WorldWideScience

Sample records for single test administration

  1. Six Single-Administration Reliability Coefficients for Criterion-Referenced Tests: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Steven M.; Mehrens, William A.

    Four criterion-referenced reliability coefficicents were compared to the Kuder-Richardson estimates and to each other. The Kuder-Richardson formulas 20 and 21, the Livingston, the Subkoviak and two Huynh coefficients were computed for a random sample of 33 criterion-referenced tests. The Subkoviak coefficient yielded the highest mean value;…

  2. Corneal pharmacokinetics of the 2% diacerein eye drops between multiple administration and single administration

    OpenAIRE

    Ke Yang; Shi-Wei Chen; Xin-Yan Dou; Zhi-Rui Zhang; Xin Jin; Hong-Min Zhang

    2018-01-01

    AIM: To compare the pharmacokinetic differences of the 2% diacerein eye drops between conjunctival sac multiple administration and single administration in the cornea, and to provide the experimental basis for clinicians to use the conjunctival sac multiple administration.METHODS: Male Kunming mice were randomly divided into the multiple administration group and the single administration group. The multiple administration group were given diacerein eye drop every 2min(3 times in total). The c...

  3. TMACS Test Procedure TP007: System administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlan, P.; Washburn, S.; Seghers, R.

    1994-01-01

    The TMACS Software Project Test Procedures translate the project's acceptance criteria into test steps. Software releases are certified when the affected Test Procedures are successfully performed and the customers authorize installation of these changes. This Test Procedure tests the TMACS System Administration functions

  4. SINGLE HEATER TEST FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.B. Cho

    1999-05-01

    The Single Heater Test is the first of the in-situ thermal tests conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of its program of characterizing Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site for a proposed deep geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. The Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988) contained an extensive plan of in-situ thermal tests aimed at understanding specific aspects of the response of the local rock-mass around the potential repository to the heat from the radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. With the refocusing of the Site Characterization Plan by the ''Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan'' (DOE 1994), a consolidated thermal testing program emerged by 1995 as documented in the reports ''In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (DOE 1995) and ''Updated In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (CRWMS M&O 1997a). The concept of the Single Heater Test took shape in the summer of 1995 and detailed planning and design of the test started with the beginning fiscal year 1996. The overall objective of the Single Heater Test was to gain an understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes that are anticipated to occur in the local rock-mass in the potential repository as a result of heat from radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. This included making a priori predictions of the test results using existing models and subsequently refining or modifying the models, on the basis of comparative and interpretive analyses of the measurements and predictions. A second, no less important, objective was to try out, in a full-scale field setting, the various instruments and equipment to be employed in the future on a much larger, more complex, thermal test of longer duration, such as the Drift Scale Test. This ''shake down'' or trial aspect of the Single Heater Test applied

  5. SINGLE HEATER TEST FINAL REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.B. Cho

    1999-01-01

    The Single Heater Test is the first of the in-situ thermal tests conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of its program of characterizing Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site for a proposed deep geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. The Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988) contained an extensive plan of in-situ thermal tests aimed at understanding specific aspects of the response of the local rock-mass around the potential repository to the heat from the radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. With the refocusing of the Site Characterization Plan by the ''Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan'' (DOE 1994), a consolidated thermal testing program emerged by 1995 as documented in the reports ''In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (DOE 1995) and ''Updated In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (CRWMS M and O 1997a). The concept of the Single Heater Test took shape in the summer of 1995 and detailed planning and design of the test started with the beginning fiscal year 1996. The overall objective of the Single Heater Test was to gain an understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes that are anticipated to occur in the local rock-mass in the potential repository as a result of heat from radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. This included making a priori predictions of the test results using existing models and subsequently refining or modifying the models, on the basis of comparative and interpretive analyses of the measurements and predictions. A second, no less important, objective was to try out, in a full-scale field setting, the various instruments and equipment to be employed in the future on a much larger, more complex, thermal test of longer duration, such as the Drift Scale Test. This ''shake down'' or trial aspect of the Single Heater Test applied not just to the hardware, but also to the teamwork and cooperation between

  6. Single event upset test programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russen, L.C.

    1984-11-01

    It has been shown that the heavy ions in cosmic rays can give rise to single event upsets in VLSI random access memory devices (RAMs). Details are given of the programs written to test 1K, 4K, 16K and 64K memories during their irradiation with heavy charged ions, in order to simulate the effects of cosmic rays in space. The test equipment, which is used to load the memory device to be tested with a known bit pattern, and subsequently interrogate it for upsets, or ''flips'', is fully described. (author)

  7. Corneal pharmacokinetics of the 2% diacerein eye drops between multiple administration and single administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the pharmacokinetic differences of the 2% diacerein eye drops between conjunctival sac multiple administration and single administration in the cornea, and to provide the experimental basis for clinicians to use the conjunctival sac multiple administration.METHODS: Male Kunming mice were randomly divided into the multiple administration group and the single administration group. The multiple administration group were given diacerein eye drop every 2min(3 times in total. The concentrations of the metabolites of diacerein in the cornea were measured by high performance liquid chromatography after given eye drop 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180min. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by pharmacokinetic software(DAS2.1.1. RESULTS: The metabolites of diacerein, rhein, was detected in the cornea at each time point. The concentration of the metabolite of diacerein in the cornea was 318.678±40.88, 210.02±25.66, 188.83±31.74, 112.24±11.70, 90.28±22.01 and 57.67±13.71μg/g after given eye drop 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180min in the multiple administration group. The concentration in the single administration group was 145.17±19.29, 97.95±10.49, 71.18±18.70, 39.11±2.44, 18.10±2.34 and 9.08±2.04μg/g respectively. The concentration of rhein in the cornea was the highest at 5min after the administration in the two groups. The concentration of the multiple administration group was higher than that in the single administration group at 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180min(PCONCLUSION: Compared with the single administration, the conjunctival sac multiple administration has the advantages of high drug concentration and long duration. Therefor the conjunctival sac multiple administration is a more effective method to treat acute infectious corneal diseases.

  8. 40 CFR 204.56 - Testing by the Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing by the Administrator. 204.56... the Administrator. (a)(1) The Administrator may require that any compressor tested or scheduled to be...) The Administrator may specify that he will conduct such testing at the manufacturer's facility, in...

  9. 40 CFR 205.159 - Testing by the Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing by the Administrator. 205.159... Administrator. (a)(1) In order for the Administrator to determine whether such vehicles or a manufacturer's test facility conform to applicable regulations, the Administrator may require that vehicles to be tested...

  10. 40 CFR 91.605 - Testing by the Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing by the Administrator. 91.605... Regulations § 91.605 Testing by the Administrator. (a) The Administrator may require by test order under § 91... § 91.606 and submitted to the Administrator at the place designated for the purpose of conducting...

  11. 40 CFR 89.504 - Testing by the Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing by the Administrator. 89.504... Enforcement Auditing § 89.504 Testing by the Administrator. (a) The Administrator may require by test order... requirements of § 89.507 and submitted to the Administrator at the place designated for the purpose of...

  12. 40 CFR 90.504 - Testing by the Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing by the Administrator. 90.504... Enforcement Auditing § 90.504 Testing by the Administrator. (a) The Administrator may require by test order... requirements of § 90.507 and submitted to the Administrator at the place designated for the purpose of...

  13. 40 CFR 205.170 - Testing by the Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing by the Administrator. 205.170... the Administrator. (a)(1) In order for the Administrator to determine whether such exhaust systems or a manufacturer's test facility conform to applicable regulations, the Administrator may require that...

  14. Rhabdomyolysis associated with single-dose intravenous esomeprazole administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Dae-Hong; Kim, Yire; Kim, Min Jeong; Cho, Hyun Seop; Bae, Eun Jin; Chang, Se-Ho; Park, Dong Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Proton pump inhibitors are usually safe, although serious adverse effects can occur. We report the first case of rhabdomyolysis associated with single-dose intravenous esomeprozole administration. Methods: A 45-year-old Korean male visited our emergency room because of persistent lower chest discomfort that started 10 hours before. He had been diagnosed with diabetes and coronary heart disease, but discontinued oral hypoglycemic agents 1 month earlier. He continued to take medications for coronary heart disease. There was no abnormality on an electrocardiogram or in cardiac enzymes. Initial laboratory findings did not show abnormalities for muscle enzymes. Esomeprozole 40 mg was administrated intravenously for the control of his ambiguous chest discomfort. Then, 12 hours later, he complained of abrupt severe right buttock pain. An area of tender muscle swelling 8 cm in diameter was seen on his right buttock area. Creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were elevated to 40,538 and 1326 U/L, respectively. A bone scan using 20 mCi of 99mTc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate was compatible with rhabdomyolysis. Results: His muscular symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings improved markedly with conservative management, including hydration and urine alkalinization. He is being followed in the outpatient department with no evidence of recurrence. Conclusion: We should keep in mind that single-dose intravenous administration of esomeprazole can induce rhabdomyolysis. PMID:27442680

  15. 40 CFR 211.111 - Testing by the Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing by the Administrator. 211.111... PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.111 Testing by the Administrator. (a)(1) To determine whether products conform to applicable regulations under this part, the Administrator may require...

  16. Restless Legs Syndrome After Single Low Dose Quetiapine Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyata, Ahmet Z; Celebi, Fahri; Yargc, Lutfi I

    2016-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome is an underdiagnosed sensori-motor disorder and psychotropic drugs are one of the main secondary causes of the illness. The most common psychotropic agents that cause restless legs syndrome are antidepressants; however, antipsychotics have also been reported to induce restless legs syndrome. The prevalence, vulnerability factors and the underlying mechanism of antipsychotic-induced restless legs syndrome are unclear. A possible explanation is that dopaminergic blockade is the main precipitator of the syndrome. Quetiapine-induced restless legs syndrome is another point of interest because of its low binding to D2 receptors. We herein report the case of a restless legs syndrome that emerged after a single low dose quetiapine administration.

  17. Sick Sinus Syndrome After a Single Oral Administration of Garenoxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiyo Sugiyama, MD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the case of a 60-year-old female who demonstrated sick sinus syndrome after a single administration of Garenoxacin (GRNX. She was administered GRNX for an upper respiratory infection and 10 minutes thereafter, she suddenly felt palpitation and numbness of both arms. She was transferred to the hospital 2 hours after taking GRNX. An electrocardiogram showed bradycardia with junctional escape beats and the longest sinus arrest was 4 seconds. She was treated with a temporary pacemaker and 21 hours after the administration of GRNX her sinus node function was observed to have completely improved. GRNX-induced sick sinus syndrome was suspected because her clinical course was compatible with the concentration of GRNX and her other cardiological assessments, including an electrophysiologic study (EPS which were conducted on the 9th day of the admission, were normal. GRNX has less effect on the QT interval than other quinolone agents. However, physicians should be aware of the risk of sick sinus syndrome because GRNX is frequently prescribed in outpatient clinics.

  18. Aggregating Polytomous DIF Results over Multiple Test Administrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Rebecca; Ye, Lei; Isham, Steven

    2018-01-01

    In typical differential item functioning (DIF) assessments, an item's DIF status is not influenced by its status in previous test administrations. An item that has shown DIF at multiple administrations may be treated the same way as an item that has shown DIF in only the most recent administration. Therefore, much useful information about the…

  19. Single Event Effect (SEE) Test Planning 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Pellish, Jonathan; Berg, Melanie D.

    2011-01-01

    This is a course on SEE Test Plan development. It is an introductory discussion of the items that go into planning an SEE test that should complement the SEE test methodology used. Material will only cover heavy ion SEE testing and not proton, LASER, or other though many of the discussed items may be applicable. While standards and guidelines for how-to perform single event effects (SEE) testing have existed almost since the first cyclotron testing, guidance on the development of SEE test plans has not been as easy to find. In this section of the short course, we attempt to rectify this lack. We consider the approach outlined here as a "living" document: mission specific constraints and new technology related issues always need to be taken into account. We note that we will use the term "test planning" in the context of those items being included in a test plan.

  20. 49 CFR 232.309 - Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... Testing Requirements § 232.309 Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests. (a) Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests shall be tested for correct operation at...

  1. Drug Testing and College Athletes: A Dilemma for Institutional Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Annette

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of mandatory drug testing for college athletes reviews the National Collegiate Athletic Association's policy, arguments for and against such testing, the results of relevant court litigation, and the legal ramifications for college administration. The testing of employees in both public and private sectors is also briefly addressed.…

  2. Laboratory tests for single-event effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchner, S.; McMorrow, D.; Melinger, J.; Campbell, A.B.

    1996-01-01

    Integrated circuits are currently tested at accelerators for their susceptibility to single-event effects (SEE's). However, because of the cost and limited accessibility associated with accelerator testing, there is considerable interest in developing alternate testing methods. Two laboratory techniques for measuring SEE, one involving a pulsed laser and the other 252 Cf, are described in detail in this paper. The pulsed laser provides information on the spatial and temporal dependence of SEE, information that has proven invaluable in understanding and mitigating SEE in spite of the differences in the physical mechanisms responsible for SEE induced by light and by ions. Considerable effort has been expended on developing 252 Cf as a laboratory test for SEE, but the technique has not found wide use because it is severely limited by the low energy and short range of the emitted ions that are unable to reach junctions either covered with dielectric layers or deep below the surface. In fact, there are documented cases where single-event latchup (SEL) testing with 252 Cf gave significantly different results from accelerator testing. A detailed comparison of laboratory and accelerator SEE data is presented in this review in order to establish the limits of each technique

  3. NEXT Single String Integration Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulas, George C.; Patterson, Michael J.; Pinero, Luis; Herman, Daniel A.; Snyder, Steven John

    2010-01-01

    As a critical part of NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) test validation process, a single string integration test was performed on the NEXT ion propulsion system. The objectives of this test were to verify that an integrated system of major NEXT ion propulsion system elements meets project requirements, to demonstrate that the integrated system is functional across the entire power processor and xenon propellant management system input ranges, and to demonstrate to potential users that the NEXT propulsion system is ready for transition to flight. Propulsion system elements included in this system integration test were an engineering model ion thruster, an engineering model propellant management system, an engineering model power processor unit, and a digital control interface unit simulator that acted as a test console. Project requirements that were verified during this system integration test included individual element requirements ; integrated system requirements, and fault handling. This paper will present the results of these tests, which include: integrated ion propulsion system demonstrations of performance, functionality and fault handling; a thruster re-performance acceptance test to establish baseline performance: a risk-reduction PMS-thruster integration test: and propellant management system calibration checks.

  4. 40 CFR 86.091-29 - Testing by the Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.091-29 Testing by the... obtained up to that point in the test, as described in subpart B of this part. (ii) Whenever the... or has been obtained in violation of any provisions of this part, the Administrator may refuse to...

  5. 40 CFR 205.56 - Testing by the Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing by the Administrator. 205.56 Section 205.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.56 Testing by the...

  6. Plasma concentrations of clonazepam after single rectal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylance, G W; Poulton, J; Cherry, R C; Cullen, R E

    1986-01-01

    Clonazepam was administered rectally to six children aged 1.4 to 4.7 years in a dose of 0.05 mg/kg and to five children aged 1.4 to 4.1 years in a dose of 0.1 mg/kg. Plasma concentrations indicate that it is rapidly absorbed, and it may therefore be an alternative to rectal administration of diazepam in continuing convulsions. PMID:3954443

  7. 76 FR 34801 - Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... reference in 49 CFR 232.305) is intended for freight cars with automatic brake systems that are...] Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures In accordance with Part 232 of Title 49... Railroad Administration (FRA) grant a modification of the single car air brake test procedures as...

  8. Improving Single Event Effects Testing Through Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banker, M. W.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation encountered in space environments can be damaging to microelectronics and potentially cause spacecraft failure. Single event effects (SEE) are a type of radiation effect that occur when an ion strikes a device. Single event gate rupture (SEGR) is a type of SEE that can cause failure in power transistors. Unlike other SEE rates in which a constant linear energy transfer (LET) can be used, SEGR rates sometimes require a non-uniform LET to be used to be accurate. A recent analysis shows that SEGR rates are most easily calculated when the environment is described as a stopping rate per unit volume for each ion species. Stopping rates in silicon for pertinent ions were calculated using the Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) software and CREME-MC software. A reference table was generated and can be used by others to calculate SEGR rates for a candidate device. Additionally, lasers can be used to simulate SEEs, providing more control and information at lower cost than heavy ion testing. The electron/hole pair generation rate from a laser pulse in a semiconductor can be related to the LET of an ion. MATLAB was used to generate a plot to easily make this comparison.

  9. Testing Procedure for the Single Fiber Fragmentation Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feih, Stefanie; Wonsyld, Karen; Minzari, Daniel

    , specimens with one E-glass fiber placed inside an epoxy or polyester matrix were used. Elongating the specimens with a mini tensile tester, which was placed under a microscope, leads to fiber fragmentations. Different bonding strengths between fiber and matrix result in differences in the critical fracture......This report describes the details of the single fiber fragmentation test as conducted at the materials research department (AFM) at Risø. The equipment and specimen manufacture is described in detail. Furthermore, examples of results interpretation are given. For the experiments in this report...... length for the fiber and fracture characteristics....

  10. Blastomogenic effect of Cs137, Sr90 and Ca45 in single and chronic administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapol'skaya, N.A.; Fedorova, A.V.; Borisova, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    The blastomogenic actions of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and 45 Ca were considered in experiments on white rats, and it was found that the site and type of tumor were determined by the organotropism of the radionuclide. With chronic administration of radionuclides, the tumor rate was low as compared to single-occasion administration

  11. Pharmacokinetics of diclofenac in pigs after intramuscular administration of a single dose

    OpenAIRE

    Pejčić Zorica; Pokrajac Milena; Jezdimirović Milanka

    2006-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of diclofenac was studied in 10 clinically normal male Yorkshire pigs, following intramuscular (i.m) administration of a single dose of diclofenac-sodium (2.5 mg/kg body weight). Diclofenac serum concentrations were determined by high pressure- liquid-chromatography (HPLC), with UV detection (226 nm). Following i.m. administration all individual diclofenac serum levels best fitted the one-compartment open model for extravascular administration. The maximal diclofenac seru...

  12. 49 CFR 238.311 - Single car test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Single car test. 238.311 Section 238.311... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.311 Single car test. (a) Except for self-propelled passenger cars, single car tests of all passenger cars and all unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains shall...

  13. Pharmacokinetic study of single and multiple oral administrations of 2 mg dienogest in healthy Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Donghoon; Lee, SeungHwan; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Park, Joong Shin; Shin, Sang-Goo; Jang, In-Jin; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2013-06-01

    The progestin dienogest was developed for oral contraception, endometriosis treatment and menopause management. Dienogest's pharmacokinetics have been primarily studied in Caucasian women. This study evaluated the single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of dienogest in Korean women. Sixteen healthy Korean adult women received a single administration of 2 mg dienogest, followed by multiple once-daily administrations for 14 days. The single-dose administration and the final dose of the multiple administrations were each followed by blood sampling over 60 h. The mean (SD) maximum serum concentration after multiple doses of dienogest was slightly increased compared with that after a single dose [from 51.6 (9.6) to 56.6 (11.9) ng/mL], as was the area under the concentration-time curves (AUC)0-24h [from 503 (56.3) to 613 (90.7) ng ∙ h/mL]. The linearity factor calculated by AUCs of single and multiple doses is 1.00 ± 0.14, and the terminal half-life remained unchanged when single dosing and multiple dosing were compared. The present study described the single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetic profiles of dienogest in Korean women and showed linear pharmacokinetics of dienogest at steady state. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of fluralaner in dogs following a single oral or intravenous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilp, Susanne; Ramirez, Diana; Allan, Mark J; Roepke, Rainer K A; Nuernberger, Martin C

    2014-03-07

    Fluralaner is a novel systemic insecticide and acaricide. The purpose of these studies was to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of fluralaner in Beagle dogs following single oral or intravenous (i.v.) administration. Following the oral administration of 12.5, 25 or 50 mg fluralaner/kg body weight (BW), formulated as chewable tablets or i.v. administration of 12.5 mg fluralaner/kg BW, formulated as i.v. solution to 24 Beagles, plasma samples were collected until 112 days after treatment. Plasma concentrations of fluralaner were measured using HPLC-MS/MS. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non-compartmental methods. After oral administration, maximum plasma concentrations (C(max)) were reached within 1 day on average. Fluralaner was quantifiable in plasma for up to 112 days after single oral and i.v. treatment. The apparent half-life of fluralaner was 12-15 days and the mean residence time was 15-20 days. The apparent volume of distribution of fluralaner was 3.1 L/kg, and clearance was 0.14 L/kg/day. Fluralaner is readily absorbed after single-dose oral administration, and has a long elimination half-life, long mean residence time, relatively high apparent volume of distribution, and low clearance. These pharmacokinetic characteristics help to explain the prolonged activity of fluralaner against fleas and ticks on dogs after a single oral dose.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of fluralaner in dogs following a single oral or intravenous administration

    OpenAIRE

    Kilp, Susanne; Ramirez, Diana; Allan, Mark J; Roepke, Rainer KA; Nuernberger, Martin C

    2014-01-01

    Background Fluralaner is a novel systemic insecticide and acaricide. The purpose of these studies was to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of fluralaner in Beagle dogs following single oral or intravenous (i.v.) administration. Methods Following the oral administration of 12.5, 25 or 50 mg fluralaner/kg body weight (BW), formulated as chewable tablets or i.v. administration of 12.5 mg fluralaner/kg BW, formulated as i.v. solution to 24 Beagles, plasma samples were collected until 112...

  16. Veterans health administration hepatitis B testing and treatment with anti-CD20 antibody administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Christine M; Beste, Lauren A; Lowy, Elliott; Suzuki, Ayako; Moylan, Cynthia A; Tillmann, Hans L; Ioannou, George N; Lim, Joseph K; Kelley, Michael J; Provenzale, Dawn

    2016-05-21

    To evaluate pretreatment hepatitis B virus (HBV) testing, vaccination, and antiviral treatment rates in Veterans Affairs patients receiving anti-CD20 Ab for quality improvement. We performed a retrospective cohort study using a national repository of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) electronic health record data. We identified all patients receiving anti-CD20 Ab treatment (2002-2014). We ascertained patient demographics, laboratory results, HBV vaccination status (from vaccination records), pharmacy data, and vital status. The high risk period for HBV reactivation is during anti-CD20 Ab treatment and 12 mo follow up. Therefore, we analyzed those who were followed to death or for at least 12 mo after completing anti-CD20 Ab. Pretreatment serologic tests were used to categorize chronic HBV (hepatitis B surface antigen positive or HBsAg+), past HBV (HBsAg-, hepatitis B core antibody positive or HBcAb+), resolved HBV (HBsAg-, HBcAb+, hepatitis B surface antibody positive or HBsAb+), likely prior vaccination (isolated HBsAb+), HBV negative (HBsAg-, HBcAb-), or unknown. Acute hepatitis B was defined by the appearance of HBsAg+ in the high risk period in patients who were pretreatment HBV negative. We assessed HBV antiviral treatment and the incidence of hepatitis, liver failure, and death during the high risk period. Cumulative hepatitis, liver failure, and death after anti-CD20 Ab initiation were compared by HBV disease categories and differences compared using the χ(2) test. Mean time to hepatitis peak alanine aminotransferase, liver failure, and death relative to anti-CD20 Ab administration and follow-up were also compared by HBV disease group. Among 19304 VHA patients who received anti-CD20 Ab, 10224 (53%) had pretreatment HBsAg testing during the study period, with 49% and 43% tested for HBsAg and HBcAb, respectively within 6 mo pretreatment in 2014. Of those tested, 2% (167/10224) had chronic HBV, 4% (326/7903) past HBV, 5% (427/8110) resolved HBV, 8% (628

  17. Single Event Testing on Complex Devices: Test Like You Fly versus Test-Specific Design Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework for evaluating complex digital systems targeted for harsh radiation environments such as space. Focus is limited to analyzing the single event upset (SEU) susceptibility of designs implemented inside Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices. Tradeoffs are provided between application-specific versus test-specific test structures.

  18. COMPARATIVE METABOLISM OF ARSENIC IN MICE AFTER A SINGLE OR REPEATED ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    COMPARATIVE METABOLISM OF ARSENIC IN MICE AFTER A SINGLE OR REPEATED ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATEMichael F. Hughes*1, Elaina M. Kenyon1, Brenda C. Edwards1, Carol T. Mitchell1, Luz Maria Del Razo2 and David J. Thomas11US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, PKB, Research Triangle Pa...

