine-mode aerosol particles using a Bessel beam optical trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterell, Michael I; Mason, Bernard J; Carruthers, Antonia E; Walker, Jim S; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J; Reid, Jonathan P

    2014-02-07

    A single horizontally-propagating zeroth order Bessel laser beam with a counter-propagating gas flow was used to confine single fine-mode aerosol particles over extended periods of time, during which process measurements were performed. Particle sizes were measured by the analysis of the angular variation of light scattered at 532 nm by a particle in the Bessel beam, using either a probe beam at 405 nm or 633 nm. The vapour pressures of glycerol and 1,2,6-hexanetriol particles were determined to be 7.5 ± 2.6 mPa and 0.20 ± 0.02 mPa respectively. The lower volatility of hexanetriol allowed better definition of the trapping environment relative humidity profile over the measurement time period, thus higher precision measurements were obtained compared to those for glycerol. The size evolution of a hexanetriol particle, as well as its refractive index at wavelengths 532 nm and 405 nm, were determined by modelling its position along the Bessel beam propagation length while collecting phase functions with the 405 nm probe beam. Measurements of the hygroscopic growth of sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate have been performed on particles as small as 350 nm in radius, with growth curves well described by widely used equilibrium state models. These are the smallest particles for which single-particle hygroscopicity has been measured and represent the first measurements of hygroscopicity on fine mode and near-accumulation mode aerosols, the size regimes bearing the most atmospheric relevance in terms of loading, light extinction and scattering. Finally, the technique is contrasted with other single particle and ensemble methods, and limitations are assessed.

  5. Phonon self-energy corrections to non-zero wavevector phonon modes in single-layer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Paulo; Mafra, Daniela; Sato, Kentaro; Saito, Richiiro; Kong, Jing; Dresselhaus, Mildred

    2012-02-01

    Phonon self-energy corrections have mostly been studied theoretically and experimentally for phonon modes with zone-center (q = 0) wave-vectors. Here, gate-modulated Raman scattering is used to study phonons of a single layer of graphene (1LG) in the frequency range from 2350 to 2750 cm-1, which shows the G* and the G'-band features originating from a double-resonant Raman process with q 0. The observed phonon renormalization effects are different from what is observed for the zone-center q = 0 case. To explain our experimental findings, we explored the phonon self-energy for the phonons with non-zero wave-vectors (q 0) in 1LG in which the frequencies and decay widths are expected to behave oppositely to the behavior observed in the corresponding zone-center q = 0 processes. Within this framework, we resolve the identification of the phonon modes contributing to the G* Raman feature at 2450 cm-1 to include the iTO+LA combination modes with q 0 and the 2iTO overtone modes with q = 0, showing both to be associated with wave-vectors near the high symmetry point K in the Brillouin zone.

  6. Thermal Effects on the Single-Mode Regime of Distributed Modal Filtering Rod Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coscelli, Enrico; Poli, Federica; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard

    2012-01-01

    Power scaling of fiber laser systems requires the development of innovative active fibers, capable of providing high pump absorption, ultralarge effective area, high-order mode suppression, and resilience to thermal effects. Thermally induced refractive index change has been recently appointed...... as one major limitation to the achievable power, causing degradation of the modal properties and preventing to obtain stable diffraction-limited output beam. In this paper, the effects of thermally induced refractive index change on the guiding properties of a double-cladding distributed modal filtering...... rod-type photonic crystal fiber, which exploits resonant coupling with high-index elements to suppress high-order modes, are thoroughly investigated. A computationally efficient model has been developed to calculate the refractive index change due to the thermo-optical effect, and it has been...

  7. Excitation of surface plasmon polariton modes with multiple nitrogen vacancy centers in single nanodiamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shailesh; Lausen, Jens L.; Garcia-Ortiz, Cesar E.; Andersen, Sebastian K. H.; Roberts, Alexander S.; Radko, Ilya P.; Smith, Cameron L. C.; Kristensen, Anders; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamonds are interesting due to their remarkable characteristics that are well suited to applications in quantum-information processing and magnetic field sensing, as well as representing stable fluorescent sources. Multiple NV centers in nanodiamonds (NDs) are especially useful as biological fluorophores due to their chemical neutrality, brightness and room-temperature photostability. Furthermore, NDs containing multiple NV centers also have potential in high-precision magnetic field and temperature sensing. Coupling NV centers to propagating surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes gives a base for lab-on-a-chip sensing devices, allows enhanced fluorescence emission and collection which can further enhance the precision of NV-based sensors. Here, we investigate coupling of multiple NV centers in individual NDs to the SPP modes supported by silver surfaces protected by thin dielectric layers and by gold V-grooves (VGs) produced via the self-terminated silicon etching. In the first case, we concentrate on monitoring differences in fluorescence spectra obtained from a source ND, which is illuminated by a pump laser, and from a scattering ND illuminated only by the fluorescence-excited SPP radiation. In the second case, we observe changes in the average NV lifetime when the same ND is characterized outside and inside a VG. Fluorescence emission from the VG terminations is also observed, which confirms the NV coupling to the VG-supported SPP modes.

  8. Semiconductor laser with longitudinal-mode selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masloboev, Iu. P.; Poltoratskii, E. A.; Suris, R. A.; Shtofich, S. V.

    1980-06-01

    A new method for longitudinal-mode selection in a semiconductor laser is proposed, based on the conversion of such modes into higher-order transverse modes which can subsequently be filtered out. The key element of this design is an interference cell that is based on an active waveguide, consisting of two branches of different length. If this interference cell is placed between the mirrors of a resonator, and if the emission in higher-order modes is suppressed by some device, the new type of laser with longitudinal-mode selection results. Such a laser would emit in a single mode over a broad range of pump currents, and could be used as an exceptionally good light source for integrated optics and high-speed fiber-optics communications.

  9. Single-molecule spectroelectrochemical cross-correlation during redox cycling in recessed dual ring electrode zero-mode waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Donghoon; Crouch, Garrison M; Fu, Kaiyu; Zaino Iii, Lawrence P; Bohn, Paul W

    2017-08-01

    The ability of zero-mode waveguides (ZMW) to guide light into subwavelength-diameter nanoapertures has been exploited for studying electron transfer dynamics in zeptoliter-volume nanopores under single-molecule occupancy conditions. In this work, we report the spectroelectrochemical detection of individual molecules of the redox-active, fluorogenic molecule flavin mononucleotide (FMN) freely diffusing in solution. Our approach is based on an array of nanopore-confined recessed dual ring electrodes, wherein repeated reduction and oxidation of a single molecule at two closely spaced annular working electrodes yields amplified electrochemical signals. We have articulated these structures with an optically transparent bottom, so that the nanopores are bifunctional, exhibiting both nanophotonic and nanoelectrochemical behaviors allowing the coupling between electron transfer and fluorescence dynamics to be studied under redox cycling conditions. We also investigated the electric field intensity in electrochemical ZMWs (E-ZMW) through finite-element simulations, and the amplification of fluorescence by redox cycling agrees well with predictions based on optical confinement effects inside the E-ZMW. Proof-of-principle experiments are conducted showing that electrochemical and fluorescence signals may be correlated to reveal single molecule fluctuations in the array population. Cross-correlation of single molecule fluctuations in amperometric response and single photon emission provides unequivocal evidence of single molecule sensitivity.

  10. Solid-state Er:Yb:glass laser mode-locked by using single-wall carbon nanotube thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Kok Hann; Kikuchi, Kazuro; Goh, Chee S; Set, Sze Y; Grange, Rachel; Haiml, Markus; Schlatter, Adrian; Keller, Ursula

    2007-01-01

    We design single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) thin-film saturable absorbers (SAs) integrated onto semiconductor distributed Bragg reflectors for mode-locking solid-state Er:Yb:glass lasers. We characterize the low nonsaturable loss, high-damage-threshold SWNT SAs and verify their operation up to a pulse fluence of 2 mJ/cm(2). We demonstrate passive fundamental continuous-wave mode locking with and without group-delay dispersion compensation. Without compensation the laser produces chirped 1.8 ps pulses with a spectral width of 3.8 nm. With compensation, we obtain 261 fs Fourier-transform-limited pulses with a spectral width of 9.6 nm.

  11. Single-Channel EMG Classification With Ensemble-Empirical-Mode-Decomposition-Based ICA for Diagnosing Neuromuscular Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Ganesh R; Selvan, S Easter; Nguyen, Hung T

    2016-07-01

    An accurate and computationally efficient quantitative analysis of electromyography (EMG) signals plays an inevitable role in the diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders, prosthesis, and several related applications. Since it is often the case that the measured signals are the mixtures of electric potentials that emanate from surrounding muscles (sources), many EMG signal processing approaches rely on linear source separation techniques such as the independent component analysis (ICA). Nevertheless, naive implementations of ICA algorithms do not comply with the task of extracting the underlying sources from a single-channel EMG measurement. In this respect, the present work focuses on a classification method for neuromuscular disorders that deals with the data recorded using a single-channel EMG sensor. The ensemble empirical mode decomposition algorithm decomposes the single-channel EMG signal into a set of noise-canceled intrinsic mode functions, which in turn are separated by the FastICA algorithm. A reduced set of five time domain features extracted from the separated components are classified using the linear discriminant analysis, and the classification results are fine-tuned with a majority voting scheme. The performance of the proposed method has been validated with a clinical EMG database, which reports a higher classification accuracy (98%). The outcome of this study encourages possible extension of this approach to real settings to assist the clinicians in making correct diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders.

