WorldWideScience

Sample records for single test reducing

  1. SINGLE HEATER TEST FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.B. Cho

    1999-05-01

    The Single Heater Test is the first of the in-situ thermal tests conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of its program of characterizing Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site for a proposed deep geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. The Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988) contained an extensive plan of in-situ thermal tests aimed at understanding specific aspects of the response of the local rock-mass around the potential repository to the heat from the radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. With the refocusing of the Site Characterization Plan by the ''Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan'' (DOE 1994), a consolidated thermal testing program emerged by 1995 as documented in the reports ''In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (DOE 1995) and ''Updated In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (CRWMS M&O 1997a). The concept of the Single Heater Test took shape in the summer of 1995 and detailed planning and design of the test started with the beginning fiscal year 1996. The overall objective of the Single Heater Test was to gain an understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes that are anticipated to occur in the local rock-mass in the potential repository as a result of heat from radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. This included making a priori predictions of the test results using existing models and subsequently refining or modifying the models, on the basis of comparative and interpretive analyses of the measurements and predictions. A second, no less important, objective was to try out, in a full-scale field setting, the various instruments and equipment to be employed in the future on a much larger, more complex, thermal test of longer duration, such as the Drift Scale Test. This ''shake down'' or trial aspect of the Single Heater Test applied

  2. SINGLE HEATER TEST FINAL REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.B. Cho

    1999-01-01

    The Single Heater Test is the first of the in-situ thermal tests conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of its program of characterizing Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site for a proposed deep geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. The Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988) contained an extensive plan of in-situ thermal tests aimed at understanding specific aspects of the response of the local rock-mass around the potential repository to the heat from the radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. With the refocusing of the Site Characterization Plan by the ''Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan'' (DOE 1994), a consolidated thermal testing program emerged by 1995 as documented in the reports ''In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (DOE 1995) and ''Updated In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (CRWMS M and O 1997a). The concept of the Single Heater Test took shape in the summer of 1995 and detailed planning and design of the test started with the beginning fiscal year 1996. The overall objective of the Single Heater Test was to gain an understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes that are anticipated to occur in the local rock-mass in the potential repository as a result of heat from radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. This included making a priori predictions of the test results using existing models and subsequently refining or modifying the models, on the basis of comparative and interpretive analyses of the measurements and predictions. A second, no less important, objective was to try out, in a full-scale field setting, the various instruments and equipment to be employed in the future on a much larger, more complex, thermal test of longer duration, such as the Drift Scale Test. This ''shake down'' or trial aspect of the Single Heater Test applied not just to the hardware, but also to the teamwork and cooperation between

  3. Single event upset test programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russen, L.C.

    1984-11-01

    It has been shown that the heavy ions in cosmic rays can give rise to single event upsets in VLSI random access memory devices (RAMs). Details are given of the programs written to test 1K, 4K, 16K and 64K memories during their irradiation with heavy charged ions, in order to simulate the effects of cosmic rays in space. The test equipment, which is used to load the memory device to be tested with a known bit pattern, and subsequently interrogate it for upsets, or ''flips'', is fully described. (author)

  4. Reducing deaths in single vehicle collisions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adminaite, D. Jost, G. Stipdonk, H. & Ward, H.

    2017-01-01

    A third of road deaths in the EU are caused by collisions that involve a single motorised vehicle where the driver, rider and/or passengers are killed but no other road users are involved. These single vehicle collisions (SVCs), and how to prevent them occurring, are the subject of this report.

  5. Single Event Effect (SEE) Test Planning 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Pellish, Jonathan; Berg, Melanie D.

    2011-01-01

    This is a course on SEE Test Plan development. It is an introductory discussion of the items that go into planning an SEE test that should complement the SEE test methodology used. Material will only cover heavy ion SEE testing and not proton, LASER, or other though many of the discussed items may be applicable. While standards and guidelines for how-to perform single event effects (SEE) testing have existed almost since the first cyclotron testing, guidance on the development of SEE test plans has not been as easy to find. In this section of the short course, we attempt to rectify this lack. We consider the approach outlined here as a "living" document: mission specific constraints and new technology related issues always need to be taken into account. We note that we will use the term "test planning" in the context of those items being included in a test plan.

  6. Active power decoupling with reduced converter stress for single ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SUJATA BHOWMICK

    The analysis and the simulation results are shown to prove the effectiveness of the topology. Keywords. Single phase; double-frequency ripple; active power decoupling; reduced stress; reliability. 1. Introduction. The single-phase power electronic converters interfacing a. DC storage system or a DC source have the inherent.

  7. Laboratory tests for single-event effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchner, S.; McMorrow, D.; Melinger, J.; Campbell, A.B.

    1996-01-01

    Integrated circuits are currently tested at accelerators for their susceptibility to single-event effects (SEE's). However, because of the cost and limited accessibility associated with accelerator testing, there is considerable interest in developing alternate testing methods. Two laboratory techniques for measuring SEE, one involving a pulsed laser and the other 252 Cf, are described in detail in this paper. The pulsed laser provides information on the spatial and temporal dependence of SEE, information that has proven invaluable in understanding and mitigating SEE in spite of the differences in the physical mechanisms responsible for SEE induced by light and by ions. Considerable effort has been expended on developing 252 Cf as a laboratory test for SEE, but the technique has not found wide use because it is severely limited by the low energy and short range of the emitted ions that are unable to reach junctions either covered with dielectric layers or deep below the surface. In fact, there are documented cases where single-event latchup (SEL) testing with 252 Cf gave significantly different results from accelerator testing. A detailed comparison of laboratory and accelerator SEE data is presented in this review in order to establish the limits of each technique

  8. NEXT Single String Integration Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulas, George C.; Patterson, Michael J.; Pinero, Luis; Herman, Daniel A.; Snyder, Steven John

    2010-01-01

    As a critical part of NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) test validation process, a single string integration test was performed on the NEXT ion propulsion system. The objectives of this test were to verify that an integrated system of major NEXT ion propulsion system elements meets project requirements, to demonstrate that the integrated system is functional across the entire power processor and xenon propellant management system input ranges, and to demonstrate to potential users that the NEXT propulsion system is ready for transition to flight. Propulsion system elements included in this system integration test were an engineering model ion thruster, an engineering model propellant management system, an engineering model power processor unit, and a digital control interface unit simulator that acted as a test console. Project requirements that were verified during this system integration test included individual element requirements ; integrated system requirements, and fault handling. This paper will present the results of these tests, which include: integrated ion propulsion system demonstrations of performance, functionality and fault handling; a thruster re-performance acceptance test to establish baseline performance: a risk-reduction PMS-thruster integration test: and propellant management system calibration checks.

  9. Reducing single-use plastic shopping bags in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Travis P

    2017-12-01

    In the USA, local governments have the primary responsibility to manage MSW. However, local governments lack the authority to explicitly shift costs or responsibility back onto the producer for specific problem wastes. A particularly problematic waste for local governments is the single-use plastic bag. In 2014, in the USA, 103.465 billion single-use plastic shopping bags were consumed. Because of their extremely low recyclability rate, plastic bags remain a significant source of land-based litter and marine debris and impair stormwater management systems. They also reduce the effectiveness of automated recycling systems. In response, local governments increasingly have adopted a variety of measures specifically intended to reduce the store-level consumption of single-use shopping bags in 5 major categories: bans, imposition of fees and taxes, establishing minimum product design of bags, requiring consumer education, and mandating retailer take-back programs. As of September 2017, there were 271 local governments in the USA with plastic bag ordinances covering 9.7% of the nation's population. The majority (95%) of the ordinances is a ban on single-use plastic bags; 56.9% of these bans also include a mandatory fee on paper and/or reusable bags. For the fee-based ordinances, the mode is $0.10 per bag; every tax/fee ordinance allows retailers to retain some or all the collected fee. As local governments continue to increase their actions on plastic bags, 11 states have enacted laws to prohibit local governments from regulating single-use plastic bags. Because of the success with single-use bags, local governments are also enacting similar ordinances on single-use expanded polystyrene consumer products and other single-use plastic products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Improving Single Event Effects Testing Through Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banker, M. W.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation encountered in space environments can be damaging to microelectronics and potentially cause spacecraft failure. Single event effects (SEE) are a type of radiation effect that occur when an ion strikes a device. Single event gate rupture (SEGR) is a type of SEE that can cause failure in power transistors. Unlike other SEE rates in which a constant linear energy transfer (LET) can be used, SEGR rates sometimes require a non-uniform LET to be used to be accurate. A recent analysis shows that SEGR rates are most easily calculated when the environment is described as a stopping rate per unit volume for each ion species. Stopping rates in silicon for pertinent ions were calculated using the Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) software and CREME-MC software. A reference table was generated and can be used by others to calculate SEGR rates for a candidate device. Additionally, lasers can be used to simulate SEEs, providing more control and information at lower cost than heavy ion testing. The electron/hole pair generation rate from a laser pulse in a semiconductor can be related to the LET of an ion. MATLAB was used to generate a plot to easily make this comparison.

  11. Testing Procedure for the Single Fiber Fragmentation Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feih, Stefanie; Wonsyld, Karen; Minzari, Daniel

    , specimens with one E-glass fiber placed inside an epoxy or polyester matrix were used. Elongating the specimens with a mini tensile tester, which was placed under a microscope, leads to fiber fragmentations. Different bonding strengths between fiber and matrix result in differences in the critical fracture......This report describes the details of the single fiber fragmentation test as conducted at the materials research department (AFM) at Risø. The equipment and specimen manufacture is described in detail. Furthermore, examples of results interpretation are given. For the experiments in this report...... length for the fiber and fracture characteristics....

  12. 49 CFR 238.311 - Single car test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Single car test. 238.311 Section 238.311... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.311 Single car test. (a) Except for self-propelled passenger cars, single car tests of all passenger cars and all unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains shall...

  13. Optical properties of reduced lithium niobate single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Ajay; Mansingh, Abhai

    1990-12-01

    The optical transmission of LiNbO3 single crystals has been measured in the wavelength range 200-900 nm, for different degrees of reduction, to study the effect of reduction on the optical characteristics of LiNbO3 near the fundamental absorption edge. The optical transitions in LiNbO3 were found to be indirect and the band gap decreased with increasing degree of reduction. The band observed at 2.48 eV in the absorption spectrum in heavily reduced samples has been attributed to the formation of polarons, and the theoretical model of Reik and Heese [J. Chem. Solids 28, 581 (1967)] for small polarons is used to correlate the optical and electrical properties.

  14. New EPA Guidance for Testing Pesticides Will Reduce Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is issuing guidance for requesting waivers of acute dermal toxicity testing requirements for pesticide formulations, which will lead to fewer animal tests for acute dermal toxicity for pesticides.

  15. RCT Testing Bystander Effectiveness to Reduce Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Ann L; Bush, Heather M; Cook-Craig, Patricia G; DeGue, Sarah A; Clear, Emily R; Brancato, Candace J; Fisher, Bonnie S; Recktenwald, Eileen A

    2017-05-01

    Bystander-based programs have shown promise to reduce interpersonal violence at colleges, yet limited rigorous evaluations have addressed bystander intervention effectiveness in high schools. This study evaluated the Green Dot bystander intervention to reduce sexual violence and related forms of interpersonal violence in 26 high schools over 5 years. A cluster RCT was conducted. Kentucky high schools were randomized to intervention or control (wait list) conditions. Green Dot-trained educators conducted schoolwide presentations and recruited student popular opinion leaders to receive bystander training in intervention schools beginning in Year 1. The primary outcome was sexual violence perpetration, and related forms of interpersonal violence victimization and perpetration were also measured using anonymous student surveys collected at baseline and annually from 2010 to 2014. Because the school was the unit of analysis, violence measures were aggregated by school and year and school-level counts were provided. A total of 89,707 students completed surveys. The primary, as randomized, analyses conducted in 2014-2016 included linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations to examine the condition-time interaction on violence outcomes. Slopes of school-level totals of sexual violence perpetration (condition-time, pviolence perpetration in the intervention relative to control schools were 0.83 (95% CI=0.70, 0.99) in Year 3 and 0.79 (95% CI=0.67, 0.94) in Year 4. Similar patterns were observed for sexual violence victimization, sexual harassment, stalking, and dating violence perpetration and victimization. Implementation of Green Dot in Kentucky high schools significantly decreased not only sexual violence perpetration but also other forms of interpersonal violence perpetration and victimization. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Single Event Testing on Complex Devices: Test Like You Fly versus Test-Specific Design Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework for evaluating complex digital systems targeted for harsh radiation environments such as space. Focus is limited to analyzing the single event upset (SEU) susceptibility of designs implemented inside Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices. Tradeoffs are provided between application-specific versus test-specific test structures.

  17. Reduced Interference from Memory Testing: A Postretrieval Monitoring Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Benton H.; Gallo, David A.; McCain, Jason L.

    2017-01-01

    Initial learning can interfere with subsequent learning (proactive interference [PI]), but recent work indicates initial testing can reduce PI. Here, we tested 2 alternative hypotheses of this effect: Does testing reduce PI by constraining retrieval to the target list, or by facilitating a postretrieval monitoring process? Participants first…

  18. Towards single screening tests for brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.; Smith, P.; Yu, W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) and a fluorescence polarisation assay (FPA), each capable of detecting antibody in several species of hosts to smooth and rough members of the genus Brucella. The I-ELISA uses a mixture of smooth lipopolysaccharide (SLPS...... than did I-ELISA procedures using each individual antigen separately. Similarly, the assay using combined antigens detected antibody in slightly fewer animals not exposed to Brucella sp. When a universal cutoff of 10% positivity was used (relative to strongly positive control sera of each species......-ELISA and the FPA with combined antigens were suitable as screening tests for all species of Brucella in the animal species tested....

  19. Columbia University flow instability experimental program: Volume 6. Single annulus tests, transient test program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dougherty, T.; Maciuca, C.; McAssey, E.V. Jr.; Reddy, D.G.; Yang, B.W.

    1992-09-01

    The coolant in the Savannah River Site (SRS) production nuclear reactor assemblies is circulated as a subcooled liquid under normal operating conditions. This coolant is evenly distributed throughout multiple annular flow channels with a uniform pressure profile across each coolant flow channel. During the postulated Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), which is initiated by a hypothetical guillotine pipe break, the coolant flow through the reactor assemblies is significantly reduced. The flow reduction and accompanying power reduction (after shutdown is initiated) occur in the first 1 to 2 seconds of the LOCA. This portion of the LOCA is referred to as the Flow Instability phase. This report presents the experimental results for the transient portion of the single annulus test program. The test program was designed to investigate the onset of flow instability in an annular geometry similar to the MARK 22 reactor. The test program involved testing of both a ribless heater and a ribbed heater under steady state as well as transient conditions. The ribbed heater testing is currently underway and will be reported separately. The steady state portion of this test program with ribless heater was completed and reported in report No. CU-HTRF-T3A. The present report presents transient test results obtained from a ribless, uniform annulus test section. A total of thirty five transients were conducted with six cases in which flow excursion occurred. No unstable conditions resulted for tests in which the steady state Q{sub ratio} OFI limit was not exceeded.

  20. Active power decoupling with reduced converter stress for single ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Single-phase DC–AC power electronic converters suffer from pulsating power at double the line frequency. The commonest practice to handle the issue is to provide a huge electrolytic capacitor for smoothening out the ripple. However, the electrolytic capacitors having short end of lifetime limit the overall lifetime of the ...

  1. BRCA Testing by Single-Molecule Molecular Inversion Probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neveling, K.; Mensenkamp, A.R.; Derks, R; Kwint, M.P.; Ouchene, H.; Steehouwer, M.; Lier, L.A. van; Bosgoed, E.A.J.; Rikken, A.; Tychon, M.W.J.; Zafeiropoulou, D.; Castelein, S.; Hehir-Kwa, J.Y.; Thung, G.W.; Hofste, T.; Lelieveld, S.H.; Bertens, S.M.; Adan, I.B.; Eijkelenboom, A.; Tops, B.B.J.; Yntema, H.G.; Stokowy, T.; Knappskog, P.M.; Hoberg-Vetti, H.; Steen, V.M.; Boyle, E.; Martin, B.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Shendure, J.; Nelen, M.R.; Hoischen, A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite advances in next generation DNA sequencing (NGS), NGS-based single gene tests for diagnostic purposes require improvements in terms of completeness, quality, speed, and cost. Single-molecule molecular inversion probes (smMIPs) are a technology with unrealized potential in the

  2. Single-shell tank riser resistance to ground test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiewert, L.R.

    1996-01-01

    This Test Procedure provides the general directions for conducting Single-Shell Tank Riser to Earth Measurements which will be used by engineering as a step towards providing closure for the Lightning Hazard Issue

  3. A single hole tracer test to determine longitudinal dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noy, D.J.; Holmes, D.C.

    1986-03-01

    The paper concerns a single hole tracer test to determine longitudinal dispersion, which is an important parameter in assessing the suitability of a site for radioactive waste disposal. The theory, equipment and procedure for measuring longitudinal dispersion in a single borehole is described. Results are presented for field trials conducted in an aquifer, where the technique produced good results. The measured value of longitudinal dispersion, from a single hole test, relates only to a limited volume of rock immediately adjacent to the borehole. (U.K.)

  4. Reduced TCA Flux in Diabetic Myotubes: Determined by Single Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaster, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The diabetic phenotype is complex, requiring elucidation of key initiating defects. Diabetic myotubes express a primary reduced tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux but at present it is unclear in which part of the TCA cycle the defect is localised. In order to localise the defect we studied ATP production in isolated mitochondria from substrates entering the TCA cycle at various points. ATP production was measured by luminescence with or without concomitant ATP utilisation by hexokinase in mitochondria isolated from myotubes established from eight lean and eight type 2 diabetic subjects. The ATP production of investigated substrate combinations was significantly reduced in mitochondria isolated from type 2 diabetic subjects compared to lean. However, when ATP synthesis rates at different substrate combinations were normalized to the corresponding individual pyruvate-malate rate, there was no significant difference between groups. These results show that the primary reduced TCA cycle flux in diabetic myotubes is not explained by defects in specific part of the TCA cycle but rather results from a general downregulation of the TCA cycle.

  5. A method for testing bullets at reduced velocity

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Reconstruction of shooting events occasionally requires testing of bullets at velocities significantly below the typical muzzle velocity of cartridge arms. Trajectory, drag, and terminal performance depend strongly on velocity, and realistic results require accurately reconstructing the velocity. A method is presented for testing bullets at reduced velocities by loading the bullet into a sabot and firing from a muzzle loading rifle with a suitably reduced powder charge. Powder charges can be ...

  6. Reduced enrichment for research and test reactors: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    The 15th annual Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) international meeting was organized by Ris{o} National Laboratory in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency and Argonne National Laboratory. The topics of the meeting were the following: National Programs, Fuel Fabrication, Licensing Aspects, States of Conversion, Fuel Testing, and Fuel Cycle. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  7. Reduced enrichment for research and test reactors: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The 15th annual Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) international meeting was organized by Ris oe National Laboratory in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency and Argonne National Laboratory. The topics of the meeting were the following: National Programs, Fuel Fabrication, Licensing Aspects, States of Conversion, Fuel Testing, and Fuel Cycle. Individual papers have been cataloged separately

  8. A triangulating operating platform enhances bimanual performance and reduces surgical workload in single-incision laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Erwin; Martinec, Danny V; Cassera, Maria A; Goers, Trudie A; Dunst, Christy M; Swanstrom, Lee L

    2011-03-01

    Single-site laparoscopy (SSL) attempts to further reduce the surgical impact of minimally invasive surgery. However, crossed instruments and the proximity of the endoscope to the operating instruments placed through one single site leads to inevitable instrument or trocar collision. We hypothesized that a novel, single-port, triangulating surgical platform (SPSP) might enhance performance by improving bimanual coordination and decreasing the surgeon's mental workload. Fourteen participants, proficient in basic laparoscopic skills, were tested on their ability to perform a validated intracorporeal suturing task by either an SSL approach with crossed articulated instruments or a novel SPSP, providing true-right and true-left manipulation. Standard laparoscopic (SL) access served as control. Sutures were evaluated using validated scoring methods and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index was used to rate mental workload. All participants proficiently performed intracorporeal knots by SL (mean score 99.0; 95% CI 97.0 to 100.9). Performance decreased significantly (more than 50%, p mental workload when using true-right and true-left manipulation. This study objectively assessed SSL performance and current attempts for instrumentation improvement in single-site access. While SSL significantly impairs basic laparoscopic skills, surgical platforms providing true-left and true-right maneuvering of instruments appear to be more intuitive and address some of the current challenges of SSL that may otherwise limit its widespread acceptance. Copyright © 2011 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 49 CFR 232.305 - Single car air brake tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... from a train or when placed on a shop or repair track, as defined in § 232.303(a); (2) A car is on a shop or repair track, as defined in § 232.303(a), for any reason and has not received a single car air... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Single car air brake tests. 232.305 Section 232...

  10. The effects of isolated single umbilical artery on first and second trimester aneuploidy screening test parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulek, Firat; Kahraman, Alper; Taskin, Salih; Ozkavukcu, Esra; Soylemez, Feride

    2015-04-01

    Reliability of first and second trimester screening tests largely depends on accurate estimation of maternal serum marker values. Reduced reliability could lead redundant invasive tests or misdiagnosis. Adjustments of serum marker values for confounding factors like insulin-dependent diabetes, maternal weight or maternal rhesus status are essential. We aimed to investigate whether isolated single umbilical artery alters first and second trimester test parameters or not. Routine detailed obstetric ultrasonographies performed were retrospectively screened for this study. Among spontaneously conceived singleton pregnancies, women who were found to have single umbilical artery without any additional structural anomalies or aneuploidies were selected. First and second trimester screening test results were accessible for 98 and 102 of the cases with isolated single umbilical artery, respectively. Among first trimester screening test parameters, PAPP-A (pregnancy-associated plasma protein A) MoMs were found significantly higher in isolated single umbilical artery group. AFP MoMs were found significantly elevated in isolated single umbilical artery group in second trimester quadruple tests. Existence of single umbilical artery could alter the estimation of MoM values of maternal serum markers. Reliability of prenatal screening tests could be improved by adjusting these parameters in accordance with isolated single umbilical artery.

  11. Reducing unnecessary lab testing in the ICU with artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cismondi, F; Celi, L A; Fialho, A S; Vieira, S M; Reti, S R; Sousa, J M C; Finkelstein, S N

    2013-05-01

    To reduce unnecessary lab testing by predicting when a proposed future lab test is likely to contribute information gain and thereby influence clinical management in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. Recent studies have demonstrated that frequent laboratory testing does not necessarily relate to better outcomes. Data preprocessing, feature selection, and classification were performed and an artificial intelligence tool, fuzzy modeling, was used to identify lab tests that do not contribute an information gain. There were 11 input variables in total. Ten of these were derived from bedside monitor trends heart rate, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, temperature, blood pressure, and urine collections, as well as infusion products and transfusions. The final input variable was a previous value from one of the eight lab tests being predicted: calcium, PTT, hematocrit, fibrinogen, lactate, platelets, INR and hemoglobin. The outcome for each test was a binary framework defining whether a test result contributed information gain or not. Predictive modeling was applied to recognize unnecessary lab tests in a real world ICU database extract comprising 746 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. Classification accuracy of necessary and unnecessary lab tests of greater than 80% was achieved for all eight lab tests. Sensitivity and specificity were satisfactory for all the outcomes. An average reduction of 50% of the lab tests was obtained. This is an improvement from previously reported similar studies with average performance 37% by [1-3]. Reducing frequent lab testing and the potential clinical and financial implications are an important issue in intensive care. In this work we present an artificial intelligence method to predict the benefit of proposed future laboratory tests. Using ICU data from 746 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding, and eleven measurements, we demonstrate high accuracy in predicting the likely information to be gained from proposed future

  12. Reducing unnecessary lab testing in the ICU with artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cismondi, F.; Celi, L.A.; Fialho, A.S.; Vieira, S.M.; Reti, S.R.; Sousa, J.M.C.; Finkelstein, S.N.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To reduce unnecessary lab testing by predicting when a proposed future lab test is likely to contribute information gain and thereby influence clinical management in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. Recent studies have demonstrated that frequent laboratory testing does not necessarily relate to better outcomes. Design Data preprocessing, feature selection, and classification were performed and an artificial intelligence tool, fuzzy modeling, was used to identify lab tests that do not contribute an information gain. There were 11 input variables in total. Ten of these were derived from bedside monitor trends heart rate, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, temperature, blood pressure, and urine collections, as well as infusion products and transfusions. The final input variable was a previous value from one of the eight lab tests being predicted: calcium, PTT, hematocrit, fibrinogen, lactate, platelets, INR and hemoglobin. The outcome for each test was a binary framework defining whether a test result contributed information gain or not. Patients Predictive modeling was applied to recognize unnecessary lab tests in a real world ICU database extract comprising 746 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. Main results Classification accuracy of necessary and unnecessary lab tests of greater than 80% was achieved for all eight lab tests. Sensitivity and specificity were satisfactory for all the outcomes. An average reduction of 50% of the lab tests was obtained. This is an improvement from previously reported similar studies with average performance 37% by [1–3]. Conclusions Reducing frequent lab testing and the potential clinical and financial implications are an important issue in intensive care. In this work we present an artificial intelligence method to predict the benefit of proposed future laboratory tests. Using ICU data from 746 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding, and eleven measurements, we demonstrate high accuracy in predicting the

  13. Reducing Electromagnetic Interference in a Grid Tied Single Phase Power Inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE IN A GRID TIED SINGLE PHASE POWER INVERTER by Jason Hassan Valiani September 2016 Thesis Advisor: Giovanna Oriti...3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE REDUCING ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE IN A GRID TIED SINGLE PHASE POWER...The addition of a passive filter proved to minimize the conducted EMI for a single -phase grid-tied inverter. 14. SUBJECT TERMS single -phase

  14. Hybrid Testing of Composite Structures with Single-Axis Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldbjørn, Jacob Paamand; Høgh, Jacob Herold; Stang, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid testing is a substructuring technique where a structure is emulated by modelling a part of it in a numerical model while testing the remainder experimentally. Previous research in hybrid testing has been performed on multi-component structures e.g. damping fixtures, however in this paper...... a hybrid testing platform is introduced for single-component hybrid testing. In this case, the boundary between the numerical model and experimental setup is defined by multiple Degrees-Of-Freedoms (DOFs) which highly complicate the transferring of response between the two substructures. Digital Image...... Correlation (DIC) is therefore implemented for displacement control of the experimental setup. The hybrid testing setup was verified on a multicomponent structure consisting of a beam loaded in three point bending and a numerical structure of a frame. Furthermore, the stability of the hybrid testing loop...

  15. European accelerator facilities for single event effects testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, L.; Nickson, R.; Harboe-Sorensen, R. [ESA-ESTEC, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Hajdas, W.; Berger, G.

    1997-03-01

    Single event effects are an important hazard to spacecraft and payloads. The advances in component technology, with shrinking dimensions and increasing complexity will give even more importance to single event effects in the future. The ground test facilities are complex and expensive and the complexities of installing a facility are compounded by the requirement that maximum control is to be exercised by users largely unfamiliar with accelerator technology. The PIF and the HIF are the result of experience gained in the field of single event effects testing and represent a unique collaboration between space technology and accelerator experts. Both facilities form an essential part of the European infrastructure supporting space projects. (J.P.N.)

  16. Model tests on single piles in soft clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, J.L. [Durham Univ., Durham, (United Kingdom). School of Engineering; Goh, A.T.C.; Wong, K.S.; Teh, C.I. [Nanyang Technological Univ., (Singapore). Geotechnical Research Centre

    2000-08-04

    The behaviour of single stainless steel piles subjected to lateral soft clay soil movement was investigated in laboratory model tests in an effort to determine the ultimate soil pressure acting along the pile shaft. A custom designed apparatus was manufactured and calibrated for the test which measured the limiting soil pressures acting along the model pile shaft. The ultimate soil pressure was determined based on the maximum value of this measurement. The results show that the ultimate soil pressure for single passive piles was about 10 times the undrained shear strength, and the magnitude of the soil translation needed to fully mobilize the ultimate soil pressure on the single passive piles was about half the pile width. Further experimental study is needed to examine the effects of the pile end fixity, flexibility and shape and to confirm the effects of sample size and the disturbance due to soil sample preparation. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  17. Efficacy test of a toothpaste in reducing extrinsic dental stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustanti, A.; Ramadhani, S. A.; Adiatman, M.; Rahardjo, A.; Callea, M.; Yavuz, I.; Maharani, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    This clinical trial compared the external dental stain reduction achieved by tested toothpaste versus placebo in adult patients. In this double-blind, parallel, randomised clinical trial, 45 female volunteers with a mean age of 20 years old were included. All study subjects front teeth were topically applicated with Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) to create external dental stains. Subjects were randomized into test (n=22) and control (n=23) groups. Toothpastes were used for two days to analyse the effects of removing external stains on the labial surfaces of all anterior teeth. VITA Easyshade Advance 4.0 was used to measure dental extrinsic stains changes. The analysis showed statistically significant efficacy of the tested toothpaste in reducing external dental stain caused by SDF, comparing to the placebo toothpaste, after one and two days of usage. The tested toothpaste was effective in reducing dental stain.

  18. Obstetric outcomes in reduced and non-reduced twin pregnancies. A single hospital experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UmmKulthoum E. AlShelaly

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare pregnancy outcomes between high-order multiple pregnancies resulting from assisted reproductive technology (ART reduced to twins and non-reduced pregnancies, and to evaluate indications for using ART. Methods: This is a descriptive retrospective review of women with high-order multiple pregnancies reduced to twin carried out at the Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between December 2010 and December 2013. The control group consisted of subjects with twin pregnancies who received their fertility treatment at the same hospital during the same period. Results: One hundred and twelve women were included in this study. Of women reaching fetal viability, significantly more women delivered before the thirtieth week in the study group (50% versus 12%, p<0.004. Miscarriage/delivery prior to fetal viability, chorioamnionitis, and preterm premature rupture of membranes were statistically higher in the study group. A total of 83% of the miscarriages in the study group were in women carrying 4 or more fetuses initially, and 50% of women in the study group were multiparous with no clear indication for fertility treatment. Conclusion: Although fetal reduction is a safe procedure, it is associated with complications. Primary prevention of high-order multiple pregnancy is recommended.

  19. Innovative approaches to reduce animal testing : replace whenever possible, reduce through refinement and mechanistic understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravenzwaay, van B.

    2013-01-01

    'Many of the in vitro toxicological studies have not been sufficiently validated to determine their applicability domain, even less have gained regulatory acceptance. Major advantage of in vitro testing today is the early identification of significant hazards in compound development and reduced and

  20. Configuration/Infrastructure-aware testing of MapReduce programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Morán

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The implemented programs in the MapReduce processing model are focused in the analysis of large volume of data in a distributed and parallel architecture. This architecture is automatically managed by the framework, so the developer could be focused in the program functionality regardless of infrastructure failures or resource allocation. However, the infrastructure state can cause different parallel executions and some could mask the faults but others could derive in program failures that are difficult to reveal. During the testing phase the infrastructure is usually not considered because commonly the test cases contain few data, so it is not necessary to deploy a parallel execution or handle infrastructure failures, among others potential issues. This paper proposes a testing technique to generate and execute different infrastructure configurations given the test input data and the program under test. The testing technique is automatized by a test engine and is applied to real world case studies. As a result, the test engine generates and executes several infrastructure configurations, revealing a functional fault in two programs.

  1. Instrumented impact testing machine with reduced specimen oscillation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintamaa, R.; Ranka, K.; Wallin, K.; Ikonen, K.; Talja, H.; Kotilainen, H.; Sirkkola, E.

    1984-07-01

    A pendulum-type instrumented Charpy test apparatus based on inverted test geometry was developed. Geometry inversion reduces inertia load and specimen oscillation effects. Initial impact energy is double that of standard (300 J) impact testers, allowing the use of larger (10 x 20 x 110 mm) bend specimens than normal Charpy specimens. The rotation axis in the three point bending is nearly stationary, making COD-measurements possible. Inertia effects and specimen oscillations are compared with the conventional tester, and using an analytical finite element model for Charpy V-notch specimens. Better performance for the inverted geometry is reported.

  2. Earthquake acceleration amplification based on single microtremor test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya Syahbana, Arifan; Kurniawan, Rahmat; Soebowo, Eko

    2018-02-01

    Understanding soil dynamics is needed to understand soil behaviour, including the parameters of earthquake acceleration amplification. Many researchers now conduct single microtremor tests to obtain amplification of velocity and natural periods of soil at test sites. However, these amplification parameters are rarely used, so a method is needed to convert the velocity amplification to acceleration amplification. This paper will discuss the proposed process of changing the value of amplification. The proposed method is to integrate the time histories of the synthetic earthquake acceleration of the soil surface under the deaggregation at that location so the time histories of the velocity earthquake will be obtained. Next is to conduct a “fitting curve” between amplification by a single microtremor test with amplification of the synthetic earthquake velocity time histories. After obtaining the fitting curve time histories of velocity, differentiation will be conducted to obtain fitting curve acceleration time histories. The final step after obtaining the fitting curve is to compare the acceleration of the “fitting curve” against the histories time of the acceleration of synthetic earthquake at bedrocks to obtain single microtremor acceleration amplification factor.

  3. Instrumented impact testing machine with reduced specimen oscillation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintamaa, R.; Rahka, K.; Wallin, K.

    1984-07-01

    Owing to small and inexpensive specimens the Charpy impact test is widely used in quality control and alloy development. Limitations in power reactor survellance capsules it is also widely used for safety analysis purposes. Instrumenting the tup and computerizing data acquisition, makes dynamic fracture mechanics data measurement possible and convenient. However, the dynamic effects (inertia forces, specimen oscillations) in the impact test cause inaccuracies in the recorded load-time diagram and hence diminish the reliability of the calculated dynamic fracture mechanics parameters. To decrease inaccuracies a new pendulum type of instrumented impact test apparatus has been developed and constructed in the Metals Laboratory of the Technical Research Centre of Finland. This tester is based on a new principle involving inverted test geometry. The purpose of the geometry inversion is to reduce inertia load and specimen oscillation effects. Further, the new impact tester has some other novel features: e.g. the available initia impact energy is about double compared to the conventional standard (300 J) impact tester allowing the use of larger (10 x 20 x 110 mm) bend specimens than normal Charpy specimens. Also, the rotation asix in the three point bending is nearly stationary making COD-measurements possible. An experimental test series is described in which the inertia effects and specimen oscillations are compared in the conventional and new impact tester utilizing Charpy V-notch specimens. Comparison of the two test geometries is also made with the aid of an analytical model using finite element method (FEM) analysis. (author)

  4. Reduced enrichment for research and test reactors: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    November 9--10, 1978, marked the first of what has become an annual event--the International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR). The meeting brought together for the first time many people who became major program participants in later years. This first meeting emphasized fuel development, and it established the basis for all later meetings. Believing that the proceedings of this first meeting are important as a historical record of the beginning of the international RERTR effort. This report provides presentations and discussions of this original meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  5. Reduced enrichment for research and test reactors: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    November 9--10, 1978, marked the first of what has become an annual event--the International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR). The meeting brought together for the first time many people who became major program participants in later years. This first meeting emphasized fuel development, and it established the basis for all later meetings. Believing that the proceedings of this first meeting are important as a historical record of the beginning of the international RERTR effort. This report provides presentations and discussions of this original meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately

  6. Single specimen fracture toughness determination procedure using instrumented impact test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintamaa, R.

    1993-04-01

    In the study a new single specimen test method and testing facility for evaluating dynamic fracture toughness has been developed. The method is based on the application of a new pendulum type instrumented impact tester equipped with and optical crack mouth opening displacement (COD) extensometer. The fracture toughness measurement technique uses the Double Displacement Ratio (DDR) method, which is based on the assumption that the specimen is deformed as two rigid arms that rotate around an apparent centre of rotation. This apparent moves as the crack grows, and the ratio of COD versus specimen displacement changes. As a consequence the onset ductile crack initiation can be detected on the load-displacement curve. Thus, an energy-based fracture toughness can be calculated. In addition the testing apparatus can use specimens with the Double ligament size as compared with the standard Charpy specimen which makes the impact testing more appropriate from the fracture mechanics point of view. The novel features of the testing facility and the feasibility of the new DDR method has been verified by performing an extensive experimental and analytical study. (99 refs., 91 figs., 27 tabs.)

  7. Evaluation of a single leg stance balance test in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumbrunn, Thomas; MacWilliams, Bruce A; Johnson, Barbara A

    2011-06-01

    Balance is a major determinate of gait. In high functioning individuals without significant vestibular or vision impairments, a ceiling effect may be present when using a double limb support protocol to assess balance function. For these populations, a single leg stance protocol may be more suitable. 47 typically developing (TD) subjects and 10 patients with CEV performed a single leg stance test on a force plate. The center of pressure (COP) was determined and several COP derived variables were calculated. Included measurements were: standard deviation, maximum excursion, area, average radial displacement, path velocity and frequency of the COP. Directional components of suitable variables were used to analyze anterior/posterior and medial/lateral contributions. Correlations with age of TD subjects indicated that all balance variables except frequency were significantly correlated. Most parameters were highly inter-correlated. Age adjusted COP balance variables also correlated to the Bruininks-Oseretsky balance subtest. Highest correlations were determined by the maximum excursion and velocity of the COP in the anterior/posterior direction. Statistical comparisons between the CEV group and a 4-6 TD group indicated significant differences between groups for most COP balance parameters. These results indicated that a single limb balance assessment may be a useful assessment for determining balance impairments in higher functioning children with orthopedic impairments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Simple test system for single molecule recognition force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riener, Christian K.; Stroh, Cordula M.; Ebner, Andreas; Klampfl, Christian; Gall, Alex A.; Romanin, Christoph; Lyubchenko, Yuri L.; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Gruber, Hermann J.

    2003-01-01

    We have established an easy-to-use test system for detecting receptor-ligand interactions on the single molecule level using atomic force microscopy (AFM). For this, avidin-biotin, probably the best characterized receptor-ligand pair, was chosen. AFM sensors were prepared containing tethered biotin molecules at sufficiently low surface concentrations appropriate for single molecule studies. A biotin tether, consisting of a 6 nm poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chain and a functional succinimide group at the other end, was newly synthesized and covalently coupled to amine-functionalized AFM tips. In particular, PEG 800 diamine was glutarylated, the mono-adduct NH 2 -PEG-COOH was isolated by ion exchange chromatography and reacted with biotin succinimidylester to give biotin-PEG-COOH which was then activated as N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester to give the biotin-PEG-NHS conjugate which was coupled to the aminofunctionalized AFM tip. The motional freedom provided by PEG allows for free rotation of the biotin molecule on the AFM sensor and for specific binding to avidin which had been adsorbed to mica surfaces via electrostatic interactions. Specific avidin-biotin recognition events were discriminated from nonspecific tip-mica adhesion by their typical unbinding force (∼40 pN at 1.4 nN/s loading rate), unbinding length (<13 nm), the characteristic nonlinear force-distance relation of the PEG linker, and by specific block with excess of free d-biotin. The convenience of the test system allowed to evaluate, and compare, different methods and conditions of tip aminofunctionalization with respect to specific binding and nonspecific adhesion. It is concluded that this system is well suited as calibration or start-up kit for single molecule recognition force microscopy

  9. Reduced enrichment for research and test reactors: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-01

    The international effort to develop new research reactor fuel materials and designs based on the use of low-enriched uranium, instead of highly-enriched uranium, has made much progress during the eight years since its inception. To foster direct communication and exchange of ideas among the specialist in this area, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at the Argonne National Laboratory, sponsored this meeting as the ninth of a series which began in 1978. All previous meetings of this series are listed on the facing page. The focus of this meeting was on the LEU fuel demonstration which was in progress at the Oak Ridge Research (ORR) reactor, not far from where the meeting was held. The visit to the ORR, where a silicide LEU fuel with 4.8 g A/cm/sup 3/ was by then in routine use, illustrated how far work has progressed.

  10. Reduced enrichment for research and test reactors: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    The international effort to develop new research reactor fuel materials and designs based on the use of low-enriched uranium, instead of highly-enriched uranium, has made much progress during the eight years since its inception. To foster direct communication and exchange of ideas among the specialist in this area, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at the Argonne National Laboratory, sponsored this meeting as the ninth of a series which began in 1978. All previous meetings of this series are listed on the facing page. The focus of this meeting was on the LEU fuel demonstration which was in progress at the Oak Ridge Research (ORR) reactor, not far from where the meeting was held. The visit to the ORR, where a silicide LEU fuel with 4.8 g A/cm 3 was by then in routine use, illustrated how far work has progressed

  11. Single Stage Contactor Testing Of The Next Generation Solvent Blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D. T.; Peters, T. B.; Duignan, M. R.; Williams, M. R.; Poirier, M. R.; Brass, E. A.; Garrison, A. G.; Ketusky, E. T.

    2014-01-06

    The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is actively pursuing the transition from the current BOBCalixC6 based solvent to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS)-MCU solvent to increase the cesium decontamination factor. To support this integration of NGS into the MCU facility the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed testing of a blend of the NGS (MaxCalix based solvent) with the current solvent (BOBCalixC6 based solvent) for the removal of cesium (Cs) from the liquid salt waste stream. This testing utilized a blend of BOBCalixC6 based solvent and the NGS with the new extractant, MaxCalix, as well as a new suppressor, tris(3,7dimethyloctyl) guanidine. Single stage tests were conducted using the full size V-05 and V-10 liquid-to-liquid centrifugal contactors installed at SRNL. These tests were designed to determine the mass transfer and hydraulic characteristics with the NGS solvent blended with the projected heel of the BOBCalixC6 based solvent that will exist in MCU at time of transition. The test program evaluated the amount of organic carryover and the droplet size of the organic carryover phases using several analytical methods. The results indicate that hydraulically, the NGS solvent performed hydraulically similar to the current solvent which was expected. For the organic carryover 93% of the solvent is predicted to be recovered from the stripping operation and 96% from the extraction operation. As for the mass transfer, the NGS solvent significantly improved the cesium DF by at least an order of magnitude when extrapolating the One-stage results to actual Seven-stage extraction operation with a stage efficiency of 95%.

  12. The RERTR [Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor] program:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travelli, A.

    1987-01-01

    The progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) program is described. After a brief summary of the results which the RERTR program, in collaboration with its many international partners, had achieved by the end of 1986, the activities, results and new developments which ocurred in 1987 are reviewed. Irradiation of the second miniplate series, concentrating on U 3 Si 2 -Al and U 3 Si-Al fuels was completed and postirradiation examinations were performed on many of its miniplates. The whole-core ORR demonstration with U 3 Si 2 -Al fuel at 4.8 g U/cm 3 was completed at the end of March with excellent results and with 29 elements estimated to have reached at least 40 % average burnup. Good progress was made in the area of LEU usage for the production of fission 99 Mo, and in the coordination of safety evaluations related to LEU conversions of U.S. university reactors. Planned activities include testing and demonstrating advanced fuels intended to allow use of reduced enrichment uranium in very-high-performance reactors. Two candidate fuels are U 3 Si-Al with 19.75 % enrichment and U 3 Si 2 -Al with 45 % enrichment. Demonstration of these fuels will include irradiation of full-size elements and, possibly, a full-core demonstration. Achievement of the final program goals is still projected for 1990. This progress could not have been possible without the close international cooperation which has existed from the beginning, and which is essential to the ultimate success of the RERTR program. (Author)

  13. Laboratory testing on infiltration in single synthetic fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Claudia; Pastore, Nicola; Li, Jiawei; Giasi, Concetta I.; Li, Ling

    2017-04-01

    An understanding of infiltration phenomena in unsaturated rock fractures is extremely important in many branches of engineering for numerous reasons. Sectors such as the oil, gas and water industries are regularly interacting with water seepage through rock fractures, yet the understanding of the mechanics and behaviour associated with this sort of flow is still incomplete. An apparatus has been set up to test infiltration in single synthetic fractures in both dry and wet conditions. To simulate the two fracture planes, concrete fractures have been moulded from 3D printed fractures with varying geometrical configurations, in order to analyse the influence of aperture and roughness on infiltration. Water flows through the single fractures by means of a hydraulic system composed by an upstream and a downstream reservoir, the latter being subdivided into five equal sections in order to measure the flow rate in each part to detect zones of preferential flow. The fractures have been set at various angles of inclination to investigate the effect of this parameter on infiltration dynamics. The results obtained identified that altering certain fracture parameters and conditions produces relevant effects on the infiltration process through the fractures. The main variables influencing the formation of preferential flow are: the inclination angle of the fracture, the saturation level of the fracture and the mismatch wavelength of the fracture.

  14. Testing the single degenerate channel for supernova Ia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Steven

    2014-10-01

    The progenitors of supernova Ia are close binaries containing white dwarfs. Of crucial importance to the evolution of these systems is how much material the white dwarf can stably accrete and hence grow in mass. This occurs during a short-lived intense phase of mass transfer known as the super soft source (SSS) phase. The short duration of this phase and large extinction to soft X-rays means that only a handful are known in our Galaxy. Far more can be learned from the underlying SSS progenitor population of close white dwarf plus FGK type binaries. Unfortunately, these systems are hard to find since the main-sequence stars completely outshine the white dwarfs at optical wavelengths. Because of this, there are currently no known close white dwarf binaries with F, G or early K type companions, making it impossible to determine the contribution of the single degenerate channel towards supernova Ia. Using the GALEX and RAVE surveys we have now identified the first large sample of FGK stars with UV excesses, a fraction of which are these illusive, close systems. Following an intense ground based spectroscopic investigation of these systems, we have identified 5 definite close binaries, with periods of less than a few days. Here we apply for COS spectroscopic observations to measure the mass and temperature of the white dwarfs in order to determine the future evolution of these systems. This will provide a crucial test for the single degenerate channel towards supernova Ia.

  15. Training reduces catabolic and inflammatory response to a single practice in female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliakim, Alon; Portal, Shawn; Zadik, Zvi; Meckel, Yoav; Nemet, Dan

    2013-11-01

    We examined the effect of training on hormonal and inflammatory response to a single volleyball practice in elite adolescent players. Thirteen female, national team level, Israeli volleyball players (age 16.0 ± 1.4 years, Tanner stage 4-5) participated in the study. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after a typical 60 minutes of volleyball practice, before and after 7 weeks of training during the initial phase of the season. Training involved tactic and technical drills (20% of time), power and speed drills (25% of time), interval sessions (25% of time), endurance-type training (15% of time), and resistance training (15% of time). To achieve greater training responses, the study was performed during the early phase (first 7 weeks) of the volleyball season. Hormonal measurements included the anabolic hormones growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3, the catabolic hormone cortisol, the proinflammatory marker interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the anti-inflammatory marker IL-1 receptor antagonist. Training led to a significant improvement of vertical jump, anaerobic properties (peak and mean power by the Wingate Anaerobic Test), and predicted VO2max (by the 20-m shuttle run). Volleyball practice, both before and after the training intervention, was associated with a significant increase of serum lactate, GH, and IL-6. Training resulted in a significantly reduced cortisol response ([INCREMENT]cortisol: 4.2 ± 13.7 vs. -4.4 ± 12.3 ng · ml, before and after training, respectively; p volleyball practice. The results suggest that along with the improvement of power and anaerobic and aerobic characteristics, training reduces the catabolic and inflammatory response to exercise.

  16. Crystal plasticity study of single crystal tungsten by indentation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Weizhi

    2012-01-01

    Owing to its favorable material properties, tungsten (W) has been studied as a plasma-facing material in fusion reactors. Experiments on W heating in plasma sources and electron beam facilities have shown an intense micro-crack formation at the heated surface and sub-surface. The cracks go deep inside the irradiated sample, and often large distorted areas caused by local plastic deformation are present around the cracks. To interpret the crack-induced microscopic damage evolution process in W, one needs firstly to understand its plasticity on a single grain level, which is referred to as crystal plasticity. In this thesis, the crystal plasticity of single crystal tungsten (SCW) has been studied by spherical and Berkovich indentation tests and the finite element method with a crystal plasticity model. Appropriate values of the material parameters included in the crystal plasticity model are determined by fitting measured load-displacement curves and pile-up profiles with simulated counterparts for spherical indentation. The numerical simulations reveal excellent agreement with experiment. While the load-displacement curves and the deduced indentation hardness exhibit little sensitivity to the indented plane at small indentation depths, the orientation of slip directions within the crystals governs the development of deformation hillocks at the surface. It is found that several factors like friction, indentation depth, active slip systems, misoriented crystal orientation, misoriented sample surface and azimuthal orientation of the indenter can affect the indentation behavior of SCW. The Berkovich indentation test was also used to study the crystal plasticity of SCW after deuterium irradiation. The critical load (pop-in load) for triggering plastic deformation under the indenter is found to depend on the crystallographic orientation. The pop-in loads decrease dramatically after deuterium plasma irradiation for all three investigated crystallographic planes.

  17. Pentavalent single-domain antibodies reduce Campylobacter jejuni motility and colonization in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Riazi

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness in the world, with symptoms ranging from acute diarrhea to severe neurological disorders. Contaminated poultry meat is a major source of C. jejuni infection, and therefore, strategies to reduce this organism in poultry, are expected to reduce the incidence of Campylobacter-associated diseases. We have investigated whether oral administration of C. jejuni-specific single-domain antibodies would reduce bacterial colonization levels in chickens. Llama single-domain antibodies specific for C. jejuni were isolated from a phage display library generated from the heavy chain IgG variable domain repertoire of a llama immunized with C. jejuni flagella. Two flagella-specific single-domain antibodies were pentamerized to yield high avidity antibodies capable of multivalent binding to the target antigen. When administered orally to C. jejuni-infected two-day old chicks, the pentabodies significantly reduced C. jejuni colonization in the ceca. In vitro, the motility of the bacteria was also reduced in the presence of the flagella-specific pentabodies, suggesting the mechanism of action is through either direct interference with flagellar motility or antibody-mediated aggregation. Fluorescent microscopy and Western blot analyses revealed specific binding of the anti-flagella pentabodies to the C. jejuni flagellin.

  18. Radiation tests for a single-GEM-loaded gaseous detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyong Sei; Hong, Byung Sik; Park, Sung Keun [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Yeol [NoticeKorea, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    We report on a systematic study of a single-gas-electron-multiplier (GEM)-loaded gaseous detector developed for precision measurements of high-energy particle beams and for dose verification in particle therapy. In the present study, a 256-channel prototype detector having an active area of 16 x 16 cm{sup 2} and operating using a continuous current-integration-mode signal-processing method was manufactured and tested with X-rays emitted from a 70-kV X-ray generator and 43-MeV protons provided by the MC50 proton cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science(KIRAMS). The amplified detector response was measured for X-rays with an intensity of about 5 x 10{sup 6} Hz cm{sup -2}. The linearity of the detector response to the particle flux was examined and validated by using 43-MeV proton beams. The non-uniform development of the amplification for the gas electrons in space was corrected by applying a proper calibration to the channel responses of the measured beam-profile data. We conclude from the radiation tests that the detector developed in the present study will allow us to perform quality measurements of various high-energy particle beams and to apply the technology to dose-verification measurements in particle therapy.

  19. Microstructural evolution of reduced-activation martensitic steel under single and sequential ion irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Fengfeng; Guo, Liping; Jin, Shuoxue; Li, Tiecheng; Zheng, Zhongcheng; Yang, Feng; Xiong, Xuesong; Suo, Jinping

    2013-01-01

    Microstructural evolution of super-clean reduced-activation martensitic steels irradiated with single-beam (Fe + ) and sequential-beam (Fe + plus He + ) at 350 °C and 550 °C was studied. Sequential-beam irradiation induced smaller size and larger number density of precipitates compared to single-beam irradiation at 350 °C. The largest size of cavities was observed after sequential-beam irradiation at 550 °C. The segregation of Cr and W and depletion of Fe in carbides were observed, and the maximum depletion of Fe and enrichment of Cr occurred under irradiation at 350 °C

  20. Analysis of experiment testing technology for single event effects in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Chaohui

    2001-01-01

    The merit and demerit of simulation source were analyzed for Single Event Effects (SEE) experiment testing in China. Laboratory experiment systems for SEE were brief introduced and requests for SEE test system were emphasize analyzed. Test systems were presented for Single Event Upset, Single Event Latch-up, Single Event Burnout and Single Event Gate-Rupture. The attention should be in mind in SEE experiments were discussed

  1. The Careful Puppet Master: Reducing risk and fortifying acceptance testing with Jenkins CI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason A.; Richman, Gabriel; DeStefano, John; Pryor, James; Rao, Tejas; Strecker-Kellogg, William; Wong, Tony

    2015-12-01

    Centralized configuration management, including the use of automation tools such as Puppet, can greatly increase provisioning speed and efficiency when configuring new systems or making changes to existing systems, reduce duplication of work, and improve automated processes. However, centralized management also brings with it a level of inherent risk: a single change in just one file can quickly be pushed out to thousands of computers and, if that change is not properly and thoroughly tested and contains an error, could result in catastrophic damage to many services, potentially bringing an entire computer facility offline. Change management procedures can—and should—be formalized in order to prevent such accidents. However, like the configuration management process itself, if such procedures are not automated, they can be difficult to enforce strictly. Therefore, to reduce the risk of merging potentially harmful changes into our production Puppet environment, we have created an automated testing system, which includes the Jenkins CI tool, to manage our Puppet testing process. This system includes the proposed changes and runs Puppet on a pool of dozens of RedHat Enterprise Virtualization (RHEV) virtual machines (VMs) that replicate most of our important production services for the purpose of testing. This paper describes our automated test system and how it hooks into our production approval process for automatic acceptance testing. All pending changes that have been pushed to production must pass this validation process before they can be approved and merged into production.

  2. An Assessment of Reduced Crew and Single Pilot Operations in Commercial Transport Aircraft Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Kennedy, Kellie D.; Stephens, Chad L.; Etherington, Timothy J.

    2017-01-01

    Future reduced crew operations or even single pilot operations for commercial airline and on-demand mobility applications are an active area of research. These changes would reduce the human element and thus, threaten the precept that "a well-trained and well-qualified pilot is the critical center point of aircraft systems safety and an integral safety component of the entire commercial aviation system." NASA recently completed a pilot-in-the-loop high fidelity motion simulation study in partnership with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) attempting to quantify the pilot's contribution to flight safety during normal flight and in response to aircraft system failures. Crew complement was used as the experiment independent variable in a between-subjects design. These data show significant increases in workload for single pilot operations, compared to two-crew, with subjective assessments of safety and performance being significantly degraded as well. Nonetheless, in all cases, the pilots were able to overcome the failure mode effects in all crew configurations. These data reflect current-day flight deck equipage and help identify the technologies that may improve two-crew operations and/or possibly enable future reduced crew and/or single pilot operations.

  3. Design and test of aircraft engine isolators for reduced interior noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, J. F.; Scheidt, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    Improved engine vibration isolation was proposed to be the most weight and cost efficient retrofit structure-borne noise control measure for single engine general aviation aircraft. A study was carried out the objectives: (1) to develop an engine isolator design specification for reduced interior noise transmission, (2) select/design candidate isolators to meet a 15 dB noise reduction design goal, and (3) carry out a proof of concept evaluation test. Analytical model of the engine, vibration isolators and engine mount structure were coupled to an empirical model of the fuselage for noise transmission evaluation. The model was used to develop engine isolator dynamic properties design specification for reduced noise transmission. Candidate isolators ere chosen from available product literature and retrofit to a test aircraft. A laboratory based test procedure was then developed to simulate engine induced noise transmission in the aircraft for a proof of concept evaluation test. Three candidate isolator configurations were evaluated for reduced structure-borne noise transmission relative to the original equipment isolators.

  4. 49 CFR 232.307 - Modification of the single car air brake test procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Requirements § 232.307 Modification of the single car air brake test procedures. (a) Request. The AAR or other authorized representative of the railroad industry may seek modification of the single car air brake test... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modification of the single car air brake test...

  5. Reliability testing of indirect composites as single implant restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Marcelo; Bonfante, Estevam; Silva, Nelson Rfa; Coelho, Paulo G

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the reliability and failure modes of indirect composites as single-unit implant crowns. Thirty-eight custom-milled titanium alloy locking-taper abutments were divided into two groups (n = 19 each), and crown build-up of a mandibular molar was accomplished using two indirect composite systems (Ceramage, Shofu, Kyoto, Japan; Diamond Crown, DRM, Branford, CT). Three crowns of each material were loaded until failure for determination of the step-stress profiles. Reliability testing started at a load 30% of the mean load to failure and used three profiles with increasing fatigue loading (step stress). Weibull curves with 300 N stress and 90% confidence intervals were calculated and plotted using a power-law relationship. Weibull modulus "Beta" and characteristic strength "Eta" were identified, and a contour plot was used (Beta vs. Eta) for examining differences between groups. Specimens were inspected in polarized light and scanning electron microscope for fracture analysis. Use level Weibull probability showed fatigue being a damage factor only for the Ceramage group (β= 3.39) but not for the Diamond Crown group (β= 0.40). Overlap in the confidence bounds resulted in no statistical difference. Irrespective of composite system, fracture initiated in the region immediately below the contact between the indenter and the cusp, with the crack propagating toward the margins of cohesive failure. No significant differences were observed in life and Weibull probability calculations for Ceramage and Diamond Crown veneered onto Ti alloy abutments. Failure modes comprised composite veneer chippings. © 2011 by The American College of Prosthodontists.

  6. Experiences of the REACH testing proposals system to reduce animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Katy; Stengel, Wolfgang; Casalegno, Carlotta; Andrew, David

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce animal testing, companies registering chemical substances under the EU REACH legislation must propose rather than conduct certain tests on animals. Third parties can submit 'scientifically valid information' relevant to these proposals to the Agency responsible, the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), who are obliged to take the information into account. The European Coalition to End Animal Experiments (ECEAE) provided comments on nearly half of the 817 proposals for vertebrate tests on 480 substances published for comment for the first REACH deadline (between 1 August 2009 and 31 July 2012). The paper summarises the response by registrants and the Agency to third party comments and highlights issues with the use of read across, in vitro tests, QSAR and weight of evidence approaches. Use of existing data and evidence that testing is legally or scientifically unjustified remain the most successful comments for third parties to submit. There is a worrying conservatism within the Agency regarding the acceptance of alternative approaches and examples of where registrants have also failed to maximise opportunities to avoid testing.

  7. Single well surfactant test to evaluate surfactant floods using multi tracer method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheely, Clyde Q.

    1979-01-01

    Data useful for evaluating the effectiveness of or designing an enhanced recovery process said process involving mobilizing and moving hydrocarbons through a hydrocarbon bearing subterranean formation from an injection well to a production well by injecting a mobilizing fluid into the injection well, comprising (a) determining hydrocarbon saturation in a volume in the formation near a well bore penetrating formation, (b) injecting sufficient mobilizing fluid to mobilize and move hydrocarbons from a volume in the formation near the well bore, and (c) determining the hydrocarbon saturation in a volume including at least a part of the volume of (b) by an improved single well surfactant method comprising injecting 2 or more slugs of water containing the primary tracer separated by water slugs containing no primary tracer. Alternatively, the plurality of ester tracers can be injected in a single slug said tracers penetrating varying distances into the formation wherein the esters have different partition coefficients and essentially equal reaction times. The single well tracer method employed is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,623,842. This method designated the single well surfactant test (SWST) is useful for evaluating the effect of surfactant floods, polymer floods, carbon dioxide floods, micellar floods, caustic floods and the like in subterranean formations in much less time and at much reduced cost compared to conventional multiwell pilot tests.

  8. Reducing measurement errors during functional capacity tests in elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Mariane Eichendorf; Orssatto, Lucas Bet da Rosa; Bezerra, Ewertton de Souza; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Moura, Bruno Monteiro de; Diefenthaeler, Fernando; Freitas, Cíntia de la Rocha

    2017-08-23

    Accuracy is essential to the validity of functional capacity measurements. To evaluate the error of measurement of functional capacity tests for elders and suggest the use of the technical error of measurement and credibility coefficient. Twenty elders (65.8 ± 4.5 years) completed six functional capacity tests that were simultaneously filmed and timed by four evaluators by means of a chronometer. A fifth evaluator timed the tests by analyzing the videos (reference data). The means of most evaluators for most tests were different from the reference (p error of measurement between tests and evaluators. The Bland-Altman test showed difference in the concordance of the results between methods. Short duration tests showed higher technical error of measurement than longer tests. In summary, tests timed by a chronometer underestimate the real results of the functional capacity. Difference between evaluators' reaction time and perception to determine the start and the end of the tests would justify the errors of measurement. Calculation of the technical error of measurement or the use of the camera can increase data validity.

  9. Treatability Test Plan for an In Situ Biostimulation Reducing Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Long, Philip E.; Brockman, Fred J.; Oostrom, Mart; Hubbard, Susan; Borden, Robert C.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2007-07-21

    This treatability test plan supports a new, integrated strategy to accelerate cleanup of chromium in the Hanford 100 Areas. This plan includes performing a field-scale treatability test for bioreduction of chromate, nitrate, and dissolved oxygen. In addition to remediating a portion of the plume and demonstrating reduction of electron acceptors in the plume, the data from this test will be valuable for designing a full-scale bioremediation system to apply at this and other chromium plumes at Hanford.

  10. [Single and reduced port laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer: current status and future perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G X; Li, J M; Wang, Y N; Deng, H J; Mou, T Y

    2017-07-01

    For further maximizing the minimally invasive benefits for colorectal cancer patients, laparoscopic surgeons have been dedicating to improve the surgery through single-port (SILES) or natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), which is supported by amount of single-port devices and flexible laparoscopic instruments.Many small sample studies of single institution have suggested that SILES for colorectal cancer has similar oncological outcomes with conventional laparoscopic surgery (CLS), could improve the cosmetic results, and is more minimally invasive than CLS. However, evidences of advantages for SILES are limited, because of there has been only 4 published studies of prospective randomized clinical trial so far. Due to the technical difficulties and long learning curves, SILES and NOTES are relatively hard to be widely promoted. Thus, a balance between minimally invasive pursuit and laparoscopic technical challenge should be sought. In this way, modified SILES and reduced-port laparoscopic surgery have emerged in recent years, which might be minimally invasive solutions with lower technical demanding for laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgeries. Adding a port as the surgeon's dominant operation channel improved the collisions or overlapping of instruments with movement to reduce the technical difficulties. SILS+ 1 is safe and feasible, would be supported by more and more evidences.

  11. In vitro vaccine potency testing: a proposal for reducing animal use for requalification testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K; Stokes, W

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a program under which the use of animals for requalification of in vitro potency tests could be eliminated. Standard References (USDA/CVB nomenclature) would be developed, characterized, stored and monitored by selected reference laboratories worldwide. These laboratories would employ scientists skilled in protein and glycoprotein chemistry and equipped with state-of-the-art instruments for required analyses. After Standard References are established, the reference laboratories would provide them to the animal health industry as "gold standards". Companies would then establish and validate a correlation between the Standard Reference and the company Master Reference (USDA/CVB nomenclature) using an internal in vitro assay. After this correlation is established, the company could use the Standard References for qualifying, monitoring and requalifying company Master References without the use of animals. Such a program would eliminate the need for animals for requalification of Master References and the need for each company to develop and validate a battery of Master Reference Monitoring assays. It would also provide advantages in terms of reduced costs and reduced time for requalification testing. As such it would provide a strong incentive for companies to develop and use in vitro assays for potency testing.

  12. 49 CFR 232.309 - Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... Testing Requirements § 232.309 Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests. (a) Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests shall be tested for correct operation at...

  13. Microstructural evolution of reduced-activation martensitic steel under single and sequential ion irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Fengfeng [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Guo, Liping, E-mail: guolp@whu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Jin, Shuoxue; Li, Tiecheng; Zheng, Zhongcheng [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yang, Feng; Xiong, Xuesong; Suo, Jinping [State Key Laboratory of Mould Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-07-15

    Microstructural evolution of super-clean reduced-activation martensitic steels irradiated with single-beam (Fe{sup +}) and sequential-beam (Fe{sup +} plus He{sup +}) at 350 °C and 550 °C was studied. Sequential-beam irradiation induced smaller size and larger number density of precipitates compared to single-beam irradiation at 350 °C. The largest size of cavities was observed after sequential-beam irradiation at 550 °C. The segregation of Cr and W and depletion of Fe in carbides were observed, and the maximum depletion of Fe and enrichment of Cr occurred under irradiation at 350 °C.

  14. Treatability Test Plan for an In Situ Biostimulation Reducing Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Long, Philip E.; Brockman, Fred J.; Oostrom, Mart; Hubbard, Susan; Borden, Robert C.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2007-10-26

    This treatability test plan supports a new, integrated strategy to accelerate cleanup of chromium in the 100 Areas at the Hanford Site. This plan includes performing a field-scale treatability test for bioreduction of chromate, nitrate, and dissolved oxygen. In addition to remediating a portion of the plume and demonstrating reduction of electron acceptors in the plume, the data from this test will be valuable for designing a full-scale bioremediation system to apply at this and other chromium plumes at the Hanford Site.

  15. Reduced junction temperature control during low-voltage ride-through for single-phase photovoltaic inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Future photovoltaic (PV) inverters are expected to comply with more stringent grid codes and reliability requirements, especially when a high penetration degree is reached, and also to lower the cost of energy. A junction temperature control concept is proposed in this study for the switching......, allowing an optimal design of the proposed control scheme with controlled mean junction temperature and reduced junction temperature swings. The effectiveness of the control method in terms of both thermal performance and electrical performance is validated by the simulations and experiments, respectively....... Both test results show that single-phase PV inverters with the proposed control approach not only can support the grid voltage recovery in low-voltage ride-through operation but also can improve the overall reliability with a reduced junction temperature....