  19. Pharmacokinetics of terbinafine after oral administration of a single dose to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Erika E; Emery, Lee C; Cox, Sherry K; Souza, Marcy J

    2013-06-01

    To determine pharmacokinetics after oral administration of a single dose of terbinafine hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 6 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A single dose of terbinafine hydrochloride (60 mg/kg) was administered orally to each bird, which was followed immediately by administration of a commercially available gavage feeding formula. Blood samples were collected at the time of drug administration (time 0) and 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after drug administration. Plasma concentrations of terbinafine were determined via high-performance liquid chromatography. Data from 1 bird were discarded because of a possible error in the dose of drug administered. After oral administration of terbinafine, the maximum concentration for the remaining 5 fed birds ranged from 109 to 671 ng/mL, half-life ranged from 6 to 13.5 hours, and time to the maximum concentration ranged from 2 to 8 hours. No adverse effects were observed. Analysis of the results indicated that oral administration of terbinafine at a dose of 60 mg/kg to Amazon parrots did not result in adverse effects and may be potentially of use in the treatment of aspergillosis. Additional studies are needed to determine treatment efficacy and safety.

  20. Pharmacokinetics and selected pharmacodynamics of cobalt following a single intravenous administration to horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knych, H K; Arthur, R M; Mitchell, M M; Holser, I; Poppenga, R; Smith, L L; Helm, M N; Sams, R A; Gaskill, C L

    2015-07-01

    Cobalt has been used by human athletes due to its purported performance-enhancing effects. It has been suggested that cobalt administration results in enhanced erythropoiesis, secondary to increased circulating erythropoietin (EPO) concentrations leading to improvements in athletic performance. Anecdotal reports of illicit administration of cobalt to horses for its suspected performance enhancing effects have led us to investigate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of this compound when administered in horses, so as to better regulate its use. In the current study, 18 horses were administered a single intravenous dose of cobalt chloride or cobalt gluconate and serum and urine samples collected for up to 10 days post administration. Cobalt concentrations were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and pharmacokinetic parameters determined. Additional blood samples were collected for measurement of equine EPO concentrations as well as to assess any effects on red blood cell parameters. Horses were observed for adverse effects and heart rate monitored for the first 4 h post administration. Cobalt was characterized by a large volume of distribution (0.939 L/kg) and a prolonged gamma half-life (156.4 h). Cobalt serum concentrations were still above baseline values at 10 days post administration. A single administration of cobalt had no effect on EPO concentrations, red blood cell parameters or heart rate in any of the horses studied and no adverse effects were noted. Based on the prolonged gamma half-life and prolonged residence time, regulators should be able to detect administration of a single dose of cobalt to horses. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Towards single screening tests for brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.; Smith, P.; Yu, W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) and a fluorescence polarisation assay (FPA), each capable of detecting antibody in several species of hosts to smooth and rough members of the genus Brucella. The I-ELISA uses a mixture of smooth lipopolysaccharide (SLPS...... than did I-ELISA procedures using each individual antigen separately. Similarly, the assay using combined antigens detected antibody in slightly fewer animals not exposed to Brucella sp. When a universal cutoff of 10% positivity was used (relative to strongly positive control sera of each species......-ELISA and the FPA with combined antigens were suitable as screening tests for all species of Brucella in the animal species tested....

  2. No significant effects of single intravenous, single oral and subchronic oral administration of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors on striatal [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT binding in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knol, R.J.J.; Booij, J. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Graduate School of Neurosciences, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bruin, K. de; Eck-Smit, B.L.F. van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-03-15

    [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT is a valuable diagnostic tool to discriminate Lewy body dementia from Alzheimer's dementia. To date, however, it is uncertain whether the frequently used acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) by demented patients, have an effect on [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT binding to dopamine transporters (DATs). Earlier animal studies showed a decline of DAT availability after acute intravenous injection of AChEIs. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of single intravenous, single oral and subchronic oral administration of AChEIs on DAT availability in the rat brain as measured by [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT. Biodistribution studies were performed in Wistar rats (n = 5-16 per group). Before [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT injection, rats were injected intravenously with a single dose of the AChEI rivastigmine (2.5 mg/kg body weight) or donepezil (0.5 mg/kg), the DAT-blocker methylphenidate (10 mg/kg) or saline. A second group was orally treated with a single dose of rivastigmine or donepezil (2.5 mg/kg), methylphenidate (10 mg/kg) or saline before injection of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT. Studies were also performed in rats that were orally treated during 14 consecutive days with either rivastigmine (1 mg/kg daily), donepezil (1.5 mg/kg daily), methylphenidate (2.5 mg/kg) or saline. Brain parts were assayed in a gamma counter, and specific striatum/cerebellum ratios were calculated for the [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT binding to DATs. No significant effects of either single intravenous, single oral or subchronic oral administration of AChEIs on striatal FP-CIT binding could be detected. Single pretreatment with methylphenidate resulted in an expected significantly lower striatal FP-CIT binding. We conclude that in rats, single intravenous and single or subchronic oral administration of the tested AChEIs does not lead to an important alteration of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT binding to striatal DATs. Therefore, it is unlikely that these drugs will induce large effects on the interpretation of

  3. Biological fate of a single administration of 191Pt in rats following different routes of exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, W. Jr.; Hysell, D.; Crocker, W.; Stara, J.

    1975-01-01

    The retention, tissue distribution, and excretion of 191 Pt in adult rats was determined following oral, intravenous (IV), and intratracheal administration. The highest retention was obtained following IV dosing, and lowest retention (less than 0.5 percent) occurred after oral dosing. Tissues containing the highest concentrations of 191 Pt following IV administration were the kidney, adrenal, spleen, and liver. Following a single oral dose, almost all of the 191 Pt was excreted in the feces due to nonabsorption, whereas after IV dosing, similar quantities were excreted in both the urine and feces. Following IV dosing of pregnant rats, 191 Pt was found in all the fetuses; however, the amount was small

  4. Pharmacokinetics of MMB4 DMS in rats, rabbits, and dogs following a single IV administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S Peter; Gibbs, Seth T; Kobs, Dean J; Osheroff, Merrill R; Johnson, Jerry D; Burback, Brian L

    2013-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents pose tremendous threats to both military and civilian populations. The substance 1,1'-methylenebis[4-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]-pyridinium] (MMB4) is being developed as a replacement for the currently fielded 2-pyridine aldoxime, or pralidoxime (2-PAM) as a treatment for OP nerve agent-induced toxicity. The present study characterized pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of MMB4 in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, New Zealand White rabbits, and beagle dogs given a single intravenous (IV) administration of MMB4 dimethanesulfonate (DMS) at 55, 25, and 15 mg/kg dose, respectively. The plasma MMB4 concentration versus time profiles were biphasic for all species tested and fit a 2-compartment model with first-order elimination. There were no overt sex-related differences in the calculated PK parameters. For the rat, rabbit, and dog, the average systemic exposure parameters predicted Cmax (µg/mL) and AUC∞ (µg·h/mL) were 273 and 71.0, 115 and 48.1, and 87.4 and 39.6; the average volume of distribution (mL/kg) values to the central and peripheral compartments were 207 and 143, 242 and 172, and 198 and 213; and the average elimination half-life (hour) and clearance (mL/h/kg) values were 0.18 and 778, 0.29 and 577, and 0.32 and 430, respectively, when the PK parameters for males and females were combined. The current study revealed a similarity in the volume of distribution to the central compartment for MMB4 among the 3 species tested while demonstrating species-related differences in the elimination half-life and clearance of MMB4.

  5. Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogen handler om den praksis, vi kalder administration. Vi er i den offentlige sektor i Danmark hos kontorfolkene med deres sagsmapper, computere, telefoner,, lovsamlinger,, retningslinier og regneark. I bogen udfoldes en mangfoldighed af konkrete historier om det administrative arbejde fra...... forskellige områder i den offentlige sektor. Hensigten er at forstå den praksis og faglighed der knytter sig til det administrative arbejde...

  6. Pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in rabbits after oral administration of single and multiple doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredholm, Daniel V; Carpenter, James W; KuKanich, Butch; Kohles, Micah

    2013-04-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of meloxicam (1 mg/kg) in rabbits after oral administration of single and multiple doses. 6 healthy rabbits. A single dose of meloxicam (1 mg/kg, PO) was administered to the rabbits. After a 10-day washout period, meloxicam (1 mg/kg, PO) was administered to rabbits every 24 hours for 5 days. Blood samples were obtained from rabbits at predetermined intervals during both treatment periods. Plasma meloxicam concentrations were determined, and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. The mean peak plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve extrapolated to infinity after administration of a single dose of meloxicam were 0.83 μg/mL and 10.37 h•μg/mL, respectively. After administration of meloxicam for 5 days, the mean peak plasma concentration was 1.33 μg/mL, and the area under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve from the time of administration of the last dose to 24 hours after that time was 18.79 h•μg/mL. For single- and multiple-dose meloxicam experiments, the mean time to maximum plasma concentration was 6.5 and 5.8 hours and the mean terminal half-life was 6.1 and 6.7 hours, respectively. Plasma concentrations of meloxicam for rabbits in the present study were proportionally higher than those previously reported for rabbits receiving 0.2 mg of meloxicam/kg and were similar to those determined for animals of other species that received clinically effective doses. A dose of 1 mg/kg may be necessary to achieve clinically effective circulating concentrations of meloxicam in rabbits, although further studies are needed.

  7. BRCA Testing by Single-Molecule Molecular Inversion Probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neveling, K.; Mensenkamp, A.R.; Derks, R; Kwint, M.P.; Ouchene, H.; Steehouwer, M.; Lier, L.A. van; Bosgoed, E.A.J.; Rikken, A.; Tychon, M.W.J.; Zafeiropoulou, D.; Castelein, S.; Hehir-Kwa, J.Y.; Thung, G.W.; Hofste, T.; Lelieveld, S.H.; Bertens, S.M.; Adan, I.B.; Eijkelenboom, A.; Tops, B.B.J.; Yntema, H.G.; Stokowy, T.; Knappskog, P.M.; Hoberg-Vetti, H.; Steen, V.M.; Boyle, E.; Martin, B.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Shendure, J.; Nelen, M.R.; Hoischen, A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite advances in next generation DNA sequencing (NGS), NGS-based single gene tests for diagnostic purposes require improvements in terms of completeness, quality, speed, and cost. Single-molecule molecular inversion probes (smMIPs) are a technology with unrealized potential in the

  8. Single-shell tank riser resistance to ground test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiewert, L.R.

    1996-01-01

    This Test Procedure provides the general directions for conducting Single-Shell Tank Riser to Earth Measurements which will be used by engineering as a step towards providing closure for the Lightning Hazard Issue

  9. Modified single prolonged stress reduces cocaine self-administration during acquisition regardless of rearing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofford, Rebecca S; Prendergast, Mark A; Bardo, Michael T

    2018-02-15

    Until recently, there were few rodent models available to study the interaction of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and drug taking. Like PTSD, single prolonged stress (SPS) produces hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction and alters psychostimulant self-administration. Other stressors, such as isolation stress, also alter psychostimulant self-administration. However, it is currently unknown if isolation housing combined with SPS can alter the acquisition or maintenance of cocaine self-administration. The current study applied modified SPS (modSPS; two hours restraint immediately followed by cold swim stress) to rats raised in an isolation condition (Iso), enrichment condition (Enr), or standard condition (Std) to measure changes in cocaine self-administration and HPA markers. Regardless of rearing condition, rats exposed to modSPS had greater corticosterone (CORT) release and reduced cocaine self-administration during initial acquisition compared to non-stressed controls. In addition, during initial acquisition, rats that received both Iso rearing and modSPS showed a more rapid increase in cocaine self-administration across sessions compared to Enr and Std rats exposed to modSPS. Following initial acquisition, a dose response analysis showed that Iso rats were overall most sensitive to changes in cocaine unit dose; however, modSPS had no effect on the cocaine dose response curve. Further, there was no effect of either modSPS or differential rearing on expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in hypothalamus, medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, or nucleus accumbens. By using modSPS in combination with Iso housing, this study identified unique contributions of each stressor to acquisition of cocaine self-administration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 77 FR 34777 - Seventieth Report of the TSCA Interagency Testing Committee to the Administrator of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... of the TSCA Interagency Testing Committee to the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency...; FRL-9349-9] Seventieth Report of the TSCA Interagency Testing Committee to the Administrator of the... Committee (ITC) transmitted its 70th ITC Report to the EPA Administrator on May 3, 2012. Under TSCA, the ITC...

  11. Administration

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Cet imposant volume constitue un registre des cours magistraux tenus par l’auteur à l’École supérieure allemande des sciences administratives de Spire, enrichis des résultats de travaux scientifiques menés principalement à l'Institut Allemand de Recherche en Administration Publique (Deutsches Forschungsinstitut für öffentliche Verwaltung Speyer, FÖV). Il s’agit donc d’une entreprise au long cours, destinée à apporter un nouvel éclairage (quasi ?) exhaustif sur l’administration publique : son ...

  12. Comparative toxicokinetics of MMB4 DMS in rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys following single and repeated intramuscular administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S Peter; Gibbs, Seth T; Kobs, Dean J; Hawk, Michael A; Croutch, Claire R; Osheroff, Merrill R; Johnson, Jerry D; Burback, Brian L

    2013-01-01

    1,1'-Methylenebis[4-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]-pyridinium] (MMB4) dimethanesulfonate (DMS) is a bisquaternary pyridinium aldoxime that reactivates acetylcholinesterase inhibited by organophosphorus nerve agent. Time courses of MMB4 concentrations in plasma were characterized following 7-day repeated intramuscular (IM) administrations of MMB4 DMS to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, New Zealand White rabbits, beagle dogs (single dose only), and rhesus monkeys at drug dose levels used in earlier toxicology studies. In general, there were no significant differences in MMB4 toxicokinetic (TK) parameters between males and females for all the species tested in these studies. After a single IM administration to rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys, MMB4 DMS was rapidly absorbed, resulting in average T max values ranging from 5 to 30 minutes. Although C max values did not increase dose proportionally, the overall exposure to MMB4 in these preclinical species, as indicated by area under the curve (AUC) extrapolated to the infinity (AUC∞) values, increased in an approximately dose-proportional manner. The MMB4 DMS was extensively absorbed into the systemic circulation after IM administration as demonstrated by greater than 80% absolute bioavailability values for rats, rabbits, and dogs. Repeated administrations of MMB4 DMS for 7 days did not overtly alter TK parameters for MMB4 in rats, rabbits, and monkeys (150 and 300 mg/kg/d dose groups only). However, C max and AUC values decreased in monkeys given 450 and 600 mg/kg IM doses of MMB4 DMS following repeated administrations for 7 days. Based on the TK results obtained from the current study and published investigations, it was found that the apparent volume of distribution and clearance values were similar among various preclinical species, except for the rat.

  13. Comparison of Test Administration Procedures for Placement Decisions in a Mathematics Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straetmans, Gerard J. J. M.; Eggen, Theo J. H. M.

    1998-01-01

    Three test administration procedures for making placement decisions in adult education were compared (paper-based, computer-based, and computerized-adaptive tests) with 90 adult-education students. Test performance was not differentially affected by the mode of administration, but the computerized adaptive test always yielded more precise ability…

  14. A single hole tracer test to determine longitudinal dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noy, D.J.; Holmes, D.C.

    1986-03-01

    The paper concerns a single hole tracer test to determine longitudinal dispersion, which is an important parameter in assessing the suitability of a site for radioactive waste disposal. The theory, equipment and procedure for measuring longitudinal dispersion in a single borehole is described. Results are presented for field trials conducted in an aquifer, where the technique produced good results. The measured value of longitudinal dispersion, from a single hole test, relates only to a limited volume of rock immediately adjacent to the borehole. (U.K.)

  15. Intelligent transportation systems field operational test cross-cutting study : commercial vehicle administrative processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Commercial Vehicle Administrative (CVO) Processes Cross-Cutting report summarizes and interprets the results of several Field Operational Tests (FOTs) conducted to evaluate systems that increase the efficiency of commercial vehicle administrative pro...

  16. School Administrator Assessments of Bullying and State-Mandated Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Anna; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2016-01-01

    Bully victimization is associated with lower academic performance for individual students; however, less is known about the impact of bullying on the academic performance of the school as a whole. This study examined how retrospective administrator reports of both the prevalence of teasing and bullying (PTB) and the use of evidence-based bullying…

  17. Comparative pharmacokinetics of fluralaner in dogs and cats following single topical or intravenous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilp, Susanne; Ramirez, Diana; Allan, Mark J; Roepke, Rainer Ka

    2016-05-31

    Bravecto™ Chewable Tablets for Dogs, containing fluralaner as active ingredient, is an innovative treatment for flea and tick infestations that provides safe, rapid and long acting efficacy after a single oral administration in dogs. Topically applied fluralaner provides similar safe, rapid and long acting efficacy, both in dogs and in cats. The pharmacokinetic profile of fluralaner was evaluated in dogs and in cats following either topical or intravenous administration. Twenty four dogs and 24 cats received three different topical doses, with the mid-dose based on the respective minimum recommended dose, and one intravenous dose. Plasma samples were collected for 112 days and fluralaner concentrations were quantified using a validated high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using non-compartmental methods. In dogs, fluralaner was readily absorbed from the topical administration site into the skin, subjacent tissues and blood. Fluralaner plasma concentrations showed an apparent plateau between ~ day 7 and 63, with individual tmax seen within this time period. After the plasma plateau, concentrations declined slowly and were quantifiable for more than 12 weeks. In cats, fluralaner was readily systemically absorbed from the topical administration site, reaching maximum concentrations (Cmax) in plasma between 3 and 21 days post administration, after which concentrations declined slowly, and were also quantifiable for more than 12 weeks. Systemic exposure, as shown by Cmax and the area under the concentration versus time curve from time 0 to the last measurable concentration (AUC(0→t)) increased proportionally with dose in both species. Following intravenous administration fluralaner showed a relatively high apparent volume of distribution (Vz), a low plasma clearance (Cl), a long terminal half-life (t1/2) and a long mean residence time (MRT); thereby demonstrating

  18. Undergraduate Students' Errors in the Administration of Standardized Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobbe, George A.; Traynelis-Yurek, Elaine

    1989-01-01

    Undergraduate students (N=106) in a psychoeducational testing course were required to administer the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised to the instructor. Only 29.2 percent were able to administer the test error-free, indicating that a one-semester course is insufficient preparation for special educators to become effective test…

  19. Quality of bevacizumab (Avastin®) repacked in single-use glass vials for intravitreal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Michelle A A; Toledo, Vicente de Paulo Coelho Peixoto de; Cunha, Mariem Rodrigues Ribeiro; Carregal, Virginia M; Jorge, Rodrigo; Leão, Pedro; Fialho, Sílvia Ligorio; Silva-Cunha, Armando

    2017-01-01

    Avastin® (bevacizumab) is an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) monoclonal antibody given as an off-label drug by intravitreal administration for treatment of ocular diseases. The drug's clinical application and its cost-benefit profile has generated demand for its division into single-use vials to meet the low volume and low-cost doses necessary for intraocular administration. However, the safety of compounding the drug in single-use vials is still under discussion. In this study, the stability and efficacy of Avastin® repacked in individual single-use glass vials and glass ampoules by external compounding pharmacies were evaluated. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and turbidimetry were selected to detect the formation of aggregates of various sizes. Changes in bevacizumab biological efficacy were investigated by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Repacked and reference bevacizumab showed similar results when analyzed by PAGE. By SEC, a slight increase in high molecular weight aggregates and a reduction in bevacizumab monomers were observed in the products of the three compounding pharmacies relative to those in the reference bevacizumab. A comparison of repacked and reference SEC chromatograms showed that the mean monomer loss was ≤1% for all compounding pharmacies. Protein aggregates in the nanometer- and micrometer-size ranges were not detected by DLS and turbidimetry. In the efficacy assay, the biological function of repacked bevacizumab was preserved, with <3% loss of VEGF binding capacity relative to that of the reference. The results showed that bevacizumab remained stable after compounding in ampoules and single-use glass vials; no significant aggregation, fragmentation, or loss of biological activity was observed.

  20. 49 CFR 232.305 - Single car air brake tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... from a train or when placed on a shop or repair track, as defined in § 232.303(a); (2) A car is on a shop or repair track, as defined in § 232.303(a), for any reason and has not received a single car air... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Single car air brake tests. 232.305 Section 232...

  1. A comparative bioavailability study of two ibuprofen formulations after single-dose administration in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metta S.S. Wiria

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the bioequivalence of ibuprofen 125 mg suppository formulation (Ibukal®, test formulation from PT. Kalbe Farma, Tbk., Jakarta and the ibuprofen suppository comparative formulation (Proris®, from PT. Pharos Indonesia, Jakarta in 12 healthy volunteers. The pharmacokinetic parameters used in this study were the area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to hour 10 (AUC0-t, the area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to infinite (AUC0-inf, the maximum concentration (Cmax, and the time needed to reach the maximum concentration (tmax. The study was designed as a random cross-over fashion, single-blinded which included 12 healthy adult volunteers. The volunteers were fasted overnight and in the morning they received a suppository of the test drug (Ibukal® or a suppository of the comparative drug (Proris®. Blood samples were withdrawn on hour 0 (control, 20 min; 40 min; 1; 1.5; 2; 2.5; 3; 4; 6; 8; and 10 time points after the administration of the drug. Following a wash-out period of 1 week, this procedure was repeated using the other drug. The serum concentration of the drug was determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The results of the study showed that, the mean (SD of AUC0-t, AUC0-inf, Cmax and tmax of the test drug were, respectively, 28.59(3.37 μg.h.mL-1, 30.47(3.56 μg.h.mL-1, 8.24(1.44 μg/mL, and 1.33(0.44 h. The mean (SD of AUC0-t, AUC0-inf, Cmax and tmax of the comparative drug were, respectively, 28.13(8.14 μg.h.mL-1, 30.56(8.05 μg.h.mL-1, 8.27(2.88 μg/mL, and 1.79(0.33 h. The geometric means ratio of the test to the comparative drug were 104.38% (CI 90%: 90.38-120.54% for AUC0-t, 101.97% (CI 90%: 89.51-116.16% for AUC0-inf, and 104.02% (CI 90%: 85.73-126.16% for Cmax. There was no side effect of the drug detected in this study. From the results we can conclude that the 125 mg of ibuprofen suppository of PT Kalbe Farma

  2. Cross-Cultural Administration of an Odor Discrimination Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Sorokowski, Piotr; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory sensitivity can be evaluated by various tests, with "Sniffin' Sticks" test (SST) being one of the most popular. SST consists of tests for odor threshold, discrimination, and identification. It seems relatively straightforward to administer threshold tests in different groups and societies and it has been shown that odor identification tests requires special adaptation before they can be administered to various populations. However, few studies have investigated the application of an odor discrimination task in various regions/cultures. In the present study, we compared the discrimination scores of 169 Polish people with the scores of 99 Tsimane', Bolivian Amerindians. The Tsimane' participants scored very low in the discrimination task, despite their general high olfactory sensitivity. This result suggests that when a discrimination task is chosen as the form of olfactory testing, some additional variables need to be controlled. We suggest three sources of low scores of our participants-their cognitive profile, the cultural background, i.e., little knowledge of the odors used in the discrimination test and problems associated with testing environment.

  3. Selected oxidative stress parameters after single and repeated administration of octabromodiphenyl ether to rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Bruchajzer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Octabromodiphenyl ether (OctaBDE was used as a flame retardant applied mostly in the manufacture of plastics utilized in the electrical and electronic industries. Owing to its long half-life and being regarded as an environmental pollutant, OctaBDE, like other polybrominated diphenyl ethers, has been classified as a persistent organic pollutant (POP. This study was carried out to assess the effects of oxidative stress (redox homeostasis induced in rats by OctaBDE. Material and Methods: Female Wistar rats exposed intragastrically to OctaBDE at single (25, 200 or 2000 mg/kg b.w., or repeated (0.4, 2, 8, 40 or 200 mg/kg/day doses during 7–28 days were used in the experiment. Selected oxidative stress parameters were determined in the liver and blood serum. Results: Administration (single or repeated of OctaBDE to rats resulted in the impaired redox homeostasis, as evidenced by the increased levels of reduced (GSH and oxidized (GSSG glutathione in the liver, the reduced total antioxidant status (TAS in serum and the increased concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA in the liver. After multiple doses of OctaBDE, elevated activity of glutathione transferase (GST in the liver was also noted. Conclusions: After repeated administration of OctaBDE at the lowest dose (0.4 mg/kg/day, changes were observed in the parameters (MDA, TAS, GSSG indicative of oxidative stress.