  12. InGaAsP/InP laser development for single-mode, high-data-rate communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladany, I.; Levin, E.R.; Magee, C.W.; Smith, R.T.

    1981-11-01

    Materials studies as well as general and specific device development were carried out in the InGaAsP system. A comparison was made of three standard methods of evaluating substrate quality by means of dislocation studies. A cause of reduced yield of good wafers, the pullover of melt from one bin to the next, has been analyzed. Difficulties with reproducible zinc acceptor doping have been traced to segregation of zinc in the In/Zn alloy used for the doping source. Using EBIC measurments, the pn junction was shown to drift in location depending on factors not always under control. An analysis of contact structures by SIMS showed that the depth to which the sintered Au/Zn contact penetrates into the structure is typically 0.13 microns, or well within the cap layer and out of the p-type cladding and thus not deleterious to laser performance. The problem of single-mode laser development was investigated and it was shown to be related to the growth habit over four different possible substrate configurations. The fabrication of constricted double heterojunctions, mesa stripe buried heterostructures, and buried heterostructures was discussed, and measurements were presented on the device properties of single-mode buried heterostructure lasers. Results include single spectral line emission at 3 mW and a threshold current of 60 mA.

  13. Wide single-mode tuning in quantum cascade lasers with asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer type cavities with separately biased arms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Mei C., E-mail: meizheng@princeton.edu; Gmachl, Claire F. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Liu, Peter Q. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Institute of Quantum Electronics, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Wang, Xiaojun; Fan, Jen-Yu; Troccoli, Mariano [AdTech Optics, Inc., City of Industry, California 91748 (United States)

    2013-11-18

    We report on the experimental demonstration of a widely tunable single mode quantum cascade laser with Asymmetric Mach-Zehnder (AMZ) interferometer type cavities with separately biased arms. Current and, consequently, temperature tuning of the two arms of the AMZ type cavity resulted in a single mode tuning range of 20 cm{sup −1} at 80 K in continuous-wave mode operation, a ten-fold improvement from the lasers under a single bias current. In addition, we also observed a five fold increase in the tuning rate as compared to the AMZ cavities controlled by one bias current.

  14. Sliding-mode control of single input multiple output DC-DC converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Libo; Sun, Yihan; Luo, Tiejian; Wan, Qiyang

    2016-10-01

    Various voltage levels are required in the vehicle mounted power system. A conventional solution is to utilize an independent multiple output DC-DC converter whose cost is high and control scheme is complicated. In this paper, we design a novel SIMO DC-DC converter with sliding mode controller. The proposed converter can boost the voltage of a low-voltage input power source to a controllable high-voltage DC bus and middle-voltage output terminals, which endow the converter with characteristics of simple structure, low cost, and convenient control. In addition, the sliding mode control (SMC) technique applied in our converter can enhance the performances of a certain SIMO DC-DC converter topology. The high-voltage DC bus can be regarded as the main power source to the high-voltage facility of the vehicle mounted power system, and the middle-voltage output terminals can supply power to the low-voltage equipment on an automobile. In the respect of control algorithm, it is the first time to propose the SMC-PID (Proportion Integration Differentiation) control algorithm, in which the SMC algorithm is utilized and the PID control is attended to the conventional SMC algorithm. The PID control increases the dynamic ability of the SMC algorithm by establishing the corresponding SMC surface and introducing the attached integral of voltage error, which endow the sliding-control system with excellent dynamic performance. At last, we established the MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation model, tested performance of the system, and built the hardware prototype based on Digital Signal Processor (DSP). Results show that the sliding mode control is able to track a required trajectory, which has robustness against the uncertainties and disturbances.

  15. Divertor power load studies for attached L-mode single-null plasmas in TCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurizio, R.; Elmore, S.; Fedorczak, N.; Gallo, A.; Reimerdes, H.; Labit, B.; Theiler, C.; Tsui, C. K.; Vijvers, W. A. J.; The TCV Team; The MST1 Team

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the power loads at the inner and outer divertor targets of attached, Ohmic L-mode, deuterium plasmas in the TCV tokamak, in various experimental situations using an Infrared thermography system. The study comprises variations of the outer divertor leg length and target flux expansion, the plasma current and a reversal of the magnetic field direction. The direct impact of the divertor magnetic geometry on scrape-off layer (SOL) transport—parameterised by the SOL power fall-off length λq, u , the divertor spreading factor S u and the in-out power asymmetry—is reported for constant core properties. The in-out power asymmetry increases, either with the divertor leg length, or the target flux expansion. The SOL width λq, u scales positively with divertor leg length, with a strength that depends on the field direction and differs between the inner and outer divertor. This implies a parametric dependence of λq, u that is not explicitly included in current multi-machine scaling laws. The divertor spreading factor at the target S = Su fx , where f x is the target flux expansion, appears unaffected by changes in the divertor geometry and in the plasma current, is independent of the magnetic field direction and is similar between inner and outer divertor. Possible interpretations of these observations using an ad-hoc analytical purely conductive model for the SOL, by ion drifts or by asymmetric turbulent cross-field transport in the divertor are presented. The observed values of λq, u are related to existing L-mode and H-mode scaling laws and to similar studies in other tokamaks. Finally, potential implications of these findings for future larger fusion machines are discussed.

  16. Design optimization of the distributed modal filtering rod fiber for increasing single mode bandwidth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette Marie; Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Laurila, Marko

    2012-01-01

    . Large preform tolerances are compensated during the fiber draw resulting in ultra low NA fibers with very large cores. In this paper, design optimization of the SM bandwidth of the DMF rod fiber is presented. Analysis of band gap properties results in a fourfold increase of the SM bandwidth compared...... to previous results, achieved by utilizing the first band of cladding modes. This covers of a large fraction of the Yb emission band, where wavelengths of 1030 nm and 1064 nm can be included....

  17. Characteristics of the Single-Longitudinal-Mode Planar-Waveguide External Cavity Diode Laser at 1064 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Kenji; Alalusi, Mazin; Stolpner, Lew; Margaritis, Georgios; Camp, Jordan; Krainak, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We describe the characteristics of the planar-waveguide external cavity diode laser (PW-ECL). To the best of our knowledge, it is the first butterfly-packaged 1064 nm semiconductor laser that is stable enough to be locked to an external frequency reference. We evaluated its performance from the viewpoint of precision experiments. Using a hyperfine absorption line of iodine, we suppressed its frequency noise by a factor of up to 104 at 10 mHz. The PWECL's compactness and low cost make it a candidate to replace traditional Nd:YAG nonplanar ring oscillators and fiber lasers in applications that require a single longitudinal mode.

  18. Writing and probing light-induced waveguides thanks to an endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huy, Kien Phan; Safioui, Jassem; Guichardaz, Blandine; Devaux, Fabrice; Chauvet, Mathieu

    2012-07-01

    We demonstrate writing and probing of light-induced waveguides in photorefractive bulk LiNbO3 crystal using an endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber. The optical waveguides are written at visible wavelengths by slightly raising the ferroelectric crystal temperature to benefit from the pyroelectric-driven photorefractive effect and the guiding properties are investigated at telecom wavelengths using the same photonic crystal fiber. End butt coupling with this photonic crystal fiber enables writing and probing of optical waveguides due to the self-alignment properties of spatial solitons.

  19. High-resolution FMCW reflectometry using a single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser

    OpenAIRE

    Iiyama, Koichi; Matsui, Shin Ichiro; Kobayashi, Takao; Maruyama, Takeo

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) reflectometry is realized by using a single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) as a frequency-swept light source for the first time. The optical frequency of the VCSEL is swept by the injection current modulation. The experimental spatial resolution of 250 μm was achieved, which is the best value when an injection current tuned laser diode is used as a frequency-swept light source. © 2011 IEEE.

  20. Rapid communication: Transverse spin with coupled plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Samyobrata; Gopal, A. V.; Gupta, S. Dutta

    2017-08-01

    We study theoretically the transverse spin associated with the eigenmodes of a thin metal film embedded in a dielectric. We show that the transverse spin has a direct dependence on the nature and strength of the coupling leading to two distinct branches for the long- and short-range modes. We show that the short-range mode exhibits larger extraordinary spin because of its more `structured' nature due to higher decay in propagation. In contrast to some of the earlier studies, calculations are performed retaining the full lossy character of the metal. In the limit of vanishing losses, we present analytical results for the extraordinary spin for both the coupled modes. The results can have direct implications for enhancing the elusive transverse spin exploiting the coupled plasmon structures.

  1. Nonlinear theory of transverse beam echoes

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Tanaji; Li, Yuan Shen

    2017-01-01

    Transverse beam echoes can be excited with a single dipole kick followed by a single quadrupole kick. They have been used to measure diffusion in hadron beams and have other diagnostic capabilities. Here we develop theories of the transverse echo nonlinear in both the dipole and quadrupole kick strengths. The theories predict the maximum echo amplitudes and the optimum strength parameters. We find that the echo amplitude increases with smaller beam emittance and the asymptotic echo amplitude ...