  16. A New Kind of Single-Well Tracer Test for Assessing Subsurface Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, S. K.; Vesselinov, V. V.; Lu, Z.; Reimus, P. W.; Katzman, D.

    2017-12-01

    Single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tracer tests have historically been interpreted using the idealized assumption of tracer path reversibility (i.e., negligible background flow), with background flow due to natural hydraulic gradient being an un-modeled confounding factor. However, we have recently discovered that it is possible to use background flow to our advantage to extract additional information about the subsurface. To wit: we have developed a new kind of single-well tracer test that exploits flow due to natural gradient to estimate the variance of the log hydraulic conductivity field of a heterogeneous aquifer. The test methodology involves injection under forced gradient and withdrawal under natural gradient, and makes use of a relationship, discovered using a large-scale Monte Carlo study and machine learning techniques, between power law breakthrough curve tail exponent and log-hydraulic conductivity variance. We will discuss how we performed the computational study and derived this relationship and then show an application example in which our new single-well tracer test interpretation scheme was applied to estimation of heterogeneity of a formation at the chromium contamination site at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Detailed core hole records exist at the same site, from which it was possible to estimate the log hydraulic conductivity variance using a Kozeny-Carman relation. The variances estimated using our new tracer test methodology and estimated by direct inspection of core were nearly identical, corroborating the new methodology. Assessment of aquifer heterogeneity is of critical importance to deployment of amendments associated with in-situ remediation strategies, since permeability contrasts potentially reduce the interaction between amendment and contaminant. Our new tracer test provides an easy way to obtain this information.

  17. Addition of single-dose tenofovir and emtricitabine to intrapartum nevirapine to reduce perinatal HIV transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Benjamin H; Chintu, Namwinga; Cantrell, Ronald A; Kankasa, Chipepo; Kruse, Gina; Mbewe, Felistas; Sinkala, Moses; Smith, Peter J; Stringer, Elizabeth M; Stringer, Jeffrey S A

    2008-06-01

    To determine the impact of adjuvant single-dose peripartum tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) on intrapartum/early postpartum HIV transmission. In the setting of routine short-course zidovudine (ZDV) and peripartum nevirapine (NVP) for perinatal HIV prevention, participants were randomized to single-dose TDF (300 mg)/FTC (200 mg) or to no intervention in labor. Six-week infant HIV infection was compared according to actual-use drug regimens. Of 397 women randomized, 355 (89%) had infants who were alive and active at 6 weeks postpartum. Of these, 18 (5.1%) were infected in utero and 6 (1.8%) were infected intrapartum/early postpartum. Among the 243 who used ZDV and NVP, intrapartum/early postpartum transmission was not reduced among infants whose mothers received TDF/FTC compared with those who did not (2 of 123 [1.6%] vs. 3 of 109 [2.8%]; P = 0.67). Among the 49 infants whose mothers did not receive antenatal ZDV but who had confirmed NVP ingestion, transmission similarly did not differ (0 of 19 [0%] vs. 1 of 26 [3.4%]). TDF/FTC was not significantly associated with reduced overall transmission (odds ratio [OR] = 0.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.3 to 1.6), even when other antiretroviral drugs were considered (adjusted OR = 0.8, 95% CI: 0.3 to 1.8). Adjuvant peripartum single-dose TDF/FTC did not reduce perinatal transmission. Whether a higher dose might be effective remains unknown but should be studied in settings in which NVP is used without antenatal ZDV.

  18. Cryomdoule Test Stand Reduced-Magnetic Support Design at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, Mike [Fermilab; Chandrasekaran, Saravan Kumar [Fermilab; Crawford, Anthony [Fermilab; Harms, Elvin [Fermilab; Leibfritz, Jerry [Fermilab; Wu, Genfa [Fermilab

    2016-06-01

    In a partnership with SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) and Jefferson Lab, Fermilab will assemble and test 17 of the 35 total 1.3 GHz cryomodules for the Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) Project. These devices will be tested at Fermilab's Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) within the Cryomodule Test Stand (CMTS-1) cave. The problem of magnetic pollution became one of major issues during design stage of the LCLS-II cryomodule as the average quality factor of the accelerating cavities is specified to be 2.7 x 10¹⁰. One of the possible ways to mitigate the effect of stray magnetic fields and to keep it below the goal of 5 mGauss involves the application of low permeable materials. Initial permeability and magnetic measurement studies regarding the use of 316L stainless steel material indicated that cold work (machining) and heat affected zones from welding would be acceptable.

  19. Single-trial normalization for event-related spectral decomposition reduces sensitivity to noisy trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain eGrandchamp

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In EEG research, the classical Event-Related Potential (ERP model often proves to be a limited method when studying complex brain dynamics. For this reason, spectral techniques adapted from signal processing such as Event-Related Spectral Perturbation (ERSP – and its variant ERS (Event-Related Synchronization and ERD (Event-Related Desynchronization – have been used over the past 20-years. They represent average spectral changes in response to a stimulus.These spectral methods do not have strong consensus for comparing pre and post-stimulus activity. When computing ERSP, pre-stimulus baseline removal is usually performed after averaging the spectral estimate of multiple trials. Correcting the baseline of each single-trial prior to averaging spectral estimates is an alternative baseline correction method. However, we show that this method leads to positively skewed post-stimulus ERSP values. We eventually present new single-trial based ERSP baseline correction methods that perform trial normalization or centering prior to applying classical baseline correction methods. We show that single-trial correction methods minimize the contribution of artifactual data trials with high-amplitude spectral estimates and are robust to outliers when performing statistical inference testing. We then characterize these methods in terms of their time-frequency responses and behavior when performing statistical inference testing compared to classical ERSP methods.

  20. Caries risk assessment in school children using a reduced Cariogram model without saliva tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Gunnel Hänsel; Isberg, Per-Erik; Twetman, Svante

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the caries predictive ability of a reduced Cariogram model without salivary tests in schoolchildren.......To investigate the caries predictive ability of a reduced Cariogram model without salivary tests in schoolchildren....

  1. Pulsed laser simulation of VLSI single-event effect testing study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Yuxiong; Cao Zhou Yang Shiyu; Tian Kai; Liu Shufen; Chu Nan; Cao Haining; Shang Zhi

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a study aimed at investigating the pulsed laser simulation of Single-Event Effect (SEE) testing for VLSI Intel386EX CPU, using our laboratory LSS (laser simulation system). We have detailed SEE testing principle, testing method, testing system constituting, testing result. It validates that our laser pulses simulate may use SEE testing in VLSI, and Intel 386Ex have a large locking resistance to single event. (authors)

  2. Pre test parametric studies on single compartment vented enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Pavan K.; Gera, B.; Singh, R.K.; Vaze, K.K.

    2011-01-01

    Establishing a proper design fire scenario is a challenging task and essential component for conducting fire safety design of buildings. A design fire scenario is a qualitative description of a fire with time identifying key events that characterize the fire (ignition, growth, flashover, fully-developed, and decay stages of fire). Proper fire safety design requires the appropriate selection of design fires against which the performance of the building is evaluated. The selection of the design fires directly impacts all aspects of fire safety performance, including the structural fire resistance, compartmentation against fire spread, egress systems, manual or automatic detection systems, suppression systems, and smoke control. The parameters affecting design fires include, the type, amount and arrangement of combustible materials, the ventilation conditions (air supply conditions, door/window open), and size of the compartment of fire origin. A design fire is a quantitative description of the characteristics of a fire, such as heat release rate (HRR), size of fire and its rate of spread, yield of products of combustion, and hot gas temperatures. Design fires are based on fire scenarios that replicate real fires. Six Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) numerical simulations were conducted in order to investigate the effect of fire load on fire dynamics in a) iso corner fire configuration b) IIT Delhi single compartment of a size of 5.0 m long, 5.0 m wide and 5.0 m high with doorway opening of 1m x 3m with centre fire of size 0.5 m x 0.5m. These types of simulation are carried out for deciding about the instrumentation scheme, safety aspect, and optimization of proposed experiments for National Fire Test Facility as pretest calculations. The simulations results are summarized in various identified applied parameter which are useful in terms of understanding the complex fire dynamics, validating the numerical tolls against experiments and using them (in form of values

  3. Single event effect testing of the Intel 80386 family and the 80486 microprocessor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, A.; LaBel, K.; Gates, M.; Seidleck, C.; McGraw, R.; Broida, M.; Firer, J.; Sprehn, S.

    1996-01-01

    The authors present single event effect test results for the Intel 80386 microprocessor, the 80387 coprocessor, the 82380 peripheral device, and on the 80486 microprocessor. Both single event upset and latchup conditions were monitored

  4. Generalized reduced rank tests using the singular value decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleibergen, F.R.; Paap, R.

    2002-01-01

    We propose a novel statistic to test the rank of a matrix. The rank statistic overcomes deficiencies of existing rank statistics, like: necessity of a Kronecker covariance matrix for the canonical correlation rank statistic of Anderson (1951), sensitivity to the ordering of the variables for the LDU

  5. Generalized Reduced Rank Tests using the Singular Value Decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.R. Kleibergen (Frank); R. Paap (Richard)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a novel statistic to test the rank of a matrix. The rank statistic overcomes deficiencies of existing rank statistics, like: necessity of a Kronecker covariance matrix for the canonical correlation rank statistic of Anderson (1951), sensitivity to the ordering of the variables

  6. Generalized Reduced Rank Tests using the Singular Value Decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleibergen, F.R.; Paap, R.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a novel statistic to test the rank of a matrix. The rank statistic overcomes deficiencies of existing rank statistics, like: a Kronecker covariance matrix for the canonical correlation rank statistic of Anderson [Annals of Mathematical Statistics (1951), 22, 327-351] sensitivity to the

  7. Do multiple health events reduce resilience when compared with single events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Ruth T; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R; Maccallum, Fiona; Bonanno, George A

    2017-08-01

    The impact of multiple major life stressors is hypothesized to reduce the probability of resilience and increase rates of mortality. However, this hypothesis lacks strong empirical support because of the lack of prospective evidence. This study investigated whether experiencing multiple major health events diminishes rates of resilience and increases rates of mortality using a large population-based prospective cohort. There were n = 1,395 individuals sampled from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and examined prospectively from 2 years before 4 years after either single or multiple health events (lung disease, heart disease, stroke, or cancer). Distinct depression and resilience trajectories were identified using latent growth mixture modeling (LGMM). These trajectories were compared on rates of mortality 4 years after the health events. Findings indicated that 4 trajectories best fit the data including resilience, emergent postevent depression, chronic pre-to-post depression, and depressed prior followed by improvement. Analyses demonstrate that multiple health events do not decrease rates of resilience but do increase the severity of symptoms among those on the emergent depression trajectory. Emergent depression increased mortality compared with all others but among those in this class, rates were not different in response to single versus multiple health events. Multiple major stressors do not reduce rates of resilience. The emergence of depression after health events does significantly increase risk for mortality regardless of the number of events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. How to reduce errors in applying impairment tests

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Christian; Plenborg, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Fair value accounting has become predominant in accounting as a vast number of IAS/IFRS standards are based on fair value accounting, including IAS 36 Impairment of assets. Fair value accounting for goodwill is technically challenging, since market prices are not observable. Thus, valuation technologies must be applied in order to test goodwill for impairment. While prior research on goodwill has concentrated on either the (dis)advantages for each accounting procedure for goodwill or exami...

  9. Numerical test for single concrete armour layer on breakwaters

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasaki, E; Latham, J-P; Xiang, J

    2016-01-01

    The ability of concrete armour units for breakwaters to interlock and form an integral single layer is important for withstanding severe wave conditions. In reality, displacements take place under wave loading, whether they are small and insignificant or large and representing serious structural damage. In this work, a code that combines finite- and discrete-element methods which can simulate motion and interaction among units was used to conduct a numerical investigation. Various concrete ar...

  10. Fabrication and test of Superconducting Single Photon Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leoni, R.; Mattioli, F.; Castellano, M.G.; Cibella, S.; Carelli, P.; Pagano, S.; Perez de Lara, D.; Ejrnaes, M.; Lisitskyi, M.P.; Esposito, E.; Cristiano, R.; Nappi, C.

    2006-01-01

    We report here on the state of our fabrication process for Superconducting Single Photon Detectors (SSPDs). We have fabricated submicrometer SSPD structures by electron beam lithography using very thin (10 nm) NbN films deposited by DC-magnetron sputtering on different substrates and at room substrate temperature. The structures show a fast optical response (risetime <500 ps limited by readout electronics) and interesting self-resetting features

  11. Tests to Reduce TorreCat™ Technology to Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westover, Tyler [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Emerson, Rachel Marie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-26

    Torrefaction is the thermal treatment of materials in the absence of oxygen in the temperature range of 200 to 300 °C and has been shown to improve handling and grinding properties, hydrophobicity, volatiles content, energy density, and combustion performance of renewable energy biomass feedstock materials. The disadvantages of torrefaction are its relative high cost compared to the low value input feedstock material and the energy that can be lost to volatized gases. This work will demonstrate a new technology developed by Advanced Torrefaction Systems (ATS), known as TorreCat™ Technology, that uses an oxidation catalyst in a closed system to combust and destroy volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other byproducts produced in the torrefaction process. An oxidation catalyst is a substance, or a combination of substances, that accelerate the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed by the reaction. Catalytic combustion is a reaction that occurs at temperatures 50% lower than traditional combustion, such that essentially no NOx is created. The output of the oxidation catalyst (flue gas) consists mainly of superheated steam and inert gases (carbon dioxide and nitrogen), which can be used for heat in the thermal treatment process. INL has previously developed a pilot-scale Continuous-Feed Thermal Treatment System (CFTTS) that has 10 kg/hr capacity but does not reform the flue gas to reduce environmental concerns or capture all available heat from the biomass material. Using the TorreCat™ technology in INL’s thermal treatment system will demonstrate increased thermal efficiencies during the treatment process as well as reduced environmental impact and clean-up costs. The objective of this project is to determine the effectiveness of the Torrecat™ technology to reform the flue gas and capture as much of its heat content as possible.

  12. Testing single point incremental forming molds for thermoforming operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Daniel; de Sousa, Ricardo Alves; Torcato, Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    Low pressure polymer processing processes as thermoforming or rotational molding use much simpler molds then high pressure processes like injection. However, despite the low forces involved with the process, molds manufacturing for this operations is still a very material, energy and time consuming operation. The goal of the research is to develop and validate a method for manufacturing plastically formed sheets metal molds by single point incremental forming (SPIF) operation for thermoforming operation. Stewart platform based SPIF machines allow the forming of thick metal sheets, granting the required structural stiffness for the mold surface, and keeping the short lead time manufacture and low thermal inertia.

  13. Reducing uncertainty in geostatistical description with well testing pressure data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, A.C.; He, Nanqun [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States); Oliver, D.S. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Company, La Habra, CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Geostatistics has proven to be an effective tool for generating realizations of reservoir properties conditioned to static data, e.g., core and log data and geologic knowledge. Due to the lack of closely spaced data in the lateral directions, there will be significant variability in reservoir descriptions generated by geostatistical simulation, i.e., significant uncertainty in the reservoir descriptions. In past work, we have presented procedures based on inverse problem theory for generating reservoir descriptions (rock property fields) conditioned to pressure data and geostatistical information represented as prior means for log-permeability and porosity and variograms. Although we have shown that the incorporation of pressure data reduces the uncertainty below the level contained in the geostatistical model based only on static information (the prior model), our previous results assumed did not explicitly account for uncertainties in the prior means and the parameters defining the variogram model. In this work, we investigate how pressure data can help detect errors in the prior means. If errors in the prior means are large and are not taken into account, realizations conditioned to pressure data represent incorrect samples of the a posteriori probability density function for the rock property fields, whereas, if the uncertainty in the prior mean is incorporated properly into the model, one obtains realistic realizations of the rock property fields.

  14. Reducing twin pregnancy rates after IVF--elective single embryo transfer (eSET).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Milne, P

    2010-01-01

    Multiple pregnancy is a major complication of IVF and is associated with increased maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity. Elective single embryo transfer (eSET) during IVF, rather than the more standard transfer of two embryos (double embryo transfer or DET), has been shown to significantly reduce the multiple pregnancy rate associated with IVF, while maintaining acceptable pregnancy rates. Couples undergoing IVF in 2008 who met good prognostic criteria had eSET performed. Pregnancy and twinning rates were compared with those for similar couples in 2007 who had DET. Couples unsuccessful with a fresh cycle of treatment had subsequent frozen embryo transfer cycles with DET. The cumulative pregnancy rate was similar for each group. However there were no multiple pregnancies in the eSET group, compared to 4 twins of 5 pregnancies in the DET group. 96% of eligible couples agreed to eSET. ESET is successful in and acceptable to good prognosis Irish couples undergoing IVF.

  15. Reducible Dictionaries for Single Image Super-Resolution based on Patch Matching and Mean Shifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasti, Pejman; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Orlova, Olga

    2017-01-01

    A single-image super-resolution (SR) method is proposed. The proposed method uses a generated dictionary from pairs of high resolution (HR) images and their corresponding low resolution (LR) representations. First, HR images and the corresponding LR ones are divided into patches of HR and LR......, respectively, and then they are collected into separate dictionaries. Afterward, when performing SR, the distance between every patch of the input LR image and those of available LR patches in the LR dictionary is calculated. The minimum distance between the input LR patch and those in the LR dictionary...... is taken, and its counterpart from the HR dictionary is passed through an illumination enhancement process. By this technique, the noticeable change of illumination between neighbor patches in the super-resolved image is significantly reduced. The enhanced HR patch represents the HR patch of the super...

  16. Testing for one Generalized Linear Single Order Parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Niels Langager; Christensen, Tage Emil; Dyre, Jeppe

    work the order parameter may be chosen to have a non-exponential relaxation. The model predictions contradict the general consensus of the properties of viscous liquids in two ways: (i) The model predicts that following a linear isobaric temperature step, the normalized volume and entalpy relaxation......We examine a linear single order parameter model for thermoviscoelastic relaxation in viscous liquids, allowing for a distribution of relaxation times. In this model the relaxation of volume and entalpy is completely described by the relaxation of one internal order parameter. In contrast to prior...... functions are identical. This assumption conflicts with some (but not all) reports, utilizing the Tool-Narayanaswamy formalism to extrapolate from non-linear measurements to the linear regime. (ii) The model predicts that the theoretical "linear Prigogine-Defay" ratio is one. This ratio has never been...

  17. Detectability of single and plural flaws by ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, K.

    1985-01-01

    An outline and up-to-date test results of an eight year project of proving tests on the effectiveness of in-service inspection is described in the first part of the present paper. Effects on the detectability of such testing parameters as refraction angle, thickness of stainless steel cladding, inspectors, standard flaws in reference specimens, stress state subjected to defects are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of detection reproducibility, resolution and accuracy of inspected size of a defects. The latter part of the paper deals with up-to-date results of tests on resolution and shape determination of propagating adjacent and co-linear fatigue cracks by ultrasonic examination. It was found that real lengths of fatigue crack and EDM surface notch will be roughly estimated by 12 dB and 8 dB down methods, respectively. It is also concluded that the 10 dB down method is available for estimation of the inside distance of two co-linear surface cracks

  18. Single aortic clamping in coronary artery bypass surgery reduces cerebral embolism and improves neurocognitive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparovic, Hrvoje; Borojevic, Marko; Malojcic, Branko; Gasparovic, Kristina; Biocina, Bojan

    2013-10-01

    Aortic manipulation releases embolic material, thereby enhancing the probability of adverse neurologic outcomes following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We prospectively evaluated 59 patients undergoing CABG. Patients in the single (SC, n = 37) and multiple clamp (MC, n = 22) groups were comparable in relation to age and operative risk (p > 0.05). Neurocognitive evaluation consisted of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Color Trails Test A, the Grooved Pegboard test and the Mini-Mental State Examination. Data acquisition was performed preoperatively, early postoperatively and at the 4-month follow-up. Intraoperative transcranial Doppler (TCD) monitoring was used to quantify the embolic load in relation to different aortic clamping strategies. Preoperative neurocognitive results were similar between the groups (p > 0.05). The incidence of postoperative delirium was greater in the MC group but this failed to reach statistical significance (23% vs 8%, p = 0.14). SC patients had fewer embolization signals (270 ± 181 vs 465 ± 160, p < 0.0001). Early postoperative neurocognitive results were depressed in comparison to preoperative values in both groups (p < 0.05 for multiple comparisons). The magnitude of this cognitive depression was greater in the MC group (p < 0.05 for multiple comparisons). Preoperative levels of neurocognition were restored at follow-up in the SC group in all tests except the AVLT. A trend towards improvements in neurocognitive performances at follow-up was also observed in the MC group. Residual attention, motor skill and memory deficits were, however, documented with multiple tests. In conclusion, the embolic burden was significantly lower in the SC group. This TCD imaging outcome translated into fewer early cognition deficits and superior late restoration of function.

  19. Racial/ethnic and gender differences among older adults in nonmonogamous partnerships, time spent single, and human immunodeficiency virus testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harawa, Nina T; Leng, Mei; Kim, Junyeop; Cunningham, William E

    2011-12-01

    A higher frequency of nonmonogamy, due in part to lower marriage prevalence, may contribute to elevated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease rates among older blacks. To examine race and gender differences in nonmonogamy, time spent single (i.e., not married or cohabiting), and HIV testing in older adults, we analyzed US population-based data from the 2005-2006 National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project for 2825 heterosexual participants ages 57 to 85 years. Blacks spent greater portions of their adult lives single than did Hispanics or whites and were far more likely to report recent nonmonogamous partnerships (23.4% vs. 10.0% and 8.2%). Among individuals reporting sex in the prior 5 years, nonmonogamous partnerships were strongly associated with time spent single during the period. Control for time spent single and other covariates reduced the association of black race with nonmonogamous partnerships for men, but increased it for women. Less than 20% reported ever testing for HIV; less than 6% had been recommended testing by a provider. Testing rates, highest in black men and white women, differed little by history of nonmonogamous partnerships within gender strata. Singlehood helps to explain higher nonmonogamous partnership rates in older black men but not in older black women. Older adults rarely receive or are recommended HIV testing, a key strategy for reducing heterosexual HIV transmission.

  20. Dynamic tensile test of single PET textile cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasco F.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The tyres conception involves for certain applications, the use of textile cables as reinforcement. During its use, the tyre undergoes temperatures variations and dynamic loading rates. The consideration of these conditions during the numeric simulations requires the knowledge of the sensitivity of the mechanical behaviour to loading rate and temperature. In this paper, we developed an experimental methodology for testing textile cable up to high strain rate. The main difficulty of testing cables is the optimization of cable fixing on the machine. For that purpose, we adapted the solution of fixing by progressive binding already used in quasi-static, while taking into account constraints inherent to high strain tests. Firstly, the mass of grips was decreased in order to get force signal less sensitive to grips inertia. The method was developed on a high speed hydraulic machine equipped with a thermal enclosure. The investigated temperatures and strain rates range from room temperature to 373 ∘K (100 ∘C and from 0,01 to 100/s, respectively. In addition, the hydraulic machine was equipped with a high speed video camera. The obtained images were analysed by a tracking technique to measure the average strain in the cable (from 50 to 20000 f/s.

  1. A Single Bout of High-Intensity Interval Training Reduces Awareness of Subsequent Hypoglycemia in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooijackers, Hanne M; Wiegers, Evita C; van der Graaf, Marinette; Thijssen, Dick H; Kessels, Roy P C; Tack, Cees J; de Galan, Bastiaan E

    2017-07-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has gained increasing popularity in patients with diabetes. HIIT acutely increases plasma lactate levels. This may be important, since the administration of lactate during hypoglycemia suppresses symptoms and counterregulation while preserving cognitive function. We tested the hypothesis that, in the short term, HIIT reduces awareness of hypoglycemia and attenuates hypoglycemia-induced cognitive dysfunction. In a randomized crossover trial, patients with type 1 diabetes and normal awareness of hypoglycemia (NAH), patients with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia (IAH), and healthy participants ( n = 10 per group) underwent a hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic (2.6 mmol/L) clamp, either after a HIIT session or after seated rest. Compared with rest, HIIT reduced symptoms of hypoglycemia in patients with NAH but not in healthy participants or patients with IAH. HIIT attenuated hypoglycemia-induced cognitive dysfunction, which was mainly driven by changes in the NAH subgroup. HIIT suppressed cortisol and growth hormone responses, but not catecholamine responses to hypoglycemia. The present findings demonstrate that a single HIIT session rapidly reduces awareness of subsequent hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes and NAH, but does not in patients with IAH, and attenuates hypoglycemia-induced cognitive dysfunction. The role of exercise-induced lactate in mediating these effects, potentially serving as an alternative fuel for the brain, should be further explored. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  2. Injection molded nanofluidic chips: Fabrication method and functional tests using single-molecule DNA experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utko, Pawel; Persson, Karl Fredrik; Kristensen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that fabrication of nanofluidic systems can be greatly simplified by injection molding of polymers. We functionally test our devices by single-molecule DNA experiments in nanochannels.......We demonstrate that fabrication of nanofluidic systems can be greatly simplified by injection molding of polymers. We functionally test our devices by single-molecule DNA experiments in nanochannels....

  3. 76 FR 34801 - Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... reference in 49 CFR 232.305) is intended for freight cars with automatic brake systems that are...] Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures In accordance with Part 232 of Title 49... Railroad Administration (FRA) grant a modification of the single car air brake test procedures as...

  4. International policies to reduce plastic marine pollution from single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads): A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthos, Dirk; Walker, Tony R

    2017-05-15

    Marine plastic pollution has been a growing concern for decades. Single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads) are a significant source of this pollution. Although research outlining environmental, social, and economic impacts of marine plastic pollution is growing, few studies have examined policy and legislative tools to reduce plastic pollution, particularly single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads). This paper reviews current international market-based strategies and policies to reduce plastic bags and microbeads. While policies to reduce microbeads began in 2014, interventions for plastic bags began much earlier in 1991. However, few studies have documented or measured the effectiveness of these reduction strategies. Recommendations to further reduce single-use plastic marine pollution include: (i) research to evaluate effectiveness of bans and levies to ensure policies are having positive impacts on marine environments; and (ii) education and outreach to reduce consumption of plastic bags and microbeads at source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Excited-state annihilation reduces power dependence of single-molecule FRET experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettels, Daniel; Haenni, Dominik; Maillot, Sacha; Gueye, Moussa; Barth, Anders; Hirschfeld, Verena; Hübner, Christian G; Léonard, Jérémie; Schuler, Benjamin

    2015-12-28

    Single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments are an important method for probing biomolecular structure and dynamics. The results from such experiments appear to be surprisingly independent of the excitation power used, in contradiction to the simple photophysical mechanism usually invoked for FRET. Here we show that excited-state annihilation processes are an essential cause of this behavior. Singlet-singlet annihilation (SSA) is a mechanism of fluorescence quenching induced by Förster-type energy transfer between two fluorophores while they are both in their first excited singlet states (S1S1), which is usually neglected in the interpretation of FRET experiments. However, this approximation is only justified in the limit of low excitation rates. We demonstrate that SSA is evident in fluorescence correlation measurements for the commonly used FRET pair Alexa 488/Alexa 594, with a rate comparable to the rate of energy transfer between the donor excited state and the acceptor ground state (S1S0) that is exploited in FRET experiments. Transient absorption spectroscopy shows that SSA occurs exclusively via energy transfer from Alexa 488 to Alexa 594. Excitation-power dependent microsecond correlation experiments support the conclusion based on previously reported absorption spectra of triplet states that singlet-triplet annihilation (STA) analogously mediates energy transfer if the acceptor is in the triplet state. The results indicate that both SSA and STA have a pronounced effect on the overall FRET process and reduce the power dependence of the observed FRET efficiencies. The existence of annihilation processes thus seems to be essential for using FRET as a reliable spectroscopic ruler at the high excitation rates commonly employed in single-molecule spectroscopy.

  6. LHC BLM Single Channel Connectivity Test using the Standard Installation

    CERN Document Server

    Emery, J; Effinger, E; Ferioli, G; Zamantzas, C; Ikeda, H; Verhagen, E

    2009-01-01

    For the LHC Beam Loss Measurement system (BLM), the high voltage supply of the ionisation chambers and the secondary emission detectors is used to test their connectivity. A harmonic modulation of 0.03 Hz results in a current signal of about 100pA measured by the beam loss acquisition electronics. The signal is analyzed and the measured amplitude and phase are compared with individual channel limits for the 4000 channels. It is foreseen to execute an automatic procedure for all channels every 12 hours which takes about 20 minutes. The paper will present the design of the system, the circuit simulations, measurements of systematic dependencies of different channels and the reproducibility of the amplitude and phase measurements.

  7. Test procedures and instructions for single shell tank saltcake cesium removal with crystalline silicotitanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, J.B.

    1997-01-07

    This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test, using Hanford Single Shell Tank Saltcake from tanks 24 t -BY- I 10, 24 1 -U- 108, 24 1 -U- 109, 24 1 -A- I 0 1, and 24 t - S-102, in a bench-scale column. The cesium sorbent to be tested is crystalline siticotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-024, Hanford Single Shell Tank Saltcake Cesium Removal Test Plan.

  8. Tailgate test kit for determining appropriate sediment reducing chemicals and dose rates : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This study develops a Tailgate Test Kit to be used in the field to test flocculants for reducing turbidity in construction stormwater discharge. Turbidity of stormwater runoff at construction sites varies depending on which site soils are exposed to ...

  9. NEPP Update of Independent Single Event Upset Field Programmable Gate Array Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; Label, Kenneth; Campola, Michael; Pellish, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    This presentation provides a NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program update of independent Single Event Upset (SEU) Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) testing including FPGA test guidelines, Microsemi RTG4 heavy-ion results, Xilinx Kintex-UltraScale heavy-ion results, Xilinx UltraScale+ single event effect (SEE) test plans, development of a new methodology for characterizing SEU system response, and NEPP involvement with FPGA security and trust.

  10. Optimal path planning for single and multiple aircraft using a reduced order formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twigg, Shannon S.

    High-flying unmanned reconnaissance and surveillance systems are now being used extensively in the United States military. Current development programs are producing demonstrations of next-generation unmanned flight systems that are designed to perform combat missions. Their use in first-strike combat operations will dictate operations in densely cluttered environments that include unknown obstacles and threats, and will require the use of terrain for masking. The demand for autonomy of operations in such environments dictates the need for advanced trajectory optimization capabilities. In addition, the ability to coordinate the movements of more than one aircraft in the same area is an emerging challenge. This thesis examines using an analytical reduced order formulation for trajectory generation for minimum time and terrain masking cases. First, pseudo-3D constant velocity equations of motion are used for path planning for a single vehicle. In addition, the inclusion of winds, moving targets and moving threats is considered. Then, this formulation is increased to using 3D equations of motion, both with a constant velocity and with a simplified varying velocity model. Next, the constant velocity equations of motion are expanded to include the simultaneous path planning of an unspecified number of vehicles, for both aircraft avoidance situations and formation flight cases.

  11. Calculating the reduced scattering coefficient of turbid media from a single optical reflectance signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Maureen; Liu, Hanli

    2003-07-01

    When light interacts with tissue, it can be absorbed, scattered or reflected. Such quantitative information can be used to characterize the optical properties of tissue, differentiate tissue types in vivo, and identify normal versus diseased tissue. The purpose of this research is to develop an algorithm that determines the reduced scattering coefficient (μs") of tissues from a single optical reflectance spectrum with a small source-detector separation. The basic relationship between μs" and optical reflectance was developed using Monte Carlo simulations. This produced an analytical equation containing μs" as a function of reflectance. To experimentally validate this relationship, a 1.3-mm diameter fiber optic probe containing two 400-micron diameter fibers was used to deliver light to and collect light from Intralipid solutions of various concentrations. Simultaneous measurements from optical reflectance and an ISS oximeter were performed to validate the calculated μs" values determined by the reflectance measurement against the 'gold standard" ISS readings. The calculated μs" values deviate from the expected values by approximately -/+ 5% with Intralipid concentrations between 0.5 - 2.5%. The scattering properties within this concentration range are similar to those of in vivo tissues. Additional calculations are performed to determine the scattering properties of rat brain tissues and to discuss accuracy of the algorithm for measured samples with a broad range of the absorption coefficient (μa).

  12. Utilization of Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) to Reduce Test Anxiety in High Stakes Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, Marie Elaine

    2013-01-01

    There are many reasons a person may fail a high stakes test such as the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN®). Sleep deprivation, illness, life stressors, knowledge deficit, and test anxiety are some of the common explanations. A student with test anxiety may feel threatened by this evaluation process. This…

  13. A new test well reduces test costs by 90 per cent; Ny testbroenn gir 90 prosent reduksjon i testkostnadene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The Coast Center Base at Aagotnes outside of Bergen, Norway, has invested 12 mill NOK in a new 25 metre test well for testing of equipment designed for sea bottom drilling. The well is on the quay of the base and is a copy of a subsea well, and parameters such as pressure and temperature can be varied so as to simulate almost any natural or unnatural condition. This new test well reduces the test costs by 90 per cent.

  14. A single-electron reducing quinone oxidoreductase is necessary to induce haustorium development in the root parasitic plant Triphysaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaranayake, Pradeepa C G; Filappova, Tatiana; Tomilov, Alexey; Tomilova, Natalya B; Jamison-McClung, Denneal; Ngo, Quy; Inoue, Kentaro; Yoder, John I

    2010-04-01

    Parasitic plants in the Orobanchaceae develop haustoria in response to contact with host roots or chemical haustoria-inducing factors. Experiments in this manuscript test the hypothesis that quinolic-inducing factors activate haustorium development via a signal mechanism initiated by redox cycling between quinone and hydroquinone states. Two cDNAs were previously isolated from roots of the parasitic plant Triphysaria versicolor that encode distinct quinone oxidoreductases. QR1 encodes a single-electron reducing NADPH quinone oxidoreductase similar to zeta-crystallin. The QR2 enzyme catalyzes two electron reductions typical of xenobiotic detoxification. QR1 and QR2 transcripts are upregulated in a primary response to chemical-inducing factors, but only QR1 was upregulated in response to host roots. RNA interference technology was used to reduce QR1 and QR2 transcripts in Triphysaria roots that were evaluated for their ability to form haustoria. There was a significant decrease in haustorium development in roots silenced for QR1 but not in roots silenced for QR2. The infrequent QR1 transgenic roots that did develop haustoria had levels of QR1 similar to those of nontransgenic roots. These experiments implicate QR1 as one of the earliest genes on the haustorium signal transduction pathway, encoding a quinone oxidoreductase necessary for the redox bioactivation of haustorial inducing factors.

  15. Single vagus nerve stimulation reduces early postprandial C-peptide levels but not other hormones or postprandial metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, M W; van Nierop, F S; Koopman, F A; Eggink, H M; Gerlag, D M; Chan, M W; Zitnik, R; Vaz, F M; Romijn, J A; Tak, P P; Soeters, M R

    2018-02-01

    A recent study in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients using electrical vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) to activate the inflammatory reflex has shown promising effects on disease activity. Innervation by the autonomic nerve system might be involved in the regulation of many endocrine and metabolic processes and could therefore theoretically lead to unwanted side effects. Possible effects of VNS on secretion of hormones are currently unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of a single VNS on plasma levels of pituitary hormones and parameters of postprandial metabolism. Six female patients with RA were studied twice in balanced assignment (crossover design) to either VNS or no stimulation. The patients selected for this substudy had been on VNS therapy daily for at least 3 months and at maximum of 24 months. We compared 10-, 20-, and 30-min poststimulus levels to baseline levels, and a 4-h mixed meal test was performed 30 min after VNS. We also determined energy expenditure (EE) by indirect calorimetry before and after VNS. VNS did not affect pituitary hormones (growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone), postprandial metabolism, or EE. Of note, VNS reduced early postprandial insulin secretion, but not AUC of postprandial plasma insulin levels. Cortisol and catecholamine levels in serum did not change significantly. Short stimulation of vagal activity by VNS reduces early postprandial insulin secretion, but not other hormone levels and postprandial response. This suggests VNS as a safe treatment for RA patients.

  16. Evaluation procedures for single axis sinusoidal test to design spectrum requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, P.C.; Javid, A.

    1983-01-01

    Two simple procedures are provided in this paper for the purpose of evaluating the adequacy of a single frequency single axis test. For the purpose of evaluating the adequacy of single frequency test to meet broad-band response spectrum requirements, the proposed procedure is based on the equivalence of maximum response of a dynamic system when it is subjected to either type of design input. The required information used for the evaluation is usually recorded and available in the test report. This procedure is applicable to systems with or without closely-spaced modes. When evaluating against broad-band design spectra and multi-axes requirements, an empirical procedure is proposed and it has been found conservative. These two proposed procedures provide a quick assessment on the adequacy of a single frequency test performed earlier. The use of these procedures may eliminate the need of expensive and time consuming equipment re-testing. (orig./HP)

  17. Lessons Learned from Performance Testing of Humans in Spacesuits in Simulated Reduced Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, Jason R.; Chappell, Steven P.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The overarching objective of the Integrated Suit Test (IST) series is to evaluate suited human performance using reduced-gravity analogs and learn what aspects of an EVA suit system affect human performance. For this objective to be successfully achieved, the testing methodology should be valid and reproducible, and the partial-gravity simulations must be as accurate and realistic as possible. Objectives: To highlight some of the key lessons learned about partial-gravity analogs and testing methodology, and to suggest considerations for optimizing the effectiveness and quality of results of future tests. Methods: Performance testing of suited and unsuited subjects was undertaken in different reduced-gravity analogs including the Space Vehicle Mockup Facility s Partial Gravity Simulator (POGO), parabolic flight on the C-9 aircraft, underwater environments including NASA s Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) and the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL), and in field analogs including Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS), the Haughton Mars Project (HMP), and the JSC Rock Pile. Subjects performed level walking, incline/decline walking, running, shoveling, picking up and transferring rocks, kneeling/standing, and task boards. Lessons Learned Analogs: No single analog will properly simulate all aspects of the true partial-gravity environment. The POGO is an ideal environment from the standpoint that there are no time limits or significant volumetric constraints, but it does have several limitations. It allows only 2 translational degrees of freedom (DOF) and applies true partial-gravity offload only through the subject s center of gravity (CG). Also, when a subject is doing non-stationary tasks, significant overhead inertia from the lift column seems to have a negative impact on performance. Parabolic flight allows full translational and rotational DOF and applies offload to all parts of the body, but the simulation lasts less than 30 seconds

  18. High Speed Vessel Medical Limited Objective Experiment, Noise Assessment and Noise Reducing Stethoscope Field Test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Russotti, Joseph S; Duplessis, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    .... This Medical Limited Objective Experiment (LOE) was valuable both to evaluate the noise environment in spaces not designed for habitation, and to simultaneously test a pre-production noise-reducing stethoscope. In controlled setting under operationally-relevant shipboard noise conditions in the field tests, the noise-reducing stethoscope proved to be significant, substantial improvement over a conventional sound-powered device.

  19. Results of single borehole hydraulic testing in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory project. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daimaru, Shuji; Takeuchi, Ryuji; Onoe, Hironori; Saegusa, Hiromitsu

    2012-09-01

    This report summarize the results of the single borehole hydraulic tests of 79 sections conducted as part of the Construction phase (Phase 2) in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project. The details of each test (test interval depth, geology, etc.) as well as the interpreted hydraulic parameters and analytical method used are presented in this report. (author)

  20. Modified single prolonged stress reduces cocaine self-administration during acquisition regardless of rearing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofford, Rebecca S; Prendergast, Mark A; Bardo, Michael T

    2018-02-15

    Until recently, there were few rodent models available to study the interaction of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and drug taking. Like PTSD, single prolonged stress (SPS) produces hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction and alters psychostimulant self-administration. Other stressors, such as isolation stress, also alter psychostimulant self-administration. However, it is currently unknown if isolation housing combined with SPS can alter the acquisition or maintenance of cocaine self-administration. The current study applied modified SPS (modSPS; two hours restraint immediately followed by cold swim stress) to rats raised in an isolation condition (Iso), enrichment condition (Enr), or standard condition (Std) to measure changes in cocaine self-administration and HPA markers. Regardless of rearing condition, rats exposed to modSPS had greater corticosterone (CORT) release and reduced cocaine self-administration during initial acquisition compared to non-stressed controls. In addition, during initial acquisition, rats that received both Iso rearing and modSPS showed a more rapid increase in cocaine self-administration across sessions compared to Enr and Std rats exposed to modSPS. Following initial acquisition, a dose response analysis showed that Iso rats were overall most sensitive to changes in cocaine unit dose; however, modSPS had no effect on the cocaine dose response curve. Further, there was no effect of either modSPS or differential rearing on expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in hypothalamus, medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, or nucleus accumbens. By using modSPS in combination with Iso housing, this study identified unique contributions of each stressor to acquisition of cocaine self-administration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Can all heritable biology really be reduced to a single dimension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Gregory A; Coppola, Erin E; Alawad, Mohammed A; Hudson, André O

    2016-03-10

    A long-held presupposition in the field of bioinformatics holds that genetic, and now even epigenetic 'information' can be abstracted from the physicochemical details of the macromolecular polymers in which it resides. It is perhaps rather ironic that this basic conjecture originated upon the first observations of DNA structure itself. This static model of DNA led very quickly to the conclusion that only the nucleobase sequence itself is rich enough in molecular complexity to replicate a complex biology. This idea has been pervasive throughout genomic science, higher education and popular culture ever since; to the point that most of us would accept it unquestioningly as fact. What is more alarming is that this conjecture is driving a significant portion of the technological development in modern genomics towards methods strongly rooted in DNA sequencing, thereby reducing a dynamic multi-dimensional biology into single-dimensional forms of data. Evidence countering this central tenet of bioinformatics has been quietly mounting over many decades, prompting some to propose that the genome must be studied from the perspective of its molecular reality, rather than as a body of information to be represented symbolically. Here, we explore the epistemological boundary between bioinformatics and molecular biology, and warn against an 'overtly' bioinformatic perspective. We review a selection of new bioinformatic methods that move beyond sequence-based approaches to include consideration of databased three dimensional structures. However, we also note that these hybrid methods still ignore the most important element of gene function when attempting to improve outcomes; the fourth dimension of molecular dynamics over time. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Single incision versus reduced port splenectomy--searching for the best alternative to conventional laparoscopic splenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monclova, Julio Lopez; Targarona, Eduardo M; Vidal, Pablo; Peraza, Yerald; Garcia, Francisco; Otero, Carlos Rodriguez; Pallares, Luis; Balague, Carmen; Trias, Manuel

    2013-03-01

    Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) is a well accepted approach for the treatment of multiple hematologic diseases. Single port access splenectomy (SPAS) emphasizes the concept of surgery through one small incision. The reduced port access splenectomy (RPAS) entails the use of fewer trocars of smaller sizes. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes after LS, SPAS, and RPAS, and to analyze the aesthetic result and patient satisfaction. We included patients who underwent LS (group 1, n = 15), SPAS (group 2, n = 8), and RPAS (group 3, n = 10) between June 2008 and February 2012, whose final spleen weight was less of 500 g. The outcome parameters analyzed were operative time, need of additional trocars, blood loss, blood transfusion, weight of the spleen, postoperative complications, and duration of hospital stay. To evaluate the cosmetic result, patients were asked to take the Body Image Questionnaire. Patients in group 3 were younger than group 1. Operative time was significantly longer in group 2 compared to groups 1 and 3 (83 ± 19 vs. 131 ± 43 vs. 81 ± 22 min, p = 0.01). There was no need to convert to open surgery in any group, nor were there differences in intra- or postoperative outcome. There were no differences between the groups in relation to the analgesic requirements. Twenty-two out of the 33 patients answered the questionnaire. There was a significant advantage in group 2 and 3 in the body image index with respect to group 1. There were no differences between groups 2 and 3 (7.3 ± 2.8 vs. 5.8 ± 1.3 vs. 5.1 ± 0.4, p RPAS is a good alternative to LS and SPAS. It improves the aesthetic results as compared to LS, whereas minimizes the technical challenges faced with SPAS.

  3. NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Field Programmable Gate Array Single Event Effects Test Guideline Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie D.; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2018-01-01

    The following are updated or new subjects added to the FPGA SEE Test Guidelines manual: academic versus mission specific device evaluation, single event latch-up (SEL) test and analysis, SEE response visibility enhancement during radiation testing, mitigation evaluation (embedded and user-implemented), unreliable design and its affects to SEE Data, testing flushable architectures versus non-flushable architectures, intellectual property core (IP Core) test and evaluation (addresses embedded and user-inserted), heavy-ion energy and linear energy transfer (LET) selection, proton versus heavy-ion testing, fault injection, mean fluence to failure analysis, and mission specific system-level single event upset (SEU) response prediction. Most sections within the guidelines manual provide information regarding best practices for test structure and test system development. The scope of this manual addresses academic versus mission specific device evaluation and visibility enhancement in IP Core testing.

  4. Forecast of thermal-hydrological conditions and air injection test results of the single heater test at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholzer, J.T.; Tsang, Y.W.

    1996-12-01

    The heater in the Single Heater Test (SHT) in alcove 5 of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) was turned on August 26, 1996. A large number of sensors are installed in the various instrumented boreholes to monitor the coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical responses of the rock mass to the heat generated in the single heater. In this report the authors present the results of the modeling of both the heating and cooling phases of the Single Heater Test (SHT), with focus on the thermal-hydrological aspect of the coupled processes. Also in this report, the authors present simulations of air injection tests will be performed at different stages of the heating and cooling phase of the SHT

  5. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests: Reducing test time by early parameter estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, C; Astals, S; Peces, M; Campos, J L; Guerrero, L

    2018-01-01

    Biochemical methane potential (BMP) test is a key analytical technique to assess the implementation and optimisation of anaerobic biotechnologies. However, this technique is characterised by long testing times (from 20 to >100days), which is not suitable for waste utilities, consulting companies or plants operators whose decision-making processes cannot be held for such a long time. This study develops a statistically robust mathematical strategy using sensitivity functions for early prediction of BMP first-order model parameters, i.e. methane yield (B 0 ) and kinetic constant rate (k). The minimum testing time for early parameter estimation showed a potential correlation with the k value, where (i) slowly biodegradable substrates (k≤0.1d -1 ) have a minimum testing times of ≥15days, (ii) moderately biodegradable substrates (0.1testing times between 8 and 15 days, and (iii) rapidly biodegradable substrates (k≥0.2d -1 ) have testing times lower than 7days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Intersection tests for single marker QTL analysis can be more powerful than two marker QTL analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doerge RW

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported in the quantitative trait locus (QTL literature that when testing for QTL location and effect, the statistical power supporting methodologies based on two markers and their estimated genetic map is higher than for the genetic map independent methodologies known as single marker analyses. Close examination of these reports reveals that the two marker approaches are more powerful than single marker analyses only in certain cases. Simulation studies are a commonly used tool to determine the behavior of test statistics under known conditions. We conducted a simulation study to assess the general behavior of an intersection test and a two marker test under a variety of conditions. The study was designed to reveal whether two marker tests are always more powerful than intersection tests, or whether there are cases when an intersection test may outperform the two marker approach. We present a reanalysis of a data set from a QTL study of ovariole number in Drosophila melanogaster. Results Our simulation study results show that there are situations where the single marker intersection test equals or outperforms the two marker test. The intersection test and the two marker test identify overlapping regions in the reanalysis of the Drosophila melanogaster data. The region identified is consistent with a regression based interval mapping analysis. Conclusion We find that the intersection test is appropriate for analysis of QTL data. This approach has the advantage of simplicity and for certain situations supplies equivalent or more powerful results than a comparable two marker test.

  7. Understanding the effect of single-fracture heterogeneity from single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Martin; Doughty, Christine; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Niemi, Auli

    2013-12-01

    The single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tracer test is a method used to estimate the tracer retardation properties of a fracture or fracture zone. The effects of single-fracture aperture heterogeneity on SWIW-test tracer breakthrough curves are examined by numerical modelling. The effects of the matrix diffusion and sorption are accounted for by using a particle tracking method through the addition of a time delay added to the advective transport time. For a given diffusion and sorption property ( P m) value and for a heterogeneous fracture, the peak concentration is larger compared to a homogeneous fracture. The cumulative breakthrough curve for a heterogeneous fracture is similar to that for a homogeneous fracture and a less sorptive/diffusive tracer. It is demonstrated that the fracture area that meets the flowing water, the specific flow-wetted surface (sFWS) of the fracture, can be determined by matching the observed breakthrough curve for a heterogeneous fracture to that for a homogeneous fracture with an equivalent property parameter. SWIW tests are also simulated with a regional pressure gradient present. The results point to the possibility of distinguishing the effect of the regional pressure gradient from that of diffusion through the use of multiple tracers with different P m values.

  8. A pilot neighborhood study towards establishing a benchmark for reducing electromagnetic field levels within single family residential dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Russell; Munroe, Alan James; Siddiqui, Yasmeen

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMF) permeate the built environment in different forms and come from a number of sources including electrical wiring and devices, wireless communication, 'energy-efficient' lighting, and appliances. It can be present in the indoor environment directly from indoor sources, or can be transmitted through building materials from outside sources. Scientists have identified it as an indoor environmental pollutant or toxin that has ubiquitously plagued developed nations causing a variety of adverse health effects such as sick-building syndrome symptoms, asthma, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, leukemia, electro-hypersensitivity (EHS), behavior disorders, and more. There is currently no international consensus on guidelines and exposure limits. This paper presents the results of 29 EMF field audits in single family residential dwellings located within an urban neighborhood in Toronto (Canada). The following EMF spectra were evaluated: radio frequency, power frequency electric fields, power frequency magnetic fields and high frequency voltage transients. The field audits were conducted in order to provide initial baseline statistics to be used in future studies and in order to be compared to a low-cost EMF reduction design incorporated within the Renovation2050 research house - located within the test neighborhood. The results show the low-cost reduction strategy to be effective, on average reducing exposure by 80% for high-intensity EMF metrics. Research of this nature has not been conducted with relation to the built environment and can be used to spark an industry movement to design for low-exposure to EMF in a residential context. © 2013.

  9. The Influence of Age on Interaction between Breath-Holding Test and Single-Breath Carbon Dioxide Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Trembach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare the breath-holding test and single-breath carbon dioxide test in evaluation of the peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity to carbon dioxide in healthy subjects of different age. Methods. The study involved 47 healthy volunteers between ages of 25 and 85 years. All participants were divided into 4 groups according to age: 25 to 44 years (n=14, 45 to 60 years (n=13, 60 to 75 years (n=12, and older than 75 years (n=8. Breath-holding test was performed in the morning before breakfast. The single-breath carbon dioxide (SB-CO2 test was performed the following day. Results. No correlation was found between age and duration of breath-holding (r=0.13 and between age and peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity to CO2 (r=0.07. In all age groups there were no significant differences in the mean values from the breath-holding test and peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity tests. In all groups there was a strong significant inverse correlation between breath-holding test and SB-CO2 test. Conclusion. A breath-holding test reflects the sensitivity of the peripheral chemoreflex to carbon dioxide in healthy elderly humans. Increasing age alone does not alter the peripheral ventilatory response to hypercapnia.

  10. The Influence of Age on Interaction between Breath-Holding Test and Single-Breath Carbon Dioxide Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembach, Nikita; Zabolotskikh, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Introduction . The aim of the study was to compare the breath-holding test and single-breath carbon dioxide test in evaluation of the peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity to carbon dioxide in healthy subjects of different age. Methods . The study involved 47 healthy volunteers between ages of 25 and 85 years. All participants were divided into 4 groups according to age: 25 to 44 years ( n = 14), 45 to 60 years ( n = 13), 60 to 75 years ( n = 12), and older than 75 years ( n = 8). Breath-holding test was performed in the morning before breakfast. The single-breath carbon dioxide (SB-CO 2 ) test was performed the following day. Results . No correlation was found between age and duration of breath-holding ( r = 0.13) and between age and peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity to CO 2 ( r = 0.07). In all age groups there were no significant differences in the mean values from the breath-holding test and peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity tests. In all groups there was a strong significant inverse correlation between breath-holding test and SB-CO 2 test. Conclusion . A breath-holding test reflects the sensitivity of the peripheral chemoreflex to carbon dioxide in healthy elderly humans. Increasing age alone does not alter the peripheral ventilatory response to hypercapnia.

  11. Reducing inappropriate testing in the diagnosis of the menopause and peri-menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jac; Currie, Heather; Foster, Adele; Anderson, Julia

    2016-09-01

    The menopause should be diagnosed based on age, menstrual history and clinical symptoms, and as such, follicle stimulating hormone testing may be considered inappropriate when diagnosing the menopause or peri-menopause in women aged 45 and over. As part of a demand optimisation programme, the number of follicle stimulating hormone tests requested to diagnose the menopause in this age group was quantified and educational interventions were implemented to reduce inappropriate testing. The number of follicle stimulating hormone tests requested to diagnose the menopause in women aged 45 and over was successfully and sustainably reduced. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Analytical solutions for efficient interpretation of single-well push-pull tracer tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single-well push-pull tracer tests have been used to characterize the extent, fate, and transport of subsurface contamination. Analytical solutions provide one alternative for interpreting test results. In this work, an exact analytical solution to two-dimensional equations descr...

  13. Fibre reinforced concrete in flexure and single fibre pull-out test: a correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, M.; Ciancio, D.; Dight, P.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present work is to assess whether a single fibre pull-out test can be related to the behaviour of multiple fibres in fibre reinforced concrete under bending condition. A simple model based on the stress block theory is described and compared with experimental results on three point bending tests with aligned fibres.

  14. Content Coverage of Single-Word Tests Used to Assess Common Phonological Error Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Cecilia; Vigeland, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This review evaluated whether 9 single-word tests of phonological error patterns provide adequate content coverage to accurately identify error patterns that are active in a child's speech. Method: Tests in the current study were considered to display sufficient opportunities to assess common phonological error patterns if they…

  15. Optimizing human semen cryopreservation by reducing test vial volume and repetitive test vial sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian F S; Ohl, Dana A; Parker, Walter R

    2015-01-01

    : Prospective clinical laboratory study. SETTING: University assisted reproductive technology (ART) laboratory. PATIENT(S): A total of 594 patients undergoing semen analysis and cryopreservation. INTERVENTION(S): Semen analysis, cryopreservation with different intermediate steps and in different volumes (50......-1,000 μL), and long-term storage in LN2 or VN2. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Optimal TV volume, prediction of cryosurvival (CS) in ART procedure vials (ARTVs) with pre-freeze semen parameters and TV CS, post-thaw motility after two- or three-step semen cryopreservation and cryostorage in VN2 and LN2. RESULT......(S): Test vial volume of 50 μL yielded lower CS than other volumes tested. Cryosurvival of 100 μL was similar to that of larger volumes tested. An intermediate temperature exposure (-88°C to -93°C for 20 minutes) during cryopreservation did not affect post-thaw motility. Cryosurvival of TVs and ARTVs from...

  16. Media Messages and Tools to Reduce Serious Single Vehicle Run-Off-the-Road Crashes Resulting from Impaired Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The Center for Health and Safety Culture conducted research for the Idaho Transportation Department to develop media messages and tools to reduce fatalities and serious injuries related to Run-Off-the-Road, single-vehicle crashes in Idaho using the P...

  17. A single standard for in-place testing of DOE HEPA filters - not

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokler, B.V. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This article is a review of arguments against the use of a single standard for in-place testing of DOE HEPA filters. The author feels that the term `standard` entails mandatory compliance. Additionally, the author feels that the variety of DOE HEPA systems requiring in-place testing is such that the guidance for testing must be written in a permissive fashion, allowing options and alternatives. With this in mind, it is not possible to write a single document entailing mandatory compliance for all DOE facilities.

  18. A single standard for in-place testing of DOE HEPA filters - not

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokler, B.V.

    1995-01-01

    This article is a review of arguments against the use of a single standard for in-place testing of DOE HEPA filters. The author feels that the term 'standard' entails mandatory compliance. Additionally, the author feels that the variety of DOE HEPA systems requiring in-place testing is such that the guidance for testing must be written in a permissive fashion, allowing options and alternatives. With this in mind, it is not possible to write a single document entailing mandatory compliance for all DOE facilities

  19. Electromagnetically induced transparency and reduced speeds for single photons in a fully quantized model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdy, Thomas; Ligare, Martin

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a simple model for electromagnetically induced transparency in which all fields are treated quantum mechanically. We study a system of three separated atoms at fixed positions in a one-dimensional multimode optical cavity. The first atom serves as the source for a single spontaneously emitted photon; the photon scatters from a three-level 'Λ'-configuration atom which interacts with an additional single-mode field coupling two of the atomic levels; the third atom serves as a detector of the total transmitted field. We find an analytical solution for the quantum dynamics. From the quantum amplitude describing the excitation of the detector atom we extract information that provides exact single-photon analogues to wave delays predicted by semi-classical theories. We also find complementary information in the expectation value of the electric field intensity operator

  20. NASA Lewis Stirling SPRE testing and analysis with reduced number of cooler tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, W.A.; Cairelli, J.E.; Swec, D.M.; Doeberling, T.J.; Lakatos, T.F.; Madi, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    Free-piston Stirling power converters are a candidate for high capacity space power applications. The Space Power Research Engine (SPRE), a free-piston Stirling engine coupled with a linear alternator, is being tested at the NASA Lewis Research Center in support of the Civil Space Technology Initiative. The SPRE is used as a test bed for evaluating converter modifications which have the potential to improve converter performance and for validating computer code predictions. Reducing the number of cooler tubes on the SPRE has been identified as a modification with the potential to significantly improve power and efficiency. This paper describes experimental tests designed to investigate the effects of reducing the number of cooler tubes on converter power, efficiency and dynamics. Presented are test results from the converter operating with a reduced number of cooler tubes and comparisons between this data and both baseline test data and computer code predictions

  1. Reliability Assessment of a Single-Shot System by Use of Screen Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    unlimited. NUWC Keyport #17-002. Reliability Assessment of a Single-Shot System by Use of Screen Test Results Abstract: Field reliability prediction...approach described here assumes that the defect density during testing takes the form of an exponential decay, although other mathematical functions can...be substituted for the exponential. In order to apply the decay rate function to a discrete pass/fail test scheme, the approach provides for

  2. The Influence of Age on Interaction between Breath-Holding Test and Single-Breath Carbon Dioxide Test

    OpenAIRE

    Trembach, Nikita; Zabolotskikh, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare the breath-holding test and single-breath carbon dioxide test in evaluation of the peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity to carbon dioxide in healthy subjects of different age. Methods. The study involved 47 healthy volunteers between ages of 25 and 85 years. All participants were divided into 4 groups according to age: 25 to 44 years (n = 14), 45 to 60 years (n = 13), 60 to 75 years (n = 12), and older than 75 years (n = 8). Breath-holding test ...

  3. Homogeneity tests for variances and mean test under heterogeneity conditions in a single way ANOVA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales P, J.R.; Avila P, P.

    1996-01-01

    If we have consider the maximum permissible levels showed for the case of oysters, it results forbidding to collect oysters at the four stations of the El Chijol Channel ( Veracruz, Mexico), as well as along the channel itself, because the metal concentrations studied exceed these limits. In this case the application of Welch tests were not necessary. For the water hyacinth the means of the treatments were unequal in Fe, Cu, Ni, and Zn. This case is more illustrative, for the conclusion has been reached through the application of the Welch tests to treatments with heterogeneous variances. (Author)

  4. Inflammatory changes upon a single maximal exercise test in depressed patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettger, Silke; Müller, Hans-Josef; Oswald, Klaus; Puta, Christian; Donath, Lars; Gabriel, Holger H W; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2010-04-16

    Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have repeatedly been described to exhibit both a humoral as well as a cellular pro-inflammatory state. Acute exercise, representing physical stress, can further aggravate such an immune dysbalance. In the light of recommended exercise programmes for depressed patients, we aimed to investigate the inflammatory response to exercise in patients with MDD. Blood cells counts and concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1ss and IL-6 as well as the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were obtained before and after a single maximum exercise test in 15 patients suffering from MDD and 15 controls applying a stepwise exhaustion protocol. Patients showed increased white cell counts before and after exercise. While starting from different baseline levels, however, the relative increase in both humoral and cellular inflammatory parameters did not differ between groups. The results from this study suggest that physical training programmes for MDD patients do not bear a dramatically increased risk for acute pro-inflammatory exacerbations. Thus, continuous training programmes that have been shown to reduce the pro-inflammatory state in these patients can be recommended. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical evaluation of reducing acquisition time on single-photon emission computed tomography image quality using proprietary resolution recovery software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Matthew D; Waddington, Wendy W; Dickson, John C; Prakash, Vineet; Ell, Peter J; Bomanji, Jamshed B

    2013-11-01

    A three-dimensional model-based resolution recovery (RR) reconstruction algorithm that compensates for collimator-detector response, resulting in an improvement in reconstructed spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images, was tested. The software is said to retain image quality even with reduced acquisition time. Clinically, any improvement in patient throughput without loss of quality is to be welcomed. Furthermore, future restrictions in radiotracer supplies may add value to this type of data analysis. The aims of this study were to assess improvement in image quality using the software and to evaluate the potential of performing reduced time acquisitions for bone and parathyroid SPECT applications. Data acquisition was performed using the local standard SPECT/CT protocols for 99mTc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate bone and 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile parathyroid SPECT imaging. The principal modification applied was the acquisition of an eight-frame gated data set acquired using an ECG simulator with a fixed signal as the trigger. This had the effect of partitioning the data such that the effect of reduced time acquisitions could be assessed without conferring additional scanning time on the patient. The set of summed data sets was then independently reconstructed using the RR software to permit a blinded assessment of the effect of acquired counts upon reconstructed image quality as adjudged by three experienced observers. Data sets reconstructed with the RR software were compared with the local standard processing protocols; filtered back-projection and ordered-subset expectation-maximization. Thirty SPECT studies were assessed (20 bone and 10 parathyroid). The images reconstructed with the RR algorithm showed improved image quality for both full-time and half-time acquisitions over local current processing protocols (Pquality compared with local processing protocols and has been introduced into

  6. Single Event Effects Test Facility Options at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemer, Bernie [ORNL; Gallmeier, Franz X [ORNL; Dominik, Laura J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Increasing use of microelectronics of ever diminishing feature size in avionics systems has led to a growing Single Event Effects (SEE) susceptibility arising from the highly ionizing interactions of cosmic rays and solar particles. Single event effects caused by atmospheric radiation have been recognized in recent years as a design issue for avionics equipment and systems. To ensure a system meets all its safety and reliability requirements, SEE induced upsets and potential system failures need to be considered, including testing of the components and systems in a neutron beam. Testing of integrated circuits (ICs) and systems for use in radiation environments requires the utilization of highly advanced laboratory facilities that can run evaluations on microcircuits for the effects of radiation. This paper provides a background of the atmospheric radiation phenomenon and the resulting single event effects, including single event upset (SEU) and latch up conditions. A study investigating requirements for future single event effect irradiation test facilities and developing options at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is summarized. The relatively new SNS with its 1.0 GeV proton beam, typical operation of 5000 h per year, expertise in spallation neutron sources, user program infrastructure, and decades of useful life ahead is well suited for hosting a world-class SEE test facility in North America. Emphasis was put on testing of large avionics systems while still providing tunable high flux irradiation conditions for component tests. Makers of ground-based systems would also be served well by these facilities. Three options are described; the most capable, flexible, and highest-test-capacity option is a new stand-alone target station using about one kW of proton beam power on a gas-cooled tungsten target, with dual test enclosures. Less expensive options are also described.

  7. Ambiguity in measuring matrix diffusion with single-well injection/recovery tracer tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessoff, S.C.; Konikow, Leonard F.

    1997-01-01

    Single-well injection/recovery tracer tests are considered for use in characterizing and quantifying matrix diffusion in dual-porosity aquifers. Numerical modeling indicates that neither regional drift in homogeneous aquifers, nor heterogeneity in aquifers having no regional drift, nor hydrodynamic dispersion significantly affects these tests. However, when drift is coupled simultaneously with heterogeneity, they can have significant confounding effects on tracer return. This synergistic effect of drift and heterogeneity may help explain irreversible flow and inconsistent results sometimes encountered in previous single-well injection/recovery tracer tests. Numerical results indicate that in a hypothetical single-well injection/recovery tracer test designed to demonstrate and measure dual-porosity characteristics in a fractured dolomite, the simultaneous effects of drift and heterogeneity sometimes yields responses similar to those anticipated in a homogeneous dual-porosity formation. In these cases, tracer recovery could provide a false indication of the occurrence of matrix diffusion. Shortening the shut-in period between injection and recovery periods may make the test less sensitive to drift. Using multiple tracers having different diffusion characteristics, multiple tests having different pumping schedules, and testing the formation at more than one location would decrease the ambiguity in the interpretation of test data.