  4. Automatic Administration of the Get Up and Go Test

    OpenAIRE

    Berrada, Dounia; Romero, Mario; Abowd, Gregory; Blount, Marion; Davis, John

    2007-01-01

    In-home monitoring using sensors has the potential to improve the life of elderly and chronically ill persons, assist their family and friends in supervising their status, and provide early warning signs to the person's clinicians. The Get Up and Go test is a clinical test used to assess the balance and gait of a patient. We propose a way to automatically apply an abbreviated version of this test to patients in their residence using video data without body-worn sensors or markers. QC 2016...

  5. Plasma pharmacokinetics of selamectin after a single topical administration in the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Jennifer J; West, Gary; Boothe, Dawn M; Jayanna, Prashanth K; Snider, Timothy; Hoover, John P

    2007-03-01

    Parasitism is common in wild and captive amphibians; however, pharmacologic data are lacking for anthelmintic drugs. This study was developed to determine the plasma pharmacokinetics of selamectin after topical administration in bullfrogs. Thirty-two adult American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) were randomly assigned into eight groups of four with each group representing a different collection time point. Seven groups received selamectin (6 mg/ kg) topically and the remaining group served as the untreated control group. One group of frogs was euthanized and blood samples immediately collected on days 0 (control), 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30. Plasma was analyzed for selamectin using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Individual samples were analyzed, then data were reported as the mean of the four frogs at each time point. A histologic evaluation of the lung, liver, kidney, and skin tissues was performed and none of the frogs showed histologic evidence of toxicity due to selamectin administration. The mean peak plasma concentration was 162.5 +/- 42.3 ng/ml, area under the curve was 2,856 ng day/ml, mean residence time was 12.2 days, and disappearance half-life was 1.87 days. Based on the plasma pharmacokinetics, bullfrogs appear to absorb selamectin very efficiently, concentrations reach high levels in the plasma, and there were no apparent histologic effects from single dose administration.

  6. Hybrid Testing of Composite Structures with Single-Axis Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldbjørn, Jacob Paamand; Høgh, Jacob Herold; Stang, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid testing is a substructuring technique where a structure is emulated by modelling a part of it in a numerical model while testing the remainder experimentally. Previous research in hybrid testing has been performed on multi-component structures e.g. damping fixtures, however in this paper...... a hybrid testing platform is introduced for single-component hybrid testing. In this case, the boundary between the numerical model and experimental setup is defined by multiple Degrees-Of-Freedoms (DOFs) which highly complicate the transferring of response between the two substructures. Digital Image...... Correlation (DIC) is therefore implemented for displacement control of the experimental setup. The hybrid testing setup was verified on a multicomponent structure consisting of a beam loaded in three point bending and a numerical structure of a frame. Furthermore, the stability of the hybrid testing loop...

  7. Transient oxidative stress and inflammation after intraperitoneal administration of multiwalled carbon nanotubes functionalized with single strand DNA in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clichici, Simona, E-mail: simonaclichici@yahoo.com [Department of Physiology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Biris, Alexandru Radu [National R and D Institute of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Tabaran, Flaviu [University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Filip, Adriana [Department of Physiology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2012-03-15

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are widely used for nanotechnology. Their impact on living organisms is, however, not entirely clarified. Oxidative stress and inflammation seem to be the key mechanisms involved in MWCNTs' cytotoxicity. Until present, pulmonary and skin models were the main tested experimental designs to assess carbon nanotubes' toxicity. The systemic administration of MWCNTs is essential, with respect for future medical applications. Our research is performed on Wistar rats and is focused on the dynamics of oxidative stress parameters in blood and liver and pro-inflammatory cytokines in liver, after single dose (270 mg l{sup −1}) ip administration of MWCNTs (exterior diameter 15–25 nm, interior diameter 10–15 nm, surface 88 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) functionalized with single strand DNA (ss-DNA). The presence of MWCNTs in blood was assessed by Raman spectroscopy, while in liver histological examination and confocal microscopy were used. It was found that ss-DNA-MWCNTs induce oxidative stress in plasma and liver, with the return of the tested parameters to normal values, 6 h after ip injection of nanotubes, with the exception of reduced glutathione in plasma. The inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β) had a similar pattern of evolution. We also assessed the level of ERK1/2 and the phosphorylation of p65 subunit of NF-kB in liver that had a transient increase and returned to normal at the end of the tested period. Our results demonstrate that ss-DNA-MWCNTs produce oxidative stress and inflammation, but with a transient pattern. Given the fact that antioxidants modify the profile not only for oxidative stress, but also of inflammation, the dynamics of these alterations may be of practical importance for future protective strategies. -- Highlights: ► ss-DNA-MWCNTs ip administration induce oxidative stress in plasma and liver. ► ss-DNA-MWCNTs ip administration determine liver inflammation. ► ERK1/2 and p65 phosphorylated NF

  8. The Alpha-defensin Test for Periprosthetic Joint Infections Is Not Affected by Prior Antibiotic Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Alisina; Parvizi, Javad; Kazarian, Gregory S; Higuera, Carlos; Frangiamore, Salvatore; Bingham, Joshua; Beauchamp, Christopher; Valle, Craig Della; Deirmengian, Carl

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the administration of antibiotics to patients before performing diagnostic testing for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) can interfere with the accuracy of test results. Although a single-institution study has suggested that alpha-defensin maintains its concentration and sensitivity even after antibiotic treatment, this has not yet been demonstrated in a larger multiinstitutional study. (1) For the evaluation of PJI, is prior antibiotic administration associated with decreased alpha-defensin levels? (2) When prior antibiotics are given, is alpha-defensin a better screening test for PJI than the traditional tests (erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR], C-reactive protein [CRP], fluid white blood cells, fluid polymorphonuclear cells [PMNs], and fluid culture)? This retrospective study included data from 106 hip and knee arthroplasties with Musculoskeletal Infection Society-defined PJI from four centers. Of the 106 patients in this study, 30 (28%) were treated with antibiotics for PJI before diagnostic workup (ABX group), and 76 (72%) were not treated before the diagnostic workup (NO-ABX group). There were no differences in age, sex, joint, culture-negative rate, or bacteriology between groups. The patients in the ABX group had antibiotics initiated by physicians who commenced care before assessment for PJI by the treating surgeon's service. We compared the alpha-defensin levels and sensitivity between the ABX and NO-ABX groups. Additionally, the sensitivity of the alpha-defensin test was compared to that of traditional tests for PJI among patients on antibiotics. The administration of antibiotics before performing the alpha-defensin test for PJI was not associated with a decreased median alpha-defensin level (ABX group, median 4.2 [range, 1.79-12.8 S/CO] versus NO-ABX, median 4.9 [range, 0.5-16.8 S/CO], difference of medians: 0.68 S/CO [95% confidence interval {CI}, -0.98 to 1.26], p = 0.451). Furthermore, the alpha

  9. European accelerator facilities for single event effects testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, L.; Nickson, R.; Harboe-Sorensen, R. [ESA-ESTEC, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Hajdas, W.; Berger, G.

    1997-03-01

    Single event effects are an important hazard to spacecraft and payloads. The advances in component technology, with shrinking dimensions and increasing complexity will give even more importance to single event effects in the future. The ground test facilities are complex and expensive and the complexities of installing a facility are compounded by the requirement that maximum control is to be exercised by users largely unfamiliar with accelerator technology. The PIF and the HIF are the result of experience gained in the field of single event effects testing and represent a unique collaboration between space technology and accelerator experts. Both facilities form an essential part of the European infrastructure supporting space projects. (J.P.N.)

  10. Model tests on single piles in soft clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, J.L. [Durham Univ., Durham, (United Kingdom). School of Engineering; Goh, A.T.C.; Wong, K.S.; Teh, C.I. [Nanyang Technological Univ., (Singapore). Geotechnical Research Centre

    2000-08-04

    The behaviour of single stainless steel piles subjected to lateral soft clay soil movement was investigated in laboratory model tests in an effort to determine the ultimate soil pressure acting along the pile shaft. A custom designed apparatus was manufactured and calibrated for the test which measured the limiting soil pressures acting along the model pile shaft. The ultimate soil pressure was determined based on the maximum value of this measurement. The results show that the ultimate soil pressure for single passive piles was about 10 times the undrained shear strength, and the magnitude of the soil translation needed to fully mobilize the ultimate soil pressure on the single passive piles was about half the pile width. Further experimental study is needed to examine the effects of the pile end fixity, flexibility and shape and to confirm the effects of sample size and the disturbance due to soil sample preparation. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  11. 29 CFR 1630.11 - Administration of tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT THE... has a disability that impairs sensory, manual or speaking skills, the test results accurately reflect... measure, rather than reflecting the impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills of such employee or...

  12. 76 FR 67192 - Administration on Children, Youth and Families Announces the Award of Five Single-Source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... training and supports for Tribal middle managers in child welfare. There are five traineeship universities... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Administration on Children, Youth and Families Announces the Award of Five Single-Source Expansion Supplement Grants To...

  13. A single administration of LFA-1 antibody confers prolonged allograft survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talento, A; Nguyen, M; Blake, T; Sirotina, A; Fioravanti, C; Burkholder, D; Gibson, R; Sigal, N H; Springer, M S; Koo, G C

    1993-02-01

    C57BL/6 (B6) thyroid gland transplanted to the left kidney capsule of an allogeneic (BALB/c) host was typically rejected in 14 days. A single administration of 500 micrograms of an antibody to the adhesion molecule, leucocyte function-associated antigen (LFA-1, CD11a), prevented all thyroid allograft rejection for at least 70 days. Fifty percent of the treated recipients retained intact allografts for 470 days. However, the same treatment with anti-CD11a could not protect a sensitized BALB/c mouse from rejecting a second B6 thyroid allograft. Production of donor-specific alloantibodies elicited by allograft rejection was also inhibited in this system. In this transplant model, the Ab therapy is more efficacious than that of FK506, administered daily for 14 days at 15 mg/kg. These results demonstrate the remarkable effect of an anti-LFA-1 antibody in promotion of allograft survival.

  14. Oxytetracycline hydrochloride in the horse: serum, synovial, peritoneal and urine concentrations after single dose intravenous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M P; Stover, S M; Kelly, R H; Farver, T B; Knight, H D

    1981-03-01

    Six adult mares were given a single intravenous injection of oxytetracycline HCl (50 mg/ml) at a dosage of 5 mg/kg. Serum, synovial fluid, peritoneal fluid, and urine oxytetracycline concentrations were measured serially over a 48-h period. The highest measured serum oxytetracycline concentration was 8.01 mcg/ml at 1/2 h. Oxytetracycline was detected in synovial fluid and peritoneal fluid, which obtained mean peak oxytetracycline concentrations of 4.43 mcg/ml and 4.20 mcg/ml, at 1/2 h and 1 h, respectively. These concentrations steadily declined in parallel with serum concentrations and were not measurable at 48 h. Urine oxytetracycline concentration was relatively high, with a peak concentration of 1565.2 mcg/ml at 1/2 h after drug administration.

  15. The pharmacokinetic profile of crocetin in healthy adult human volunteers after a single oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umigai, N; Murakami, K; Ulit, M V; Antonio, L S; Shirotori, M; Morikawa, H; Nakano, T

    2011-05-15

    Crocetin, a unique carotenoid with a short carbon chain length, is an active compound of saffron and Gardenia jasminoides Ellis used as traditional herbal medicine. The present study was undertaken to investigate the pharmacokinetic profiles of crocetin in healthy adult subjects. The study was conducted as an open-label, single dose escalation with 10 Filipino volunteers (5 men and 5 women). The subjects received a single dose of crocetin at three doses (7.5, 15 and 22.5 mg) in one week interval. Blood samples were collected from the brachial vein before and at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 24 h after administration. Plasma concentrations of crocetin were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Crocetin was rapidly absorbed and detected within an hour of administration with a mean time to reach maximum concentration (T(max)) of crocetin ranging from 4.0 to 4.8 h. The mean values of C(max) and AUC(0-24h) ranged from 100.9 to 279.7 ng/ml and 556.5 to 1720.8 ng. h/ml respectively. C(max) and AUC values increased with dose proportional manner. Crocetin was eliminated from human plasma with a mean elimination half life (T(½) of 6.1 to 7.5 h. In summary, there were no serious adverse events up to 22.5 mg dose of crocetin while crocetin was found to be absorbed more quickly than the other carotenoids such as β-carotene, lutein and lycopene. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Earthquake acceleration amplification based on single microtremor test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya Syahbana, Arifan; Kurniawan, Rahmat; Soebowo, Eko

    2018-02-01

    Understanding soil dynamics is needed to understand soil behaviour, including the parameters of earthquake acceleration amplification. Many researchers now conduct single microtremor tests to obtain amplification of velocity and natural periods of soil at test sites. However, these amplification parameters are rarely used, so a method is needed to convert the velocity amplification to acceleration amplification. This paper will discuss the proposed process of changing the value of amplification. The proposed method is to integrate the time histories of the synthetic earthquake acceleration of the soil surface under the deaggregation at that location so the time histories of the velocity earthquake will be obtained. Next is to conduct a “fitting curve” between amplification by a single microtremor test with amplification of the synthetic earthquake velocity time histories. After obtaining the fitting curve time histories of velocity, differentiation will be conducted to obtain fitting curve acceleration time histories. The final step after obtaining the fitting curve is to compare the acceleration of the “fitting curve” against the histories time of the acceleration of synthetic earthquake at bedrocks to obtain single microtremor acceleration amplification factor.

  17. Ninety-day readmissions after degenerative cervical spine surgery: A single-center administrative database study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamnonu, Chibuikem; Cheriyan, Thomas; Goldstein, Jeffrey A; Errico, Thomas J; Bendo, John A

    2015-01-01

    Unplanned hospital readmissions result in significant clinical and financial burdens to patients and the healthcare system. Readmission rates and causes have been investigated using large administrative databases which have certain limitations in data reporting and coding. The objective of this study was to provide a description of 90 day post-discharge readmissions following surgery for common degenerative cervical spine pathologies at a large-volume tertiary hospital. The study also compared the readmission rates of patients who underwent anterior- and posterior-approach procedures. The administrative records from a single-center, high-volume tertiary institution were queried using ICD-9 codes for common cervical pathology over a three year period to determine the rate and causes of readmissions within the 90 days following the index surgery. A total of 768 patients underwent degenerative cervical spine surgery during the three year study period. Within 90 days of discharge, 24 (3.13%) patients were readmitted; 16 (2.06%) readmissions were planned for lumbar surgery; 8 (1.04%) readmissions were unplanned. 640 patients underwent procedures involving an anterior approach and 128 patients underwent procedures involving a posterior approach. There were 14 (2.17%) planned readmissions in the anterior group and 2 (1.5%) in the posterior group. The unplanned readmission rate was 0.63% (4 patients) and 3.13% (4 patients) in the anterior and posterior groups, respectively. (p=0.0343). The 90 day post-discharge unplanned readmission rate that followed elective degenerative cervical spine surgery was 1.04%. The unplanned readmission rate associated with posterior-approach procedures (3.13%) was significantly higher than that of anterior-approach procedures (0.63%). IV.

  18. PHARMACOKINETICS OF A SINGLE DOSE OF METRONIDAZOLE AFTER RECTAL ADMINISTRATION IN CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Samantha J; Siegal-Willott, Jessica L; Ziegler, Jessie; Lee, Elizabeth; Tell, Lisa; Murray, Suzan

    2016-03-01

    Metronidazole is a nitroimidazole antibacterial and antiprotozoal drug with bacteriocidal activity against a broad range of anaerobic bacteria. It is a recognized treatment for elephants diagnosed with anaerobic bacterial infection or protozoal disease or exhibiting signs of colonic impaction, diarrhea, and colic. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of rectally administered metronidazole (15 mg/kg) in five adult female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Serum samples were collected from each animal for 96 hr after rectal administration of metronidazole. Serum concentrations of metronidazole and its primary metabolite, hydroxymetronidazole, were measured via ultraperformance liquid chromatography. Data were analyzed via a noncompartmental pharmacokinetic approach. Results indicated that serum levels of metronidazole were quantifiable at the 0.25 hr time point and absent in all elephants by the 96 hr time point. The serum peak concentration (mean ± SD, 13.15 ± 2.59 μg/ml) and area under the curve from time 0 to infinity (mean ± SD, 108.79 ± 24.77 hr × μg/ml) were higher than that reported in domestic horses after similar usage. Concurrently, the time of maximum serum concentration (mean ± SD, 1.2 ± 0.45 hr) and terminal elimination half-life (harmonic mean ± pseudo-SD, 7.85 ± 0.93 hr) were longer when compared to equine reports. Rectal administration of metronidazole was well tolerated and rapidly absorbed in all study elephants. Based on the findings in this study, metronidazole administered at a single dose of 15 mg/kg per rectum in the Asian elephant is likely to result in serum concentrations above 4 μg/ml for 8 hr and above 2 μg/ml for 24 hr after treatment is administered. Dosing recommendations should reflect the mean inhibitory concentration of metronidazole for each pathogen.

  19. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of amiodarone in plasma of ponies after single intravenous administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trachsel, D.; Tschudi, P.; Portier, C.J.; Kuhn, M.; Thormann, W.; Scholtysik, G.; Mevissen, M.

    2004-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation is a well-known heart disease in horses. The common therapy consists of administration of quinidine. More potent antiarrhythmic drugs have become available for human therapy and the use of these as alternatives to quinidine for equine antiarrhythmic therapy is a matter of interest. Amiodarone (AMD) is used in human medicine for treatment of many arrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation. Its disposition in horses has not yet been investigated. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of single intravenous doses of amiodarone (5 and 7 mg/kg) on the surface electrocardiogram (ECG) of healthy minishetland ponies during the first 2 days after drug administration and to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters with a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model (PBPK) using amiodarone and desethylamiodarone (DAMD) plasma levels that were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). As expected for a K + -channel-blocker, the main effect on the measured ECG could be seen on the ventricular complex, as the QT interval and the T wave showed statistically significant alterations. The doses investigated were well tolerated clinically. Results from the pharmacokinetic model were found to compare well with literature data of rats, dogs, and humans. It showed a rapid distribution in the tissue, beginning with the rapidly perfused tissue, like the heart, followed by slowly perfused tissues, and finally an accumulation in fat. The half-life for total elimination was calculated to be 16.3 days with 99% eliminated by 97 days. The model predicts that approximately 96% of amiodarone is eliminated as desethylamiodarone in urine, 2% eliminated as desethylamiodarone in bile, and 2% as other metabolites

  20. Short term changes in melatonin and cortisol serum levels after a single administration of estrogen to menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerdelhué, Bernard; Andrews, Mason C; Zhao, Yueqin; Scholler, Robert; Jones, Howard W

    2006-10-01

    It has been well-documented that serum melatonin levels are insensitive to estrous or menstrual ovarian steroid variations in the female rat or the human. However, a negative coupling has been already demonstrated between the nocturnal serum melatonin peak and serum E2 concentration during the late premenopausal period in the woman. The objection of the present study was designed to determine if diurnal serum melatonin values can be also lowered by a single administration of estrogen. We performed a detailed analysis of variations of serum estradiol, LH, FSH, melatonin and cortisol after one single I.M. injection of 2 mg of a conjugated estrogen, delestrogen (estradiol valerate) in 0.1 ml of oil. A 15 ml blood collection was done at 8:00 a.m. before the injection, and at 8:30 a.m., 9:00 a.m., 10:00 a.m., 12:00 noon, and 4:00 p.m. 17beta-estradiol, LH and FSH were determined by microparticle enzyme immunoassays kits. Melatonin determination was made using a RIA kit and cortisol was assayed by a RIA method. A significant rise in serum 17beta-estradiol was already seen by one hour after the injection of estradiol valerate. Then, an almost linear increase was observed up to at last eight hours after the injection of estradiol valerate. A significant decrease in serum LH was not seen before four hours after the injection of estradiol valerate. Overall, there was a trend toward a decline in serum melatonin and cortisol concentration. The decreasing trend of cortisol serum level was tested as significant over time (pmelatonin. Overall, these results show that after menopause an acute administration of estrogen during the early diurnal period of the day leads to a significant rapid decrease in cortisol serum values, but to only a partial non significant decrease in melatonin serum values.

  1. Pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence study of aniracetam after single-dose administration in healthy Chinese male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Feng, Shu-Dan; Zhang, Zun-Jian; Chen, Yun

    2008-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of aniracetam (CAS 72432-10-1) in Chinese healthy male volunteers was investigated for the first time. Twenty male volunteers were enrolled into this open, randomized, single blind two-sequence, two-period crossover study. Under fasting conditions, each subject received a single oral dose of 400 mg (2 x 200 mg/capsule) aniracetam as a test or reference formulation with a 3-day washout period between the two preparations. The plasma concentrations of aniracetam were analyzed by a sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the test and reference formulations were estimated as follows: The maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) were 8.75 +/- 7.82 and 8.65 +/- 8.70 ng/mL, Tmax were 0.4 +/- 0.1 and 0.4 +/- 0.1 h, and plasma elimination half-lives (t(1/2)) were 0.47 +/- 0.16 and 0.49 +/- 0.24 h, respectively. The AUC(0-t) values demonstrated nearly identical bioavailability of aniracetam from the examined formulations. AUC(0-2.5) values were 4.53 +/- 6.62 and 4.76 +/- 6.65 ng h/mL, the areas under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-infinity) were 4.62 +/- 6.66 and 4.85 +/- 6.71 ng h/mL for the test and reference formulation, respectively. No statistical differences were observed for Cmax, and AUC(0-infinity) for aniracetam. The 90% confidence limits calculated for AUC and Cmax of aniracetam were within the standard bioequivalence range (80%-125% for AUC and Cmax). Therefore, the aniracetam test formulation can be regarded as bioequivalent to the aniracetam reference formulation.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of meloxicam after intramuscular and oral administration of a single dose to American flamingos (Phoenicopertus ruber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Jennifer L; Cox, Sherry K; Martin-Jimenez, Tomas

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine pharmacokinetics after IM and oral administration of a single dose of meloxicam to American flamingos (Phoenicopertus ruber). ANIMALS 14 adult flamingos. PROCEDURES Flamingos were allocated to 2 groups. Each group received a dose of meloxicam (1 mg/kg) by the IM or oral route. After a 4-week washout period, groups received meloxicam via the other route of administration. Plasma meloxicam concentrations were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography. Data for each bird were analyzed. Estimated values of selected pharmacokinetic parameters were compared by use of a linear mixed-effects ANOVA. Pooled concentration-time profiles for each route of administration were analyzed to examine the influence of body weight on pharmacokinetics. RESULTS Mean ± SD maximum plasma concentration was 1.00 ± 0.88 μg/mL after oral administration. This was approximately 15% of the mean maximum plasma concentration of 5.50 ± 2.86 μg/mL after IM administration. Mean time to maximum plasma concentration was 1.33 ± 1.32 hours after oral administration and 0.28 ± 0.17 hours after IM administration. Mean half-life of the terminal phase after oral administration (3.83 ± 2.64 hours) was approximately twice that after IM administration (1.83 ± 1.22 hours). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that the extent and rate of meloxicam absorption were less after oral administration than after IM administration. Intramuscular administration resulted in a short period during which mean plasma concentrations met or exceeded reported efficacious analgesic concentrations in other species, whereas oral administration did not. These results suggested that higher doses may be required for oral administration.