  2. Benchmarking of grid fault modes in single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede; Zou, Zhixiang

    2012-01-01

    Pushed by the booming installations of single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems, the grid demands regarding the integration of PV systems are expected to be modified. Hence, the future PV systems should become more active with functionalities of low voltage ride-through (LVRT) and the grid support...

  3. Transversely Compressed- and Restrained Shear Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Hansen, Christian Skodborg

    2013-01-01

    . This paper presents theoretical model which can predict the response of transversely compressed and restrained single- and double lap shear joints. The interface material model is based on a cohesive law in the shear-slip plane with a descending branch and a uniform frictional stress added due...... to the friction in the crack, emanating from the transverse pressure or restraint. The theoretical model is compared with experimental results from transversely compressed single- and double shear joints. Also theoretical predictions of a mechanical integrated sleeve-wedge anchorage load capacity are carried out...

  4. Coherent self-heterodyne detection of spontaneously Brillouin-scattered light waves in a single-mode fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kaoru; Horiguchi, Tsuneo; Koyamada, Yahei; Kurashima, Toshio

    1993-02-01

    Time-domain reflectometry of spontaneous Brillouin scattering in a single-mode optical fiber is performed with a coherent self-heterodyne detection system containing a recently proposed external frequency translator and a single light-wave source. The light wave is divided into probe and reference light waves. The frequency of the probe light wave is upconverted by the translator by an amount approximately equal to the Brillouin frequency shift. The frequency-converted probe is launched into the fiber and spontaneously Brillouin scattered. As the frequency of the scattered probe is downconverted to near that of the reference light wave, coherent self-heterodyne detection of spontaneous Brillouin scattering becomes possible without having to use a fast-speed detector.

  5. A Simple Differential Mode EMI Suppressor for the LLCL-Filter-Based Single-Phase Grid-Tied Transformerless Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Junhao; Wu, Weimin; He, Yuanbin

    2015-01-01

    The single-phase power converter topologies evolving of photovoltaic applications are still including passive filters, like the LCLor LLCL-filter. Compared with the LCL-filter, the total inductance of the LLCL-filter can be reduced a lot. However, due to the resonant inductor in series with the b......The single-phase power converter topologies evolving of photovoltaic applications are still including passive filters, like the LCLor LLCL-filter. Compared with the LCL-filter, the total inductance of the LLCL-filter can be reduced a lot. However, due to the resonant inductor in series...... with the bypass capacitor, the differential mode (DM) electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise attenuation of an LLCL-filter-based grid-tied inverter declines. Conventionally, a capacitor was inserted in parallel with the LC resonant circuit branch of the LLCL-filter to suppress the DM EMI noise. In order...

  6. Adaptable Optical Fiber Displacement-Curvature Sensor Based on a Modal Michelson Interferometer with a Tapered Single Mode Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salceda-Delgado, G.; Martinez-Rios, A.; Selvas-Aguilar, R.; Álvarez-Tamayo, R. I.; Castillo-Guzman, A.; Ibarra-Escamilla, B.; Durán-Ramírez, V. M.; Enriquez-Gomez, L. F.

    2017-01-01

    A compact, highly sensitive optical fiber displacement and curvature radius sensor is presented. The device consists of an adiabatic bi-conical fused fiber taper spliced to a single-mode fiber (SMF) segment with a flat face end. The bi-conical taper structure acts as a modal coupling device between core and cladding modes for the SMF segment. When the bi-conical taper is bent by an axial displacement, the symmetrical bi-conical shape of the tapered structure is stressed, causing a change in the refractive index profile which becomes asymmetric. As a result, the taper adiabaticity is lost, and interference between modes appears. As the bending increases, a small change in the fringe visibility and a wavelength shift on the periodical reflection spectrum of the in-fiber interferometer is produced. The displacement sensitivity and the spectral periodicity of the device can be adjusted by the proper selection of the SMF length. Sensitivities from around 1.93 to 3.4 nm/mm were obtained for SMF length between 7.5 and 12.5 cm. Both sensor interrogations, wavelength shift and visibility contrast, can be used to measure displacement and curvature radius magnitudes. PMID:28574421

  7. Whispering gallery mode single nanoparticle detection and sizing: the validity of the dipole approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Matthew R; Keng, David; Treasurer, Eshan; Lopez, Jehovani R; Arnold, Stephen

    2017-03-01

    Interactions between whispering gallery modes (WGMs) and small nanoparticles are commonly modeled by treating the particle as a point dipole scatterer. This approach is assumed to be accurate as long as the nanoparticle radius, a, is small compared to the WGM wavelength λ. In this Letter, however, we show that the large field gradients associated with the evanescent decay of a WGM causes the dipole theory to significantly underestimate the interaction strength and, hence, the induced WGM resonance shift, even for particles as small as a∼λ/10. To mitigate this issue, we employ a renormalized Born approximation to more accurately determine nanoparticle-induced resonance shifts and, hence, enable improved particle sizing. The domain of validity of this approximation is investigated, and supporting experimental results are presented.

  8. Single-longitudinal mode distributed-feedback fiber laser with low-threshold and high-efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Man; Zhou, Pu; Gu, Xijia

    2018-01-01

    Single-frequency fiber laser has attracted a lot of interest in recent years due to its numerous application potentials in telecommunications, LIDAR, high resolution sensing, atom frequency standard, etc. Phosphate glass fiber is one of the candidates for building compact high gain fiber lasers because of its capability of high-concentration of rare-earth ions doping in fiber core. Nevertheless, it is challenging for the integration of UV-written intra-core fiber Bragg gratings into the fiber laser cavity due to the low photosensitivity of phosphate glass fiber. The research presented in this paper will focus on demonstration of UV-written Bragg gratings in phosphate glass fiber and its application in direct-written short monolithic single-frequency fiber lasers. Strong π-phase shift Bragg grating structure is direct-inscribed into the Er/Yb co-doped gain fiber using an excimer laser, and a 5-cm-long phase mask is used to inscribe a laser cavity into the Er/Yb co-doped phosphate glass fibers. The phase mask is a uniform mask with a 50 μm gap in the middle. The fiber laser device emits output power of 10.44 mW with a slope efficiency of 21.5% and the threshold power is about 42.8 mW. Single-longitudinal mode operation is validated by radio frequency spectrum measurement. Moreover, the output spectrum at the highest power shows an excellent optical signal to noise ratio of about 70 dB. These results, to the best of our knowledge, show the lowest power threshold and highest efficiency among the reports that using the same structure to achieve single-longitudinal mode laser output.

  9. 1.5 W high efficiency and tunable single-longitudinal-mode Ho:YLF ring laser based on Faraday effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Ju, Youlun; Dai, Tongyu; Yao, Baoquan; Wang, Yuezhu

    2017-10-30

    We demonstrated an efficient and tunable single-longitudinal-mode Ho:YLF ring laser based on Faraday effect for application to measure atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Single-longitudinal-mode power at 2051.65 nm achieved 528 mW with the slope efficiency of 39.5% and the M2 factor of 1.07, and the tunable range of about 178 GHz was obtained by inserting a Fabry-Perot (F-P) etalon with the thickness of 0.5 mm. In addition, the maximum single-longitudinal-mode power reached 1.5 W with the injected power of 528 mW at 2051.65 nm by master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) technique. High efficiency and tunable single-longitudinal-mode based on Faraday effect around 2 μm has not been reported yet to the best of our knowledge.

  10. 10 Gbit/s mode-multiplexed QPSK transmission using MDM-to-MFDM based single coherent receiver for intra- and inter data center networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Rameez; Haithem, Mustafa

    2017-05-01

    Generalized few-mode-fiber (FMF) transmission uses N coherent receivers for mode detection, where N scales with the number of fiber modes. Multiple coherent receivers increase the cost of optical network units (ONUs) in access networks, specifically for intra- and inter data center applications. We have experimentally evaluated a cost effective low-complexity receiver architecture based on mode-division multiplexing (MDM) to mode frequency-division multiplexing (MFDM) conversion for data center connectivity. A single coherent receiver is used to efficiently detect 10 Gbit/s QPSK Nyquist signals over 2.8 km 4-LP mode graded index fiber reducing the ONUs complexity to N / 4 . All the transmitted modes are successfully detected below the forward-error-correction (FEC) limit, i.e. 1×10-3 BER.

  11. Strategies for formaldehyde detection in flames and engines using a single-mode Nd:YAG/OPO laser system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackmann, Christian; Li, Zhongshan; Rupinski, Martin; Docquier, Nicolas; Pengloan, Gaelle; Aldén, Marcus

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents technical developments for the detection of formaldehyde (CH2O) using laser-induced fluorescence. The easily accessible third harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser at 355 nm was used for excitation of formaldehyde. In order to investigate potential background fluorescence, e.g., from large molecules such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons, special attention was paid to investigating the possibility of scanning the wavelength of a single-mode Nd:YAG laser under the gain profile, approximately 3 cm(-1), on and off resonance. Furthermore, a technique for simultaneous detection of formaldehyde and OH using one laser system is presented. The single-mode Nd: YAG laser at 355 nm in combination with an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) laser tuned to 283 nm was used for simultaneous two-dimensional imaging of both species using one charge-coupled device (CCD) detector equipped with a dual filter image separator. The techniques are demonstrated with measurements in laboratory flames and the combined measurements are also demonstrated in an engine.