  8. Comparative Performance of Four Single Extreme Outlier Discordancy Tests from Monte Carlo Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra P. Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using highly precise and accurate Monte Carlo simulations of 20,000,000 replications and 102 independent simulation experiments with extremely low simulation errors and total uncertainties, we evaluated the performance of four single outlier discordancy tests (Grubbs test N2, Dixon test N8, skewness test N14, and kurtosis test N15 for normal samples of sizes 5 to 20. Statistical contaminations of a single observation resulting from parameters called δ from ±0.1 up to ±20 for modeling the slippage of central tendency or ε from ±1.1 up to ±200 for slippage of dispersion, as well as no contamination (δ=0 and ε=±1, were simulated. Because of the use of precise and accurate random and normally distributed simulated data, very large replications, and a large number of independent experiments, this paper presents a novel approach for precise and accurate estimations of power functions of four popular discordancy tests and, therefore, should not be considered as a simple simulation exercise unrelated to probability and statistics. From both criteria of the Power of Test proposed by Hayes and Kinsella and the Test Performance Criterion of Barnett and Lewis, Dixon test N8 performs less well than the other three tests. The overall performance of these four tests could be summarized as N2≅N15>N14>N8.

  9. Testing of the large bore single aperture 1-meter superconducting dipoles made with phenolic inserts

    CERN Document Server

    Boschmann, H; Dubbeldam, R L; Kirby, G A; Lucas, J; Ostojic, R; Russenschuck, Stephan; Siemko, A; Taylor, T M; Vanenkov, I; Weterings, W

    1998-01-01

    Two identical single aperture 1-metre superconducting dipoles have been built in collaboration with HMA Power Systems and tested at CERN. The 87.8 mm aperture magnets feature a single layer coil wound using LHC main dipole outer layer cable, phenolic spacer type collars, and a keyed two part structural iron yoke. The magnets are designed as models of the D1 separation dipole in the LHC experimental insertions, whose nominal field is 4.5 T at 4.5 K. In this report we present the test results of the two magnets at 4.3 K and 1.9 K.

  10. Crash tests of three identical low-wing single-engine airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, C. B.; Alfaro-Bou, E.

    1983-01-01

    Three identical four place, low wing single engine airplane specimens with nominal masses of 1043 kg were crash tested under controlled free flight conditions. The tests were conducted at the same nominal velocity of 25 m/sec along the flight path. Two airplanes were crashed on a concrete surface (at 10 and 30 deg pitch angles), and one was crashed on soil (at a -30 deg pitch angle). The three tests revealed that the specimen in the -30 deg test on soil sustained massive structural damage in the engine compartment and fire wall. Also, the highest longitudinal cabin floor accelerations occurred in this test. Severe damage, but of lesser magnitude, occurred in the -30 deg test on concrete. The highest normal cabin floor accelerations occurred in this test. The least structural damage and lowest accelerations occurred in the 10 deg test on concrete.

  11. TR-PIV Performance Test for a Flow Field Measurement in a Single Rod Test Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ju Yong; Shin, Chang Hwan; Lee, Chi Young; Oh, Dong Seok; In, Wang Kee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    For large enhancement of performance of Pressurized Water Reactor(PWR), dual-cooled fuel is being developed in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI). This nuclear fuel is a ring shape fuel which is different from conventional cylindrical nuclear fuel and cooling water flows both inner and outer channel. For this fuel, it widens the surface area. But it is bigger outer diameter of fuel rods. So, interval between fuel rods narrows. This because of outer channel flow is unstable. So, measurement of turbulence flow and perturbation that influence in heat transfer elevation is important.. To understand heat transfer characteristics by turbulence, measurement of flow perturbation element is necessary. To measure these turbulence characteristics, hot wire anemometer is widely used. However, it has many disadvantages such as low durability of prove, and big probe size. For these reasons, TR-PIV(Time-Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry) system is employed for better flow measurement in our research institute. TR-PIV system is consisted of laser system and high-speed camera that have high frequency. So, was judged that can measurement complicated turbulence flow and perturbation. In this paper, introduce TR-PIV system, and with results acquiring in single rod flow through this system, and wish to introduce about after this practical use plan

  12. TR-PIV Performance Test for a Flow Field Measurement in a Single Rod Test Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ju Yong; Shin, Chang Hwan; Lee, Chi Young; Oh, Dong Seok; In, Wang Kee

    2011-01-01

    For large enhancement of performance of Pressurized Water Reactor(PWR), dual-cooled fuel is being developed in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI). This nuclear fuel is a ring shape fuel which is different from conventional cylindrical nuclear fuel and cooling water flows both inner and outer channel. For this fuel, it widens the surface area. But it is bigger outer diameter of fuel rods. So, interval between fuel rods narrows. This because of outer channel flow is unstable. So, measurement of turbulence flow and perturbation that influence in heat transfer elevation is important.. To understand heat transfer characteristics by turbulence, measurement of flow perturbation element is necessary. To measure these turbulence characteristics, hot wire anemometer is widely used. However, it has many disadvantages such as low durability of prove, and big probe size. For these reasons, TR-PIV(Time-Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry) system is employed for better flow measurement in our research institute. TR-PIV system is consisted of laser system and high-speed camera that have high frequency. So, was judged that can measurement complicated turbulence flow and perturbation. In this paper, introduce TR-PIV system, and with results acquiring in single rod flow through this system, and wish to introduce about after this practical use plan

  13. A field test for companded single sideband modulation Implications for capacity enhancement and transmission planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, E.; Adams, C.; Arnstein, D.

    A series of field tests of companded single sideband modulation (CSSB) technique for use in the Intelsat system is described. A 12-channel circuit group was tested between switches in Pittsburgh, and the Deutsche Bundespost (DBP) in Frankfurt via the Etam and Raisting satellite earth stations. A transponder bulk that included existing FDM-FM carriers was chosen to match the typical, Intelsat operating conditions, thus permitting the compatibility of FDM/FM and CSSB to be examined simultaneously. Results of objective performance tests are discussed, and a description of several subjective testing techniques is also given.

  14. Which aortic clamp strategy is better to reduce postoperative stroke and death: Single center report and a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liyu; Hua, Xiumeng; Song, Jiangping; Wang, Liqing

    2018-03-01

    Stroke is severe complication of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) which may be associated with clamp strategy, there are 2 strategies to clamp aorta including single aortic clamp (SAC) and partial aortic clamp (PAC). It is controversial that which clamping strategy is better to reduce the postoperative stroke and death, so this study aims to investigate which is better for reducing postoperative stroke and death within 30 days. We collected 469 patients who had on-pump CABG in Fuwai Hospital during January 2014 to July 2015. The SAC group consisted of 265 patients while the PAC group included 204 patients. We compared the 2 group patient difference. At the same time, 12 studies were identified by systematic search. The odds ratio (OR) was used as effect index to compare SAC and PAC strategy by fix-effect modeling. We also tested heterogeneity and publication bias. The primary end point of study was occurrence of postoperative stroke within 30 days of operation, the second end point of study was the incidence of 30-day mortality. The single center retrospective study showed that the patients in the SAC group were older than those in the PAC group (62.5 ± 8.1 vs 60.3 ± 8.0 years, P = .01). The proportions of peripheral vascular disease and hypertension of SAC were higher than PAC (71 (26.8%) versus 36 (17.6%), P = .02; 183 (69.1%) versus 115 (56.4%), P = .01, respectively). Besides, the number of vascular anastomosis was more in the SAC group (3.29 ± 0.74 versus 2.97 ± 0.974, P < .001). The linear-regression analysis suggested that the time of cardiopulmonary bypass of SAC was shorter than the PAC group (93.2 ± 22.4 vs.103.4 ± 26.8 minutes, P-regression < .001) and postoperative death within 30-days was similar (1 (0.4%) vs. 2 (1.0%), P-regression = .47). There was no stroke occurring in both the groups. And the meta-analysis suggested the postoperative stroke and death within 30-days were similar between

  15. Optimal testing input sets for reduced diagnosis time of nuclear power plant digital electronic circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.S.; Seong, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the optimal testing input sets required for the fault diagnosis of the nuclear power plant digital electronic circuits. With the complicated systems such as very large scale integration (VLSI), nuclear power plant (NPP), and aircraft, testing is the major factor of the maintenance of the system. Particularly, diagnosis time grows quickly with the complexity of the component. In this research, for reduce diagnosis time the authors derived the optimal testing sets that are the minimal testing sets required for detecting the failure and for locating of the failed component. For reduced diagnosis time, the technique presented by Hayes fits best for the approach to testing sets generation among many conventional methods. However, this method has the following disadvantages: (a) it considers only the simple network (b) it concerns only whether the system is in failed state or not and does not provide the way to locate the failed component. Therefore the authors have derived the optimal testing input sets that resolve these problems by Hayes while preserving its advantages. When they applied the optimal testing sets to the automatic fault diagnosis system (AFDS) which incorporates the advanced fault diagnosis method of artificial intelligence technique, they found that the fault diagnosis using the optimal testing sets makes testing the digital electronic circuits much faster than that using exhaustive testing input sets; when they applied them to test the Universal (UV) Card which is a nuclear power plant digital input/output solid state protection system card, they reduced the testing time up to about 100 times

  16. CFD simulation on use of polyethylene single bubble to reduce radiant heat on lecture hall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhieldeen, M.W.; Adam, N.M.; Elias Salleh; Tang, S.H.; Ghezavati, H.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In recent years, Malaysia energy consumption has increased and become comparable to larger consumers worldwide. The increased demand for artificial cooling through the use of air conditioning units in other to provide comfort would also mean increased energy usage and increased electricity cost to the occupants. This paper reviews the results from a field survey of saving energy within one type of buildings lecture theater, in Universiti Putra Malaysia. The thermal insulation material established (polyethylene single bubble) and putting on the wall which separate between the lecture theater and the exterior. The survey was undertaken at January until April in 2008. In a 3D occupant Lecture hall (L: 15 m, W: 12 m, and H: 6.6 m). In addition the environmental parameters were measured in class room to calculate the boundary condition for using CFD to compare saving energy. The results show that by using polyethylene single bubble insulation in each condition, a reduction of 2.2 degree Celsius was achieved. (author)

  17. In-flight and ground testing of single event upset sensitivity in static RAMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, K.; Dyreklev, P.; Granbom, B.; Calvet, C.; Fourtine, S.; Feuillatre, O.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the results from in-flight measurements of single event upsets (SEU) in static random access memories (SRAM) caused by the atmospheric radiation environment at aircraft altitudes. The memory devices were carried on commercial airlines at high altitude and mainly high latitudes. The SEUs were monitored by a Component Upset Test Equipment (CUTE), designed for this experiment. The in flight results are compared to ground based testing with neutrons from three different sources

  18. Hydrogeological study of single water conducting fracture using a crosshole hydraulic test apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hajime; Shimo, Michito; Yamamoto, Takuya

    1998-03-01

    The Crosshole Injection Test Apparatus has been constructed to evaluate the hydraulic properties and conditions, such as hydraulic conductivity and its anisotropy, storage coefficient, pore pressure etc. within a rock near a drift. The construction started in FY93 and completed on August FY96 as a set of equipments for the use of crosshole hydraulic test, which is composed of one injection borehole instrument, one observation borehole instrument and a set of on-ground instrument. In FY96, in-situ feasibility test was conducted at a 550 m level drift in Kamaishi In Situ Test Site which has been operated by PNC, and the performance of the equipment and its applicability to various types of injection method were confirmed. In this year, a hydrogeological investigation on the single water conducting fracture was conducted at a 250 m level drift in Kamaishi In Situ Test Site, using two boreholes, KCH-3 and KCH-4, both of which are 30 m depth and inclined by 45 degrees from the surface. Pressure responses at the KCH-3 borehole during the drilling of KCH-4 borehole, the results of Borehole TV logging and core observation indicated that a major conductive single-fracture was successfully isolated by the packers. As a result of a series of the single-hole and the crosshole tests (sinusoidal and constant flowrate test), the hydraulic parameters of the single-fracture (such as hydraulic conductivity and storage coefficient) were determined. This report shows all the test result, analysed data, and also describes the hydro-geological structure near the drift. (author)

  19. Lymphocyte Redox Imbalance and Reduced Proliferation after a Single Session of High Intensity Interval Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossige-Gomes, Rosalina; Costa, Karine Beatriz; Ottone, Vinícius de Oliveira; Magalhães, Flávio de Castro; Amorim, Fabiano Trigueiro; Rocha-Vieira, Etel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is sufficient to alter lymphocyte function and redox status. Sixteen young healthy men underwent a HIIT session on a cycloergometer, consisting of eight bouts of 1 min at 90-100% of peak power, with 75 seconds of active recovery at 30 W between bouts. Venous blood was collected before, immediately after, and 30 minutes after the HIIT session. In response to Staphylococcus aureus superantigen B (SEB) stimulation, lymphocyte proliferation decreased and the IL-2 concentration increased after the HIIT session. However, the HIIT session had no effect on lymphocyte proliferation or IL-2 response to phytohemagglutinin stimulation. The HIIT session also induced lymphocyte redox imbalance, characterized by an increase in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and a decrease in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase. Lymphocyte viability was not affected by the HIIT session. The frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ T helper and B lymphocytes in response to superantigen stimulation were lower after exercise, suggesting that superantigen-induced lymphocyte activation was reduced by HIIT. However, HIIT also led to a reduction in the frequency of CD4+ and CD19+ cells, so the frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ cells within the CD4 and CD19 cell populations were not affected by HIIT. These data indicate that the reduced lymphocyte proliferation observed after HIIT is not due to reduced early lymphocyte activation by superantigen. Our findings show that an acute HIIT session promotes lymphocyte redox imbalance and reduces lymphocyte proliferation in response to superantigenic, but not to mitogenic stimulation. This observation cannot be explained by alteration of the early lymphocyte activation response to superantigen. The manner in which lymphocyte function modulation by an acute HIIT session can affect individual immunity and susceptibility to infection is important

  20. Lymphocyte Redox Imbalance and Reduced Proliferation after a Single Session of High Intensity Interval Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalina Tossige-Gomes

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT is sufficient to alter lymphocyte function and redox status. Sixteen young healthy men underwent a HIIT session on a cycloergometer, consisting of eight bouts of 1 min at 90-100% of peak power, with 75 seconds of active recovery at 30 W between bouts. Venous blood was collected before, immediately after, and 30 minutes after the HIIT session. In response to Staphylococcus aureus superantigen B (SEB stimulation, lymphocyte proliferation decreased and the IL-2 concentration increased after the HIIT session. However, the HIIT session had no effect on lymphocyte proliferation or IL-2 response to phytohemagglutinin stimulation. The HIIT session also induced lymphocyte redox imbalance, characterized by an increase in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and a decrease in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase. Lymphocyte viability was not affected by the HIIT session. The frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ T helper and B lymphocytes in response to superantigen stimulation were lower after exercise, suggesting that superantigen-induced lymphocyte activation was reduced by HIIT. However, HIIT also led to a reduction in the frequency of CD4+ and CD19+ cells, so the frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ cells within the CD4 and CD19 cell populations were not affected by HIIT. These data indicate that the reduced lymphocyte proliferation observed after HIIT is not due to reduced early lymphocyte activation by superantigen. Our findings show that an acute HIIT session promotes lymphocyte redox imbalance and reduces lymphocyte proliferation in response to superantigenic, but not to mitogenic stimulation. This observation cannot be explained by alteration of the early lymphocyte activation response to superantigen. The manner in which lymphocyte function modulation by an acute HIIT session can affect individual immunity and susceptibility to

  1. Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine Tests with Unstabilized Water-in-Fuel Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    A single-cylinder, four-stroke cycle diesel engine was operated on unstabilized water-in-fuel emulsions. Two prototype devices were used to produce the emulsions on-line with the engine. More than 350 test points were run with baseline diesel fuel an...

  2. Microwave testing of high-Tc based direct current to a single flux quantum converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplunenko, V. K.; Fischer, Gerd Michael; Ivanov, Z. G.

    1994-01-01

    Design, simulation, and experimental investigations of a direct current to a single flux quantum converter loaded with a Josephson transmission line and driven by an external 70 GHz microwave oscillator are reported. The test circuit includes nine YBaCuO Josephson junctions aligned on the grain...

  3. Should the diagnosis of COPD be based on a single spirometry test?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schermer, T.R.; Robberts, B.; Crockett, A.J.; Thoonen, B.P.; Lucas, A.; Grootens, J.; Smeele, I.J.; Thamrin, C.; Reddel, H.K.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical guidelines indicate that a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) diagnosis is made from a single spirometry test. However, long-term stability of diagnosis based on forced expiratory volume in 1 s over forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratio has not been reported. In primary care

  4. Should the diagnosis of COPD be based on a single spirometry test?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schermer, T.R.J.; Robberts, B.; Crockett, A.J.; Thoonen, B.P.A.; Lucas, A.; Grootens, J.; Smeele, I.J.; Thamrin, C.; Reddel, H.K.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical guidelines indicate that a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) diagnosis is made from a single spirometry test. However, long-term stability of diagnosis based on forced expiratory volume in 1 s over forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratio has not been reported. In primary care

  5. A single well pumping and recovery test to measure in situ acrotelm transmissivity in raised bogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, van der S.

    2004-01-01

    A quasi-steady-state single pit pumping and recovery test to measure in situ the transmissivity of the highly permeable upper layer of raised bogs, the acrotelm, is described and discussed. The basic concept is the expanding depression cone during both pumping and recovery. It is shown that applying

  6. Generalized Single-Case Randomization Tests: Flexible Analyses for a Variety of Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Joel R.; Wampold, Bruce E.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a general class of single-case statistical procedures derived from previously developed nonparametric randomization tests. Designs are illustrated that focus on the general and comparative effectiveness of alternative interventions, multiple units with differentiable characteristics, and multiple outcome measures. Provides operational…

  7. Mutation of NRAS but not KRAS significantly reduces myeloma sensitivity to single-agent bortezomib therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Mulligan (George); D.I. Lichter (David); A.D. Bacco (Alessandra Di); S.J. Blakemore (Stephen); A. Berger (Allison); E. Koenig (Erik); H. Bernard (Hugues); W.L. Trepicchio (William); B. Li (Bin); R. Neuwirth (Rachel); N. Chattopadhyay (Nibedita); J.B. Bolen (Joseph); A.J. Dorner (Andrew); H. van de Velde (Helgi); D. Ricci (Deborah); S. Jagannath (Sundar); J.R. Berenson (James); P.G. Richardson (Paul Gerard); E.A. Stadtmauer (Edward); R.Z. Orlowski (Robert); S. Lonial (Sagar); K.C. Anderson (Kenneth); P. Sonneveld (Pieter); J.F. San Miguel (Jesús Fernando); D.-L. Esseltine (Dixie-Lee); M. Schu (Matthew)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractVarious translocations and mutations have been identified in myeloma, and certain aberrations, such as t(4;14) and del17, are linked with disease prognosis. To investigate mutational prevalence in myeloma and associations between mutations and patient outcomes, we tested a panel of 41

  8. Effects of Reducing the Cognitive Load of Mathematics Test Items on Student Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan C. Gillmor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores a new item-writing framework for improving the validity of math assessment items. The authors transfer insights from Cognitive Load Theory (CLT, traditionally used in instructional design, to educational measurement. Fifteen, multiple-choice math assessment items were modified using research-based strategies for reducing extraneous cognitive load. An experimental design with 222 middle-school students tested the effects of the reduced cognitive load items on student performance and anxiety. Significant findings confirm the main research hypothesis that reducing the cognitive load of math assessment items improves student performance. Three load-reducing item modifications are identified as particularly effective for reducing item difficulty: signalling important information, aesthetic item organization, and removing extraneous content. Load reduction was not shown to impact student anxiety. Implications for classroom assessment and future research are discussed.

  9. Fabrication and testing of full-length single-cell externally fueled converters for thermionic reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, A.

    1994-01-01

    The preceding paper described designs and analyses of thermionic reactors employing full-core-length single-cell converters with their heated emitters located on the outside of their internally cooled collectors, and it presented results of detailed parametric analyses which illustrate the benefits of this unconventional design. The present paper describes the fabrication and testing of full-length prototypical converters, both unfueled and fueled, and presents parametric results of electrically heated tests. The unfueled converter tests demonstrated the practicality of operating such long converters without shorting across a 0.3-mm interelectrode gap. They produced a measured peak output of 751 watts(e) from a single diode and a peak efficiency of 15.4%. The fueled converter tests measured the parametric performance of prototypic UO 2 -fueled converters designed for subsequent in-pile testing. They employed revolver-shaped tungsten elements with a central emitter hole surrounded by six fuel chambers. The full-length converters were heated by a water-cooled RF-induction coil inside an ion-pumped vacuum chamber. This required development of high-vacuum coaxial RF feedthroughs. In-pile test rules required multiple containment of the UO 2 -fuel, which complicated the fabrication of the test article and required successful development of techniques for welding tungsten and other refractory components. The tests measured a peak power output of 530 watts(e) or 7.1 watts/cm 2 at an efficiency of 11.5%

  10. Aluminum sulfate significantly reduces the skin test response to common allergens in sensitized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grier Thomas J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avoidance of allergens is still recommended as the first and best way to prevent allergic illnesses and their comorbid diseases. Despite a variety of attempts there has been very limited success in the area of environmental control of allergic disease. Our objective was to identify a non-invasive, non-pharmacological method to reduce indoor allergen loads in atopic persons' homes and public environments. We employed a novel in vivo approach to examine the possibility of using aluminum sulfate to control environmental allergens. Methods Fifty skin test reactive patients were simultaneously skin tested with conventional test materials and the actions of the protein/glycoprotein modifier, aluminum sulfate. Common allergens, dog, cat, dust mite, Alternaria, and cockroach were used in the study. Results Skin test reactivity was significantly reduced by the modifier aluminum sulfate. Our studies demonstrate that the effects of histamine were not affected by the presence of aluminum sulfate. In fact, skin test reactivity was reduced independent of whether aluminum sulfate was present in the allergen test material or removed prior to testing, indicating that the allergens had in some way been inactivated. Conclusion Aluminum sulfate was found to reduce the in vivo allergic reaction cascade induced by skin testing with common allergens. The exact mechanism is not clear but appears to involve the alteration of IgE-binding epitopes on the allergen. Our results indicate that it may be possible to diminish the allergenicity of an environment by application of the active agent aluminum sulfate, thus producing environmental control without complete removal of the allergen.

  11. Combining in situ chemical oxidation, stabilization, and anaerobic bioremediation in a single application to reduce contaminant mass and leachability in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassidy, Daniel P., E-mail: daniel.cassidy@wmich.edu [Department of Geosciences, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Srivastava, Vipul J., E-mail: vipul.srivastava@ch2m.com [CH2M HILL, 125S Wacker, Ste 3000, Chicago, IL 60606 (United States); Dombrowski, Frank J., E-mail: frank.dombrowski@we-energies.com [We Energies, 333W Everett St., A231, Milwaukee, WI 53203 (United States); Lingle, James W., E-mail: jlingle@epri.com [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), 4927W Willow Road, Brown Deer, WI 53223 (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Portland cement and lime activated persulfate by increasing pH and temperature. • Chemical oxidation achieved BTEX and PAH removal ranging from 55% to 75%. • Activating persulfate with ISS amendments reduced leachability more than NaOH. • Native sulfate-reducing bacteria degraded PAHs within weeks after ISCO finished. • ISCO, ISS, and anaerobic bioremediation were combined in a single application. - Abstract: Laboratory batch reactors were maintained for 32 weeks to test the potential for an in situ remedy that combines chemical oxidation, stabilization, and anaerobic bioremediation in a single application to treat soil from a manufactured gas plant, contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Portland cement and slaked lime were used to activate the persulfate and to stabilize/encapsulate the contaminants that were not chemically oxidized. Native sulfate-reducing bacteria degraded residual contaminants using the sulfate left after persulfate activation. The ability of the combined remedy to reduce contaminant mass and leachability was compared with NaOH-activated persulfate, stabilization, and sulfate-reducing bioremediation as stand-alone technologies. The stabilization amendments increased pH and temperature sufficiently to activate the persulfate within 1 week. Activation with both stabilization amendments and NaOH removed between 55% and 70% of PAH and BTEX. However, combined persulfate and stabilization significantly reduced the leachability of residual BTEX and PAH compared with NaOH activation. Sulfide, 2-naphthoic acid, and the abundance of subunit A of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrA) were used to monitor native sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were negatively impacted by activated persulfate, but recovered completely within weeks.

  12. Positron bound states on hydride ions in thermochemically reduced MgO single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R.; Gonzalez, R.; Chen, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Positron-lifetime and Doppler-broadening techniques were used to unambiguously identify positronium hydrides in thermochemically reduced MgO crystals at low temperatures. Positrons trapped at H - ions, forming PsH, yield a lifetime of (640±40) ps, independent of temperature. Complementary evidence for this identification was provided by Doppler-broadening experiments, in which positrons were trapped at H 2- sites at low temperatures. The H 2- ions were formed via H - +e - →H 2- by the capturing of an electron released from Fe + impurity under blue-light stimulation. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  13. Production and Test of 352 MHZ Niobum-Sputtered Reduced-$\\beta$ Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Benvenuti, Cristoforo; Calatroni, Sergio; Chiaveri, Enrico; Tückmantel, Joachim

    1997-01-01

    Three types of 352 MHz single-cell cavities foreseen for different particle speeds (v/c=0.8, 0.625 and 0.48) have been designed and built with the niobium sputtered on copper technique. We report on the results of the cold tests at 4.5 and 2.5 K and the actual status of the data analysis.

  14. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) reduces spermatogenic damage induced by a single dose of malathion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos-Obregon, Eduardo; Yucra, Sandra; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2005-03-01

    To observe the effect of the aqueous extract of hypocotyls of the plant Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on spermatogenic damage induced by the organophosphate insecticide malathion in mice. Mice were treated with 80 mg/kg of malathion in the presence or absence of an aqueous extract of Maca, which was orally administered 7, 14 or 21 days after injection of the malathion. Stages of the seminiferous epithelium were assessed by transillumination on days 0, 7, 14 and 21. The administration of Maca increased significantly the length of stage VIII on days 7, 14 and 21 of treatment compared with the controls. An increase in the length of stage IX occurred on day 14 of treatment. Malathion affected spermatogenesis by reducing the lengths of stage IX on day 7, stages VII and IX-XI on day 14 and a recovery of stages IX-XII on day 21. The magnitude of alteration in the length of stage IX produced by malathion was significantly reduced by Maca on days 7 and 14. The length of stage VIII was increased when Maca was administered to mice treated with malathion. Assessment of the relative length of stages of the seminiferous epithelium showed that Maca treatment resulted in rapid recovery of the effect of malathion. Maca enhances spermatogenesis following spermatogenic damage caused by the organophosphorous pesticide.

  15. Tank selection for Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) system hot testing in a single shell tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, P.K.

    1995-01-31

    The purpose of this report is to recommend a single shell tank in which to hot test the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) in Fiscal Year 1996. The LDUA is designed to utilize a 12 inch riser. During hot testing, the LDUA will deploy two end effectors (a High Resolution Stereoscopic Video Camera System and a Still/Stereo Photography System mounted on the end of the arm`s tool interface plate). In addition, three other systems (an Overview Video System, an Overview Stereo Video System, and a Topographic Mapping System) will be independently deployed and tested through 4 inch risers.

  16. Thermal Considerations for Reducing the Cooldown and Warmup Duration of the James Webb Space Telescope OTIS Cryo-Vacuum Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kan; Glazer, Stuart; Ousley, Gilbert; Burt, William

    2017-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), set to launch in 2018, is NASAs next-generation flagship telescope. The Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) contain all of the optical surfaces and instruments to capture and analyze the telescopes infrared targets. The integrated OTE and ISIM are denoted as OTIS, and will be tested as a single unit in a critical thermal-vacuum test in mid-2017 at NASA Johnson Space Centers Chamber A facility. The payload will be evaluated for workmanship and functionality in a 20K simulated flight environment during this thermal-vacuum test. However, the sheer thermal mass of the OTIS payload as well as the restrictive gradient, rate, and contamination-related constraints placed on test components precludes rapid cooldown or warmup to its steady-state cryo-balance condition. Hardware safety considerations precludes injection of helium gas for free molecular heat transfer. Initial thermal analysis predicted that transient radiative cooldown from ambient temperatures, while meeting all limits and constraints, would take 33.3 days; warmup similarly would take 28.4 days. This paper discusses methods used to reduce transition times from the original predictions through modulation of boundary temperatures and environmental conditions. By optimizing helium shroud transition rates and heater usage, as well as rigorously re-examining previously imposed constraints, savings of up to three days on cooldown and up to a week on warmup can be achieved. The efficiencies gained through these methods allow the JWST thermal test team to create faster cooldown and warmup profiles, thus reducing the overall test duration and cost, while keeping all of the required test operations.

  17. First steps towards fuel cells testing harmonisation: Procedures and parameters for single cell performance evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunghi, P. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Perugia, Via Duranti 93, Perugia (Italy); Ubertini, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Via di Torvergata, 110, Rome (Italy)

    2004-01-01

    The great interest in Fuel Cell Systems, combined with the innovation of the device itself, has led to a huge developmental effort to make the steps necessary for future FC plant commissioning. The clearest and most effective way to evaluate the performance of a fuel cell is to measure it directly and, since few fuel cell test rigs are available at the moment, standard experimental procedures have not been realized so far. Our research group is currently performing single cell testing at the University of Perugia fuel cell laboratory and particular emphasis has been put on the definition of procedures and the testing of parameterisation. The work team strongly believes that this is the key to effective system testing and reliable performance evaluation. In this work, the test parameterisation developed by the team, and the resulting advanced control procedure used for a single MCFC experimental characterization are presented. Efforts have been dedicated to obtain some relevant non-dimensional parameters to allow an easy understanding of the results and quick comparisons with other tests under different operating conditions, or with results obtained on different cells eventually tested in different laboratories. The authors strongly emphasise this topic to avoid the data that developers and research institutions collect being of no practical use due to a lack of shared rules. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Experimental results of single screw mechanical tests: a follow-up to SAND2005-6036.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sandwook; Lee, Kenneth L.; Korellis, John S.; McFadden, Sam X.

    2006-08-01

    The work reported here was conducted to address issues raised regarding mechanical testing of attachment screws described in SAND2005-6036, as well as to increase the understanding of screw behavior through additional testing. Efforts were made to evaluate fixture modifications and address issues of interest, including: fabrication of 45{sup o} test fixtures, measurement of the frictional load from the angled fixture guide, employment of electromechanical displacement transducers, development of a single-shear test, and study the affect of thread start orientation on single-shear behavior. A286 and 302HQ, No.10-32 socket-head cap screws were tested having orientations with respect to the primary loading axis of 0{sup 0}, 45{sup o}, 60{sup o}, 75{sup o} and 90{sup o} at stroke speeds 0,001 and 10 in/sec. The frictional load resulting from the angled screw fixture guide was insignificant. Load-displacement curves of A286 screws did not show a minimum value in displacement to failure (DTF) for 60{sup o} shear tests. Tests of 302HQ screws did not produce a consistent trend in DTF with load angle. The effect of displacement rate on DTF became larger as shear angle increased for both A286 and 302HQ screws.

  19. Characterization of test specimens produced in reduced size for X-ray microtomography (µ-CT tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. BERNARDES

    Full Text Available Abstract The need to use reduced sample sizes, in order to attain improved spatial resolution in (µ-CT tests applied in Portland cement composites, makes researchers perform the fractionation of materials to obtain samples with dimensions compatible with the capacity of the scanning equipment, which might cause alterations in the microstructure under analysis. Therefore, a test specimen (TS with dimensions compatible with the scanning capacity of a microtomography system that operates with an X-ray tube and voltage ranging from 20 to 100 kV was proposed. Axial compression strength tests were made and their total porosity was assessed by an apparent density and solid fraction density ratio, which were obtained by means of mercury and helium pycnometry and µ-CT technique, respectively. The adoption of that TS has shown to be viable for providing a sample with a higher level of representation.

  20. Antisense to the glucocorticoid receptor in hippocampal dentate gyrus reduces immobility in forced swim test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, S.M.; de Kloet, E.R.; Buwalda, B; Bouman, S.D.; Bohus, B

    1996-01-01

    Immobility time of rats in the forced swim test was reduced after bilateral infusion of an 18-mer antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide targeted to the glucocorticoid receptor mRNA into the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Vehicle-, sense- and scrambled sequence-treated animals spent

  1. Reducing Test Anxiety among Third Grade Students through the Implementation of Relaxation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Heidi A.; El Ramahi, Mera K.; Conn, Steven R.; Estes, Lincoln A.; Ghibellini, Amanda B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reduce the negative effects that self-perceived levels of test anxiety have on third-grade students. The participants in this study consisted of 177 third-grade students at two Midwestern public elementary schools. Students at one school were taught relaxation techniques, while students at the second school served…

  2. Single-well interference slug tests to assess the vertical hydraulic conductivity of unconsolidated aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Daniel; Lefebvre, René

    2013-01-01

    SummaryMeaningful understanding of flow and solute transport in general requires the knowledge of hydraulic conductivity and its anisotropy. Various field methods allow the measurement of the horizontal component (Kh), but vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) is rarely measured, for lack of practical field tests. This paper proposes vertical interference slug tests, an adaptation of inter-well interference slug tests to a single well, for the efficient field measurement of Kv. The test is carried out in a single well between a stress and an observation interval that are vertically isolated with a three-packer assembly. An instantaneous pressure pulse is induced in the stress interval and resulting drawdowns are recorded in both the stress and the observation intervals. In a proof-of-concept field study, 12 vertical interference tests were carried out sequentially along a fully-screened well across a moderately heterogeneous and highly anisotropic aquifer made up of littoral silts and sands. A direct-push method was used to install the well, which was completed without sand-pack to allow the natural collapse of sediments in the thin annular space around the screen. Direct-push wells allow the measurement of in situ hydraulic properties of sediments and minimize well construction interferences with hydraulic tests. Drawdowns measured in stress and observation intervals of multiple tests were simultaneously inverted numerically to reconstruct heterogeneous profiles of Kh, hydraulic conductivity anisotropy (Kv/Kh), and specific storage (Ss). Results were validated by comparison of observed versus predicted drawdowns and with field and laboratory measurements of Kh and Kv made along the tested well. Results indicate that the profile of Kv values obtained with vertical interference slug tests follows a similar pattern with depth than the profile with lab measurements made with a permeameter on soil samples collected in the same intervals as the interference tests, which

  3. Nebivolol reduces central blood pressure in stage I hypertensive patients: experimental single cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Oliveira Vaz-de-Melo

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Assessment of central blood pressure (BP has grown substantially over recent years because evidence has shown that central BP is more relevant to cardiovascular outcomes than peripheral BP. Thus, different classes of antihypertensive drugs have different effects on central BP despite similar reductions in brachial BP. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nebivolol, a β-blocker with vasodilator properties, on the biochemical and hemodynamic parameters of hypertensive patients.DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental single cohort study conducted in the outpatient clinic of a university hospital.METHODS: Twenty-six patients were recruited. All of them underwent biochemical and hemodynamic evaluation (BP, heart rate (HR, central BP and augmentation index before and after 3 months of using nebivolol.RESULTS: 88.5% of the patients were male; their mean age was 49.7 ± 9.3 years and most of them were overweight (29.6 ± 3.1 kg/m2 with large abdominal waist (102.1 ± 7.2 cm. There were significant decreases in peripheral systolic BP (P = 0.0020, diastolic BP (P = 0.0049, HR (P < 0.0001 and central BP (129.9 ± 12.3 versus 122.3 ± 10.3 mmHg; P = 0.0083 after treatment, in comparison with the baseline values. There was no statistical difference in the augmentation index or in the biochemical parameters, from before to after the treatment.CONCLUSIONS: Nebivolol use seems to be associated with significant reduction of central BP in stage I hypertensive patients, in addition to reductions in brachial systolic and diastolic BP.

  4. Screening of nanosatellite microprocessors using californium single-event latch-up test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Takahiro; Okumura, Yuta; Masui, Hirokazu; Takamiya, Koichi; Cho, Mengu

    2016-09-01

    A single-event latch-up (SEL) test using a 252Cf radioisotope was carried out. The results were compared with those of a proton test and from observation in orbit. A radioisotope can reproduce phenomena observed in orbit that are caused by protons. Considering the inexpensive nature of the 252Cf test, it is more suitable for nanosatellites that require low cost and fast delivery. A SEL occurrence rate of a commercial-off-the-shelf microprocessor was derived from the ground test results. The 252Cf test provided a SEL rate approximately 1×106 times greater than that in orbit. This data can be used to derive the minimum SEL occurrence rate in orbit and help satellite designers to evaluate the risk of SEL and take measures if necessary.

  5. Reducing False-Positive Pregnancy Test Results in Patients With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCash, Samuel I; Goldfrank, Deborah J; Pessin, Melissa S; Ramanathan, Lakshmi V

    2017-10-01

    To assess whether the use of a laboratory test specific for intact human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) would reduce the number of false-positive pregnancy test results. From October 21, 2014, to January 20, 2015, and April 1, 2015, to June 2, 2015, all serum samples sent for pregnancy screening at a large cancer center with a value of 5 milli-international units/mL or greater total β-hCG were frozen and stored and then retested using intact hCG reagent. We compared the accuracy of total β-hCG and intact hCG results for the diagnosis of clinically confirmed pregnancy. A negative test was defined as 14 milli-international units/mL or less, our current institutional cutoff. We also assessed a cutoff of less than 5 milli-international units/mL, a historical cutoff to rule out pregnancy. We performed intact hCG testing on 64 patient samples, of which 34 had originally resulted positive when tested for total β-hCG. These included 21 cases of clinically confirmed pregnancy and 13 false-positive cases. No women were pregnant when their intact hCG concentration was 14 milli-international units/mL or less, and all pregnancies were detected at and above this concentration. Intact hCG reduced the number of false-positive pregnancy test results from 13 to 1, a 92% reduction (95% CI 64-99%), corresponding to a reduction in the false-positive rate from 38% (95% CI 22-56%) to 3% (95% CI 1-15%). The use of intact hCG reagent in patients with cancer reduces the rate of false-positive pregnancy test results without increasing the rate of false-negative test results.

  6. Measurement of LNAPL flux using single-well intermittent mixing tracer dilution tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tim; Sale, Tom; Lyverse, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The stability of subsurface Light Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (LNAPLs) is a key factor driving expectations for remedial measures at LNAPL sites. The conventional approach to resolving LNAPL stability has been to apply Darcy's Equation. This paper explores an alternative approach wherein single-well tracer dilution tests with intermittent mixing are used to resolve LNAPL stability. As a first step, an implicit solution for single-well intermittent mixing tracer dilution tests is derived. This includes key assumptions and limits on the allowable time between intermittent mixing events. Second, single-well tracer dilution tests with intermittent mixing are conducted under conditions of known LNAPL flux. This includes a laboratory sand tank study and two field tests at active LNAPL recovery wells. Results from the sand tank studies indicate that LNAPL fluxes in wells can be transformed into formation fluxes using corrections for (1) LNAPL thicknesses in the well and formation and (2) convergence of flow to the well. Using the apparent convergence factor from the sand tank experiment, the average error between the known and measured LNAPL fluxes is 4%. Results from the field studies show nearly identical known and measured LNAPL fluxes at one well. At the second well the measured fluxes appear to exceed the known value by a factor of two. Agreement between the known and measured LNAPL fluxes, within a factor of two, indicates that single-well tracer dilution tests with intermittent mixing can be a viable means of resolving LNAPL stability. © 2012, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  7. Improving preimplantation genetic diagnosis for Fragile X syndrome: two new powerful single-round multiplex indirect and direct tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Emmanuelle; Nicod, Jean-Christophe; Gardes, Nathalie; Kastner, Claire; Becker, Nicolas; Celebi, Catherine; Pirrello, Olivier; Rongières, Catherine; Koscinski, Isabelle; Gosset, Philippe; Moutou, Céline

    2016-02-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FraX) is caused by the expansion of an unstable CGG repeat located in the Fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1) gene. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) can be proposed to couples at risk of transmitting the disease, that is, when the female carries a premutation or a full mutation. We describe two new single-cell, single-round multiplex PCR for indirect and direct diagnosis of FraX on biopsied embryos. These tests include five unpublished, highly heterozygous simple sequence repeats, and the co-amplification of non-expanded CGG repeats for the direct test. Heterozygosity of the new markers ranged from 69 to 81%. The mean rate of non-informative marker included in the tests was low (26% and 23% for the new indirect and direct tests, respectively). This strategy allows offering a PGD for FraX to 96% of couples requesting it in our centre. A conclusive genotype was obtained in all cells with a rate of cells presenting an allele dropout ranging from 17% for the indirect test to 26% for the direct test. The new indirect test was applied for eight PGD cycles: 32 embryos were analysed, 9 were transferred and 3 healthy babies were born. By multiplexing these highly informative markers, robustness of the diagnosis is improved and the loss of potentially healthy embryos (because they are non-diagnosed or misdiagnosed) is limited. This may increase the chances of success of couples requesting a PGD for FraX, in particular, when premature ovarian insufficiency in premutated women leads to a reduced number of embryos available for analysis.

  8. Reducing the number of rabbits in the low-volume eye test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, L H; Parker, R D; Bruce, R D

    1992-10-01

    Although the Draize eye irritation test has provided important and useful information for eye safety assessments, considerable effort has been directed toward refining the assay procedure, reducing the number of animals used, and replacing this assay with alternative methods. The low-volume eye test (LVET) is a refinement of the Draize eye irritation test that uses 1/10 the volume of test substance placed directly on the cornea. The level and duration of eye irritation in the LVET are less than those in the Draize procedure, which means that it is a less stressful test. Furthermore, LVETs are more predictive of human response. Statistical studies have been conducted to determine the effects of reducing the number of animals used in the Draize test. These results suggested that a three-animal test would provide essentially the same information as the six-animal test. A similar analysis has not been performed on results from the LVET. Accordingly, the present study was undertaken to evaluate previously existing LVET data to determine if the number of animals used in a LVET can be decreased as has been shown for the Draize test. The results of the analysis are consistent with the findings of earlier evaluations of classical Draize data. Three-animal subsets from 119 six-animal LVETs provided the correct classification greater than 92% of the time for three different classification schemes. Furthermore, the discrepancies between the three-animal subsets and the six-animal maximum average score tended to be smaller than those observed for the Draize test.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Development and testing of reduced joint counts in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazso, Anna; Consolaro, Alessandro; Ruperto, Nicolino; Pistorio, Angela; Viola, Stefania; Magni-Manzoni, Silvia; Malattia, Clara; Buoncompagni, Antonella; Loy, Anna; Martini, Alberto; Ravelli, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    To develop and test reduced joint counts in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Four reduced joint counts including 45, 35, 27, and 10 joints were devised by a panel of experienced pediatric rheumatologists, who selected the joints to be included based on the ease of technical assessment, functional relevance, and frequency of involvement. Three large samples of patients with JIA (total n=4353) who had a detailed joint assessment available were used to develop and test reduced joint counts. Performance of reduced counts was examined by comparing their Spearman correlation with the standard (i.e., complete) joint count. Construct validity was evaluated by calculating Spearman correlation with other JIA outcome measures. Responsiveness to clinical change was determined through the standardized response mean (SRM). Spearman correlations of reduced joint counts with the whole joint count and with the other JIA outcome measures were comparable, revealing that they had similar ability to serve as surrogate for the whole joint count and construct validity. Responsiveness to clinical change was also comparable across reduced counts (SRM 0.83-1.09 for active joint counts and 0.63-0.81 for restricted joint counts). Based on these results and considering the relative feasibility of the different counts, the 27-joint reduced count is proposed for use in JIA. This joint count includes the cervical spine and the elbow, wrist, metacarpophalangeal (from first to third), proximal interphalangeal, hip, knee, and ankle joints. Reduced joint counts appear to be as reliable as standard joint counts in assessment of the severity of joint disease and its change over time in children with JIA.

  10. Single-task and dual-task tandem gait test performance after concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, David R; Osternig, Louis R; Chou, Li-Shan

    2017-07-01

    To compare single-task and dual-task tandem gait test performance between athletes after concussion with controls on observer-timed, spatio-temporal, and center-of-mass (COM) balance control measurements. Ten participants (19.0±5.5years) were prospectively identified and completed a tandem gait test protocol within 72h of concussion and again 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, and 2 months post-injury. Seven uninjured controls (20.0±4.5years) completed the same protocol in similar time increments. Tandem gait test trials were performed with (dual-task) and without (single-task) concurrently performing a cognitive test as whole-body motion analysis was performed. Outcome variables included test completion time, average tandem gait velocity, cadence, and whole-body COM frontal plane displacement. Concussion participants took significantly longer to complete the dual-task tandem gait test than controls throughout the first 2 weeks post-injury (mean time=16.4 [95% CI: 13.4-19.4] vs. 10.1 [95% CI: 6.4-13.7] seconds; p=0.03). Single-task tandem gait times were significantly lower 72h post-injury (p=0.04). Dual-task cadence was significantly lower for concussion participants than controls (89.5 [95% CI: 68.6-110.4] vs. 127.0 [95% CI: 97.4-156.6] steps/minute; p=0.04). Moderately-high to high correlations between tandem gait test time and whole-body COM medial-lateral displacement were detected at each time point during dual-task gait (r s =0.70-0.93; p=0.03-0.001). Adding a cognitive task during the tandem gait test resulted in longer detectable deficits post-concussion compared to the traditional single-task tandem gait test. As a clinical tool to assess dynamic motor function, tandem gait may assist with return to sport decisions after concussion. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimation of single crystal elastic constants using ultrasonic testing - a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phani Kumar, K.K.; Rentala, Vamsi Krishna; Gautam, Jaiprakash; Mylavarapu, Phani

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of single crystal elastic constants (SCEC) of metallic materials is of paramount importance in the development of crystal plasticity based models as well as for studying the effect of microstructure on wave propagation. SCEC are usually determined destructively by tensile and shear loading a single crystal specimen. These constants can also be estimated non-destructively, using X-ray diffraction measurements on a polycrystalline specimen. However, the aforementioned procedures have a limitation of either the sample size (in case of X-ray diffraction) or, availability of single crystal (in case of destructive testing). Hence, in this study, an effort has been undertaken to estimate SCEC by subjecting polycrystalline specimens to ultrasonic testing. Ultrasonic longitudinal and shear velocities, longitudinal attenuation coefficient and ultrasonic backscattered grain noise will be measured on pure Cu specimen. Further, these parameters will also be calculated analytically using existing relationships involving, elastic constants, grain size probability level, ultrasonic longitudinal and shear wave velocities, attenuation coefficient and backscattered grain noise. By minimizing the difference between experimentally measured and analytically calculated ultrasonic parameters, an attempt will be made to estimate single crystal elastic constants. (author)

  12. From guidelines to hospital practice: reducing inappropriate ordering of thyroid hormone and antibody tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubert, M E; Chevret, S; Cassinat, B; Schlageter, M H; Beressi, J P; Rain, J D

    2000-06-01

    Because of major technical improvements and conscious care about cost effectiveness, limiting the inadequate use of thyroid biological tests appears to be a major issue. To (i) estimate the ordering prevalence of each thyroid test, (ii) assess the prevalence of relevant thyroid tests, and (iii) evaluate the impact of expressing justification for tests during a 2-month intervention period on these prevalences. During a prospective 2-month survey (June-July 1997), all the request forms were divided into four groups of prescription: (1) investigation of thyroid function, (2) taking drugs affecting the thyroid, (3) monitoring of nodule and cancer, and (4) investigation of thyroid autoimmunity. Their appropriateness was thus determined according to consensus in our hospital and previously published recommendations. Results were compared with those of retrospective similar 2-month periods in 1996 and 1998. Combinations of thyroid function tests and thyroid antibodies were analyzed during the 1996, 1997 and 1998 periods. The overall estimated rate of appropriate ordering between 1996 and 1997 increased from 42.5% to 72.4% (P<10(-4)), with a significant improvement in each group of main diagnosis referral, except in group 3 where suitability was always over 85%. However, in group 4, appropriateness remained low (36%). Combinations of thyroid tests revealed an increase in single TSH order forms and single autoantibodies to thyroperoxidase (TPOAb) ones, while TSH+free thyroxine+free tri-iodothyronine and TPOAb+ autoantibodies to thyroglobulin ones decreased significantly. Interestingly, all these changes were maintained 1 year later (June-July 1998) even though physicians were not aware of this new study. Persistent change in medical practice was thus assessed.

  13. Measurement of single-top cross section and test of anomalous $Wtb$ coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Ji-Eun [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-01

    The top quark is most often produced in tt pairs via the strong interaction, however electroweak production of a singly-produced top quark is also possible. Electroweak single-top production is more difficult to observe than tt production. Studying single-top production is important for the following reasons. It provides direct measurement of the CKM matrix element and also single-top events are a background to several searches for SM or non-SM signals, such as Higgs boson searches. The information of spin polarization of top-quark can be used to t est anomalous W-t-b coupling. This thesis describes the result of a measurement of single-top cross-section and a test of anomalous W-t-b coupling using 4.8 f b-1 of data collected by the CDF Run II experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron. The measured cross-section is 1.83$+0.7\\atop{-0.6}$ pb and measured limit of |Vtb| is 0.41 at 95% CL. The fraction of V+A coupling is 0 ± 28 (%).

  14. High-beta axisymmetric equilibria with flow in reduced single-fluid and two-fluid models

    OpenAIRE

    Atsushi, ITO; Jes?s J., RAMOS; Noriyoshi, NAKAJIMA

    2008-01-01

    Reduced single-fluid and two-fluid equations for axisymmetric toroidal equilibria of high-beta plasmas with flow are derived by using asymptotic expansions in terms of the inverse aspect ratio. Two different orderings for the flow velocity, comparable to the poloidal Alfv?n velocity and comparable to the poloidal sound velocity, are considered. For a poloidal-Alfv?nic flow, the two-fluid equilibrium equations with hot ion effects are shown to have a singularity that is shifted by the gyrovisc...

  15. Opportunities and strategies to further reduce animal use for Leptospira vaccine potency testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, A; Srinivas, G B

    2013-09-01

    Hamsters are routinely infected with virulent Leptospira for two purposes in the regulation of biologics: the performance of Codified potency tests and maintenance of challenge culture for the Codified potency tests. Options for reducing animal use in these processes were explored in a plenary lecture at the "International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Leptospira Vaccine Potency Testing: State of the Science and the Way Forward" held at the Center for Veterinary Biologics in September 2012. The use of validated in vitro potency assays such as those developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for Leptospira (L.) canicola, Leptospira grippotyphosa, Leptospira pomona, and Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae rather than the Codified hamster vaccination-challenge assay was encouraged. Alternatives such as reduced animal numbers in the hamster vaccination-challenge testing were considered for problematic situations. Specifically, the merits of sharing challenge controls, reducing group sizes, and eliminating animals for concurrent challenge dose titration were assessed. Options for maintaining virulent, stable cultures without serial passage through hamsters or with decreased hamster use were also discussed. The maintenance of virulent Leptospira without the use of live animals is especially difficult since a reliable means to maintain virulence after multiple in vitro passages has not yet been identified. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Proceedings of the 1988 International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    The international effort to develop and implement new research reactor fuels utilizing low-enriched uranium, instead of highly- enriched uranium, continues to make solid progress. This effort is the cornerstone of a widely shared policy aimed at reducing, and possibly eliminating, international traffic in highly-enriched uranium and the nuclear weapon proliferation concerns associated with this traffic. To foster direct communication and exchange of ideas among the specialists in this area, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at Argonne National Laboratory, sponsored this meeting as the eleventh of a series which began 1978. Individual papers presented at the meeting have been cataloged separately.

  17. Proceedings of the 1988 International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The international effort to develop and implement new research reactor fuels utilizing low-enriched uranium, instead of highly- enriched uranium, continues to make solid progress. This effort is the cornerstone of a widely shared policy aimed at reducing, and possibly eliminating, international traffic in highly-enriched uranium and the nuclear weapon proliferation concerns associated with this traffic. To foster direct communication and exchange of ideas among the specialists in this area, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at Argonne National Laboratory, sponsored this meeting as the eleventh of a series which began 1978. Individual papers presented at the meeting have been cataloged separately

  18. Combining in situ chemical oxidation, stabilization, and anaerobic bioremediation in a single application to reduce contaminant mass and leachability in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Daniel P; Srivastava, Vipul J; Dombrowski, Frank J; Lingle, James W

    2015-10-30

    Laboratory batch reactors were maintained for 32 weeks to test the potential for an in situ remedy that combines chemical oxidation, stabilization, and anaerobic bioremediation in a single application to treat soil from a manufactured gas plant, contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Portland cement and slaked lime were used to activate the persulfate and to stabilize/encapsulate the contaminants that were not chemically oxidized. Native sulfate-reducing bacteria degraded residual contaminants using the sulfate left after persulfate activation. The ability of the combined remedy to reduce contaminant mass and leachability was compared with NaOH-activated persulfate, stabilization, and sulfate-reducing bioremediation as stand-alone technologies. The stabilization amendments increased pH and temperature sufficiently to activate the persulfate within 1 week. Activation with both stabilization amendments and NaOH removed between 55% and 70% of PAH and BTEX. However, combined persulfate and stabilization significantly reduced the leachability of residual BTEX and PAH compared with NaOH activation. Sulfide, 2-naphthoic acid, and the abundance of subunit A of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrA) were used to monitor native sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were negatively impacted by activated persulfate, but recovered completely within weeks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Critical evaluation of the pulsed laser method for single event effects testing and fundamental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melinger, J.S.; Buchner, S.; McMorrow, D.; Stapor, W.J.; Weatherford, T.R.; Campbell, A.B.; Eisen, H.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the authors present an evaluation of the pulsed laser as a technique for single events effects (SEE) testing. They explore in detail the important optical effects, such as laser beam propagation, surface reflection, and linear and nonlinear absorption, which determine the nature of laser-generated charge tracks in semiconductor materials. While there are differences in the structure of laser- and ion-generated charge tracks, they show that in many cases the pulsed laser remains an invaluable tool for SEE testing. Indeed, for several SEE applications, they show that the pulsed laser method represents a more practical approach than conventional accelerator-based methods

  20. Testing of plain and fibrous concrete single cavity prestressed concrete reactor vessel models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oland, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Two single-cavity prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV) models were fabricated and tested to failure to demonstrate the structural response and ultimate pressure capacity of models cast from high-strength concretes. Concretes with design compressive strengths in excess of 70 MPa (10,000 psi) were developed for this investigation. One model was cast from plain concrete and failed in shear at the head region. The second model was cast from fiber reinforced concrete and failed by rupturing the circumferential prestressing at the sidewall of the structure. The tests also demonstrated the capabilities of the liner system to maintain a leak-tight pressure boundary. 3 refs., 4 figs

  1. Enhancement of the point defect pinning effect in Mo-doped Bi2212 single crystals of reduced anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Han, S H; Dai, Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, H; Zhao, Y

    2002-01-01

    High quality Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 sub - sub x Mo sub x O sub y (x = 0, 0.01 and 0.02) single crystals have been grown by a self-flux method in a horizontal temperature gradient and their flux pinning and irreversibility behaviour have been investigated. The irreversibility lines of the undoped and Mo-doped Bi2212 crystals have been greatly improved by reducing the anisotropy parameter gamma. However, this improvement is much more pronounced for Mo-doped crystals than for the undoped ones. The peak effect of magnetization loops also changes with both Mo-doping and gamma. The results provide strong evidence that the point defect pinning served by Mo is greatly enhanced when the anisotropy of the system is reduced.

  2. Effectiveness Analysis of a Non-Destructive Single Event Burnout Test Methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Oser, P; Spiezia, G; Fadakis, E; Foucard, G; Peronnard, P; Masi, A; Gaillard, R

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to characterize power MosFETs regarding their tolerance to destructive Single Event Burnouts (SEB). Therefore, several non-destructive test methods have been developed to evaluate the SEB cross-section of power devices. A power MosFET has been evaluated using a test circuit, designed according to standard non-destructive test methods discussed in the literature. Guidelines suggest a prior adaptation of auxiliary components to the device sensitivity before the radiation test. With the first value chosen for the de-coupling capacitor, the external component initiated destructive events and affected the evaluation of the cross-section. As a result, the influence of auxiliary components on the device cross-section was studied. This paper presents the obtained experimental results, supported by SPICE simulations, to evaluate and discuss how the circuit effectiveness depends on the external components.

  3. Single-well "push-pull" partitioning tracer test for NAPL detection in the subsurface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istok, Jonathan D; Field, Jennifer A; Schroth, Martin H; Davis, Brian M; Dwarakanath, Varadarajan

    2002-06-15

    Previous environmental applications of partitioning tracer tests to detect and quantify nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contamination in the subsurface have been limited to well-to-well tests. However, theory and numerical modeling suggests that single-well injection-extraction ("push-pull") partitioning tracer tests can also potentially detect and quantify NAPL contamination. In this type of test, retardation factors for injected partitioning tracers are estimated from the increase in apparent dispersion observed in extraction-phase breakthrough curves in the presence of NAPL. A series of laboratory push-pull tests was conducted in physical aquifer models (PAMs) packed with natural aquifer sediment prepared with and without the presence of trichloroethene (TCE) NAPL. Field tests were conducted in an aquifer contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbon NAPL. Injected test solutions contained a suite of partitioning and conservative (nonpartitioning) alcohol tracers. Laboratory push-pull partitioning tracer tests were able to detect and quantify sorption of partitioning tracers to aquifer sediment (in the absence of NAPL) and to detect NAPL when it was present. NAPL saturations computed from estimated retardation factors bracketed those computed from known volumes of emplaced NAPL in the sediment pack. However, numerical modeling with assumed homogeneous NAPL distribution and linear equilibrium partitioning of tracers between aqueous and NAPL phases was unable to reproduce all features of observed breakthrough curves. Excavation of the sediment pack after all tests indicated that a portion of the emplaced NAPL had sunk to the bottom of the PAM invalidating the modeling assumption of homogeneous NAPL distribution. Moreover, the apparent dispersion in extraction-phase breakthrough curves decreased when the injection-extraction pumping rate was decreased, suggesting that mass transfer limitations existed during laboratory tests. Field push-pull partitioning tracer tests were

  4. Fabrication and Testing of Full-Length Single-Cell Externally Fueled Converters for Thermionic Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-06-01

    The preceding paper described designs and analyses of thermionic reactors employing full-core-length single-cell converters with their heated emitters located on the outside of their internally cooled collectors, and it presented results of detailed parametric analyses which illustrate the benefits of this unconventional design. The present paper describes the fabrication and testing of full-length prototypical converters, both unfueled and fueled, and presents parametric results of electrically heated tests. The unfueled converter tests demonstrated the practicality of operating such long converters without shorting across a 0.3-mm interelectrode gap. They produced a measured peak output of 751 watts(e) from a single diode and a peak efficiency of 15.4%. The fueled converter tests measured the parametric performance of prototypic UO(subscript 2)-fueled converters designed for subsequent in-pile testing. They employed revolver-shaped tungsten elements with a central emitter hole surrounded by six fuel chambers. The full-length converters were heated by a water-cooled RF-induction coil inside an ion-pumped vacuum chamber. This required development of high-vacuum coaxial RF feedthroughs. In-pile test rules required multiple containment of the UO (subscript 2)-fuel, which complicated the fabrication of the test article and required successful development of techniques for welding tungsten and other refractory components. The test measured a peak power output of 530 watts(e) or 7.1 watts/cm (superscript 2) at an efficiency of 11.5%. There are three copies in the file. Cross-Reference a copy FSC-ESD-217-94-529 in the ESD files with a CID #8574.

  5. Methods for reducing singly reflected rays on the Wolter-I focusing mirrors of the FOXSI rocket experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago-Casas, Juan Camilo; Elsner, Ronald; Glesener, Lindsay; Christe, Steven; Ramsey, Brian; Courtade, Sasha; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Narukage, Noriyuki; Turin, Paul; Vievering, Juliana; Athiray, P. S.; Musset, Sophie; Krucker, Säm.

    2017-08-01

    In high energy solar astrophysics, imaging hard X-rays by direct focusing offers higher dynamic range and greater sensitivity compared to past techniques that used indirect imaging. The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) is a sounding rocket payload that uses seven sets of nested Wolter-I figured mirrors together with seven high-sensitivity semiconductor detectors to observe the Sun in hard X-rays through direct focusing. The FOXSI rocket has successfully flown twice and is funded to fly a third time in summer 2018. The Wolter-I geometry consists of two consecutive mirrors, one paraboloid and one hyperboloid, that reflect photons at grazing angles. Correctly focused X-rays reflect once per mirror segment. For extended sources, like the Sun, off-axis photons at certain incident angles can reflect on only one mirror and still reach the focal plane, generating a background pattern of singly reflected rays (i.e., ghost rays) that can limit the sensitivity of the observation to faint, focused sources. Understanding and mitigating the impact of the singly reflected rays on the FOXSI optical modules will maximize the instruments' sensitivity to background-limited sources. We present an analysis of the FOXSI singly reflected rays based on ray-tracing simulations and laboratory measurements, as well as the effectiveness of different physical strategies to reduce them.

  6. Methods for Reducing Singly Reflected Rays on the Wolter-I Focusing Figures of the FOXSI Rocket Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago-Casas, Juan Camilo; Glesener, Lindsay; Christe, Steven; Elsner, Ronald; Ramsey, Brian; Courtade, Sasha; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Narukage, Noriyuki; Vievering, Juliana; Subramania, Athiray; hide

    2017-01-01

    In high energy solar astrophysics, imaging hard X-rays by direct focusing offers higher dynamic range and greater sensitivity compared to past techniques that used indirect imaging. The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) is a sounding rocket payload which uses seven sets of nested Wolter-I figured mirrors that, together with seven high-sensitivity semiconductor detectors, observes the Sun in hard X-rays by direct focusing. The FOXSI rocket has successfully flown twice and is funded to fly a third time in Summer 2018. The Wolter-I geometry consists of two consecutive mirrors, one paraboloid, and one hyperboloid, that reflect photons at grazing angles. Correctly focused X-rays reflect twice, once per mirror segment. For extended sources, like the Sun, off-axis photons at certain incident angles can reflect on only one mirror and still reach the focal plane, generating a pattern of single-bounce photons that can limit the sensitivity of the observation of faint focused X-rays. Understanding and cutting down the singly reflected rays on the FOXSI optics will maximize the instrument's sensitivity of the faintest solar sources for future flights. We present an analysis of the FOXSI singly reflected rays based on ray-tracing simulations, as well as the effectiveness of different physical strategies to reduce them.