  3. Pharmacokinetics after oral and intravenous administration of a single dose of tramadol hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Cox, Sherry K

    2012-08-01

    To determine pharmacokinetics after IV and oral administration of a single dose of tramadol hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 9 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (3 males, 5 females, and 1 of unknown sex). Tramadol (5 mg/kg, IV) was administered to the parrots. Blood samples were collected from -5 to 720 minutes after administration. After a 3-week washout period, tramadol (10 and 30 mg/kg) was orally administered to parrots. Blood samples were collected from -5 to 1,440 minutes after administration. Three formulations of oral suspension (crushed tablets in a commercially available suspension agent, crushed tablets in sterile water, and chemical-grade powder in sterile water) were evaluated. Plasma concentrations of tramadol and its major metabolites were measured via high-performance liquid chromatography. Mean plasma tramadol concentrations were > 100 ng/mL for approximately 2 to 4 hours after IV administration of tramadol. Plasma concentrations after oral administration of tramadol at a dose of 10 mg/kg were 100 ng/mL for approximately 6 hours after administration. Oral administration of the suspension consisting of the chemical-grade powder resulted in higher plasma tramadol concentrations than concentrations obtained after oral administration of the other 2 formulations; however, concentrations differed significantly only at 120 and 240 minutes after administration. Oral administration of tramadol at a dose of 30 mg/kg resulted in plasma concentrations (> 100 ng/mL) that have been associated with analgesia in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

  4. Benefits of breath hydrogen testing after lactulose administration in analysing carbohydrate malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bate, John P; Irving, Peter M; Barrett, Jacqueline S; Gibson, Peter R

    2010-03-01

    Breath hydrogen testing after lactulose administration may yield findings of clinical value, but whether it should be a routine part of breath testing has not been evaluated. We examined the contribution of breath testing after lactulose administration to the conduct and interpretation of breath hydrogen responses after fructose and lactose administration. Two hundred consecutive patients were given lactulose, fructose or lactose on separate days (at least 2 days apart); breath hydrogen was monitored every 15 min after the administration of each sugar. Peak breath hydrogen levels after lactulose administration correlated with those after fructose (r = 0.26; P = 0.03) and lactose (r = 0.44; P = 0.004). Of the patients with a reduced response to lactulose, 51% had definite or borderline evidence of fructose malabsorption (FM); similarly, 23% of patients had definite or borderline lactose malabsorption. After lactulose administration, an increase in breath hydrogen levels occurred after the same amount of time or longer than after the administration of fructose or lactose (>120 min). The earlier the first rise in breath hydrogen levels after lactulose administration, the more frequently FM occurred, indicating an association between FM and rapid transit and/or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Routine breath hydrogen testing with lactulose administration before other sugars cannot be used to define non-hydrogen producers, but might, by indicating the vigour of hydrogen production in the individual, allow more rational interpretation of results after testing with other sugars. It permits the duration of testing to be judged and provides information on possible mechanisms of FM.

  5. 77 FR 41415 - Single-Ingredient, Immediate-Release Drug Products Containing Oxycodone for Oral Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0563... Labeled for Human Use; Enforcement Action Dates; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... contain oxycodone hydrochloride for oral administration and are labeled for human use, and persons who...

  6. Effect of sorbitol, single, and multidose activated charcoal administration on carprofen absorption following experimental overdose in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigshof, Amy M; Beal, Matthew W; Poppenga, Robert H; Jutkowitz, L Ari

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of single dose activated charcoal, single dose activated charcoal with sorbitol, and multidose activated charcoal in reducing plasma carprofen concentrations following experimental overdose in dogs. Randomized, four period cross-over study. University research setting. Eight healthy Beagles. A 120 mg/kg of carprofen was administered orally to each dog followed by either (i) a single 2 g/kg activated charcoal administration 1 hour following carprofen ingestion (AC); (ii) 2 g/kg activated charcoal with 3.84 g/kg sorbitol 1 hour following carprofen ingestion (ACS); (iii) 2 g/kg activated charcoal 1 hour after carprofen ingestion and repeated every 6 hours for a total of 4 doses (MD); (iv) no treatment (control). Plasma carprofen concentrations were obtained over a 36-hour period following carprofen ingestion for each protocol. Pharmacokinetic modeling was performed and time versus concentration, area under the curve, maximum plasma concentration, time to maximum concentration, and elimination half-life were calculated and compared among the groups using ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparisons test. Activated charcoal, activated charcoal with sorbitol (ACS), and multiple-dose activated charcoal (MD) significantly reduced the area under the curve compared to the control group. AC and MD significantly reduced the maximum concentration when compared to the control group. MD significantly reduced elimination half-life when compared to ACS and the control group. There were no other significant differences among the treatment groups. Activated charcoal and ACS are as effective as MD in reducing serum carprofen concentrations following experimental overdose in dogs. Prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the effectiveness of AC, ACS, and MD in the clinical setting. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  7. Single specimen fracture toughness determination procedure using instrumented impact test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintamaa, R.

    1993-04-01

    In the study a new single specimen test method and testing facility for evaluating dynamic fracture toughness has been developed. The method is based on the application of a new pendulum type instrumented impact tester equipped with and optical crack mouth opening displacement (COD) extensometer. The fracture toughness measurement technique uses the Double Displacement Ratio (DDR) method, which is based on the assumption that the specimen is deformed as two rigid arms that rotate around an apparent centre of rotation. This apparent moves as the crack grows, and the ratio of COD versus specimen displacement changes. As a consequence the onset ductile crack initiation can be detected on the load-displacement curve. Thus, an energy-based fracture toughness can be calculated. In addition the testing apparatus can use specimens with the Double ligament size as compared with the standard Charpy specimen which makes the impact testing more appropriate from the fracture mechanics point of view. The novel features of the testing facility and the feasibility of the new DDR method has been verified by performing an extensive experimental and analytical study. (99 refs., 91 figs., 27 tabs.)

  8. Evaluation of a single leg stance balance test in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumbrunn, Thomas; MacWilliams, Bruce A; Johnson, Barbara A

    2011-06-01

    Balance is a major determinate of gait. In high functioning individuals without significant vestibular or vision impairments, a ceiling effect may be present when using a double limb support protocol to assess balance function. For these populations, a single leg stance protocol may be more suitable. 47 typically developing (TD) subjects and 10 patients with CEV performed a single leg stance test on a force plate. The center of pressure (COP) was determined and several COP derived variables were calculated. Included measurements were: standard deviation, maximum excursion, area, average radial displacement, path velocity and frequency of the COP. Directional components of suitable variables were used to analyze anterior/posterior and medial/lateral contributions. Correlations with age of TD subjects indicated that all balance variables except frequency were significantly correlated. Most parameters were highly inter-correlated. Age adjusted COP balance variables also correlated to the Bruininks-Oseretsky balance subtest. Highest correlations were determined by the maximum excursion and velocity of the COP in the anterior/posterior direction. Statistical comparisons between the CEV group and a 4-6 TD group indicated significant differences between groups for most COP balance parameters. These results indicated that a single limb balance assessment may be a useful assessment for determining balance impairments in higher functioning children with orthopedic impairments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Time-course measurements of drug concentrations in hair and toenails after single administrations of pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Iwata, Yuko T; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Yamamuro, Tadashi; Segawa, Hiroki; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2017-04-01

    Hair and nails are often used to prove long-term intake of drugs in forensic drug testing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of drug testing using hair and nails and the feasibility of determining when drugs were ingested by measuring the time-courses of drug concentrations in hair and toenails after single administrations of various drugs. Healthy subjects ingested four pharmaceutical products containing eight active ingredients in single doses. Hair and toenails were collected at predetermined intervals, and drug concentrations in hair and nails were measured for 12 months. The administered drugs and their main metabolites were extracted using micropulverized extraction with a stainless steel bullet and were analyzed using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Acidic compounds such as ibuprofen and its metabolites were not detected in both specimens. Acetaminophen, a weakly acidic compound, was detected in nails more frequently than in hair. The maximum concentration of allyl isopropyl acetylurea, a neutral compound, in nails was significantly higher than in hair. Nails are an effective specimen to detect neutral and weakly acidic compounds. For fexofenadine, a zwitterionic compound, and for most basic compounds, the maximum concentrations in hair segments tended to be higher than those in nails. The hair segments showing the maximum concentrations varied between drugs, samples, and subjects. Drug concentrations in hair segments greatly depended on the selection of the hair. Careful interpretation of analytical results is required to predict the time of drug intake. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of meloxicam after intravenous, intramuscular, and oral administration of a single dose to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molter, Christine M; Court, Michael H; Cole, Gretchen A; Gagnon, David J; Hazarika, Suwagmani; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2013-03-01

    To compare pharmacokinetics after IV, IM, and oral administration of a single dose of meloxicam to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 11 healthy parrots. Cohorts of 8 of the 11 birds comprised 3 experimental groups for a crossover study. Pharmacokinetics were determined from plasma concentrations measured via high-performance liquid chromatography after IV, IM, and oral administration of meloxicam at a dose of 1 mg/kg. Initial mean ± SD plasma concentration of 17.3 ± 9.0 μg/mL was measured 5 minutes after IV administration, whereas peak mean concentration was 9.3 ± 1.8 μg/mL 15 minutes after IM administration. At 12 hours after administration, mean plasma concentrations for IV (3.7 ± 2.5 μg/mL) and IM (3.5 ± 2.2 μg/mL) administration were similar. Peak mean plasma concentration (3.5 ± 1.2 μg/mL) was detected 6 hours after oral administration. Absolute systemic bioavailability of meloxicam after IM administration was 100% but was lower after oral administration (range, 49% to 75%). Elimination half-lives after IV, IM, and oral administration were similar (15.9 ± 4.4 hours, 15.1 ± 7.7 hours, and 15.8 ± 8.6 hours, respectively). Pharmacokinetic data may provide useful information for use of meloxicam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A mean plasma concentration of 3.5 μg/mL would be expected to provide analgesia in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots; however, individual variation may result in some birds having low plasma meloxicam concentrations after IV, IM, or oral administration. After oral administration, meloxicam concentration slowly reached the target plasma concentration, but that concentration was not sustained in most birds.

  11. Simple test system for single molecule recognition force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riener, Christian K.; Stroh, Cordula M.; Ebner, Andreas; Klampfl, Christian; Gall, Alex A.; Romanin, Christoph; Lyubchenko, Yuri L.; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Gruber, Hermann J.

    2003-01-01

    We have established an easy-to-use test system for detecting receptor-ligand interactions on the single molecule level using atomic force microscopy (AFM). For this, avidin-biotin, probably the best characterized receptor-ligand pair, was chosen. AFM sensors were prepared containing tethered biotin molecules at sufficiently low surface concentrations appropriate for single molecule studies. A biotin tether, consisting of a 6 nm poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chain and a functional succinimide group at the other end, was newly synthesized and covalently coupled to amine-functionalized AFM tips. In particular, PEG 800 diamine was glutarylated, the mono-adduct NH 2 -PEG-COOH was isolated by ion exchange chromatography and reacted with biotin succinimidylester to give biotin-PEG-COOH which was then activated as N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester to give the biotin-PEG-NHS conjugate which was coupled to the aminofunctionalized AFM tip. The motional freedom provided by PEG allows for free rotation of the biotin molecule on the AFM sensor and for specific binding to avidin which had been adsorbed to mica surfaces via electrostatic interactions. Specific avidin-biotin recognition events were discriminated from nonspecific tip-mica adhesion by their typical unbinding force (∼40 pN at 1.4 nN/s loading rate), unbinding length (<13 nm), the characteristic nonlinear force-distance relation of the PEG linker, and by specific block with excess of free d-biotin. The convenience of the test system allowed to evaluate, and compare, different methods and conditions of tip aminofunctionalization with respect to specific binding and nonspecific adhesion. It is concluded that this system is well suited as calibration or start-up kit for single molecule recognition force microscopy

  12. Superovulation with a single administration of FSH in aluminum hydroxide gel: a novel superovulation method for cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Koji

    2016-10-18

    Superovulation (SOV) is a necessary technique to produce large numbers of embryos for embryo transfer. In the conventional methods, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) is administered to donor cattle twice daily for 3 to 4 days. As this method is labor intensive and stresses cattle, improving this method has been desired. We previously developed a novel and simple SOV method, in which the intramuscular injection of a single dose of FSH in aluminum hydroxide gel (AH-gel) induced the growth of multiple follicles, ovulation and the production of multiple embryos. Here we show that AH-gel can efficiently adsorb FSH and release it effectively in the presence of BSA, a major interstitial protein. When a single intramuscular administration of the FSH and AH-gel mixture was performed to cattle, multiple follicular growth, ovulation and embryo production were induced. However, the treatments caused indurations at the administration sites in the muscle. To reduce the muscle damage, we investigated alternative administration routes and different amounts of aluminum in the gel. By administering the FSH in AH-gel subcutaneously rather than intramuscularly, the amount of aluminum in the gel could be reduced, thus reducing the size of the induration. Moreover, repeated administrations of FSH with AH-gel did not affect the superovulatory response. These results indicate that a single administration of FSH with AH-gel is an effective, novel and practical method for SOV treatment.

  13. Population pharmacokinetics of a single dose of meloxicam after oral and intramuscular administration to captive lesser flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zordan, Martín A; Papich, Mark G; Pich, Ashley A; Unger, Katy M; Sánchez, Carlos R

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of meloxicam after IM and oral administration to healthy lesser flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor) by use of a population approach. ANIMALS 16 healthy captive lesser flamingos between 1 and 4 years of age. PROCEDURES A single dose of meloxicam (0.5 mg/kg) was administered IM to each bird, and blood samples were collected from birds at 3 (n = 13 birds), 2 (2), or 1 (1) selected point between 0 and 13 hours after administration, with samples collected from birds at each point. After a 15-day washout period, the same dose of meloxicam was administered PO via a red rubber tube and blood samples were collected as described for IM administration. Pharmacokinetic values were determined from plasma concentrations measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS Plasma drug concentrations after IM administration of meloxicam reached a mean ± SD maximum value of 6.01 ± 3.38 μg/mL. Mean area under the concentration-versus-time curve was 17.78 ± 2.79 μg•h/mL, and mean elimination half-life was 1.93 ± 0.32 hours. Plasma concentrations after oral administration reached a mean maximum value of 1.79 ± 0.33 μg/mL. Mean area under the curve was 22.16 ± 7.17 μg•h/mL, and mean elimination half-life was 6.05 ± 3.53 hours. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In lesser flamingos, oral administration of meloxicam resulted in higher bioavailability and a longer elimination half-life than did IM administration, but the maximum plasma concentration was low and may be insufficient to provide analgesia in flamingos. Conversely, IM administration achieved the desired plasma concentration but would require more frequent administration.

  14. Guideline adherence to chemotherapy administration safety standards: a survey on nurses in a single institute

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kidong; Lee, Hee Sook; Kim, Younha; Kim, Beob-Jong; Kim, Moon-Hong; Choi, Seok-Cheol; Ryu, Sang-Young

    2011-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the guideline adherence of nurses to chemotherapy administration guidelines. We determined the guideline adherence of nurses to the Chemotherapy Administration Safety Standards and the relationship between demographic characteristics and guideline adherence. Methods Survey sheets containing two questions on demographic characteristics and 16 questions on the guideline adherence of nurses regarding chemotherapy administration were distributed to all in-patient d...

  15. Influence of single and repeated cannabidiol administration on emotional behavior and markers of cell proliferation and neurogenesis in non-stressed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Angélica Pupin; Bonato, Jéssica Mendes; Milani, Humberto; Guimarães, Francisco Silveira; Weffort de Oliveira, Rúbia Maria

    2016-01-04

    Therapeutic effects of antidepressants and atypical antipsychotics may arise partially from their ability to stimulate neurogenesis. Cannabidiol (CBD), a phytocannabinoid present in Cannabis sativa, presents anxiolytic- and antipsychotic-like effects in preclinical and clinical settings. Anxiolytic-like effects of repeated CBD were shown in chronically stressed animals and these effects were parallel with increased hippocampal neurogenesis. However, antidepressant-like effects of repeated CBD administration in non-stressed animals have been scarcely reported. Here we investigated the behavioral consequences of single or repeated CBD administration in non-stressed animals. We also determined the effects of CBD on cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) and subventricular zone (SVZ). Single CBD 3mg/kg administration resulted in anxiolytic-like effect in mice submitted to the elevated plus maze (EPM). In the tail suspension test (TST), single or repeated CBD administration reduced immobility time, an effect that was comparable to those of imipramine (20 mg/kg). Moreover, repeated CBD administration at a lower dose (3 mg/kg) increased cell proliferation and neurogenesis, as seen by an increased number of Ki-67-, BrdU- and doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells in both in DG and SVZ. Despite its antidepressant-like effects in the TST, repeated CBD administration at a higher dose (30 mg/kg) decreased cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the hippocampal DG and SVZ. Our findings show a dissociation between behavioral and proliferative effects of repeated CBD and suggest that the antidepressant-like effects of CBD may occur independently of adult neurogenesis in non-stressed Swiss mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The nucleic acid metabolism in rat liver after single and long-term administration of tritium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shorokhova, V.B.

    1984-01-01

    It was shown that after a single administration of tritiUm oxide in a dose of 22.2 MBq/g body mass the liver mass increased, the concentration of nucleic acids decreased and the biosynthesjs rate increased dUring a one-month observation. By the end of the observation period (the first year) the parameters under study were normalized. The long-term administration of tritium oxide in daily doses of 0.37, 0.925 and 1.85 MBq/g body mass caused changes in the nucleac acid metabolism which were less manifest (at early times), than in the case of a single injection. At the same time, the long-term administration of tritium oxide in the dose of 0.925 MBq/g caused a substantial disturbance of the nucleic acid metabolism at later times (after 2-9 months)

  17. Single Stage Contactor Testing Of The Next Generation Solvent Blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D. T.; Peters, T. B.; Duignan, M. R.; Williams, M. R.; Poirier, M. R.; Brass, E. A.; Garrison, A. G.; Ketusky, E. T.

    2014-01-06

    The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is actively pursuing the transition from the current BOBCalixC6 based solvent to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS)-MCU solvent to increase the cesium decontamination factor. To support this integration of NGS into the MCU facility the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed testing of a blend of the NGS (MaxCalix based solvent) with the current solvent (BOBCalixC6 based solvent) for the removal of cesium (Cs) from the liquid salt waste stream. This testing utilized a blend of BOBCalixC6 based solvent and the NGS with the new extractant, MaxCalix, as well as a new suppressor, tris(3,7dimethyloctyl) guanidine. Single stage tests were conducted using the full size V-05 and V-10 liquid-to-liquid centrifugal contactors installed at SRNL. These tests were designed to determine the mass transfer and hydraulic characteristics with the NGS solvent blended with the projected heel of the BOBCalixC6 based solvent that will exist in MCU at time of transition. The test program evaluated the amount of organic carryover and the droplet size of the organic carryover phases using several analytical methods. The results indicate that hydraulically, the NGS solvent performed hydraulically similar to the current solvent which was expected. For the organic carryover 93% of the solvent is predicted to be recovered from the stripping operation and 96% from the extraction operation. As for the mass transfer, the NGS solvent significantly improved the cesium DF by at least an order of magnitude when extrapolating the One-stage results to actual Seven-stage extraction operation with a stage efficiency of 95%.

  18. Laboratory testing on infiltration in single synthetic fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Claudia; Pastore, Nicola; Li, Jiawei; Giasi, Concetta I.; Li, Ling

    2017-04-01

    An understanding of infiltration phenomena in unsaturated rock fractures is extremely important in many branches of engineering for numerous reasons. Sectors such as the oil, gas and water industries are regularly interacting with water seepage through rock fractures, yet the understanding of the mechanics and behaviour associated with this sort of flow is still incomplete. An apparatus has been set up to test infiltration in single synthetic fractures in both dry and wet conditions. To simulate the two fracture planes, concrete fractures have been moulded from 3D printed fractures with varying geometrical configurations, in order to analyse the influence of aperture and roughness on infiltration. Water flows through the single fractures by means of a hydraulic system composed by an upstream and a downstream reservoir, the latter being subdivided into five equal sections in order to measure the flow rate in each part to detect zones of preferential flow. The fractures have been set at various angles of inclination to investigate the effect of this parameter on infiltration dynamics. The results obtained identified that altering certain fracture parameters and conditions produces relevant effects on the infiltration process through the fractures. The main variables influencing the formation of preferential flow are: the inclination angle of the fracture, the saturation level of the fracture and the mismatch wavelength of the fracture.

  19. Testing the single degenerate channel for supernova Ia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Steven

    2014-10-01

    The progenitors of supernova Ia are close binaries containing white dwarfs. Of crucial importance to the evolution of these systems is how much material the white dwarf can stably accrete and hence grow in mass. This occurs during a short-lived intense phase of mass transfer known as the super soft source (SSS) phase. The short duration of this phase and large extinction to soft X-rays means that only a handful are known in our Galaxy. Far more can be learned from the underlying SSS progenitor population of close white dwarf plus FGK type binaries. Unfortunately, these systems are hard to find since the main-sequence stars completely outshine the white dwarfs at optical wavelengths. Because of this, there are currently no known close white dwarf binaries with F, G or early K type companions, making it impossible to determine the contribution of the single degenerate channel towards supernova Ia. Using the GALEX and RAVE surveys we have now identified the first large sample of FGK stars with UV excesses, a fraction of which are these illusive, close systems. Following an intense ground based spectroscopic investigation of these systems, we have identified 5 definite close binaries, with periods of less than a few days. Here we apply for COS spectroscopic observations to measure the mass and temperature of the white dwarfs in order to determine the future evolution of these systems. This will provide a crucial test for the single degenerate channel towards supernova Ia.

  20. A comparative study of calcium absorption following a single serving administration of calcium carbonate powder versus calcium citrate tablets in healthy premenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyuan Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium is an essential mineral often taken as a daily, long-term nutritional supplement. Data suggests that once-daily dosing is important with regard to long-term compliance of both drugs and nutritional supplements. Objective: This study was undertaken to compare the bioavailability of a single serving of two calcium supplements in healthy, premenopausal women. Design: A two-period, crossover bioavailability study of a single serving of calcium citrate tablets (two tablets=500 mg calcium versus a single serving of calcium carbonate powder (one packet of powder=1,000 mg calcium was performed in healthy women aged between 25 and 45. All subjects were on a calcium-restricted diet 7 days prior to testing and fasted for 12 h before being evaluated at 0, 1, 2, and 4 h after oral administration of the test agents. Blood measurements for total and ionized calcium and parathyroid hormone were performed and adverse events were monitored. Results: Twenty-three women were evaluable with a mean age of 33.2±8.71. Results showed that administration of a single serving of a calcium carbonate powder resulted in greater absorption in total and ionized calcium versus a single serving of calcium citrate tablets at 4 h (4.25±0.21 vs. 4.16±0.16, p=0.001. There were minimal side effects and no reported serious adverse events. Conclusions: This study shows that a single serving of a calcium carbonate powder is more bioavailable than a single serving of calcium citrate tablets. This may be beneficial for long-term compliance.

  1. Crystal plasticity study of single crystal tungsten by indentation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Weizhi

    2012-01-01

    Owing to its favorable material properties, tungsten (W) has been studied as a plasma-facing material in fusion reactors. Experiments on W heating in plasma sources and electron beam facilities have shown an intense micro-crack formation at the heated surface and sub-surface. The cracks go deep inside the irradiated sample, and often large distorted areas caused by local plastic deformation are present around the cracks. To interpret the crack-induced microscopic damage evolution process in W, one needs firstly to understand its plasticity on a single grain level, which is referred to as crystal plasticity. In this thesis, the crystal plasticity of single crystal tungsten (SCW) has been studied by spherical and Berkovich indentation tests and the finite element method with a crystal plasticity model. Appropriate values of the material parameters included in the crystal plasticity model are determined by fitting measured load-displacement curves and pile-up profiles with simulated counterparts for spherical indentation. The numerical simulations reveal excellent agreement with experiment. While the load-displacement curves and the deduced indentation hardness exhibit little sensitivity to the indented plane at small indentation depths, the orientation of slip directions within the crystals governs the development of deformation hillocks at the surface. It is found that several factors like friction, indentation depth, active slip systems, misoriented crystal orientation, misoriented sample surface and azimuthal orientation of the indenter can affect the indentation behavior of SCW. The Berkovich indentation test was also used to study the crystal plasticity of SCW after deuterium irradiation. The critical load (pop-in load) for triggering plastic deformation under the indenter is found to depend on the crystallographic orientation. The pop-in loads decrease dramatically after deuterium plasma irradiation for all three investigated crystallographic planes.

  2. Language of administration and neuropsychological test performance in neurologically intact Hispanic American bilingual adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasquoine, Philip Gerard; Croyle, Kristin L; Cavazos-Gonzalez, Cynthia; Sandoval, Omar

    2007-11-01

    This study compared the performance of Hispanic American bilingual adults on Spanish and English language versions of a neuropsychological test battery. Language achievement test scores were used to divide 36 bilingual, neurologically intact, Hispanic Americans from south Texas into Spanish-dominant, balanced, and English-dominant bilingual groups. They were administered the eight subtests of the Bateria Neuropsicologica and the Matrix Reasoning subtest of the WAIS-III in Spanish and English. Half the participants were tested in Spanish first. Balanced bilinguals showed no significant differences in test scores between Spanish and English language administrations. Spanish and/or English dominant bilinguals showed significant effects of language of administration on tests with higher language compared to visual perceptual weighting (Woodcock-Munoz Language Survey-Revised, Letter Fluency, Story Memory, and Stroop Color and Word Test). Scores on tests with higher visual-perceptual weighting (Matrix Reasoning, Figure Memory, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Spatial Span), were not significantly affected by language of administration, nor were scores on the Spanish/California Verbal Learning Test, and Digit Span. A problem was encountered in comparing false positive rates in each language, as Spanish norms fell below English norms, resulting in a much higher false positive rate in English across all bilingual groupings. Use of a comparison standard (picture vocabulary score) reduced false positive rates in both languages, but the higher false positive rate in English persisted.