  12. Approaches to building single-stage AC/AC conversion switch-mode audio power amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses the possible topologies and promising approaches towards direct single-phase AC-AC conversion of the mains voltage for audio applications. When compared to standard Class-D switching audio power amplifiers with a separate power supply, it is expected that direct conversion will provide better efficiency and higher level of integration, leading to lower component count, volume and cost, but at the expense of a minor performance deterioration. (au)

  13. Approaches to building single-stage AC/AC conversion switch-mode audio power amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the possible topologies and promising approaches towards direct single-phase AC-AC conversion of the mains voltage for audio applications. When compared to standard Class-D switching audio power amplifiers with a separate power supply, it is expected that direct conversion...... will provide better efficiency and higher level of integration, leading to lower component count, volume and cost, but at the expense of a minor performance deterioration....

  14. Measurement of the single top quark production cross section and |Vt b| in 1.96 TeV p p ¯ collisions with missing transverse energy and jets and final CDF combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Butti, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Cremonesi, M.; Cruz, D.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; d'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; de Barbaro, P.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; D'Errico, M.; Devoto, F.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; Donati, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dorigo, M.; Driutti, A.; Ebina, K.; Edgar, R.; Elagin, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Esham, B.; Farrington, S.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Frisch, H.; Funakoshi, Y.; Galloni, C.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González López, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gramellini, E.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Hahn, S. R.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Harrington-Taber, T.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hocker, A.; Hong, Z.; Hopkins, W.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kambeitz, M.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Knoepfel, K.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Kruse, M.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lannon, K.; Latino, G.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limosani, A.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucà, A.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maestro, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Marchese, L.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, P.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Nigmanov, T.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Palni, P.; Papadimitriou, V.; Parker, W.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Phillips, T. J.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Pranko, A.; Prokoshin, F.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Redondo Fernández, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodriguez, T.; Rolli, S.; Ronzani, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J. L.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Sakurai, Y.; Santi, L.; Sato, K.; Saveliev, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scuri, F.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sforza, F.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber-Tecker, I.; Simonenko, A.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Song, H.; Sorin, V.; St. Denis, R.; Stancari, M.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Thom, J.; Thomson, E.; Thukral, V.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vernieri, C.; Vidal, M.; Vilar, R.; Vizán, J.; Vogel, M.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S. M.; Waters, D.; Wester, W. C.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wilbur, S.; Williams, H. H.; Wilson, J. S.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, H.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wu, Z.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamato, D.; Yang, T.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W.-M.; Yeh, G. P.; Yi, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Zanetti, A. M.; Zeng, Y.; Zhou, C.; Zucchelli, S.; CDF Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    An updated measurement of the single top quark production cross section is presented using the full data set collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF), corresponding to 9.5 fb-1 of integrated luminosity from proton-antiproton collisions at 1.96 TeV center-of-mass energy. The events selected contain an imbalance in the total transverse momentum, jets identified as containing b quarks, and no identified leptons. The sum of the s - and t -channel single top quark cross sections is measured to be 3.5 3-1.16+1.25 pb and a lower limit on the magnitude of the top-to-bottom quark coupling, |Vt b| of 0.63, is obtained at the 95% credibility level. These measurements are combined with previously reported CDF results obtained from events with an imbalance in total transverse momentum, jets identified as originating from b quarks, and one identified lepton. The combined cross section is measured to be 3.0 2-0.48+0.49 pb and a lower limit on |Vt b| of 0.84 is obtained at the 95% credibility level.

  15. Updated Measurement of the Single Top Quark Production Cross Section and $V{tb}$ in the Missing Transverse Energy Plus Jets Topology in $p\\bar{p}$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 1.96$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Aaltonen, Timo Antero; Amidei, Dante E; Anastassov, Anton Iankov; Annovi, Alberto; Antos, Jaroslav; Apollinari, Giorgio; Appel, Jeffrey A; Arisawa, Tetsuo; Artikov, Akram Muzafarovich; Asaadi, Jonathan A; Ashmanskas, William Joseph; Auerbach, Benjamin; Aurisano, Adam J; Azfar, Farrukh A; Badgett, William Farris; Bae, Taegil; Barbaro-Galtieri, Angela; Barnes, Virgil E; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Barria, Patrizia; Bartos, Pavol; Bauce, Matteo; Bedeschi, Franco; Behari, Satyajit; Bellettini, Giorgio; Bellinger, James Nugent; Benjamin, Douglas P; Beretvas, Andrew F; Bhatti, Anwar Ahmad; Bland, Karen Renee; Blumenfeld, Barry J; Bocci, Andrea; Bodek, Arie; Bortoletto, Daniela; Boudreau, Joseph Francis; Boveia, Antonio; Brigliadori, Luca; Bromberg, Carl Michael; Brucken, Erik; Budagov, Ioulian A; Budd, Howard Scott; Burkett, Kevin Alan; Busetto, Giovanni; Bussey, Peter John; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buzatu, Adrian; Calamba, Aristotle; Camarda, Stefano; Campanelli, Mario; Canelli, Florencia; Carls, Benjamin; Carlsmith, Duncan L; Carosi, Roberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Casal Larana, Bruno; Casarsa, Massimo; Castro, Andrea; Catastini, Pierluigi; Cauz, Diego; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Chen, Yen-Chu; Chertok, Maxwell Benjamin; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chlachidze, Gouram; Cho, Kihyeon; Chokheli, Davit; Clark, Allan Geoffrey; Clarke, Christopher Joseph; Convery, Mary Elizabeth; Conway, John Stephen; Corbo, Matteo; Cordelli, Marco; Cox, Charles Alexander; Cox, David Jeremy; Cremonesi, Matteo; Cruz Alonso, Daniel; Cuevas Maestro, Javier; Culbertson, Raymond Lloyd; D'Ascenzo, Nicola; Datta, Mousumi; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demortier, Luc M; Deninno, Maria Maddalena; D'Errico, Maria; Devoto, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruzza, Benedetto; Dittmann, Jay Richard; Donati, Simone; D'Onofrio, Monica; Dorigo, Mirco; Driutti, Anna; Ebina, Koji; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Elagin, Andrey L; Erbacher, Robin D; Errede, Steven Michael; Esham, Benjamin; Farrington, Sinead Marie; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Field, Richard D; Flanagan, Gene U; Forrest, Robert David; Franklin, Melissa EB; Freeman, John Christian; Frisch, Henry J; Funakoshi, Yujiro; Galloni, Camilla; Garfinkel, Arthur F; Garosi, Paola; Gerberich, Heather Kay; Gerchtein, Elena A; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Gibson, Karen Ruth; Ginsburg, Camille Marie; Giokaris, Nikos D; Giromini, Paolo; Glagolev, Vladimir; Glenzinski, Douglas Andrew; Gold, Michael S; Goldin, Daniel; Golossanov, Alexander; Gomez, Gervasio; Gomez-Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim T; González López, Oscar; Gorelov, Igor V; Goshaw, Alfred T; Goulianos, Konstantin A; Gramellini, Elena; Grosso-Pilcher, Carla; Group, Robert Craig; Guimaraes da Costa, Joao; Hahn, Stephen R; Han, Ji-Yeon; Happacher, Fabio; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Matthew Frederick; Harr, Robert Francis; Harrington-Taber, Timothy; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Hays, Christopher Paul; Heinrich, Joel G; Herndon, Matthew Fairbanks; Hocker, James Andrew; Hong, Ziqing; Hopkins, Walter Howard; Hou, Suen Ray; Hughes, Richard Edward; Husemann, Ulrich; Hussein, Mohammad; Huston, Joey Walter; Introzzi, Gianluca; Iori, Maurizio; Ivanov, Andrew Gennadievich; James, Eric B; Jang, Dongwook; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha Anjalike; Jeon, Eun-Ju; Jindariani, Sergo Robert; Jones, Matthew T; Joo, Kyung Kwang; Jun, Soon Yung; Junk, Thomas R; Kambeitz, Manuel; Kamon, Teruki; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kasmi, Azeddine; Kato, Yukihiro; Ketchum, Wesley Robert; Keung, Justin Kien; Kilminster, Benjamin John; Kim, DongHee; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Min Jeong; Kim, Shin-Hong; Kim, Soo Bong; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kirby, Michael H; Knoepfel, Kyle James; Kondo, Kunitaka; Kong, Dae Jung; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Kotwal, Ashutosh Vijay; Kreps, Michal; Kroll, IJoseph; Kruse, Mark Charles; Kuhr, Thomas; Kurata, Masakazu; Laasanen, Alvin Toivo; Lammel, Stephan; Lancaster, Mark; Lannon, Kevin Patrick; Latino, Giuseppe; Lee, Hyun Su; Lee, Jaison; Leo, Sabato; Leone, Sandra; Lewis, Jonathan D; Limosani, Antonio; Lipeles, Elliot David; Lister, Alison; Liu, Hao; Liu, Qiuguang; Liu, Tiehui Ted; Lockwitz, Sarah E; Loginov, Andrey Borisovich; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucà, Alessandra; Lueck, Jan; Lujan, Paul Joseph; Lukens, Patrick Thomas; Lungu, Gheorghe; Lys, Jeremy E; Lysak, Roman; Madrak, Robyn Leigh; Maestro, Paolo; Malik, Sarah Alam; Manca, Giulia; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Marchese, Luigi; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marino, Christopher Phillip; Matera, Keith; Mattson, Mark Edward; Mazzacane, Anna; Mazzanti, Paolo; McNulty, Ronan; Mehta, Andrew; Mehtala, Petteri; Mesropian, Christina; Miao, Ting; Mietlicki, David John; Mitra, Ankush; Miyake, Hideki; Moed, Shulamit; Moggi, Niccolo; Moon, Chang-Seong; Moore, Ronald Scott; Morello, Michael Joseph; Mukherjee, Aseet; Muller, Thomas; Murat, Pavel A; Mussini, Manuel; Nachtman, Jane Marie; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Naganoma, Junji; Nakano, Itsuo; Napier, Austin; Nett, Jason Michael; Neu, Christopher Carl; Nigmanov, Turgun S; Nodulman, Lawrence J; Noh, Seoyoung; Norniella Francisco, Olga; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oh, Seog Hwan; Oh, Young-do; Oksuzian, Iuri Artur; Okusawa, Toru; Orava, Risto Olavi; Ortolan, Lorenzo; Pagliarone, Carmine Elvezio; Palencia, Jose Enrique; Palni, Prabhakar; Papadimitriou, Vaia; Parker, William Chesluk; Pauletta, Giovanni; Paulini, Manfred; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Phillips, Thomas J; Pianori, Elisabetta; Pilot, Justin Robert; Pitts, Kevin T; Plager, Charles; Pondrom, Lee G; Poprocki, Stephen; Potamianos, Karolos Jozef; Pranko, Aliaksandr Pavlovich; Prokoshin, Fedor; Ptohos, Fotios K; Punzi, Giovanni; Redondo Fernández, Ignacio; Renton, Peter B; Rescigno, Marco; Rimondi, Franco; Ristori, Luciano; Robson, Aidan; Rodriguez, Tatiana Isabel; Rolli, Simona; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roser, Robert Martin; Rosner, Jonathan L; Ruffini, Fabrizio; Ruiz Jimeno, Alberto; Russ, James S; Rusu, Vadim Liviu; Sakumoto, Willis Kazuo; Sakurai, Yuki; Santi, Lorenzo; Sato, Koji; Saveliev, Valeri; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schlabach, Philip; Schmidt, Eugene E; Schwarz, Thomas A; Scodellaro, Luca; Scuri, Fabrizio; Seidel, Sally C; Seiya, Yoshihiro; Semenov, Alexei; Sforza, Federico; Shalhout, Shalhout Zaki; Shears, Tara G; Shepard, Paul F; Shimojima, Makoto; Shochet, Melvyn J; Shreyber-Tecker, Irina; Simonenko, Alexander V; Sliwa, Krzysztof Jan; Smith, John Rodgers; Snider, Frederick Douglas; Song, Hao; Sorin, Maria Veronica; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stancari, Michelle Dawn; Stentz, Dale James; Strologas, John; Sudo, Yuji; Sukhanov, Alexander I; Suslov, Igor M; Takemasa, Ken-ichi; Takeuchi, Yuji; Tang, Jian; Tecchio, Monica; Teng, Ping-Kun; Thom, Julia; Thomson, Evelyn Jean; Thukral, Vaikunth; Toback, David A; Tokar, Stanislav; Tollefson, Kirsten Anne; Tomura, Tomonobu; Tonelli, Diego; Torre, Stefano; Torretta, Donatella; Totaro, Pierluigi; Trovato, Marco; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Uozumi, Satoru; Velev, Gueorgui; Vellidis, Konstantinos; Vernieri, Caterina; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Vizán Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Vogel, Marcelo; Volpi, Guido; Vázquez-Valencia, Elsa Fabiola; Wagner, Peter; Wallny, Rainer S; Wang, Song-Ming; Waters, David S; Wester, William Carl; Whiteson, Daniel O; Wicklund, Arthur Barry; Wilbur, Scott; Williams, Hugh H; Wilson, Jonathan Samuel; Wilson, Peter James; Winer, Brian L; Wittich, Peter; Wolbers, Stephen A; Wolfe, Homer; Wright, Thomas Roland; Wu, Xin; Wu, Zhenbin; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Yamato, Daisuke; Yang, Tingjun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yu Chul; Yao, Wei-Ming; Yeh, Gong Ping; Yi, Kai; Yoh, John; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Takuo; Yu, Geum Bong; Yu, Intae; Zanetti, Anna Maria; Zeng, Yu; Zhou, Chen; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2016-02-26