  7. Crash-test dummy and pendulum impact tests of ice hockey boards: greater displacement does not reduce impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Kai-Uwe; Muser, Markus H; Thueler, Hansjuerg; Bruegger, Othmar

    2018-01-01

    One injury mechanism in ice hockey is impact with the boards. We investigated whether more flexible hockey boards would provide less biomechanical loading on impact than did existing (reference) boards. We conducted impact tests with a dynamic pendulum (mass 60 kg) and with crash test dummies (ES-2 dummy, 4.76 m/s impact speed). Outcomes were biomechanical loading experienced by a player in terms of head acceleration, impact force to the shoulder, spine, abdomen and pelvis as well as compression of the thorax. The more flexible board designs featured substantial displacement at impact. Some so-called flexible boards were displaced four times more than the reference board. The new boards possessed less stiffness and up to 90 kg less effective mass, reducing the portion of the board mass a player experienced on impact, compared with boards with a conventional design. Flexible boards resulted in a similar or reduced loading for all body regions, apart from the shoulder. The displacement of a board system did not correlate directly with the biomechanical loading. Flexible board systems can reduce the loading of a player on impact. However, we found no correlation between the displacement and the biomechanical loading; accordingly, displacement alone was insufficient to characterise the overall loading of a player and thus the risk of injury associated with board impact. Ideally, the performance of boards is assessed on the basis of parameters that show a good correlation to injury risk. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Merging single-well and inter-well tracer tests into one forced-gradient dipole test, at the Heletz site within the MUSTANG project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Horst; Ghergut, Julia; Bensabat, Jac; Niemi, Auli; Licha, Tobias; Ptak, Thomas; Sauter, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The Heletz site[1] in Israel was chosen for conducting a CO2 transport experiment within the MUSTANG project[2], whose aim is to demonstrate and validate leading-edge techniques for CCS site characterization, process monitoring and risk assessment. The major CO2 injection experiment at Heletz was supposed to be preceded and accompanied by a sequence of single-well 'push-then-pull' (SW) and inter-well (IW) tracer tests, aimed at characterizing transport properties of the storage formation, in accordance to a number of general and specific principles[3],[4]. - Instead of the rather luxurious {SW1, IW1, SW2, IW2} test sequence described in our previous work[5], we now propose a drastically economized tracer test concept, which lets the sampling stages of SW and IW tests merge into a single fluid production stage, and relies on a forced-gradient dipole flow field at any time of the overall test. Besides cost reduction, this economized design also improves on operational aspects, as well as on issues of parameter ambiguity and of scale disparity between SW and IW flow fields: (i) the new design renders SW test results more representative for the aquifer sector ('angle') actually interrogated by the IW dipole test; (ii) the new design saves time and costs on the SW test (fluid sampling for SW 'pull' now being conducted simultaneously with IW-related sampling and monitoring), while allowing for a considerably longer duration of SW 'pull' signals than had originally been intended, whose late-time tailings help improve the quantification of non-advective processes and parameters, which are of great relevance to mid- and long-term trapping mechanisms ('residual trapping', 'mineral trapping'); (iii) the quasi-simultaneous execution of fluid injection/production for the IW and SW tests considerably reduces the overall hydraulic imbalance that was originally associated with the SW test, thus preventing formation damage and supporting hydrogeomechanical stability; (iv) the new

  9. Predicting muscle forces during the propulsion phase of single leg triple hop test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvim, Felipe Costa; Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia; Menegaldo, Luciano Luporini

    2018-01-01

    Functional biomechanical tests allow the assessment of musculoskeletal system impairments in a simple way. Muscle force synergies associated with movement can provide additional information for diagnosis. However, such forces cannot be directly measured noninvasively. This study aims to estimate muscle activations and forces exerted during the preparation phase of the single leg triple hop test. Two different approaches were tested: static optimization (SO) and computed muscle control (CMC). As an indirect validation, model-estimated muscle activations were compared with surface electromyography (EMG) of selected hip and thigh muscles. Ten physically healthy active women performed a series of jumps, and ground reaction forces, kinematics and EMG data were recorded. An existing OpenSim model with 92 musculotendon actuators was used to estimate muscle forces. Reflective markers data were processed using the OpenSim Inverse Kinematics tool. Residual Reduction Algorithm (RRA) was applied recursively before running the SO and CMC. For both, the same adjusted kinematics were used as inputs. Both approaches presented similar residuals amplitudes. SO showed a closer agreement between the estimated activations and the EMGs of some muscles. Due to inherent EMG methodological limitations, the superiority of SO in relation to CMC can be only hypothesized. It should be confirmed by conducting further studies comparing joint contact forces. The workflow presented in this study can be used to estimate muscle forces during the preparation phase of the single leg triple hop test and allows investigating muscle activation and coordination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT) on Single V-Butt Weld Integrity Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amry Amin Abas; Mohd Kamal Shah Shamsudin; Norhazleena Azaman

    2015-01-01

    Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT) utilizes arrays of piezoelectric elements that are embedded in an epoxy base. The benefit of having such kind of array is that beam forming such as steering and focusing the beam front possible. This enables scanning patterns such as linear scan, sectorial scan and depth focusing scan to be performed. Ultrasonic phased array systems can potentially be employed in almost any test where conventional ultrasonic flaw detectors have traditionally been used. Weld inspection and crack detection are the most important applications, and these tests are done across a wide range of industries including aerospace, power generation, petrochemical, metal billet and tubular goods suppliers, pipeline construction and maintenance, structural metals, and general manufacturing. Phased arrays can also be effectively used to profile remaining wall thickness in corrosion survey applications. The benefits of PAUT are simplifying inspection of components of complex geometry, inspection of components with limited access, testing of welds with multiple angles from a single probe and increasing the probability of detection while improving signal-to-noise ratio. This paper compares the result of inspection on several specimens using PAUT as to digital radiography. The specimens are welded plates with single V-butt weld made of carbon steel. Digital radiography is done using blue imaging plate with x-ray source. PAUT is done using Olympus MX2 with 5 MHz probe consisting of 64 elements. The location, size and length of defect is compared. (author)

  11. Should the diagnosis of COPD be based on a single spirometry test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermer, Tjard R; Robberts, Bas; Crockett, Alan J; Thoonen, Bart P; Lucas, Annelies; Grootens, Joke; Smeele, Ivo J; Thamrin, Cindy; Reddel, Helen K

    2016-09-29

    Clinical guidelines indicate that a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) diagnosis is made from a single spirometry test. However, long-term stability of diagnosis based on forced expiratory volume in 1 s over forced vital capacity (FEV 1 /FVC) ratio has not been reported. In primary care subjects at risk for COPD, we investigated shifts in diagnostic category (obstructed/non-obstructed). The data were from symptomatic 40+ years (ex-)smokers referred for diagnostic spirometry, with three spirometry tests, each 12±2 months apart. The obstruction was based on post-bronchodilator FEV 1 /FVC smokers or SABA users at year 1. Change from non-obstructed to obstructed was more likely for males, older subjects, current smokers and patients with lower baseline FEV 1 % predicted, and less likely for those with higher baseline BMI. Up to one-third of symptomatic (ex-)smokers with baseline obstruction on diagnostic spirometry had shifted to non-obstructed when routinely re-tested after 1 or 2 years. Given the implications for patients and health systems of a diagnosis of COPD, it should not be based on a single spirometry test.

  12. A closed-form analytical solution for thermal single-well injection-withdrawal tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yoojin; Pruess, Karsten

    2012-03-01

    Thermal single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tests entail pumping cold water into a hot and usually fractured reservoir, and monitoring the temperature recovery during subsequent backflow. Such tests have been proposed as a potential means to characterize properties of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), such as fracture spacing, connectivity, and porosity. In this paper we develop an analytical solution for thermal SWIW tests, using an idealized model of a single vertical fracture with linear flow geometry embedded in impermeable conductive wall rocks. The analytical solution shows that the time dependence of temperature recovery is dominated by the heat exchange between fracture and matrix rock, but strong thermal diffusivities of rocks as compared to typical solute diffusivities are not necessarily advantageous for characterizing fracture-matrix interactions. The effect of fracture aperture on temperature recovery during backflow is weak, particularly when the fracture aperture is smaller than 0.1 cm. The solution also shows that temperature recovery during backflow is independent of the applied injection and backflow rates. This surprising result implies that temperature recovery is independent of the height of the fracture, or the specific fracture-matrix interface areas per unit fracture length, suggesting that thermal SWIW tests will not be able to characterize fracture growth that may be achieved by stimulation treatments.

  13. Self-Assembly of Single-Crystal Silver Microflakes on Reduced Graphene Oxide and their Use in Ultrasensitive Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Ye

    2016-01-19

    Compared to 1D structures, 2D structures have higher specific and active surface, which drastically improves electron transfer and extensibility along 2D plane. Herein, 2D-single crystal silver microflakes (AgMFs) are prepared for the first time in situ on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) by solvothermal synthesis with thickness around 100 nm and length around 10 μm. The oriented attachment mechanism is hypothesized to control the silver crystal growth and self-assembly of reduced silver units to form single-crystal AgMF structure on RGO sheets. Employing it as an electrode to fabricate reliable and extremely sensitive pressure sensors verifies the applicability of this novel 2D structure. Contrary to nanowires, 2D microflakes can intercalate better within the polymer matrix to provide an enhanced network for electron movement. The designed sensor can retain more than 4.7 MPa-1 after 10 000 cycles. The design proves functional for monitoring various actions such as wrist movement, squatting, walking, and delicate finger touch with high durability. A highly sensitive and flexible pressure sensor is fabricated based on the self-assembly of silver microflakes on reduced graphene oxide. This sensor exhibits an excellent pressure sensitivity as it can retain more than 4.7 MPa-1 after 10 000 cycles. This system is successfully used to monitor wrist movement, walking, and squatting and can be applied in touch screen panels, robotic systems, and prosthetics. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Single-dose Intravenous Toxicology Testing of Daebohwalryeok Pharmcopuncture in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Seung-Ho; Park, Sunju; Jeong, Jong-Jin; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Yu, Jun-Sang; Seo, Hyung-Sik; Kwon, Ki-Rok

    2015-06-01

    The aims of the study were to test the single-dose intravenous toxicity of Daebohwalryeok pharmacopuncture (DHRP) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and to estimate the crude lethal dose. The experiments were conducted at Biotoxtech Co., a Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) laboratory, according to the GLP regulation and were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Biotoxtech Co. (Approval no: 110156). The rats were divided into three groups: DHRP was injected into the rats in the two test groups at doses of 10 mL/kg and 20 mL/kg, respectively, and normal saline solution was injected into the rats in the control group. Single doses of DHRP were injected intravenously into 6 week old SD rats (5 male and 5 female rats per group). General symptoms were observed and weights were measured during the 14 day observation period after the injection. After the observation period, necropsies were done. Then, histopathological tests were performed. Weight data were analyzed with a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) by using statistical analysis system (SAS, version 9.2). No deaths and no statistical significant weight changes were observed for either male or female SD rats in either the control or the test groups during the observation period. In addition, no treatment related general symptoms or necropsy abnormalities were observed. Histopathological results showed no DHRP related effects in the 20 mL/kg DHRP group for either male or female rats. Under the conditions of this study, the results from single-dose intravenous injections of DHRP showed that estimated lethal doses for both male and female rats were above 20 mL/kg.

  15. Single-dose Intravenous Toxicology Testing of Daebohwalryeok Pharmcopuncture in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Ho Sun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of the study were to test the single-dose intravenous toxicity of Daebohwalryeok pharmacopuncture (DHRP in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats and to estimate the crude lethal dose. Methods: The experiments were conducted at Biotoxtech Co., a Good Laboratory Practice (GLP laboratory, according to the GLP regulation and were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Biotoxtech Co. (Approval no: 110156. The rats were divided into three groups: DHRP was injected into the rats in the two test groups at doses of 10 mL/kg and 20 mL/kg, respectively, and normal saline solution was injected into the rats in the control group. Single doses of DHRP were injected intravenously into 6 week old SD rats (5 male and 5 female rats per group. General symptoms were observed and weights were measured during the 14 day observation period after the injection. After the observation period, necropsies were done. Then, histopathological tests were performed. Weight data were analyzed with a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA by using statistical analysis system (SAS, version 9.2. Results: No deaths and no statistical significant weight changes were observed for either male or female SD rats in either the control or the test groups during the observation period. In addition, no treatment related general symptoms or necropsy abnormalities were observed. Histopathological results showed no DHRP related effects in the 20 mL/kg DHRP group for either male or female rats. Conclusion: Under the conditions of this study, the results from single-dose intravenous injections of DHRP showed that estimated lethal doses for both male and female rats were above 20 mL/kg.

  16. Risk-Reducing Salpingo-oophorectomy and Ovarian Cancer Screening in 1077 Women After BRCA Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannis, Gabriel N.; Fehniger, Julia E.; Creasman, Jennifer S.; Jacoby, Vanessa L.; Beattie, Mary S.

    2016-01-01

    Background For women at potentially increased risk for ovarian cancer, data regarding screening and risk reduction are limited. Previous studies have reported on the behaviors of BRCA mutation carriers, but less is known about the behaviors of non-BRCA carriers. We surveyed a large cohort of women after BRCA testing to identify the prevalence and posttest predictors of risk-reducing and screening interventions. Methods A median of 3.7 years after BRCA testing, 1447 women who received genetic counseling and BRCA testing at 2 hospital sites were surveyed, with a 77.6% response rate. We analyzed data from 1077 survey respondents. We performed univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to identify predictors of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO), screening transvaginal ultrasonography (TVUS), and screening serum cancer antigen 125 (CA-125). Results Among the respondents, 201 women (18.7%) received positive test results for a deleterious mutation, 103 women (9.6%) received true-negative results, and 773 women (71.8%) received uninformative results. Overall, 19.1% of eligible women underwent RRSO and 39.6% used screening procedures. A positive BRCA result predicted RRSO (odds ratio [OR], 28.1; 95% CI, 16.2-48.6), TVUS (9.5 [4.3-21.0]), and serum CA-125 (13.0 [5.5-29.0]). Similarly, a true-negative BRCA result reduced the OR for RRSO (0.1 [0.0-0.6]), TVUS (0.2 [0.1-0.5]), and serum CA-125 (0.3 [0.1-0.7]). Of the 71.8% of women who received uninformative results after BRCA testing, 12.3% subsequently underwent RRSO, 33.8% reported ever having undergone screening serum CA-125 since BRCA testing, and 37.3% reported ever having undergone screening TVUS since BRCA testing. Conclusions Results of BRCA testing strongly predict RRSO and ovarian cancer screening. Use of RRSO and ovarian screening was reported in a sizable percentage of non-BRCA carriers despite insufficient data to determine the effectiveness of these interventions. PMID:23247828

  17. Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors. Proceedings of the XIV international meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suripto, Asmedi; Hastowo, Hudi; Hersubeno, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    Apart from the progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program the national programs of Indonesia, Japan and China were presented. The major events, findings, and activities of 1991 are reviewed with a brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program had achieved by the end of 1990 in collaboration with its many international partners. The RERTR program, has concentrated its efforts on technology transfer and implementation activities consistent with the guidance received from the Department of Energy at the end of 1990. A number of presentations were devoted to development of new fuel uranium silicide fuel elements, fuel irradiation testing and reactor core conversions from highly enriched (HEU) to slightly enriched uranium (LEU). Calculations and measurements of converted reactor core parameters were shown related to safety test and analysis. Fuel cycle issue were discussed as well. One should note that a significant number of papers were devoted to Indonesian GA SIWABESSY reactor core conversion and related topics

  18. Are single-well "push-pull" tests suitable tracer methods for aquifer characterization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebig, Klaus; Zeilfelder, Sarah; Ito, Narimitsu; Machida, Isao; Scheytt, Traugott; Marui, Atsunao

    2013-04-01

    Recently, investigations were conducted for geological and hydrogeological characterisation of the sedimentary coastal basin of Horonobe (Hokkaido, Japan). Coastal areas are typical geological settings in Japan, which are less tectonically active than the mountain ranges. In Asia, and especially in Japan, these areas are often densely populated. Therefore, it is important to investigate the behaviour of solutes in such unconsolidated aquifers. In such settings sometimes only single boreholes or groundwater monitoring wells are available for aquifer testing for various reasons, e.g. depths of more than 100 m below ground level and slow groundwater velocities due to density driven flow. A standard tracer test with several involved groundwater monitoring wells is generally very difficult or even not possible at these depths. One of the most important questions in our project was how we can obtain information about chemical and hydraulic properties in such aquifers. Is it possible to characterize solute transport behaviour parameters with only one available groundwater monitoring well or borehole? A so-called "push-pull" test may be one suitable method for aquifer testing with only one available access point. In a push-pull test a known amount of several solutes including a conservative tracer is injected into the aquifer ("push") and afterwards extracted ("pull"). The measured breakthrough curve during the pumping back phase can then be analysed. This method has already been used previously with various aims, also in the recent project (e.g. Hebig et al. 2011, Zeilfelder et al. 2012). However, different test setups produced different tracer breakthrough curves. As no systematic evaluation of this aquifer tracer test method was done so far, nothing is known about its repeatability. Does the injection and extraction rate influence the shape of the breakthrough curve? Which role plays the often applied "chaser", which is used to push the test solution out from the

  19. A Study Protocol for Testing the Effectiveness of User-Generated Content in Reducing Excessive Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herziger, Atar; Benzerga, Amel; Berkessel, Jana; Dinartika, Niken L; Franklin, Matija; Steinnes, Kamilla K; Sundström, Felicia

    2017-01-01

    Excessive consumption is on the rise, as is apparent in growing financial debt and global greenhouse gas emissions. Voluntary simplicity, a lifestyle choice of reduced consumption and sustainable consumer behavior, provides a potential solution for excessive consumers. However, voluntary simplicity is unpopular, difficult to adopt, and under researched. The outlined research project will test a method of promoting voluntary simplicity via user-generated content, thus mimicking an existing social media trend (Minimalism) in an empirical research design. The project will test (a) whether the Minimalism trend could benefit consumers interested in reducing their consumption, and (b) whether self-transcendence (i.e., biospheric) and self-enhancement (i.e., egoistic and hedonic) values and goals have a similar impact in promoting voluntary simplicity. A one-week intervention program will test the efficacy of watching user-generated voluntary simplicity videos in reducing non-essential consumption. Each of the two intervention conditions will present participants with similar tutorial videos on consumption reduction (e.g., decluttering, donating), while priming the relevant values and goals (self-transcendence or self-enhancement). These interventions will be compared to a control condition, involving no user-generated content. Participants will undergo baseline and post-intervention evaluations of: voluntary simplicity attitudes and behaviors, buying and shopping behaviors, values and goals in reducing consumption, and life satisfaction. Experience sampling will monitor affective state during the intervention. We provide a detailed stepwise procedure, materials, and equipment necessary for executing this intervention. The outlined research design is expected to contribute to the limited literature on voluntary simplicity, online behavioral change interventions, and the use of social marketing principles in consumer interventions.

  20. A Study Protocol for Testing the Effectiveness of User-Generated Content in Reducing Excessive Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atar Herziger

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive consumption is on the rise, as is apparent in growing financial debt and global greenhouse gas emissions. Voluntary simplicity, a lifestyle choice of reduced consumption and sustainable consumer behavior, provides a potential solution for excessive consumers. However, voluntary simplicity is unpopular, difficult to adopt, and under researched. The outlined research project will test a method of promoting voluntary simplicity via user-generated content, thus mimicking an existing social media trend (Minimalism in an empirical research design. The project will test (a whether the Minimalism trend could benefit consumers interested in reducing their consumption, and (b whether self-transcendence (i.e., biospheric and self-enhancement (i.e., egoistic and hedonic values and goals have a similar impact in promoting voluntary simplicity. A one-week intervention program will test the efficacy of watching user-generated voluntary simplicity videos in reducing non-essential consumption. Each of the two intervention conditions will present participants with similar tutorial videos on consumption reduction (e.g., decluttering, donating, while priming the relevant values and goals (self-transcendence or self-enhancement. These interventions will be compared to a control condition, involving no user-generated content. Participants will undergo baseline and post-intervention evaluations of: voluntary simplicity attitudes and behaviors, buying and shopping behaviors, values and goals in reducing consumption, and life satisfaction. Experience sampling will monitor affective state during the intervention. We provide a detailed stepwise procedure, materials, and equipment necessary for executing this intervention. The outlined research design is expected to contribute to the limited literature on voluntary simplicity, online behavioral change interventions, and the use of social marketing principles in consumer interventions.

  1. Case Management Reduces Length of Stay, Charges, and Testing in Emergency Department Frequent Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameel Sughair

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Case management is an effective, short-term means to reduce emergency department (ED visits in frequent users of the ED. This study sought to determine the effectiveness of case management on frequent ED users, in terms of reducing ED and hospital length of stay (LOS, accrued costs, and utilization of diagnostic tests. Methods: The study consisted of a retrospective chart review of ED and inpatient visits in our hospital’s ED case management program, comparing patient visits made in the one year prior to enrollment in the program, to the visits made in the one year after enrollment in the program. We examined the LOS, use of diagnostic testing, and monetary charges incurred by these patients one year prior and one year after enrollment into case management. Results: The study consisted of 158 patients in case management. Comparing the one year prior to enrollment to the one year after enrollment, ED visits decreased by 49%, inpatient admissions decreased by 39%, the use of computed tomography imaging decreased 41%, the use of ultrasound imaging decreased 52%, and the use of radiographs decreased 38%. LOS in the ED and for inpatient admissions decreased by 39%, reducing total LOS for these patients by 178 days. ED and hospital charges incurred by these patients decreased by 5.8 million dollars, a 41% reduction. All differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: Case management for frequent users of the ED is an effective method to reduce patient visits, the use of diagnostic testing, length of stay, and cost within our institution.

  2. Design criteria for rhenium-reduced nickel-based single-crystal alloys. Identification and computer-assisted conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goehler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, design criteria and property models for the creep strength optimization of rhenium-free nickel based single crystal Superalloys are investigated. The study focuses on a typical load condition of 1050 C and 150 MPa, which is representative for flight engine applications. Thereby the key aspect is to link chemical composition, manufacturing processes, microstructure formation and mechanistic understanding of dislocation creep through a computational materials engineering approach. Beside the positive effect of rhenium on solid solution hardening, a second mechanism in which rhenium increases high temperature creep strength is identified. It indirectly stabilizes precipitation hardening by reducing the coarsening kinetics of γ'-rafting. Five 1st and 2nd generation technical Superalloys show a comparable microstructure evolution for up to 2 % plastic elongation, while creep times differ by a factor of five. The application of a microstructure sensitive creep model shows that these coarsening processes can activate γ-cutting and thus lead to an increasing creep rate. Based on these calculations a threshold value of φ γ/γ' > 2,5 at 150 MPa is estimated. This ratio of matrix channel to raft thickness has been proofed for multiple positions by microstructure analysis of interrupted creep tests. The mechanism described previously can be decelerated by the enrichment of the γ-matrix with slow diffusing elements. The same principle also increases the solid solution strength of the γ-matrix. Therefore, the present work delivers an additional mechanistic explanation why creep properties of single phase nickel based alloys can be transferred to two phase technical Superalloys with rafted γ'-structure. Following, the best way to substitute both rhenium fundamental properties, namely a slow diffusion coefficient and a small solubility in g', has been investigated by means of CALPHAD-modeling. Only molybdenum and especially tungsten

  3. Firefly Optimization and Mathematical Modeling of a Vehicle Crash Test Based on Single-Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Klausen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper mathematical modeling of a vehicle crash test based on a single-mass is studied. The model under consideration consists of a single-mass coupled with a spring and/or a damper. The parameters for the spring and damper are obtained by analyzing the measured acceleration in the center of gravity of the vehicle during a crash. A model with a nonlinear spring and damper is also proposed and the parameters will be optimized with different damper and spring characteristics and optimization algorithms. The optimization algorithms used are interior-point and firefly algorithm. The objective of this paper is to compare different methods used to establish a simple model of a car crash and validate the results against real crash data.

  4. Single-Event Effect Testing of the Linear Technology LTC6103HMS8#PBF Current Sense Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Ka-Yen; Campola, Michael J.; Wilcox, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The LTC6103HMS8#PBF (henceforth abbreviated as LTC6103) current sense amplifier from Linear Technology was tested for both destructive and non-destructive single-event effects (SEE) using the heavy-ion cyclotron accelerator beam at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Berkeley Accelerator Effects (BASE) facility. During testing, the input voltages and output currents were monitored to detect single event latch-up (SEL) and single-event transients (SETs).

  5. Benefits of expressive writing in reducing test anxiety: A randomized controlled trial in Chinese samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lujun Shen

    Full Text Available To explore the effect of expressive writing of positive emotions on test anxiety among senior-high-school students.The Test Anxiety Scale (TAS was used to assess the anxiety level of 200 senior-high-school students. Seventy-five students with high anxiety were recruited and divided randomly into experimental and control groups. Each day for 30 days, the experimental group engaged in 20 minutes of expressive writing of positive emotions, while the control group was asked to merely write down their daily events. A second test was given after the month-long experiment to analyze whether there had been a reduction in anxiety among the sample. Quantitative data was obtained from TAS scores. The NVivo10.0 software program was used to examine the frequency of particular word categories used in participants' writing manuscripts.Senior-high-school students indicated moderate to high test anxiety. There was a significant difference in post-test results (P 0.05. Students' writing manuscripts were mainly encoded on five code categories: cause, anxiety manifestation, positive emotion, insight and evaluation. There was a negative relation between positive emotion, insight codes and test anxiety. There were significant differences in the positive emotion, anxiety manifestation, and insight code categories between the first 10 days' manuscripts and the last 10 days' ones.Long-term expressive writing of positive emotions appears to help reduce test anxiety by using insight and positive emotion words for Chinese students. Efficient and effective intervention programs to ease test anxiety can be designed based on this study.

  6. Benefits of expressive writing in reducing test anxiety: A randomized controlled trial in Chinese samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Meng

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To explore the effect of expressive writing of positive emotions on test anxiety among senior-high-school students. Methods The Test Anxiety Scale (TAS) was used to assess the anxiety level of 200 senior-high-school students. Seventy-five students with high anxiety were recruited and divided randomly into experimental and control groups. Each day for 30 days, the experimental group engaged in 20 minutes of expressive writing of positive emotions, while the control group was asked to merely write down their daily events. A second test was given after the month-long experiment to analyze whether there had been a reduction in anxiety among the sample. Quantitative data was obtained from TAS scores. The NVivo10.0 software program was used to examine the frequency of particular word categories used in participants’ writing manuscripts. Results Senior-high-school students indicated moderate to high test anxiety. There was a significant difference in post-test results (P 0.05). Students’ writing manuscripts were mainly encoded on five code categories: cause, anxiety manifestation, positive emotion, insight and evaluation. There was a negative relation between positive emotion, insight codes and test anxiety. There were significant differences in the positive emotion, anxiety manifestation, and insight code categories between the first 10 days’ manuscripts and the last 10 days’ ones. Conclusions Long-term expressive writing of positive emotions appears to help reduce test anxiety by using insight and positive emotion words for Chinese students. Efficient and effective intervention programs to ease test anxiety can be designed based on this study. PMID:29401473

  7. Fractal and Morphological Characteristics of Single Marble Particle Crushing in Uniaxial Compression Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yidong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Crushing of rock particles is a phenomenon commonly encountered in geotechnical engineering practice. It is however difficult to study the crushing of rock particles using classical theory because the physical structure of the particles is complex and irregular. This paper aims at evaluating fractal and morphological characteristics of single rock particle. A large number of particle crushing tests are conducted on single rock particle. The force-displacement curves and the particle size distributions (PSD of crushed particles are analysed based on particle crushing tests. Particle shape plays an important role in both the micro- and macroscale responses of a granular assembly. The PSD of an assortment of rocks are analysed by fractal methods, and the fractal dimension is obtained. A theoretical formula for particle crushing strength is derived, utilising the fractal model, and a simple method is proposed for predicting the probability of particle survival based on the Weibull statistics. Based on a few physical assumptions, simple equations are derived for determining particle crushing energy. The results of applying these equations are tested against the actual experimental data and prove to be very consistent. Fractal theory is therefore applicable for analysis of particle crushing.

  8. Caries risk assessment in school children using a reduced Cariogram model without saliva tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Twetman Svante

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the caries predictive ability of a reduced Cariogram model without salivary tests in schoolchildren. Methods The study group consisted of 392 school children, 10-11 years of age, who volunteered after informed consent. A caries risk assessment was made at baseline with aid of the computer-based Cariogram model and expressed as "the chance of avoiding caries" and the children were divided into five risk groups. The caries increment (ΔDMFS was extracted from the dental records and bitewing radiographs after 2 years. The reduced Cariogram was processed by omitting the variables "salivary mutans streptococci", "secretion rate" and "buffer capacity" one by one and finally all three. Differences between the total and reduced models were expressed as area under the ROC-curve. Results The baseline caries prevalence in the study population was 40% (mean DMFS 0.87 ± 1.35 and the mean 2-year caries increment was 0.51 ± 1.06. Both Cariogram models displayed a statistically relationship with caries development (p Conclusions The accuracy of caries prediction in school children was significantly impaired when the Cariogram model was applied without enumeration of salivary tests.

  9. Tidal Volume Single Breath Washout of Two Tracer Gases - A Practical and Promising Lung Function Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Florian; Stern, Georgette; Thamrin, Cindy; Fuchs, Oliver; Riedel, Thomas; Gustafsson, Per; Frey, Urs; Latzin, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    Background Small airway disease frequently occurs in chronic lung diseases and may cause ventilation inhomogeneity (VI), which can be assessed by washout tests of inert tracer gas. Using two tracer gases with unequal molar mass (MM) and diffusivity increases specificity for VI in different lung zones. Currently washout tests are underutilised due to the time and effort required for measurements. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple technique for a new tidal single breath washout test (SBW) of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and helium (He) using an ultrasonic flowmeter (USFM). Methods The tracer gas mixture contained 5% SF6 and 26.3% He, had similar total MM as air, and was applied for a single tidal breath in 13 healthy adults. The USFM measured MM, which was then plotted against expired volume. USFM and mass spectrometer signals were compared in six subjects performing three SBW. Repeatability and reproducibility of SBW, i.e., area under the MM curve (AUC), were determined in seven subjects performing three SBW 24 hours apart. Results USFM reliably measured MM during all SBW tests (n = 60). MM from USFM reflected SF6 and He washout patterns measured by mass spectrometer. USFM signals were highly associated with mass spectrometer signals, e.g., for MM, linear regression r-squared was 0.98. Intra-subject coefficient of variation of AUC was 6.8%, and coefficient of repeatability was 11.8%. Conclusion The USFM accurately measured relative changes in SF6 and He washout. SBW tests were repeatable and reproducible in healthy adults. We have developed a fast, reliable, and straightforward USFM based SBW method, which provides valid information on SF6 and He washout patterns during tidal breathing. PMID:21423739

  10. Reducing and Sustaining Duplicate Medical Record Creation by Usability Testing and System Redesign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khunlertkit, Adjhaporn; Dorissaint, Leonard; Chen, Allen; Paine, Lori; Pronovost, Peter J

    2017-10-25

    Duplicate medical record creation is a common and consequential health care systems error often caused by poor search system usability and inappropriate user training. We conducted two phases of scenario-based usability testing with patient registrars working in areas at risk of generating duplicate medical records. Phase 1 evaluated the existing search system, which led to system redesigns. Phase 2 tested the redesigned system to mitigate potential errors before health system-wide implementation. To evaluate system effectiveness, we compared the monthly potential duplicate medical record rates for preimplementation and postimplementation months. The existing system could not effectively handle a misspelling, which led to failed search and duplicate medical record creation. Using the existing system, 96% of registrars found commonly spelled patient names whereas only 69% successfully found complicated names. Registrars lacked knowledge and usage of a phonetic matching function to assist in misspelling. The new system consistently captured the correct patient regardless of misspelling, but search returned more potential matches, resulting in, on average, 4 seconds longer to select common names. Potential monthly duplicate medical record rate reduced by 38%, from 4% to 2.3% after implementation of the new system, and has sustained at an average of 2.5% for 2 years. Usability testing was an effective method to reveal problems and aid system redesign to deliver a more user friendly system, hence reducing the potential for medical record duplication. Greater standards for usability would ensure that these improvements can be realized before rather than after exposing patients to risks.

  11. Testing Single and Combinations of Amendments for Stabilization of Metals in Contrasting Extremely Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siebielec G.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Metals can be stabilized by soil amendments that increase metals adsorption or alter their chemical forms. Such treatments may limit the risk related to the contamination through reduction of metal transfer to the food chain (reduction of metal uptake by plants and its availability to soil organisms and metals migration within the environment. There is a need for experiments comparing various soil amendments available at reasonable amounts under similar environmental conditions. The other question is whether all components of soil environment or soil functions are similarly protected after remediation treatment. We conducted a series of pot studies to test some traditional and novel amendments and their combinations. The treatments were tested for several highly Zn/Cd/Pb contaminated soils. Among traditional amendments composts were the most effective – they ensured plant growth, increased soil microbial activity, reduced Cd in earthworms, reduced Pb bioaccessibility and increased share of unavailable forms of Cd and Pb.

  12. Cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test in obese and reduced obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrien, Fanny; Drapeau, Vicky; Lalonde, Josée; Lupien, Sonia J; Beaulieu, Serge; Doré, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo; Richard, Denis

    2010-05-01

    Impact of body weight loss, body fat distribution and the nutritional status on the cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was investigated in this study. Fifty-one men (17 non-obese, 20 abdominally obese and 14 reduced obese) and 28 women (12 non-obese, 10 peripherally obese and 6 reduced obese) were subjected to the TSST in fed and fasted states. The TSST response was determined using salivary cortisol measurements. The nutritional status (being fed or fasted) had no effect on the cortisol levels during and following the TSST. Reduced obese men exhibited lower cortisol levels than non-obese men. Cortisol levels in obese men were not different from those of non-obese and reduced obese subjects. In women, there was no significant difference between groups. These finding suggest that weight status in men influences cortisol reactivity to a psychological stress and the different responses seen among genders could be linked to the different fat distributions that characterize men and women. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Status of the RERTR [Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor] program in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorsetti, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Argentine Atomic Energy Commission started in 1978 the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactors in the field of reactor engineering; engineering, development and manufacturing of fuel elements and research reactors operators. This program was initiated with the conviction that it would contribute to the international efforts to reduce risks of nuclear weapons proliferation owing to an uncontrolled use of highly enriched uranium. It was intended to convert RA-3 reactor to make possible its operation with low enriched fuel (LEU), instead of high enriched fuel (HEU) and to develop manufacturing techniques for said LEU. Afterwards, this program was adapted to assist other countries in reactors conversion, development of the corresponding fuel elements and supply of fuel elements to other countries. (Author)

  14. Effectiveness of a Single Education and Counseling Intervention in Reducing Anxiety in Women Undergoing Hysterosalpingography: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo La Fianza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hysterosalpingography (HSG is generally considered a stressful and painful procedure; we aimed to evaluate whether a single education and counseling intervention could reduce women’s distress and pain after undergoing HSG for infertility. Patients were randomized into control group (n=108 and intervention group (n=109. All patients filled the following questionnaires before and after HSG: Zung self-rating anxiety scale (Z-SAS, Zung self-rating depression scale (Z-SDS, and an ad hoc questionnaire designed to evaluate HSG procedure knowledge. Pain was scored using a visual analog scale. The intervention consisted in a 45-minute individualised session 48 h before HSG. We observed a reduction of anxiety and depression scores in the intervention arm compared to the control group. After controlling for potential confounding variables, intervention was an independent predictor of the difference of Z-SAS score before and after HSG. This is the first randomised controlled trial to assess the potential effectiveness of a single education and counseling intervention to lower anxiety in a diagnostic setting.

  15. Effectiveness of a single education and counseling intervention in reducing anxiety in women undergoing hysterosalpingography: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Fianza, Alfredo; Dellafiore, Caterina; Travaini, Daniele; Broglia, Davide; Gambini, Francesca; Scudeller, Luigia; Tinelli, Carmine; Caverzasi, Edgardo; Brondino, Natascia

    2014-01-01

    Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is generally considered a stressful and painful procedure; we aimed to evaluate whether a single education and counseling intervention could reduce women's distress and pain after undergoing HSG for infertility. Patients were randomized into control group (n = 108) and intervention group (n = 109). All patients filled the following questionnaires before and after HSG: Zung self-rating anxiety scale (Z-SAS), Zung self-rating depression scale (Z-SDS), and an ad hoc questionnaire designed to evaluate HSG procedure knowledge. Pain was scored using a visual analog scale. The intervention consisted in a 45-minute individualised session 48 h before HSG. We observed a reduction of anxiety and depression scores in the intervention arm compared to the control group. After controlling for potential confounding variables, intervention was an independent predictor of the difference of Z-SAS score before and after HSG. This is the first randomised controlled trial to assess the potential effectiveness of a single education and counseling intervention to lower anxiety in a diagnostic setting.

  16. Intrapartum tenofovir and emtricitabine reduces low-concentration drug resistance selected by single-dose nevirapine for perinatal HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Benjamin H; Ellis, Giovanina M; Chintu, Namwinga; Cantrell, Ronald A; Sinkala, Moses; Aldrovandi, Grace M; Warrier, Ranjit; Mbewe, Felistas; Nakamura, Kyle; Stringer, Elizabeth M; Frenkel, Lisa M; Stringer, Jeffrey S A

    2009-11-01

    A single dose of tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) during labor significantly reduces peripartum nevirapine-associated viral drug resistance when measured by consensus HIV sequencing. It is unknown whether this effect extends to HIV subpopulations of or = 2% of the viral population, we used an oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) at codons 103, 106, 181, and 190 of HIV reverse transcriptase. To assess development of drug resistance mutations to our study intervention, OLA was also performed at codons 65 and 184. Among the 328 women included in the 2-week analysis, those receiving TDF/FTC were less likely to have NNRTI resistance by OLA (RR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.21-0.77). A similar trend was observed among the 315 women included in the 6-week analysis (RR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.31-0.66). Only two (1%) specimens had detectable K65R by OLA. Both were at 6 weeks postpartum; one was detected in the intervention arm and one in the control arm (p = 0.96). M184V was not detected. The ability of single-dose TDF/FTC to protect against peripartum NVP-induced NNRTI resistance extends to minority populations. This efficacy is achieved without significant selection of TDF- or FTC-resistant viruses.

  17. Consumption of a single serving of red raspberries per day reduces metabolic syndrome parameters in high-fat fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, T; Miranda-Garcia, O; Sasaki, G; Shay, N F

    2017-11-15

    Using an animal model for diet-induced metabolic disease, we have shown previously that the addition of raspberry juice concentrate (RJC) and raspberry puree concentrate (RPC) at a level of 10% of kcal, equivalent to four servings per day, to an obesogenic high-fat, western-style diet (HF) significantly reduced body weight gain, serum resistin levels, and altered the expression of hepatic genes related to lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. This study was designed to examine the effect of a lower level of RJC or RPC consumption, at a level representing a single serving of food per day (2.5% of kcal). For ten weeks, four groups of C57BL/6J mice (n = 8 ea.) were fed: low fat (LF), HF, HF + RJC, or HF + RPC diets. Intake of RJC and RPC decreased final body weight. Hepatic lipid accumulation was significantly decreased in HF + RPC- and HF + RJC-fed mice, compared to HF-fed mice. Further, the relative expression of hepatic genes including Heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) and Hormone sensitive lipase (Lipe), were altered by RPC or RJC consumption. In this mouse model of diet-induced metabolic disease, consumption of the equivalent of a single daily serving of either RPC or RJC improved metabolism in mice fed HF diet. We hypothesize that the phytochemicals contained in raspberries, and/or their subsequent metabolites, may be acting to influence gene expression and other regulatory pathways, to produce the metabolic improvements observed in this study.

  18. Testing the single-pass VOC removal efficiency of an active green wall using methyl ethyl ketone (MEK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpy, Fraser; Clements, Nicholas; Pollinger, Max; Dengel, Andy; Mulvihill, Isaac; He, Chuan; Irga, Peter

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, research into the efficacy of indoor air biofiltration mechanisms, notably living green walls, has become more prevalent. Whilst green walls are often utilised within the built environment for their biophilic effects, there is little evidence demonstrating the efficacy of active green wall biofiltration for the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at concentrations found within an interior environment. The current work describes a novel approach to quantifying the VOC removal effectiveness by an active living green wall, which uses a mechanical system to force air through the substrate and plant foliage. After developing a single-pass efficiency protocol to understand the immediate effects of the system, the active green wall was installed into a 30-m 3 chamber representative of a single room and presented with the contaminant 2-butanone (methyl ethyl ketone; MEK), a VOC commonly found in interior environments through its use in textile and plastic manufacture. Chamber inlet levels of MEK remained steady at 33.91 ± 0.541 ppbv. Utilising a forced-air system to draw the contaminated air through a green wall based on a soil-less growing medium containing activated carbon, the combined effects of substrate media and botanical component within the biofiltration system showed statistically significant VOC reduction, averaging 57% single-pass removal efficiency over multiple test procedures. These results indicate a high level of VOC removal efficiency for the active green wall biofilter tested and provide evidence that active biofiltration may aid in reducing exposure to VOCs in the indoor environment.

  19. Reduced Postvasectomy Semen Analysis Testing With the Implementation of Special Clearance Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniek, Jared M; Fleming, Tyler B; Clark, Joseph Y

    2015-09-01

    To determine the applicability of postvasectomy special clearance parameters (<100,000 nonmotile sperm/mL on semen analysis) suggested by the American Urological Association and to define the associated cost savings with avoidance of further testing. We retrospectively reviewed the cohort of men undergoing vasectomy from December 2009 to August 2012 at a single institution. Patient demographics and postvasectomy semen analysis (PVSA) results were collected for clearance parameter comparisons. During the study period, 230 patients underwent vasectomy with a mean ± SD age of 36.4 ± 6.5 years. Among the cohort, 83.5% were married and 95.2% had one or more children. The initial PVSA was completed by 111 (48.3%) patients at a mean of 17.8 weeks (range 4-45) following vasectomy. Sperm was identified on initial PVSA in 40 patients (36.0%); 1 patient was found to have motile sperm. Of 39 patients, 38 (97.4%) with nonmotile sperm on PVSA could be cleared to cease other contraceptives based on the most recent clearance guidelines. For those completing an initial PVSA, postvasectomy clearance increased from 64.0% to 98.2% representing a potential cost savings of $2356 in repeat semen testing. Postvasectomy contraceptive clearance can be greatly increased when rare nonmotile sperm parameters are included although postvasectomy semen testing compliance remains poor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Summary of Group Development and Testing for Single Shell Tank Closure at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, John, R.

    2005-04-28

    This report is a summary of the bench-scale and large scale experimental studies performed by Savannah River National Laboratory for CH2M HILL to develop grout design mixes for possible use in producing fill materials as a part of Tank Closure of the Single-Shell Tanks at Hanford. The grout development data provided in this report demonstrates that these design mixes will produce fill materials that are ready for use in Hanford single shell tank closure. The purpose of this report is to assess the ability of the proposed grout specifications to meet the current requirements for successful single shell tank closure which will include the contracting of services for construction and operation of a grout batch plant. The research and field experience gained by SRNL in the closure of Tanks 17F and 20F at the Savannah River Site was leveraged into the grout development efforts for Hanford. It is concluded that the three Hanford grout design mixes provide fill materials that meet the current requirements for successful placement. This conclusion is based on the completion of recommended testing using Hanford area materials by the operators of the grout batch plant. This report summarizes the regulatory drivers and the requirements for grout mixes as tank fill material. It is these requirements for both fresh and cured grout properties that drove the development of the grout formulations for the stabilization, structural and capping layers.

  1. Experimental study on the single event effects in pulse width modulators by laser testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wen; Guo Xiaoqiang; Chen Wei; Guo Hongxia; Lin Dongsheng; Luo Yinhong; Ding Lili; Wang Yuanming; Wang Hanning

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents single event effect (SEE) characteristics of UC1845AJ pulse width modulators (PWMs) by laser testing. In combination with analysis to map PWM circuitry in the microchip dies, the typical SEE response waveforms for laser pulses located in different circuit blocks of UC1845AJ are obtained and the SEE mechanisms are analyzed. The laser SEE test results show that there are some differences in the SEE mechanisms of different circuit blocks, and phase shifts or changes in the duty cycles of few output pulses are the main SEE behaviors for UC1845AJ. In addition, a new SEE behavior which manifests as changes in the duty cycles of many output pulses is revealed. This means that an SEE hardened design should be considered. (paper)

  2. Hydrogen gas production is associated with reduced interleukin-1β mRNA in peripheral blood after a single dose of acarbose in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamasawa, Atsuko; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Hariya, Natsuyo; Saito, Miyoko; Ishida, Hidenori; Doguchi, Satako; Yanagiya, Syoko; Osonoi, Takeshi

    2015-09-05

    Acarbose, an α-glucosidase inhibitor, leads to the production of hydrogen gas, which reduces oxidative stress. In this study, we examined the effects of a single dose of acarbose immediately before a test meal on postprandial hydrogen gas in breath and peripheral blood interleukin (IL)-1β mRNA expression in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Sixteen Japanese patients (14 men, 2 women) participated in this study. The mean±standard deviation age, hemoglobin A1c and body mass index were 52.1±15.4 years, 10.2±2.0%, and 27.7±8.0kg/m(2), respectively. The patients were admitted into our hospital for 2 days and underwent test meals at breakfast without (day 1) or with acarbose (day 2). We performed continuous glucose monitoring and measured hydrogen gas levels in breath, and peripheral blood IL-1β mRNA levels before (0min) and after the test meal (hydrogen gas: 60, 120, 180, and 300min; IL-1β: 180min). The induction of hydrogen gas production and the reduction in peripheral blood IL-1β mRNA after the test meal were not significant between days 1 (without acarbose) and 2 (with acarbose). However, the changes in total hydrogen gas production from day 1 to day 2 were closely and inversely associated with the changes in peripheral blood IL-1β mRNA levels. Our results suggest that an increase in hydrogen gas production is inversely associated with a reduction of the peripheral blood IL-1β mRNA level after a single dose of acarbose in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Performance and durability tests of smart icephobic coatings to reduce ice adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjua, Zaid A.; Turnbull, Barbara [Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham (United Kingdom); Choy, Kwang-Leong; Pandis, Christos [Institute for Materials Discovery, University College London (UCL) (United Kingdom); Liu, Junpeng; Hou, Xianghui; Choi, Kwing-So [Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Repeated ice adhesion and removal occurs on nanocoatings. • Icephobicity of nanocoatings reduces with each test cycle. • Adhesion strength linked to contact angle hysteresis in Gaussian fit. • Icephobicity not linked to hydrophobicity. - Abstract: The accretion of ice can cause damage in applications ranging from power lines and shipping decks, to wind turbines and rail infrastructure. In particular on aircraft, it can change aerodynamic characteristics, greatly affecting the flight safety. Commercial aircraft are therefore required to be equipped with de-icing devices, such as heating mats over the wings. The application of icephobic coatings near the leading edge of a wing can in theory reduce the high power requirements of heating mats, which melt ice that forms there. Such coatings are effective in preventing the accretion of runback ice, formed from airborne supercooled droplets, or the water that the heating mats generate as it is sheared back over the wing's upper surface. However, the durability and the practicality of applying them over a large wing surface have been prohibitive factors in deploying this technology so far. Here, we evaluated the ice adhesion strength of four non-conductive coatings and seven thermally conductive coatings by shearing ice samples from coated plates by spinning them in a centrifuge device. The durability of the coating performance was also assessed by repeating the tests, each time regrowing ice samples on the previously-used coatings. Contact angle parameters of each coating were tested for each test to determine influence on ice adhesion strength. The results indicate that contact angle hysteresis is a crucial parameter in determining icephobicity of a coating and hydrophobicity is not necessarily linked to icephobicity.

  4. Evaluation of canine adverse food reactions by patch testing with single proteins, single carbohydrates and commercial foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Cornelia; Mariani, Claire; Mueller, Ralf S

    2017-10-01

    Adverse food reaction (AFR) is an important differential diagnosis for the pruritic dog. It is usually diagnosed by feeding an elimination diet with a novel protein and carbohydrate source for eight weeks followed by subsequent food provocation. A previous study demonstrated that patch testing dogs with foods had a high sensitivity and negative predictability for selection of elimination diet ingredients. The aim of this study was to investigate patch testing with proteins, carbohydrates and dry commercial dog food in dogs to determine whether there was value in patch testing to aid the diagnosis of canine adverse food reaction. Twenty five privately owned dogs, with confirmed AFR, underwent provocation trials with selected food antigens and patch testing. For proteins, carbohydrates and dry dog food the sensitivity of patch testing was 100%, 70% and 22.2%, respectively; the negative predictive values of patch testing were 100%, 79% and 72%. The positive predictive values of patch testing for proteins and carbohydrates were 75% and 74%, respectively. This study confirmed that patch testing may be useful for the selection of a suitable protein source for an elimination diet in dogs with suspected AFR, but not as a diagnostic tool for canine AFR. Results for proteins are more reliable than for carbohydrates and the majority of positive patch test reactions were observed with raw protein. Patch testing with commercial dog food does not seem to be useful. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  5. Design of a single-borehole hydraulic test programme allowing for interpretation-based errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J.H.

    1987-07-01

    Hydraulic testing using packers in single boreholes is one of the most important sources of data to safety assessment modelling in connection with the disposal of radioactive waste. It is also one of the most time-consuming and expensive. It is important that the results are as reliable as possible and as accurate as necessary for the use that is made of them. There are many causes of possible error and inaccuracy ranging from poor field practice to inappropriate interpretation procedure. The report examines and attempts to quantify the size of error arising from the accidental use of an inappropriate or inadequate interpretation procedure. In doing so, it can be seen which interpretation procedure or combination of procedures results in least error. Lastly, the report attempts to use the previous conclusions from interpretation to propose forms of field test procedure where interpretation-based errors will be minimised. Hydraulic tests (sometimes known as packer tests) come in three basic forms: slug/pulse, constant flow and constant head. They have different characteristics, some measuring a variable volume of rock (dependent on hydraulic conductivity) and some having a variable duration (dependent on hydraulic conductivity). A combination of different tests in the same interval is seen as desirable. For the purposes of assessing interpretation-based errors, slug and pulse tests are considered together as are constant flow and constant head tests. The same method is used in each case to assess errors. The method assumes that the simplest analysis procedure (cylindrical flow in homogeneous isotropic porous rock) will be used on each set of field data. The error is assessed by calculating synthetic data for alternative configurations (e.g. fissured rock, anisotropic rock, inhomogeneous rock - i.e. skin - etc.) and then analyzing this data using the simplest analysis procedure. 28 refs., 26 figs

  6. Reducing the energy requirements of quench protection heaters for SSC dipoles -- Test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddock, C.; Kuzminski, J.; Orris, D.; Mazur, P.

    1993-04-01

    Design considerations and first test results of quench protection heaters for Superconducting Collider (SSC) collider dipole magnets have been presented in earlier papers. The heaters have been shown to fully protect the magnet against excessive peak temperature which would represent damage to the superconducting coil. Installation and operation of the heaters does not place the magnet at any increased risk of failure, since the energy densities applied are relatively low (∼1J/cm 2 ) and the construction technique was made as simple as possible. The energy required by the heaters in order to protect the magnet is considerably larger than that amount estimated during the planning of the collider ring protection scheme. Therefore, three tong magnets following the Accelerator Systems Sizing Test (ASST) construction series at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory were made available for quench protection heater ''R ampersand D'' studies. All of the ASST series magnets deliberately kept the high energy requirement heaters for the purpose of commonality for the string test. This paper describes the results of the ''R ampersand D'' heater tests and the amount of energy reduction achieved. It is shown that it has been possible to reduce the heater energy requirement to a value below therefore potentially save collider cost

  7. Reducing blood volume requirements for clinical pathology testing in toxicologic studies-points to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitout-Belissent, Florence; Aulbach, Adam; Tripathi, Niraj; Ramaiah, Lila

    2016-12-01

    In preclinical safety assessment, blood volume requirements for various endpoints pose a major challenge. The goal of this working group was to review current practices for clinical pathology (CP) testing in preclinical toxicologic studies, and to discuss advantages and disadvantages of methods for reducing blood volume requirements. An industry-wide survey was conducted to gather information on CP instrumentation and blood collection practices for hematology, clinical biochemistry, and coagulation evaluation in laboratory animals involved in preclinical studies. Based on the survey results and collective experience of the authors, the working group proposes the following "points to consider" for CP testing: (1) For most commercial analyzers, 0.5 mL and 0.8 mL of whole blood are sufficient for hematology and biochemistry evaluation, respectively. (2) Small analyzers with low volume requirements and low throughput have limited utility in preclinical studies. (3) Sample pooling or dilution is inappropriate for many CP methods. (4) Appropriate collection sites should be determined based on blood volume requirements and technical expertise. (5) Microsampling does not provide sufficient volume given current analyzer and quality assurance requirements. (6) Study design considerations include: the use of older/larger animals (rodents), collection of CP samples before toxicokinetic samples, use of separate subsets of mice for hematology and clinical biochemistry testing, use of a priority list for clinical biochemistry, and when possible, eliminating coagulation testing. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  8. A single hot event stimulates adult performance but reduces egg survival in the oriental fruit moth, Grapholitha molesta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li-Na; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Gang; Hoffmann, Ary A; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2014-01-01

    Climate warming is expected to increase the exposure of insects to hot events (involving a few hours at extreme high temperatures). These events are unlikely to cause widespread mortality but may modify population dynamics via impacting life history traits such as adult fecundity and egg hatching. These effects and their potential impact on population predictions are still largely unknown. In this study, we simulated a single hot event (maximum of 38°C lasting for 4 h) of a magnitude increasingly found under field conditions and examined its effect in the oriental fruit moth, Grapholitha molesta. This hot event had no impact on the survival of G. molesta adults, copulation periods or male longevity. However, the event increased female lifespan and the length of the oviposition period, leading to a potential increase in lifetime fecundity and suggesting hormesis. In contrast, exposure of males to this event markedly reduced the net reproductive value. Male heat treatment delayed the onset of oviposition in the females they mated with, as well as causing a decrease in the duration of oviposition period and lifetime fecundity. Both male and female stress also reduced egg hatch. Our findings of hormetic effects on female performance but concurrent detrimental effects on egg hatch suggest that hot events have unpredictable consequences on the population dynamics of this pest species with implications for likely effects associated with climate warming.

  9. A single hot event stimulates adult performance but reduces egg survival in the oriental fruit moth, Grapholitha molesta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Na Liang

    Full Text Available Climate warming is expected to increase the exposure of insects to hot events (involving a few hours at extreme high temperatures. These events are unlikely to cause widespread mortality but may modify population dynamics via impacting life history traits such as adult fecundity and egg hatching. These effects and their potential impact on population predictions are still largely unknown. In this study, we simulated a single hot event (maximum of 38°C lasting for 4 h of a magnitude increasingly found under field conditions and examined its effect in the oriental fruit moth, Grapholitha molesta. This hot event had no impact on the survival of G. molesta adults, copulation periods or male longevity. However, the event increased female lifespan and the length of the oviposition period, leading to a potential increase in lifetime fecundity and suggesting hormesis. In contrast, exposure of males to this event markedly reduced the net reproductive value. Male heat treatment delayed the onset of oviposition in the females they mated with, as well as causing a decrease in the duration of oviposition period and lifetime fecundity. Both male and female stress also reduced egg hatch. Our findings of hormetic effects on female performance but concurrent detrimental effects on egg hatch suggest that hot events have unpredictable consequences on the population dynamics of this pest species with implications for likely effects associated with climate warming.

  10. A Single Hot Event Stimulates Adult Performance but Reduces Egg Survival in the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholitha molesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Gang; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2014-01-01

    Climate warming is expected to increase the exposure of insects to hot events (involving a few hours at extreme high temperatures). These events are unlikely to cause widespread mortality but may modify population dynamics via impacting life history traits such as adult fecundity and egg hatching. These effects and their potential impact on population predictions are still largely unknown. In this study, we simulated a single hot event (maximum of 38°C lasting for 4 h) of a magnitude increasingly found under field conditions and examined its effect in the oriental fruit moth, Grapholitha molesta. This hot event had no impact on the survival of G. molesta adults, copulation periods or male longevity. However, the event increased female lifespan and the length of the oviposition period, leading to a potential increase in lifetime fecundity and suggesting hormesis. In contrast, exposure of males to this event markedly reduced the net reproductive value. Male heat treatment delayed the onset of oviposition in the females they mated with, as well as causing a decrease in the duration of oviposition period and lifetime fecundity. Both male and female stress also reduced egg hatch. Our findings of hormetic effects on female performance but concurrent detrimental effects on egg hatch suggest that hot events have unpredictable consequences on the population dynamics of this pest species with implications for likely effects associated with climate warming. PMID:25551751

  11. Reducing the Effect of Transducer Mount Induced Noise on Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel Testing Data with a New Transducer Mount Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, A. J.; Reed, D. K.; Nance, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of launch vehicle unsteady aerodynamics is a field best studied through experimentation, which is often carried out in the form of large scale wind tunnel testing. Measurement of the fluctuating pressures induced by the boundary layer noise is customarily made with miniature pressure transducers installed into a model of the vehicle of interest. Literature shows that noise level increases between two to five decibels (dB referenced to 20 micropascal) can be induced when the transducer surface is not mounted perfectly flush with the model outer surface. To reduce this artificially induced noise, special transducer holders have been used for aeroacoustic wind tunnel testing by NASA. This holder is a sleeve into which the transducer fits, with a cap that allows it to be mounted in a recessed hole in the model. A single hole in the holder allows the transport of the tunnel medium so the transducer can discriminate the fluctuating pressure due to the turbulent boundary layer noise. The holder is first dry fitted into the model and any difference in height between the holder and the model surface can be sanded flush. The holder is then removed from the model, the transducer glued inside the holder, and the holder replaced in the model, secured also with glue, thus eliminating the problem of noise level increases due to lack of flushness. In order to work with this holder design, special transducers have been ordered with their standard screen removed and the diaphragm moved as close to the top of the casing as possible to minimize any cavity volume. Although this greatly reduces induced noise due to the transducers being out of flush, the holders can also induce a cavity resonance that is usually at a very high frequency. This noise is termed transducer mount induced noise (XMIN). The peak of the mode can vary with the cavity depth, boundary layer noise that can excite the mode, tunnel flow medium, and the build of the transducers. Because the boundary

  12. Travel demand management : a toolbox of strategies to reduce single\\0x2010occupant vehicle trips and increase alternate mode usage in Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The report provides a suite of recommended strategies to reduce single-occupant vehicle traffic in the urban : areas of Phoenix and Tucson, Arizona, which are presented as a travel demand management toolbox. The : toolbox includes supporting research...

  13. SRAM single event upset calculation and test using protons in the secondary beam in the BEPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yuanming; Guo Hongxia; Zhang Fengqi; Zhang Keying; Chen Wei; Luo Yinhong; Guo Xiaoqiang, E-mail: wangym2007@gmail.com [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China)

    2011-09-15

    The protons in the secondary beam in the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC) are first analyzed and a large proportion at the energy of 50-100 MeV supply a source gap of high energy protons. In this study, the proton energy spectrum of the secondary beam was obtained and a model for calculating the proton single event upset (SEU) cross section of a static random access memory (SRAM) cell has been presented in the BEPC secondary beam proton radiation environment. The proton SEU cross section for different characteristic dimensions has been calculated. The test of SRAM SEU cross sections has been designed, and a good linear relation between SEUs in SRAM and the fluence was found, which is evidence that an SEU has taken place in the SRAM. The SEU cross sections were measured in SRAM with different dimensions. The test result shows that the SEU cross section per bit will decrease with the decrease of the characteristic dimensions of the device, while the total SEU cross section still increases upon the increase of device capacity. The test data accords with the calculation results, so the high-energy proton SEU test on the proton beam in the BEPC secondary beam could be conducted. (semiconductor physics)

  14. Aerobic and Anaerobic Swimming Force Evaluation in One Single Test Session for Young Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros Sousa, Filipe Antônio; Rodrigues, Natalia Almeida; Messias, Leonardo Henrique Dalcheco; Queiroz, Jair Borges; Manchado-Gobatto, Fulvia Barros; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to propose and validate the tethered swimming lactate minimum test (TSLacmin) estimating aerobic and anaerobic capacity in one single test session, using force as measurement parameter. 6 male and 6 female young swimmers (age=15.7±1.1 years; height=173.3±9.5 cm; weight=66.1±9.5 kg) performed 4 sessions comprising i) an all-out 30 s test and incremental test (TSLacmin); ii) 30 min of tethered swimming at constant intensity (2 sessions); iii) free-swimming time trials used to calculate critical velocity. Tethered swimming sessions used an acquisition system enabling maximum (Fmax) and mean (Fmean) force measurement and intensity variation. The tethered all-out test lasting 30 s resulted in hyperlactatemia of 7.9±2.0 mmol·l -1 . TSLacmin presented a 100% success applicability rate, which is equivalent to aerobic capacity in 75% of cases. TSLacmin intensity was 37.7±7.3 N, while maximum force in the all-out test was 105±27 N. Aerobic and anaerobic TSLacmin parameters were significantly related to free-swimming performance (r=-0.67 for 100 m and r=-0.80 for 200 m) and critical velocity (r=0.80). TSLacmin estimates aerobic capacity in most cases, and both aerobic and anaerobic force parameters are well related to critical velocity and free swimming performance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Inhibition of TRPM8 channels reduces pain in the cold pressor test in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Wendy J; Gore, Katrina; Glatt, Sophie; Petit, Wendy; Gardiner, Jennifer C; Conlon, Kelly; Postlethwaite, Michael; Saintot, Pierre-Philippe; Roberts, Sonia; Gosset, James R; Matsuura, Tomomi; Andrews, Mark D; Glossop, Paul A; Palmer, Michael J; Clear, Nicola; Collins, Susie; Beaumont, Kevin; Reynolds, David S

    2014-11-01

    The transient receptor potential (subfamily M, member 8; TRPM8) is a nonselective cation channel localized in primary sensory neurons, and is a candidate for cold thermosensing, mediation of cold pain, and bladder overactivity. Studies with TRPM8 knockout mice and selective TRPM8 channel blockers demonstrate a lack of cold sensitivity and reduced cold pain in various rodent models. Furthermore, TRPM8 blockers significantly lower body temperature. We have identified a moderately potent (IC50 = 103 nM), selective TRPM8 antagonist, PF-05105679 [(R)-3-[(1-(4-fluorophenyl)ethyl)(quinolin-3-ylcarbonyl)amino]methylbenzoic acid]. It demonstrated activity in vivo in the guinea pig bladder ice water and menthol challenge tests with an IC50 of 200 nM and reduced core body temperature in the rat (at concentrations >1219 nM). PF-05105679 was suitable for acute administration to humans and was evaluated for effects on core body temperature and experimentally induced cold pain, using the cold pressor test. Unbound plasma concentrations greater than the IC50 were achieved with 600- and 900-mg doses. The compound displayed a significant inhibition of pain in the cold pressor test, with efficacy equivalent to oxycodone (20 mg) at 1.5 hours postdose. No effect on core body temperature was observed. An unexpected adverse event (hot feeling) was reported, predominantly periorally, in 23 and 36% of volunteers (600- and 900-mg dose, respectively), which in two volunteers was nontolerable. In conclusion, this study supports a role for TRPM8 in acute cold pain signaling at doses that do not cause hypothermia. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  16. Performance and durability tests of smart icephobic coatings to reduce ice adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, Zaid A.; Turnbull, Barbara; Choy, Kwang-Leong; Pandis, Christos; Liu, Junpeng; Hou, Xianghui; Choi, Kwing-So

    2017-06-01

    The accretion of ice can cause damage in applications ranging from power lines and shipping decks, to wind turbines and rail infrastructure. In particular on aircraft, it can change aerodynamic characteristics, greatly affecting the flight safety. Commercial aircraft are therefore required to be equipped with de-icing devices, such as heating mats over the wings. The application of icephobic coatings near the leading edge of a wing can in theory reduce the high power requirements of heating mats, which melt ice that forms there. Such coatings are effective in preventing the accretion of runback ice, formed from airborne supercooled droplets, or the water that the heating mats generate as it is sheared back over the wing's upper surface. However, the durability and the practicality of applying them over a large wing surface have been prohibitive factors in deploying this technology so far. Here, we evaluated the ice adhesion strength of four non-conductive coatings and seven thermally conductive coatings by shearing ice samples from coated plates by spinning them in a centrifuge device. The durability of the coating performance was also assessed by repeating the tests, each time regrowing ice samples on the previously-used coatings. Contact angle parameters of each coating were tested for each test to determine influence on ice adhesion strength. The results indicate that contact angle hysteresis is a crucial parameter in determining icephobicity of a coating and hydrophobicity is not necessarily linked to icephobicity.

  17. [A standard questionnaire to reduce the routine battery of preoperative tests for elective surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Ruiz, María Fernanda; Cárdenas-Lailson, Luis Eduardo; Quiróz-Villegas, Martha Esthela; Bravo-León, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Preoperative medical testing in the United States is estimated at $3,000,000 USD per year. In an attempt to reduce this cost, some key points have been described with the purpose of promoting appropriate preoperative measurements with an adequate costObjective: To evaluate the utility of a preoperative standardized questionnaire in adult patients prior to elective surgery to detect which patients could be operated without laboratory testing. An observational, prospective and analytic study was carried out. The questionnaire has been applied to 176 patients, all adults scheduled for elective surgery from April 2011 to March 2012. There were 57.4% females and 42.6% males. Ages varied between 18 and 85 years old, with a median of 46 years; 40.3% of the patients were > 50 years old and 59.7% were < 50 years old. The negative predictive value of the questionnaire is 95.88% (CI 95.34-96.42%). This questionnaire is a useful instrument to determinate the necessity of preoperative laboratory testing in young, clinical healthy and elective surgery patients in a general hospital.

  18. Single-well push-pull test in transient Forchheimer flow field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanrong; Zhan, Hongbin; Wang, Yanxin

    2017-06-01

    Using the single-well push-pull (SWPP) test to quantify in situ aquifer characteristics associated with solute transport (dispersion coefficient, geobiochemical reaction rates), the accuracy of parameter estimation was not only dependent on the solute transport models but also the groundwater flow models. However, many previous studies on the SWPP test were based on assumptions over-simplifying the flow field, namely, groundwater flow followed Darcy's law; flow was in the steady state during the entire test duration; the wellbore storage could be negligible. In this study, we have carefully examined such assumptions by developing a new finite-difference model of the SWPP test under the transient Forchheimer flow condition, considering the wellbore storage. The SWPP test included an injection phase, a chaser phase, a rest phase, and an extraction phase. The results showed that the concentration of the steady-state flow solution was greater than that of the transient flow solution at the beginning, and its peak value was also greater than that of the transient flow solution. The difference between the breakthrough curves (BTCs) of the transient flow SWPP model and the steady-state flow SWPP model was not negligible, and such a difference increased with the decreasing specific storage. We also found that BTCs were not sensitive to the inertial force coefficient, while they were sensitive to the wellbore storage. BTCs with different radius of the wellbore (rw) were clearly different from each other, and a larger rw resulted in a greater concentration at the well during the extraction phase.

  19. Crash tests of four identical high-wing single-engine airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, V. L., Jr.; Hayduk, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Four identical four place, high wing, single engine airplane specimens with nominal masses of 1043 kg were crash tested at the Langley Impact Dynamics Research Facility under controlled free flight conditions. These tests were conducted with nominal velocities of 25 m/sec along the flight path angles, ground contact pitch angles, and roll angles. Three of the airplane specimens were crashed on a concrete surface; one was crashed on soil. Crash tests revealed that on a hard landing, the main landing gear absorbed about twice the energy for which the gear was designed but sprang back, tending to tip the airplane up to its nose. On concrete surfaces, the airplane impacted and remained in the impact attitude. On soil, the airplane flipped over on its back. The crash impact on the nose of the airplane, whether on soil or concrete, caused massive structural crushing of the forward fuselage. The liveable volume was maintained in both the hard landing and the nose down specimens but was not maintained in the roll impact and nose down on soil specimens.