  3. Impact of benzodiazepines on brain FDG-PET quantification after single-dose and chronic administration in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva-Rodríguez, Jesús; García-Varela, Lara; López-Arias, Esteban; Domínguez-Prado, Inés; Cortés, Julia; Pardo-Montero, Juan; Fernández-Ferreiro, Anxo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Current guidelines for brain PET imaging advice against the injection of diazepam prior to brain FDG-PET examination in order to avoid possible interactions of benzodiazepines with the radiotracer uptake. Nevertheless, many patients undergoing PET studies are likely to be under chronic treatment with benzodiazepines, for example due to the use of different medications such as sleeping pills. Animal studies may provide an extensive and accurate estimation of the effect of benzodiazepines on brain metabolism in a well-defined and controlled framework. Aim: This study aims at evaluating the impact of benzodiazepines on brain FDG uptake after single-dose administration and chronic treatment in rats. Methods: Twelve Sprague–Dawley healthy rats were randomly divided into two groups, one treated with diazepam and the other used as control group. Both groups underwent PET/CT examinations after single-dose and chronic administration of diazepam (treated) or saline (controls) during twenty-eight days. Different atlas-based quantification methods were used to explore differences on the total uptake and uptake patterns of FDG between both groups. Results: Our analysis revealed a significant reduction of global FDG uptake after acute (−16.2%) and chronic (−23.2%) administration of diazepam. Moreover, a strong trend pointing to differences between acute and chronic administrations (p < 0.08) was also observed. Uptake levels returned to normal after interrupting the administration of diazepam. On the other hand, patterns of FDG uptake were not affected by the administration of diazepam. Conclusions: The administration of diazepam causes a progressive decrease of the FDG global uptake in the rat brain, but it does not change local patterns within the brain. Under these conditions, visual assessment and quantification methods based on regional differences such as asymmetry indexes or SPM statistical analysis would still be valid when administrating this

  4. Radiation tests for a single-GEM-loaded gaseous detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyong Sei; Hong, Byung Sik; Park, Sung Keun [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Yeol [NoticeKorea, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    We report on a systematic study of a single-gas-electron-multiplier (GEM)-loaded gaseous detector developed for precision measurements of high-energy particle beams and for dose verification in particle therapy. In the present study, a 256-channel prototype detector having an active area of 16 x 16 cm{sup 2} and operating using a continuous current-integration-mode signal-processing method was manufactured and tested with X-rays emitted from a 70-kV X-ray generator and 43-MeV protons provided by the MC50 proton cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science(KIRAMS). The amplified detector response was measured for X-rays with an intensity of about 5 x 10{sup 6} Hz cm{sup -2}. The linearity of the detector response to the particle flux was examined and validated by using 43-MeV proton beams. The non-uniform development of the amplification for the gas electrons in space was corrected by applying a proper calibration to the channel responses of the measured beam-profile data. We conclude from the radiation tests that the detector developed in the present study will allow us to perform quality measurements of various high-energy particle beams and to apply the technology to dose-verification measurements in particle therapy.

  5. Administration of Standardized Competency Tests: Does the Testing Environment Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongbundhit, Yuwadee

    1996-01-01

    To relieve overcrowded, distracting, and uncomfortable testing conditions, the Dade County (Florida) Public Schools began administering the High School Competency Test on two successive Saturdays, instead of on school days. Classrooms were used, and students received free breakfasts and lunches. The new arrangement improved student performance and…

  6. Pharmacokinetics of the Protein Microbicide 5P12-RANTES in Sheep following Single-Dose Vaginal Gel Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, John W; Dias, Nicola; Cameron, David; Offord, Robin E; Hartley, Oliver; Boyd, Peter; Kett, Vicky L; Malcolm, R Karl

    2017-10-01

    5P12-RANTES, a chemokine analogue that potently blocks the HIV CCR5 coreceptor, is being developed as both a vaginal and rectal microbicide for prevention of sexual transmission of HIV. Here, we report the first pharmacokinetic data for 5P12-RANTES following single-dose vaginal gel administration in sheep. Aqueous gel formulations containing low (1.24-mg/ml), intermediate (6.18-mg/ml), and high (32.0-mg/ml; suspension-type gel) concentrations of 5P12-RANTES were assessed via rheology, syringeability, and in vitro release testing. Following vaginal gel administration to sheep, 5P12-RANTES concentrations were measured in vaginal fluid, vaginal tissue, and serum over a 96-h period. All gels showed non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior, with the high-concentration gels exhibiting a greater viscosity and cohesive structure than the intermediate- and low-concentration gels. In in vitro release testing, >90% 5P12-RANTES was released from the low- and intermediate-concentration gels after 72 h. For the high-concentration gel, ∼50% 5P12-RANTES was detected, attributed to protein denaturation during lyophilization and/or subsequent solvation of the protein within the gel matrix. In sheep, 5P12-RANTES concentrations in vaginal fluid, vaginal tissue, and serum increased in a dose-dependent manner. The highest concentrations were measured in vaginal fluid (10 5 to 10 7 ng/ml), followed by vaginal tissue (10 4 to 10 6 ng/ml). Both of these concentration ranges are several orders of magnitude above the reported half-maximal inhibitory concentrations. The lowest concentration was measured in serum (<10 2 ng/ml). The 5P12-RANTES pharmacokinetic data are similar to those reported previously for other candidate microbicides. These data, coupled with 5P12-RANTES's potency at picomolar concentrations, its strong barrier to resistance, and the full protection that it was observed to provide in a rhesus macaque vaginal challenge model, support the continued development of 5P12-RANTES as

  7. SimulCAT: Windows Software for Simulating Computerized Adaptive Test Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyung T.

    2012-01-01

    Most, if not all, computerized adaptive testing (CAT) programs use simulation techniques to develop and evaluate CAT program administration and operations, but such simulation tools are rarely available to the public. Up to now, several software tools have been available to conduct CAT simulations for research purposes; however, these existing…

  8. The importance of proper administration and interpretation of neuropsychological baseline and postconcussion computerized testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Schatz, Philip; Lichtenstein, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    Media coverage, litigation, and new legislation have resulted in a heightened awareness of the prevalence of sports concussion in both adult and youth athletes. Baseline and postconcussion testing is now commonly used for the assessment and management of sports-related concussion in schools and in youth sports leagues. With increased use of computerized neurocognitive sports concussion testing, there is a need for standards for proper administration and interpretation. To date, there has been a lack of standardized procedures by which assessments are administered. More specifically, individuals who are not properly trained often interpret test results, and their methods of interpretation vary considerably. The purpose of this article is to outline factors affecting the validity of test results, to provide examples of misuse and misinterpretation of test results, and to communicate the need to administer testing in the most effective and useful manner. An increase in the quality of test administration and application may serve to decrease the prevalence of invalid test results and increase the accuracy and utility of baseline test results if an athlete sustains a concussion. Standards for test use should model the American Psychological Association and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines, as well as the recent findings of the joint position paper on computerized neuropsychological assessment devices.

  9. Analysis of experiment testing technology for single event effects in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Chaohui

    2001-01-01

    The merit and demerit of simulation source were analyzed for Single Event Effects (SEE) experiment testing in China. Laboratory experiment systems for SEE were brief introduced and requests for SEE test system were emphasize analyzed. Test systems were presented for Single Event Upset, Single Event Latch-up, Single Event Burnout and Single Event Gate-Rupture. The attention should be in mind in SEE experiments were discussed

  10. 77 FR 75349 - Seventy-First Report of the TSCA Interagency Testing Committee to the Administrator of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... Report of the TSCA Interagency Testing Committee to the Administrator of the Environmental Protection... Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency; Receipt of Report and Request for Comments AGENCY...) Interagency Testing Committee (ITC) transmitted its 71st ITC Report to the EPA Administrator on November 14...

  11. 76 FR 46173 - Sixty-Eighth Report of the TSCA Interagency Testing Committee to the Administrator of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... of the TSCA Interagency Testing Committee to the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency...-8879-3] Sixty-Eighth Report of the TSCA Interagency Testing Committee to the Administrator of the... Committee (ITC) transmitted its Sixty-Eighth Report to the Administrator of EPA on June 14, 2011. In the...

  12. Columbia University flow instability experimental program: Volume 6. Single annulus tests, transient test program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dougherty, T.; Maciuca, C.; McAssey, E.V. Jr.; Reddy, D.G.; Yang, B.W.

    1992-09-01

    The coolant in the Savannah River Site (SRS) production nuclear reactor assemblies is circulated as a subcooled liquid under normal operating conditions. This coolant is evenly distributed throughout multiple annular flow channels with a uniform pressure profile across each coolant flow channel. During the postulated Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), which is initiated by a hypothetical guillotine pipe break, the coolant flow through the reactor assemblies is significantly reduced. The flow reduction and accompanying power reduction (after shutdown is initiated) occur in the first 1 to 2 seconds of the LOCA. This portion of the LOCA is referred to as the Flow Instability phase. This report presents the experimental results for the transient portion of the single annulus test program. The test program was designed to investigate the onset of flow instability in an annular geometry similar to the MARK 22 reactor. The test program involved testing of both a ribless heater and a ribbed heater under steady state as well as transient conditions. The ribbed heater testing is currently underway and will be reported separately. The steady state portion of this test program with ribless heater was completed and reported in report No. CU-HTRF-T3A. The present report presents transient test results obtained from a ribless, uniform annulus test section. A total of thirty five transients were conducted with six cases in which flow excursion occurred. No unstable conditions resulted for tests in which the steady state Q{sub ratio} OFI limit was not exceeded.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of betamethasone after single-dose intramuscular administration of betamethasone phosphate and betamethasone acetate to healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Isam I; Najib, Naji M

    2012-01-01

    Betamethasone is used for its antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive effects in disorders of many organ systems. However, the pharmacokinetic properties of betamethasone in plasma after intramuscular injection of betamethasone sodium phosphate and betamethasone acetate dual-acting suspension need further investigation. The main aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of betamethasone, betamethasone acetate, and betamethasone phosphate after the administration of a single intramuscular dose of the dual-acting suspension to healthy human volunteers. Two different studies were conducted in healthy males. Volunteers were judged healthy based on their medical history, physical examination, and laboratory test results. Before confinement, all volunteers were tested for freedom from alcohol and drugs of abuse. Following a 10-hour overnight fasting, a single dose of 1 mL of the dual-acting suspension containing 3 mg of betamethasone phosphate and 3 mg of betamethasone acetate was administered by intramuscular injection. Blood sampling covered 48 hours. The plasma samples obtained in the second study were stabilized to enable pharmacokinetic profiling of betamethasone esters. Twenty-four healthy males with mean (SD) age of 27 (6.62) years participated in each study. No incidences of serious adverse events were recorded during the studies. Six mild adverse events were reported in 2 subjects in the second study. One subject suffered from pain at the injection site and insomnia, and another subject complained of heartburn and drowsiness. Betamethasone phosphate appeared to be readily absorbed with a mean AUC(0-t) of 96.01 ng/h/mL and an AUC(0-∞) of 97.96 (23.38) ng/h/mL. Betamethasone peak plasma concentration reached a mean t(½) of 12.92 hours. Betamethasone acetate was not detected in the volunteers' plasma in either study (total of 2208 plasma samples). The observed pharmacokinetic parameters suggested that the acetate ester, and not the

  14. Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Tolerability of Single Oral or Intravenous Administration of 200 mg Tedizolid Phosphate in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, John S; Flanagan, Shawn D; Arrieta, Antonio C; Jacobs, Richard; Capparelli, Edmund; Prokocimer, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Tedizolid is a novel oxazolidinone antibacterial US FDA approved for treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections in adults. This study assessed the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of tedizolid phosphate in adolescents (12-17 years old) after administration of a single intravenous (IV) or oral dose. In this multicenter, open-label study, a single IV infusion (N = 10) or oral dose (N = 10) of 200 mg tedizolid phosphate was administered to adolescents already receiving antibacterial treatment for presumed or documented infection. Blood and urine samples were collected predose and over 24 hours. Tedizolid pharmacokinetics was generally similar after IV or oral administration of 200 mg tedizolid phosphate. Mean (standard deviation) half-life values were similar for oral and IV routes, 8.3 (2.0) and 6.6 (0.7) hours, respectively. Absolute oral bioavailability of tedizolid (90% confidence interval) was 88.8% (70.4%-112.1%). Geometric mean ratio (90% confidence interval) of area under the concentration-time curve values for adolescents relative to values previously reported for adults after 200 mg of single-dose IV or oral administration were 0.847 (0.736-0.975). Tedizolid was well tolerated. Overall pharmacokinetics of tedizolid was similar after administration of a single oral or IV 200 mg dose, and bioavailability was high. Exposure profiles were similar to those in adults. With clinical outcomes based on area under the concentration-time curve/minimum inhibitory concentration and current susceptibility of Gram-positive pathogens, results suggest that the 200 mg daily regimen of tedizolid phosphate can be extended to adolescents for clinical trials, and that dose adjustment may not be required when switching routes.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of voriconazole after oral administration of single and multiple doses in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Flammer, Keven; Papich, Mark G; Grooters, Amy M; Shaw, Shannon; Applegate, Jeff; Tully, Thomas N

    2010-04-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics and safety of voriconazole administered orally in single and multiple doses in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 15 clinically normal adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Single doses of voriconazole (12 or 24 mg/kg) were administered orally to 15 and 12 birds, respectively; plasma voriconazole concentrations were determined at intervals via high-pressure liquid chromatography. In a multiple-dose trial, voriconazole (18 mg/kg) or water was administered orally to 6 and 4 birds, respectively, every 8 hours for 11 days (beginning day 0); trough plasma voriconazole concentrations were evaluated on 3 days. Birds were monitored daily, and clinicopathologic variables were evaluated before and after the trial. Voriconazole elimination half-life was short (0.70 to 1.25 hours). In the single-dose experiments, higher drug doses yielded proportional increases in the maximum plasma voriconazole concentration (C(max)) and area under the curve (AUC). In the multiple-dose trial, C(max), AUC, and plasma concentrations at 2 and 4 hours were decreased on day 10, compared with day 0 values; however, there was relatively little change in terminal half-life. With the exception of 1 voriconazole-treated parrot that developed polyuria, adverse effects were not evident. In Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, oral administration of voriconazole was associated with proportional kinetics following administration of single doses and a decrease in plasma concentration following administration of multiple doses. Oral administration of 18 mg of voriconazole/kg every 8 hours would require adjustment to maintain therapeutic concentrations during long-term treatment. Safety and efficacy of voriconazole treatment in this species require further investigation.

  16. Biodistribution of BPA and BSH after single, repeated and simultaneous administrations for neutron-capture therapy of cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, H. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, 1-1-3 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan)], E-mail: ichikawa@pharm.kobegakuin.ac.jp; Taniguchi, E. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, 1-1-3 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Fujimoto, T. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Fukumori, Y. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, 1-1-3 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    The effect of administration mode of L-BPA and BSH on the biodistribution in the melanoma-bearing hamsters was investigated. In single intravenous (i.v.) administration, BSH (100 mg BSH/kg) showed no significant retention of {sup 10}B in all the tissues, including tumors, while long-term retention of {sup 10}B in the tumor, muscle and brain was observed with L-BPA (500 mg BPA/kg). The dose escalation of L-BPA and the simultaneous single administration of L-BPA and BSH were not so effective at increasing boron accumulation in tumor after bolus i.v. injection. The boron concentration in tumor was 41 {mu}g B/g after single bolus i.v. injection even at the dose of 1000 mg BPA/kg. In contrast, two sequential bolus i.v. injections of L-BPA with the dose of 500 mg BPA/kg each was found to be effective at increasing {sup 10}B accumulation in the tumor; the maximum {sup 10}B concentration in the tumor reached 52 {mu}g B/g at 3 h after the second i.v. injection.

  17. Guideline adherence to chemotherapy administration safety standards: a survey on nurses in a single institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kidong; Lee, Hee Sook; Kim, Younha; Kim, Beob-Jong; Kim, Moon-Hong; Choi, Seok-Cheol; Ryu, Sang-Young

    2011-03-31

    Little is known about the guideline adherence of nurses to chemotherapy administration guidelines. We determined the guideline adherence of nurses to the Chemotherapy Administration Safety Standards and the relationship between demographic characteristics and guideline adherence. Survey sheets containing two questions on demographic characteristics and 16 questions on the guideline adherence of nurses regarding chemotherapy administration were distributed to all in-patient departments in our hospital in which chemotherapy was performed. All clinical nurses in the department were recommended to respond. Of 202 nurses, 123 responses were collected (61% response rate). The guideline adherence rate was >70% for 15 of 16 questions, but 55% of respondents indicated that there was no competency monitoring for nurses. Nurses with >7 years of clinical nursing experience felt more competent in performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) than nurses with guideline adherence rate of nurses with respect to chemotherapy administration was high, with the exception of the absence of a competency monitoring for nurses. A significant number of nurses with <7 years of clinical nursing experience felt incompetent in performing CPR.

  18. 49 CFR 232.307 - Modification of the single car air brake test procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Requirements § 232.307 Modification of the single car air brake test procedures. (a) Request. The AAR or other authorized representative of the railroad industry may seek modification of the single car air brake test... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modification of the single car air brake test...

  19. Pharmacokinetic Properties and Tolerability of Cycloserine Following Oral Administration in Healthy Chinese Volunteers: A Randomized, Open-Label, Single- and Multiple-Dose 3-Way Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huili; Wu, Guolan; Hu, Xingjiang; Zhu, Meixiang; Zhai, You; Liu, Jian; Shentu, Jianzhong; Wu, Lihua

    2015-06-01

    -72h value increased from 264.16 (133.37) to 1153.87 (522.16) mg·h/L in the range of a 250- to 1000-mg dose. After administration of multiple doses of cycloserine 250 mg BID, the mean (SD) t½ was 13.56 (4.38) hours, the apparent total clearance of the drug from plasma after oral administration was 1.02 (0.42) L/h, and the apparent volume of distribution was 18.22 (5.25) L, which were comparable with those after single dosing. The accumulation index was 2.19 (0.51), and the fluctuation was 1.05 (0.35). Results of the t tests of Cmax and AUC found no significant differences between the male and female groups. No serious adverse events were reported, and there were no discontinuations due to adverse events. The pharmacokinetic properties of cycloserine were linear at doses from 250 mg to 1000 mg. After multiple doses, the pharmacokinetic properties of cycloserine were consistent with those after single doses. At the doses studied, cycloserine appears to be well tolerated in these healthy volunteers. Chinese Clinical Trials registration: ChiCTR-TTRCC-13003982. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Reliability testing of indirect composites as single implant restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Marcelo; Bonfante, Estevam; Silva, Nelson Rfa; Coelho, Paulo G

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the reliability and failure modes of indirect composites as single-unit implant crowns. Thirty-eight custom-milled titanium alloy locking-taper abutments were divided into two groups (n = 19 each), and crown build-up of a mandibular molar was accomplished using two indirect composite systems (Ceramage, Shofu, Kyoto, Japan; Diamond Crown, DRM, Branford, CT). Three crowns of each material were loaded until failure for determination of the step-stress profiles. Reliability testing started at a load 30% of the mean load to failure and used three profiles with increasing fatigue loading (step stress). Weibull curves with 300 N stress and 90% confidence intervals were calculated and plotted using a power-law relationship. Weibull modulus "Beta" and characteristic strength "Eta" were identified, and a contour plot was used (Beta vs. Eta) for examining differences between groups. Specimens were inspected in polarized light and scanning electron microscope for fracture analysis. Use level Weibull probability showed fatigue being a damage factor only for the Ceramage group (β= 3.39) but not for the Diamond Crown group (β= 0.40). Overlap in the confidence bounds resulted in no statistical difference. Irrespective of composite system, fracture initiated in the region immediately below the contact between the indenter and the cusp, with the crack propagating toward the margins of cohesive failure. No significant differences were observed in life and Weibull probability calculations for Ceramage and Diamond Crown veneered onto Ti alloy abutments. Failure modes comprised composite veneer chippings. © 2011 by The American College of Prosthodontists.

  1. Randomised clinical trial on the effect of a single oral administration of l-tryptophan, at three dose rates, on reaction speed, plasma concentration and haemolysis in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Glenys K; Li, Xiuhua; Zhang, Dagong; Sillence, Martin N

    2016-07-01

    Tryptophan (TRP) is marketed as a calmative for horses despite reservations about its efficacy. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of oral TRP administration on the reaction speed of horses. Sixty mature horses were used in a two stage randomised, blind, cross-over study, receiving a placebo and an oral dose of TRP (30, 60 or 120 mg/kg body weight), before undergoing a reaction speed test. Blood samples were taken up to 96 h after TRP administration, to identify signs of acute haemolytic anaemia. Plasma TRP concentrations were increased (P reaction speed of horses when startled. There was no evidence of alterations in clinical pathology parameters in 432 blood samples. While the safety of these doses of TRP can be confirmed, there was no evidence to suggest that a single dose of TRP is an effective calmative for horses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative single-dose pharmacokinetics of rasagiline in minipigs after oral dosing or transdermal administration via a newly developed patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu; Zou, Yanye; Lin, Jialiang; Zhang, Tao; Deng, Jie

    2013-08-01

    1. A rasagiline transdermal patch was developed for the treatment of early and advanced Parkinson's disease. Relevant pharmacokinetic parameters of rasagiline obtained after transdermal administration to minipigs were compared with those of rasagiline after oral administration. 2. A total of 18 minipigs were randomly divided into three groups (six animals for each group). A single dose of 1 mg rasagiline tablet was orally administrated to one group. Meanwhile, single dose of 1.25 and 2.5 mg (2 and 4 cm(2)) rasagiline patches were given (at the postauricular skin) to the other two groups, respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters such as plasma half-life (t1/2), time to peak plasma-concentration (Tmax), mean residence time (MRT), area under the curve (AUC(0-t)) were significantly (p rasagiline (1.25 mg patch: 11.8 ± 6.5 h, 2.5 mg patch: 12.5 ± 4.7 h) in minipig following transdermal administration was significantly prolonged as compared with that following the oral administration (1 mg tablet: 4.7 ± 2.5 h). The dose-normalized relative bioavailability of rasagiline patch in minipig were 178.5% and 156.4%, respectively, for 1.25 and 2.5 mg patches compared with 1 mg rasagiline tablet. The prolonged t1/2 and increased bioavailability of rasagiline patch suggested a possible longer dosing interval compared with oral tablet.

  3. 21 CFR 20.105 - Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing and research conducted by or with funds... Categories of Records § 20.105 Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration. (a) Any list that may be prepared by the Food and Drug Administration of testing and research...

  4. 77 FR 2024 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Single-Family Mortgage Insurance: Elimination of Requests...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... utilizing the appeals process has gone from 105 for the 2008 loan limits to zero for the 2011 loan limits...) Single-Family Mortgage Insurance: Elimination of Requests for Alternative Mortgage Limits AGENCY: Office... amounts. HUD currently sets the area- based loan limits on a yearly basis and permits appeals of these...

  5. Human-computer interaction in the administration and analysis of neuropsychological tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonson, Vered; Korczyn, Amos D

    2004-01-01

    We developed a computerized neuropsychological assessment software, which employs innovative features in both the presentation of the tests and the interpretation of the subjects' performance. The usability features of the software enabled elderly subjects with no computer experience to undergo the cognitive tests, without a test administrator being present. New features extracted from reaction times allowed for enhancement of the performance analysis of the tests. The software was validated using a large group of controls and then administered to a group of subjects with age related memory complaints. The results indicate an improved sensitivity of two of the computerized tests compared with the mini-mental state examination, which enabled to separate two groups of subjects from a population that was relatively homogenous based on clinical history, neurological examination and the mini-mental state examination.