    An updated measurement of the single top quark production cross section is presented using the full data set collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and corresponding to 9.5 fb${}^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity from proton-antiproton collisions at 1.96 TeV center-of-mass energy. The events selected contain an imbalance in the total transverse energy, jets identified as originating from $b$ quarks, and no identified leptons. The sum of the $s$- and $t$-channel single top quark cross sections is measured to be $3.53_{-1.16}^{+1.25}$ pb and a lower limit on $V_{tb}$ of 0.63 is obtained at the 95% credibility level. These measurements are combined with previously reported CDF results obtained from events with an imbalance in total transverse energy, jets identified as originating from $b$ quarks, and exactly one identified lepton. The combined cross section is measured to be $3.02_{-0.48}^{+0.49}$ pb and a lower limit on $V{tb}$ of 0.84 is obtained at the 95% credibility level.

  16. Displacement-enhanced entanglement distillation of single-mode-squeezed entangled states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Anders; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that entanglement distillation of Gaussian entangled states by means of local photon subtraction can be improved by local Gaussian transformations. Here we show that a similar effect can be expected for the distillation of an asymmetric Gaussian entangled state that is produced...... by a single squeezed beam. We show that for low initial entanglement, our largely simplified protocol generates more entanglement than previous proposed protocols. Furthermore, we show that the distillation scheme also works efficiently on decohered entangled states as well as with a practical photon...

  17. Non-Hermitian engineering of single mode two dimensional laser arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Teimourpour, Mohammad H; Christodoulides, Demetrios N; El-Ganainy, Ramy

    2016-01-01

    A new scheme for building two dimensional laser arrays that operate in the single supermode regime is proposed. This is done by introducing an optical coupling between the laser array and a lossy pseudo-isospectral chain of photonic resonators. The spectrum of this discrete reservoir is tailored to suppress all the supermodes of the main array except the fundamental one. This spectral engineering is facilitated by employing the Householder transformation in conjunction with discrete supersymmetry. The proposed scheme is general and can in principle be used in different platforms such as VCSEL arrays and photonic crystal laser arrays.

  18. The frequency of single-bicycle crashes (SBCs) in countries with varying bicycle mode shares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schepers, Paul; Agerholm, Niels; Amoros, Emmanuelle

    In  order  to  encourage  cycling,  we  need  to  reduce  the  hazards  that  cyclists  face. Single-bicycle crashes or ‘bicycle-only crashes’ are falls and obstacle collisions in which only one cyclist is involved. Between 60 and 95% of cyclists admitted to hospital or treated at an emergency...... department are victims of single-bicycle crashes. As proportion of the total number of traffic casualties  the  share  exceeds  20%  in  most  countries  with  medium  to  high  levels  of cycling.  This paper  discusses  the  prevalence  of  the  problem  and  describes  measures  that  may  both reduce...

  19. Transverse angular momentum in topological photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei-Min; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Fu-Li; Dong, Jian-Wen

    2018-01-01

    Engineering local angular momentum of structured light fields in real space enables applications in many fields, in particular, the realization of unidirectional robust transport in topological photonic crystals with a non-trivial Berry vortex in momentum space. Here, we show transverse angular momentum modes in silicon topological photonic crystals when considering transverse electric polarization. Excited by a chiral external source with either transverse spin angular momentum or transverse phase vortex, robust light flow propagating along opposite directions is observed in several kinds of sharp-turn interfaces between two topologically-distinct silicon photonic crystals. A transverse orbital angular momentum mode with alternating phase vortex exists at the boundary of two such photonic crystals. In addition, unidirectional transport is robust to the working frequency even when the ring size or location of the pseudo-spin source varies in a certain range, leading to the superiority of the broadband photonic device. These findings enable one to make use of transverse angular momentum, a kind of degree of freedom, to achieve unidirectional robust transport in the telecom region and other potential applications in integrated photonic circuits, such as on-chip robust delay lines.

  20. Transverse Spin Results From PHENIX

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Feng

    2011-01-01

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider explores the spin structure of the proton in polarized p+p collisions at center-of-mass energies up to 500 GeV. Tremendous experimental and theoretical progress has been made toward understanding the physics involved with transversely polarized beams or targets in recent years. Not only nucleon structure and parton distribution functions but also QCD dynamics have been studied in various physics processes in high-energy polarized DIS and p+p collisions. In the 2006 and 2008 RHIC runs, the PHENIX experiment took a significant amount of transversely polarized p+p collision data at 200 GeV center-of-mass energy, with an integrated luminosity of 8 $pb^{-1}$ and beam polarizations up to 50%. Single spin asymmetries of different probes have been measured in mid- and forward-rapidities. In this report, we present the latest transverse spin results from the PHENIX experiment and discuss briefly the prospects of future transverse spin physics with the PHENIX...