  20. Additive Manufacturing Thermal Performance Testing of Single Channel GRCop-84 SLM Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Chance P.; Cross, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The surface finish found on components manufactured by sinter laser manufacturing (SLM) is rougher (0.013 - 0.0006 inches) than parts made using traditional fabrication methods. Internal features and passages built into SLM components do not readily allow for roughness reduction processes. Alternatively, engineering literature suggests that the roughness of a surface can enhance thermal performance within a pressure drop regime. To further investigate the thermal performance of SLM fabricated pieces, several GRCop-84 SLM single channel components were tested using a thermal conduction rig at MSFC. A 20 kW power source running at 25% duty cycle and 25% power level applied heat to each component while varying water flow rates between 2.1 - 6.2 gallons/min (GPM) at a supply pressure of 550 to 700 psi. Each test was allowed to reach quasi-steady state conditions where pressure, temperature, and thermal imaging data were recorded. Presented in this work are the heat transfer responses compared to a traditional machined OHFC Copper test section. An analytical thermal model was constructed to anchor theoretical models with the empirical data.

  1. A single sample GnRHa stimulation test in the diagnosis of precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdani Parvin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH has been the standard test for diagnosing central precocious puberty. Because GnRH is no longer available, GnRH analogues (GnRHa are now used. Random LH concentration, measured by the third-generation immunochemiluminometric assay, is a useful screening tool for central precocious puberty. However, GnRHa stimulation test should be considered, when a basal LH measurement is inconclusive. However optimal sampling times for luteinizing hormone (LH have yet to be established. Purpose To determine the appropriate sampling time for LH post leuprolide challenge. Methods A retrospective analysis of multi-sample GnRHa stimulation tests performed in 155 children (aged 1–9 years referred for precocious puberty to Texas Children’s Hospital. After 20 mcg/kg of SQ leuprolide acetate, samples were obtained at 0, 1, 3, and 6 hours. Results Of 71 children with clinical evidence of central precocious puberty, fifty nine children had a peak LH >5 mIU/mL. 52 (88% of these responders had positive responses at 1 hour (95% CI is 80–96%, whereas all 59 children (100% had a peak LH response >5 mIU/mL at 3 hours (95% CI is 94-100%, P = 0.005. Conclusions A single serum LH sample collected 3 hours post GnRHa challenge is the optimal sample to establish the diagnosis of central precocious puberty.

  2. First indirect x-ray imaging tests with an 88-mm diameter single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A. H. [Fermilab; Macrander, A. T. [Argonne

    2017-02-01

    Using the 1-BM-C beamline at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), we have performed the initial indirect x - ray imaging point-spread-function (PSF) test of a unique 88-mm diameter YAG:Ce single crystal of only 100 - micron thickness. The crystal was bonded to a fiber optic plat e (FOP) for mechanical support and to allow the option for FO coupling to a large format camera. This configuration resolution was compared to that of self - supported 25-mm diameter crystals, with and without an Al reflective coating. An upstream monochromator was used to select 17-keV x-rays from the broadband APS bending magnet source of synchrotron radiation. The upstream , adjustable Mo collimators were then used to provide a series of x-ray source transverse sizes from 200 microns down to about 15-20 microns (FWHM) at the crystal surface. The emitted scintillator radiation was in this case lens coupled to the ANDOR Neo sCMOS camera, and the indirect x-ray images were processed offline by a MATLAB - based image processing program. Based on single Gaussian peak fits to the x-ray image projected profiles, we observed a 10.5 micron PSF. This sample thus exhibited superior spatial resolution to standard P43 polycrystalline phosphors of the same thickness which would have about a 100-micron PSF. Lastly, this single crystal resolution combined with the 88-mm diameter makes it a candidate to support future x-ray diffraction or wafer topography experiments.

  3. NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) Single Event Effects (SEE) Test Guideline Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie D.; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2018-01-01

    The following are updated or new subjects added to the FPGA SEE Test Guidelines manual: academic versus mission specific device evaluation, single event latch-up (SEL) test and analysis, SEE response visibility enhancement during radiation testing, mitigation evaluation (embedded and user-implemented), unreliable design and its affects to SEE Data, testing flushable architectures versus non-flushable architectures, intellectual property core (IP Core) test and evaluation (addresses embedded and user-inserted), heavy-ion energy and linear energy transfer (LET) selection, proton versus heavy-ion testing, fault injection, mean fluence to failure analysis, and mission specific system-level single event upset (SEU) response prediction. Most sections within the guidelines manual provide information regarding best practices for test structure and test system development. The scope of this manual addresses academic versus mission specific device evaluation and visibility enhancement in IP Core testing.

  4. TestMeEast: a campaign to increase HIV testing in hospitals and to reduce late diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, R; O'Connell, R; Lascar, M; Ferrand, R; Strachan, S; Matin, N; Bassnet, I; Orkin, C

    2016-01-01

    Late diagnosis occurs in almost half of those diagnosed in the UK (HIV Prevention England, 2013. Retrieved June 22, 2014, from HIV Prevention England: http://www.hivpreventionengland.org.uk/Campaigns-Current/National-HIV-Testing-Week ). Testing occurs mainly in sexual health and antenatal clinics despite recommendations to test more broadly [Ellis, S., & Curtis, H. (2012). HIV diagnoses and missed opportunities. Results of the British HIV association (BHIVA) National Audit 2010. Clinical Medicine, 12(5), 430-434]. We report the findings of an HIV-testing week campaign to offer testing to those who have blood tests as part of routine care within outpatient clinics and emergency departments of six London hospitals. The campaign target was to test 500 patients a day during the 2013 National HIV Testing Week (NHTW). Clinic staff and medical students were trained to offer routine HIV testing. Linkage to care was arranged for those who tested HIV-positive. During NHTW we tested 2402 of the planned 2500 test target. 2402/4317 (55.6% 95% CI 54.1-57.1%) of those who had routine blood tests were tested for HIV. There were eight HIV-positive tests; three were new diagnoses (all linked to care). The campaign hashtag #TestMeEast achieved a total Twitter "reach" of 238, 860 and the campaign had widespread news coverage. Our campaign showed that staff and students could be trained and mobilised to do thousands of routine HIV tests during a campaign.

  5. Test of a single module of the J-PET scanner based on plastic scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskal, P.; Niedźwiecki, Sz.; Bednarski, T.; Czerwiński, E.; Kapłon, Ł.; Kubicz, E.; Moskal, I.; Pawlik-Niedźwiecka, M.; Sharma, N. G.; Silarski, M.; Zieliński, M.; Zoń, N.; Białas, P.; Gajos, A.; Kochanowski, A.; Korcyl, G.; Kowal, J.; Kowalski, P.; Kozik, T.; Krzemień, W.; Molenda, M.; Pałka, M.; Raczyński, L.; Rudy, Z.; Salabura, P.; Słomski, A.; Smyrski, J.; Strzelecki, A.; Wieczorek, A.; Wiślicki, W.

    2014-11-01

    A Time of Flight Positron Emission Tomography scanner based on plastic scintillators is being developed at the Jagiellonian University by the J-PET collaboration. The main challenge of the conducted research lies in the elaboration of a method allowing application of plastic scintillators for the detection of low energy gamma quanta. In this paper we report on tests of a single detection module built out from the BC-420 plastic scintillator strip (with dimensions of 5×19×300 mm3) read out at two ends by Hamamatsu R5320 photomultipliers. The measurements were performed using collimated beam of annihilation quanta from the 68Ge isotope and applying the Serial Data Analyzer (Lecroy SDA6000A) which enabled sampling of signals with 50 ps intervals. The time resolution of the prototype module was established to be better than 80 ps (σ) for a single level discrimination. The spatial resolution of the determination of the hit position along the strip was determined to be about 0.93 cm (σ) for the annihilation quanta. The fractional energy resolution for the energy E deposited by the annihilation quanta via the Compton scattering amounts to σ(E) / E ≈ 0.044 /√{ E(MeV) } and corresponds to the σ(E) / E of 7.5% at the Compton edge.

  6. Approach avoidance training in the eating domain: testing the effectiveness across three single session studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniela; Jostmann, Nils B; Wiers, Reinout W; Holland, Rob W

    2015-02-01

    Dual-process models propose that impulsive behavior plays a key role in the development and maintenance of maladaptive eating patterns. Research outside the eating domain suggests that approach avoidance training, a paradigm which aims to modify automatic behavioral dispositions toward critical stimuli, is an effective tool to weaken unhealthy impulses. The present research tested the effectiveness of approach avoidance training in the eating domain. We conducted three single session studies with varying methodologies in a normal-weight female student population (total N = 258), in which one group was always trained to avoid pictures of unhealthy food and to approach pictures of healthy food or neutral objects. We found no conclusive evidence that approach avoidance training can change participants' implicit and explicit food preferences and eating behavior. We discuss the potential and the limitations of approach avoidance training in the eating domain and provide suggestions for future research avenues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Red wine is less stress reducing than vodka; no differences in neuroendocrine challenge test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, N; Peatfield, R; Glover, V

    1997-01-01

    Red wine, like the drugs reserpine and fenfluramine, causes the release of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) from storage sites in vitro. This study used a neuroendocrine challenge test design to determine whether the parallel between red wine and these drugs can be extended to central actions in healthy volunteers. Vodka diluted to an equal alcohol content was used as a control. No significant differences were observed between the groups in plasma cortisol, plasma prolactin or in temperature levels. Thus no evidence was obtained for a central 5-HT releasing action by red wine. Self-rating stress and arousal questionnaires were also given. No differences were found in arousal. However whereas vodka had a clear effect in reducing stress, red wine did not. This suggests that red wine does have psychoactive properties independent of its alcohol effects.

  8. Compendium of Single-Event Latchup and Total Ionizing Dose Test Results of Commercial Analog to Digital Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irom, Farokh; Agarwal, Shri G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports single-event latchup and total dose results for a variety of analog to digital converters targeted for possible use in NASA spacecraft's. The compendium covers devices tested over the last 15 years.

  9. Single test isolated lupus anticoagulant positivity is associated with increased plasma levels of inflammatory markers and dyslipidemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, S A; Nybo, M; Laustrup, H

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a single positive test for lupus anticoagulant (LA) is associated with levels of inflammatory markers and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, independent of autoimmune disease, thrombophilia and occurrence of other antiphospholipid antibodies. METHODS: In a ...

  10. Single-well tracer push-pull test sensitivity w. r. to fracture aperture and spacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghergut, I.; Behrens, H.; Karmakar, S.; Sauter, M.

    2012-04-01

    Dealing with a parallel-fracture system of infinite lateral extension, four characteristic regimes of tracer signal sensitivity w. r. to fracture aperture and w. r. to fracture spacing s (whose reciprocal defines fracture density, or the fluid-rock interface area per volume) can be identified during the pull phase of a single-well push-pull test, also depending upon the ratio between push-phase duration Tpush and a characteristic time scale Ts (defined by s2 / D = Ts , with D denoting the tracer's effective diffusion coefficient): early-time regime: tracer signals are sensitive w. r. to fracture aperture, but insensitive w. r. to fracture spacing; sensitivity w. r. to fracture aperture first increases, then decreases with Tpush / Ts (thus there will be an optimum in terms of to Tpush / Ts , at early pull times); mid-time regime: tracer signals are sensitive w. r. to fracture spacing, but insensitive w. r. to fracture aperture; sensitivity w. r. to fracture spacing increases with Tpush / Ts ; late-time regime: with increasing pull duration, tracer signals become increasingly insensitive w. r. to fracture spacing, while regaining sensitivity w. r. to fracture aperture; 'very late'-time regime: sensitivity w. r. to fracture aperture becomes independent upon Tpush / Ts . From these different regimes, some recommendations can be derived regarding the design and dimensioning of dual-tracer single-well push-pull tests for the specific purposes of geothermal reservoir characterization, using conservative solutes and heat as tracers. Acknowledgement: This study is funded by MWK Niedersachsen (Lower-Saxony's Science and Culture Ministry) and by Baker Hughes (Celle) within task unit 'G6' of the Collaborative Research Project 'gebo' (Geothermal Energy and High-Performance Drilling).

  11. Usability Testing of the BRANCH Smartphone App Designed to Reduce Harmful Drinking in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milward, Joanna; Deluca, Paolo; Drummond, Colin; Watson, Rod; Dunne, Jacklyn; Kimergård, Andreas

    2017-08-08

    Electronic screening and brief intervention (eSBI) apps demonstrate potential to reduce harmful drinking. However, low user engagement rates with eSBI reduce overall effectiveness of interventions. As "Digital Natives," young adults have high expectations of app quality. Ensuring that the design, content, and functionality of an eSBI app are acceptable to young adults is an integral stage to the development process. The objective of this study was to identify usability barriers and enablers for an app, BRANCH, targeting harmful drinking in young adults. The BRANCH app contains a drinking diary, alcohol reduction goal setting functions, normative drinking feedback, and information on risks and advice for cutting down. The app includes a social feature personalized to motivate cutting down and to promote engagement with a point-based system for usage. Three focus groups were conducted with 20 users who had tested the app for 1 week. A detailed thematic analysis was undertaken. The first theme, "Functionality" referred to how users wanted an easy-to-use interface, with minimum required user-input. Poor functionality was considered a major usability barrier. The second theme, "Design" described how an aesthetic with minimum text, clearly distinguishable tabs and buttons and appealing infographics was integral to the level of usability. The final theme, "Content" described how participants wanted all aspects of the app to be automatically personalized to them, as well as providing them with opportunities to personalize the app themselves, with increased options for social connectivity. There are high demands for apps such as BRANCH that target skilled technology users including young adults. Key areas to optimize eSBI app development that emerged from testing BRANCH with representative users include high-quality functionality, appealing aesthetics, and improved personalization. ©Joanna Milward, Paolo Deluca, Colin Drummond, Rod Watson, Jacklyn Dunne, Andreas Kimerg

  12. Definition of Capabilities Needed for a Single Event Effects Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemer, Bernie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Gallmeier, Franz X. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    2014-12-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is contemplating new regulations mandating testing of the vulnerability of flight-critical avionics to single event effects (SEE). A limited number of high-energy neutron test facilities currently serve the SEE industrial and institutional research community. The FAA recognizes that existing facilities have insufficient test capacity to meet new demand from such mandates; it desires more flexible irradiation capabilities to test complete, large systems and would like capabilities to address greater concerns for thermal neutrons. For this reason, the FAA funded this study by Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) staff with the ultimate aim of developing options for SEE test facilities using high-energy neutrons at the SNS complex. After an investigation of current SEE test practices and assessment of future testing requirements, three concepts were identified covering a range of test functionality, neutron flux levels, and fidelity to the atmospheric neutron spectrum. The costs and times required to complete each facility were also estimated. SEE testing is generally performed by accelerating the event rate to a point where the effects are still dominated by single events and double event causes of failures are negligible. In practice, acceleration factors of as high as 106 are applicable for component testing, whereas for systems testing acceleration factors of 104 seem to be the upper limit. It is strongly desirable that the irradiation facility be tunable over a large range of high-energy neutron fluxes of 102 - 104 n/cm²/s for systems testing and from 104 - 107 n/cm²/s for components testing. The most capable, most flexible, and highest-test-capacity option is a new stand-alone target station named the High-Energy neutron Test Station (HETS). It is also the most expensive option, with a cost to complete of approximately $100 million. Dual test enclosures would

  13. Proceedings of the 1990 International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    The global effort to reduce, and possibly, eliminate the international traffic in highly-enriched uranium caused by its use in research reactors requires extensive cooperation and free exchange of information among all participants. To foster this free exchange of information, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at Argonne National Laboratory, sponsored this meeting as the thirteenth of a series which began in 1978. The common effort brought together, past, a large number of specialists from many countries. On hundred twenty-three participants from 26 countries, including scientists, reactor operators, and personnel from commercial fuel suppliers, research centers, and government organizations, convened in Newport, Rhode Island to discuss their results, their activities, and their plans relative to converting research reactors to low-enriched fuels. As more and more reactors convert to the use of low-enriched uranium, the emphasis of our effort has begun to shift from research and development to tasks more directly related to implementation of the new fuels and technologies that have been developed, and to refinements of those fuels and technologies. It is appropriate, for this reason, that the emphasis of this meeting was placed on safety and on conversion experiences. This individual papers in this report have been cataloged separately.

  14. Proceedings of the 1990 International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The global effort to reduce, and possibly, eliminate the international traffic in highly-enriched uranium caused by its use in research reactors requires extensive cooperation and free exchange of information among all participants. To foster this free exchange of information, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at Argonne National Laboratory, sponsored this meeting as the thirteenth of a series which began in 1978. The common effort brought together, past, a large number of specialists from many countries. On hundred twenty-three participants from 26 countries, including scientists, reactor operators, and personnel from commercial fuel suppliers, research centers, and government organizations, convened in Newport, Rhode Island to discuss their results, their activities, and their plans relative to converting research reactors to low-enriched fuels. As more and more reactors convert to the use of low-enriched uranium, the emphasis of our effort has begun to shift from research and development to tasks more directly related to implementation of the new fuels and technologies that have been developed, and to refinements of those fuels and technologies. It is appropriate, for this reason, that the emphasis of this meeting was placed on safety and on conversion experiences. This individual papers in this report have been cataloged separately

  15. Evidence that implementation intentions reduce drivers' speeding behavior: testing a new intervention to change driver behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Sarah E; Elliott, Mark A; Kelly, Steve W

    2015-01-01

    Implementation intentions have the potential to break unwanted habits and help individuals behave in line with their goal intentions. We tested the effects of implementation intentions in the context of drivers' speeding behavior. A randomized controlled design was used. Speeding behavior, goal intentions and theoretically derived motivational pre-cursors of goal intentions were measured at both baseline and follow-up (one month later) using self-report questionnaires. Immediately following the baseline questionnaire, the experimental (intervention) group (N=117) specified implementation intentions using a volitional help sheet, which required the participants to link critical situations in which they were tempted to speed with goal-directed responses to resist the temptation. The control group (N=126) instead received general information about the risks of speeding. In support of the hypotheses, the experimental group reported exceeding the speed limit significantly less often at follow-up than did the control group. This effect was specific to 'inclined abstainers' (i.e., participants who reported speeding more than they intended to at baseline and were therefore motivated to reduce their speeding) and could not be attributed to any changes in goal intentions to speed or any other measured motivational construct. Also in line with the hypotheses, implementation intentions attenuated the past-subsequent speeding behavior relationship and augmented the goal intention - subsequent speeding behavior relationship. The findings imply that implementation intentions are effective at reducing speeding and that they do so by weakening the effect of habit, thereby helping drivers to behave in accordance with their existing goal intentions. The volitional help sheet used in this study is an effective tool for promoting implementation intentions to reduce speeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Single-Event Effect Testing of the Cree C4D40120D Commercial 1200V Silicon Carbide Schottky Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, J.-M.; Casey, M. C.; Wilcox, E. P.; Kim, Hak; Topper, A. D.

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the single event effect (SEE) susceptibility of the commercial silicon carbide 1200V Schottky diode manufactured by Cree, Inc. Heavy-ion testing was conducted at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron Single Event Effects Test Facility (TAMU). Its purpose was to evaluate this device as a candidate for use in the Solar-Electric Propulsion flight project.

  17. Conditioning geostatistical simulations of a bedrock fluvial aquifer using single well pumping tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, A.; Bentley, L. R.; Hayashi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Geostatistical simulation is a powerful tool to explore the uncertainty associated with heterogeneity in groundwater and reservoir studies. Nonetheless, conditioning simulations merely with lithological information does not utilize all of the available information and so some workers additionally condition simulations with flow data. In this study, we introduce an approach to condition geostatistical simulations of the Paskapoo Formation, which is a paleo-fluvial system consisting of sandstone channels embedded in mudstone. The conditioning data consist of two-hour single well pumping tests extracted from the public water well database in Alberta, Canada. In this approach, lithologic models of an entire watershed are simulated and conditioned with hard lithological data using transition probability geostatistics (TPROGS). Then, a segment of the simulation around a pumping well was used to populate a flow model (FEFLOW) with either sand or mudstone. The values of the hydraulic conductivity and specific storage of sand and mudstone were then adjusted to minimize the difference between simulated and actual pumping test data using the parameter estimation program PEST. If the simulated data do not adequately match the measured data, the lithologic model is updated by locally deforming the lithology distribution using the probability perturbation method (PPM) and the model parameters are again updated with PEST. This procedure is repeated until the simulated and measured data agree within a pre-determined tolerance. The procedure is repeated for each pumping well that has pumping test data. The method constrains the lithological simulations and provides estimates of hydraulic conductivity and specific storage that are consistent with the pumping test data. Eventually, the simulations will be combined in watershed scale groundwater models.

  18. Results of single borehole hydraulic tests in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory project. FY 2012 - FY 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoe, Hironori; Takeuchi, Ryuji

    2016-11-01

    This report summarize the results of the single borehole hydraulic tests of 151 sections carried out at the -300 m Stage and the -500 m Stage of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory from FY 2012 to FY 2015. The details of each test (test interval depth, geology, etc.) as well as the interpreted hydraulic parameters and analytical methods used are presented in this report. Furthermore, the previous results of the single borehole hydraulic tests carried out in the Regional Hydrogeological Study Project and the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory Project before FY 2012 are also summarized in this report. (author)

  19. Incubation of ethanol reinstatement depends on test conditions and how ethanol consumption is reduced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Brett C.; Lamb, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    In reinstatement studies (a common preclinical procedure for studying relapse), incubation occurs (longer abstinence periods result in more responding). This finding is discordant with the clinical literature. Identifying determinants of incubation could aid in interpreting reinstatement and identifying processes involved in relapse. Reinstated responding was examined in rats trained to respond for ethanol and food under a multiple concurrent schedule (Component 1: ethanol FR5, food FR150; Component 2: ethanol FR5, food FR5–alternating across the 30-min session). Ethanol consumption was then reduced for 1 or 16 sessions either by suspending training (rats remained in home cage) or by providing alternative reinforcement (only Component 2 stimuli and contingencies were presented throughout the session). In the next session, stimuli associated with Component 1 were presented and responses recorded but ethanol and food were never delivered. Two test conditions were studied: fixed-ratio completion either produced ethanol- or food-associated stimuli (signaled) or had no programmed consequence (unsignaled). Incubation of ethanol responding was observed only after suspended training during signaled test sessions. Incubation of food responding was also observed after suspended training. These results are most consistent with incubation resulting from a degradation of feedback functions limiting extinction responding, rather than an increased motivation. PMID:25595114

  20. A Single-Electron Reducing Quinone Oxidoreductase Is Necessary to Induce Haustorium Development in the Root Parasitic Plant Triphysaria[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaranayake, Pradeepa C.G.; Filappova, Tatiana; Tomilov, Alexey; Tomilova, Natalya B.; Jamison-McClung, Denneal; Ngo, Quy; Inoue, Kentaro; Yoder, John I.

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic plants in the Orobanchaceae develop haustoria in response to contact with host roots or chemical haustoria-inducing factors. Experiments in this manuscript test the hypothesis that quinolic-inducing factors activate haustorium development via a signal mechanism initiated by redox cycling between quinone and hydroquinone states. Two cDNAs were previously isolated from roots of the parasitic plant Triphysaria versicolor that encode distinct quinone oxidoreductases. QR1 encodes a single-electron reducing NADPH quinone oxidoreductase similar to ζ-crystallin. The QR2 enzyme catalyzes two electron reductions typical of xenobiotic detoxification. QR1 and QR2 transcripts are upregulated in a primary response to chemical-inducing factors, but only QR1 was upregulated in response to host roots. RNA interference technology was used to reduce QR1 and QR2 transcripts in Triphysaria roots that were evaluated for their ability to form haustoria. There was a significant decrease in haustorium development in roots silenced for QR1 but not in roots silenced for QR2. The infrequent QR1 transgenic roots that did develop haustoria had levels of QR1 similar to those of nontransgenic roots. These experiments implicate QR1 as one of the earliest genes on the haustorium signal transduction pathway, encoding a quinone oxidoreductase necessary for the redox bioactivation of haustorial inducing factors. PMID:20424175

  1. ASSERT validation against the Stern Laboratories' single-phase pressure drop tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddington, G.M.; Kiteley, J.C.; Carver, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the preliminary validation of ASSERT-IV against the single-phase pressure drop tests from the 37-element CHF (critical heat flux) experiments conducted at Stern Laboratories, and shows how this study fits into the overall ASSERT validation plan. The effects on the pressure drop of several friction and form loss models are evaluated, including the geometry-based K-factor model. The choice of friction factor has a small effect on the predicted channel pressure drop, compared to the form loss model choice. Using the uniform K-factors of Hameed, the computed pressure drops are in excellent agreement with the experimental results from the nominal pressure tube tests. For future ASSERT applications, either Hameed's uniform K-factors or the geometry-based model using Idelchik's thick-edged orifice equation are recommended, as are the friction factor correlations of Colebrook-White, Selander, and Aly and Groeneveld. More analysis of the geometry-based K-factor model is required. (author). 23 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs

  2. Creep lifing methodologies applied to a single crystal superalloy by use of small scale test techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffs, S.P., E-mail: s.p.jeffs@swansea.ac.uk [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Singleton Park SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Lancaster, R.J. [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Singleton Park SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Garcia, T.E. [IUTA (University Institute of Industrial Technology of Asturias), University of Oviedo, Edificio Departamental Oeste 7.1.17, Campus Universitario, 33203 Gijón (Spain)

    2015-06-11

    In recent years, advances in creep data interpretation have been achieved either by modified Monkman–Grant relationships or through the more contemporary Wilshire equations, which offer the opportunity of predicting long term behaviour extrapolated from short term results. Long term lifing techniques prove extremely useful in creep dominated applications, such as in the power generation industry and in particular nuclear where large static loads are applied, equally a reduction in lead time for new alloy implementation within the industry is critical. The latter requirement brings about the utilisation of the small punch (SP) creep test, a widely recognised approach for obtaining useful mechanical property information from limited material volumes, as is typically the case with novel alloy development and for any in-situ mechanical testing that may be required. The ability to correlate SP creep results with uniaxial data is vital when considering the benefits of the technique. As such an equation has been developed, known as the k{sub SP} method, which has been proven to be an effective tool across several material systems. The current work now explores the application of the aforementioned empirical approaches to correlate small punch creep data obtained on a single crystal superalloy over a range of elevated temperatures. Finite element modelling through ABAQUS software based on the uniaxial creep data has also been implemented to characterise the SP deformation and help corroborate the experimental results.

  3. Estimating transmissivity from single-well pumping tests in heterogeneous aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechstein, Armin; Attinger, Sabine; Krieg, Ronald; Copty, Nadim K.

    2016-01-01

    Although aquifers are naturally heterogeneous, the interpretation of pumping tests is commonly performed under the assumption of aquifer homogeneity. This yields interpreted hydraulic parameters averaged over a domain of uncertain extent which disguises their relation to the underlying heterogeneity. In this study, we numerically investigate the sensitivity of the transient drawdown at the pumping well, to nonuniform distributions of transmissivity in confined aquifers. Frechet kernels and their time derivative are used to estimate two spatially averaged transmissivities, denoted the equivalent and interpreted transmissivity, Teq and Tin, respectively, for the case of single-well pumping tests. Interrelating Teq and Tin is achieved by modeling Tin in terms of a distance dependent, radially heterogeneous field. In weakly heterogeneous aquifers, Teq approximates TPW, the local transmissivity at the pumped well. With increasing degree of heterogeneity, Teq deviates from TPW as pumping propagates. Tin starts at TPW, approaching the spatial geometric mean of transmissivity during late pumping times. Limits of the proposed spatial weighting functions are investigated by treating the interpreted storativity, Sest, as an indicator for flow connectivity. It is shown numerically that the spatial weights for Teq and Tin agree well to the underlying heterogeneity if . Finally, implications for applying the concepts of Teq and Tin to heterogeneous domains, and, for real world applications are discussed. It is found that time-dependent spatial averages of Tin agree well with estimates of the interpreted transmissivity from the Continuous-Derivation method.

  4. The predictive validity of a single leg bridge test for hamstring injuries in Australian Rules Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckleton, Grant; Cook, Jill; Pizzari, Tania

    2014-04-01

    Hamstring muscle strain injuries (HMSI) are the greatest injury problem in kicking sports such as Australian Rules Football. Reduced hamstring muscle strength is commonly perceived to be a risk factor for hamstring injury; however, evidence is inconclusive. Testing hamstring strength with the hip and knee at functional angles and assessing endurance parameters may be more relevant for examining the risk of hamstring injury. The primary aim of this prospective study was to examine if reduced hamstring muscle strength assessed with the single leg hamstring bridge (SLHB) was a risk factor for hamstring injury. Hamstring muscle strength of 482 amateur and semielite players from 16 football clubs, mean age 20.7 (range 16-34 years), was tested during the 2011 preseason. Players were then monitored throughout the 2011 playing season for HMSI. A total of 28 hamstring injuries, 16 right and 12 left, were recorded. Players who sustained a right HMSI during the season had a significantly lower mean right SLHB score (p=0.029), were older (p=0.002) and were more likely to have sustained a past right hamstring injury (p=0.02) or right knee injury (p=0.035). For left-sided hamstring injury, the injured group was more likely to be left leg dominant (p=0.001), older athletes (p=0.002) and there was a trend towards a history of left hamstring injury (p=0.07). This study demonstrated a significant deficit in preseason SLHB scores on the right leg of players that subsequently sustained a right-sided hamstring injury. Age, previous knee injury and a history of hamstring injury were other risk factors supported in this study. Low hamstring strength appears to be a risk factor for hamstring injury; however, due to the confounding variables and low injury rate in this study, further studies are required.

  5. A discrete Single Delay Model for the Intra-Venous Glucose Tolerance Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panunzi Simona

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the increasing importance of identifying insulin resistance, a need exists to have a reliable mathematical model representing the glucose/insulin control system. Such a model should be simple enough to allow precise estimation of insulin sensitivity on a single patient, yet exhibit stable dynamics and reproduce accepted physiological behavior. Results A new, discrete Single Delay Model (SDM of the glucose/insulin system is proposed, applicable to Intra-Venous Glucose Tolerance Tests (IVGTTs as well as to multiple injection and infusion schemes, which is fitted to both glucose and insulin observations simultaneously. The SDM is stable around baseline equilibrium values and has positive bounded solutions at all times. Applying a similar definition as for the Minimal Model (MM SI index, insulin sensitivity is directly represented by the free parameter KxgI of the SDM. In order to assess the reliability of Insulin Sensitivity determinations, both SDM and MM have been fitted to 40 IVGTTs from healthy volunteers. Precision of all parameter estimates is better with the SDM: 40 out of 40 subjects showed identifiable (CV xgI from the SDM, 20 out of 40 having identifiable SI from the MM. KxgI correlates well with the inverse of the HOMA-IR index, while SI correlates only when excluding five subjects with extreme SI values. With the exception of these five subjects, the SDM and MM derived indices correlate very well (r = 0.93. Conclusion The SDM is theoretically sound and practically robust, and can routinely be considered for the determination of insulin sensitivity from the IVGTT. Free software for estimating the SDM parameters is available.

  6. The RERTR [Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor] program: A progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travelli, A.

    1986-11-01

    The progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is described. After a brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program, in collaboration with its many international partners, had achieved by the end of 1985, the activities, results, and new developments which occurred in 1986 are reviewed. The second miniplate series, concentrating on U 3 Si 2 -Al and U 3 Si-Al fuels, was expanded and its irradiation continued. Postirradiation examinations of several of these miniplates and of six previously irradiated U 3 Si 2 -Al full-size elements were completed with excellent results. The whole-core ORR demonstration with U 3 Si 2 -Al fuel at 4.8 g U/cm 3 is well under way and due for completion before the end of 1987. DOE removed an important barrier to conversions by announcing that the new LEU fuels will be accepted for reprocessing. New DOE prices for enrichment and reprocessing services were calculated to have minimal effect on HEU reactors, and to reduce by about 8 to 10% the total fuel cycle costs of LEU reactors. New program activities include preliminary feasibility studies of LEU use in DOE reactors, evaluation of the feasibility to use LEU targets for the production of fission-product 99 Mo, and responsibility for coordinating safety evaluations related to LEU conversions of US university reactors, as required by NRC. Achievement of the final program goals is projected for 1990. This progress could not have been achieved without close international cooperation, whose continuation and intensification are essential to the achievement of the ultimate goals of the RERTR Program

  7. Intrapartum single-dose carbamazepine reduces nevirapine levels faster and may decrease resistance after a single dose of nevirapine for perinatal HIV prevention.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muro, E.P.; Fillekes, Q.; Kisanga, E.R.; L'homme, R.F.A.; Aitken, S.C.; Mariki, G.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Dolmans, W.M.V.; Schuurman, R.; Walker, A.S.; Gibb, D.M.; Burger, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: World Health Organization guidelines recommend zidovudine + lamivudine for 7 days from labor onset in HIV-infected women receiving single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) to cover prolonged subtherapeutic nevirapine concentrations. Although effective, this is complicated and does not eliminate

  8. Analysis of Thrombophilia Test Ordering Practices at an Academic Center: A Proposal for Appropriate Testing to Reduce Harm and Cost.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Min Shen

    Full Text Available Ideally, thrombophilia testing should be tailored to the type of thrombotic event without the influence of anticoagulation therapy or acute phase effects which can give false positive results that may result in long term anticoagulation. However, thrombophilia testing is often performed routinely in unselected patients. We analyzed all consecutive thrombophilia testing orders during the months of October and November 2009 at an academic teaching institution. Information was extracted from electronic medical records for the following: indication, timing, comprehensiveness of tests, anticoagulation therapy at the time of testing, and confirmatory repeat testing, if any. Based on the findings of this analysis, we established local guidelines in May 2013 for appropriate thrombophilia testing, primarily to prevent testing during the acute thrombotic event or while the patient is on anticoagulation. We then evaluated ordering practices 22 months after guideline implementation. One hundred seventy-three patients were included in the study. Only 34% (58/173 had appropriate indications (unprovoked venous or arterial thrombosis or pregnancy losses. 51% (61/119 with an index clinical event were tested within one week of the event. Although 46% (79/173 were found to have abnormal results, only 46% of these had the abnormal tests repeated for confirmation with 54% potentially carrying a wrong diagnosis with long term anticoagulation. Twenty-two months after guideline implementation, there was an 84% reduction in ordered tests. Thus, this study revealed that a significant proportion of thrombophilia testing was inappropriately performed. We implemented local guidelines for thrombophilia testing for clinicians, resulting in a reduction in healthcare costs and improved patient care.

  9. Single-step brazing process for mono-block joints and mechanical testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casalegno, V.; Ferraris, M.; Salvo, M.; Rizzo, S.; Merola, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Plasma facing components act as actively cooled thermal shields to sustain thermal and particle loads during normal and transient operations in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). The plasma-facing layer is referred to as 'armour', which is made of either carbon fibre reinforced carbon composite (CFC) or tungsten (W). CFC is the reference design solution for the lower part of the vertical target of the ITER divertor. The armour is joined onto an actively cooled substrate, the heat sink, made of precipitation hardened copper alloy CuCrZr through a thin pure copper interlayer to decrease, by plastic deformation, the joint interface stresses; in fact, the CFC to Cu joint is affected by the CTE mismatch between the ceramic and metallic material. A new method of joining CFC to copper and CFC/Cu to CuCrZr alloy was effectively developed for the flat-type configuration; the feasibility of this process also for mono-block geometry and the development of a procedure for testing mono-block-type mock-ups is described in this work. The mono-block configuration consists of copper alloy pipe shielded by CFC blocks. It is worth noting that in mono-block configuration, the large thermal expansion mismatch between CFC and copper alloy is more significant than for flat-tile configuration, due to curved interfaces. The joining technique foresees a single-step brazing process: the brazing of the three materials (CFC-Cu-CuCrZr) can be performed in a single heat treatment using the same Cu/Ge based braze. The composite surface was modified by solid state reaction with chromium with the purpose of increasing the wettability of CFC by the brazing alloy. The CFC substrate reacts with Cr which, forming a carbide layer, allows a large reduction of the contact angle; then, the brazing of CFC to pure copper and pure copper to CuCrZr by the same treatment is feasible. This process allows to obtain good joints using a non-active brazing

  10. Setting Passing Scores on Passage-Based Tests: A Comparison of Traditional and Single-Passage Bookmark Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaggs, Gary; Hein, Serge F.; Awuor, Risper

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a variation of the bookmark standard setting procedure for passage-based tests is proposed in which separate ordered item booklets are created for the items associated with each passage. This variation is compared to the traditional bookmark procedure for a fifth-grade reading test. The results showed that the single-passage…

  11. Reliability of Single-Leg Balance and Landing Tests in Rugby Union; Prospect of Using Postural Control to Monitor Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan C. Troester, Jason G. Jasmin, Rob Duffield

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the inter-trial (within test and inter-test (between test reliability of single-leg balance and single-leg landing measures performed on a force plate in professional rugby union players using commercially available software (SpartaMARS, Menlo Park, USA. Twenty-four players undertook test – re-test measures on two occasions (7 days apart on the first training day of two respective pre-season weeks following 48h rest and similar weekly training loads. Two 20s single-leg balance trials were performed on a force plate with eyes closed. Three single-leg landing trials were performed by jumping off two feet and landing on one foot in the middle of a force plate 1m from the starting position. Single-leg balance results demonstrated acceptable inter-trial reliability (ICC = 0.60-0.81, CV = 11-13% for sway velocity, anterior-posterior sway velocity, and mediolateral sway velocity variables. Acceptable inter-test reliability (ICC = 0.61-0.89, CV = 7-13% was evident for all variables except mediolateral sway velocity on the dominant leg (ICC = 0.41, CV = 15%. Single-leg landing results only demonstrated acceptable inter-trial reliability for force based measures of relative peak landing force and impulse (ICC = 0.54-0.72, CV = 9-15%. Inter-test results indicate improved reliability through the averaging of three trials with force based measures again demonstrating acceptable reliability (ICC = 0.58-0.71, CV = 7-14%. Of the variables investigated here, total sway velocity and relative landing impulse are the most reliable measures of single-leg balance and landing performance, respectively. These measures should be considered for monitoring potential changes in postural control in professional rugby union.

  12. CHARACTERIZATION TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF SINGLE CELL SO2 DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimke, J; Timothy Steeper, T

    2006-09-15

    This document reports work performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that further develops the use of a proton exchange membrane or PEM-type electrochemical cell to produce hydrogen via SO{sub 2}-depolarized water electrolysis. This work was begun at SRNL in 2005. This research is valuable in achieving the ultimate goal of an economical hydrogen production process based on the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Cycle. The HyS Process is a hybrid thermochemical cycle that may be used in conjunction with advanced nuclear reactors or centralized solar receivers to produce hydrogen by water-splitting. Like all other sulfur-based cycles, HyS utilizes the high temperature thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid to produce oxygen. The unique aspect of HyS is the generation of hydrogen in a water electrolyzer that is operated under conditions where dissolved sulfur dioxide depolarizes the anodic reaction, resulting in substantial voltage reduction. Sulfur dioxide is oxidized at the anode, producing sulfuric acid that is sent to the acid decomposition portion of the cycle. The focus of this work was to conduct single cell electrolyzer tests in order to prove the concept of SO{sub 2}-depolarization and to determine how the results can be used to evaluate the performance of key components of the HyS Process. A test facility for conducting SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) testing was designed, constructed and commissioned. The maximum cell current is 50 amperes, which is equivalent to a hydrogen production rate of approximately 20 liters per hour. Feed to the anode of the electrolyzer is sulfuric acid solutions containing dissolved sulfur dioxide. The partial pressure of sulfur dioxide may be varied in the range of 1 to 6 atm (15 to 90 psia). Temperatures may be controlled in the range from ambient to 80 C. Hydrogen generated at the cathode of the cell is collected for the purpose of flow measurement and composition analysis. The test facility proved to be easy to

  13. Single well injection withdrawal tests (SWIW) in fractured rock. Some aspects on interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neretnieks, Ivars [Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-08-15

    Single-Well-Injection-Withdrawal, SWIW, tests are used to try to extract information on fracture apertures, sorption and diffusion properties and dispersion information in individual fractures. It is done by injecting a given amount of traced water into an isolated fracture. After a waiting period water is withdrawn from the fracture and the tracer concentration is measured. The concentration time curve is fitted to a model and the parameter values quantifying the different interaction mechanisms are determined. A number of different mechanisms influence the recovery of the tracer. One or more of the following mechanisms are considered. They include: dispersion due to velocity differences, sorption on fracture surface and on infill, diffusion in rock fragments in the fracture, diffusion between 'streamlines', diffusion into rock matrix and other stagnant water volumes, sorption kinetics and slow drift of the plume caused by the natural gradient. Many of the interaction mechanisms can influence the recovery curve in a similar way. For example, diffusion into rock matrix water and into stagnant water in the fracture adjacent to the flowing channels cannot be distinguished if only one tracer is used. Tracers with different properties can in principle be used but they will encounter different parts of the fracture, the sorbing tracer will move out less from the injection point than a nonsorbing tracer will. Diffusion and sorption in small particles in the flowpath can influence the recovery curve in a similar way as rock matrix diffusion does. Dispersion caused by diffusion between 'streamlines', Taylor dispersion, can give very different results in channels of different shapes. Such dispersion effects can be difficult to distinguish from matrix diffusion effects. Dispersion coefficients obtained in a SWIW test may have little relation to dispersion of a tracer moving from A to B. This is partly due to the different mechanisms and partly due to

  14. Single well injection withdrawal tests (SWIW) in fractured rock. Some aspects on interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretnieks, Ivars

    2007-08-01

    Single-Well-Injection-Withdrawal, SWIW, tests are used to try to extract information on fracture apertures, sorption and diffusion properties and dispersion information in individual fractures. It is done by injecting a given amount of traced water into an isolated fracture. After a waiting period water is withdrawn from the fracture and the tracer concentration is measured. The concentration time curve is fitted to a model and the parameter values quantifying the different interaction mechanisms are determined. A number of different mechanisms influence the recovery of the tracer. One or more of the following mechanisms are considered. They include: dispersion due to velocity differences, sorption on fracture surface and on infill, diffusion in rock fragments in the fracture, diffusion between 'streamlines', diffusion into rock matrix and other stagnant water volumes, sorption kinetics and slow drift of the plume caused by the natural gradient. Many of the interaction mechanisms can influence the recovery curve in a similar way. For example, diffusion into rock matrix water and into stagnant water in the fracture adjacent to the flowing channels cannot be distinguished if only one tracer is used. Tracers with different properties can in principle be used but they will encounter different parts of the fracture, the sorbing tracer will move out less from the injection point than a nonsorbing tracer will. Diffusion and sorption in small particles in the flowpath can influence the recovery curve in a similar way as rock matrix diffusion does. Dispersion caused by diffusion between 'streamlines', Taylor dispersion, can give very different results in channels of different shapes. Such dispersion effects can be difficult to distinguish from matrix diffusion effects. Dispersion coefficients obtained in a SWIW test may have little relation to dispersion of a tracer moving from A to B. This is partly due to the different mechanisms and partly due to different time scales

  15. Single-Event Latchup Testing of the Micrel MIC4424 Dual Power MOSFET Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellish, J. A.; Boutte, A.; Kim, H.; Phan, A.; Topper, A.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted 47 exposures of four different MIC4424 devices and did not observe any SEL or high-current events. This included worst-case conditions with a LET of 81 MeV-sq cm/mg, applied voltage of 18.5 V, a case temperature greater than 120 C, and a final fluence of 1x10(exp 7)/sq cm. We also monitored both the outputs for the presence of SETs. While the period of the 1 MHz square wave was slightly altered in some cases, no pulses were added or deleted. 1. Purpose: The purpose of this testing is to characterize the BiCMOS/DMOS Micrel MIC4424 dual, non-inverting MOSFET driver for single-event latchup (SEL) susceptibility. These data will be used for flight lot evaluation purposes. 2. Devices Tested: The MIC4423/4424/4425 family are highly reliable BiCMOS/DMOS buffer/driver MOSFET drivers. They are higher output current versions of the MIC4426/4427/4428. They can survive up to 5V of noise spiking, of either polarity, on the ground pin. They can accept, without either damage or logic upset, up to half an amp of reverse current (either polarity) forced back into their outputs. Primarily intended for driving power MOSFETs, the MIC4423/4424/4425 drivers are suitable for driving other loads (capacitive, resistive, or inductive) which require low-impedance, high peak currents, and fast switching times. Heavily loaded clock lines, coaxial cables, or piezoelectric transducers are some examples. The only known limitation on loading is that total power dissipated in the driver must be kept within the maximum power dissipation limits of the package. Five (5) parts were provided for SEL testing. We prepared four parts for irradiation and reserved one piece as an un-irradiated control. More information about the devices can be found in Table 1. The parts were prepared for testing by removing the lid from the CDIP package to expose the target die. The parts were then soldered to small copper circuit adapter boards for easy handling. These parts are fabricated in a bulk Bi

  16. Leishmaniasis direct agglutination test: using pictorials as training materials to reduce inter-reader variability and improve accuracy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily R Adams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Direct Agglutination Test (DAT has a high diagnostic accuracy and remains, in some geographical areas, part of the diagnostic algorithm for Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL. However, subjective interpretation of results introduces potential for inter-reader variation. We report an assessment of inter-laboratory agreement and propose a pictorial-based approach to standardize reading of the DAT. METHODOLOGY: In preparation for a comparative evaluation of immunochromatographic diagnostics for VL, a proficiency panel of 15 well-characterized sera, DAT-antigen from a single batch and common protocol was sent to nine laboratories in Latin-America, East-Africa and Asia. Agreement (i.e., equal titre or within 1 titer with the reading by the reference laboratory was computed. Due to significant inter-laboratory disagreement on-site refresher training was provided to all technicians performing DAT. Photos of training plates were made, and end-titres agreed upon by experienced users of DAT within the Visceral-Leishmaniasis Laboratory-Network (VL-LN. RESULTS: Pre-training, concordance in DAT results with reference laboratories was only 50%, although agreement on negative sera was high (94%. After refresher training concordance increased to 84%; agreement on negative controls increased to 98%. Variance in readings significantly decreased after training from 3.3 titres to an average of 1.0 titre (two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney test (z = -3,624 and p = 0.0003. CONCLUSION: The most probable explanation for disagreement was subjective endpoint reading. Using pictorials as training materials may be a useful tool to reduce disparity in results and promote more standardized reading of DAT, without compromising diagnostic sensitivity.

  17. Does a Negative Triple Test Reduce the Rate of Negative Appendectomy in Adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud F. Sakr

    2012-08-01

    Results: Sixty-seven patients (65.9% were female and 35 (34.1% were male. Their ages ranged between 16 and 49 years (mean 27.5 years. Most patients (87.3% had their symptoms for 12-36 hours before hospital admission. The mean values for TLC, NP, and CRP were 7,573/ and micro;L, 54.53%, and 0.61 mg/L, respectively. Of the 102 patients with NTT, 101 (99% proved not to have appendiceal inflammation (NPV=99%. Only 39 patients were operated upon, of whom 38 (97.4% had a normal appendix, and the remaining 63 patients were either discharged (n=47 or referred to other specialties (n=16. There were significantly more women (76.3%, 29/38 with negative appendectomy than men (24.7%, 9/38 (X2= 21.1, p=0.0001. Gynecological causes were the most common (60.5%, 23/38 and in 11 cases, the exact etiology could not be identified. Conclusions: From the data presented, it may be concluded that TLC, NP and CRP blood levels (triple test should be measured upon hospital admission of adult patients with clinically suspected acute appendicitis. If used judiciously, they may spare the group of patients with an NTT an unnecessary surgical operation, hence markedly reducing the NAR with its potential risks. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(4.000: 229-236

  18. Proceedings of the international meeting on development, fabrication and application of reduced enrichment fuels for research and test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the papers presented in the following areas: (1) Reduced Enrichment Fuels for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program Status; (2) Fuel Development; (3) Fuel Demonstrations; (4) General Topics; and (5) Specific Reactor Applications

  19. Single-well reactive tracer test and stable isotope analysis for determination of microbial activity in a fast hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbery, L; Cassiani, G; Andreotti, G; Ricchiuto, T; Semple, K T

    2004-05-01

    Single-well reactive tracer tests, such as the push-pull test are useful tools for characterising in-situ bioattenuation processes in contaminated aquifers. However, the analytical models that are used to interpret push-pull data may be over-simplified, and potentially overlook important processes responsible for the frequent discrepancy between predicted and observed results obtained from push-pull tests. In this study, the limitations underlying the push-pull test methodology were investigated and were supported with results from a push-pull test conducted in a sulphate-reducing aquifer contaminated by crude oil. Poor (20% mass recoveries were achieved. Push-pull test data collected from sulphate-reducing aquifers indicate that the assumption of a well-mixed batch reactor system is incorrect and that reaction rates obtained from push-pull tests in such systems may be affected by the extraction regime implemented. Evidence of microbial respiration of the reactive tracer was provided by stable sulphur isotope analysis, from which an isotope fractionation factor of +9.9 +/- 8.1 per thousand was estimated. The stable isotope data support the argument that reaction rates calculated using push-pull tests are not uniformly distributed in space and time and are likely to be influenced by heterogeneities in the flow field.

  20. Happy eating: the single target implicit association test predicts overeating after positive emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Peggy; Jansen, Anita; Houben, Katrijn; Roefs, Anne

    2013-08-01

    For many years, questionnaires have been considered the standard when examining emotional eating behavior. However, recently, some controversy has arisen about these questionnaires, and their usefulness in identifying emotional eaters has been questioned. The current study aimed to investigate the Single Target Implicit Association Test (ST-IAT) as a measure of emotional eating. Two ST-IATs (assessing food-positive and food-negative associations respectively) and the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) were compared in undergraduate students. A positive, negative or neutral mood was induced by means of a film clip, and milkshake consumption was measured during and after the mood induction. It was hypothesized that participants with strong emotion-food associations on the ST-IATs (i.e., IAT-emotional eaters) would consume more food in the emotion induction condition corresponding to that emotion, as compared to those with weak emotion-food associations as well as to those in the neutral condition. Participants who scored high on both the positive and negative ST-IATs ate more during a positive mood induction than during a negative mood induction. This effect did not extend to milkshake consumption after the mood induction procedure. In addition, IAT-positive emotional eaters consumed more food than IAT-non-emotional eaters. No effects of the DEBQ on milkshake consumption were found. It is concluded that the ST-IAT has potential as a measure of emotional eating. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. THE DESIGN, FABRICATION AND PRELIMINARY TESTING OF AN INDIGENOUS SINGLE SCREW EXTRUDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FOLASAYO T. FAYOSE

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries including Nigeria have become dumping grounds of unserviceable and broken down imported machineries because of poor adaptation. Detailed study and design of machines to suit local conditions will prevent poor adaptation of imported machines and high initial costs. In this study, a single screw starch extruder was designed, fabricated and tested using locally available materials. The extruder is the dry type and it has 27.12 kg/s capacity, a compression ratio of 4.5: 1 and is powered by a 5.5 kW electric motor. It consists of a hopper, feeding screw, extruder screw rotating in a barrel and variable die, all made of stainless steel. A unit of the machine costs N 470, 390.00.00 as at April 2015. When used to process cassava flour, a maximum temperature of 114°C was attained through viscous dissipation, up to an actual screw speed of 98.96 rpm (1.65 Hz and extruder efficiency of 64%. Barrel temperature varied directly with extrusion time in a polynomial trend while actual extruder screw speed and efficiency varied inversely with extrusion time and it is best fitted with a polynomial trend.

  2. Electrical resistivity monitoring of the single heater test in Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.

    1997-10-01

    Of the several thermal, mechanical and hydrological measurements being used to monitor the rockmass response in the Single Heater Test, electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is being used to monitor the movement of liquid water with a special interest in the movement of condensate out of the system. Images of resistivity change were calculated using data collected before, during and after the heating episode. This report will concentrate on the results obtained after heating ceased; previous reports discuss the results obtained during the heating phase. The changes recovered show a region of increasing resistivity approximately centered around the heater as the rock mass cooled. The size of this region grows with time and the resistivity increases become stronger. The increases in resistivity are caused by both temperature and saturation changes. The Waxman Smits model has been used to calculate rock saturation after accounting for temperature effects. The saturation estimates suggest that during the heating phase, a region of drying forms around the heater. During the cooling phase, the dry region has remained relatively stable. Wetter rock regions which developed below the heater during the heating phase, are slowly becoming smaller in size during the cooling phase. The last set of images indicate that some rewetting of the dry zone may be occurring. The accuracy of the saturation estimates depends on several factors that are only partly understood

  3. Preparation, characterization and single cell testing of new ionic conducting polymers for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano, P. G.; del Río y, C.; Acosta, J. L.

    In this work, heterogeneous sulfonation and both, structural and electrical characterization of a mixture composed on block copolymer ionomers (HSBS and EPDM) and commercial silica, are studied. The incorporation of sulfonic groups was checked by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR). Microstructure was studied by means of dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Also, water uptake and methanol crossover were determined, and the results were compared with those of Nafion ® 117. Electrical behavior was recorded by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) at different hydration times. Results show that sulfonation of the styrene rings has effectively occurred. Conductivity values are similar to Nafion and they improve with hydration time. Methanol crossover is lower than in Nafion. Finally, a single complete proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) as a whole was tested obtaining the polarization and power curves at different temperatures and pressures, and modeling it by an electrical equivalent circuit (EC) in the symmetrical mode (SM) configuration using the EIS technique. This study offers a physical interpretation relating physical parameters to several processes occurring in the system. Power density values are higher than in Nafion.

  4. Single-crate stand-alone CAMAC control system for a negative ion source test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juras, R.C.; Ziegler, N.F.

    1979-01-01

    A single-crate CAMAC system was configured to control a negative ion source development facility at ORNL and control software was written for the crate microcomputer. The software uses inputs from a touch panel and a shaft encoder to control the various operating parameters of the test facility and uses the touch panel to display the operating status. Communication to and from the equipment at ion source potential is accomplished over optical fibers from an ORNL-built CAMAC module. A receiver at ion source potential stores the transmitted data and some of these stored values are then used to control discrete parameters of the ion source (i.e., power supply on or off). Other stored values are sent to a multiplexed digital-to-analog converter to provide analog control signals. A transmitter at ion source potential transmits discrete status information and several channels of analog data from an analog-to-digital converter back to the ground-potential receiver where it is stored to be read and displayed by the software

  5. Pre-emptive intrathecal vancomycin therapy reduces external ventricular drain infection: a single centre retrospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Richard Z; Anwar, Durria R; Laban, James T; Maratos, Eleni C; Minhas, Pawanjit S; Martin, Andrew J

    2017-02-01

    External ventricular drain (EVD)-related infection is a significant source of morbidity in neurosurgical patients. Recently, there has been a drive to adopt new catheters with bactericidal properties to reduce infection rates. We propose that the use of standard catheters combined with pre-emptive intrathecal vancomycin (ITV) 10 mg daily provides an effective alternative. Retrospective study of all patients with EVDs between 2010 and 2012, comparing infection rates in those who did and did not receive pre-emptive ITV. All EVDs were of the standard silicon catheter type. CSF infection was defined, as per Centre for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines, as clinical suspicion ± positive CSF gram stain/culture or leucocytosis. Infection rates were compared using Pearson's chi-squared test. 262 EVDs were included in the study, of which 111 were managed with pre-emptive ITV. The infection rate was 2.7% in the vancomycin group and 11.9% in the control group (pvancomycin-resistant infection in either group. The use of pre-emptive ITV is associated with a significantly lower EVD infection rate. This compares favourably with those reported in the literature for bactericidal catheters.

  6. A better state-of-mind: deep breathing reduces state anxiety and enhances test performance through regulating test cognitions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khng, Kiat Hui

    2017-11-01

    A pre-test/post-test, intervention-versus-control experimental design was used to examine the effects, mechanisms and moderators of deep breathing on state anxiety and test performance in 122 Primary 5 students. Taking deep breaths before a timed math test significantly reduced self-reported feelings of anxiety and improved test performance. There was a statistical trend towards greater effectiveness in reducing state anxiety for boys compared to girls, and in enhancing test performance for students with higher autonomic reactivity in test-like situations. The latter moderation was significant when comparing high-versus-low autonomic reactivity groups. Mediation analyses suggest that deep breathing reduces state anxiety in test-like situations, creating a better state-of-mind by enhancing the regulation of adaptive-maladaptive thoughts during the test, allowing for better performance. The quick and simple technique can be easily learnt and effectively applied by most children to immediately alleviate some of the adverse effects of test anxiety on psychological well-being and academic performance.

  7. Reliable Predictors of Reduced Redundancy Test Performance: The Interaction between Lexical Bonds and Test Takers' Depth and Breadth of Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janebi Enayat, Mostafa; Babaii, Esmat

    2018-01-01

    The present study intended to investigate whether test takers' breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge can contribute to their efficient use of lexical bonds while restoring damaged texts in reduced redundancy tests. Moreover, the moderating role of general language proficiency was investigated in this interaction. In so doing, Vocabulary Levels…

  8. Evaluating Upper-Body Strength and Power From a Single Test: The Ballistic Push-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ran; Hoffman, Jay R; Sadres, Eliahu; Bartolomei, Sandro; Muddle, Tyler W D; Fukuda, David H; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2017-05-01

    Wang, R, Hoffman, JR, Sadres, E, Bartolomei, S, Muddle, TWD, Fukuda, DH, and Stout, JR. Evaluating upper-body strength and power from a single test: the ballistic push-up. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1338-1345, 2017-The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of the ballistic push-up (BPU) exercise and to develop a prediction model for both maximal strength (1 repetition maximum [1RM]) in the bench press exercise and upper-body power. Sixty recreationally active men completed a 1RM bench press and 2 BPU assessments in 3 separate testing sessions. Peak and mean force, peak and mean rate of force development, net impulse, peak velocity, flight time, and peak and mean power were determined. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to examine the reliability of the BPU. Stepwise linear regression was used to develop 1RM bench press and power prediction equations. Intraclass correlation coefficient's ranged from 0.849 to 0.971 for the BPU measurements. Multiple regression analysis provided the following 1RM bench press prediction equation: 1RM = 0.31 × Mean Force - 1.64 × Body Mass + 0.70 (R = 0.837, standard error of the estimate [SEE] = 11 kg); time-based power prediction equation: Peak Power = 11.0 × Body Mass + 2012.3 × Flight Time - 338.0 (R = 0.658, SEE = 150 W), Mean Power = 6.7 × Body Mass + 1004.4 × Flight Time - 224.6 (R = 0.664, SEE = 82 W); and velocity-based power prediction equation: Peak Power = 8.1 × Body Mass + 818.6 × Peak Velocity - 762.0 (R = 0.797, SEE = 115 W); Mean Power = 5.2 × Body Mass + 435.9 × Peak Velocity - 467.7 (R = 0.838, SEE = 57 W). The BPU is a reliable test for both upper-body strength and power. Results indicate that the mean force generated from the BPU can be used to predict 1RM bench press, whereas peak velocity and flight time measured during the BPU can be used to predict upper-body power. These findings support the potential use of the BPU as a valid method to evaluate upper-body strength and power.

  9. Reducing needle-to-balloon time by using a single guiding catheter during transradial primary coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Keon-Woong; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Ju-Youn; Jung, Mi-Hyang; Kim, Gee-Hee; Yoo, Ki-Dong; Kim, Chul-Min

    2012-08-01

    It is unknown whether using a single guiding catheter for both nonculprit and culprit vessel angiography and intervention during transradial primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is feasible. This single-center study enrolled 242 consecutive patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who received primary PCI. Among them, 102 patients received primary PCI via transfemoral approach (TFI), 109 patients received primary PCI via transradial approach using conventional technique (Conventional TRI), and 31 underwent primary TRI using a single guiding catheter (Single Guiding TRI). The catheter used for this purpose was 6 Fr RM® 3.5 guiding catheter. Using a single guiding catheter, both coronary artery angiograms and intervention were successful in 30 of 31 patients (96.7%). Needle-to-balloon time (from puncture to first balloon) and door-to-balloon (D2B) time were similar between TFI and Conventional TRI groups and significantly lower in the Single Guiding TRI group (13.8 [TFI] and 14.1 [Conventional TRI] vs. 7.6 minutes, P Guiding TRI group from 51.0% for TFI and 49.5% for Conventional TRI to 74.2% (P = 0.023). Primary transradial PCI using a single guiding catheter is feasible and highly successful and might allow timely restoration of blood flow in infarct-related artery. ©2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Does rapid HIV testing result in an early diagnosis and reduce the waiting time for patients to receive medical care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Magaly Carvalho Vieira de; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar; Falcão, Ilka Veras; Miranda-Filho, Demócrito de Barros

    2018-01-01

    The implementation of rapid HIV testing in Brazil began in 2006 for specific groups, and from 2009 was extended to the Counseling and Testing Centers (CTC) in certain Brazilian capitals. The aim of this study was to compare two groups of individuals: those diagnosed with HIV infection by conventional testing and those diagnosed with rapid testing, with respect to: the waiting time before receiving medical care, the time of the first laboratory tests and the virological, immune and clinical status. This is a cross-sectional study to compare a group with individuals diagnosed by conventional testing (2006-2008) and another with those diagnosed by rapid testing (2010-2011).The median time between blood collection and diagnosis of HIV in the conventional test group was 76 days, while in the rapid test group 94.2% of the subjects received their results on the same day of blood collection (p test group, the median period of time before the first consultation with an infectious disease specialist was 99 days, and for the rapid test group the time was 14 days (p test group (p test group (472) was higher than in the conventional test group (397) (p = 0.01). The introduction of rapid HIV testing as a diagnostic strategy has reduced the waiting times for medical care and laboratory tests and also allowed earlier diagnosis of HIV infection than with the conventional test.

  11. Proceedings of the 1978 international meeting on reduced enrichment for research and test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travelli, A.

    1993-08-01

    November 9-10, 1978, marked the first of what has become an annual event - the International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR). The RERTR Program had been started only three months earlier, and the meeting brought together for the first time many people who became major program participants in later years. This first meeting emphasized fuel development, and while it established the basis for all later meetings, it was unique in several respects. It was a time of feeling each other out, and of sharing new ideas, concerns, and hopes. In the absence of an established precedent, a number of participants came with written papers while others made only verbal presentations. Informality added spice and special importance to the discussions at the end of each presentation and, especially, to the panel discussion at the end of the meeting. An important achievement was a consensus on near-, medium-, and long-term density goals for the various fuels. This consensus resulted in a list written on the blackboard at the end of the panel discussion, and reproduced on page 216, which outlined the goals of each fabricator. Luckily, both presentations and discussions were recorded on audio tape. These recordings were transcribed and used to complete the informal presentations and to append the discussions at the end of each presentation. Considerable effort was expended in clearing the transcribed papers and key discussions with the participants. A few issues could not be resolved quickly, and in the frantic rush of those early years, these proceedings were set aside. Believing that the proceedings of this first meeting are important as a historical record of the beginning of the international RERTR effort, we have recently dusted off the manuscript and finished our editing job

  12. Field Test Evaluation of Conservation Retrofits of Low-Income Single Family Buildings in Wisconsin: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternes, M.P.

    2001-05-21

    During the winter of 1985-86, a retrofit field test was performed in 66 occupied, low-income, single-family homes in Madison, Wisconsin. The primary objectives of the field test were to (1) determine the measured energy savings and the relative benefits of a combination of envelope and mechanical equipment retrofits that were selected following a new audit-directed retrofit procedure, (2) determine the energy savings and benefits due to performing infiltration reduction work following a recently developed infiltration reduction procedure, and (3) study general occupant behavior and house thermal characteristics and their possible change following retrofit installation. This report provides an overview of the project and summarizes the findings which will be presented in detail in separate reports. Major findings from the field test include: (1) The audit-directed retrofit procedure produced an average savings of 207 therms/year/house. The procedure also more than doubled the overall cost-effectiveness of the low-income weatherization assistance program as compared with the priority system formerly used in Wisconsin. Wall insulation and condensing furnaces were the major retrofits (predicted annual energy savings greater than 100 therms/year) most often selected under the procedure. The respective average energy savings of the houses receiving wall insulation and condensing furnace. s was 14.6 and 14.3 therms/year for each $100 spent on them under the program. (2) The blower-door-guided infiltration reduction procedure reduced expenditures for infiltration reduction to about one-fourth of previous program costs (from $570/house to $106/house). The procedure also reduced the average air leakage rate in the treated houses by 16%, whereas, in a previous study, no significant reduction was found following the installation of typical infiltration reduction measures. (3) Twenty to 60% of the deviation between predicted and measured savings can be attributed to incorrect

  13. Effect of speed endurance training and reduced training volume on running economy and single muscle fiber adaptations in trained runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, Casper; Christiansen, Danny; Christensen, Peter M; Almquist, Nicki W; Thomassen, Martin; Bangsbo, Jens

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether improved running economy with a period of speed endurance training and reduced training volume could be related to adaptations in specific muscle fibers. Twenty trained male (n = 14) and female (n = 6) runners (maximum oxygen consumption (VO 2 -max): 56.4 ± 4.6 mL/min/kg) completed a 40-day intervention with 10 sessions of speed endurance training (5-10 × 30-sec maximal running) and a reduced (36%) volume of training. Before and after the intervention, a muscle biopsy was obtained at rest, and an incremental running test to exhaustion was performed. In addition, running at 60% vVO 2 -max, and a 10-km run was performed in a normal and a muscle slow twitch (ST) glycogen-depleted condition. After compared to before the intervention, expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) was lower (P < 0.05) and dystrophin was higher (P < 0.05) in ST muscle fibers, and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 1 (SERCA1) was lower (P < 0.05) in fast twitch muscle fibers. Running economy at 60% vVO 2 -max (11.6 ± 0.2 km/h) and at v10-km (13.7 ± 0.3 km/h) was ~2% better (P < 0.05) after the intervention in the normal condition, but unchanged in the ST glycogen-depleted condition. Ten kilometer performance was improved (P < 0.01) by 3.2% (43.7 ± 1.0 vs. 45.2 ± 1.2 min) and 3.9% (45.8 ± 1.2 vs. 47.7 ± 1.3 min) in the normal and the ST glycogen-depleted condition, respectively. VO 2 -max was the same, but vVO 2 -max was 2.0% higher (P < 0.05; 19.3 ± 0.3 vs. 18.9 ± 0.3 km/h) after than before the intervention. Thus, improved running economy with intense training may be related to changes in expression of proteins linked to energy consuming processes in primarily ST muscle fibers. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  14. Novel Family of Single-Phase Modified Impedance-Source Buck-Boost Multilevel Inverters with Reduced Switch Count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husev, Oleksandr; Strzelecki, Ryszard; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes novel single-phase solutions with increased inverter voltage levels derived by means of a nonstandard inverter configuration and impedance source networks. Operation principles based on special modulation techniques are presented. Detailed component design guidelines along wi...