  6. "Passageless" administration of the Nelson-Denny Reading Comprehension Test: associations with IQ and reading skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, Rebecca E; Chaudhry, Maheen F; Schatz, Kelly C; Strazzullo, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    There are few tests that assess reading comprehension in adults, but these tests are needed for a comprehensive assessment of reading disorders (RD). The Nelson-Denny Reading Test (NDRT) has a long-passage reading comprehension component that can be used with adolescents and adults. A problem with the NDRT is that reading comprehension test items can be answered correctly without reading the associated passage. The current study determined how IQ, verbal comprehension, and reading skills were associated with scores on a passageless administration of the NDRT. Results indicated that IQ, verbal comprehension, and broad reading skills were significantly associated with greater NDRT passageless scores. Results raise questions about the validity of the reading comprehension component of the NDRT and suggest that the test may have differential validity based on individual differences in vocabulary, general fund of knowledge, and broad reading skills.

  7. Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Tolerability of Tedizolid Phosphate After Single-dose Administration in Healthy Korean Male Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun; Kim, Anhye; Lee, SeungHwan; Choi, Sung-Hak; Lee, Dae Young; Song, Ji-Su; Lee, Howard; Jang, In-Jin; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2017-09-01

    Tedizolid phosphate is a next-generation oxazolidinone prodrug that is transformed into the active moiety tedizolid. Its indication is acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections caused by gram-positive species, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Although tedizolid phosphate has been marketed in Korea, no data on the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties or tolerability of tedizolid phosphate in Korean subjects are available. This study was designed to evaluate the PK properties, oral bioavailability, and tolerability with a single-dose oral and intravenous administration of tedizolid phosphate in healthy Korean male subjects. A block-randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose study was conducted in 3 groups (200, 400, and 600 mg; 10 subjects in each group). In the second part of the study, subjects from the 200-mg group received administration orally and intravenously (1-hour infusion) via 2-way crossover for the evaluation of absolute bioavailability. There was a 7-day washout period between treatments in the absolute bioavailability part of the study. Serial blood samples for PK analysis were collected for up to 72 hours. Tolerability was assessed by analysis of adverse events. Thirty healthy Korean subjects completed the study and were included in the PK and tolerability analyses. Tedizolid phosphate was rapidly converted into tedizolid. After a single oral dose, the T max of tedizolid was observed to be 1.5 to 2.5 hours, and the plasma concentration-time curve of tedizolid showed a 2-phase elimination pattern, with a half-life of ~11 hours. Dose-dependent increases were observed in the AUC last value (29,441-78,062 μg · h/L) and in the C max value ( 2679-6980 μg/L) with the administration of tedizolid phosphate 200 to 600 mg PO. The absolute bioavailability of tedizolid was 95.2% (90% CI, 92.7%-97.8%) in the 200-mg administration group. There were no serious adverse events or clinically significant changes in the

  8. Administration of single-dose GnRH agonist in the luteal phase in ICSI cycles: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira João

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a administered in the luteal phase remains controversial. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effect of the administration of a single-dose of GnRH-a in the luteal phase on ICSI clinical outcomes. Methods The research strategy included the online search of databases. Only randomized studies were included. The outcomes analyzed were implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate (CPR per transfer and ongoing pregnancy rate. The fixed effects model was used for odds ratio. In all trials, a single dose of GnRH-a was administered at day 5/6 after ICSI procedures. Results All cycles presented statistically significantly higher rates of implantation (P Conclusions These findings demonstrate that the luteal-phase single-dose GnRH-a administration can increase implantation rate in all cycles and CPR per transfer and ongoing pregnancy rate in cycles with GnRH antagonist ovarian stimulation protocol. Nevertheless, by considering the heterogeneity between the trials, it seems premature to recommend the use of GnRH-a in the luteal phase. Additional randomized controlled trials are necessary before evidence-based recommendations can be provided.

  9. Pharmacokinetics and egg residues after oral administration of a single dose of meloxicam in domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J; Bergman, Joan B; White, Molly S; Gordon, Kristen I; Gerhardt, Lillian E; Cox, Sherry K

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in domestic hens and duration and quantity of drug residues in their eggs following PO administration of a single dose (1 mg of meloxicam/kg). ANIMALS 8 healthy adult White Leghorn hens. PROCEDURES Hens were administered 1 mg of meloxicam/kg PO once. A blood sample was collected immediately before and at intervals up to 48 hours after drug administration. The hens' eggs were collected for 3 weeks after drug administration. Samples of the hens' plasma, egg whites (albumen), and egg yolks were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS The half-life, maximum concentration, and time to maximum concentration of meloxicam in plasma samples were 2.8 hours, 7.21 μg/mL, and 2 hours, respectively. Following meloxicam administration, the drug was not detected after 4 days in egg whites and after 8 days in egg yolks. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that meloxicam administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg PO in chickens appears to maintain plasma concentrations equivalent to those reported to be therapeutic for humans for 12 hours. The egg residue data may be used to aid establishment of appropriate drug withdrawal time recommendations.

  10. Predictors of rapid HIV testing acceptance and successful nevirapine administration in Zambian labor wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megazzini, Karen M; Chintu, Namwinga; Vermund, Sten H; Redden, David T; Krebs, Daniel W; Simwenda, Maureen; Tambatamba, Bushimbwa; Sinkala, Moses; Stringer, Jeffrey S A

    2009-10-01

    Provision of HIV testing in labor provides an opportunity to reach susceptible women and infants. As part of a cluster randomized trial of labor ward-based prevention of mother-to-child transmission services in Lusaka, Zambia, we determined predictors of testing acceptance and nevirapine (NVP) administration in labor. HIV counseling and testing were offered to women unaware of their HIV status. NVP was administered to women who tested positive, and an inert (calcium) tablet was provided to women who tested negative, to avoid stigmatization. Among the 2435 women who presented in labor, 393 (16%) were unaware of their HIV status, of whom 278 (71%) met eligibility criteria. We offered counseling to 217 (78%) of eligible women: 146 (67%) agreed, 82 (56%) of those counseled were tested for HIV, and 23 (28%) were seropositive. Testing rates were higher among primigravida women [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1 to 2.1] and among those not offered HIV testing during their pregnancy (AOR 3.7; 95% CI: 2.8 to 5.1). Cervical dilation 1 hour (AOR 11.5; 95% CI: 4.5 to 29.2) and >2 hours (AOR 11.4; 95% CI: 4.7 to 27.5) before delivery. Labor ward HIV testing is feasible in this resource-limited setting.

  11. Single-dose ethanol administration activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis: exploration of the mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, A B; Mefford, I N; Eskay, R L

    1989-10-01

    Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) by single-dose ethanol administration, which achieved moderately high blood ethanol levels, was explored in naive rats in order to determine the mechanism of ethanol's activation of the stress axis. Adult male rats received a single dose (3.2 g/kg body weight-1 of a 12% solution of ethanol in physiological saline. The plasma concentration of immunoreactive (ir) adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), beta-endorphin (BE) and corticosterone (CS) was determined by radioimmunoassay, whereas, plasma concentrations of epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) were quantified following reverse-phase liquid chromatographic separation and amperometric detection. Ethanol induced maximal plasma ACTH levels within minutes, which declined toward basal levels by 60 min, whereas, plasma concentration of CS rose rapidly and remained elevated at 60 min. Plasma ACTH and CS levels in saline-treated control animals did not vary significantly at any time point. Consistent with co-release of ACTH from corticotrophs, the plasma concentration of ir-BE increased 5-fold at 15 min and declined towards basal levels at 60 min after-ethanol challenge. Plasma E increased 10- to 20-fold as compared to saline controls or preinjection levels and returned to preinjection levels by 90 min, in a manner similar to ethanol-induced changes in proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides and CS. Removal of the adrenal medulla and thus the source of E prior to ethanol administration, did not attenuate activation of the HPAA. Passive immunoneutralization of arginine vasopressin (AVP), using a high-titer AVP antiserum and a protocol which was found to block ether-induced ACTH secretion by 40% in adult male rats, failed to even partially block ethanol-induced ACTH or CS secretion. The results of this study indicate that neither adrenal medulla-derived E nor AVP are significant regulators or coregulators of corticotroph secretions following a moderately high

  12. Absorbed dose estimates from a single measurement one to three days after the administration of 177Lu-DOTATATE/-TOC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänscheid, Heribert; Lapa, Constantin; Buck, Andreas K; Lassmann, Michael; Werner, Rudolf A

    2017-01-01

    To retrospectively analyze the accuracy of absorbed dose estimates from a single measurement of the activity concentrations in tumors and relevant organs one to three days after the administration of 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE/TOC assuming tissue specific effective half-lives. Activity kinetics in 54 kidneys, 30 neuroendocrine tumor lesions, 25 livers, and 27 spleens were deduced from series of planar images in 29 patients. After adaptation of mono- or bi-exponential fit functions to the measured data, it was analyzed for each fit function how precise the time integral can be estimated from fixed tissue-specific half-lives and a single measurement at 24, 48, or 72 h after the administration. For the kidneys, assuming a fixed tissue-specific half-life of 50 h, the deviations of the estimate from the actual integral were median (5 % percentile, 95 % percentile): -3 °% (-15 %>; +16 °%) for measurements after 24 h, +2 %> (-9 %>; +12 %>) for measurements after 48 h, and 0 % (-2 %; +12 %) for measurements after 72 h. The corresponding values for the other tissues, assuming fixed tissue-specific half-lives of 67 h for liver and spleen and 77 h for tumors, were +2 % (-25 %; +20 %) for measurements after 24 h, +2 °% (-16 %>; +17 %>) for measurements after 48 h, and +2 %> (-11 %>; +10 %>) for measurements after 72 h. Especially for the kidneys, which often represent the dose limiting organ, but also for liver, spleen, and neuroendocrine tumors, a meaningful absorbed dose estimate is possible from a single measurement after 2, more preferably 3 days after the administration of 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE/-TOC assuming fixed tissue specific effective half-lives. Schattauer GmbH.

  13. Pulsed laser simulation of VLSI single-event effect testing study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Yuxiong; Cao Zhou Yang Shiyu; Tian Kai; Liu Shufen; Chu Nan; Cao Haining; Shang Zhi

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a study aimed at investigating the pulsed laser simulation of Single-Event Effect (SEE) testing for VLSI Intel386EX CPU, using our laboratory LSS (laser simulation system). We have detailed SEE testing principle, testing method, testing system constituting, testing result. It validates that our laser pulses simulate may use SEE testing in VLSI, and Intel 386Ex have a large locking resistance to single event. (authors)

  14. Pre test parametric studies on single compartment vented enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Pavan K.; Gera, B.; Singh, R.K.; Vaze, K.K.

    2011-01-01

    Establishing a proper design fire scenario is a challenging task and essential component for conducting fire safety design of buildings. A design fire scenario is a qualitative description of a fire with time identifying key events that characterize the fire (ignition, growth, flashover, fully-developed, and decay stages of fire). Proper fire safety design requires the appropriate selection of design fires against which the performance of the building is evaluated. The selection of the design fires directly impacts all aspects of fire safety performance, including the structural fire resistance, compartmentation against fire spread, egress systems, manual or automatic detection systems, suppression systems, and smoke control. The parameters affecting design fires include, the type, amount and arrangement of combustible materials, the ventilation conditions (air supply conditions, door/window open), and size of the compartment of fire origin. A design fire is a quantitative description of the characteristics of a fire, such as heat release rate (HRR), size of fire and its rate of spread, yield of products of combustion, and hot gas temperatures. Design fires are based on fire scenarios that replicate real fires. Six Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) numerical simulations were conducted in order to investigate the effect of fire load on fire dynamics in a) iso corner fire configuration b) IIT Delhi single compartment of a size of 5.0 m long, 5.0 m wide and 5.0 m high with doorway opening of 1m x 3m with centre fire of size 0.5 m x 0.5m. These types of simulation are carried out for deciding about the instrumentation scheme, safety aspect, and optimization of proposed experiments for National Fire Test Facility as pretest calculations. The simulations results are summarized in various identified applied parameter which are useful in terms of understanding the complex fire dynamics, validating the numerical tolls against experiments and using them (in form of values

  15. Single event effect testing of the Intel 80386 family and the 80486 microprocessor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, A.; LaBel, K.; Gates, M.; Seidleck, C.; McGraw, R.; Broida, M.; Firer, J.; Sprehn, S.

    1996-01-01

    The authors present single event effect test results for the Intel 80386 microprocessor, the 80387 coprocessor, the 82380 peripheral device, and on the 80486 microprocessor. Both single event upset and latchup conditions were monitored

  16. Influence of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin following intravenous and oral administration of a 400 mg single dose to healthy males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stass, H; Kubitza, D; Möller, J-G; Delesen, H

    2005-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the extent to which enterohepatic recycling circulation contributes to moxifloxacin bioavailability in healthy, males by administration of activated charcoal and to evaluate the efficacy of activated charcoal administration in decreasing systemic concentrations of moxifloxacin in the event of overdose. Methods Nine healthy males, mean age 34 years (range 23–45 years) participated in a single centre, randomized, nonplacebo-controlled, three way crossover study. The pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin in plasma and urine were determined for up to 96 h following a 400 mg single dose randomly administered on three separate occasions with a minimum washout phase of 1 week. Treatment A was 400 mg moxifloxacin IV as a 1 h infusion, treatment B was 400 mg moxifloxacin IV as a 1 h infusion with oral activated charcoal (5 g directly before the start of the infusion, 5 g immediately after the end of the infusion, and 10 g at 2, 4 and 8 h after the start of the infusion), treatment C was 400 mg oral moxifloxacin with activated charcoal (10 g 15 min before and at 2, 4 and 8 h after drug administration). The subjects underwent a series of clinical and laboratory tests. Results Single 400 mg doses of moxifloxacin (PO and/or IV) were safe and well tolerated. The bioavailability of moxifloxacin was significantly decreased when given with charcoal (AUC = 35.5 (IV reference) vs 5.40 (PO) vs 28.5 (IV) mg l−1 h). Concurrently peak concentrations were lowered Cmax = 3.38 (IV reference) vs 0.62(PO) vs 2.97 (IV) mg l−1) by approximately 85% (P activated charcoal may be useful in treating moxifloxacin overdose by preventing its absorption. PMID:15842551

  17. Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Tedizolid after Single and Multiple Intravenous/Oral Sequential Administrations in Healthy Chinese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Shen, Kai; Chang, Xinying; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Li, Li; Hu, Pei

    2016-08-01

    Tedizolid phosphate is a new antibacterial agent under investigation for the treatment of Gram-positive infections in China. This study was conducted to assess the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties, oral bioavailability, and safety of once daily tedizolid phosphate 200 mg in Chinese subjects to support its further clinical development in China. This Phase I single-center study, conducted in 16 healthy Chinese male subjects, consisted of a single-dose administration, 1:1 randomized, two-way, intravenous (IV)/oral (PO) crossover of tedizolid phosphate 200 mg (Part 1) and, after a 7-day washout, a nonrandomized, multiple-dose, 7-day tedizolid phosphate 200 mg once daily administration (IV for 3 days, PO for 4 days; Part 2). Blood samples were collected for up to 72 hours after single dosing and for up to 2 hours on Day 3 and 72 hours on Day 7 of multiple dosing to determine PK parameters. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded throughout the entire study. The Cmax and AUC of tedizolid (the active moiety of tedizolid phosphate) were 3.02 µg/mL and 30.50 µg • h/mL after single IV dosing of tedizolid phosphate, and 2.25 µg/mL and 26.10 µg • h/mL after single PO dosing, respectively, and the mean half-life was 10.1 hours for both administration routes. The oral bioavailability of tedizolid was 85.5%. PK parameters of tedizolid were similar after single and multiple dosing of tedizolid phosphate, indicating no time dependency. Only minor accumulation of tedizolid was observed after multiple dosing (expressed as accumulation ratios RAAUC: 1.18 for PO dosing, and RACmax: 1.16 and 1.05 for IV and PO dosing, respectively). Steady state of tedizolid was reached after about 3 days, and trough concentrations remained constant when switching from IV to PO dosing. Tedizolid phosphate was well tolerated with 6 subjects (37.5%) in Part 1 and 5 subjects (31.3%) in Part 2 experiencing an AE; all AEs but one were related to the study drug assessed by the investigator. All AEs were of

  18. Order of Administration of Math and Verbal Tests: An Ecological Intervention to Reduce Stereotype Threat on Girls' Math Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeding, Annique; Dumas, Florence; Loose, Florence; Régner, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    In 2 field experiments, we relied on the very features of real testing situations--where both math and verbal tests are administered--to examine whether order of test administration can, by itself, create vs. alleviate stereotype threat (ST) effects on girls' math performance. We predicted that taking the math test before the verbal test would be…

  19. [Anaphylaxis needing adrenaline administration during anesthesia: a 7-year single-institution study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayashima, Kenji; Sozen, Reiko

    2013-10-01

    Adrenaline is the key treatment for acute anaphylaxis; however, it is difficult to use it appropriately in terms of dosage and timing. If used incorrectly, adrenaline can cause cardiac infarction, stroke, recurrence and other problems. We collected data of suspected anaphylaxis from records in our anesthesia department between April 2005 and March 2012. All cases where the skin of patients turned red and blood pressure decreased continuously were included. We analyzed the usage of adrenaline in these cases. Six (0.034%) suspected anaphylaxis cases were analyzed from a total of 27,597 anesthesia cases. Adrenaline was administered subcutaneously in 2 cases, intravenously in 3 cases, and with and infused in 1 case. In the 4 cases with intravenous administration, the median dose was 0.52 (range : 0.02-1.6) mg. Following decreased and unstable blood pressure, adrenaline was initiated after a median of 12.5 (5-25) min, and blood pressure returned to normal after 20 (5-95) min. Patients were extubated 19 (4-24) hours after observation of anomalous blood pressure. No aftereffects or recurrences were observed. Adrenaline was administered appropriately in terms of dosage, but timing should have been earlies in 3 of 6 cases.

  20. Design and analysis of the federal aviation administration next generation fire test burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Robert Ian

    The United States Federal Aviation Administration makes use of threat-based fire test methods for the certification of aircraft cabin materials to enhance the level of safety in the event of an in-flight or post-crash fire on a transport airplane. The global nature of the aviation industry results in these test methods being performed at hundreds of laboratories around the world; in some cases testing identical materials at multiple labs but yielding different results. Maintenance of this standard for an elevated level of safety requires that the test methods be as well defined as possible, necessitating a comprehensive understanding of critical test method parameters. The tests have evolved from simple Bunsen burner material tests to larger, more complicated apparatuses, requiring greater understanding of the device for proper application. The FAA specifies a modified home heating oil burner to simulate the effects of large, intense fires for testing of aircraft seat cushions, cargo compartment liners, power plant components, and thermal acoustic insulation. Recently, the FAA has developed a Next Generation (NexGen) Fire Test burner to replace the original oil burner that has become commercially unavailable. The NexGen burner design is based on the original oil burner but with more precise control of the air and fuel flow rates with the addition of a sonic nozzle and a pressurized fuel system. Knowledge of the fundamental flow properties created by various burner configurations is desired to develop an updated and standardized burner configuration for use around the world for aircraft materials fire testing and airplane certification. To that end, the NexGen fire test burner was analyzed with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to resolve the non-reacting exit flow field and determine the influence of the configuration of burner components. The correlation between the measured flow fields and the standard burner performance metrics of flame temperature and

  1. Numerical test for single concrete armour layer on breakwaters

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasaki, E; Latham, J-P; Xiang, J

    2016-01-01

    The ability of concrete armour units for breakwaters to interlock and form an integral single layer is important for withstanding severe wave conditions. In reality, displacements take place under wave loading, whether they are small and insignificant or large and representing serious structural damage. In this work, a code that combines finite- and discrete-element methods which can simulate motion and interaction among units was used to conduct a numerical investigation. Various concrete ar...

  2. Fabrication and test of Superconducting Single Photon Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leoni, R.; Mattioli, F.; Castellano, M.G.; Cibella, S.; Carelli, P.; Pagano, S.; Perez de Lara, D.; Ejrnaes, M.; Lisitskyi, M.P.; Esposito, E.; Cristiano, R.; Nappi, C.

    2006-01-01

    We report here on the state of our fabrication process for Superconducting Single Photon Detectors (SSPDs). We have fabricated submicrometer SSPD structures by electron beam lithography using very thin (10 nm) NbN films deposited by DC-magnetron sputtering on different substrates and at room substrate temperature. The structures show a fast optical response (risetime <500 ps limited by readout electronics) and interesting self-resetting features

  3. Effect of Single Administration of Coffee on Pupil Size and Ocular Wavefront Aberration Measurements in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Bardak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available No study has so far evaluated the impact of coffee drinking on ocular wavefront aberration (OWA measurements. This study presents novel findings regarding the OWA of the eye following coffee intake. We aimed to evaluate the acute changes in pupil size and OWA of the eye after single administration of coffee. A total of 30 otherwise healthy participants were included in this prospective study. All subjects drank a cup of coffee containing 57 mg caffeine. Measurements of pupil size, total coma (TC, total trefoil (TF, total spherical aberration (TSA, and total higher order aberration (HOA were performed before and at 5 minutes, at 30 minutes, and at 4 hours after coffee drinking using a wavefront aberrometer device (Irx3, Imagine Eyes, Orsay, France. The mean age of the study population was 20.30 ± 2.74 years. Pupil size did not show a significant change during the measurements (p>0.05. A significant increase was observed in TF and HOA measurements following coffee intake (p=0.029 and p=0.009, resp.. Single administration of coffee results in significant increase in TF and total HOAs in healthy subjects without any effect on pupil diameter. Ultrastructural changes in the cornea following coffee intake might be of relevance to the alterations in ocular aberrations in healthy subjects.

  4. Effect of Single Administration of Coffee on Pupil Size and Ocular Wavefront Aberration Measurements in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardak, Handan; Gunay, Murat; Mumcu, Ugur; Bardak, Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    No study has so far evaluated the impact of coffee drinking on ocular wavefront aberration (OWA) measurements. This study presents novel findings regarding the OWA of the eye following coffee intake. We aimed to evaluate the acute changes in pupil size and OWA of the eye after single administration of coffee. A total of 30 otherwise healthy participants were included in this prospective study. All subjects drank a cup of coffee containing 57 mg caffeine. Measurements of pupil size, total coma (TC), total trefoil (TF), total spherical aberration (TSA), and total higher order aberration (HOA) were performed before and at 5 minutes, at 30 minutes, and at 4 hours after coffee drinking using a wavefront aberrometer device (Irx3, Imagine Eyes, Orsay, France). The mean age of the study population was 20.30 ± 2.74 years. Pupil size did not show a significant change during the measurements (p > 0.05). A significant increase was observed in TF and HOA measurements following coffee intake (p = 0.029 and p = 0.009, resp.). Single administration of coffee results in significant increase in TF and total HOAs in healthy subjects without any effect on pupil diameter. Ultrastructural changes in the cornea following coffee intake might be of relevance to the alterations in ocular aberrations in healthy subjects.