  1. Non-Geiger-Mode Single-Photon Avalanche Detector with Low Excess Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Lo, YuHwa; Farr, William

    2010-01-01

    This design constitutes a self-resetting (gain quenching), room-temperature operational semiconductor single-photon-sensitive detector that is sensitive to telecommunications optical wavelengths and is scalable to large areas (millimeter diameter) with high bandwidth and efficiencies. The device can detect single photons at a 1,550-nm wavelength at a gain of 1 x 10(exp 6). Unlike conventional single photon avalanche detectors (SPADs), where gain is an extremely sensitive function to the bias voltage, the multiplication gain of this device is stable at 1 x 10(exp 6) over a wide range of bias from 30.2 to 30.9 V. Here, the multiplication gain is defined as the total number of charge carriers contained in one output pulse that is triggered by the absorption of a single photon. The statistics of magnitude of output signals also shows that the device has a very narrow pulse height distribution, which demonstrates a greatly suppressed gain fluctuation. From the histograms of both pulse height and pulse charge, the equivalent gain variance (excess noise) is between 1.001 and 1.007 at a gain of 1 x 10(exp 6). With these advantages, the device holds promise to function as a PMT-like photon counter at a 1,550- nm wavelength. The epitaxial layer structure of the device allows photons to be absorbed in the InGaAs layer, generating electron/hole (e-h) pairs. Driven by an electrical field in InGaAs, electrons are collected at the anode while holes reach the multiplication region (InAlAs p-i-n structure) and trigger the avalanche process. As a result, a large number of e-h pairs are created, and the holes move toward the cathode. Holes created by the avalanche process gain large kinetic energy through the electric field, and are considered hot. These hot holes are cooled as they travel across a p -InAlAs low field region, and are eventually blocked by energy barriers formed by the InGaAsP/ InAlAs heterojunctions. The composition of the InGaAsP alloy was chosen to have an 80 me

  2. Trapped-Ion Quantum Simulation of an Ising Model with Transverse and Longitudinal Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    where Ωi is the Rabi frequency of the ith ion, M is the single ion mass, and bi,m is the normal-mode transformation matrix for ion i in mode m [17...transverse and longitudinal magnetic fields By(t) and Bx drive Rabi oscillations between the spin states |↓〉z and |↑〉z. Each effective field is gener...finding the lowest energy arrangement of q charged particles on N lattice sites. The creation of such periodic spin structures realizes a generalized Wigner

  3. Whispering Gallery mode ESR spectroscopy and parameters measurement in single crystal SrLaAlO4 at millikelvin temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosain, M. A.; Le Floch, J.-M.; Krupka, J.; Tobar, M. E.

    2017-08-01

    A cylindrical single crystal SrLaAlO4 Whispering Gallery mode dielectric resonator was cooled to millikelvin temperature using a dilution refrigerator. By controlling a DC-magnetic field, impurity ions' spins were coupled to a variety of modes allowing the measurement of hybrid spin-photon systems. This Electron Spin Resonance mapping technique allowed us to detect Cu2+,Fe3+ and Mn4+ impurity ions (at the level of parts per million (ppm) to parts per billion (ppb)), verified by the measurement of the spin parameters along with their site symmetry. Whispering Gallery modes exhibited Q-factors ⩾105 at a temperature less than 20mK , allowing sensitive spectroscopy with high precision. Measured hyperfine line constants of the Cu2+ ion shows different parallel g-factors, g‖Cu , of 2.526, 2.375, 2.246 and 2.142 . The spin-orbit coupling constant of the Cu2+ ion was determined to be λ ≃ - 635cm-1 . The low-spin state Fe3+ ion's measured parallel g-factor, g‖Fe , of 2.028 reveals tetragonal anisotropy. The Mn4+ ion is identified in the lattice, producing hyperfine structure with high-valued g-factors,g‖Mn , of 7.789, 7.745, 7.688, 7.613, 7.5304 and 7.446 . The hyperfine structures of the Cu2+ and Mn4+ ions show broadening of about 79G between 9.072GHz and 10.631GHz , and 24.5G broadening between 9.072GHz and 14.871GHz , respectively.

  4. Sensor system for multi-point monitoring using bending loss of single mode optical fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heon Young; Kim, Dae Hyun [Seoul National University of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Applications of smart sensors have been extended to safety systems in the aerospace, transportation and civil engineering fields. In particular, structural health monitoring techniques using smart sensors have gradually become necessary and have been developed to prevent dangers to human life and damage to assets. Generally, smart sensors are based on electro-magnets and have several weaknesses, including electro-magnetic interference and distortion. Therefore, fiber optic sensors are an outstanding alternative to overcome the weaknesses of electro-magnetic sensors. However, they require expensive devices and complex systems. This paper proposes a new, affordable and simple sensor system that uses a single fiber to monitor pressures at multiple-points. Moreover, a prototype of the sensor system was manufactured and tested for a feasibility study. Based on the results of this experimental test, a relationship was carefully observed between the bend loss conditions and light-intensity. As a result, it was shown that impacts at multiple-points could be monitored.

  5. Measurement of the Single Top Quark Production Cross Section and |Vtb| in Events with One Charged Lepton, Large Missing Transverse Energy, and Jets at CDF