  15. Correlation of single-breath count test and neck flexor muscle strength with spirometry in myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikh, Bakri; Arnold, W David; Gharibshahi, Shahram; Reynolds, Jerold; Freimer, Miriam; Kissel, John T

    2016-01-01

    Although formal spirometry is the gold standard for monitoring respiratory function in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), such testing is often delayed or unavailable. There is a need for a simple bedside test that can accurately measure respiratory function. We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional, single-blind study in adults with acetylcholine receptor antibody positive MG. Participants performed the single breath count test (SBCT) and underwent manual muscle strength testing, and a respiratory therapist performed spirometry blinded to SBCT and strength results. Thirty-one patients, aged 57 ± 19 years participated. SBCT showed significant correlations with forced vital capacity (FVC), negative inspiratory force, and neck flexor strength (P strength (P = 0.02) but no correlation with shoulder abductor strength. These data suggest that the SBCT and neck flexor strength testing are valuable tools for bedside assessment of respiratory function in MG patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Typing of 49 autosomal SNPs by single base extension and capillary electrophoresis for forensic genetic testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Tomas Mas, Carmen; Morling, Niels

    2012-01-01

    We describe a method for simultaneous amplification of 49 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by multiplex PCR and detection of the SNP alleles by single base extension (SBE) and capillary electrophoresis. All the SNPs may be amplified from only 100 pg of genomic DNA and the length...

  17. FY2016 ILAW Glass Corrosion Testing with the Single-Pass Flow-Through Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeway, James J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Asmussen, Robert M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Parruzot, Benjamin PG [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cordova, Elsa [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Benjamin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Leavy, Ian I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephenson, John R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McElroy, Erin M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-04-21

    The inventory of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) produced at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will be disposed of at the near-surface, on-site Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). When groundwater comes into contact with the waste form, the glass will corrode and radionuclides will be released into the near-field environment. Because the release of the radionuclides is dependent on the dissolution rate of the glass, it is important that the performance assessment (PA) model accounts for the dissolution rate of the glass as a function of various chemical conditions. To accomplish this, an IDF PA model based on Transition State Theory (TST) can be employed. The model is able to account for changes in temperature, exposed surface area, and pH of the contacting solution as well as the effect of silicon concentrations in solution, specifically the activity of orthosilicic acid (H4SiO4), whose concentration is directly linked to the glass dissolution rate. In addition, the IDF PA model accounts for the alkali-ion exchange process as sodium is leached from the glass and into solution. The effect of temperature, pH, H4SiO4 activity, and the rate of ion-exchange can be parameterized and implemented directly into the PA rate law model. The rate law parameters are derived from laboratory tests with the single-pass flow-through (SPFT) method. To date, rate law parameters have been determined for seven ILAW glass compositions, thus additional rate law parameters on a wider range of compositions will supplement the existing body of data for PA maintenance activities. The data provided in this report can be used by ILAW glass scientists to further the understanding of ILAW glass behavior, by IDF PA modelers to use the rate law parameters in PA modeling efforts, and by Department of Energy (DOE) contractors and decision makers as they assess the IDF PA program.

  18. Subcloning the RBL-2H3 mucosal mast cell line reduces Ca2+ response heterogeneity at the single-cell level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchtey, J; Fewtrell, C

    1996-03-01

    Ca2+ imaging experiments have revealed that for a wide variety of cell types, including RBL-2H3 mucosal mast cells, there are considerable cell-to-cell differences of the Ca2+ responses of individual cells. This heterogeneity is evident in both the shape and latency of the responses. Mast cells within a single microscopic field of view, which have experienced identical culture conditions and experimental preparation, display a wide variety of responses upon antigen stimulation. We have subcloned the RBL-2H3 mucosal mast cell line to test the hypothesis that genetic heterogeneity within the population is the cause of the Ca2+ response heterogeneity. We found that cell-to-cell variability was significantly reduced in four of five clonal lines. The response heterogeneity remaining within the clones was not an experimental artifact caused by differences in the amount of fura-2 loaded by individual cells. Factors other than genetic heterogeneity must partly account for Ca2+ response heterogeneity. It is possible that the complex shapes and variability of the Ca2+ responses are reflections of the fact that there are multiple factors underlying the Ca2-response to antigen stimulation. Small differences from cell to cell in one or more of these factors could be a cause of the remaining Ca2+ response heterogeneity.

  19. C.O.D. toughness testing of medium strength steel as a preliminary development for single specimen J integral toughness tests of SA533-B steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, P.; Tait, R.B.; Garrett, G.G.

    1981-10-01

    The primary purpose of this project is to set up a test facility and to develop the necessary expertise to enable reliable elasto-plastic fracture toughness tests to be performed. Initially, tests are to be conducted on material similar to that used in the Koeberg pressure vessel walls, with the ultimate goal of performing single specimen J integral tests on the pressure vessel steel itself to determine through-thickness toughness variations. The project will comprise a number of stages, each one necessary for the development of the techniques used in J integral testing. These include: (i) development of an appropriate specimen design, of suitable size and shape that is applicable to both crack opening displacement (C.O.D.) and J integral tests; (ii) development, testing and calibration of the necessary associated mechanical and electrical equipment (e.g. clip gauge, amplifiers, interface unit, etc.), with (iii) an estimation of the probable errors and noise levels with a view to their elimantion, leading to (iv) perfection of the sensitivity and reproducibility of, firstly, the multiple specimen C.O.D. technique and, secondly, the multiple specimen J integral techniques. (v) Based on the above techniques, development of the single specimen J integral test method incorporating development of a computerised testing procedure. All the above procedure is to be conducted on similar, but non-Koeberg pressure vessel material ('ROQ Tough'). (vi) Finally, development and testing of both multiple specimen and single specimen J integral tests on actual SA533B material and an investigation of the through thickness toughness and fatigue crack propagation behaviour

  20. Towards a Unified Testing Framework for Single-Sided Deafness Studies: A Consensus Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Heyning, Paul; Távora-Vieira, Dayse; Mertens, Griet; Van Rompaey, Vincent; Rajan, Gunesh P; Müller, Joachim; Hempel, John Martin; Leander, Daniel; Polterauer, Daniel; Marx, Mathieu; Usami, Shin-Ichi; Kitoh, Ryosuke; Miyagawa, Maiko; Moteki, Hideaki; Smilsky, Kari; Baumgartner, Wolf-Dieter; Keintzel, Thomas Georg; Sprinzl, Georg Mathias; Wolf-Magele, Astrid; Arndt, Susan; Wesarg, Thomas; Zirn, Stefan; Baumann, Uwe; Weissgerber, Tobias; Rader, Tobias; Hagen, Rudolf; Kurz, Anja; Rak, Kristen; Stokroos, Robert; George, Erwin; Polo, Ruben; Medina, María Del Mar; Henkin, Yael; Hilly, Ohad; Ulanovski, David; Rajeswaran, Ranjith; Kameswaran, Mohan; Di Gregorio, Maria Fernanda; Zernotti, Mario E

    2016-01-01

    While hearing aids for a contralateral routing of signals (CROS-HA) and bone conduction devices have been the traditional treatment for single-sided deafness (SSD) and asymmetric hearing loss (AHL), in recent years, cochlear implants (CIs) have increasingly become a viable treatment choice, particularly in countries where regulatory approval and reimbursement schemes are in place. Part of the reason for this shift is that the CI is the only device capable of restoring bilateral input to the auditory system and hence of possibly reinstating binaural hearing. Although several studies have independently shown that the CI is a safe and effective treatment for SSD and AHL, clinical outcome measures in those studies and across CI centers vary greatly. Only with a consistent use of defined and agreed-upon outcome measures across centers can high-level evidence be generated to assess the safety and efficacy of CIs and alternative treatments in recipients with SSD and AHL. This paper presents a comparative study design and minimum outcome measures for the assessment of current treatment options in patients with SSD/AHL. The protocol was developed, discussed, and eventually agreed upon by expert panels that convened at the 2015 APSCI conference in Beijing, China, and at the CI 2016 conference in Toronto, Canada. A longitudinal study design comparing CROS-HA, BCD, and CI treatments is proposed. The recommended outcome measures include (1) speech in noise testing, using the same set of 3 spatial configurations to compare binaural benefits such as summation, squelch, and head shadow across devices; (2) localization testing, using stimuli that rove in both level and spectral content; (3) questionnaires to collect quality of life measures and the frequency of device use; and (4) questionnaires for assessing the impact of tinnitus before and after treatment, if applicable. A protocol for the assessment of treatment options and outcomes in recipients with SSD and AHL is presented

  1. Integrated Vibration and Acceleration Testing to Reduce Payload Mass, Cost and Mission Risk, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a capability to provide integrated acceleration, vibration, and shock testing using a state-of-the-art centrifuge, allowing for the test of...

  2. Use of predefined biochemical admission profiles does not reduce the number of tests or total cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Haidl, Felix; Folkestad, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate whether the use of predefined biochemical profiles as an alternative to individually ordered blood tests by the treating physicians resulted in fewer tests or a lower total cost....

  3. Exploring the Effects of Using an Oral Appliance to Reduce Movement Dysfunction in an Individual With Parkinson Disease: A Single-Subject Design Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Hillary; Rose, Lindsey E; Woodbrey, Megan; Arghavani, David; Lawrence, Michael; Cavanaugh, James T

    2017-01-01

    Clinical reports suggest that wearing an oral appliance can improve the gait and balance of an individual with Parkinson disease (PD). Our primary purpose was to systematically explore this effect using a single-subject study design and quantitative motion analysis. Secondarily, we sought to examine the quality-of-life outcomes following 1-month of routine oral appliance wear. The participant was a 73-year-old ambulatory man with mid-stage PD. Using an A-B-A design, for which a custom-made oral appliance served as the intervention, kinematic and kinetic data were captured during performance of Four Square Step Test, serpentine walk, and tandem walk tasks. Grip strength was quantified with a dynamometer. Quality-of-life outcomes were collected after 1 month of appliance wear using the Parkinson Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39). Perceived changes in balance, mobility, and quality of life were captured from the participant using an 11-point Global Rate of Change (GRC) scale. Changes in mobility, postural control, and grip strength during appliance wear were suggestive of reduced movement dysfunction. The PDQ-39 revealed a significant improvement in quality of life, primarily related to increased emotional well-being, decreased stigma, and increased communication. GRC scores indicated a clinically significant improvement in ease of movement in the community (+3), ease of movement during the performance of activities of daily living (+4), and in standing balance while performing activities of daily living (+4). Study findings provided quantitative evidence supporting the effectiveness of oral appliance wear for reducing movement dysfunction in a patient with mid-stage PD.Video Abstract available for more insights from the authors (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A155).

  4. Do food provisions packaged in single-servings reduce energy intake at breakfast during a brief behavioral weight-loss intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Hollie A; Van Walleghen, Emily L; Niemeier, Heather; Butryn, Meghan L; Wing, Rena R

    2009-11-01

    Larger portion sizes increase energy intake, yet it is unclear whether single-serving packages can reduce intake. This study examined the effects of providing breakfast foods in single-serving packages and nonportioned packages on energy intake of these foods during an 8-week behavioral weight-loss program. In fall 2005, 19 adults (mean body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)]=31.8+/-4.0) were randomized to conditions that provided foods in single-serving packages (Single-Serving) or in nonportioned packages (Standard). Overall amounts and types of foods provided were consistent across conditions: cereal and peaches (weeks 1, 3, 5, and 7) and applesauce and cheese (weeks 2, 4, 6, and 8). Participants were instructed to eat one serving of each food for breakfast and not to consume the provided foods at other times. Mean daily energy intake of the provided foods was the primary dependent variable. The Single-Serving group ate less energy from the combined pairs of foods provided together as compared to Standard (cereal and peaches, 117.0+/-3.2 kcal/day vs 143.5+/-39.3 kcal/day; P0.10). This suggests that single-serving packages may help reduce energy intake at breakfast within the context of a behavioral weight-control program.

  5. Single-well reactive tracer test and stable isotope analysis for determination of microbial activity in a fast hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burbery, L.; Cassiani, G.; Andreotti, G.; Ricchiuto, T.; Semple, K.T

    2004-05-01

    Single-well reactive tracer tests, such as the push-pull test are useful tools for characterising in-situ bioattenuation processes in contaminated aquifers. However, the analytical models that are used to interpret push-pull data may be over-simplified, and potentially overlook important processes responsible for the frequent discrepancy between predicted and observed results obtained from push-pull tests. In this study, the limitations underlying the push-pull test methodology were investigated and were supported with results from a push-pull test conducted in a sulphate-reducing aquifer contaminated by crude oil. Poor (<7%) mass recovery was achieved when the push-pull test was performed in a fast-flowing aquifer, preventing a quantifiable reaction rate to be determined. Breakthrough curve data were unexplainable using simplified analytical models, but exhibited trends analogous with tests conducted by others, when >20% mass recoveries were achieved. Push-pull test data collected from sulphate-reducing aquifers indicate that the assumption of a well-mixed batch reactor system is incorrect and that reaction rates obtained from push-pull tests in such systems may be affected by the extraction regime implemented. Evidence of microbial respiration of the reactive tracer was provided by stable sulphur isotope analysis, from which an isotope fractionation factor of +9.9{+-}8.1%o was estimated. The stable isotope data support the argument that reaction rates calculated using push-pull tests are not uniformly distributed in space and time and are likely to be influenced by heterogeneities in the flow field. - Reaction rates calculated by push-pull tests are not uniformly distributed in time and space.

  6. Single-Leg Hop Test Performance and Isokinetic Knee Strength After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueyoshi, Ted; Nakahata, Akihiro; Emoto, Gen; Yuasa, Tomoki

    2017-11-01

    Isokinetic strength and hop tests are commonly used to assess athletes' readiness to return to sport after knee surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the results of single-leg hop and isokinetic knee strength testing in athletes who underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) upon returning to sport participation as well as to study the correlation between these 2 test batteries. The secondary purpose was to compare the test results by graft type (patellar tendon or hamstring). It was hypothesized that there would be no statistically significant limb difference in either isokinetic knee strength or single-leg hop tests, that there would be a moderate to strong correlation between the 2 test batteries, and that there would be no significant difference between graft types. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Twenty-nine high school and collegiate athletes who underwent ACLR participated in this study. At the time of return to full sport participation, a series of hop tests and knee extension/flexion isokinetic strength measurements were conducted. The results were analyzed using analysis of variance and Pearson correlation ( r ). The timed 6-m hop test was the only hop test that showed a significant difference between the involved and uninvolved limbs (2.3 and 2.2 seconds, respectively; P = .02). A significant difference between limbs in knee strength was found for flexion peak torque/body weight at 180 deg/s ( P = .03), flexion total work/body weight at 180 deg/s ( P = .04), and flexion peak torque/body weight at 300 deg/s ( P = .03). The strongest correlation between the hop tests and knee strength was found between the total distance of the hop tests and flexion total work/body weight at 300 deg/s ( r = 0.69) and between the timed 6-m hop test and flexion peak torque/body weight at 300 deg/s ( r = -0.54). There was no statistically significant difference in hop test performance or isokinetic knee strength between graft types

  7. Spectrally pure heralded single photons by spontaneous four-wave mixing in a fiber: reducing impact of dispersion fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Jacob Gade; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge

    2017-01-01

    We model the spectral quantum-mechanical purity of heralded single photons from a photon-pair source based on nondegenerate spontaneous four-wave mixing taking the impact of distributed dispersion fluctuations into account. The considered photon-pair-generation scheme utilizes pump-pulse walk......-off to produce pure heralded photons and phase matching is achieved through the dispersion properties of distinct spatial modes in a few-mode silica step-index fiber. We show that fiber-core-radius fluctuations in general severely impact the single-photon purity. Furthermore, by optimizing the fiber design we...... frequency. (C) 2017 Optical Society of America...

  8. Reducing animal experimentation in foot-and-mouth disease vaccine potency tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Richard; Cox, Sarah; Smitsaart, Eliana; Beascoechea, Claudia Perez; Haas, Bernd; Maradei, Eduardo; Haydon, Daniel T; Barnett, Paul

    2011-07-26

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Manual and the European Pharmacopoeia (EP) still prescribe live challenge experiments for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) immunogenicity and vaccine potency tests. However, the EP allows for other validated tests for the latter, and specifically in vitro tests if a "satisfactory pass level" has been determined; serological replacements are also currently in use in South America. Much research has therefore focused on validating both ex vivo and in vitro tests to replace live challenge. However, insufficient attention has been given to the sensitivity and specificity of the "gold standard"in vivo test being replaced, despite this information being critical to determining what should be required of its replacement. This paper aims to redress this imbalance by examining the current live challenge tests and their associated statistics and determining the confidence that we can have in them, thereby setting a standard for candidate replacements. It determines that the statistics associated with the current EP PD(50) test are inappropriate given our domain knowledge, but that the OIE test statistics are satisfactory. However, it has also identified a new set of live animal challenge test regimes that provide similar sensitivity and specificity to all of the currently used OIE tests using fewer animals (16 including controls), and can also provide further savings in live animal experiments in exchange for small reductions in sensitivity and specificity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle: The Longitudinal Value of Local Cut Scores Using State Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter M.; Van Norman, Ethan R.; VanDerHeyden, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    We used existing reading (n = 1,498) and math (n = 2,260) data to evaluate state test scores for screening middle school students. In Phase 1, state test data were used to create a research-derived cut score that was optimal for predicting state test performance the following year. In Phase 2, those cut scores were applied with future cohorts.…

  10. System Testing Evaluation for Enterprise Resource Planning to Reduce Failure Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Mathara Arachchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP systems are widely used applications to manage resources, communication and data exchange between different departments and modules with the purpose of managing the overall business process of the organization using one integrated software system. Due to the large scale and the complexity nature of these systems, many ERP implementation projects have become failure. It is necessary to have a better test project management and test performance assessing system. To build a successful ERP system these processes are important. The purpose of the Test project management is verification and validation of the system. There was a separate stage to test the quality of software in the software development lifecycle and there is a separate independent Quality Assurance and testing team for a successful ERP development team. According to best practice testing principles it is necessary to, understand the requirements, test planning, test execution, identify and improve processes. Identify the necessary infrastructure; hardware and software are the major areas when developing test procedures. The aim of this survey is to identify ERP failures associated with the ERP projects, general and security within the Asian region, so that the parties responsible for the project can take necessary precautions to deal with those failures for a successful ERP implementation and bring down the ERP failure rate.

  11. Internalized homophobia and reduced HIV testing among men who have sex with men in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyun, Thomas; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Arreola, Sonya; Do, Tri; Hebert, Pato; Beck, Jack; Makofane, Keletso; Wilson, Patrick A; Ayala, George

    2014-03-01

    Although previous research has examined barriers and facilitators of HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China, few studies have focused on social factors, including homophobia and internalized homophobia. This study utilized data from a global online survey to determine correlates of HIV testing as part of a subanalysis focused on Chinese MSM. Controlling for age, HIV knowledge, number of sexual partners, and other covariates, ever having tested for HIV was significantly correlated with lower internalized homophobia. This study suggests that stigma associated with sexual orientation may serve as a barrier to participation in HIV testing and other health-promoting behaviors.

  12. Criticality of Low-Energy Protons in Single-Event Effects Testing of Highly-Scaled Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.; Marshall, Paul W.; Rodbell, Kenneth P.; Gordon, Michael S.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Schwank, James R.; Dodds, Nathaniel A.; Castaneda, Carlos M.; Berg, Melanie D.; Kim, Hak S.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We report low-energy proton and low-energy alpha particle single-event effects (SEE) data on a 32 nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) latches and static random access memory (SRAM) that demonstrates the criticality of using low-energy protons for SEE testing of highly-scaled technologies. Low-energy protons produced a significantly higher fraction of multi-bit upsets relative to single-bit upsets when compared to similar alpha particle data. This difference highlights the importance of performing hardness assurance testing with protons that include energy distribution components below 2 megaelectron-volt. The importance of low-energy protons to system-level single-event performance is based on the technology under investigation as well as the target radiation environment.

  13. Brief report: enzyme inducers reduce elimination half-life after a single dose of nevirapine in healthy women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L'homme, R.F.A.; Dijkema, T.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Burger, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Single-dose nevirapine (SD-NVP) to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV is associated with development of NVP resistance, probably because of its long half-life in combination with a low genetic barrier to resistance. The objective of this study was to find enzyme inducers

  14. Immunotoxicity of nucleic acid reduced BioProtein - a bacterial derived single cell protein - in Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølck, Anne-marie; Poulsen, Morten; Christensen, Hanne Risager

    2002-01-01

    BioProtein is a single cell protein produced by a mixed methanotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria culture using natural gas as energy source, which has been approved for animal feed. BioProtein contains a large amount of nucleic acids making the product less suitable for human consumption, theref...

  15. Single-Event Transient Testing of the Crane Aerospace and Electronics SMHF2812D Dual DC-DC Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Megan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this testing was to characterize the Crane Aerospace & Electronics (Crane) Interpoint SMHF2812D for single-event transient (SET) susceptibility. These data shall be used for flight lot evaluation, as well as qualification by similarity of the SMHF family of converters, all of which use the same active components.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy: theoretical models for preimplantation genetic testing of a single nucleus using the fluorescence in situ hybridization technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scriven, P. N.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and use theoretical models to investigate the accuracy of the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique in testing a single nucleus from a preimplantation embryo without the complicating effect of mosaicism. Mathematical models were constructed for

  17. 42 CFR 84.1145 - Silica dust test; non-powered single-use dust respirators; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1145 Silica dust test; non-powered single-use dust... shall be used. (c) Air exhaled through the respirator will be 35° ±2 °C. with 94 ±3 percent relative...

  18. Reduced Phrenic Motoneuron Recruitment during Sustained Inspiratory Threshold Loading Compared to Single-Breath Loading: A Twitch Interpolation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raux, Mathieu; Demoule, Alexandre; Redolfi, Stefania; Morelot-Panzini, Capucine; Similowski, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In humans, inspiratory constraints engage cortical networks involving the supplementary motor area. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) shows that the spread and intensity of the corresponding respiratory-related cortical activation dramatically decrease when a discrete load becomes sustained. This has been interpreted as reflecting motor cortical reorganization and automatisation, but could proceed from sensory and/or affective habituation. To corroborate the existence of motor reorganization between single-breath and sustained inspiratory loading (namely changes in motor neurones recruitment), we conducted a diaphragm twitch interpolation study based on the hypothesis that motor reorganization should result in changes in the twitch interpolation slope. Fourteen healthy subjects (age: 21-40 years) were studied. Bilateral phrenic stimulation was delivered at rest, upon prepared and targeted voluntary inspiratory efforts ("vol"), upon unprepared inspiratory efforts against a single-breath inspiratory threshold load ("single-breath"), and upon sustained inspiratory efforts against the same type of load ("continuous"). The slope of the relationship between diaphragm twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure and the underlying transdiaphragmatic pressure was -1.1 ± 0.2 during "vol," -1.5 ± 0.7 during "single-breath," and -0.6 ± 0.4 during "continuous" (all slopes expressed in percent of baseline.percent of baseline -1 ) all comparisons significant at the 5% level. The contribution of the diaphragm to inspiration, as assessed by the gastric pressure to transdiaphragmatic pressure ratio, was 31 ± 17% during "vol," 22 ± 16% during "single-breath" ( p = 0.13), and 19 ± 9% during "continuous" ( p = 0.0015 vs. "vol"). This study shows that the relationship between the amplitude of the transdiaphragmatic pressure produced by a diaphragm twitch and its counterpart produced by the underlying diaphragm contraction is not unequivocal. If twitch interpolation is

  19. Reduced phrenic motoneuron recruitment during sustained inspiratory threshold loading compared to single-breath loading: a twitch interpolation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Raux

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In humans, inspiratory constraints engage cortical networks involving the supplementary motor area. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI shows that the spread and intensity of the corresponding respiratory-related cortical activation dramatically decrease when a discrete load becomes sustained. This has been interpreted as reflecting motor cortical reorganisation and automatisation, but could proceed from sensory and/or affective habituation. To corroborate the existence of motor reorganisation between single-breath and sustained inspiratory loading (namely changes in motor neurones recruitment, we conducted a diaphragm twitch interpolation study based on the hypothesis that motor reorganisation should result in changes in the twitch interpolation slope. Fourteen healthy subjects (age: 21 – 40 years were studied. Bilateral phrenic stimulation was delivered at rest, upon prepared and targeted voluntary inspiratory efforts (vol, upon unprepared inspiratory efforts against a single-breath inspiratory threshold load (single-breath, and upon sustained inspiratory efforts against the same type of load (continuous. The slope of the relationship between diaphragm twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure and the underlying transdiaphragmatic pressure was –1.1 ± 0.2 during vol, –1.5 ± 0.7 during single-breath, and -0.6 ± 0.4 during continuous (all slopes expressed in percent of baseline.percent of baseline-1 all comparisons significant at the 5% level. The contribution of the diaphragm to inspiration, as assessed by the gastric pressure to transdiaphragmatic pressure ratio, was 31 ± 17 % during vol, 22 ± 16 % during single-breath (p=0.13, and 19 ± 9 % during continuous (p = 0.0015 vs. vol. This study shows that the relationship between the amplitude of the transdiaphragmatic pressure produced by a diaphragm twitch and its counterpart produced by the underlying diaphragm contraction is not unequivocal. If twitch interpolation is interpreted as

  20. Reducing cyclic testing time for components of automotive suspension system utilising the wavelet transform and the Fuzzy C-Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, T. E.; Abdullah, S.; Schramm, D.; Nuawi, M. Z.; Bruckmann, T.

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to introduce a novel method for accelerating fatigue tests. Strain signals measured at automotive suspension components were extracted based on the Morlet wavelet producing damaging segments. Furthermore, the segments were clustered using the Fuzzy C-Means to remove the segments having lower energy. The process was able to shorten the strain signals up to 41.4% and it was able to retain at least 90% of the fatigue damage. It reduced the testing time by more than 33%, with equivalent fatigue life. Indirectly, the use of modified strain signals could reduce device operating costs.

  1. Home-based voluntary HIV counselling and testing found highly acceptable and to reduce inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelo Charles

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low uptake of voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT in sub-Saharan Africa is raising acceptability concerns which might be associated with ways by which it is offered. We investigated the acceptability of home-based delivery of counselling and HIV testing in urban and rural populations in Zambia where VCT has been offered mostly from local clinics. Methods A population-based HIV survey was conducted in selected communities in 2003 (n = 5035. All participants stating willingness to be HIV tested were offered VCT at home and all counselling was conducted in the participants' homes. In the urban area post-test counselling and giving of results were done the following day whereas in rural areas this could take 1-3 weeks. Results Of those who indicated willingness to be HIV tested, 76.1% (95%CI 74.9-77.2 were counselled and received the test result. Overall, there was an increase in the proportion ever HIV tested from 18% before provision of home-based VCT to 38% after. The highest increase was in rural areas; among young rural men aged 15-24 years up from 14% to 42% vs. for urban men from 17% to 37%. Test rates by educational attainment changed from being positively associated to be evenly distributed after home-based VCT. Conclusions A high uptake was achieved by delivering HIV counselling and testing at home. The highest uptakes were seen in rural areas, in young people and groups with low educational attainment, resulting in substantial reductions in existing inequalities in accessing VCT services.

  2. Blended head analyses to reduce uncertainty in packer testing in fractured-rock boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Patryk; Parker, Beth L.; Cherry, John A.

    2016-02-01

    Open boreholes in fractured rock often cross-connect fractures with differing hydraulic head and the head differences between these fractures cause vertical flow in the water column. This cross-connection has potential to bias transmissivity ( T) values obtained from straddle packer tests. This study demonstrates how measurements of the blended head in the open-hole segments above and below the straddle-packer test interval can be used to correct packer tests for cross-connection effects. A pressure response observed in the open-hole segment above and/or below the packers isolating a test interval during a hydraulic test indicates short-circuiting of water from the injection interval through the vertically connected fracture network to the open-hole segments, resulting in the overestimation of T. A method is presented using blended head concepts to minimize this error using a trial-and-error procedure to determine the short-circuiting flow rate to account for the head conditions in the open-hole segments during each hydraulic test. Observed differences between the measured head and the calculated blended head in the open-hole segments above and below the test interval are attributed to cross-connection effects around the 1-m-long packers. The head and corrected T values determined from packer tests are used to estimate the flow in and out of the open hole at each of the intervals tested for assessing the cross-connection effects under open borehole conditions. Understanding open-hole flow dynamics gives insight about the potential for vertical cross connection of chemical constituents caused by the open hole.

  3. Low-Cost, Class D Testing of Spacecraft Photovoltaic Systems Can Reduce Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgione, Joshua B.; Kojima, Gilbert K.; Hanel, Robert; Mallinson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The end-to-end verification of a spacecraft photovoltaic power generation system requires light! A lowcost, portable, and end-to-end photovoltaic-system test appropriate for NASA's new generation of Class D missions is presented. High risk, low-cost, and quick-turn satellites rarely have the resources to execute the traditional approaches from higher-class (A-C) missions. The Class D approach, as demonstrated on the Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), utilizes a portable, metalhalide, theatre lamp for an end-to-end photovoltaic system test. While not as precise and comprehensive as the traditional Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulator (LAPSS) test, the LADEE method leverages minimal resources into an ongoing assessment program that can be applied through numerous stages of the mission. The project takes a true Class D approach in assessing the technical value of a costly, highfidelity performance test versus a simpler approach with less programmatic risk. The resources required are a fraction of that for a LAPSS test, and is easy to repeat due to its portability. Further, the test equipment can be handed down to future projects without building an on-site facility. At the vanguard of Class D missions, the LADEE team frequently wrestled with and challenged the status quo. The philosophy of risk avoidance at all cost, typical to Class A-C missions, simply could not be executed. This innovative and simple testing solution is contextualized to NASA Class D programs and a specific risk encountered during development of the LADEE Electrical Power System (EPS). Selection of the appropriate lamp and safety concerns are discussed, with examples of test results. Combined with the vendor's panellevel data and periodic inspection, the method ensures system integrity from Integration and Test (I&T) through launch. Following launch, mission operations tools are utilized to assess system performance based on a scant amount of available data.

  4. Quasifree (p , 2 p ) Reactions on Oxygen Isotopes: Observation of Isospin Independence of the Reduced Single-Particle Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, L.; Paschalis, S.; Barbieri, C.; Bertulani, C. A.; Díaz Fernández, P.; Holl, M.; Najafi, M. A.; Panin, V.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Aumann, T.; Avdeichikov, V.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Bemmerer, D.; Benlliure, J.; Boillos, J. M.; Boretzky, K.; Borge, M. J. G.; Caamaño, M.; Caesar, C.; Casarejos, E.; Catford, W.; Cederkall, J.; Chartier, M.; Chulkov, L.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Cravo, E.; Crespo, R.; Dillmann, I.; Elekes, Z.; Enders, J.; Ershova, O.; Estrade, A.; Farinon, F.; Fraile, L. M.; Freer, M.; Galaviz Redondo, D.; Geissel, H.; Gernhäuser, R.; Golubev, P.; Göbel, K.; Hagdahl, J.; Heftrich, T.; Heil, M.; Heine, M.; Heinz, A.; Henriques, A.; Hufnagel, A.; Ignatov, A.; Johansson, H. T.; Jonson, B.; Kahlbow, J.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kanungo, R.; Kelic-Heil, A.; Knyazev, A.; Kröll, T.; Kurz, N.; Labiche, M.; Langer, C.; Le Bleis, T.; Lemmon, R.; Lindberg, S.; Machado, J.; Marganiec-Gałązka, J.; Movsesyan, A.; Nacher, E.; Nikolskii, E. Y.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Perea, A.; Petri, M.; Pietri, S.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Ribeiro, G.; Rigollet, C.; Rossi, D. M.; Röder, M.; Savran, D.; Scheit, H.; Simon, H.; Sorlin, O.; Syndikus, I.; Taylor, J. T.; Tengblad, O.; Thies, R.; Togano, Y.; Vandebrouck, M.; Velho, P.; Volkov, V.; Wagner, A.; Wamers, F.; Weick, H.; Wheldon, C.; Wilson, G. L.; Winfield, J. S.; Woods, P.; Yakorev, D.; Zhukov, M.; Zilges, A.; Zuber, K.; R3B Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Quasifree one-proton knockout reactions have been employed in inverse kinematics for a systematic study of the structure of stable and exotic oxygen isotopes at the R3B /LAND setup with incident beam energies in the range of 300 - 450 MeV /u . The oxygen isotopic chain offers a large variation of separation energies that allows for a quantitative understanding of single-particle strength with changing isospin asymmetry. Quasifree knockout reactions provide a complementary approach to intermediate-energy one-nucleon removal reactions. Inclusive cross sections for quasifree knockout reactions of the type O A (p ,2 p )N-1A have been determined and compared to calculations based on the eikonal reaction theory. The reduction factors for the single-particle strength with respect to the independent-particle model were obtained and compared to state-of-the-art ab initio predictions. The results do not show any significant dependence on proton-neutron asymmetry.

  5. A single session of meditation reduces of physiological indices of anger in both experienced and novice meditators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Alexander B; Benau, Erik M; Atchley, Ruth Ann

    2016-02-01

    The goal of the present study was to explore how anger reduction via a single session of meditation might be measured using psychophysiological methodologies. To achieve this, 15 novice meditators (Experiment 1) and 12 practiced meditators (Experiment 2) completed autobiographical anger inductions prior to, and following, meditation training while respiration rate, heart rate, and blood pressure were measured. Participants also reported subjective anger via a visual analog scale. At both stages, the experienced meditators' physiological reaction to the anger induction reflected that of relaxation: slowed breathing and heart rate and decreased blood pressure. Naïve meditators exhibited physiological reactions that were consistent with anger during the pre-meditation stage, while after meditation training and a second anger induction they elicited physiological evidence of relaxation. The current results examining meditation training show that the naïve group's physiological measures mimicked those of the experienced group following a single session of meditation training. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Validity and reliability of the single-trial line drill test of anaerobic power in basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatouros, I G; Laparidis, K; Kambas, A; Chatzinikolaou, A; Techlikidou, E; Katrabasas, I; Douroudos, I; Leontsini, D; Berberidou, F; Draganidis, D; Christoforidis, C; Tsoukas, D; Kelis, S; Taxildaris, K

    2011-03-01

    This study evaluated the validity, reliability, and sensitivity of the single-trial line drill test (SLDT) for anaerobic power assessment. Twenty-four volunteers were assigned to either a control (C, N.=12) or an experimental (BP, N.=12 basketball players) group. SLDT's (time-to-complete) concurrent validity was evaluated against the Wingate testing (WAnT: mean [MP] and peak power [PP]) and a 30-sec vertical jump testing test (VJT: mean height and MP). Blood lactate concentration was measured at rest and immediately post-test. SLDT's reliability [test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), coefficient of variation (CV), Bland-Altman plots] and sensitivity were determined (one-way ANOVA). Kendall's tau correlation analysis revealed correlations (Pbasketball players.

  7. Testing how geophysics can reduce the uncertainty of groundwater model predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Nikolaj Kruse; Christensen, Steen; Ferre, Ty

    2014-01-01

    present a modeling platform that can be used to examine the conditions that support the use of each inversion approach for efficient and effective use of all data to constrain hydrologic models. We have developed a synthetic “test-bench environment” to test the advantages and limitations of alternative......, data density, data quality, and uncertainty in petrophysical relationships on the accuracy of hydrologic predictions. We will demonstrate the “test-bench” by using a hydrogeological system with a buried valley eroded into an impermeable low-resistivity substratum; the buried valley is filled...... of joint hydrogeophysical inversion and the importance of uncertainty in the petrophysical relationship....

  8. Low-Cost, Class D Testing of Spacecraft Photovoltaic Systems Can Reduce Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgione, Joshua B.; Kojima, Gilbert K.; Hanel, Robert; Mallinson, Mark V.

    2014-01-01

    The end-to-end verification of a spacecraft photovoltaic power generation system requires light! Specifically, the standard practice for doing so is the Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulation (LAPSS). A LAPSS test can characterize a photovoltaic system's efficiency via its response to rapidly applied impulses of simulated sunlight. However, a Class D program on a constrained budget and schedule may not have the resources to ship an entire satellite for a LAPSS test alone. Such was the case with the Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) program, which was also averse to the risk of hardware damage during shipment. When the Electrical Power System (EPS) team was denied a spacecraft-level LAPSS test, the lack of an end-to-end power generation test elevated to a project-level technical risk. The team pulled together very limited resources to not only eliminate the risk, but build a process to monitor the health of the system through mission operations. We discuss a process for performing a low-cost, end-to-end test of the LADEE photovoltaic system. The approach combines system-level functional test, panel-level performance results, and periodic inspection (and repair) up until launch. Following launch, mission operations tools are utilized to assess system performance based on a scant amount of data. The process starts in manufacturing at the subcontractor. The panel manufacturer provides functional test and LAPSS data on each individual panel. We apply an initial assumption that the per-panel performance is sufficient to meet the power generation requirements. The manufacturer's data is also carried as the performance allocation for each panel during EPS system modeling and initial mission operations. During integration and test, a high-power, professional theater lamp system provides simulated sunlight to each panel on the spacecraft, thereby permitting a true end-to-end system test. A passing test results in a step response to nearly full-rated current

  9. Incorporating Probability Models of Complex Test Structures to Perform Technology Independent FPGA Single Event Upset Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, M. D.; Kim, H. S.; Friendlich, M. A.; Perez, C. E.; Seidlick, C. M.; LaBel, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    We present SEU test and analysis of the Microsemi ProASIC3 FPGA. SEU Probability models are incorporated for device evaluation. Included is a comparison to the RTAXS FPGA illustrating the effectiveness of the overall testing methodology.

  10. Fabrication and Testing of Full-Length Single-Cell Externally Fueled Converters for Thermionic Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    1995-08-01

    Paper presented at the 29th IECEC in Monterey, CA in August 1994. The present paper describes the fabrication and testing of full-length prototypcial converters, both unfueled and fueled, and presents parametric results of electrically heated tests.

  11. Reducing test anxiety and improving academic self-esteem in high school and college students with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachelka, D; Katz, R C

    1999-09-01

    Test anxiety seems like a benign problem to some people, but it can be potentially serious when it leads to high levels of distress and academic failure in otherwise capable students. Because test anxiety is common in older students with learning disabilities (LD), it is surprising that little research has been done on ways to reduce the distress these students experience in test situations. In this study, we used a randomized pretest-posttest control group design to examine the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral treatment for reducing test anxiety and improving academic self-esteem in a cohort (N = 27) of high school and college students with learning disabilities (LD). All of the students participated voluntarily. They were enrolled in classes for students with learning problems. Before the study began, they complained of test anxiety and showed an elevated score on the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI). Eleven students (85%) completed the 8-week long treatment, which consisted of progressive muscle relaxation, guided imagery, self-instruction training, as well as training in study and test-taking skills. Results showed significant improvement in the treated group which was not evident in an untreated control group (N = 16). Compared to the control group, the treated group showed significant reductions in test anxiety on the TAI, as well as improvement in study skills and academic self-esteem as measured by the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes, and the school scale of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. These results extend the generality of similar studies on reducing test anxiety and improving academic self-esteem in younger students. They also suggest that relief from test anxiety can be expected fairly quickly when cognitive-behavioral methods are used. Additional implications and methodological limitations of the study are discussed.

  12. Hypnotherapy and Test Anxiety: Two Cognitive-Behavioral Constructs. The Effects of Hypnosis in Reducing Test Anxiety and Improving Academic Achievement in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Marty

    A two-group randomized multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to investigate the effects of cognitive-behavioral hypnosis in reducing test anxiety and improving academic performance in comparison to a Hawthorne control group. Subjects were enrolled in a rigorous introductory psychology course which covered an entire text in one…

  13. Evaluating the Wald Test for Item-Level Comparison of Saturated and Reduced Models in Cognitive Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Jimmy; Lee, Young-Sun

    2013-01-01

    This article used the Wald test to evaluate the item-level fit of a saturated cognitive diagnosis model (CDM) relative to the fits of the reduced models it subsumes. A simulation study was carried out to examine the Type I error and power of the Wald test in the context of the G-DINA model. Results show that when the sample size is small and a…

  14. EPA Releases Draft Policy to Reduce Animal Testing for Skin Sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document, Draft Interim Science Policy: Use of Alternative Approaches for Skin Sensitization as a Replacement for Laboratory Animal Testing, describes the science behind the non-animal alternatives that can now be used to identify skin sensitization.

  15. Single Group, Pre- and Post-Test Research Designs: Some Methodological Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Emma; Torgerson, Carole J.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides two illustrations of some of the factors that can influence findings from pre- and post-test research designs in evaluation studies, including regression to the mean (RTM), maturation, history and test effects. The first illustration involves a re-analysis of data from a study by Marsden (2004), in which pre-test scores are…

  16. Flow tests of a single fuel element coolant channel for a compact fast reactor for space power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springborn, R. H.

    1971-01-01

    Water flow tests were conducted on a single-fuel-element cooling channel for a nuclear concept to be used for space power. The tests established a method for measuring coolant flow rate which is applicable to water flow testing of a complete mockup of the reference reactor. The inlet plenum-to-outlet plenum pressure drop, which approximates the overall core pressure drop, was measured and correlated with flow rate. This information can be used for reactor coolant flow and heat transfer calculations. An analytical study of the flow characteristics was also conducted.

  17. The development of evaluating tensile property method used the single notched ring test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Bong Kook; Koo, Jae Mean; Seok, Chang Sung

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the single notched specimen which was proposed the previous study was used to evaluate of the transverse tensile property of zircaloy cladding. The single notched specimen has notches which give stress intensity effect, so both FEM and experiment are needed for the same time. Take a coincidence of tensile behavior about both FEM and experiment, then obtain stress and strain from FEM only. The influence of notch was estimated by comparing the result of experimental, FEM. Then the relationship between stress-strain and displacement was evaluated

  18. Potential impact of the MR spectroscopic cancer blood test on reducing the need for lung biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, M.; Fossel, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    Lung biopsies are generally performed to identify or rule out malignancy. A clinical presumption of lung malignancy without biopsy proof may result in unjustified surgery. The authors sought to test the value of the MR cancer blood test (CBT) recently described. They obtained prebiopsy blood samples (2 mL) from 65 patients undergoing lung biopsy for radiologically identified lesions. The CBT was performed blinded, and the result was then compared with the pathologic diagnosis obtained from biopsy. Results are presented

  19. Design and test properties of super water reducers in Portland cement concrete : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Recently, new concrete admixtures (super water reducers) have been developed and marketed by private industry. These admixtures permit the mixing and placement of very low water-cement ratio (0.32 to 0.38) concretes at conventional consistencies (slu...

  20. Improving Papanicolaou test quality and reducing medical errors by using Toyota production system methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Stephen S; Andrew-Jaja, Carey; Condel, Jennifer L; Dabbs, David J

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether the Toyota production system process improves Papanicolaou test quality and patient safety. An 8-month nonconcurrent cohort study that included 464 case and 639 control women who had a Papanicolaou test was performed. Office workflow was redesigned using Toyota production system methods by introducing a 1-by-1 continuous flow process. We measured the frequency of Papanicolaou tests without a transformation zone component, follow-up and Bethesda System diagnostic frequency of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, and diagnostic error frequency. After the intervention, the percentage of Papanicolaou tests lacking a transformation zone component decreased from 9.9% to 4.7% (P = .001). The percentage of Papanicolaou tests with a diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance decreased from 7.8% to 3.9% (P = .007). The frequency of error per correlating cytologic-histologic specimen pair decreased from 9.52% to 7.84%. The introduction of the Toyota production system process resulted in improved Papanicolaou test quality.

  1. High-energy heavy ion testing of VLSI devices for single event ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Single event upset is defined by NASA as 'radiation- induced errors in microelectronic circuits caused when charged particles (usually from the radiation belts or from cosmic rays) lose energy by ionizing the medium through which they pass, leaving behind a wake of elec- tron-hole pairs'. SEU are transient soft errors and ...

  2. Testing the Efficacy of a Scholarship Program for Single Parent, Post-Freshmen, Full Time Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Dick M., II; Kaka, Sarah J.; Tygret, Jennifer A.; Cathcart, Katy

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the efficacy of a scholarship program designed to assist single parent, post-freshmen, full time undergraduate students and predictors of success among a sample of said students, where success is defined as progress toward completion, academic achievement, and degree completion. Results of fixed effects regression and…

  3. Analysis and Testing of Ajax-based Single-page Web Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesbah, A.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation has focused on better understanding the shifting web paradigm and the consequences of moving from the classical multi-page model to an Ajax-based single-page style. Specifically to that end, this work has examined this new class of software from three main software engineering

  4. Design and Testing of a Thermostable Platform for Multimerization of Single Domain Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    from the blood of sharks and camelids (camels and llamas). Largely due to their small size (12‒14 kDa), these molecules have substantial thermostability...H.J. Properties, production, and applications of camelid single domain antibody fragments. Appl. Microbiol. Biot. 2007, 77, 13‒22. 2. Goldman

  5. Single cells for forensic DNA analysis--from evidence material to test tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brück, Simon; Evers, Heidrun; Heidorn, Frank; Müller, Ute; Kilper, Roland; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a method that, while providing morphological quality control, allows single cells to be obtained from the surfaces of various evidence materials and be made available for DNA analysis in cases where only small amounts of cell material are present or where only mixed traces are found. With the SteREO Lumar.V12 stereomicroscope and UV unit from Zeiss, it was possible to detect and assess single epithelial cells on the surfaces of various objects (e.g., glass, plastic, metal). A digitally operated micromanipulator developed by aura optik was used to lift a single cell from the surface of evidence material and to transfer it to a conventional PCR tube or to an AmpliGrid(®) from Advalytix. The actual lifting of the cells was performed with microglobes that acted as carriers. The microglobes were held with microtweezers and were transferred to the DNA analysis receptacles along with the adhering cells. In a next step, the PCR can be carried out in this receptacle without removing the microglobe. Our method allows a single cell to be isolated directly from evidence material and be made available for forensic DNA analysis. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. A Review of Single-Case Studies Utilizing Self-Monitoring Interventions to Reduce Problem Classroom Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Kim; Waller, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Trying to manage the problem behaviors of one or two students in the classroom can take teachers away from valuable instructional time with all students. However, these problem behaviors can be reduced and student engagement increased by teachers implementing effective behavior management strategies. 2008). Because behavior management is only one…

  7. A Component-Minimized Single-Phase Active Power Decoupling Circuit with Reduced Current Stress to Semiconductor Switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    component, e.g. inductors or film capacitors for ripple energy storage because this task can be accomplished by the dc-link capacitors, and therefore its implementation cost can be minimized. Another unique feature of the proposed topology is that the current stress of power semiconductors can be reduced...

  8. A single vaccination of commercial broilers does not reduce transmission of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poetri, O.; Bouma, A.; Claassen, I.J.T.M.; Koch, G.; Soejoedono, R.; Stegeman, A.; Boven, M.

    2011-01-01

    Vaccination of chickens has become routine practice in Asian countries in which H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is endemically present. This mainly applies to layer and breeder flocks, but broilers are usually left unvaccinated. Here we investigate whether vaccination is able to reduce

  9. Reducing decision errors in the paired comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of screening tests with Gaussian outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringham, Brandy M; Alonzo, Todd A; Brinton, John T; Kreidler, Sarah M; Munjal, Aarti; Muller, Keith E; Glueck, Deborah H

    2014-03-05

    Scientists often use a paired comparison of the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves to decide which continuous cancer screening test has the best diagnostic accuracy. In the paired design, all participants are screened with both tests. Participants with suspicious results or signs and symptoms of disease receive the reference standard test. The remaining participants are classified as non-cases, even though some may have occult disease. The standard analysis includes all study participants, which can create bias in the estimates of diagnostic accuracy since not all participants receive disease status verification. We propose a weighted maximum likelihood bias correction method to reduce decision errors. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we assessed the method's ability to reduce decision errors across a range of disease prevalences, correlations between screening test scores, rates of interval cases and proportions of participants who received the reference standard test. The performance of the method depends on characteristics of the screening tests and the disease and on the percentage of participants who receive the reference standard test. In studies with a large amount of bias in the difference in the full areas under the curves, the bias correction method reduces the Type I error rate and improves power for the correct decision. We demonstrate the method with an application to a hypothetical oral cancer screening study. The bias correction method reduces decision errors for some paired screening trials. In order to determine if bias correction is needed for a specific screening trial, we recommend the investigator conduct a simulation study using our software.

  10. Reducing Test Anxiety among 12th Grade Students: Iraqi Kurdistan Region/Soran City as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faqe, Chiayee Khorshid; Moheddin, Kurdistan Rafiq; Kakamad, Karwan Kakabra

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at reducing test anxiety among twelfth grade students at Soran city high schools. Throughout the study both quantitative and qualitative methods used to collect data. The participants were 450 twelfth grade students in five schools at Soran City-Kurdistan region of Iraq. Non-random purposive sampling because the students needed…

  11. Sleep Can Reduce the Testing Effect: It Enhances Recall of Restudied Items but Can Leave Recall of Retrieved Items Unaffected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T.; Holterman, Christoph; Abel, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The testing effect refers to the finding that retrieval practice in comparison to restudy of previously encoded contents can improve memory performance and reduce time-dependent forgetting. Naturally, long retention intervals include both wake and sleep delay, which can influence memory contents differently. In fact, sleep immediately after…

  12. Collagen hemostat significantly reduces time to hemostasis compared with cellulose: COBBANA, a single-center, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qerimi, Bekim; Baumann, Petra; Hüsing, Johannes; Knaebel, Hanns-Peter; Schumacher, Hardy

    2013-06-01

    This single-center, randomized trial compares the hemostatic effectiveness of microfibrillar collagen and oxidized cellulose in arterial bypass surgery. In patients undergoing arterial bypass surgery, 2 hemostats, microfibrillar collagen and oxidized cellulose, were randomly used to achieve hemostasis. The primary endpoint was the time to hemostasis. The secondary endpoints were the complication rate, mortality, number of hemostats required, handling, and adhesion. Collagen achieved hemostasis significantly faster than cellulose, with considerably less hemostats. In addition, its ease of use was rated substantially better. In arterial bypass surgery, microfibrillar collagen is more effective than oxidized cellulose in achieving hemostasis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A compact seven switches topology and reduced DC-link capacitor size for single-phase stand-alone PV system with hybrid energy storages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiong; Wang, Peng; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2011-01-01

    Single-phase stand-alone PV system is suitable for household applications in remote area. Hybrid battery/ultra-capacitor energy storage can reduce charge and discharge cycles and avoid deep discharges of battery. This paper proposes a compact seven switches structure for stand-alone PV system......-order harmonic current caused by single-phase inverter. In the proposed compact topology, a small size DC-link capacitor can achieve the same function through charging/discharging control of ultra-capacitor to mitigate second-order ripple current. Simulation results are provided to validate the effectiveness......, which otherwise needs nine switches configuration, inclusive of one switch for boost converter, four switches for single-phase inverter and four switches for two DC/DC converters of battery and ultra-capacitor. It is well-known that a bulky DC-link capacitor is always required to absorb second...

  14. Proceedings of the international meeting on reduced enrichment for research and test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchihashi, Keichiro

    1984-05-01

    The purpose of the Meeting was to exchange and discuss the most up-to-date information on the progress of various programs related to research and test reactor core conversion from high enriched uranium to lower enriched uranium. The papers presented during the Meeting were divided into 9 sessions and one round able discussion which concluded the Meeting. The Sessions were: Program, Fuel Development, Fuel Fabrication, Irradiation testing, Safety Analysis, Special Reactor Conversion, Reactor Design, Critical Experiments, and Reprocessing and Spent Fuel Storage. Thus, topics of this Meeting were of a very wide range that was expected to result in information exchange valuable for all the participants in the RERTR program

  15. The anomaly in a breakthrough curve of a single well "push-pull" tracer test: A density driven effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilfelder, Sarah; Hebig, Klaus; Ito, Narimitsu; Machida, Isao; Scheytt, Traugott; Marui, Atsunao

    2013-04-01

    What method is appropriate to investigate an aquifer when there is only one well available? A single well "push-pull" tracer test (PP Test) may be a suitable method in order to characterize an aquifer and to obtain information about the hydraulic and chemical properties when only one well is available for the investigations. In a PP test, a test solution that contains a known amount of solutes and a conservative tracer is injected into the aquifer ("push") and extracted afterwards ("pull"). Optionally, the test solution is flushed out of the well and the casing with untreated test solution with a so called "chaser" before being extracted. Also between the injection and the extraction phase a drifting time may be included. The breakthrough of the tracer during the extraction phase is measured and used for analyses and interpretation. In the last three years, several PP Test campaigns were conducted at two different test sites in Japan (Hebig et al. 2011, Zeilfelder et al. 2012). The aim was to investigate the applicability of the PP Test method in different geological settings and in different types of aquifers. The latest field campaign thus focussed on the question how variations of the setup are influencing the breakthrough curve of the PP Test in order to develop and enhance this method. Also the standardization of the PP Test was an aim of this study. During the campaign, a total of seven PP Tests were performed, while only single aspects of the setup were varied from test to test. The tests differed in injection and extraction rate, in the salinity of the injected test solution and in the use of a chaser solution. The general shapes of the breakthrough curves were similar and conclusions about the repeatability of the PP Test could be drawn. However, a sharp anomaly was observed in the breakthrough curve of one specific setup type. By repeating this PP test under the same boundary conditions, we were able to recreate the anomaly and could exclude any technical

  16. Building a Robust Tumor Profiling Program: Synergy between Next-Generation Sequencing and Targeted Single-Gene Testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Hiemenz

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing (NGS is a powerful platform for identifying cancer mutations. Routine clinical adoption of NGS requires optimized quality control metrics to ensure accurate results. To assess the robustness of our clinical NGS pipeline, we analyzed the results of 304 solid tumor and hematologic malignancy specimens tested simultaneously by NGS and one or more targeted single-gene tests (EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, NPM1, FLT3, and JAK2. For samples that passed our validated tumor percentage and DNA quality and quantity thresholds, there was perfect concordance between NGS and targeted single-gene tests with the exception of two FLT3 internal tandem duplications that fell below the stringent pre-established reporting threshold but were readily detected by manual inspection. In addition, NGS identified clinically significant mutations not covered by single-gene tests. These findings confirm NGS as a reliable platform for routine clinical use when appropriate quality control metrics, such as tumor percentage and DNA quality cutoffs, are in place. Based on our findings, we suggest a simple workflow that should facilitate adoption of clinical oncologic NGS services at other institutions.

  17. Building a Robust Tumor Profiling Program: Synergy between Next-Generation Sequencing and Targeted Single-Gene Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemenz, Matthew C; Kadauke, Stephan; Lieberman, David B; Roth, David B; Zhao, Jianhua; Watt, Christopher D; Daber, Robert D; Morrissette, Jennifer J D

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a powerful platform for identifying cancer mutations. Routine clinical adoption of NGS requires optimized quality control metrics to ensure accurate results. To assess the robustness of our clinical NGS pipeline, we analyzed the results of 304 solid tumor and hematologic malignancy specimens tested simultaneously by NGS and one or more targeted single-gene tests (EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, NPM1, FLT3, and JAK2). For samples that passed our validated tumor percentage and DNA quality and quantity thresholds, there was perfect concordance between NGS and targeted single-gene tests with the exception of two FLT3 internal tandem duplications that fell below the stringent pre-established reporting threshold but were readily detected by manual inspection. In addition, NGS identified clinically significant mutations not covered by single-gene tests. These findings confirm NGS as a reliable platform for routine clinical use when appropriate quality control metrics, such as tumor percentage and DNA quality cutoffs, are in place. Based on our findings, we suggest a simple workflow that should facilitate adoption of clinical oncologic NGS services at other institutions.

  18. Behavioural testing based breeding policy reduces the prevalence of fear and aggression related behaviour in Rottweilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, van der Joanne A.M.; Graat, Lisette; Beerda, Bonne

    2017-01-01

    Behavioural testing allows to exclude dogs that are fearful and aggressive from the breeding population, but relatively little is known about the effectiveness of such strategies in practice. From 2001 till 2009 parent purebred Dutch Rottweilers had to pass the Socially Acceptable Behaviour

  19. Proceedings of the 1984 international meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors. Base technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    More than 40 papers were presented at this RERTR Meeting during the following sessions: Status of RERTR programs and licensing procedures; LEU fuel element development; fuel fabrication and testing; economics; mixed reactor cores; and applications, i.e. neutronics and thermal hydraulics design of upgraded reactors, with new LEU fuel, fuel cycle studies, feasibility and safety analyses

  20. The Effect of a Noise Reducing Test Accommodation on Elementary Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory W.; Riccomini, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers in the fields of cognitive psychology and education have been studying the negative effects of noise on human performance for almost a century. A new empirical study that builds upon past relevant research on (1) test accommodations and (2) auditory distraction and academic performance was conducted with elementary age students.…

  1. Evaluation of the single-pass flow-through test to support a low-activity waste specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrail, B.P.; Peeler, D.K.

    1995-09-01

    A series of single-pass flow-through (SPFT) tests was performed on five reference low-activity waste glasses and a reference glass from the National Institute of Standards and Technology to support a product specification for low-activity waste (LAW) forms. The results showed that the SPFT test provides a means to quantitatively distinguish among LAW glass forms in terms of their forward reaction rate at a given temperature and solution pH. Two of the test glasses were also subjected to SPFT testing at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Forward reaction rate constants calculated from the ANL test data were 100 to over 1,000 times larger than the values obtained from the SPFT tests conducted at PNL. An analysis of the ANL results showed that they were inconsistent with independent measurements done on glasses of similar composition, the known pH-dependence of the forward rate, and with the results from low surface-area-to-volume, short duration product consistency tests. Because the data set obtained from the SPFT tests done at PNL was consistent with each of these same factors, a detailed examination of the test procedures used at both laboratories was performed to determine the cause(s) of the discrepancy. The omission of background subtraction in the data analysis procedure and the short-duration (on the order of hours) of the ANL tests are factors that may have significantly affected the calculated rates

  2. Initial Results of Accelerated Stress Testing on Single-Channel and Multichannel Drivers: Solid-State Lighting Technology Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2018-02-28

    This report is the first in a series of studies on accelerated stress testing (AST) of drivers used for SSL luminaires, such as downlights, troffers, and streetlights. A representative group of two-stage commercial driver products was exposed to an AST environment consisting of 75°C and 75% relative humidity (7575). These drivers were a mix of single-channel drivers (i.e., a single output current for one LED primary) and multichannel drivers (i.e., separate output currents for multiple LED primaries). This AST environment was chosen because previous testing on downlights with integrated drivers demonstrated that 38% of the sample population failed in less than 2,500 hours of testing using this method. In addition to AST test results, the performance of an SSL downlight product incorporating an integrated, multichannel driver during extended room temperature operational life (RTOL) testing is also reported. A battery of measurements was used to evaluate these products during accelerated testing, including full electrical characterization (i.e., power consumption, PF, total harmonic distortion [THD], and inrush current) and photometric characterization of external LED loads attached to the drivers (i.e., flicker performance and lumen maintenance).

  3. Single event upset tests of a RISC-based fault-tolerant computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimbrough, J.R.; Butner, D.N.; Colella, N.J.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Shaeffer, D.L.; McKnett, C.L.; Coakley, P.G.; Casteneda, C.

    1996-03-23

    The project successfully demonstrated that dual lock-step comparison of commercial RISC processors is a viable fault-tolerant approach to handling SEU in space environment. The fault tolerant approach on orbit error rate was 38 times less than the single processor error rate. The random nature of the upsets and appearance in critical code section show it is essential to incorporate both hardware and software in the design and operation of fault-tolerant computers.

  4. Design and Test of Semi-Active Vibration-Reducing System for Lathe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Hu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, its theory design, analysis and test system of semi-active vibration controlling system used for precision machine have been done. Firstly, lathe bed and spindle entity were modeled by using UG software; Then modes of the machine bed and the key components of spindle were obtained by using ANSYS software; Finally, harmonic response analysis of lathe spindle under complex load was acquired, which provided a basis of MR damper’s structure optimization design for a certain type of precision machine. In order to prove its effectives, a prototype semi-active vibration controlling lathe with MR damper was developed. Tests have been done, and comparison results between passive vibration isolation equipment and semi-active vibration controlling equipment proved its good performances of MR damper.

  5. Reducing BER of spectral-amplitude coding optical code-division multiple-access systems by single photodiode detection technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khafaji, H. M. R.; Aljunid, S. A.; Amphawan, A.; Fadhil, H. A.; Safar, A. M.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we present a single photodiode detection (SPD) technique for spectral-amplitude coding optical code-division multiple-access (SAC-OCDMA) systems. The proposed technique eliminates both phase-induced intensity noise (PIIN) and multiple-access interference (MAI) in the optical domain. Analytical results show that for 35 simultaneous users transmitting at data rate of 622 Mbps, the bit-error rate (BER) = 1.4x10^-28 for SPD technique is much better compared to 9.3x10^-6 and 9.6x10^-3 for the modified-AND as well as the AND detection techniques, respectively. Moreover, we verified the improved performance afforded by the proposed technique using data transmission simulations.

  6. Exposure to music with prosocial lyrics reduces aggression: First evidence and test of the underlying mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Previous research has predominantly focused on negative effects of music exposure by demonstrating that listening to antisocial music increases aggression and aggression-related variables. The present research tests the idea that listening to prosocial (relative to neutral) music decreases aggressive outcomes. In fact, five studies revealed that prosocial music exposure decreased aggressive cognition, affect, and behavior. Mediational analyses showed that the effect of...

  7. Single Exposure of Human Oral Mucosa Fibroblasts to Ultraviolet B Radiation Reduces Proliferation and Induces COX-2 Expression and Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Boza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The lip vermillion constitutes a transition tissue, between oral mucosa and skin, where oral mucosal cells from epithelial and connective tissue compartments are exposed to ultraviolet (UV sunlight. Fibroblasts are abundant resident cells of the connective tissue which are key regulators of extracellular matrix composition, as well as, epithelial and endothelial cell function. UVB light, an inherent component of sunlight, causes several alterations in skin fibroblasts, including premature senescence and increased cyclooxygenase (COX-2 expression. To assess if UVB irradiation had similar effects on fibroblasts derived from human oral mucosa (HOM, primary cultures of HOM fibroblasts were irradiated with a single dose of 30 or 60 mJ/cm²of UVB light or sham-irradiated. Fibroblast proliferation was assessed from 3 to 48 hrs after UVB-irradiation utilizing [³H]-thymidine incorporation and MTT assays. In addition, COX-2 mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR, and PGE2 production was assessed using enzyme immunoassay from 0.5 to 24 hrs after UVB-irradiation. The results showed a significant decrease in proliferation of UVB-irradiated HOM fibroblasts as compared to controls as measured by both [³H]-thymidine incorporation and MTT assays (p<0.001. HOM fibroblasts had increased COX-2 mRNA expression at 0.5 and 12 hrs after irradiation, and PGE2 production was elevated at 12 and 24 hrs post-irradiation as compared to controls (p<0.05. The results showed an inhibitory effect of a single dose of UVB irradiation on HOM fibroblast proliferation with an increase in COX-2 expression and activation. Therefore, photodamaged fibroblasts may play and important role in the pathogenesis of UV-induced lesions of the lip.

  8. Reducing multiple pregnancy in assisted reproduction technology: towards a policy of single blastocyst transfer in younger women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalu, E; Thum, M-Y; Abdalla, H

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the effects of single blastocyst transfer (SBT) on live birth and multiple pregnancy in women undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Descriptive cohort study. A London private IVF/postgraduate training unit. A total of 700 fresh and 102 frozen blastocyst cycles performed between January 2005 and December 2006. Young women aged 25-37 years and those aged 38-43 years were further divided into those who had SBT and those who received two blastocysts (double blastocyst transfer [DBT]). Live birth and multiple pregnancy rates were compared between groups. Cumulative live birth was compared between women who had DBT and those who received a SBT followed by a frozen blastocyst if the fresh cycle was unsuccessful. Live birth rate, cumulative live birth rate, multiple pregnancy rate, uptake of SBT. Among women aged 25-37 years, live birth rate following SBT was 59.0 versus 60.7% following DBT. The twin pregnancy rate in this group was 2.3 and 47.6% respectively. For women aged 38-43 years, live birth following SBT was 29.4% and multiple pregnancy rate was 33.3%. DBT in older women gave a higher live birth rate (44.3%) and a multiple pregnancy rate of 36.4%. Cumulative live birth following SBT in women aged 25-37 years was 72.8% versus 60.5% following DBT. Among the women aged 38-43 years, cumulative live birth was higher (63.3%) following DBT versus 28.6% following SBT. Single blastocyst transfer followed by transfer of a frozen blastocyst if the preceding fresh cycle was unsuccessful resulted in a better cumulative live birth and lower twin pregnancy in young women. In older women, two fresh blastocysts gave better results than one fresh followed by a frozen cycle. Older women should have the option of replacing two fresh blastocysts as this optimises their chances of taking home a baby.