  5. The delayed lung responses to single and repeated intratracheal administration of pure cobalt and hard metal powder in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasfargues, G; Lardot, C; Delos, M; Lauwerys, R; Lison, D

    1995-05-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that inhalation of cobalt metal dust (Co) mixed with tungsten carbide particles (WC), but not of cobalt dust alone, may cause interstitial pulmonary lesions (hard metal disease). In previous experimental studies in the rat, we have demonstrated the greater acute pulmonary toxicity of a WC-Co mixture compared to Co or WC alone. The present study was undertaken to compare in the same animal model the delayed lung response after intratracheal administration of Co or WC-Co particles (cobalt particle 6.3 wt%). The responses were also compared with those obtained after treatment with arsenic trioxide and crystalline silica used a reference materials producing an acute toxic insult and a progressive fibrogenic response, respectively. Cellular (total and differential counts) and biochemical parameters (LDH, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, total protein, albumin, fibronectin, and hyaluronic acid) were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid following single and repeated intratracheal instillations. The results indicate that the delayed lung response observed after WC-Co is different from that after cobalt metal alone. A single intratracheal dose of WC-Co (1, 5, or 10 mg/100 g body wt) induced an acute alveolitis which persisted for at least 1 month. Four months after a single instillation of WC-Co, no clear histological lung fibrosis could however be evidenced, indicating a reversibility of the lesions. The effects of cobalt (0.06, 0.3, or 0.6 mg/100 g body wt) or tungsten carbide alone (1, 5, 10 mg/ 100 g body wt) were very modest, if any. Following repeated intratracheal instillations (four administrations at 1-month interval), increased lung hydroxyproline content and histopathological evidence of interstitial fibrosis were observed after WC-Co (4 x 1 mg/100 g body wt), but not after administration of each component separately, i.e., Co (4 x 0.06 mg/100 g body wt) or WC (4 x 1 mg/100 g body wt). The mechanism of the fibrotic

  6. Acute administration of single oral dose of grape seed polyphenols restores blood pressure in a rat model of metabolic syndrome: role of nitric oxide and prostacyclin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Zara; Margalef, Maria; Bravo, Francisca I; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Muguerza, Begoña

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the antihypertensive effectiveness of different doses of grape seed polyphenols in cafeteria diet-fed hypertensive rats (CHRs) and to establish the mechanism involved in the blood pressure (BP) lowering effect of these compounds in this experimental model of metabolic syndrome (MS). Male 8-week-old Wistar rats were fed cafeteria or standard (ST) diet for 10 weeks. After this, the antihypertensive effect of a single oral administration of a polyphenol grape seed extract (GSPE) was tested at different doses (250, 375 and 500 mg/kg) in CHRs. BP was recorded before and 2, 4, 6, 8, 24 and 48 h post-administration. The hypotensive effect of GSPE was also proved in ST diet-fed rats. Additionally, in other experiment, CHRs were orally administered 375 mg/kg GSPE. Four hours post-administration, the rats were intraperitoneally administrated 30 mg/kg NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or 5 mg/kg indomethacin [inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin synthesis, respectively]. BP was recorded initially and 6 h post-administration. GSPE produced a decrease in SBP and DBP, the most effective dose (375 mg/kg) showing an antihypertensive effect in CHRs similar to the drug captopril, and did not affect BP of ST diet-fed rats. The antihypertensive effect was completely abolished by L-NAME and partially inhibited by indomethacin. GSPE acts as an antihypertensive agent in a rat model of hypertension associated with MS. The change in endothelium-derived NO availability is one of the mechanisms involved in the antihypertensive effect of GSPE in CHRs. Additionally, endothelial prostacyclin contributes to the effect of GSPE on arterial BP.

  7. Therapeutic response to single intravenous bolus administration of formate dehydrogenase in methanol-intoxicated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuvel, Arumugham; Rajamani, Rathinam; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy

    2006-02-20

    Methanol remains to be a major public and environmental health hazard. Formic acid is the toxic metabolite responsible for the metabolic acidosis observed in methanol poisoning in humans, in non-human primates and in folate-depleted rodents. Cytochrome oxidase inhibition by formate leads to lactic acid accumulation, which contributes significantly to metabolic acidosis. Toxic effects in human beings are characterized by formic acidemia, metabolic acidosis, ocular toxicity, nervous system depression, blindness, coma and death. Elimination of formate is one of the principles of management in methanol poisoning. Hemodialysis facility is not readily available in all the places, in developing countries like India. Formate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.2) acts directly over formate and converts formate into CO(2) in the presence of NAD. Effect of single intravenous bolus infusion of formate dehydrogenase, obtained from Candida boidinii; in methanol-intoxicated folate deficient rat model was evaluated. Folate depletion induced by methotrexate (MTX) treatment. Carbicarb (Carb) (equimolar solution of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate) was used to treat metabolic acidosis. Experimental design consists of seven groups, namely Saline control, methanol control, MTX control, Enzyme control, MTX-methanol control, MTX-methanol-Carb and MTX-methanol-Carb-Enz group. Male wistar rats treated with MTX (0.3mg/kg) for a week, were injected (i.p.) with methanol (4 gm/kg), 12h latter, Carbicarb solution was infused, following this enzyme was infused (i.v.) in bolus. Blood samples were collected every 15 min for an hour from the cannulated left jugular vein and blood methanol, formate were estimated, respectively, with HPLC and fluorimetric assay. Blood pH, blood gases pO(2), pCO(2) and bicarbonate were monitored with blood gas analyzer in order to evaluate acid base status of the animal. Results obtained show that there is significant elimination of formate within 15 min. It may be

  8. Meloxicam pharmacokinetics using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling in ferrets after single subcutaneous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnadurai, S K; Messenger, K M; Papich, M G; Harms, C A

    2014-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of meloxicam, an oxicam class, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), in ferrets. We determined the pharmacokinetic properties of a single subcutaneous dose of meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg) in nine male and nine female ferrets. Blood samples were collected by venipuncture of the cranial vena cava into heparinized syringes. Plasma meloxicam concentrations were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Pharmacokinetic variables were calculated using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling to take advantage of the population-based sampling scheme and to minimize sample volume collected per animal. Maximum plasma concentration, volume of distribution per absorption, and elimination half-life were 0.663 μg/mL, 0.21 L, and 11.4 h, respectively, for females and 0.920 μg/mL, 0.35 L, and 17.8 h, respectively, for males. Significant differences were found in each of the above parameters between male and female ferrets. Systemic clearance per absorption was not affected by gender and was 13.4 mL/h. Analgesic efficacy was not evaluated, but plasma meloxicam concentrations achieved in these animals are considered effective in other species. Sex differences in the pharmacokinetic behavior of meloxicam should be taken into consideration when treating ferrets. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Topiramate modulates trigeminal pain processing in thalamo-cortical networks in humans after single dose administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebestreit, Julia M; May, Arne

    2017-01-01

    Migraine is the sixth most common cause of disability in the world. Preventive migraine treatment is used to reduce frequency, severity and duration of attacks and therefore lightens the burden on the patients' quality of life and reduces disability. Topiramate is one of the preventive migraine treatments of proven efficacy. The mechanism of action underlying the preventive effect of topiramate in migraine remains largely unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we examined the central effects of a single dose of topiramate (100mg) on trigeminal pain in humans, compared to placebo (mannitol). In this prospective, within subject, randomized, placebo-controlled and double-blind study, 23 healthy participants received a standardized nociceptive trigeminal stimulation and control stimuli whilst being in the scanner. No differences in the subjective intensity ratings of the painful stimuli were observed between topiramate and placebo sessions. In contrast, topiramate significantly decreased the activity in the thalamus and other pain processing areas. Additionally, topiramate increased functional coupling between the thalamus and several brain regions such as the bilateral precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex and secondary somatosensory cortex. These data suggest that topiramate exhibits modulating effects on nociceptive processing in thalamo-cortical networks during trigeminal pain and that the preventive effect of topiramate on frequent migraine is probably mediated by an effect on thalamo-cortical networks.

  10. Central implementation strategies outperform local ones in improving HIV testing in Veterans Healthcare Administration facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Hoang, Tuyen; Knapp, Herschel; Burgess, Jane; Fletcher, Michael D; Gifford, Allen L; Asch, Steven M

    2013-10-01

    Pilot data suggest that a multifaceted approach may increase HIV testing rates, but the scalability of this approach and the level of support needed for successful implementation remain unknown. To evaluate the effectiveness of a scaled-up multi-component intervention in increasing the rate of risk-based and routine HIV diagnostic testing in primary care clinics and the impact of differing levels of program support. Three arm, quasi-experimental implementation research study. Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facilities. Persons receiving primary care between June 2009 and September 2011 INTERVENTION: A multimodal program, including a real-time electronic clinical reminder to facilitate HIV testing, provider feedback reports and provider education, was implemented in Central and Local Arm Sites; sites in the Central Arm also received ongoing programmatic support. Control Arm sites had no intervention Frequency of performing HIV testing during the 6 months before and after implementation of a risk-based clinical reminder (phase I) or routine clinical reminder (phase II). The adjusted rate of risk-based testing increased by 0.4 %, 5.6 % and 10.1 % in the Control, Local and Central Arms, respectively (all comparisons, p marketing significantly increased the frequency at which HIV testing is offered and performed in VHA facilities. These findings support a multimodal approach toward achieving the goal of having every American know their HIV status as a matter of routine clinical practice.

  11. Testing single point incremental forming molds for thermoforming operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Daniel; de Sousa, Ricardo Alves; Torcato, Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    Low pressure polymer processing processes as thermoforming or rotational molding use much simpler molds then high pressure processes like injection. However, despite the low forces involved with the process, molds manufacturing for this operations is still a very material, energy and time consuming operation. The goal of the research is to develop and validate a method for manufacturing plastically formed sheets metal molds by single point incremental forming (SPIF) operation for thermoforming operation. Stewart platform based SPIF machines allow the forming of thick metal sheets, granting the required structural stiffness for the mold surface, and keeping the short lead time manufacture and low thermal inertia.

  12. Single dose antidepressant administration modulates the neural processing of self-referent personality trait words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla; Papadatou-Pastou, Marietta; Cowen, Philip J

    2007-01-01

    categorisation and recognition of self-referent personality trait words were assessed using event-related functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Reboxetine had no effect on neuronal response during self-referent categorisation of positive or negative personality trait words. However, in a subsequent...... memory test, reboxetine reduced neuronal activation in a fronto-parietal network during correct recognition of positive target words vs. matched distractors. This was combined with increased speed to recognize positive vs. negative words compared to control subjects and suggests facilitated memory...... for positive self-referent material. These results support the hypothesis that antidepressants have early effects on the neural processing of emotional material which may be important in their therapeutic actions....

  13. Administration of follitropin alfa and lutropin alfa combined in a single injection: a feasibility assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostinetto Rita

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonadotrophins are routinely administered in assisted reproductive technology (ART treatment protocols. Recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (r-hFSH; follitropin alfa and recombinant human luteinizing hormone (r-hLH; lutropin alfa can be administered individually or in a fixed combination. The ability to vary the FSH to LH dose ratio in a single injection without compromising the bioactivity of either gonadotrophin or generating losses of active principle is important for physicians and patients alike. Methods This study investigated whether follitropin alfa (GONAL-f (R, as lyophilized powder for reconstitution or solution from the GONAL-f (R (filled-by-mass [FbM] Prefilled Pen, could be used to reconstitute Pergoveris TM (follitropin alfa/lutropin alfa 150 IU/75 IU lyophilized powder. In Ratio Groups 1 and 2, the r-hFSH:r-hLH ratio was 3:1; in Ratio Groups 3 and 4, the ratios of r-hFSH:r-hLH were 5:1 and 8:1, respectively. The protein content and bioactivity of each mixed solution were evaluated. The r-hFSH and r-hLH content was determined using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The biological activity of r-hFSH and r-hLH was assessed using the Steelman-Pohley and Van Hell in vivo bioassays in rats, respectively. Results Follitropin alfa/lutropin alfa 150 IU/75 IU lyophilized powder could be successfully mixed with follitropin alfa 75 IU FbM solution that was either reconstituted from lyophilized powder or injected directly from the prefilled pen to create solutions with ratios of r-hFSH and r-hLH from 3:1 to 8:1. The measured content of r-hFSH and r-hLH corresponded favourably with the target protein content in Ratio Groups 1–4. The in vivo target and measured bioactivity of r-hFSH and r-hLH were also closely matched in all Ratio Groups. Conclusion Follitropin alfa lyophilized powder or solution can be accurately mixed with follitropin alfa/lutropin alfa 150 IU/75 IU lyophilized powder to

  14. Testing for one Generalized Linear Single Order Parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Niels Langager; Christensen, Tage Emil; Dyre, Jeppe

    work the order parameter may be chosen to have a non-exponential relaxation. The model predictions contradict the general consensus of the properties of viscous liquids in two ways: (i) The model predicts that following a linear isobaric temperature step, the normalized volume and entalpy relaxation......We examine a linear single order parameter model for thermoviscoelastic relaxation in viscous liquids, allowing for a distribution of relaxation times. In this model the relaxation of volume and entalpy is completely described by the relaxation of one internal order parameter. In contrast to prior...... functions are identical. This assumption conflicts with some (but not all) reports, utilizing the Tool-Narayanaswamy formalism to extrapolate from non-linear measurements to the linear regime. (ii) The model predicts that the theoretical "linear Prigogine-Defay" ratio is one. This ratio has never been...

  15. Detectability of single and plural flaws by ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, K.

    1985-01-01

    An outline and up-to-date test results of an eight year project of proving tests on the effectiveness of in-service inspection is described in the first part of the present paper. Effects on the detectability of such testing parameters as refraction angle, thickness of stainless steel cladding, inspectors, standard flaws in reference specimens, stress state subjected to defects are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of detection reproducibility, resolution and accuracy of inspected size of a defects. The latter part of the paper deals with up-to-date results of tests on resolution and shape determination of propagating adjacent and co-linear fatigue cracks by ultrasonic examination. It was found that real lengths of fatigue crack and EDM surface notch will be roughly estimated by 12 dB and 8 dB down methods, respectively. It is also concluded that the 10 dB down method is available for estimation of the inside distance of two co-linear surface cracks

  16. Dynamic tensile test of single PET textile cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasco F.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The tyres conception involves for certain applications, the use of textile cables as reinforcement. During its use, the tyre undergoes temperatures variations and dynamic loading rates. The consideration of these conditions during the numeric simulations requires the knowledge of the sensitivity of the mechanical behaviour to loading rate and temperature. In this paper, we developed an experimental methodology for testing textile cable up to high strain rate. The main difficulty of testing cables is the optimization of cable fixing on the machine. For that purpose, we adapted the solution of fixing by progressive binding already used in quasi-static, while taking into account constraints inherent to high strain tests. Firstly, the mass of grips was decreased in order to get force signal less sensitive to grips inertia. The method was developed on a high speed hydraulic machine equipped with a thermal enclosure. The investigated temperatures and strain rates range from room temperature to 373 ∘K (100 ∘C and from 0,01 to 100/s, respectively. In addition, the hydraulic machine was equipped with a high speed video camera. The obtained images were analysed by a tracking technique to measure the average strain in the cable (from 50 to 20000 f/s.

  17. Injection molded nanofluidic chips: Fabrication method and functional tests using single-molecule DNA experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utko, Pawel; Persson, Karl Fredrik; Kristensen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that fabrication of nanofluidic systems can be greatly simplified by injection molding of polymers. We functionally test our devices by single-molecule DNA experiments in nanochannels.......We demonstrate that fabrication of nanofluidic systems can be greatly simplified by injection molding of polymers. We functionally test our devices by single-molecule DNA experiments in nanochannels....

  18. Administration of neuropsychological tests using interactive voice response technology in the elderly: validation and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delyana Ivanova Miller

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Interactive voice response systems (IVR are computer programs, which interact with people to provide a number of services from business to health care. We examined the ability of an IVR system to administer and score a verbal fluency task (fruits and the digit span forward and backward in 158 community dwelling people aged between 65 and 92 years of age (full scale IQ of 68 to 134. Only 6 participants could not complete all tasks mostly due to early technical problems in the study. Participants were also administered the WAIS-IV and WMS-IV sub-tests. The IVR system correctly recognized 90% of the fruits in the verbal fluency task and 93-95% of the number sequences in the digit span. The IVR system typically underestimated the performance of participants because of voice recognition errors. In the digit span, these errors led to the erroneous discontinuation of the test: however the correlation between IVR scoring and clinical scoring was still high (93-95%. The correlation between the IVR verbal fluency and the WAIS-IV Similarities sub-test was 0.31. The correlation between the IVR digit span forward and backward and the in-person administration was 0.46. We discuss how valid and useful IVR systems are for neuropsychological testing in the elderly.

  19. Hand dexterity in children: administration and normative values of the functional dexterity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogola, Gloria R; Velleman, Paul F; Xu, Shuai; Morse, Adrianne M; Lacy, Barbara; Aaron, Dorit

    2013-12-01

    To document normative values from the Functional Dexterity Test (FTD) for typically developing children and to optimize test administration and interpretation. A total of 175 typically developing children aged 3 to 17 years participated in the study. Children completed the 16-peg FDT with both hands, and elapsed time was recorded in seconds. Data were analyzed as 16/time, interpreted as speed (pegs per second). A linear regression analysis predicted speed from age and hand dominance. Functional Dexterity Test speed increased linearly in typically developing children by 0.04 pegs/s for each year of age. This rate of increase was the same for dominant and nondominant hands. Dominant hands were faster than nondominant hands by 0.09 pegs/s at all ages. There was no sex difference. This study provides age-specific normative values for functional dexterity in typically developing children in 2 formats: as a growth chart of FDT speed versus age and as a regression model that calculates expected speed given a child's age and tested hand dominance. Recommended pediatric modifications to the FDT are to use speed (pegs per second) instead of time (seconds) to report results, and to not assess penalties. The norms presented allow clinicians to compare both speed and rate of change over time of pediatric patients with typically developing children, which makes it possible to distinguish developmental change from intervention. Diagnostic III. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effect of Nicotine Administration on Physical and Psychological Signs of Withdrawal Syndrome Induced by Single or Frequent Doses of Morphine in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Allahtavakoli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Morphine addiction and morphine withdrawal syndrome are the two main problems of today’s human society. The present study has investigated the effects of nicotine on the strength of physical and psychological dependency in single and repeated doses morphine administrated rats. Materials and methods. Male Wistar rats were subjected to morphine consumption with single or frequent dose protocols. In the single dose protocol, rats received only one dose of morphine and 24hrs later they also received one dose of nicotine 30 min prior to injection of naloxone. In the repeated dose protocol, rats received incremental doses of morphine for 7 days and 24hr after the last dose (the 8th day were given naloxone. However, the nicotine regimen of this group was injected 15 min before the morphine injection, for 4 days, from the 4th to the 7th day. Five minutes after naloxone injection, each rat′s behavior was captured for 30 min, and then physical and psychological signs of withdrawal syndrome were recorded. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Tukey tests and p<0.05 was considered as significant difference. Findings. Results showed that the injection of frequent and single doses of morphine lead to morphine dependency. In single dose protocol, nicotine consumption attenuated the signs of withdrawal syndrome, especially weight of excrement and total withdrawal score. In frequent dose protocol, in addition to these effects, nicotine induced weight loss and place aversion. Conclusion. The inhibitory effects of nicotine on signs of withdrawal syndrome may involve a dopaminergic portion of the central nervous system and is mediated by central nicotinic receptors. There is also a cross-dependence between nicotine and morphine.

  1. Ketoprofen pharmacokinetics of R- and S-isomers in juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) after single intravenous and single- and multidose intramuscular administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K A; Papich, M G; Higgins, B; Flanagan, J; Christiansen, E F; Harms, C A

    2018-04-01

    Ketoprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent that nonselectively inhibits cyclooxygenase, with both COX-1 and COX-2 inhibition. Recent studies on COX receptor expression in reptiles suggest that nonselective COX inhibitors may be more appropriate than more selective inhibitors in some reptiles, but few pharmacokinetic studies are available. The goal of this study was to determine single- and multidose (three consecutive days) pharmacokinetics of racemic ketoprofen administered intravenously and intramuscularly at 2 mg/kg in healthy juvenile loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta). The S-isomer is the predominant isomer in loggerhead sea turtles, similar to most mammals, despite administration of a 50:50 racemic mixture. Multidose ketoprofen administration demonstrated no bioaccumulation; therefore, once-daily dosing will not require dose adjustment over time. S-isomer pharmacokinetic parameters determined in this study were C max of 10.1 μg/ml by IM injection, C 0 of 13.4 μg/ml by IV injection, AUC of 44.7 or 69.4 μg*hr/ml by IM or IV injection, respectively, and T½ of 2.8 or 3.6 hr by IM or IV injection, respectively. Total ketoprofen plasma concentrations were maintained for at least 12 hr above concentrations determined to be effective for rats and humans. A dose of 2 mg/kg either IM or IV every 24 hr is likely appropriate for loggerhead turtles. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. LHC BLM Single Channel Connectivity Test using the Standard Installation

    CERN Document Server

    Emery, J; Effinger, E; Ferioli, G; Zamantzas, C; Ikeda, H; Verhagen, E

    2009-01-01

    For the LHC Beam Loss Measurement system (BLM), the high voltage supply of the ionisation chambers and the secondary emission detectors is used to test their connectivity. A harmonic modulation of 0.03 Hz results in a current signal of about 100pA measured by the beam loss acquisition electronics. The signal is analyzed and the measured amplitude and phase are compared with individual channel limits for the 4000 channels. It is foreseen to execute an automatic procedure for all channels every 12 hours which takes about 20 minutes. The paper will present the design of the system, the circuit simulations, measurements of systematic dependencies of different channels and the reproducibility of the amplitude and phase measurements.

  3. Test procedures and instructions for single shell tank saltcake cesium removal with crystalline silicotitanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, J.B.

    1997-01-07

    This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test, using Hanford Single Shell Tank Saltcake from tanks 24 t -BY- I 10, 24 1 -U- 108, 24 1 -U- 109, 24 1 -A- I 0 1, and 24 t - S-102, in a bench-scale column. The cesium sorbent to be tested is crystalline siticotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-024, Hanford Single Shell Tank Saltcake Cesium Removal Test Plan.

  4. Development of Guidelines for Use of Proton Single-Event Test Data to Bound Single-Event Effect Susceptibility Due to Light Ions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Conventional methods for Single-Event Effects (SEE) Hardness Assurance have proven difficult to adapt to Explorer, Cubesat and other risk tolerant platforms with...

  5. NEPP Update of Independent Single Event Upset Field Programmable Gate Array Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; Label, Kenneth; Campola, Michael; Pellish, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    This presentation provides a NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program update of independent Single Event Upset (SEU) Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) testing including FPGA test guidelines, Microsemi RTG4 heavy-ion results, Xilinx Kintex-UltraScale heavy-ion results, Xilinx UltraScale+ single event effect (SEE) test plans, development of a new methodology for characterizing SEU system response, and NEPP involvement with FPGA security and trust.

  6. The effects of isolated single umbilical artery on first and second trimester aneuploidy screening test parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulek, Firat; Kahraman, Alper; Taskin, Salih; Ozkavukcu, Esra; Soylemez, Feride

    2015-04-01

    Reliability of first and second trimester screening tests largely depends on accurate estimation of maternal serum marker values. Reduced reliability could lead redundant invasive tests or misdiagnosis. Adjustments of serum marker values for confounding factors like insulin-dependent diabetes, maternal weight or maternal rhesus status are essential. We aimed to investigate whether isolated single umbilical artery alters first and second trimester test parameters or not. Routine detailed obstetric ultrasonographies performed were retrospectively screened for this study. Among spontaneously conceived singleton pregnancies, women who were found to have single umbilical artery without any additional structural anomalies or aneuploidies were selected. First and second trimester screening test results were accessible for 98 and 102 of the cases with isolated single umbilical artery, respectively. Among first trimester screening test parameters, PAPP-A (pregnancy-associated plasma protein A) MoMs were found significantly higher in isolated single umbilical artery group. AFP MoMs were found significantly elevated in isolated single umbilical artery group in second trimester quadruple tests. Existence of single umbilical artery could alter the estimation of MoM values of maternal serum markers. Reliability of prenatal screening tests could be improved by adjusting these parameters in accordance with isolated single umbilical artery.

  7. Dose-dependent effects of alcohol administration on behavioral profiles in the MCSF test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Oskar; Roman, Erika

    2016-02-01

    The acute effects of alcohol administration are age-, dose-, time- and task-dependent. Although generally considered to be a sedative drug, alcohol has both stimulatory and depressant effects on behavior, depending on dose and time. Alcohol-induced motor activating effects are consistently shown in mice but rarely demonstrated in adult, outbred rats using conventional behavioral tests. The aim of the present experiment was to study acute alcohol-induced effects on behavioral profiles in a more complex environment using the novel multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test, designed for assessing different behaviors in the same trial including locomotor activity. Adult male Wistar rats (Sca:WI) were administered one intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of alcohol (0.0 g/kg, 0.5 g/kg, 1.0 g/kg, or 1.5 g/kg) 5 min prior to the 30-min MCSF test. The two highest doses induced marked motor-suppressing effects. A significant interaction between group and time was found in general activity when comparing rats exposed to alcohol at 0.0 g/kg and 0.5 g/kg. In contrast to the 0.0 g/kg dose that increased the activity over time, animals administered the low dose (0.5 g/kg) demonstrated an initial high activity followed by a decline over time. No indications for acute alcohol-induced anxiolytic-like effects were found. The multivariate setting in the MCSF test appears to be sensitive for detecting motor-activating effects of low doses of alcohol as well as reduced locomotion at doses lower than in other behavioral tasks. The detection of subtle changes in behavior across time and dose is important for understanding alcohol-induced effects. This approach may be useful in evaluating alcohol doses that correspond to different degrees of intoxication in humans. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation procedures for single axis sinusoidal test to design spectrum requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, P.C.; Javid, A.