    CERN Document Server

    Aaltonen, Timo Antero; Amidei, Dante E; Anastassov, Anton Iankov; Annovi, Alberto; Antos, Jaroslav; Apollinari, Giorgio; Appel, Jeffrey A; Arisawa, Tetsuo; Artikov, Akram Muzafarovich; Asaadi, Jonathan A; Ashmanskas, William Joseph; Auerbach, Benjamin; Aurisano, Adam J; Azfar, Farrukh A; Badgett, William Farris; Bae, Taegil; Barbaro-Galtieri, Angela; Barnes, Virgil E; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Barria, Patrizia; Bartos, Pavol; Bauce, Matteo; Bedeschi, Franco; Behari, Satyajit; Bellettini, Giorgio; Bellinger, James Nugent; Benjamin, Douglas P; Beretvas, Andrew F; Bhatti, Anwar Ahmad; Bland, Karen Renee; Blumenfeld, Barry J; Bocci, Andrea; Bodek, Arie; Bortoletto, Daniela; Boudreau, Joseph Francis; Boveia, Antonio; Brigliadori, Luca; Bromberg, Carl Michael; Brucken, Erik; Budagov, Ioulian A; Budd, Howard Scott; Burkett, Kevin Alan; Busetto, Giovanni; Bussey, Peter John; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buzatu, Adrian; Calamba, Aristotle; Camarda, Stefano; Campanelli, Mario; Canelli, Florencia; Carls, Benjamin; Carlsmith, Duncan L; Carosi, Roberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Casal Larana, Bruno; Casarsa, Massimo; Castro, Andrea; Catastini, Pierluigi; Cauz, Diego; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Chen, Yen-Chu; Chertok, Maxwell Benjamin; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chlachidze, Gouram; Cho, Kihyeon; Chokheli, Davit; Clark, Allan Geoffrey; Clarke, Christopher Joseph; Convery, Mary Elizabeth; Conway, John Stephen; Corbo, Matteo; Cordelli, Marco; Cox, Charles Alexander; Cox, David Jeremy; Cremonesi, Matteo; Cruz Alonso, Daniel; Cuevas Maestro, Javier; Culbertson, Raymond Lloyd; D'Ascenzo, Nicola; Datta, Mousumi; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demortier, Luc M; Deninno, Maria Maddalena; D'Errico, Maria; Devoto, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruzza, Benedetto; Dittmann, Jay Richard; Donati, Simone; D'Onofrio, Monica; Dorigo, Mirco; Driutti, Anna; Ebina, Koji; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Elagin, Andrey L; Erbacher, Robin D; Errede, Steven Michael; Esham, Benjamin; Farrington, Sinead Marie; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Field, Richard D; Flanagan, Gene U; Forrest, Robert David; Franklin, Melissa EB; Freeman, John Christian; Frisch, Henry J; Funakoshi, Yujiro; Galloni, Camilla; Garfinkel, Arthur F; Garosi, Paola; Gerberich, Heather Kay; Gerchtein, Elena A; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Gibson, Karen Ruth; Ginsburg, Camille Marie; Giokaris, Nikos D; Giromini, Paolo; Glagolev, Vladimir; Glenzinski, Douglas Andrew; Gold, Michael S; Goldin, Daniel; Golossanov, Alexander; Gomez, Gervasio; Gomez-Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim T; González López, Oscar; Gorelov, Igor V; Goshaw, Alfred T; Goulianos, Konstantin A; Gramellini, Elena; Grosso-Pilcher, Carla; Group, Robert Craig; Guimaraes da Costa, Joao; Hahn, Stephen R; Han, Ji-Yeon; Happacher, Fabio; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Matthew Frederick; Harr, Robert Francis; Harrington-Taber, Timothy; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Hays, Christopher Paul; Heinrich, Joel G; Herndon, Matthew Fairbanks; Hocker, James Andrew; Hong, Ziqing; Hopkins, Walter Howard; Hou, Suen Ray; Hughes, Richard Edward; Husemann, Ulrich; Hussein, Mohammad; Huston, Joey Walter; Introzzi, Gianluca; Iori, Maurizio; Ivanov, Andrew Gennadievich; James, Eric B; Jang, Dongwook; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha Anjalike; Jeon, Eun-Ju; Jindariani, Sergo Robert; Jones, Matthew T; Joo, Kyung Kwang; Jun, Soon Yung; Junk, Thomas R; Kambeitz, Manuel; Kamon, Teruki; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kasmi, Azeddine; Kato, Yukihiro; Ketchum, Wesley Robert; Keung, Justin Kien; Kilminster, Benjamin John; Kim, DongHee; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Min Jeong; Kim, Shin-Hong; Kim, Soo Bong; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kirby, Michael H; Knoepfel, Kyle James; Kondo, Kunitaka; Kong, Dae Jung; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Kotwal, Ashutosh Vijay; Kreps, Michal; Kroll, IJoseph; Kruse, Mark Charles; Kuhr, Thomas; Kurata, Masakazu; Laasanen, Alvin Toivo; Lammel, Stephan; Lancaster, Mark; Lannon, Kevin Patrick; Latino, Giuseppe; Lee, Hyun Su; Lee, Jaison; Leo, Sabato; Leone, Sandra; Lewis, Jonathan D; Limosani, Antonio; Lipeles, Elliot David; Lister, Alison; Liu, Hao; Liu, Qiuguang; Liu, Tiehui Ted; Lockwitz, Sarah E; Loginov, Andrey Borisovich; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucà, Alessandra; Lueck, Jan; Lujan, Paul Joseph; Lukens, Patrick Thomas; Lungu, Gheorghe; Lys, Jeremy E; Lysak, Roman; Madrak, Robyn Leigh; Maestro, Paolo; Malik, Sarah Alam; Manca, Giulia; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Marchese, Luigi; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marino, Christopher Phillip; Matera, Keith; Mattson, Mark Edward; Mazzacane, Anna; Mazzanti, Paolo; McNulty, Ronan; Mehta, Andrew; Mehtala, Petteri; Mesropian, Christina; Miao, Ting; Mietlicki, David John; Mitra, Ankush; Miyake, Hideki; Moed, Shulamit; Moggi, Niccolo; Moon, Chang-Seong; Moore, Ronald Scott; Morello, Michael Joseph; Mukherjee, Aseet; Muller, Thomas; Murat, Pavel A; Mussini, Manuel; Nachtman, Jane Marie; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Naganoma, Junji; Nakano, Itsuo; Napier, Austin; Nett, Jason Michael; Neu, Christopher Carl; Nigmanov, Turgun S; Nodulman, Lawrence J; Noh, Seoyoung; Norniella Francisco, Olga; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oh, Seog Hwan; Oh, Young-do; Oksuzian, Iuri Artur; Okusawa, Toru; Orava, Risto Olavi; Ortolan, Lorenzo; Pagliarone, Carmine Elvezio; Palencia, Jose Enrique; Palni, Prabhakar; Papadimitriou, Vaia; Parker, William Chesluk; Pauletta, Giovanni; Paulini, Manfred; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Phillips, Thomas J; Pianori, Elisabetta; Pilot, Justin Robert; Pitts, Kevin T; Plager, Charles; Pondrom, Lee G; Poprocki, Stephen; Potamianos, Karolos Jozef; Pranko, Aliaksandr Pavlovich; Prokoshin, Fedor; Ptohos, Fotios K; Punzi, Giovanni; Redondo Fernández, Ignacio; Renton, Peter B; Rescigno, Marco; Rimondi, Franco; Ristori, Luciano; Robson, Aidan; Rodriguez, Tatiana Isabel; Rolli, Simona; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roser, Robert Martin; Rosner, Jonathan L; Ruffini, Fabrizio; Ruiz Jimeno, Alberto; Russ, James S; Rusu, Vadim Liviu; Sakumoto, Willis Kazuo; Sakurai, Yuki; Santi, Lorenzo; Sato, Koji; Saveliev, Valeri; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schlabach, Philip; Schmidt, Eugene E; Schwarz, Thomas A; Scodellaro, Luca; Scuri, Fabrizio; Seidel, Sally C; Seiya, Yoshihiro; Semenov, Alexei; Sforza, Federico; Shalhout, Shalhout Zaki; Shears, Tara G; Shepard, Paul F; Shimojima, Makoto; Shochet, Melvyn J; Shreyber-Tecker, Irina; Simonenko, Alexander V; Sliwa, Krzysztof Jan; Smith, John Rodgers; Snider, Frederick Douglas; Song, Hao; Sorin, Maria Veronica; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stancari, Michelle Dawn; Stentz, Dale James; Strologas, John; Sudo, Yuji; Sukhanov, Alexander I; Suslov, Igor M; Takemasa, Ken-ichi; Takeuchi, Yuji; Tang, Jian; Tecchio, Monica; Teng, Ping-Kun; Thom, Julia; Thomson, Evelyn Jean; Thukral, Vaikunth; Toback, David A; Tokar, Stanislav; Tollefson, Kirsten Anne; Tomura, Tomonobu; Tonelli, Diego; Torre, Stefano; Torretta, Donatella; Totaro, Pierluigi; Trovato, Marco; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Uozumi, Satoru; Velev, Gueorgui; Vellidis, Konstantinos; Vernieri, Caterina; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Vizán Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Vogel, Marcelo; Volpi, Guido; Vázquez-Valencia, Elsa Fabiola; Wagner, Peter; Wallny, Rainer S; Wang, Song-Ming; Waters, David S; Wester, William Carl; Whiteson, Daniel O; Wicklund, Arthur Barry; Wilbur, Scott; Williams, Hugh H; Wilson, Jonathan Samuel; Wilson, Peter James; Winer, Brian L; Wittich, Peter; Wolbers, Stephen A; Wolfe, Homer; Wright, Thomas Roland; Wu, Xin; Wu, Zhenbin; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Yamato, Daisuke; Yang, Tingjun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yu Chul; Yao, Wei-Ming; Yeh, Gong Ping; Yi, Kai; Yoh, John; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Takuo; Yu, Geum Bong; Yu, Intae; Zanetti, Anna Maria; Zeng, Yu; Zhou, Chen; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2014-12-31

    We report a measurement of single top quark production in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of \\sqrt{s} = 1.96 TeV using a data set corresponding to 7.5 fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. We select events consistent with the single top quark decay process t \\to Wb \\to l{\

  6. Modeling satellite-Earth quantum channel downlinks with adaptive-optics coupling to single-mode fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruneisen, Mark T.; Flanagan, Michael B.; Sickmiller, Brett A.

    2017-10-01

    The efficient coupling of photons from a free-space quantum channel into a single-mode optical fiber (SMF) has important implications to quantum network concepts involving SMF interfaces to quantum detectors, atomic systems, integrated photonics and direct coupling to a fiber network. Propagation through atmospheric turbulence however leads to wavefront errors that degrade mode-matching with SMFs. In a free-space quantum channel, this leads to photon losses in proportion to the severity of the aberration. This is particularly problematic for satellite-Earth quantum channels where atmospheric turbulence can lead to significant wavefront errors. This report considers propagation from a transmitter in low-Earth orbit to a terrestrial ground station and evaluates the efficiency with which photons couple either through a circular field stop or into a SMF situated in the focal plane of the optical receiver. The effects of atmospheric turbulence on the quantum channel are calculated numerically and quantified through the quantum bit error rate and secure key generation rates in a decoy-state BB84 protocol. Numerical simulations include the statistical nature of Kolmogorov turbulence, sky radiance, and an adaptive optics system under closed loop control.

  7. Second-order distributed-feedback surface plasmon resonator for single-mode fiber end-facet biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zeyu; Zhou, Xin; Yang, Jie; He, Xiaolong; Wang, Yalin; Yang, Tian

    2017-04-01

    Integrating surface plasmon resonance (SPR) devices upon single-mode fiber (SMF) end facets renders label-free biosensing systems that have a dip-and-read configuration, high compatibility with fiber-optic techniques, and in vivo monitoring capability, which however meets the challenge to match the performance of free-space counterparts. We report a second-order distributed feedback (DFB) SPR cavity on an SMF end facet and its application in protein interaction analysis. In our device, a periodic array of nanoslits in a gold film is used to couple fiber guided lightwaves to surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) with its first order spatial Fourier component, while the second order spatial Fourier component provides DFB to SPP propagation and produces an SPP bandgap. A phase shift section in the DFB structure introduces an SPR defect state within the SPP bandgap, whose mode profile is optimized to match that of the SMF to achieve a reasonable coupling efficiency. We report an experimental refractive index sensitivity of 628 nm RIU-1, a figure-of-merit of 80 RIU-1, and a limit of detection of 7 × 10-6 RIU. The measurement of the real-time interaction between human immunoglobulin G molecules and their antibodies is demonstrated.