  9. Columbia University flow instability experimental program: Volume 2. Single tube uniformly heated tests -- Part 2: Uncertainty analysis and data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, T.; Maciuca, C.; McAssey, E.V. Jr.; Reddy, D.G.; Yang, B.W.

    1990-05-01

    In June 1988, Savannah River Laboratory requested that the Heat Transfer Research Facility modify the flow excursion program, which had been in progress since November 1987, to include testing of single tubes in vertical down-flow over a range of length to diameter (L/D) ratios of 100 to 500. The impetus for the request was the desire to obtain experimental data as quickly as possible for code development work. In July 1988, HTRF submitted a proposal to SRL indicating that by modifying a facility already under construction the data could be obtained within three to four months. In January 1990, HTFR issued report CU-HTRF-T4, part 1. This report contained the technical discussion of the results from the single tube uniformly heated tests. The present report is part 2 of CU-HTRF-T4 which contains further discussion of the uncertainty analysis and the complete set of data

  10. Nurturing the Continuum of HIV Testing, Treatment and Prevention Matrix Cascade in Reducing HIV Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yah, Clarence S

    2017-11-01

    Despite the shift in antiretroviral therapy (ARVs) eligibility cascade from CD4 ≤ 200 to CD4 ≤ 350 to CD4 ≤ 500 mm 3 , HIV related morbidity and mortality continue to escalate annually, as do HIV infections. The new paradigm of treatment for all HIV positives individual irrespective of CD4 count may significantly reduce HIV and related illnesses. The author assumes that all HIV infected partners should be eligible for HIV treatment and care, irrespective of CD4 count. A second assumption is that high risk HIV negative partners have free access to continuum of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and other prevention packages. A literature review search was used to extract evidence-based ARVs-HIV treatment and prevention interventions among HIV positives and high risk partners respectively. Only articles published in English and indexed in journal nuclei were used for the study. The information was used to nurture understanding of HIV treatment and prevention approaches as well as HIV incidence multiplier effect among HIV serodiscordant partners. The imputed HIV incident reference was assumed at 1.2 per 100 person-years (2). This was based on the imputation that retention in care, adherence and other predetermined factors are functions of an effective health care delivery system. The model showed a reduced HIV transmission from 1.2 per 100 person-years to 1.032 per 100 person-years in 6 months. The average threshold period of HIV suppressed partners on ARVs to an undetectable level. The combined multiplier protective-effect probability of transmitting HIV from HIV positive partners on ARVs-suppressed viremic load to HIV negative partners on PrEP/PEP-prevention was detected at 86. The model showed a significant reduction in HIV incidence. Placing serodiscordant sexual partners in HIV treatment and prevention plays a significant role in reducing and controlling HIV infection. Therefore, the policy of enrolling all HIV positives

  11. Structural properties of as-grown and reduced Pr2CuO4 single crystals investigated by ion channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haga, T.; Abe, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Ion channeling is very sensitive to atomic arrangements and small atomic displacements in real space. Thus, in order to clarify a role of reduction for Pr 2 CuO 4 , ion channeling properties for the materials have been measured in detail. Anomalous increases of dechanneling fractions of Cu and O atoms in the reduced samples have been found. These results could not be explained by the apical oxygen model but probably suggest that O atoms in Cu-O planes are removed by reduction. Taking these results into account, correlation between lattice instability and superconductivity in the material will be discussed. (orig.)

  12. Standardized testing with chlorhexidine in perioperative allergy – a large single-centre evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjørring Opstrup, Morten; Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Krøigaard, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perioperative allergic reactions to chlorhexidine are often severe and easily overlooked. Although rare, the prevalence remains unknown. Correct diagnosis is crucial, but no validated provocation model exists, and other diagnostic tests have never been evaluated. The aims were...... to estimate 1) the prevalence of chlorhexidine allergy and 2) the specificity and sensitivity for diagnostic tests for chlorhexidine allergy. METHODS: We included all patients investigated for suspected perioperative allergic reactions in the Danish Anaesthesia Allergy Centre during 2004-2012. The following...... the diameter of negative control. Chlorhexidine allergy was post hoc defined as a relevant clinical reaction to chlorhexidine combined with two or more positive tests. Based on this definition, sensitivity and specificity were estimated for each test. RESULTS: In total, 22 out of 228 patients (9.6%) met...

  13. The Influence of Intersections on Fuel Consumption in Urban Arterial Road Traffic: A Single Vehicle Test in Harbin, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Wu

    Full Text Available The calculating method for fuel consumption (FC was put forward and calibrated and the characteristics of the fuel consumption on intersections were analyzed based on 18 groups of vehicular operating data which were acquired from the test experiment of a single vehicle along the urban arterial roads in Harbin, China. The results obtained show that 50.36% of the fuel consumption for the test vehicle was used at the area of intersections compared with 28.9% of the influencing distance and 68.5% of the running time; and 78.4% of them was burnt at the stages of acceleration and idling. Meanwhile, the type

  14. Reflective inserts to reduce heat strain in body armor: tests with and without irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadarette, Bruce S; Santee, William R; Robinson, Scott B; Sawka, Michael N

    2007-08-01

    This study evaluated adding reflective thermal inserts (RTI) to reduce the physiological strain during exercise-heat stress with a radiant load. RTI were used with a U.S. Army desert battle dress uniform, body armor, and helmet. Four male volunteers attempted four trials (10 min rest followed by 100 min walking at 1.56 m x s(-1)). All trials were at 40.0 degrees C dry bulb (Tdb), 12.4 degrees C dew point (Tdp), 20% RH, and 1.0 m x s(-1) wind speed. On 2 d, there was supplementary irradiance (+1) with globe temperature (Tbg) = 56.5 degrees C and on 2 d there was no supplementary irradiance (-I) with Tbg approximately Tdb. Trial conditions were: 1) RTI and armor with supplementary irradiance (RA+I); 2) plain armor with supplementary irradiance (PA+I); 3) RTI and armor with no supplementary irradiance (RA-I); and 4) plain armor with no supplementary irradiance (PA-I). Endurance times were not significantly different among trials. With one exception, armor and helmet interior and exterior surface temperatures were not significantly different between either RA+I and PA+I or RA-I and PA-I. Temperature on the inside of the helmet in RA+I (47.1 +/- 1.4 degrees C) was significantly lower than in PA+I (49.5 +/- 2.6 degrees C). There were no differences for any physiological measure (core temperature, heart rate, mean weighted skin temperature, forehead skin temperature, sweating rate, evaporative cooling, rate of heat storage) between either RA+I and PA+L or RA-I and PA-I. Results showed no evidence that wearing RTI with body armor and helmet reduces physiological strain during exercise-heat stress with either high or low irradiance.

  15. Testing climate-smart irrigation strategies to reduce methane emissions from rice fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkle, B.; Suvocarev, K.; Reba, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    Approximately 11% of the global 308 Tg CH4 anthropogenic emissions are currently attributed to rice cultivation. In this study, the impact of water conservation practices on rice field CH4 emissions was evaluated in Arkansas, the leading state in US rice cultivation. While conserving water, the Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD) irrigation practice can also reduce CH4 emissions through the deliberate, periodic introduction of aerobic conditions. Seasonal CH4emissions from a pair of adjacent, production-sized rice fields were estimated and compared during the 2015 to 2017 growing seasons using the eddy covariance method on each field. The fields were alternately treated with continuous flood (CF) and AWD irrigation. In 2015, the seasonal cumulative carbon losses by CH4 emission were 30.3 ± 6.3 and 141.9 ± 8.6 kg CH4-C ha-1 for the AWD and CF treatments, respectively. Data from 2016 and 2017 will be analyzed and shown within this presentation; an initial view demonstrates consistent findings to 2015. When accounting for differences in field conditions and soils, the AWD practice is attributable to a 36-51% reduction in seasonal emissions. The substantial decrease in CH4 emissions by AWD supports previous chamber-based research and offers strong evidence for the efficacy of AWD in reducing CH4 emissions in Arkansas rice production. The AWD practice has enabled the sale of credits for carbon offsets trading and this new market could encourage CH4 emissions reductions on a national scale. These eddy covariance towers are being placed into a regional perspective including crop and forest land in the three states comprising the Mississippi Delta: Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana.

  16. Clinical value of single versus composite provocative clinical tests in the assessment of painful shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaffi, Fausto; Ciapetti, Alessandro; Carotti, Marina; Gasparini, Stefania; Filippucci, Emilio; Grassi, Walter

    2010-04-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the clinical value of the provocative clinical tests and propose a composite index for the assessment of painful shoulder, using ultrasonography (US) as reference method. Two hundred three patients with painful shoulder underwent both clinical and US evaluations. The physical examination was carried out performing the Hawkins, Jobe, Patte, Gerber, and Speed tests. Each test was included in a composite index namely, SNAPSHOT (Simple Numeric Assessment of Pain by SHOulder Tests). The US examination was performed by a rheumatologist experienced in US and blinded to clinical findings. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, positive and negative likelihood ratio of each clinical test were calculated. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to assess the performance of the composite SNAPSHOT index. Sensitivity was low for the clinical diagnosis of all shoulder abnormalities. The highest sensitivity and smallest negative likelihood ratio were found for the Hawkins (63.88% and 0.50%) and Patte (62.21% and 0.52%) tests. Specificity was good for Speed (76.33%), Gerber (75.42%), and Patte (74.20%) tests. Patte and Speed tests were the most accurate (71.12% and 66.41%, respectively). The calculated area under the ROC curve related to the SNAPSHOT composite index was 0.881 +/- 0.026. With an optimal cut-off point of 3, the sensitivity and specificity were 75.8% and 87.5%, respectively. The results of the present study showed that SNAPSHOT is a feasible, informative and quantitative composite index for the assessment of painful shoulder in the clinical setting.

  17. Standardized testing with chlorhexidine in perioperative allergy--a large single-centre evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opstrup, M S; Malling, H-J; Krøigaard, M; Mosbech, H; Skov, P S; Poulsen, L K; Garvey, L H

    2014-10-01

    Perioperative allergic reactions to chlorhexidine are often severe and easily overlooked. Although rare, the prevalence remains unknown. Correct diagnosis is crucial, but no validated provocation model exists, and other diagnostic tests have never been evaluated. The aims were to estimate (i) the prevalence of chlorhexidine allergy in perioperative allergy and (ii) the specificity and sensitivity for diagnostic tests for chlorhexidine allergy. We included all patients investigated for suspected perioperative allergic reactions in the Danish Anaesthesia Allergy Centre during 2004-2012. The following tests were performed: specific IgE (Immunocap® ; Phadia AB, Sweden), histamine release test (HR) (RefLab ApS, Denmark), skin prick test (SPT) and intradermal test (IDT). Positivity criteria were as follows: specific IgE >0.35 kUA/l; HR class 1-12; SPT mean wheal diameter ≥3 mm; IDT mean wheal diameter ≥ twice the diameter of negative control. Chlorhexidine allergy was post hoc defined as a relevant clinical reaction to chlorhexidine combined with two or more positive tests. Based on this definition, sensitivity and specificity were estimated for each test. In total, 22 of 228 patients (9.6%) met the definition of allergy to chlorhexidine. Estimated sensitivity and specificity were as follows: specific IgE (sensitivity 100% and specificity 97%), HR (sensitivity 55% and specificity 99%), SPT (sensitivity 95% and specificity 97%) and IDT (sensitivity 68% and specificity 100%). In patients investigated for suspected perioperative allergic reactions, 9.6% were diagnosed with allergy to chlorhexidine. Using our definition of chlorhexidine allergy, the highest combined estimated sensitivity and specificity was found for specific IgE and SPT. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Test-retest reliability of single and paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation parameters in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsen, A M; Haag, A; Duddek, C; Balkenhol, K; Bugiel, H; Bauer, S; Mylius, V; Menzler, K; Rosenow, F

    2016-03-15

    To determine the influence of different factors on test-retest reliability of frequently used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) parameters while controlling for potential confounders in healthy subjects. TMS was applied in 93 healthy volunteers (61% male) twice (mean retest interval of 34.0 ± 25.6 (SD) days) between 7 am and 2 pm by four investigators (sessions n investigator A=47, investigator B=95, investigator C=28, investigator D=16). Women were assessed in their follicular phase. Test stimulus (TS), resting motor threshold (RMT), short latency intracortical inhibition (SICI), intracortical facilitation (ICF) and cortical silent period (SCP) were analyzed. Good test-retest reliabilities were observed for TS (r=.880) and RMT (r=.826), moderate for visual and automated analyzed CSP durations (resp. r=.466, r=.486), and poor for ICF (r=-.159). Reliable change indexes are reported. Gender (e.g. automated CSP women: r=.538 vs. men: r=.422), re-test interval and method of CSP-analysis did not influence reliabilities. In a large sample of healthy volunteers we found good to moderate test-retest reliabilities in all but one TMS-parameter. Automated analysis of the CSP did not prove to be more reliable than visual determination. This study contains analyses of re-test reliability in TMS considering several confounding factors. For the first time it presents reliable change indices for all frequently used TMS parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Aging reduces veridical remembering but increases false remembering: Neuropsychological test correlates of remember–know judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, David P.; Roediger, Henry L.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Balota, David A.

    2011-01-01

    In 1985 Tulving introduced the remember–know procedure, whereby subjects are asked to distinguish between memories that involve retrieval of contextual details (remembering) and memories that do not (knowing). Several studies have been reported showing age-related declines in remember hits, which has typically been interpreted as supporting dual-process theories of cognitive aging that align remembering with a recollection process and knowing with a familiarity process. Less attention has been paid to remember false alarms, or their relation to age. We reviewed the literature examining aging and remember/know judgments and show that age-related increases in remember false alarms, i.e., false remembering, are as reliable as age-related decreases in remember hits, i.e., veridical remembering. Moreover, a meta-analysis showed that the age effect size for remember hits and false alarms are similar, and larger than age effects on know hits and false alarms. We also show that the neuropsychological correlates of remember hits and false alarms differ. Neuropsychological tests of medial-temporal lobe functioning were related to remember hits, but tests of frontal-lobe functioning and age were not. By contrast, age and frontal-lobe functioning predicted unique variance in remember false alarms, but MTL functioning did not. We discuss various explanations for these findings and conclude that any comprehensive explanation of recollective experience will need to account for the processes underlying both remember hits and false alarms. PMID:19100756

  20. Building on a solid foundation: SAR and QSAR as a fundamental strategy to reduce animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, K M; Manuppello, J R; Willett, C E

    2014-01-01

    The development of more efficient, ethical, and effective means of assessing the effects of chemicals on human health and the environment was a lifetime goal of Gilman Veith. His work has provided the foundation for the use of chemical structure for informing toxicological assessment by regulatory agencies the world over. Veith's scientific work influenced the early development of the SAR models in use today at the US Environmental Protection Agency. He was the driving force behind the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development QSAR Toolbox. Veith was one of a few early pioneers whose vision led to the linkage of chemical structure and biological activity as a means of predicting adverse apical outcomes (known as a mode of action, or an adverse outcome pathway approach), and he understood at an early stage the power that could be harnessed when combining computational and mechanistic biological approaches as a means of avoiding animal testing. Through the International QSAR Foundation he organized like-minded experts to develop non-animal methods and frameworks for the assessment of chemical hazard and risk for the benefit of public and environmental health. Avoiding animal testing was Gil's passion, and his work helped to initiate the paradigm shift in toxicology that is now rendering this feasible.

  1. Single-scan z-shim method for reducing susceptibility artifacts in gradient echo myelin water imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Doohee; Lee, Jingu; Lee, Jongho; Nam, Yoonho

    2018-02-25

    Myelin water imaging (MWI) reportedly corresponds closely to the myelin content in the brain. An MWI technique based on multi-echo gradient echo (mGRE) has recently been proposed as an alternative to the conventional spin-echo-based MWI. However, the mGRE signal is vulnerable to macroscopic field inhomogeneity, which makes MWI unreliable. In the present study, a z-shim-based single-scan correction method is proposed to overcome this limitation. Z-shim gradients in the slice-selection direction were added to an mGRE sequence after an echo time of 12 ms. A 3-pool model corresponding to the proposed sequence was suggested for fitting the acquired signal. The method was evaluated through a comparison with methods without a correction and with post-processing only from non-z-shimmed data. To do this, numerical simulations and in vivo experiments were conducted. The simulation and in vivo experiment results indicated that post-processing alone was not sufficient to offset the macroscopic field inhomogeneity, particularly in inferior regions of the brain. On the other hand, the proposed method compensated the field inhomogeneity in most brain areas. The estimated in vivo myelin water fraction values were in good agreement with literature values obtained by previously proposed field inhomogeneity correction method. The proposed method showed reliable myelin water fraction in most regions of the brain in vivo, including those with severe field inhomogeneity. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  2. Single-session emotion regulation skills training to reduce aggression in combat veterans: A clinical innovation case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Shannon R; Thompson, Karin E; Stanley, Melinda A; Kent, Thomas A

    2016-05-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common among returning veterans, and aggression frequently co-occurs with PTSD. Veterans with PTSD most commonly engage in impulsive aggression, or aggression that is emotionally charged, unplanned, and uncontrolled, rather than premeditated aggression, which is planned and controlled. Previous research demonstrated a variety of emotions can result in aggression, rather than the traditional conceptualization that only anger leads to aggression. In a veteran sample, deficiencies in the ability to regulate emotions (emotion dysregulation) mediated the relationship between PTSD and impulsive aggression. These results suggest that teaching veterans with PTSD and impulsive aggression how to regulate emotions may decrease aggression. The cases presented illustrate the use of an innovative, single-session emotion regulation treatment for combat veterans with PTSD. Two cases are presented to generate hypotheses on who might benefit from this treatment in the future. The two male veterans treated with this protocol differed in how frequently they used the emotion regulation skills after the treatment and in their treatment outcomes. Teaching veterans how to regulate their emotions in a condensed time frame may be beneficial for certain veterans, and further research on this brief treatment is warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Study on Single-yarn Pullout Test of Ballistic Resistant Fabric under Different Preloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Q. C.; Lei, Z. K.; Y Qin, F.; Li, W. K.; Bai, R. X.

    2017-12-01

    During bullet penetrating fabric, the pull-out force of yarn in fabric is related to the impact resistance of fabric when the yarn is pulled out from the fabric. The complex uncrimping and friction slip behavior occur during the yarn pullout process, which is critical to learn the impact resistance of fabric. Based on digital image correlation technique, the deformation behavior of Kevlar 49 fabric subjected to preload during the single-yarn pullout process was studied in this paper. The pullout force and displacement curve shows a straight rise and an oscillated decrease. In the linear rise stage, the yarn uncrimping causes a static friction effect. The maximum of the pullout force is not linearly increased with the preload. In the oscillating descending stage, the local descent of the pullout force indicates that the yarn end is gradually withdrawn from the fabric, and the local rise indicates that the yarn end moves to the next weft/warp interaction until the yarn is completely pulled out. The shear deformation of fabric corresponds to the single-yarn pullout process.

  4. Standard practice for measurement of the glass dissolution rate using the single-pass flow-through test method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes a single-pass flow-through (SPFT) test method that can be used to measure the dissolution rate of a homogeneous silicate glass, including nuclear waste glasses, in various test solutions at temperatures less than 100°C. Tests may be conducted under conditions in which the effects from dissolved species on the dissolution rate are minimized to measure the forward dissolution rate at specific values of temperature and pH, or to measure the dependence of the dissolution rate on the concentrations of various solute species. 1.2 Tests are conducted by pumping solutions in either a continuous or pulsed flow mode through a reaction cell that contains the test specimen. Tests must be conducted at several solution flow rates to evaluate the effect of the flow rate on the glass dissolution rate. 1.3 This practice excludes static test methods in which flow is simulated by manually removing solution from the reaction cell and replacing it with fresh solution. 1.4 Tests may be conducted wit...

  5. Application of modern tests for stationarity to single-trial MEG data: transferring powerful statistical tools from econometrics to neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipiński, Lech; König, Reinhard; Sielużycki, Cezary; Kordecki, Wojciech

    2011-10-01

    Stationarity is a crucial yet rarely questioned assumption in the analysis of time series of magneto- (MEG) or electroencephalography (EEG). One key drawback of the commonly used tests for stationarity of encephalographic time series is the fact that conclusions on stationarity are only indirectly inferred either from the Gaussianity (e.g. the Shapiro-Wilk test or Kolmogorov-Smirnov test) or the randomness of the time series and the absence of trend using very simple time-series models (e.g. the sign and trend tests by Bendat and Piersol). We present a novel approach to the analysis of the stationarity of MEG and EEG time series by applying modern statistical methods which were specifically developed in econometrics to verify the hypothesis that a time series is stationary. We report our findings of the application of three different tests of stationarity--the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Schin (KPSS) test for trend or mean stationarity, the Phillips-Perron (PP) test for the presence of a unit root and the White test for homoscedasticity--on an illustrative set of MEG data. For five stimulation sessions, we found already for short epochs of duration of 250 and 500 ms that, although the majority of the studied epochs of single MEG trials were usually mean-stationary (KPSS test and PP test), they were classified as nonstationary due to their heteroscedasticity (White test). We also observed that the presence of external auditory stimulation did not significantly affect the findings regarding the stationarity of the data. We conclude that the combination of these tests allows a refined analysis of the stationarity of MEG and EEG time series.

  6. Fabrication and testing of a device capable of reducing the incidence of ventricular shunt promoted metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, E C; Samulski, T; Oakes, W J; Friedman, H S

    1996-01-01

    Some malignant brain tumors shed cells into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). These tumors may implant throughout the neuroaxis via the CSF. With the placement of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) or ventriculoatrial (VA) shunt, tumor cells free-floating in the CSF may be carried through the shunt to the remainder of the body. Mechanical filtration devices to prevent this are not reliable. We report the development of a new device capable of reducing the incidence of shunt promoted metastasis. The device exposes the draining CSF, as it passes through a baffle system, to a localized high-intensity radiation field adequately shielded from surrounding normal tissue. The prototype consists of geometrically fixed iodine-125 (125I) sources. The device accommodates the maximum CSF flow rate of 500 ml/24 hours. Radiation exposure to clonogenic cells occurs as they transit through the baffle system. Since the volume of the prototype device is 14 ml, a tumor cell floating through the device will be exposed to radiation for 40 minutes. Utilizing the human medulloblastoma cell line D425 MED, a limiting dilution clonogenic assay was performed. Suspensions of tumor cells in liquid medium were pumped through the device at the maximum anticipated CSF production rate of 0.35 ml/min. After the cells, with their tissue culture medium, were received from the device, a series of nine 5-fold dilutions were prepared from the suspensions which initially contained 10(6) tumor cell/ml. Plates were then incubated and growth was demonstrated by visual scoring of colonies of more than 20 cells. Limiting dilution data analysis was performed. Radiation surveys of the fully loaded (approximately 1.8 Ci) 125I prototype were conducted. A well calibrator was used to measure the activity of the fully loaded device. When the device was loaded with 125I seeds providing a dose of 364-479 cGy the probability of clonogen survival was 0.033. Radiation exposure levels at the exterior surface of the shielded device

  7. Effect of speed endurance training and reduced training volume on running economy and single muscle fiber adaptations in trained runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Casper; Christiansen, Danny; Christensen, Peter Møller

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether improved running economy with a period of speed endurance training and reduced training volume could be related to adaptations in specific muscle fibers. Twenty trained male (n = 14) and female (n = 6) runners (maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 -max...... was performed. In addition, running at 60% vVO2 -max, and a 10-km run was performed in a normal and a muscle slow twitch (ST) glycogen-depleted condition. After compared to before the intervention, expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) was lower (P ....05) in ST muscle fibers, and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 1 (SERCA1) was lower (P VO2 -max (11.6 ± 0.2 km/h) and at v10-km (13.7 ± 0.3 km/h) was ~2% better (P

  8. The development and testing of reduced enrichment fuels for Canadian research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.C.; Foo, M.T.; Berthiaume, L.C.

    1983-01-01

    Fuel rods of uranium silicide dispersed in aluminum and clad in aluminum have been developed and tested in the laboratory and in-reactor. The properties of the dispersion fuel materials proved satisfactory with regard to thermal conductivity, aqueous corrosion resistance, strength and ductility, and thermal stability below 473 K. A vacancy condensation model is proposed to account for the thermally-induced swelling that occurs above 473 K by virtue of the chemical reactions that occur between the dispersed silicide fuel particles and the aluminum matrix. The in-reactor fuel core swelling was less than % after irradiation at high powers 76-131 kW/m) to a high terminal burnup (79.2 at% of U-235 atoms). (author)

  9. Testing messages to reduce smokers' openness to using novel smokeless tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Lucy; Neilands, Torsten B; Ling, Pamela M

    2014-07-01

    Tobacco manufacturers' aggressive promotion of new smokeless tobacco products such as snus warrants a timely and effective public health response. This study tested potential countermarketing messages to discourage current and former smokers from becoming dual users of smokeless tobacco and cigarettes. In a pretest-post-test experiment, 1836 adult current and recently former smokers from a national sample were randomised to view one of six antismokeless tobacco ads followed by a snus ad, to view a control ad followed by a snus ad; or to view two control ads. Perceived effectiveness of ads and actual changes in attitudes and openness to snus were compared across groups using analyses of variance. Some ads that were perceived as most effective did not change attitudes or openness to trying snus, and conversely, some ads not perceived as effective changed attitudes and openness to snus. Ads portraying the negative health effects of smokeless tobacco were perceived as most effective, but ads with antitobacco industry themes significantly decreased favourable attitudes toward snus. Responses to ads were different for smokers who had ever used smokeless tobacco: for this group health effects and humorous/testimonial ads were effective. Measures of perceived effectiveness of antitobacco ads need to be augmented with measures of actual effectiveness to assess countermarketing messages. Some of the developed ads, such as ads with anti-industry themes, were effective for the overall population of smokers whereas humorous/testimonial and health effects ads were particularly effective in changing attitudes of past users of smokeless tobacco. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. An evaluation testing technique of single event effect using Beam Blanking SEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, J.; Hada, T.; Pesce, A.; Akutsu, T.; Matsuda, S. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Space Center; Igarashi, T.; Baba, S.

    1997-03-01

    Beam Blanking SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) testing technique has been applied to CMOS SRAM devices to evaluate the occurence of soft errors on memory cells. Cross-section versus beam current and LET curves derived from BBSEM and heavy ion testing technique, respectively, have been compared. A linear relation between BBSEM current and heavy ion LET has been found. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the application of focused pulsed electron beam could be a reliable, convenient and inexpensive tool to investigate the effects of heavy ions and high energy particles on memory devices for space application. (author)

  11. Histocompatibility Testing for Organ Transplantation Purposes in Albania: A Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkena Shyti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Histocompatibility testing (HT which includes donor-recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA matching, cross-match testing (XMT and anti-HLA antibody searching are crucial examinations in solid organ transplantation aiming to avoid the hyperacute graft rejection and also to predict the immunological outcome of the graft. Aims: The aim of this study was to analyse the tissue typing data collected at the Laboratory of Immunology and Histocompatibility of the University Hospital Center of Tirana, Albania, in order to define those actions that should be taken for improvements in the situation of kidney transplantation in Albania. Design: Descriptive study. Methods: The donor/recipient cross-match testing was performed through a standard complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC assay using separated donor T and B cells that were tested in parallel with the recipient serum sample. All recipient sera were screened for anti-Class I and anti-Class II HLA antibodies using a bead based Luminex anti-HLA antibody screening test. In the case of detected positivity, an allele-specific anti-HLA antibody determination was conducted with the respective Luminex anti-Class I and Class II HLA antibody determination kits. Results: A total of 174 recipients and 202 donors were typed for the purpose of living donor kidney transplantation at our laboratory between January 2006 and December 2012. The mean age and female gender proportion of patients were 34.9 years and 34.5%, respectively, and 48.0 years and 65.3% for the donors, respectively. Here, 25.9% of the patients reported a positive complement-dependent cytotoxicity cross-match test and/or a positive anti-HLA antibody testing result. Eighteen patients that were negative for the complement-dependent cytotoxicity cross-match test were positive for anti-HLA antibodies. Conclusion: The predominant causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD in our patient population are chronic pyelonephritis and

  12. Single well thermal tracer test, a new experimental set up for characterizing thermal transport in fractured media

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Bernardie, Jérôme; Bour, Olivier; Guihéneuf, Nicolas; Chatton, Eliot; Labasque, Thierry; Longuevergne, Laurent; Le Lay, Hugo; Koch, Floriant; Gerard, Marie-Françoise; Le Borgne, Tanguy

    2017-04-01

    Thermal transport in fractured media depends on the hydrological properties of fractures and thermal characteristics of rock. Tracer tests using heat as tracer can thus be a good alternative to characterize fractured media for shallow geothermal needs. This study investigates the possibility of implementing a new thermal tracer test set up, the single well thermal tracer test, to characterize hydraulic and thermal transport properties of fractured crystalline rock. The experimental setup is based on injecting hot water in a fracture isolated by a double straddle packer in the borehole while pumping and monitoring the temperature in a fracture crossing the same borehole at greater elevation. One difficulty comes from the fact that injection and withdrawal are achieved in the same borehole involving thermal losses along the injection tube that may disturb the heat recovery signal. To be able to well localize the heat influx, we implemented a Fiber-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (FO-DTS) which allows the temperature monitoring with high spatial and temporal resolution (29 centimeters and 30 seconds respectively). Several tests, at different pumping and injection rates, were performed in a crystalline rock aquifer at the experimental site of Ploemeur (H+ observatory network). We show through signal processing how the thermal breakthrough may be extracted thanks to Fiber-Optic distributed temperature measurements. In particular, we demonstrate how detailed distributed temperature measurements were useful to identify different inflows and to estimate how much heat was transported and stored within the fractures network. Thermal breakthrough curves of single well thermal tracer tests were then interpreted with a simple analytical model to characterize hydraulic and thermal characteristics of the fractured media. We finally discuss the advantages of these tests compared to cross-borehole thermal tracer tests.

  13. Engineering Macaca fascicularis cytochrome P450 2C20 to reduce animal testing for new drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rua, Francesco; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Castrignanò, Silvia; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2012-12-01

    In order to develop in vitro methods as an alternative to P450 animal testing in the drug discovery process, two main requisites are necessary: 1) gathering of data on animal homologues of the human P450 enzymes, currently very limited, and 2) bypassing the requirement for both the P450 reductase and the expensive cofactor NADPH. In this work, P450 2C20 from Macaca fascicularis, homologue of the human P450 2C8 has been taken as a model system to develop such an alternative in vitro method by two different approaches. In the first approach called "molecular Lego", a soluble self-sufficient chimera was generated by fusing the P450 2C20 domain with the reductase domain of cytochrome P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium (P450 2C20/BMR). In the second approach, the need for the redox partner and also NADPH were both obviated by the direct immobilization of the P450 2C20 on glassy carbon and gold electrodes. Both systems were then compared to those obtained from the reconstituted P450 2C20 monooxygenase in presence of the human P450 reductase and NADPH using paclitaxel and amodiaquine, two typical drug substrates of the human P450 2C8. The K(M) values calculated for the 2C20 and 2C20/BMR in solution and for 2C20 immobilized on electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles were 1.9 ± 0.2, 5.9 ± 2.3, 3.0 ± 0.5 μM for paclitaxel and 1.2 ± 0.2, 1.6±0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.2 μM for amodiaquine, respectively. The data obtained not only show that the engineering of M. fascicularis did not affect its catalytic properties but also are consistent with K(M) values measured for the microsomal human P450 2C8 and therefore show the feasibility of developing alternative in vitro animal tests. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Study of single dose toxic test of Sweet Bee Venom in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Chul, Yoon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was performed to analyse single dose toxicity of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV extracted from the bee venom in Beagle dogs. Methods : All experiments were conducted under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical study authorized institution. Male and female Beagle dogs of 5-6 months old were chosen for the pilot study of single dose toxicity of Sweet BV which was administered at the level of 9.0 ㎎/㎏ body weight which is 1300 times higher than the clinical application dosage as the high dosage, followed by 3.0 and 1.0 ㎎/㎏ as midium and low dosage, respectively. Equal amount of excipient(normal saline to the Sweet BV experiment groups was administered as the control group. Results : 1. No mortality was witnessed in all of the experiment groups. 2. Hyperemia and movement disorder were observed around the area of administration in all the experiment groups, and higher occurrence in the higher dosage treatment. 3. For weight measurement, Neither male nor female groups showed significant changes. 4. To verify abnormalities of organs and tissues, thigh muscle which treated with Sweet BV, brain, liver, lung, kidney, and spinal cords were removed and histologocal observation using H-E staining was conducted. In the histologocal observation of thigh muscle, cell infiltration, inflammation, degeneration, necrosis of muscle fiber, and fibrosis were found in both thigh tissue. And the changes depend on the dose of Sweet BV. But the other organs did not showed in any abnormality. 5. The maximum dose of Sweet BV in Beagle dogs were over 9 ㎎/㎏ in this study. Conclusions : The above findings of this study suggest that Sweet BV is a relatively safe treatment medium. Further studies on the toxicity of Sweet BV should be conducted to yield more concrete evidences.

  15. Screening Test Procedure For Long Life Single Mode Step Index Separate Confinement Heterostructure Single Quantum Well (Sinsch-Sqw) Laser Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, William J.

    1989-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to establish an effective burn-in and screening procedure for long life SINSCH-SQW laser diodes. The laser diodes were grown by MOCVD and processed with 20μ wide oxide defined stripes. The devices had a high reflective back facet coating with a small etalon bonded to a passivated front facet to ensure single mode operation. The laser diodes were bonded p-side up to copper heat sinks using indium solder. A total of 48 devices were selected prior to burn-in and were operated at 200mA constant current for 2000 hours at an average heat sink temperature of 55°C. The average initial output power was 45mW per device. At the end of the test, the output powers ranged from lmW to 85mW. Most of the devices with the low final power failed catastrophically within 24 hours from the start of the test. Many laser diodes showed very little change in output power while others degraded gradually by varying amounts. Failure analysis showed that failures were facet, bulk, or heat sink related. The temporal output power degradations (i.e., gradual degradation, etc.) can be explained by the identified failure mechanisms. From the test results and failure analysis, a screening strategy based on inspection and burn-in can be devised to reject devices that may fail early. Also, improvements in processing can provide potential yield improvements. After accounting for degradation related to processing, a very long material lifetime is predicted for these SINSCH-SQW laser diodes.

  16. Six Single-Administration Reliability Coefficients for Criterion-Referenced Tests: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Steven M.; Mehrens, William A.

    Four criterion-referenced reliability coefficicents were compared to the Kuder-Richardson estimates and to each other. The Kuder-Richardson formulas 20 and 21, the Livingston, the Subkoviak and two Huynh coefficients were computed for a random sample of 33 criterion-referenced tests. The Subkoviak coefficient yielded the highest mean value;…

  17. Financial impact of reducing door-to-balloon time in ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a single hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khot, Umesh N; Johnson-Wood, Michele L; Geddes, Jason B; Ramsey, Curtis; Khot, Monica B; Taillon, Heather; Todd, Randall; Shaikh, Saeed R; Berg, William J

    2009-07-26

    The impact of reducing door-to-balloon time on hospital revenues, costs, and net income is unknown. We prospectively determined the impact on hospital finances of (1) emergency department physician activation of the catheterization lab and (2) immediate transfer of the patient to an immediately available catheterization lab by an in-house transfer team consisting of an emergency department nurse, a critical care unit nurse, and a chest pain unit nurse. We collected financial data for 52 consecutive ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing emergency percutaneous intervention from October 1, 2004-August 31, 2005 and compared this group to 80 consecutive ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients from September 1, 2005-June 26, 2006 after protocol implementation. Per hospital admission, insurance payments (hospital revenue) decreased ($35,043 +/- $36,670 vs. $25,329 +/- $16,185, P = 0.039) along with total hospital costs ($28,082 +/- $31,453 vs. $18,195 +/- $9,242, P = 0.009). Hospital net income per admission was unchanged ($6962 vs. $7134, P = 0.95) as the drop in hospital revenue equaled the drop in costs. For every $1000 reduction in total hospital costs, insurance payments (hospital revenue) dropped $1077 for private payers and $1199 for Medicare/Medicaid. A decrease in hospital charges ($70,430 +/- $74,033 vs. $53,514 +/- $23,378, P = 0.059), diagnosis related group relative weight (3.7479 +/- 2.6731 vs. 2.9729 +/- 0.8545, P = 0.017) and outlier payments with hospital revenue>$100,000 (7.7% vs. 0%, P = 0.022) all contributed to decreasing ST-elevation myocardial infarction hospitalization revenue. One-year post-discharge financial follow-up revealed similar results: Insurance payments: $49,959 +/- $53,741 vs. $35,937 +/- $23,125, P = 0.044; Total hospital costs: $39,974 +/- $37,434 vs. $26,778 +/- $15,561, P = 0.007; Net Income: $9984 vs. $9159, P = 0.855. All of the financial benefits of reducing door-to-balloon time in ST-elevation myocardial

  18. Daily online testing in large classes: boosting college performance while reducing achievement gaps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Pennebaker

    Full Text Available An in-class computer-based system, that included daily online testing, was introduced to two large university classes. We examined subsequent improvements in academic performance and reductions in the achievement gaps between lower- and upper-middle class students in academic performance. Students (N = 901 brought laptop computers to classes and took daily quizzes that provided immediate and personalized feedback. Student performance was compared with the same data for traditional classes taught previously by the same instructors (N = 935. Exam performance was approximately half a letter grade above previous semesters, based on comparisons of identical questions asked from earlier years. Students in the experimental classes performed better in other classes, both in the semester they took the course and in subsequent semester classes. The new system resulted in a 50% reduction in the achievement gap as measured by grades among students of different social classes. These findings suggest that frequent consequential quizzing should be used routinely in large lecture courses to improve performance in class and in other concurrent and subsequent courses.

  19. High-Dose, Single-Fraction Irradiation Rapidly Reduces Tumor Vasculature and Perfusion in a Xenograft Model of Neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jani, Ashish; Shaikh, Fauzia; Barton, Sunjay [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Willis, Callen [Department of Surgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Banerjee, Debarshi [Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Mitchell, Jason [Department of Surgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Hernandez, Sonia L. [Department of Surgery, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Hei, Tom [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Kadenhe-Chiweshe, Angela [Department of Surgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Yamashiro, Darrell J. [Department of Surgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Connolly, Eileen P., E-mail: epc2116@cumc.columbia.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: To characterize the effects of high-dose radiation therapy (HDRT) on neuroblastoma tumor vasculature, including the endothelial cell (EC)–pericyte interaction as a potential target for combined treatment with antiangiogenic agents. Methods and Materials: The vascular effects of radiation therapy were examined in a xenograft model of high-risk neuroblastoma. In vivo 3-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (3D-CEUS) imaging and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were performed. Results: HDRT significantly reduced tumor blood volume 6 hours after irradiation compared with the lower doses used in conventionally fractionated radiation. There was a 63% decrease in tumor blood volume after 12-Gy radiation compared with a 24% decrease after 2 Gy. Analysis of tumor vasculature by lectin angiography showed a significant loss of small vessel ends at 6 hours. IHC revealed a significant loss of ECs at 6 and 72 hours after HDRT, with an accompanying loss of immature and mature pericytes at 72 hours. Conclusions: HDRT affects tumor vasculature in a manner not observed at lower doses. The main observation was an early reduction in tumor perfusion resulting from a reduction of small vessel ends with a corresponding loss of endothelial cells and pericytes.

  20. Structure–property reduced order model for viscosity prediction in single-component CO 2 -binding organic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantu, David C.; Malhotra, Deepika; Koech, Phillip K.; Heldebrant, David J.; Zheng, Feng (Richard); Freeman, Charles J.; Rousseau, Roger; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    CO2 capture from power generation with aqueous solvents remains energy intensive due to the high water content of the current technology, or the high viscosity of non-aqueous alternatives. Quantitative reduced models, connecting molecular structure to bulk properties, are key for developing structure-property relationships that enable molecular design. In this work, we describe such a model that quantitatively predicts viscosities of CO2 binding organic liquids (CO2BOLs) based solely on molecular structure and the amount of bound CO2. The functional form of the model correlates the viscosity with the CO2 loading and an electrostatic term describing the charge distribution between the CO2-bearing functional group and the proton-receiving amine. Molecular simulations identify the proton shuttle between these groups within the same molecule to be the critical indicator of low viscosity. The model, developed to allow for quick screening of solvent libraries, paves the way towards the rational design of low viscosity non-aqueous solvent systems for post-combustion CO2 capture. Following these theoretical recommendations, synthetic efforts of promising candidates and viscosity measurement provide experimental validation and verification.

  1. Test-compatible confidence intervals for adaptive two-stage single-arm designs with binary endpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzmann, Kevin; Kieser, Meinhard

    2018-01-01

    Inference after two-stage single-arm designs with binary endpoint is challenging due to the nonunique ordering of the sampling space in multistage designs. We illustrate the problem of specifying test-compatible confidence intervals for designs with nonconstant second-stage sample size and present two approaches that guarantee confidence intervals consistent with the test decision. Firstly, we extend the well-known Clopper-Pearson approach of inverting a family of two-sided hypothesis tests from the group-sequential case to designs with fully adaptive sample size. Test compatibility is achieved by using a sample space ordering that is derived from a test-compatible estimator. The resulting confidence intervals tend to be conservative but assure the nominal coverage probability. In order to assess the possibility of further improving these confidence intervals, we pursue a direct optimization approach minimizing the mean width of the confidence intervals. While the latter approach produces more stable coverage probabilities, it is also slightly anti-conservative and yields only negligible improvements in mean width. We conclude that the Clopper-Pearson-type confidence intervals based on a test-compatible estimator are the best choice if the nominal coverage probability is not to be undershot and compatibility of test decision and confidence interval is to be preserved. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Examining Deep Subsurface Sulfate Reducing Bacterial Diversity to Test Spatial and Temporal Biogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, H. J.; Reese, B. K.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we take advantage of the isolation and scale of the deep marine subsurface to examine microbial biogeography. Unlike other environments, deep marine subsurface provides a unique opportunity to study biogeography across four dimensions. These samples are not only isolated by linear space on a global scale, but they are also temporally isolated by, in some cases, tens of millions of years. Through the support of multiple Integrated Ocean Drilling Program expeditions, we characterized the metabolically active fraction of the subsurface microbial community by targeting and sequencing 16S rRNA gene transcripts (RNA-based analysis). By characterizing the metabolically active fraction, we described lineages that were currently under selective environmental pressure and not relic lineages that may have become dormant or dead at some point in the past. This study was narrowed from the total diversity obtained to provide a detailed examination of the distribution and diversity of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB); a functional group highly important to and ubiquitous in marine systems. The biogeochemical importance of this functional group, compounded with defined clades makes it a valuable and feasible target for a global biogeography study. SRB lineages from the deep subsurface were compared to contemporary lineages collected from multiple shallow sediment sites that had been extracted and sequenced using the same techniques. The SRB sequences acquired from our databases were clustered using 97% sequence similarity and analyzed using a suite of diversity and statistical tools. The geochemical conditions of the sediments sampled were considered when analyzing the resulting dendrograms and datasets. As hypothesized, lineages from the deep subsurface phylogenetically grouped together. However, similarities were detected to lineages from the shallow modern sediments, suggesting novel lineages may have evolved at a slow rate due to predicted lengthened life cycles

  3. Welcome address to the 26th international meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, Y.

    2005-01-01

    While the IAEA has been a vigorous supporter of the RERTR programme since its inception. RERTR and the related fresh and spent fuel return efforts have gained new momentum with the launching of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) by U.S. Energy Secretary Abraham here in Vienna on May 25, 2004. All of the activities to be be discussed are included within the framework of the GTRI. The international programmes to qualify high density, LEU, dispersion fuels based on U-Mo alloys have run into unexpected technical difficulties that will delay qualification. A number of the presentations address the problems that have been encountered. At the same time, it is encouraging that the international resolve to reduce and eventually eliminate HEU in international commerce appears to have strengthened. In the past year, fresh HEU at research reactors in different countries have been returned to the country of origin. In all these examples, the return of the fresh fuel was accompanied by plans for conversion of existing reactors or design of new reactors to use LEU, as well as for the repatriation of spent research reactor fuel. The IAEA, particularly the Department of Technical Cooperation and my Department of Nuclear Energy has played an important role in implementing these fresh fuel return activities. In addition, several of the reactor conversion projects will be carried out under the auspices of IAEA technical cooperation projects and with important involvement of the Department of Nuclear Energy. The IAEA has also supported the repatriation of spent fuel to the country of original enrichment. The U.S. spent fuel acceptance programme has been operating for more than eight years, and was originally scheduled to terminate in 2006. Important announcements concerning the extension of the U.S. programme are expected. At the same time, the IAEA has been working hard with the U.S. and Russia to initiate the Russian research reactor spent fuel return programme. We are

  4. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social-ecological model including single-and two-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-07-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, we tested a social-ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes. Participants were 700 mother-child (M = 12.1 years, SD = 1.8) dyads from 18 working-class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children's reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems, and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social-ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single- and two-parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children's functioning are discussed.

  5. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social ecological model including single and two-parent families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, a social ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes was tested. Participants were 700 mother-child (M=12.1years, SD=1.8) dyads from 18 working class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children’s reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single and two parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children’s functioning are discussed. PMID:20604605

  6. Controlling for Prior Attainment Reduces the Positive Influence that Single-Gender Classroom Initiatives Exert on High School Students' Scholastic Achievements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Charlotte R; Kaye, Linda K; Qureshi, Adam W; Heim, Derek

    2018-01-01

    Research points to the positive impact that gender-segregated schooling and classroom initiatives exert on academic attainment. An evaluation of these studies which reveal positive effects highlights, however, that students are typically selectively assigned to single- or mixed-gender instructional settings, presenting a methodological confound. The current study controls for students' prior attainment to appraise the efficacy of a single-gender classroom initiative implemented in a co-educational high school in the United Kingdom. Secondary data analysis (using archived data) was performed on 266 middle-ability, 11-12 year-old students' standardized test scores in Languages (English, foreign language), STEM-related (Mathematics, Science, Information and Communication Technology), and Non-STEM subjects (art, music, drama). Ninety-eight students (54, 55% female) were taught in single-gender and 168 (69, 41% female) in mixed-gender classrooms. Students undertook identical tests irrespective of classroom type, which were graded in accordance with U.K national curriculum guidelines. Controlling for students' prior attainment, findings indicate that students do not appear to benefit from being taught in single-gender relative to mixed-gender classrooms in Language and STEM-related subjects. Young women benefitted from being taught in mixed-gender relative to single-gender classes for Non-STEM subjects. However, when prior ability is not controlled for, the intervention appears to be effective for all school subjects, highlighting the confounding influence of selective admissions. These findings suggest that gender-segregated classroom initiatives may not bolster students' grades. It is argued that studies that do not control for selection effects may tell us little about the effectiveness of such interventions on scholastic achievement.

  7. Single venom-based immunotherapy effectively protects patients with double positive tests to honey bee and Vespula venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Referring to individuals with reactivity to honey bee and Vespula venom in diagnostic tests, the umbrella terms “double sensitization” or “double positivity” cover patients with true clinical double allergy and those allergic to a single venom with asymptomatic sensitization to the other. There is no international consensus on whether immunotherapy regimens should generally include both venoms in double sensitized patients. Objective We investigated the long-term outcome of single venom-based immunotherapy with regard to potential risk factors for treatment failure and specifically compared the risk of relapse in mono sensitized and double sensitized patients. Methods Re-sting data were obtained from 635 patients who had completed at least 3 years of immunotherapy between 1988 and 2008. The adequate venom for immunotherapy was selected using an algorithm based on clinical details and the results of diagnostic tests. Results Of 635 patients, 351 (55.3%) were double sensitized to both venoms. The overall re-exposure rate to Hymenoptera stings during and after immunotherapy was 62.4%; the relapse rate was 7.1% (6.0% in mono sensitized, 7.8% in double sensitized patients). Recurring anaphylaxis was statistically less severe than the index sting reaction (P = 0.004). Double sensitization was not significantly related to relapsing anaphylaxis (P = 0.56), but there was a tendency towards an increased risk of relapse in a subgroup of patients with equal reactivity to both venoms in diagnostic tests (P = 0.15). Conclusions Single venom-based immunotherapy over 3 to 5 years effectively and long-lastingly protects the vast majority of both mono sensitized and double sensitized Hymenoptera venom allergic patients. Double venom immunotherapy is indicated in clinically double allergic patients reporting systemic reactions to stings of both Hymenoptera and in those with equal reactivity to both venoms in diagnostic tests who have not reliably identified the

  8. Full-Scale Crash Tests and Analyses of Three High-Wing Single

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Martin S.; Littell, Justin D.; Stimson, Chad M.; Jackson, Karen E.; Mason, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Emergency Locator Transmitter Survivability and Reliability (ELTSAR) project was initiated in 2014 to assess the crash performance standards for the next generation of ELT systems. Three Cessna 172 aircraft have been acquired to conduct crash testing at NASA Langley Research Center's Landing and Impact Research Facility. Testing is scheduled for the summer of 2015 and will simulate three crash conditions; a flare to stall while emergency landing, and two controlled flight into terrain scenarios. Instrumentation and video coverage, both onboard and external, will also provide valuable data of airframe response. Full-scale finite element analyses will be performed using two separate commercial explicit solvers. Calibration and validation of the models will be based on the airframe response under these varying crash conditions.

  9. Photovoltaic power system tests on an 8-kilowatt single-phase line-commutated inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    Efficiency and power factor were measured as functions of solar array voltage and current. The effects of input shunt capacitance and series inductance were determined. Tests were conducted from 15 to 75 percent of the 8 kW rated inverter input power. Measured efficiencies ranged from 76 percent to 88 percent at about 50 percent of rated inverter input power. Power factor ranged from 36 percent to 72 percent.

  10. Design of a single flat null-screen for testing a parabolic trough solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Oliva, Víctor Iván; Campos-García, Manuel; Román-Hernández, Edwin; Santiago-Alvarado, Agustín

    2014-11-01

    We present a null-screen design for testing the shape quality of the reflecting surface of a parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC). This technique is inexpensive, the whole surface is tested at once, and it is easy to implement. For this, we propose the design of a flat null-screen perpendicular to the optical axis of the PTSC in such a way that it allows testing of the full aperture; we compute the caustic associated with the reflected light rays on the desired surface and analyze the parameters that determine the null-screen dimensions. Additionally, we perform a numerical simulation to analyze the accuracy of the method by introducing random displacement errors into the measured data. Accuracies >0.35 mrad were found to evaluate the quality of surfaces with this method. The errors in the determination of the coordinates of the centroids of the reflected images must be measured with an accuracy >0.5 pixels, and the errors in the coordinates of the spots of the null-screen must be <0.5 mm.

  11. 3D Imaging with a Single-Aperture 3-mm Objective Lens: Concept, Fabrication and Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korniski, Ron; Bae, Sam Y.; Shearn, Mike; Manohara, Harish; Shahinian, Hrayr

    2011-01-01

    There are many advantages to minimally invasive surgery (MIS). An endoscope is the optical system of choice by the surgeon for MIS. The smaller the incision or opening made to perform the surgery, the smaller the optical system needed. For minimally invasive neurological and skull base surgeries the openings are typically 10-mm in diameter (dime sized) or less. The largest outside diameter (OD) endoscope used is 4mm. A significant drawback to endoscopic MIS is that it only provides a monocular view of the surgical site thereby lacking depth information for the surgeon. A stereo view would provide the surgeon instantaneous depth information of the surroundings within the field of view, a significant advantage especially during brain surgery. Providing 3D imaging in an endoscopic objective lens system presents significant challenges because of the tight packaging constraints. This paper presents a promising new technique for endoscopic 3D imaging that uses a single lens system with complementary multi-bandpass filters (CMBFs), and describes the proof-of-concept demonstrations performed to date validating the technique. These demonstrations of the technique have utilized many commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components including the ones used in the endoscope objective.

  12. Single-photon test of hyper-complex quantum theories using a metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopio, Lorenzo M; Rozema, Lee A; Wong, Zi Jing; Hamel, Deny R; O'Brien, Kevin; Zhang, Xiang; Dakić, Borivoje; Walther, Philip

    2017-04-21

    In standard quantum mechanics, complex numbers are used to describe the wavefunction. Although this has so far proven sufficient to predict experimental results, there is no theoretical reason to choose them over real numbers or generalizations of complex numbers, that is, hyper-complex numbers. Experiments performed to date have proven that real numbers are insufficient, but the need for hyper-complex numbers remains an open question. Here we experimentally probe hyper-complex quantum theories, studying one of their deviations from complex quantum theory: the non-commutativity of phases. We do so by passing single photons through a Sagnac interferometer containing both a metamaterial with a negative refractive index, and a positive phase shifter. To accomplish this we engineered a fishnet metamaterial to have a negative refractive index at 780 nm. We show that the metamaterial phase commutes with other phases with high precision, allowing us to place limits on a particular prediction of hyper-complex quantum theories.

  13. Standard test method for isotopic analysis of uranium hexafluoride by double standard single-collector gas mass spectrometer method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This is a quantitative test method applicable to determining the mass percent of uranium isotopes in uranium hexafluoride (UF6) samples with 235U concentrations between 0.1 and 5.0 mass %. 1.2 This test method may be applicable for the entire range of 235U concentrations for which adequate standards are available. 1.3 This test method is for analysis by a gas magnetic sector mass spectrometer with a single collector using interpolation to determine the isotopic concentration of an unknown sample between two characterized UF6 standards. 1.4 This test method is to replace the existing test method currently published in Test Methods C761 and is used in the nuclear fuel cycle for UF6 isotopic analyses. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro...

  14. Reverse-Transcriptase PCR Detection of Leptospira: Absence of Agreement with Single-Specimen Microscopic Agglutination Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Jesse J; Balassiano, Ilana; Mohamed-Hadley, Alisha; Vital-Brazil, Juliana Magalhães; Sahoo, Malaya K; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2015-01-01

    Reference diagnostic tests for leptospirosis include nucleic acid amplification tests, bacterial culture, and microscopic agglutination testing (MAT) of acute and convalescent serum. However, clinical laboratories often do not receive paired specimens. In the current study, we tested serum samples using a highly sensitive real-time nucleic acid amplification test for Leptospira and compared results to MAT performed on the same specimens. 478 serum samples from suspected leptospirosis cases in Rio de Janeiro were tested using a real-time RT-PCR for the diagnosis of leptospirosis, malaria and dengue (the Lepto-MD assay). The Lepto-MD assay detects all species of Leptospira (saprophytic, intermediate, and pathogenic), and in the current study, we demonstrate that this assay amplifies both Leptospira RNA and DNA. Dengue virus RNA was identified in 10 patients, and no cases of malaria were detected. A total of 65 samples (13.6%) were positive for Leptospira: 35 samples (7.3%) in the Lepto-MD assay, 33 samples (6.9%) by MAT, and 3 samples tested positive by both (kappa statistic 0.02). Poor agreement between methods was consistent regardless of the titer used to define positive MAT results or the day of disease at sample collection. Leptospira nucleic acids were detected in the Lepto-MD assay as late as day 22, and cycle threshold values did not differ based on the day of disease. When Lepto-MD assay results were added to the MAT results for all patients in 2008 (n=818), the number of detected leptospirosis cases increased by 30.4%, from 102 (12.5%) to 133 (16.3%). This study demonstrates a lack of agreement between nucleic acid detection of Leptospira and single-specimen MAT, which may result from the clearance of bacteremia coinciding with the appearance of agglutinating antibodies. A combined testing strategy for acute leptospirosis, including molecular and serologic testing, appears necessary to maximize case detection.

  15. Deck and Cable Dynamic Testing of a Single-span Bridge Using Radar Interferometry and Videometry Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piniotis, George; Gikas, Vassilis; Mpimis, Thanassis; Perakis, Harris

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the dynamic testing of a roadway, single-span, cable-stayed bridge for a sequence of static load and ambient vibration monitoring scenarios. Deck movements were captured along both sideways of the bridge using a Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and a Ground-based Microwave Interfererometer (GBMI) system. Cable vibrations were measured at a single point location on each of the six cables using the GBMI technique. Dynamic testing involves three types of analyses; firstly, vibration analysis and modal parameter estimation (i. e., natural frequencies and modal shapes) of the deck using the combined DIC and GBMI measurements. Secondly, dynamic testing of the cables is performed through vibration analysis and experimental computation of their tension forces. Thirdly, the mechanism of cable-deck dynamic interaction is studied through their Power Spectra Density (PSD) and the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) analyses. Thereby, the global (deck and cable) and local (either deck or cable) bridge modes are identified, serving a concrete benchmark of the current state of the bridge for studying the evolution of its structural performance in the future. The level of synergy and complementarity between the GBMI and DIC techniques for bridge monitoring is also examined and assessed.

  16. Innovation design of beta test loop system for heat transfer experiments in single-phase and two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiswanta; Edy Sumarno; Joko Prasetio W; Ainur Rosidi; G B Heru K

    2013-01-01

    Innovation design of BETA test loop has been done. BETA test loop is a research facility used as a support for experiments of reactor accident simulation. The innovation was performed to prepare experimental facilities in order to study flow of heat transfer in single-phase and two-phase flows. The design was executed by modifying new piping of UUB's primary system, addition of heat flux measurements and imaging thermal for easiness of experimental result analysis. UUB development and experiments were carried out to understand heat transfer process in the narrow gap of two-phase flow considering this phenomenon is one of the conditions postulated in PWR typed nuclear power plant accident scenario. The innovation design of BETA test loop is still in the planning stages so that the design has not been constructed. Piping systems made of SS-304 with the ability to use a maximum pressure of 10 bar with a diameter of % inch pipe to, from the calculation of minimal design that is 7.27 mm. If the tube SS-304 - ASTM B88 is the wall thickness of 0.083 inches. From this design it is indicated that the design is able to be fabricated and used for experimental study of heat transfer in single-phase and two-phase flows. (author)

  17. Use of single-well tracer dilution tests to evaluate LNAPL flux at seven field sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Nicholas; Sale, Tom; Smith, Tim; Lyverse, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Petroleum liquids, referred to as light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs), are commonly found beneath petroleum facilities. Concerns with LNAPLs include migration into clean soils, migration beyond property boundaries, and discharges to surface water. Single-well tracer dilution techniques were used to measure LNAPL fluxes through 50 wells at 7 field sites. A hydrophobic tracer was mixed into LNAPL in a well. Intensities of fluorescence associated with the tracer were measured over time using a spectrometer and a fiber optic cable. LNAPL fluxes were estimated using observed changes in the tracer concentrations over time. Measured LNAPL fluxes range from 0.006 to 2.6 m/year with a mean and median of 0.15 and 0.064 m/year, respectively. Measured LNAPL fluxes are two to four orders of magnitude smaller than a common groundwater flux of 30 m/year. Relationships between LNAPL fluxes and possible governing parameters were evaluated. Observed LNAPL fluxes are largely independent of LNAPL thickness in wells. Natural losses of LNAPL through dissolution, evaporation, and subsequent biodegradation, were estimated using a simple mass balance, measured LNAPL fluxes in wells, and an assumed stable LNAPL extent. The mean and median of the calculated loss rates were found to be 24.0 and 5.0 m3/ha/year, respectively. Mean and median losses are similar to values reported by others. Coupling observed LNAPL fluxes to observed rates of natural LNAPL depletion suggests that natural losses of LNAPL may be an important parameter controlling the overall extent of LNAPL bodies.

  18. Status of High Power Tests of Normal Conducting Single-Cell Standing Wave Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolgashev, Valery; /SLAC; Tantawi, Sami; /SLAC; Yeremian, Anahid; /SLAC; Higashi, Yasuo; /KEK, Tsukuba; Spataro, Bruno; /INFN, Rome

    2012-06-25

    Our experiments are directed toward the understanding of the physics of rf breakdown in systems that can be used to accelerate electron beams at {approx}11.4 GHz. The structure geometries have apertures, stored energy per cell, and rf pulse duration close to that of the NLC or CLIC. The breakdown rate is the main parameter that we use to compare rf breakdown behavior for different structures at a given set of rf pulse parameters (pulse shape and peak power) at 60 Hz repetition rate. In our experiments, the typical range of the breakdown rate is from one per few hours to {approx}100 per hour. To date we have tested 29 structures. We consistently found that after the initial conditioning, the behavior of the breakdown rate is reproducible for structures of the same geometry and material, and the breakdown rate dependence on peak magnetic fields is stronger than on peak surface electric fields for structures of different geometries. Below we report the main results from tests of seven structures made from hard copper, soft copper alloys and hard-copper alloys. Additional details on these and other structures will be discussed in future publications.

  19. Assessing Potential Impacts of CO2 Leakage on Shallow Groundwater Quality in the SECARB Phase III Early Test site Using Single-well Push-Pull Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C.; Mickler, P. J.; Reedy, R. C.; Scanlon, B. R.

    2012-12-01

    A single-well push-pull test was conducted in the Cranfield shallow aquifer, the SECARB Phase III early test site, for assessing potential impacts of CO2 leakage on groundwater quality. A total of 3800 liter of groundwater equilibrated with CO2 gas at a partial pressure of 1.105 Pa was injected into a confined sand interval at ~ 70 m depth. NaBr solution was added to the injected solution as tracer. The injected groundwater incubated within the interval for about two days. Chemical parameters (pH, temperature, alkalinity, and electric conductivity) were measured on-site and water samples were collected for chemical (major ions, trace elements, and dissolved inorganic carbon, DIC) as well as for stable carbon isotopic analyses. Mineralogical analyses using XR-D and SEM techniques indicate that aquifer sediments are dominated by silicates. Concentrations of the Br tracer in the recovered samples show mixing of background water with the injected solution. Major ions, especially, Ca, Mg, K, and Si show obvious enrichment, indicating that mobilization of these ions occurred from aquifer sediments to groundwater and may be dominated by dissolution of silicates and possible carbonate minerals. δ13C of DIC of the recovered samples may also suggest potential dissolution of carbonates. Concentrations of trace elements show mobilization after injection of CO2 enriched groundwater. Mobilization of trace elements could be due to co-dissolution of silicates and carbonates and desorption from the surface of aquifer sediments. However, mass balance calculations suggest that ion mobilization is limited and; therefore, potential risks of CO2 are low, especially for arsenic and lead with concentrations in the recovered samples ~30 times less than the EPA maximum contamination level. Results of the single-well push-pull test were also compared to a laboratory batch experiment of water-rock-CO2 interactions. Overall reaction rates of most ions estimated are higher in the batch

  20. Tidal volume single breath washout of two tracer gases--a practical and promising lung function test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Florian; Stern, Georgette; Thamrin, Cindy; Fuchs, Oliver; Riedel, Thomas; Gustafsson, Per; Frey, Urs; Latzin, Philipp

    2011-03-10

    Small airway disease frequently occurs in chronic lung diseases and may cause ventilation inhomogeneity (VI), which can be assessed by washout tests of inert tracer gas. Using two tracer gases with unequal molar mass (MM) and diffusivity increases specificity for VI in different lung zones. Currently washout tests are underutilised due to the time and effort required for measurements. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple technique for a new tidal single breath washout test (SBW) of sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)) and helium (He) using an ultrasonic flowmeter (USFM). The tracer gas mixture contained 5% SF(6) and 26.3% He, had similar total MM as air, and was applied for a single tidal breath in 13 healthy adults. The USFM measured MM, which was then plotted against expired volume. USFM and mass spectrometer signals were compared in six subjects performing three SBW. Repeatability and reproducibility of SBW, i.e., area under the MM curve (AUC), were determined in seven subjects performing three SBW 24 hours apart. USFM reliably measured MM during all SBW tests (n = 60). MM from USFM reflected SF(6) and He washout patterns measured by mass spectrometer. USFM signals were highly associated with mass spectrometer signals, e.g., for MM, linear regression r-squared was 0.98. Intra-subject coefficient of variation of AUC was 6.8%, and coefficient of repeatability was 11.8%. The USFM accurately measured relative changes in SF(6) and He washout. SBW tests were repeatable and reproducible in healthy adults. We have developed a fast, reliable, and straightforward USFM based SBW method, which provides valid information on SF(6) and He washout patterns during tidal breathing.

  1. Tidal volume single breath washout of two tracer gases--a practical and promising lung function test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Singer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small airway disease frequently occurs in chronic lung diseases and may cause ventilation inhomogeneity (VI, which can be assessed by washout tests of inert tracer gas. Using two tracer gases with unequal molar mass (MM and diffusivity increases specificity for VI in different lung zones. Currently washout tests are underutilised due to the time and effort required for measurements. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple technique for a new tidal single breath washout test (SBW of sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6 and helium (He using an ultrasonic flowmeter (USFM. METHODS: The tracer gas mixture contained 5% SF(6 and 26.3% He, had similar total MM as air, and was applied for a single tidal breath in 13 healthy adults. The USFM measured MM, which was then plotted against expired volume. USFM and mass spectrometer signals were compared in six subjects performing three SBW. Repeatability and reproducibility of SBW, i.e., area under the MM curve (AUC, were determined in seven subjects performing three SBW 24 hours apart. RESULTS: USFM reliably measured MM during all SBW tests (n = 60. MM from USFM reflected SF(6 and He washout patterns measured by mass spectrometer. USFM signals were highly associated with mass spectrometer signals, e.g., for MM, linear regression r-squared was 0.98. Intra-subject coefficient of variation of AUC was 6.8%, and coefficient of repeatability was 11.8%. CONCLUSION: The USFM accurately measured relative changes in SF(6 and He washout. SBW tests were repeatable and reproducible in healthy adults. We have developed a fast, reliable, and straightforward USFM based SBW method, which provides valid information on SF(6 and He washout patterns during tidal breathing.

  2. Efficacy of behavioral interventions for reducing problem behavior in persons with autism: an updated quantitative synthesis of single-subject research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Saenen, Lore; Campbell, Jonathan M; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    Problem or challenging behaviors are highly prevalent among persons with autism and bring along major risks for the individual with autism and his/her family. In order to reduce the problem behavior, several behavioral interventions are used. We conducted a quantitative synthesis of single-subject studies to examine the efficacy of behavioral interventions for reducing problem behavior in persons with autism. Two hundred and thirteen studies representing 358 persons with autism met the inclusion criteria and were included in the statistical analyses. Overall, we found that behavioral interventions were on average effective in reducing problem behavior in individuals with autism, but some interventions were significantly more effective than others. The results further showed that the use of positive (nonaversive) behavioral interventions was increasing over time. The behavioral interventions were on average equally effective regardless of the type of problem behavior that was targeted. Interventions preceded by a functional analysis reduced problem behavior significantly more than interventions not preceded by a functional analysis. Finally, treatment and experimental characteristics, but not participant characteristics, were statistically significant moderators of the behavioral treatment effectiveness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Does Type 2 Diabetes Genetic Testing and Counseling Reduce Modifiable Risk Factors? A Randomized Controlled Trial of Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voils, Corrine I; Coffman, Cynthia J; Grubber, Janet M; Edelman, David; Sadeghpour, Azita; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Bolton, Jamiyla; Cho, Alex; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Yancy, William S

    2015-11-01

    We examined the clinical utility of supplementing type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) risk counseling with DM genetic test results and counseling. In this randomized controlled trial, non-diabetic overweight/obese veteran outpatients aged 21 to 65 years received DM risk estimates for lifetime risk, family history, and fasting plasma glucose, followed by either genetic test results (CR+G; N = 303) or control eye disease counseling (CR+EYE; N = 298). All participants received brief lifestyle counseling encouraging weight loss to reduce the risk of DM. The mean age was 54 years, 53% of participants were black, and 80% were men. There was no difference between arms in weight (estimated mean difference between CR+G vs. CR+EYE at 3 months = 0.2 kg, 95% CI: -0.3 to 0.7; at 6 months = 0.4 kg, 95 % CI: -0.3 to 1.1), insulin resistance, perceived risk, or physical activity at 3 or 6 months. Calorie and fat intake were lower in the CR+G arm at 3 months (p's ≤ 0.05) but not at 6 months (p's > 0.20). Providing patients with genetic test results was not more effective in changing patient behavior to reduce the risk of DM compared to conventional risk counseling. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01060540 http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01060540.

  4. Synergistic effects on dislocation loops in reduced-activation martensitic steel investigated by single and sequential hydrogen/helium ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weiping [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Luo, Fengfeng [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Institute of Applied Physics, Jiangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanchang 330029 (China); Yu, Yanxia; Zheng, Zhongcheng; Shen, Zhenyu [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Guo, Liping, E-mail: guolp@whu.edu.cn [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Ren, Yaoyao [Center for Electron Microscopy, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Suo, Jinping [State Key Laboratory of Mould Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Single-beam and sequential-beam irradiations were performed to investigate the H/He synergistic effect on dislocation loops in reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels. The irradiations were carried out with 10 keV H{sup +}, 18 keV He{sup +} and 160 keV Ar{sup +}, alone and in combination at 723 K. He{sup +} single-beam irradiation induced much larger dislocation loops than that induced by both H{sup +} and Ar{sup +} single-beam irradiation. H{sup +} post-irradiation after He{sup +} irradiation further increased the size of dislocation loops, whilst He{sup +} post-irradiation or Ar{sup +} post-irradiation following H{sup +} irradiation only slightly increased the size of dislocation loops. The experiment results indicate that pre-implanted H{sup +} can drastically inhibit the growth while post-implanted H{sup +} can significantly enhance the growth of dislocation loops induced by He{sup +} irradiation. The mechanisms behind the complex synergistic phenomena between H and He and the different roles that H and He played in the growth of dislocation loops are discussed.

  5. Aspects of Lubrication in a Reciprocating Single-ring Test Rig and Further Implementation to Engine Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Dellis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A major concern in modern engine design is the issue of the lubrication regime at the piston-liner assembly. To fully understand the complex lubrication phenomena between the piston-rings and cylinder liner in reciprocating engines and at the same time achieve minimal energy losses with the oncoming emission regulations, it is important to characterize the developing oil film. This dynamic process involves many factors, such as piston-ring and piston dynamics, starved lubrication, liner geometry deformation, lubricant - additive degradation and blow-by, which, in turn, enhance the difficulty of interpreting engine experimental results. The simplified test rig is used as a platform to develop oil film measuring techniques and study experimental results from different sensors by means of a robust and solid technique without the engine testing ambiguities, at different lubrication regimes. This paper is focused on experimental findings from the simplified test rig and how these can be applied on specially modified engines, with the respective sensors fitted. A comparison between the single-ring test rig and the engine visualization results is attempted so that similar forms of cavitation identified, be further studied. Moreover, a calibration coefficient for LIF engine experiments can be derived via the simplified test rig arrangement.

  6. A Systematic Review of Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Condomless Sex and Increase HIV Testing for Latino MSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Ashley; Santamaria, E Karina; Operario, Don

    2017-12-15

    Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV, and there have been calls to improve availability of culturally sensitive HIV prevention programs for this population. This article provides a systematic review of intervention programs to reduce condomless sex and/or increase HIV testing among Latino MSM. We searched four electronic databases using a systematic review protocol, screened 1777 unique records, and identified ten interventions analyzing data from 2871 Latino MSM. Four studies reported reductions in condomless anal intercourse, and one reported reductions in number of sexual partners. All studies incorporated surface structure cultural features such as bilingual study recruitment, but the incorporation of deep structure cultural features, such as machismo and sexual silence, was lacking. There is a need for rigorously designed interventions that incorporate deep structure cultural features in order to reduce HIV among Latino MSM.

  7. High-Gradient Test of a 3 GHz Single-Cell Cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Verdú-Andrés, S; Bonomi, R; Degiovanni, A; Garlasché, M; Garonna, A; Mellace, C; Pearce, P; S. Verdú-Andrés; Wegner, R

    2010-01-01

    Pro­ton and car­bon ion beams pre­sent ad­van­ta­geous depth-dose dis­tri­bu­tions with re­spect to X-rays. Car­bon ions allow a bet­ter con­trol of "ra­diore­sis­tant" tu­mours due to their high­er bi­o­log­i­cal re­sponse. For deep-seat­ed tu­mours pro­ton and car­bon ion beams of some nA and en­er­gies of about 200 MeV and 400 MeV/u re­spec­tive­ly are need­ed. For these ap­pli­ca­tions TERA pro­posed the "cy­clinac": a high-fre­quen­cy linac which boosts the hadrons ac­cel­er­at­ed by a cy­clotron. The di­men­sions of the com­plex can be re­duced if high­er ac­cel­er­at­ing gra­di­ents are achieved in the linac. To test the max­i­mum achiev­able fields, a 3 GHz cav­i­ty has been built by TERA. The 19 mm-long cell is fore­seen to be ex­cit­ed at 200 Hz by 3 us RF puls­es and should reach a 40 MV/m ac­cel­er­at­ing gra­di­ent, which cor­re­sponds to a peak sur­face elec­tric field Es of 260 MV/m. In a first high-pow­er test per­for...

  8. Depth-discrete specific storage in fractured sedimentary rock using steady-state and transient single-hole hydraulic tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Patryk M.; Cherry, John A.; Parker, Beth L.

    2016-11-01

    A method is presented for obtaining depth-discrete values of specific storage (Ss) from single-hole hydraulic tests in fractured rock boreholes using straddle packers (1.5-17 m test intervals). Low flow constant head (CH) step tests analyzed using the Thiem method provide transmissivity (T) values free from non-Darcian error. Short-term, constant-rate pumping tests (0.5-2 h) analyzed using the Cooper-Jacob approximation of the Theis method provide S from the hydraulic diffusivity using the Darcian T value from the CH step test. This synergistic use of two types of hydraulic tests avoids the common source of error when pumping tests (injection or withdrawal) are conducted at higher flow rates and thereby induce non-Darcian flow resulting in the underestimation of T. Other errors, such as well bore storage and leakage, can also substantially influence S by causing a shift in the time axis of the Cooper-Jacob semi-log plot. In this approach, the Darcian T values from the CH step tests are used in the analysis of the transient pumping test data for calculating S throughout the pumping test using the Cooper-Jacob approximation to minimize all of the aforementioned errors, resulting in more representative S values. The effect of these non-idealities on the measured drawdown is illustrated using the Theis equation with the Darcian T and S values to calculate drawdown for comparison to measured data. The Ss values for tests in sandstone obtained from this approach are more consistent with confined aquifer conditions than values derived from the traditional Cooper-Jacob method, and are within the range of field and lab values presented from a compilation of literature values for fractured sandstone. (10-7-10-5 m-1) This method for obtaining Ss values from short-interval, straddle packer tests improves the estimation of both K and Ss and provides opportunity to study their spatial distribution in fractured rock.

  9. Ultrasound-assisted single extraction tests for rapid assessment of metal extractability from soils by total reflection X-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Calle, I; Cabaleiro, N; Lavilla, I; Bendicho, C

    2013-09-15

    In this work, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was employed for acceleration of metal extraction from soil samples. After extraction, multielemental analysis (Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb) of EDTA and acetic acid extracts was performed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF). High-intensity ultrasonic processors, i.e. the ultrasonic probe (50W) and the cup-horn sonoreactor (200W) were applied. Both ultrasonic procedures were compared with a miniaturized version of the single extraction scheme proposed by the Standards, Measurements and Testing program (SM&T). The extraction time with EDTA was reduced from 1h (conventional procedure) to 2 min (ultrasonic probe) or to 10 min (cup-horn sonoreactor). The time required for acetic acid extraction was also reduced from 16 h (conventional procedure) to 6 min (ultrasonic probe) or to 30 min (cup-horn sonoreactor). In addition, the amount of sample and extractants was drastically reduced as a result of the miniaturization implemented in the developed approaches. The combination of UAE and TXRF allows assessing the potential metal mobility and bioavailability in a simple way. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a reference material of a single DNA molecule for the quality control of PCR testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Junichi; Hatano, Shuko; Futo, Satoshi; Yoshii, Junji; Nakae, Hiroki; Naito, Shigehiro; Takabatake, Reona; Kitta, Kazumi

    2014-09-02

    We developed a reference material of a single DNA molecule with a specific nucleotide sequence. The double-strand linear DNA which has PCR target sequences at the both ends was prepared as a reference DNA molecule, and we named the PCR targets on each side as confirmation sequence and standard sequence. The highly diluted solution of the reference molecule was dispensed into 96 wells of a plastic PCR plate to make the average number of molecules in a well below one. Subsequently, the presence or absence of the reference molecule in each well was checked by real-time PCR targeting for the confirmation sequence. After an enzymatic treatment of the reaction mixture in the positive wells for the digestion of PCR products, the resultant solution was used as the reference material of a single DNA molecule with the standard sequence. PCR analyses revealed that the prepared samples included only one reference molecule with high probability. The single-molecule reference material developed in this study will be useful for the absolute evaluation of a detection limit of PCR-based testing methods, the quality control of PCR analyses, performance evaluations of PCR reagents and instruments, and the preparation of an accurate calibration curve for real-time PCR quantitation.

  11. Single molecule measurements of DNA helicase activity with magnetic tweezers and t-test based step-finding analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Yeonee; Strub, Marie-Paule; Neuman, Keir C.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic tweezers is a versatile and easy to implement single-molecule technique that has become increasingly prevalent in the study of nucleic acid based molecular motors. Here, we provide a description of the magnetic tweezers instrument and guidelines for measuring and analyzing DNA helicase activity. Along with experimental methods, we describe a robust method of single-molecule trajectory analysis based on the Student’s t-test that accommodates continuous transitions in addition to the discrete transitions assumed in most widely employed analysis routines. To illustrate the single-molecule unwinding assay and the analysis routine, we provide DNA unwinding measurements of Escherichia coli RecQ helicase under a variety of conditions (Na+, ATP, temperature, and DNA substrate geometry). These examples reveal that DNA unwinding measurements under various conditions can aid in elucidating the unwinding mechanism of DNA helicase but also emphasize that environmental effects on DNA helicase activity must be considered in relation to in vivo activity and mechanism. PMID:27131595

  12. High-Value, Cost-Conscious Care: Iterative Systems-Based Interventions to Reduce Unnecessary Laboratory Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Brett W; Lane, Alison B; Wood, Shannon M; Robinson, Sara L; Kim, Chin Hee

    2017-09-01

    Inappropriate testing contributes to soaring healthcare costs within the United States, and teaching hospitals are vulnerable to providing care largely for academic development. Via its "Choosing Wisely" campaign, the American Board of Internal Medicine recommends avoiding repetitive testing for stable inpatients. We designed systems-based interventions to reduce laboratory orders for patients admitted to the wards at an academic facility. We identified the computer-based order entry system as an appropriate target for sustainable intervention. The admission order set had allowed multiple routine tests to be ordered repetitively each day. Our iterative study included interventions on the automated order set and cost displays at order entry. The primary outcome was number of routine tests controlled for inpatient days compared with the preceding year. Secondary outcomes included cost savings, delays in care, and adverse events. Data were collected over a 2-month period following interventions in sequential years and compared with the year prior. The first intervention led to 0.97 fewer laboratory tests per inpatient day (19.4%). The second intervention led to sustained reduction, although by less of a margin than order set modifications alone (15.3%). When extrapolating the results utilizing fees from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, there was a cost savings of $290,000 over 2 years. Qualitative survey data did not suggest an increase in care delays or near-miss events. This series of interventions targeting unnecessary testing demonstrated a sustained reduction in the number of routine tests ordered, without adverse effects on clinical care. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Image reconstruction in single photon emission computed tomography for radioactive waste testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouletaut, P.

    1993-02-01

    The aim of this study is to reconstruct by tomography the spatial distribution of the activity of an object which emits photons. First, an analysis of the imaging qualities of a tomograph in terms of physical parameters related to the measurement process is proposed. Then, an algorithm which evaluates, the self-attenuation of the emitted photons and corrects for the collimator aperture angle is developed; this computation corresponds to a subdivision of the object into voxels and to a parallel geometry of the projections. Two algebraic reconstruction methods have been studied; one using a regularized least-squares technique, the other using a bayesian approach. We show by computer simulations the dependence of the reconstruction on the condition number of the self-attenuation matrix and on the estimation errors of this matrix. Then, the reconstruction is tested on experimental data; the images we reconstruct on a square grid of ten by ten voxels from one hundred twenty measurements show an accurate location of the sources; their activities are efficiently estimated when the collimator aperture angle is well taken into account in the self-attenuation matrix

  14. Test of single degree of freedom acoustic treatment impedance models for multimodal acoustic propagation in duct with flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccouche, Ryan; Moreau, Soléne; Ben Tahar, Mabrouk

    2017-06-01

    Passive acoustic treatments, also called liners, are the main solution to noise problems. The Single Degree Of Freedom (SDOF) acoustic treatment, composed of a thin material (perforated plate) affixed to air cavities with a rigid bottom, constitutes a solution. Predicting sound level reduction by an SDOF treatment requires reliable acoustic impedance models. An experimental/numerical method has been developed for a duct with an acoustic treatment to test acoustic impedance models of SDOF treatment with a multimodal propagation in the presence of a mean flow. This method is based on the comparison of experimental results from an aeroacoustic bench composed of a circular duct with a treated area, and numerical results from an FEM-PML axisymmetric model based on Galbrun's equation. The numerical results are confronted with experimental results to test impedance models up to M 0 =±0.25.

  15. Testing a Poisson counter model for visual identification of briefly presented, mutually confusable single stimuli in pure accuracy tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Markussen, Bo; Bundesen, Claus

    2012-06-01

    The authors propose and test a simple model of the time course of visual identification of briefly presented, mutually confusable single stimuli in pure accuracy tasks. The model implies that during stimulus analysis, tentative categorizations that stimulus i belongs to category j are made at a constant Poisson rate, v(i, j). The analysis is continued until the stimulus disappears, and the overt response is based on the categorization made the greatest number of times. The model was evaluated by Monte Carlo tests of goodness of fit against observed probability distributions of responses in two extensive experiments and also by quantifications of the information loss of the model compared with the observed data by use of information theoretic measures. The model provided a close fit to individual data on identification of digits and an apparently perfect fit to data on identification of Landolt rings.

  16. A gold nanoparticles-based colorimetric test to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms for improvement of personalized therapy of psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsella, Alessandra; Valentini, Paola; Tarantino, Paolo; Congedo, Maurizio; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2016-04-01

    We report a simple, rapid and low-cost test, based on gold nanoparticles, for the naked-eye colorimetric detection of a signature of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) relevant for the personalized medicine of psoriasis patients. We validated the colorimetric assay on real-world DNA samples from a cohort of 30 psoriasis patients and we compared the results, in double-blind, with those obtained with two state-of-the-art instrumental techniques, namely reverse dot blotting and direct sequencing, finding 100% agreement. We demonstrated high accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the colorimetric test that can be easily adapted for the genotypization of different SNPs, important for the pharmacogenomics of various diseases, and in other fields, such as food traceability and population structure analysis.

  17. A Pilot Study on Single-dose Toxicity Testing of Hominis placenta Pharmacopuncture in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo-Hwan Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to analyze the toxicity and to find the lethal dose of the test substance Hominis placenta pharmacopuncture when used as a single-dose in 6 week old, male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Methods: All experiments were conducted at Biotoxtech (Chungwon, Korea, an institution authorized to perform non clinical studies, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP. SD rats were chosen for the pilot study. Doses of Hominis placenta pharmacopuncture extracts, 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 mL, were administered to the experimental group, and 0.5 mL doses of normal saline solution were administered to the control group. This study was conducted under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee. Results: No deaths or abnormalities occurred in any of the groups. Also, no significant changes in body weights were observed among the groups, and no significant differences in hematology/biochemistry, necropsy, and histopathology results were noted. Hematologically, some changes in the male rats in two experimental groups were observed, but those changes had no clinical or toxicological meaning because they were not dose dependent. Histopathological tests on the injected parts showed cell infiltration in the male rats in one of the experimental groups; however, that result was due to spontaneous generation and had no toxicological meaning. Therefore, this study showed that Hominis placenta pharmacopuncture had no effect on the injected parts in terms of clinical signs, body weight, hematology, clinical chemistry, and necropsy. Conclusion: As a result of single-dose tests of the test substance Hominis placenta pharmacopuncture in 4 groups of rats, the lethal dose for both males and females exceeded 0.5 mL/animal. Therefore, the above findings suggest that treatment with Hominis placenta pharmacopuncture is relatively safe. Further studies on this subject are needed.

  18. Use of remifentanil to reduce propofol injection pain and the required propofol dose in upper digestive tract endoscopy diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uliana, Gustavo Nadal; Tambara, Elizabeth Milla; Baretta, Giorgio Alfredo Pedroso

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) as a sedative agent has transformed the area of sedation for endoscopic procedures. However, a major drawback of sedation with the use of propofol is its high incidence of injection pain. The most widely used technique in reducing propofol injection pain is through the association of other drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of remifentanil-propofol combination on the incidence of propofol injection pain and its influence on the total dose of propofol required for sedation in upper digestive tract endoscopy (UDE) diagnostic tests. One hundred and five patients undergoing upper digestive tract endoscopy were evaluated and randomly divided into 3 groups of 35 patients each. The Control Group received propofol alone; Study-group 1 received remifentanil at a fixed dose of 0.2mg/kg combined with propofol; Study-group 2 received remifentanil at a fixed dose of 0.3mg/kg combined with propofol. The incidence of propofol injection pain and the total dose of propofol required for the test were evaluated. The sample was very similar regarding age, weight, height, sex, and physical status. Statistical analysis was performed according to the nature of the evaluated data. Student's t-test was used to compare the mean of age, weight, height (cm), and dose (mg/kg) variables between groups. The χ(2) test was used to compare sex, physical status, and propofol injection pain between groups. The significance level was αpain and total dose of propofol (mg/kg) used. However, there were no statistical differences between the two study groups for these parameters. We conclude that the use of remifentanil at doses of 0.2mg/kg and 0.3mg/kg was effective for reducing both the propofol injection pain and the total dose of propofol used. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Análogos das prostaglandinas diminuem a sensibilidade do teste provocativo da ibopamina no glaucoma Prostaglandin analogues reduce the ibopamine provocative test specificity in glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Magacho

    2006-04-01

    auxiliary test in glaucoma diagnosis. Despite the small sample size, concurrent use of prostaglandin analogues apparently reduces the test's sensitivity.

  20. Internet-accessed sexually transmitted infection (e-STI testing and results service: A randomised, single-blind, controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Wilson

    2017-12-01

    completed all follow-up, including patient record checks, by 17 June 2016. Uptake of STI testing was increased in the intervention group at 6 weeks (50.0% versus 26.6%, relative risk [RR] 1.87, 95% CI 1.63 to 2.15, P < 0.001. The proportion of participants diagnosed was 2.8% in the intervention group versus 1.4% in the control group (RR 2.10, 95% CI 0.94 to 4.70, P = 0.079. No evidence of heterogeneity was observed for any of the pre-specified subgroup analyses. The proportion of participants treated was 1.1% in the intervention group versus 0.7% in the control group (RR 1.72, 95% CI 0.71 to 4.16, P = 0.231. Time to test, was shorter in the intervention group compared to the control group (28.8 days versus 36.5 days, P < 0.001, test for difference in restricted mean survival time [RMST], but no differences were observed for time to treatment (83.2 days versus 83.5 days, P = 0.51, test for difference in RMST. We were unable to recruit the planned 3,000 participants and therefore lacked power for the analyses of STI diagnoses and STI cases treated.The e-STI testing service increased uptake of STI testing for all groups including high-risk groups. The intervention required people to attend clinic for treatment and did not reduce time to treatment. Service innovations to improve treatment rates for those diagnosed online are required and could include e-treatment and postal treatment services. e-STI testing services require long-term monitoring and evaluation.ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN13354298.

  1. pH(stat) vs. single extraction tests to evaluate heavy metals and arsenic leachability in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigol, A; Mateu, J; González-Núñez, R; Rauret, G; Vidal, M

    2009-01-19

    Here we compared the pH(stat) test, which examines the leachability of major elements (Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, and Mn), dissolved organic carbon, and trace elements (Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, and As) in a wide pH range, with single extraction tests based on the use of mild extractants (calcium chloride, acetic acid or EDTA). For this purpose, we examined samples from a variety of environmental conditions (sludges, mineral soils, organic soils, and soils with particulate and/or soluble contamination). Extraction yields obtained with CaCl(2) (0.01 mol L(-1)) and CH(3)COOH (0.43 mol L(-1)) correlated well with those from the pH(stat) at the same pH (r=0.98 and 0.95, respectively), while the use of EDTA (0.05 mol L(-1)) led to systematically higher extraction yields than those quantified with the pH(stat) at the same pH. However, the pH(stat) test had three distinct advantages: (1) it revealed the relationship between the solubility of the main soil phases and pH; (2) it showed the variation in pollutant leachability due to changes in pH; and (3) it better predicted the maximum contaminant availability. Thus we propose that the pH(stat) is the best laboratory tests to evaluate the contaminant leachability over a wide range of sample types (soil, sludge, and sediment).

  2. The production of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor by human sertoli cells is substantially reduced in sertoli cell-only testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D; Paduch, D A; Schlegel, P N; Orwig, K E; Mielnik, A; Bolyakov, A; Wright, W W

    2017-05-01

    quantified by use of digital PCR and Taqman primers. Transcripts encoding mouse GDNF and human KITL, CLU and 18 S rRNA, used for normalization of data, were quantified by use of real-time PCR and Taqman primers. Finally, we used two independent methods, flow cytometric analysis of single cells and ELISA assays of homogenates of whole testis biopsies, to compare amounts of GDNF per Sertoli cell in normal and SCO testes. Normal human testes contain a large population of SSCs that express GFRA1, the ligand-binding domain of the GDNF receptor. In human SCO testes, GFRA1 mRNA was detected but at markedly reduced levels. Expression of GDNF mRNA and the amount of GDNF protein per Sertoli cell were also significantly reduced in SCO testes. These results were observed in multiple, independent samples, and the reduced amount of GDNF in Sertoli cells of SCO testes was demonstrated using two different analytical approaches. N/A. There currently are no approved protocols for the in vivo manipulation of human testis GDNF concentrations. Thus, while our data suggest that insufficient GDNF may be the proximal cause of some cases of human male infertility, our results are correlative in nature. We propose that insufficient GDNF expression may contribute to the infertility of some men with an SCO testicular phenotype. If their testes contain some SSCs, an approach that increases their testicular GDNF concentrations might expand stem cell numbers and possibly sperm production. This research was funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development, National Centers for Translational Research in Reproduction and Infertility Program (NCTRI) Grant 1R01HD074542-04, as well as grants R01 HD076412-02 and P01 HD075795-02 and the U.S.-Israel Binational Science Foundation. Support for this research was also provided by NIH P50 HD076210, the Robert Dow Foundation, the Frederick & Theresa Dow Wallace Fund of the New York Community Trust and the Brady Urological

  3. Performance evaluation testing of wells in the gradient control system at a federally operated Confined Disposal Facility using single well aquifer tests, East Chicago, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, David C.; Unthank, Michael D.

    2016-12-08

    values from the initial air slug test during the 2015 testing period for MW–11A and MW–14A are an order of magnitude less than those derived from the final test during the 2014 testing period indicating the development of a low conductivity skin between the final test of the 2014 testing period and the beginning of the 2015 testing period that created a decrease in the connection of the monitoring well screen to the surrounding aquifer material.Repeated step drawdown and recovery testing of the extraction wells tested during this study provided results that indicate a slight increase in the development of a skin and a decrease in the connectivity of the extraction wells with the Calumet aquifer. Hydraulic conductivity values obtained from the test results were relatively similar in EW–4B and EW–14A but were substantially lower for EW–11C. This difference may be due to the presence of finer grained silt deposits in the area surrounding well nest 11. Skin factors calculated during the step drawdown and recovery analysis were lowest in EW–11C and relatively similar in EW–4B and EW–14A. Calculated skin factors increased slightly in the analysis of data collected in 2015 from that collected in 2014.Comparisons of the specific-capacity values calculated from well development data collected following extraction well installation to those calculated during the single well aquifer tests at EW–4B, EW–14A and EW–11C indicate that the productivity of extraction wells on the CDF property has diminished since 2008. Values calculated for monitoring wells MW–4A, MW–11A, and MW–14A were used to evaluate the decrease in air slug derived hydraulic conductivity for monitoring wells within the groundwater cutoff wall between testing in 2014 and 2015.Results from testing by this study indicate that implementation of an air slug testing regimen of the monitoring wells that control the gradient control system at the CDF throughout the course of a year may help

  4. A feasibility test of a brief motivational interview intervention to reduce dating abuse perpetration in a hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Emily F; Wang, Na

    2016-07-01

    To describe the intervention development process and feasibility testing of a hospital-based brief intervention to reduce the perpetration of adolescent dating abuse (ADA). To our knowledge, this intervention is the first to focus exclusively on ADA perpetration reduction via a motivational interview-type intervention in this setting. The rationale for and the six Intervention Mapping steps used to generate the intervention are described. Feasibility is conceptualized as intervention acceptability, demand, implementation, practicality, integration, and limited-efficacy. The Real Talk intervention was integrated smoothly into the emergency department setting. Participants did not experience any negative impact, and the vast majority (86%) reported that they felt helped. Quantitative assessments suggest that the intervention reduced the number of participants in the pre-contemplation stage of change regarding their use of relationship violence, and may have moved them forward into the action stage. Real Talk participants were more likely than those in the control group to tell friends to help them stay calm around their partner after drinking alcohol, and to talk with their doctor to get help for their problems. Real Talk was developed to meet an unmet need for tertiary ADA interventions in non-school settings. It was developed in accordance with a recommended framework, informed by theory, and subsequently tested for feasibility. Feasibility assessment results suggest that Real Talk can be implemented in health care settings and may influence attitudinal and behavioral outcomes in the desired directions.

  5. Effects of sediment-spiked lufenuron on benthic macroinvertebrates in outdoor microcosms and single-species toxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, T C M; Bas, D A; Belgers, J D M; Bibbe, L; Boerwinkel, M-C; Crum, S J H; Diepens, N J; Kraak, M H S; Vonk, J A; Roessink, I

    2016-08-01

    Sediment ecotoxicity studies were conducted with lufenuron to (i) complement the results of a water-spiked mesocosm experiment with this lipophilic benzoylurea insecticide, (ii) to explore the predictive value of laboratory single-species tests for population and community-level responses of benthic macroinvertebrates, and (iii) to calibrate the tier-1 effect assessment procedure for sediment organisms. For this purpose the concentration-response relationships for macroinvertebrates between sediment-spiked microcosms and those of 28-d sediment-spiked single-species toxicity tests with Chironomus riparius, Hyalella azteca and Lumbriculus variegatus were compared. Lufenuron persisted in the sediment of the microcosms. On average, 87.7% of the initial lufenuron concentration could still be detected in the sediment after 12 weeks. Overall, benthic insects and crustaceans showed treatment-related declines and oligochaetes treatment-related increases. The lowest population-level NOEC in the microcosms was 0.79μg lufenuron/g organic carbon in dry sediment (μg a.s./g OC) for Tanytarsini, Chironomini and Dero sp. Multivariate analysis of the responses of benthic macroinvertebrates revealed a community-level NOEC of 0.79μg a.s./g OC. The treatment-related responses observed in the microcosms are in accordance with the results of the 28-d laboratory toxicity tests. These tests showed that the insect C. riparius and the crustacean H. azteca were approximately two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the oligochaete L. variegatus. In our laboratory tests, using field-collected sediment, the lowest 28-d EC10 (0.49μg a.s./g OC) was observed for C. riparius (endpoint survival), while for the standard OECD test with this species, using artificial sediment, a NOEC of 2.35μg a.s./g OC (endpoint emergence) is reported. In this particular case, the sediment tier-1 effect assessment using the chronic EC10 (field-collected sediment) or chronic NOEC (artificial sediment) of C

  6. Effects of sediment-spiked lufenuron on benthic macroinvertebrates in outdoor microcosms and single-species toxicity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, T.C.M., E-mail: theo.brock@wur.nl [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Bas, D.A. [Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Belgers, J.D.M. [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Bibbe, L. [Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boerwinkel, M-C.; Crum, S.J.H. [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Diepens, N.J. [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Kraak, M.H.S.; Vonk, J.A. [Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Roessink, I. [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • In outdoor microcosms constructed with lufenuron-spiked sediment we observed that this insecticide persistent in the sediment compartment. • Sediment exposure to lufenuron caused population-level declines (insects and crustaceans) and increases (mainly oligochaete worms) of benthic invertebrates. • The direct and indirect effects observed in the microcosms were supported by results of sediment-spiked single species tests with Chironomus riparius, Hyalella azteca and Lumbriculus variegatus. • The tier-1 effect assessment procedure for sediment organisms recommended by the European Food Safety Authority is protective for the treatment-related responses observed in the microcosm test. - Abstract: Sediment ecotoxicity studies were conducted with lufenuron to (i) complement the results of a water-spiked mesocosm experiment with this lipophilic benzoylurea insecticide, (ii) to explore the predictive value of laboratory single-species tests for population and community-level responses of benthic macroinvertebrates, and (iii) to calibrate the tier-1 effect assessment procedure for sediment organisms. For this purpose the concentration-response relationships for macroinvertebrates between sediment-spiked microcosms and those of 28-d sediment-spiked single-species toxicity tests with Chironomus riparius, Hyalella azteca and Lumbriculus variegatus were compared. Lufenuron persisted in the sediment of the microcosms. On average, 87.7% of the initial lufenuron concentration could still be detected in the sediment after 12 weeks. Overall, benthic insects and crustaceans showed treatment-related declines and oligochaetes treatment-related increases. The lowest population-level NOEC in the microcosms was 0.79 μg lufenuron/g organic carbon in dry sediment (μg a.s./g OC) for Tanytarsini, Chironomini and Dero sp. Multivariate analysis of the responses of benthic macroinvertebrates revealed a community-level NOEC of 0.79 μg a.s./g OC. The treatment

  7. The comparative performance of the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test in Irish cattle, using tuberculin PPD combinations from different manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, M; Clegg, T A; Murphy, F; More, S J

    2011-07-05

    Ireland currently obtains its avian and bovine tuberculin purified protein derivatives (PPDs) from a single source. Because problems of supply or quality cannot be discounted, it is prudent that Ireland identify alternative supplier(s) as part of a broad risk management strategy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the performance of a number of different tuberculin combinations (that is, pairings of bovine and avian PPD; with different manufacturers) in the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test (SICTT), as currently performed in Ireland. The study was randomised, controlled and double-blinded. A total of 2172 cattle were used in the study. Each animal was tested using two SICTTs, the first based on the tuberculin combination in current use, and the second using one of six trial tuberculin combinations. Analyses were conducted to compare both reactor-status and skin increase. For each control/trial tuberculin combination, there was good agreement between the control and trial reactor-status. Differences in skin increases were mainly confined to animals categorised as either negative or severe inconclusive. However, the measured differences were minor, and unlikely to have a significant impact on the actual test outcome, either for individual animals or for herds. In conclusion, while further studies determining sensitivity and specificity in Ireland would have to be done in the event of a change in tuberculin PPD there should be minimal disruption of the national programme if alternative tuberculin PPDs meeting WHO, OIE and EU regulations were used. In this study, the precision of the guinea pig bio-assay to assess tuberculin potency was low and therefore Ireland should maintain its practice of periodically assessing potency in naturally infected cattle, even though this is not currently required under WHO, OIE or EU Regulations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Test, Evaluation, and Demonstration of Practical Devices/Systems to Reduce Aerodynamic Drag of Tractor/Semitrailer Combination Unit Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Smith; Karla Younessi; Matt Markstaller; Dan Schlesinger; Bhaskar Bhatnagar; Donald Smith; Bruno Banceu; Ron Schoon; V.K. Sharma; Mark Kachmarsky; Srikant Ghantae; Michael Sorrels; Conal Deedy; Justin Clark; Skip Yeakel; Michael D. Laughlin; Charlotte Seigler; Sidney Diamond

    2007-04-30

    Class 8 heavy-duty trucks account for over three-quarters of the total diesel fuel used by commercial trucks (trucks with GVWRs more than 10,000 pounds) in the United States each year. At the highway speeds at which these trucks travel (i.e., 60 mph or greater), aerodynamic drag is a major part of total horsepower needed to move the truck down the highway, Reductions in aerodynamic drag can yield measurable benefits in fuel economy through the use of relatively inexpensive and simple devices. The goal of this project was to examine a number of aerodynamic drag reduction devices and systems and determine their effectiveness in reducing aerodynamic drag of Class 8 tractor/semitrailer combination-units, thus contributing to DOE's goal of reducing transportation petroleum use. The project team included major heavy truck manufacturers in the United States, along with the management and industry expertise of the Truck Manufacturers Association as the lead investigative organization. The Truck Manufacturers Association (TMA) is the national trade association representing the major North American manufacturers of Class 6-8 trucks (GVWRs over 19,500 lbs). Four major truck manufacturers participated in this project with TMA: Freightliner LLC; International Truck and Engine Corporation; Mack Trucks Inc.; and Volvo Trucks North America, Inc. Together, these manufacturers represent over three-quarters of total Class 8 truck sales in the United States. These four manufacturers pursued complementary research efforts as part of this project. The project work was separated into two phases conducted over a two-year period. In Phase I, candidate aerodynamic devices and systems were screened to focus research and development attention on devices that offered the most potential. This was accomplished using full-size vehicle tests, scale model tests, and computational fluid dynamics analyses. In Phase II, the most promising devices were installed on full-size trucks and their

  9. Internet-accessed sexually transmitted infection (e-STI) testing and results service: A randomised, single-blind, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Emma; Free, Caroline; Morris, Tim P; Syred, Jonathan; Ahamed, Irrfan; Menon-Johansson, Anatole S; Palmer, Melissa J; Barnard, Sharmani; Rezel, Emma; Baraitser, Paula

    2017-12-01

    follow-up, including patient record checks, by 17 June 2016. Uptake of STI testing was increased in the intervention group at 6 weeks (50.0% versus 26.6%, relative risk [RR] 1.87, 95% CI 1.63 to 2.15, P STI diagnoses and STI cases treated. The e-STI testing service increased uptake of STI testing for all groups including high-risk groups. The intervention required people to attend clinic for treatment and did not reduce time to treatment. Service innovations to improve treatment rates for those diagnosed online are required and could include e-treatment and postal treatment services. e-STI testing services require long-term monitoring and evaluation. ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN13354298.

  10. Development of Guidelines for Use of Proton Single-Event Test Data to Bound Single-Event Effect Susceptibility Due to Light Ions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Conventional methods for Single-Event Effects (SEE) Hardness Assurance have proven difficult to adapt to Explorer, Cubesat and other risk tolerant platforms with...

  11. MO-F-CAMPUS-T-01: Radiosurgery of Multiple Brain Metastases with Single-Isocenter VMAT: Optimizing Treatment Geometry to Reduce Normal Brain Dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Q; Snyder, K; Liu, C; Huang, Y; Li, H; Chetty, I; Wen, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an optimization algorithm to reduce normal brain dose by optimizing couch and collimator angles for single isocenter multiple targets treatment of stereotactic radiosurgery. Methods: Three metastatic brain lesions were retrospectively planned using single-isocenter volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Three matrices were developed to calculate the projection of each lesion on Beam’s Eye View (BEV) by the rotating couch, collimator and gantry respectively. The island blocking problem was addressed by computing the total area of open space between any two lesions with shared MLC leaf pairs. The couch and collimator angles resulting in the smallest open areas were the optimized angles for each treatment arc. Two treatment plans with and without couch and collimator angle optimization were developed using the same objective functions and to achieve 99% of each target volume receiving full prescription dose of 18Gy. Plan quality was evaluated by calculating each target’s Conformity Index (CI), Gradient Index (GI), and Homogeneity index (HI), and absolute volume of normal brain V8Gy, V10Gy, V12Gy, and V14Gy. Results: Using the new couch/collimator optimization strategy, dose to normal brain tissue was reduced substantially. V8, V10, V12, and V14 decreased by 2.3%, 3.6%, 3.5%, and 6%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the conformity index, gradient index, and homogeneity index between two treatment plans with and without the new optimization algorithm. Conclusion: We have developed a solution to the island blocking problem in delivering radiation to multiple brain metastases with shared isocenter. Significant reduction in dose to normal brain was achieved by using optimal couch and collimator angles that minimize total area of open space between any of the two lesions with shared MLC leaf pairs. This technique has been integrated into Eclipse treatment system using scripting API

  12. MO-F-CAMPUS-T-01: Radiosurgery of Multiple Brain Metastases with Single-Isocenter VMAT: Optimizing Treatment Geometry to Reduce Normal Brain Dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q [Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Snyder, K; Liu, C; Huang, Y; Li, H; Chetty, I; Wen, N [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop an optimization algorithm to reduce normal brain dose by optimizing couch and collimator angles for single isocenter multiple targets treatment of stereotactic radiosurgery. Methods: Three metastatic brain lesions were retrospectively planned using single-isocenter volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Three matrices were developed to calculate the projection of each lesion on Beam’s Eye View (BEV) by the rotating couch, collimator and gantry respectively. The island blocking problem was addressed by computing the total area of open space between any two lesions with shared MLC leaf pairs. The couch and collimator angles resulting in the smallest open areas were the optimized angles for each treatment arc. Two treatment plans with and without couch and collimator angle optimization were developed using the same objective functions and to achieve 99% of each target volume receiving full prescription dose of 18Gy. Plan quality was evaluated by calculating each target’s Conformity Index (CI), Gradient Index (GI), and Homogeneity index (HI), and absolute volume of normal brain V8Gy, V10Gy, V12Gy, and V14Gy. Results: Using the new couch/collimator optimization strategy, dose to normal brain tissue was reduced substantially. V8, V10, V12, and V14 decreased by 2.3%, 3.6%, 3.5%, and 6%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the conformity index, gradient index, and homogeneity index between two treatment plans with and without the new optimization algorithm. Conclusion: We have developed a solution to the island blocking problem in delivering radiation to multiple brain metastases with shared isocenter. Significant reduction in dose to normal brain was achieved by using optimal couch and collimator angles that minimize total area of open space between any of the two lesions with shared MLC leaf pairs. This technique has been integrated into Eclipse treatment system using scripting API.

  13. Testing single and double limb standing balance performance: comparison of COP path length evaluation between two devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, Lars; Roth, Ralf; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2012-07-01

    Center of pressure (COP) path length evaluation was commonly applied to measure postural sway and usually obtained from gold standard force plates. Thus, we comparatively investigated the feasible and less-expensive GKS® balance system (GKS) with the Kistler® force platform (KIS). 34 non-specifically trained but active adults (14 males, 20 females, age: 25.4±4.8 years; weight: 69.3±12.3 kg; height: 1.75±0.09 m, sports activity: 5.8±3.6 hours per week) were randomly tested on both devices during double and single limb stance with opened and closed eyes. Irrespective of the analysed time frame, repeated measures analyses of variances revealed higher path length readings for GKS compared to KIS for 30 s (F=6.8, p=0.01) and 10 s (F=21.2, p=0.001). Large effect sizes of the COP path length differences between GKS and KIS decreased from easy tasks (double limb, eyes open; d(30-s)=2.55, d(10-s)=2.04) to the most severe task (single limb, eyes closed; d(30-s)=0.02, d(10-s)=0.23). According to Bland and Altman, the limits of agreements indicated a high random variability component (between 29%, double limb, eyes open and 67%, single limb, eyes closed). The overall intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) across all four standing balance tasks were moderate for the 30 s- (0.57) as well as the 10 s-analysis (0.65). In conclusion, the COP path length displacements obtained from the GKS balance system seem to differ with a considerable random variability from Kistler force platform data. Thus, measurements of the evaluated devices should not be used interchangeably. Further methodological investigations regarding balance measures seem warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Workplace testing of the new single sphere neutron spectrometer based on Dysprosium activation foils (Dy-SSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedogni, R., E-mail: roberto.bedogni@lnf.infn.it [INFN-LNF (Frascati National Laboratories), Via E. Fermi n. 40-00044 Frascati (Italy); Gomez-Ros, J.M. [INFN-LNF (Frascati National Laboratories), Via E. Fermi n. 40-00044 Frascati (Italy); CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Esposito, A.; Gentile, A.; Chiti, M.; Palacios-Perez, L. [INFN-LNF (Frascati National Laboratories), Via E. Fermi n. 40-00044 Frascati (Italy); Angelone, M. [ENEA C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Tana, L. [A.O. Universitaria Pisana-Ospedale S. Chiara, Via Bonanno Pisano, Pisa (Italy)

    2012-08-21

    A photon insensitive passive neutron spectrometer consisting of a single moderating polyethylene sphere with Dysprosium activation foils arranged along three perpendicular axes was designed by CIEMAT and INFN. The device is called Dy-SSS (Dy foil-based Single Sphere Spectrometer). It shows nearly isotropic response in terms of neutron fluence up to 20 MeV. The first prototype, previously calibrated with 14 MeV neutrons, has been recently tested in workplaces having different energy and directional distributions. These are a 2.5 MeV nearly mono-chromatic and mono-directional beam available at the ENEA Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG) and the photo-neutron field produced in a 15 MV Varian CLINAC DHX medical accelerator, located in the Ospedale S. Chiara (Pisa). Both neutron spectra are known through measurements with a Bonner Sphere Spectrometer. In both cases the experimental response of the Dy-SSS agrees with the reference data. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the spectrometric capability of the new device are independent from the directional distribution of the neutron field. This opens the way to a new generation of moderation-based neutron instruments, presenting all advantages of the Bonner sphere spectrometer without the disadvantage of the repeated exposures. This concept is being developed within the NESCOFI@BTF project of INFN (Commissione Scientifica Nazionale 5).

  15. Design and first tests of miniature K010X soft x-ray streak and single-frame camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, V. B.; Feldman, G. G.; Myasnikov, A. F.; Chernyshev, N. V.; Shubski, I. I.; Liu, Jingru; Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Xueqin; Zheng, Guoxin; Xiao, Weiwei

    2007-01-01

    Description of a new K010X soft X-ray camera and the first results of it tests carried out in Russia and China are presented. In a streak mode the full sweep time for a 2 cm sweep route length on the image converter screen is from 2 ns up to 600 microseconds. In a single-frame mode the corresponding frame duration is from ~10 ns up to ~ 660 microseconds. Spatial resolution in a single frame mode was not less than 5 l.p./mm for soft X-ray radiation and not less 10 l.p./mm for UV radiation. Spatial resolution in a streak mode for soft X-ray radiation was from 5 up to 10 l.p./mm and for UV radiation on all the sweep ranges was not less than 10 l.p./mm, except for the range of 1 ns/cm where it was 5 l.p./mm. Limiting temporal resolution for UV radiation was near 10 ps and a dynamic range was 200 when full sweep time was 60 ns. The camera has small 430×115×200 mm dimensions, 5.0 kg weight and 10 VA power consumption.

  16. Workplace testing of the new single sphere neutron spectrometer based on Dysprosium activation foils (Dy-SSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedogni, R.; Gómez-Ros, J.M.; Esposito, A.; Gentile, A.; Chiti, M.; Palacios-Pérez, L.; Angelone, M.; Tana, L.

    2012-01-01

    A photon insensitive passive neutron spectrometer consisting of a single moderating polyethylene sphere with Dysprosium activation foils arranged along three perpendicular axes was designed by CIEMAT and INFN. The device is called Dy-SSS (Dy foil-based Single Sphere Spectrometer). It shows nearly isotropic response in terms of neutron fluence up to 20 MeV. The first prototype, previously calibrated with 14 MeV neutrons, has been recently tested in workplaces having different energy and directional distributions. These are a 2.5 MeV nearly mono-chromatic and mono-directional beam available at the ENEA Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG) and the photo-neutron field produced in a 15 MV Varian CLINAC DHX medical accelerator, located in the Ospedale S. Chiara (Pisa). Both neutron spectra are known through measurements with a Bonner Sphere Spectrometer. In both cases the experimental response of the Dy-SSS agrees with the reference data. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the spectrometric capability of the new device are independent from the directional distribution of the neutron field. This opens the way to a new generation of moderation-based neutron instruments, presenting all advantages of the Bonner sphere spectrometer without the disadvantage of the repeated exposures. This concept is being developed within the NESCOFI@BTF project of INFN (Commissione Scientifica Nazionale 5).

  17. Workplace testing of the new single sphere neutron spectrometer based on Dysprosium activation foils (Dy-SSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedogni, R.; Gómez-Ros, J. M.; Esposito, A.; Gentile, A.; Chiti, M.; Palacios-Pérez, L.; Angelone, M.; Tana, L.

    2012-08-01

    A photon insensitive passive neutron spectrometer consisting of a single moderating polyethylene sphere with Dysprosium activation foils arranged along three perpendicular axes was designed by CIEMAT and INFN. The device is called Dy-SSS (Dy foil-based Single Sphere Spectrometer). It shows nearly isotropic response in terms of neutron fluence up to 20 MeV. The first prototype, previously calibrated with 14 MeV neutrons, has been recently tested in workplaces having different energy and directional distributions. These are a 2.5 MeV nearly mono-chromatic and mono-directional beam available at the ENEA Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG) and the photo-neutron field produced in a 15 MV Varian CLINAC DHX medical accelerator, located in the Ospedale S. Chiara (Pisa). Both neutron spectra are known through measurements with a Bonner Sphere Spectrometer. In both cases the experimental response of the Dy-SSS agrees with the reference data. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the spectrometric capability of the new device are independent from the directional distribution of the neutron field. This opens the way to a new generation of moderation-based neutron instruments, presenting all advantages of the Bonner sphere spectrometer without the disadvantage of the repeated exposures. This concept is being developed within the NESCOFI@BTF project of INFN (Commissione Scientifica Nazionale 5).

  18. In situ bend testing of niobium-reinforced alumina nanocomposites with and without single-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, Katherine E.; Jiang Dongtao; Lemberg, Joseph A.; Koester, Kurt J.; Ritchie, Robert O.; Mukherjee, Amiya K.

    2008-01-01

    Alumina-based nanocomposites were fabricated and consolidated via spark plasma sintering. The effect of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and niobium additions to nanocrystalline alumina was examined by in situ bend testing. The addition of 10 vol.% niobium to nanocrystalline alumina provided substantial improvement of fracture toughness (6.1 MPa m 1/2 )-almost three times that of nanocrystalline alumina. Observation of cracks emanating from Vickers indents, as well as bend specimen fracture surfaces, reveal the operation of ductile phase toughening in the Nb-Al 2 O 3 nanocomposites. Further addition of 5 vol.% SWCNTs to the 10 vol.%Nb-Al 2 O 3 revealed a more porous structure and less impressive fracture toughness-having an indentation and bend fracture toughness of 2.9 MPa m 1/2 and 3.3 MPa m 1/2 , respectively

  19. Testing the accuracy of a Bayesian central-dose model for single-grain OSL, using known-age samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerin, Guillaume; Combès, Benoit; Lahaye, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    remains a difficult task, given the typically considerable dispersion in equivalent dose values measured by OSL - and the numerous sources of such dispersion in measurements. Here, we present the study of 19 samples for which independent age control is available, and whose ages range from 2 to 46ka. Based......-grain OSL and reference ages is about twice as large for the standard approach (12%) as with the Bayesian model (7%). Statistical tests show that, based on our (limited) dataset, the difference between the two models seems to be significant for samples in the age range 4-46ka. Finally, the influence...... on multi-grain OSL age estimates, these samples are presumed to have been both well-bleached at burial, and unaffected by mixing after deposition. Two ways of estimating single-grain ages are then compared: the standard approach on the one hand, consisting of applying the Central Age Model to De values...

  20. Criterion for traffic phases in single vehicle data and empirical test of a microscopic three-phase traffic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, Boris S; Klenov, Sergey L; Hiller, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Based on empirical and numerical microscopic analyses, the physical nature of a qualitatively different behaviour of the wide moving jam phase in comparison with the synchronized flow phase-microscopic traffic flow interruption within the wide moving jam phase-is found. A microscopic criterion for distinguishing the synchronized flow and wide moving jam phases in single vehicle data measured at a single freeway location is presented. Based on this criterion, empirical microscopic classification of different local congested traffic states is performed. Simulations made show that the microscopic criterion and macroscopic spatiotemporal objective criteria lead to the same identification of the synchronized flow and wide moving jam phases in congested traffic. Microscopic models in the context of three-phase traffic theory have been tested based on the microscopic criterion for the phases in congested traffic. It is found that microscopic three-phase traffic models can explain both microscopic and macroscopic empirical congested pattern features. It is obtained that microscopic frequency distributions for vehicle speed difference as well as fundamental diagrams and speed correlation functions can depend on the spatial co-ordinate considerably. It turns out that microscopic optimal velocity (OV) functions and time headway distributions are not necessarily qualitatively different, even if local congested traffic states are qualitatively different. The reason for this is that important spatiotemporal features of congested traffic patterns are lost in these as well as in many other macroscopic and microscopic traffic characteristics, which are widely used as the empirical basis for a test of traffic flow models, specifically, cellular automata traffic flow models

  1. Cost Analysis of the STONE Randomized Trial: Can Health Care Costs be Reduced One Test at a Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikow, Joy; Xing, Guibo; Cox, Ginger; Leigh, Paul; Mills, Lisa; Miglioretti, Diana L; Moghadassi, Michelle; Smith-Bindman, Rebecca

    2016-04-01

    Decreasing the use of high-cost tests may reduce health care costs. To compare costs of care for patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with suspected kidney stones randomized to 1 of 3 initial imaging tests. Patients were randomized to point-of-care ultrasound (POC US, least costly), radiology ultrasound (RAD US), or computed tomography (CT, most costly). Subsequent testing and treatment were the choice of the treating physician. A total of 2759 patients at 15 EDs were randomized to POC US (n=908), RAD US, (n=893), or CT (n=958). Mean age was 40.4 years; 51.8% were male. All medical care documented in the trial database in the 7 days following enrollment was abstracted and coded to estimate costs using national average 2012 Medicare reimbursements. Costs for initial ED care and total 7-day costs were compared using nonparametric bootstrap to account for clustering of patients within medical centers. Initial ED visit costs were modestly lower for patients assigned to RAD US: $423 ($411, $434) compared with patients assigned to CT: $448 ($438, $459) (Pcosts were not significantly different between groups: $1014 ($912, $1129) for POC US, $970 ($878, $1078) for RAD US, and $959 ($870, $1044) for CT. Hospital admissions contributed over 50% of total costs, though only 11% of patients were admitted. Mean total costs (and admission rates) varied substantially by site from $749 to $1239. Assignment to a less costly test had no impact on overall health care costs for ED patients. System-level interventions addressing variation in admission rates from the ED might have greater impact on costs.

  2. [Use of remifentanil to reduce propofol injection pain and the required propofol dose in upper digestive tract endoscopy diagnostic tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uliana, Gustavo Nadal; Tambara, Elizabeth Milla; Baretta, Giorgio Alfredo Pedroso

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) as a sedative agent has transformed the area of sedation for endoscopic procedures. However, a major drawback of sedation with the use of propofol is its high incidence of injection pain. The most widely used technique in reducing propofol injection pain is through the association of other drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of remifentanil-propofol combination on the incidence of propofol injection pain and its influence on the total dose of propofol required for sedation in upper digestive tract endoscopy (UDE) diagnostic tests. One hundred and five patients undergoing upper digestive tract endoscopy were evaluated and randomly divided into 3 groups of 35 patients each. The Control Group received propofol alone; Study-group 1 received remifentanil at a fixed dose of 0.2mg/kg combined with propofol; Study-group 2 received remifentanil at a fixed dose of 0.3mg/kg combined with propofol. The incidence of propofol injection pain and the total dose of propofol required for the test were evaluated. The sample was very similar regarding age, weight, height, sex, and physical status. Statistical analysis was performed according to the nature of the evaluated data. Student's t-test was used to compare the mean of age, weight, height (cm), and dose (mg/kg) variables between groups. The ℵ(2) test was used to compare sex, physical status, and propofol injection pain between groups. The significance level was α < 0.05. There was significant statistical difference between the study groups and the control group regarding the parameters of propofol injection pain and total dose of propofol (mg/kg) used. However, there were no statistical differences between the two study groups for these parameters. We conclude that the use of remifentanil at doses of 0.2mg/kg and 0.3mg/kg was effective for reducing both the propofol injection pain and the total dose of propofol used. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade

  3. A Single Bout of Aerobic Exercise Reduces Anxiety Sensitivity But Not Intolerance of Uncertainty or Distress Tolerance: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBouthillier, Daniel M; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2015-01-01

    Several mechanisms have been posited for the anxiolytic effects of exercise, including reductions in anxiety sensitivity through interoceptive exposure. Studies on aerobic exercise lend support to this hypothesis; however, research investigating aerobic exercise in comparison to placebo, the dose-response relationship between aerobic exercise anxiety sensitivity, the efficacy of aerobic exercise on the spectrum of anxiety sensitivity and the effect of aerobic exercise on other related constructs (e.g. intolerance of uncertainty, distress tolerance) is lacking. We explored reductions in anxiety sensitivity and related constructs following a single session of exercise in a community sample using a randomized controlled trial design. Forty-one participants completed 30 min of aerobic exercise or a placebo stretching control. Anxiety sensitivity, intolerance of uncertainty and distress tolerance were measured at baseline, post-intervention and 3-day and 7-day follow-ups. Individuals in the aerobic exercise group, but not the control group, experienced significant reductions with moderate effect sizes in all dimensions of anxiety sensitivity. Intolerance of uncertainty and distress tolerance remained unchanged in both groups. Our trial supports the efficacy of aerobic exercise in uniquely reducing anxiety sensitivity in individuals with varying levels of the trait and highlights the importance of empirically validating the use of aerobic exercise to address specific mental health vulnerabilities. Aerobic exercise may have potential as a temporary substitute for psychotherapy aimed at reducing anxiety-related psychopathology.

  4. Development and testing of single-shell tank waste retrieval technologies: Milestone M-45-01 summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, E.J.

    1994-08-01

    This report summarizes the activities undertaken to develop single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval technology and complete scale-model testing. Completion of these activities fulfills the commitment of Milestone M-45-01 of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (the Tri-Party Agreement). Initial activities included engineering studies that compiled and evaluated data on all known retrieval technologies. Based on selection criteria incorporating regulatory, safety, and operational issues, several technologies were selected for further evaluation and testing. The testing ranged from small-scale, bench-top evaluations of individual technologies to full-scale integrated tests of multiple subsystems operating concurrently as a system using simulated wastes. The current baseline retrieval method for SSTs is hydraulic sluicing. This method has been used successfully in the past to recover waste from SSTs. Variations of this hydraulic or ''past practice'' sluicing may be used to retrieve the waste from the majority of the SSTs. To minimize the potential for releases to the soil, arm-based retrieval systems may be used to recover waste from tanks that are known or suspected to have leaked. Both hydraulic sluicing and arm-based retrieval will be demonstrated in the first SST. Hydraulic sluicing is expected to retrieve most of the waste, and arm-based retrieval will retrieve wastes that remain after sluicing. Subsequent tanks will be retrieved by either hydraulic sluicing or arm-based methods, but not both. The method will be determined by waste characterization, tank integrity (leak status), and presence of in-tank hardware. Currently, it is assumed that approximately 75% of all SSTs will be retrieved by hydraulic sluicing and the remaining tanks by arm-based methods

  5. Fractional Models Simulating Non-Fickian Behavior in Four-Stage Single-Well Push-Pull Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kewei; Zhan, Hongbin; Yang, Qiang

    2017-11-01

    Four-stage single-well push-pull (SWPP) tracer tests, including injection, chasing, resting, and pumping, were conducted in a fractured aquifer at Newark basin. An anomalous transport phenomenon observed in the SWPP tests is the linear decline of breakthrough curves (BTCs) at late time with slope of -1.8 in log-log plots. A time-dependent fractional model is developed to interpret the anomalous transport behavior. This model considers a time-dependent power law memory function and a time-dependent fractional advection-dispersion operator. The fractional advection-dispersion equations (fADE) are solved in a radial coordinate system using the implicit Euler method. A semi-analytical solution of the first-order rate-limited mobile-immobile model (FORMIM) is derived for comparison. It is found that both the nonlocal transport in time and space can produce the long-tailed BTC. A smaller time-fractional or space-fractional index leads to a lower peak concentration and a larger late-time slope. The mass distribution of the fractional-in-space (FS) model exhibits power law decline at the leading plume edge. Early breakthrough during pumping is not observed because the mobile mass at the start of pumping is nonzero and more concentrated near the wellbore. The capacity ratio is an important factor that affects the peak concentration. A larger capacity ratio leads to greater peak concentration. A smaller time-fractional index in the injection, chasing, or resting stage will move the BTC downward and the slope of the late time BTC is determined by the space-fractional index over all stages and the time-fractional index in the pumping stage. The capability of the existing models to recover the BTC of the SWPP test is discussed and some guidelines for how to choose the appropriate model to interpret the SWPP test data are proposed.

  6. Randomized test of a brief psychological intervention to reduce and prevent emotional eating in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Christopher J

    2015-09-01

    Emotional eating is associated with mental health problems and weight gain, but research has focussed on treatment rather than prevention. The present research tests a brief theory-based psychological intervention to reduce and prevent emotional eating in a community sample. Two hundred and forty women were randomized to a control condition in which they were asked to identify emotional eating triggers and strategies for change (a 'volitional help sheet') or to an experimental condition in which they were asked explicitly to use the volitional help sheet to link emotional eating triggers with strategies for change and so form implementation intentions. Results showed that eating in response to boredom was more common than eating in response to anxiety or depression. There was a significant condition × time interaction showing that the formation of implementation intentions resulted in significantly lower levels of emotional eating in response to boredom at follow-up (d = 0.29). The intervention shows promise in reducing and preventing emotional eating, but further research is required to refine the tool and to examine whether eating in response to anxiety or depression is more common among clinical populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Acceptance- and imagery-based strategies can reduce chocolate cravings: A test of the elaborated-intrusion theory of desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Sophie; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2017-06-01

    The elaborated-intrusion theory of desire proposes that craving is a two-stage process whereby initial intrusions about a desired target are subsequently elaborated with mental imagery. The present study tested whether the craving reduction strategies of cognitive defusion and guided imagery could differentially target the intrusion and elaboration stages, respectively, and thus differentially impact the craving process. Participants were randomly assigned to a cognitive defusion, a guided imagery or a mind-wandering control condition. Pre- and post-intervention chocolate-related thoughts, intrusiveness of thoughts, vividness of imagery, craving intensity, and chocolate consumption were compared. Experiment 1 recruited a general sample of young women (n = 94), whereas Experiment 2 recruited a sample of chocolate cravers who wanted to reduce their chocolate consumption (n = 97). Across both experiments, cognitive defusion lowered intrusiveness of thoughts, vividness of imagery and craving intensity. Guided imagery reduced chocolate-related thoughts, intrusiveness, vividness and craving intensity for chocolate cravers (Experiment 2), but not for the general sample (Experiment 1). There were no group differences in chocolate consumption in either experiment. Results add to existing evidence supporting the elaborated-intrusion theory of desire in the food domain, and suggest that acceptance- and imagery-based techniques have potential for use in combatting problematic cravings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nonlinear numerical analysis and experimental testing for an electrothermal SU-8 microgripper with reduced out-of-plane displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voicu, Rodica-Cristina; Zandi, Muaiyd Al; Müller, Raluca; Wang, Changhai

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports the results of numerical nonlinear electro-thermo-mechanical analysis and experimental testing of a polymeric microgripper designed using electrothermal actuators. The simulation work was carried out using a finite element method (FEM) and a commercial software (Coventorware 2014). The biocompatible SU-8 polymer was used as structural material for the fabrication of the microgripper. The metallic micro-heater was encapsulated in the polymeric actuation structures of the microgripper to reduce the undesirable out-of-plane displacement of the microgripper tips, and to electrically isolate the micro-heater, and to reduce the mechanical stress as well as to improve the thermal efficiency. The electro- thermo-mechanical analysis of the actuator considers the nonlinear temperature-dependent properties of the SU-8 polymer and the gold thin film layers used for the micro-heater fabrication. An optical characterisation of the microgripper based on an image tracking approach shows the thermal response and the good repeatability. The average deflection is ~11 µm for an actuation current of ~17 mA. The experimentally obtained tip deflection and the heater temperature at different currents are both shown to be in good agreement with the nonlinear electro-thermo-mechanical simulation results. Finally, we demonstrate the capability of the microgripper by capture and manipulation of cotton fibres.

  9. Testing the effects of educational toilet posters: a novel way of reducing haemolysis of blood samples within ED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkill, David

    2012-02-01

    Haemolysed blood samples are an unnecessary burden on Emergency Departments (ED) as they increase workloads and drive down efficiencies. Little empirical data exists that demonstrates the effectiveness of educational posters displayed in staff toilet cubicles. This study explored the impact educational toilet posters have on reducing haemolysis rates within the ED. A time series study of the clinical effect of educational toilet posters on reducing haemolysis rates throughout a 12 month period at the Gold Coast Hospital ED was undertaken. The GCH ED is a tertiary emergency service that has approximately 66,000 patient presentations per year. Data was collected prospectively. Analysis was undertaken to investigate the effects on total number of haemolysed samples and those clinically significant samples with a haemolytic index >3. Further investigation explored the specific effects on medical and nursing staff. Analysis undertaken using an independent t-test found that the pre-intervention data demonstrates a medium haemolysis rate of 4.92% (SD=1.04). This is a statistically significantly different (t=3.56, df=50, p=0.001) from the median post intervention data of 3.95% (SD=0.84). The difference of 0.97% (95%CI=0.42, 1.52) represents a 19.72% reduction in clinically significant haemolysed samples over the study period. This study reveals that the use of educational toilet posters had a positive impact on reducing the rates of haemolysed samples collected within the ED. This simple and cost effective educational initiative changed the behaviour of clinical staff. Further investigation is warranted to examine the impact of educational toilet posters on additional clinical scenarios. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Self-renewal of single mouse hematopoietic stem cells is reduced by JAK2V617F without compromising progeni