  8. ANALYTICAL EXPRESSION FOR THE ELECTRIC FIELD OF THE SINGLE MODE LASER HOMOGENEOUS BROADENING IN THE PULSE REGIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ayadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The simplest model of the laser is that of a single mode system homogenously broadened. The dynamical behavior of this laser is described by three differential equations, called Haken-Lorenz equations[1],  similar to the Lorenz model [1] already known to predict deterministic chaos. In previous recent work [5-7] we have proposed a simple harmonic expansion method to obtain a series of harmonics terms that yield analytical solutions to the laser equations. ¶This method allows us to derive an analytical expression of the laser field amplitude  when this last  undergoes a  periodic oscillations around zero mean value. We also obtain an analytical expression of the pulsing frequency.

  9. Nonlinear processes associated with the amplification of MHz-linewidth laser pulses in single-mode Tm:fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sincore, Alex; Bodnar, Nathan; Bradford, Joshua; Abdulfattah, Ali; Shah, Lawrence; Richardson, Martin C.

    2017-03-01

    This work studies the accumulated nonlinearities when amplifying a narrow linewidth 2053 nm seed in a single mode Tm:fiber amplifier. A fiberized acousto-optic modulator. This enables independent control of repetition rate and pulse duration (>30 ns). The pulses are subsequently amplified and the repetition rate is further reduced using a second acousto-optic modulator. It is well known that spectral degradation occurs in such fibers for peak powers over 100's of watts due to self-phase modulation, four-wave mixing, and stimulated Raman scattering. In addition to enabling a thorough test bed to study such spectral broadening, this system will also enable the investigation of stimulated Brillouin scattering thresholds in the same system. This detailed study of the nonlinearities encountered in 2 μm fiber amplifiers is important in a range of applications from telecommunications to the amplification of ultrashort laser pulses.

  10. Laser vibrometer based on optical-feedback-induced frequency modulation of a single-mode laser diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, P A; Stephens, M; Wieman, C E

    1996-12-01

    We describe a sensitive and inexpensive vibrometer based on optical feedback by diffuse scattering to a single-mode diode laser. Fluctuations in the diode laser's operating frequency that are due to scattered light from a vibrating surface are used to detect the amplitude and frequency of surface vibrations. An additional physical vibration of the laser provides an absolute amplitude calibration. The fundamental bandwidth is determined by the laser response time of roughly 10(-9)s. A noise floor of 0.23 nm/Hz(1/2) at 30 kHz with 5 × 10(-5) of the incident light returning is demonstrated. This instrument provides an inexpensive and sensitive method of noncontact measurement in solid materials with low or uneven reflectivity. It can be used as a vibration or velocity sensor.

  11. Fiber powered sensing system for a long reach single mode fiber link and non-continuous applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosolem, J. B.; Bassan, F. R.; Pereira, F. R.; Penze, R. S.; Leonardi, A. A.; Nascimento, C. A. M.

    2014-05-01

    This work describes a non-continuous sensor operating technique in order to achieve a long reach sensing system, using power over fiber (PoF) in single mode fiber (SMF). Due to the use of super-capacitors and logical circuits in the sensor unit, the energy provided by PoF can be stored and used in an appropriated time. We demonstrated this approach with a micro video camera sensor powered by a 4.4-km SMF link in laboratory and by a 1.6-km link using optical ground wire cable (OPWG), installed between an electrical power substation and a tower of 138-kV overhead transmission line (OTL).

  12. Surface micromachined tunable 1.55 μm-VCSEL with 102 nm continuous single-mode tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, C; Gruendl, T; Debernardi, P; Zogal, K; Grasse, C; Davani, H A; Böhm, G; Jatta, S; Küppers, F; Meissner, P; Amann, M-C

    2011-08-29

    For the first time a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a single-mode wavelength-tuning over 102 nm in the range of 1550 nm is demonstrated. The fiber-coupled optical output power has a maximum of 3.5 mW and is > 2 mW over the entire tuning range. The sidemode suppression ratios are > 45 dB. The wavelength tuning is achieved with the micro-electro mechanical actuation of a mirror membrane fabricated with surface micro-machining for on-wafer mass production. The mirror membrane consists of low cost dielectric materials (SiOx/SiNy) deposited with low temperature (< 100°C) Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD).

  13. High-quality Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on a microcavity in single-multi-single mode fiber structure for refractive index sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Wu, Guoqiang; Gao, Renxi; Qu, Shiliang

    2017-02-01

    A fiber inline Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) based on a microcavity with two symmetric openings in single-multi-single mode fiber (SMSF) structure is proposed. By using the finite difference beam propagation method (FD-BPM), the interference spectrum simulation result shows that the MZI can still have high-quality interference even if the microcavity deviates along the radial direction for 3 μm. Therefore, it allows a larger fabrication tolerance and tremendously decreases the fabrication difficulty. Then a microcavity with two symmetric openings in SMSF was fabricated by using femtosecond laser-induced water breakdown. The insertion loss of the microcavity immerged in water is only -8  dB, and the MZ interference peak contrast in the transmission spectrum reaches more than 30 dB. The MZI based on the microcavity in SMSF can be used as a practical liquid refractive index sensor as its high-quality interference spectrum, ultrahigh sensitivity (9756.75 nm/RIU), high refractive index resolution (2×10-5  RIU), good linearity (99.93%), and low-temperature crosstalk (0.04 nm/°C).

  14. Single Spatial-Mode Room-Temperature-Operated 3.0 to 3.4 micrometer Diode Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frez, Clifford F.; Soibel, Alexander; Belenky, Gregory; Shterengas, Leon; Kipshidze, Gela

    2010-01-01

    Compact, highly efficient, 3.0 to 3.4 m light emitters are in demand for spectroscopic analysis and identification of chemical substances (including methane and formaldehyde), infrared countermeasures technologies, and development of advanced infrared scene projectors. The need for these light emitters can be currently addressed either by bulky solid-state light emitters with limited power conversion efficiency, or cooled Interband Cascade (IC) semiconductor lasers. Researchers here have developed a breakthrough approach to fabrication of diode mid-IR lasers that have several advantages over IC lasers used for the Mars 2009 mission. This breakthrough is due to a novel design utilizing the strain-engineered quantum-well (QW) active region and quinternary barriers, and due to optimization of device material composition and growth conditions (growth temperatures and rates). However, in their present form, these GaSb-based laser diodes cannot be directly used as a part of sensor systems. The device spectrum is too broad to perform spectroscopic analysis of gas species, and operating currents and voltages are too high. In the current work, the emitters were fabricated as narrow-ridge waveguide index-guided lasers rather than broad stripe-gain guided multimode Fabry-Perot (FP) lasers as was done previously. These narrow-ridge waveguide mid-IR lasers exhibit much lower power consumptions, and can operate in a single spatial mode that is necessary for demonstration of single-mode distributed feedback (DBF) devices for spectroscopic applications. These lasers will enable a new generation of compact, tunable diode laser spectrometers with lower power consumption, reduced complexity, and significantly reduced development costs. These lasers can be used for the detection of HCN, C2H2, methane, and ethane.

  15. Time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of the 3D single-mode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian

    The Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability (RMI) (Commun. Pure Appl. Math 23, 297-319, 1960; Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR Maekh. Zhidk. Gaza. 4, 151-157, 1969) occurs due to an impulsive acceleration acting on a perturbed interface between two fluids of different densities. In the experiments presented in this thesis, single mode 3D RMI experiments are performed. An oscillating speaker generates a single mode sinusoidal initial perturbation at an interface of two gases, air and SF6. A Mach 1.19 shock wave accelerates the interface and generates the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability. Both gases are seeded with propylene glycol particles which are illuminated by an Nd: YLF pulsed laser. Three high-speed video cameras record image sequences of the experiment. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is applied to measure the velocity field. Measurements of the amplitude for both spike and bubble are obtained, from which the growth rate is measured. For both spike and bubble experiments, amplitude and growth rate match the linear stability theory at early time, but fall into a non-linear region with amplitude measurements lying between the modified 3D Sadot et al. model ( Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1654-1657, 1998) and the Zhang & Sohn model (Phys. Fluids 9. 1106-1124, 1997; Z. Angew. Math Phys 50. 1-46, 1990) at late time. Amplitude and growth rate curves are found to lie above the modified 3D Sadot et al. model and below Zhang & Sohn model for the spike experiments. Conversely, for the bubble experiments, both amplitude and growth rate curves lie above the Zhang & Sohn model, and below the modified 3D Sadot et al. model. Circulation is also calculated using the vorticity and velocity fields from the PIV measurements. The calculated circulation are approximately equal and found to grow with time, a result that differs from the modified Jacobs and Sheeley's circulation model (Phys. Fluids 8, 405-415, 1996).

  16. Measurement of the cross-section of high transverse momentum vector bosons reconstructed as single jets and studies of jet substructure in $pp$ collisions at ${\\sqrt{s}}$ = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Astbury, Alan; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Branchini, Paolo; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christidi, Ilektra-Athanasia; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliot, Frederic; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Demirkoz, Bilge; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Dwuznik, Michal; Ebke, Johannes; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Engelmann, Roderich; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Matthew; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giunta, Michele; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Grybel, Kai; Guan, Liang; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Heisterkamp, Simon; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lambourne, Luke; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Le, Bao Tran; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Losty, Michael; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Dörthe; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Moeller, Victoria; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pizio, Caterina; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rez