    1983-01-01

    Two simple procedures are provided in this paper for the purpose of evaluating the adequacy of a single frequency single axis test. For the purpose of evaluating the adequacy of single frequency test to meet broad-band response spectrum requirements, the proposed procedure is based on the equivalence of maximum response of a dynamic system when it is subjected to either type of design input. The required information used for the evaluation is usually recorded and available in the test report. This procedure is applicable to systems with or without closely-spaced modes. When evaluating against broad-band design spectra and multi-axes requirements, an empirical procedure is proposed and it has been found conservative. These two proposed procedures provide a quick assessment on the adequacy of a single frequency test performed earlier. The use of these procedures may eliminate the need of expensive and time consuming equipment re-testing. (orig./HP)

  9. Administration of neuropsychological tests using interactive voice response technology in the elderly: validation and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Delyana Ivanova; Talbot, Vincent; Gagnon, Michèle; Messier, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Interactive voice response (IVR) systems are computer programs, which interact with people to provide a number of services from business to health care. We examined the ability of an IVR system to administer and score a verbal fluency task (fruits) and the digit span forward and backward in 158 community dwelling people aged between 65 and 92 years of age (full scale IQ of 68-134). Only six participants could not complete all tasks mostly due to early technical problems in the study. Participants were also administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale fourth edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale fourth edition subtests. The IVR system correctly recognized 90% of the fruits in the verbal fluency task and 93-95% of the number sequences in the digit span. The IVR system typically underestimated the performance of participants because of voice recognition errors. In the digit span, these errors led to the erroneous discontinuation of the test: however the correlation between IVR scoring and clinical scoring was still high (93-95%). The correlation between the IVR verbal fluency and the WAIS-IV Similarities subtest was 0.31. The correlation between the IVR digit span forward and backward and the in-person administration was 0.46. We discuss how valid and useful IVR systems are for neuropsychological testing in the elderly.

  10. Results of single borehole hydraulic testing in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory project. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daimaru, Shuji; Takeuchi, Ryuji; Onoe, Hironori; Saegusa, Hiromitsu

    2012-09-01

    This report summarize the results of the single borehole hydraulic tests of 79 sections conducted as part of the Construction phase (Phase 2) in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project. The details of each test (test interval depth, geology, etc.) as well as the interpreted hydraulic parameters and analytical method used are presented in this report. (author)

  11. NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Field Programmable Gate Array Single Event Effects Test Guideline Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie D.; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2018-01-01

    The following are updated or new subjects added to the FPGA SEE Test Guidelines manual: academic versus mission specific device evaluation, single event latch-up (SEL) test and analysis, SEE response visibility enhancement during radiation testing, mitigation evaluation (embedded and user-implemented), unreliable design and its affects to SEE Data, testing flushable architectures versus non-flushable architectures, intellectual property core (IP Core) test and evaluation (addresses embedded and user-inserted), heavy-ion energy and linear energy transfer (LET) selection, proton versus heavy-ion testing, fault injection, mean fluence to failure analysis, and mission specific system-level single event upset (SEU) response prediction. Most sections within the guidelines manual provide information regarding best practices for test structure and test system development. The scope of this manual addresses academic versus mission specific device evaluation and visibility enhancement in IP Core testing.

  12. Administration of toltrazuril during experimental coccidiosis in mule ducks: comparison of the efficacy of a single administration at two different endogenous stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, M C; Chauve, C M; Gastellu, J; Gounel, J M

    1999-03-15

    An experimental Eimeria mulardi coccidiosis was reproduced in mule ducks. A single dose of toltrazuril (7 mg per kg) was administered at two different endogenous stages: Day 2 (first meronts) or Day 5 (last meronts and gamonts). The efficacy of the drug was assessed on four criteria (body weight, oocyst counts, macroscopic lesions, and presence of the meronts and gamonts). To have a curative effect, a single dose of toltrazuril should be administered early on. However, a single treatment on Day 5 had a prophylactic effect.

  13. Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome and secondary adrenal insufficiency after a single intra-articular administration of triamcinolone acetonide in HIV-infected patients treated with ritonavir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yombi, J C; Maiter, D; Belkhir, L; Nzeusseu, A; Vandercam, B

    2008-12-01

    The development of an iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome (ICS) followed by secondary adrenal failure remains an exceptional event after a single dose administration of a synthetic glucocorticoid. Medical attention has been drawn recently on the possible impact of ritonavir-based antiretroviral regimens on the systemic deleterious effects of a chronic administration of corticosteroids in HIV-infected patients. Three HIV-infected patients treated by a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI) regimen received a single intra-articular injection of 40 mg triamcinolone acetonide in our university hospital. The three patients rapidly developed signs and symptoms of ICS followed by secondary adrenal insufficiency. Special attention must be paid when a single administration of corticosteroids has to be given in HIV-positive patients under ritonavir-boosted antiretroviral treatment, as these patients are at risk of developing early cushingoid features and a prolonged suppression of their hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  14. PHARMACOKINETICS OF CEFTIOFUR CRYSTALLINE FREE ACID STERILE SUSPENSION IN GREEN IGUANAS ( IGUANA IGUANA) AFTER SINGLE INTRAMUSCULAR ADMINISTRATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadar, Miranda J; Hawkins, Michelle G; Taylor, Ian T; Byrne, Barbara A; Tell, Lisa A

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the pharmacokinetic parameters of ceftiofur crystalline free acid (CCFA) for a single intramuscular injection in green iguanas ( Iguana iguana). Six green iguanas received an injection of 5 mg/kg CCFA into the triceps muscle. Using high-performance liquid chromatography, concentrations of ceftiofur free acid equivalents in plasma samples collected at predetermined time points were evaluated up to 21 days following drug administration. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was applied to the data. The observed maximum plasma concentration (C max obs ) was 2.765 ± 0.864 μg/mL, and the time of observed maximum concentration (T max obs ) was 6.1 ± 9.2 hr. The area under the curve (0 to infinity) was 239.3 ± 121.1 μg·hr/mL. No significant adverse drug reactions were clinically observed, and no visible injection site reactions were noted. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of bacterial isolates from iguanas were used to establish a target plasma concentration of 2.0 μg/mL. Based on the results from this study, a potential dosing interval for ceftiofur crystalline free acid administered at 5 mg/kg intramuscularly for iguanas maintained at a temperature of 30°C would be 24 hr based on a target plasma concentration of 2 μg/mL; however, multidose studies still need to be performed.

  15. Influence of fullerenol C60(OH24 on enzime status in serum of rats after single dose administration of doxorubicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govedarica Biljana Č.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The antracycline antibiotics have one of the widest areas of use in oncology. The most investigated mechanisms of their antineoplastic activity include: interactions of these antibiotics with DNA, inhibition of topoisomerase II and production of free radicals. However, the side effects of doxorubicin, especially cardiotoxicity, are the limiting factor of its use in cancer therapy. The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of fullerenol С60(ОH24 as a cytoprotector in single doze administration of doxorubicin on the activity of enzymes in serum (CK, AST, ALT, LDH and a-HBDH in rats in in vivo system. Activity of enzymes (CK, LDH, HBDH, AST, and ALT in serume was measured with standard commercial methods. The results of analysis of the samples treated with the combination of fullerenol and doxorubicin show no difference in enzyme activity in comparison with the control group. The results indicate the possibility of using fullerenol as a protector in the therapy with doxorubicin in malign neoplasm.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of toltrazuril and its metabolites, toltrazuril sulfoxide and toltrazuril sulfone, after a single oral administration to pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Myoung-Seok; Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Song, In-Bae; Park, Byung-Kwon; Yun, Hyo-In

    2010-08-01

    Toltrazuril (TZR) is a triazine-based antiprotozoal agent. Following a single oral administration of TZR at 10 and 20 mg/kg to male pigs, the mean TZR concentration in plasma peaked at 4.24 and 8.18 microg/ml at 15.0 and 12.0 hr post-dose, respectively. TZR absorbed was rapidly converted to the short-lived intermediary metabolite toltrazuril sulfoxide (TZR-SO), and then metabolized to the reactive toltrazuril sulfone (TZR-SO2). TZR-SO2 was actually more slowly eliminated, with average half-lives of 231 and 245 hr, compared with TZR (48.7 and 68.9 hr) or TZR-SO (51.9 and 53.2 hr) in the 10 and 20 mg/kg groups, respectively. This study demonstrates that TZR metabolizes to TZR-SO2 having a long-terminal half-life, enabling the persistent clinical efficacy in the treatment of I. suis infection. In contrast, special consideration should be given to the residual of TZR-SO2.

  17. Forecast of thermal-hydrological conditions and air injection test results of the single heater test at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholzer, J.T.; Tsang, Y.W.

    1996-12-01

    The heater in the Single Heater Test (SHT) in alcove 5 of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) was turned on August 26, 1996. A large number of sensors are installed in the various instrumented boreholes to monitor the coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical responses of the rock mass to the heat generated in the single heater. In this report the authors present the results of the modeling of both the heating and cooling phases of the Single Heater Test (SHT), with focus on the thermal-hydrological aspect of the coupled processes. Also in this report, the authors present simulations of air injection tests will be performed at different stages of the heating and cooling phase of the SHT

  18. Intersection tests for single marker QTL analysis can be more powerful than two marker QTL analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doerge RW

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported in the quantitative trait locus (QTL literature that when testing for QTL location and effect, the statistical power supporting methodologies based on two markers and their estimated genetic map is higher than for the genetic map independent methodologies known as single marker analyses. Close examination of these reports reveals that the two marker approaches are more powerful than single marker analyses only in certain cases. Simulation studies are a commonly used tool to determine the behavior of test statistics under known conditions. We conducted a simulation study to assess the general behavior of an intersection test and a two marker test under a variety of conditions. The study was designed to reveal whether two marker tests are always more powerful than intersection tests, or whether there are cases when an intersection test may outperform the two marker approach. We present a reanalysis of a data set from a QTL study of ovariole number in Drosophila melanogaster. Results Our simulation study results show that there are situations where the single marker intersection test equals or outperforms the two marker test. The intersection test and the two marker test identify overlapping regions in the reanalysis of the Drosophila melanogaster data. The region identified is consistent with a regression based interval mapping analysis. Conclusion We find that the intersection test is appropriate for analysis of QTL data. This approach has the advantage of simplicity and for certain situations supplies equivalent or more powerful results than a comparable two marker test.

  19. Delayed effects of thallium in the rat brain: regional changes in lipid peroxidation and behavioral markers, but moderate alterations in antioxidants, after a single administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván-Arzate, Sonia; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Medina-Campos, Omar N; Maldonado, Perla D; Vázquez-Román, Beatriz; Ríos, Camilo; Santamaría, Abel

    2005-07-01

    Thallium (Tl+) toxicity has been related with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress (OS) in the central nervous system. Since changes in endogenous antioxidant systems might contribute to acute Tl+-induced OS and neurotoxicity, in this study we measured the metal concentration and the levels of lipid peroxidation (LP) in different brain regions (hypothalamus (Ht); cerebellum (Ce); striatum (S); hippocampus (Hc) and frontal cortex (Cx)) in possible correlation with the content of reduced glutathione (GSH), the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the animal performance in behavioral tests, all evaluated after a single administration of thallium acetate (8 or 16 mg/kg, i.p.) to rats. Seven days after Tl+ administration, the metal was homogeneously and dose-dependently accumulated in all regions evaluated. LP was increased in Ht, Ce and S, while GSH was depleted in S. Cu,Zn-SOD activity was also decreased in Ht and S. All these changes occurred with 16 mg/kg dose and at 7 days after treatment, but not at 1 or 3 days. In addition, Tl+-treated animals exhibited general hypokinesis, but no changes were observed in spatial learning. Our findings suggest that a delayed response of the brain to Tl+ may be the result of its residual levels. Also, despite the regional alterations produced by Tl+ in LP and the limited changes in endogenous antioxidants, there is a correlation between the Tl+-induced oxidative damage and the affected behavioral tasks, suggesting that, although still moderate, Tl+ evokes neurotoxic patterns under the experimental conditions tested.

  20. Pregnancy success of lactating Holstein cows after a single administration of a sustained-release formulation of recombinant bovine somatotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez CG

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results regarding the use of bovine somatotropin for enhancing fertility in dairy cattle are variable. Here, the hypothesis was tested that a single injection of a sustained-release preparation of bovine somatotropin (bST during the preovulatory period would improve pregnancy success of lactating dairy cows at first service. Results The first experiment was conducted in a temperate region of Mexico. Cows inseminated following natural estrus or timed artificial insemination were given a single injection of bST or a placebo injection at insemination (n = 100 cows per group. There was no significant difference between bST and control groups in the proportion of inseminated cows diagnosed pregnant (29 vs 31% pregnant. The second experiment was performed during heat stress in Florida. Cows were subjected to an ovulation synchronization regimen for first insemination. Cows treated with bST received a single injection at 3 days before insemination. Controls received no additional treatment. As expected, bST did not increase vaginal temperature. Treatment with bST did not significantly increase the proportion of inseminated cows diagnosed pregnant although it was numerically greater for the bST group (24.2% vs 17.8%, 124–132 cows per group. There was a tendency (p = 0.10 for a smaller percent of control cows to have high plasma progesterone concentrations (≥ 1 ng/ml at Day 7 after insemination than for bST-treated cows (72.6 vs 81.1%. When only cows that were successfully synchronized were considered, the magnitude of the absolute difference in the percentage of inseminated cows that were diagnosed pregnant between bST and control cows was reduced (24.8 vs 22.4% pregnant for bST and control. Conclusion Results failed to indicate a beneficial effect of bST treatment on fertility of lactating dairy cows.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of Tedizolid Following Oral Administration: Single and Multiple Dose, Effect of Food, and Comparison of Two Solid Forms of the Prodrug

    OpenAIRE

    Flanagan, Shawn D; Bien, Paul A; Muñoz, Kelly A; Minassian, Sonia L; Prokocimer, Philippe G

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics (PK) of tedizolid were examined after oral administration of tedizolid phosphate disodium (TPD), including the effect of food on PK. The relative bioavailability of TPD to the free acid tedizolid phosphate was determined to bridge the results of these and other studies to the solid form of the prodrug selected for further development. Design Randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind single- and multiple-ascending dose studies and ran...

  2. Understanding the effect of single-fracture heterogeneity from single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Martin; Doughty, Christine; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Niemi, Auli

    2013-12-01

    The single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tracer test is a method used to estimate the tracer retardation properties of a fracture or fracture zone. The effects of single-fracture aperture heterogeneity on SWIW-test tracer breakthrough curves are examined by numerical modelling. The effects of the matrix diffusion and sorption are accounted for by using a particle tracking method through the addition of a time delay added to the advective transport time. For a given diffusion and sorption property ( P m) value and for a heterogeneous fracture, the peak concentration is larger compared to a homogeneous fracture. The cumulative breakthrough curve for a heterogeneous fracture is similar to that for a homogeneous fracture and a less sorptive/diffusive tracer. It is demonstrated that the fracture area that meets the flowing water, the specific flow-wetted surface (sFWS) of the fracture, can be determined by matching the observed breakthrough curve for a heterogeneous fracture to that for a homogeneous fracture with an equivalent property parameter. SWIW tests are also simulated with a regional pressure gradient present. The results point to the possibility of distinguishing the effect of the regional pressure gradient from that of diffusion through the use of multiple tracers with different P m values.

  3. Definition of Capabilities Needed for a Single Event Effects Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemer, Bernie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Gallmeier, Franz X. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    2014-12-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is contemplating new regulations mandating testing of the vulnerability of flight-critical avionics to single event effects (SEE). A limited number of high-energy neutron test facilities currently serve the SEE industrial and institutional research community. The FAA recognizes that existing facilities have insufficient test capacity to meet new demand from such mandates; it desires more flexible irradiation capabilities to test complete, large systems and would like capabilities to address greater concerns for thermal neutrons. For this reason, the FAA funded this study by Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) staff with the ultimate aim of developing options for SEE test facilities using high-energy neutrons at the SNS complex. After an investigation of current SEE test practices and assessment of future testing requirements, three concepts were identified covering a range of test functionality, neutron flux levels, and fidelity to the atmospheric neutron spectrum. The costs and times required to complete each facility were also estimated. SEE testing is generally performed by accelerating the event rate to a point where the effects are still dominated by single events and double event causes of failures are negligible. In practice, acceleration factors of as high as 106 are applicable for component testing, whereas for systems testing acceleration factors of 104 seem to be the upper limit. It is strongly desirable that the irradiation facility be tunable over a large range of high-energy neutron fluxes of 102 - 104 n/cm²/s for systems testing and from 104 - 107 n/cm²/s for components testing. The most capable, most flexible, and highest-test-capacity option is a new stand-alone target station named the High-Energy neutron Test Station (HETS). It is also the most expensive option, with a cost to complete of approximately $100 million. Dual test enclosures would

  4. Sex-dependent behavioral changes in rat offspring after in utero administration of a single low dose PBDE 47

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuriyama, S.N.; Talsness, C.E.; Chahoud, I. [Charite Univ. Medical School Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Dept. Toxicology, Campus Benjamin Franklin

    2004-09-15

    change which could manifest itself in an irreversible fashion at later time points in life. We administered a single dose to gravid dams on gestation day 6 of either 140 {mu}g/kg BW or 700 {mu}g/kg BW of the congener, 2,2'4,4'-tetrabromo diphenyl ether (PBDE 47). These doses are pertinent to human exposure levels because a study by She et al. found a mean level of 33.3 {mu}g PBDE 47 /kg fat in human breast adipose tissue with a range from 7.01 to 196 {mu}g PBDE 47 /kg fat (10). In this study, peri-pubertal behavior effects were evaluated in rat offspring after in utero administration of low dose PBDE 47.

  5. The Influence of Age on Interaction between Breath-Holding Test and Single-Breath Carbon Dioxide Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Trembach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare the breath-holding test and single-breath carbon dioxide test in evaluation of the peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity to carbon dioxide in healthy subjects of different age. Methods. The study involved 47 healthy volunteers between ages of 25 and 85 years. All participants were divided into 4 groups according to age: 25 to 44 years (n=14, 45 to 60 years (n=13, 60 to 75 years (n=12, and older than 75 years (n=8. Breath-holding test was performed in the morning before breakfast. The single-breath carbon dioxide (SB-CO2 test was performed the following day. Results. No correlation was found between age and duration of breath-holding (r=0.13 and between age and peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity to CO2 (r=0.07. In all age groups there were no significant differences in the mean values from the breath-holding test and peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity tests. In all groups there was a strong significant inverse correlation between breath-holding test and SB-CO2 test. Conclusion. A breath-holding test reflects the sensitivity of the peripheral chemoreflex to carbon dioxide in healthy elderly humans. Increasing age alone does not alter the peripheral ventilatory response to hypercapnia.

  6. The Influence of Age on Interaction between Breath-Holding Test and Single-Breath Carbon Dioxide Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembach, Nikita; Zabolotskikh, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Introduction . The aim of the study was to compare the breath-holding test and single-breath carbon dioxide test in evaluation of the peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity to carbon dioxide in healthy subjects of different age. Methods . The study involved 47 healthy volunteers between ages of 25 and 85 years. All participants were divided into 4 groups according to age: 25 to 44 years ( n = 14), 45 to 60 years ( n = 13), 60 to 75 years ( n = 12), and older than 75 years ( n = 8). Breath-holding test was performed in the morning before breakfast. The single-breath carbon dioxide (SB-CO 2 ) test was performed the following day. Results . No correlation was found between age and duration of breath-holding ( r = 0.13) and between age and peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity to CO 2 ( r = 0.07). In all age groups there were no significant differences in the mean values from the breath-holding test and peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity tests. In all groups there was a strong significant inverse correlation between breath-holding test and SB-CO 2 test. Conclusion . A breath-holding test reflects the sensitivity of the peripheral chemoreflex to carbon dioxide in healthy elderly humans. Increasing age alone does not alter the peripheral ventilatory response to hypercapnia.

  7. Analytical solutions for efficient interpretation of single-well push-pull tracer tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single-well push-pull tracer tests have been used to characterize the extent, fate, and transport of subsurface contamination. Analytical solutions provide one alternative for interpreting test results. In this work, an exact analytical solution to two-dimensional equations descr...

  8. Fibre reinforced concrete in flexure and single fibre pull-out test: a correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, M.; Ciancio, D.; Dight, P.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present work is to assess whether a single fibre pull-out test can be related to the behaviour of multiple fibres in fibre reinforced concrete under bending condition. A simple model based on the stress block theory is described and compared with experimental results on three point bending tests with aligned fibres.

  9. Content Coverage of Single-Word Tests Used to Assess Common Phonological Error Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Cecilia; Vigeland, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This review evaluated whether 9 single-word tests of phonological error patterns provide adequate content coverage to accurately identify error patterns that are active in a child's speech. Method: Tests in the current study were considered to display sufficient opportunities to assess common phonological error patterns if they…

  10. A single standard for in-place testing of DOE HEPA filters - not

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokler, B.V. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This article is a review of arguments against the use of a single standard for in-place testing of DOE HEPA filters. The author feels that the term `standard` entails mandatory compliance. Additionally, the author feels that the variety of DOE HEPA systems requiring in-place testing is such that the guidance for testing must be written in a permissive fashion, allowing options and alternatives. With this in mind, it is not possible to write a single document entailing mandatory compliance for all DOE facilities.

  11. A single standard for in-place testing of DOE HEPA filters - not

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokler, B.V.

    1995-01-01

    This article is a review of arguments against the use of a single standard for in-place testing of DOE HEPA filters. The author feels that the term 'standard' entails mandatory compliance. Additionally, the author feels that the variety of DOE HEPA systems requiring in-place testing is such that the guidance for testing must be written in a permissive fashion, allowing options and alternatives. With this in mind, it is not possible to write a single document entailing mandatory compliance for all DOE facilities

  12. Reliability Assessment of a Single-Shot System by Use of Screen Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    unlimited. NUWC Keyport #17-002. Reliability Assessment of a Single-Shot System by Use of Screen Test Results Abstract: Field reliability prediction...approach described here assumes that the defect density during testing takes the form of an exponential decay, although other mathematical functions can...be substituted for the exponential. In order to apply the decay rate function to a discrete pass/fail test scheme, the approach provides for

  13. The Influence of Age on Interaction between Breath-Holding Test and Single-Breath Carbon Dioxide Test

    OpenAIRE

    Trembach, Nikita; Zabolotskikh, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare the breath-holding test and single-breath carbon dioxide test in evaluation of the peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity to carbon dioxide in healthy subjects of different age. Methods. The study involved 47 healthy volunteers between ages of 25 and 85 years. All participants were divided into 4 groups according to age: 25 to 44 years (n = 14), 45 to 60 years (n = 13), 60 to 75 years (n = 12), and older than 75 years (n = 8). Breath-holding test ...

  14. The effect of chronic phenytoin administration on single prolonged stress induced extinction retention deficits and glucocorticoid upregulation in the rat medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sophie A; Rodriguez-Santiago, Mariana; Riley, John; Rodriguez, Elizabeth; Liberzon, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic, debilitating disorder. Only two pharmacological agents are approved for PTSD treatment, and they often do not address the full range of symptoms nor are they equally effective in all cases. Animal models of PTSD are critical for understanding the neurobiology involved and for identification of novel therapeutic targets. Using the rodent PTSD model, single prolonged stress (SPS), we have implicated aberrant excitatory neural transmission and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) upregulation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus (HPC) in fear memory abnormalities associated with PTSD. The objective of this study is to examine the potential protective effect of antiepileptic phenytoin (PHE) administration on SPS-induced extinction retention deficits and GR expression. Forty-eight SPS-treated male Sprague Dawley rats or controls were administered PHE (40, 20 mg/kg, vehicle) for 7 days following SPS stressors; then, fear conditioning, extinction, and extinction retention were tested. Fear conditioning and extinction were unaffected by SPS or PHE, but SPS impaired extinction retention, and both doses of PHE rescued this impairment. Similarly, SPS increased GR expression in the mPFC and dorsal HPC, and PHE prevented SPS-induced GR upregulation in the mPFC. These data demonstrate that PHE administration can prevent the development of extinction retention deficits and upregulation of GR. PHE exerts inhibitory effects on voltage-gated sodium channels and decreases excitatory neural transmission via glutamate antagonism. If glutamate hyperactivity in the days following SPS contributes to SPS-induced deficits, then these data may suggest that the glutamatergic system constitutes a target for secondary prevention.

  15. Homogeneity tests for variances and mean test under heterogeneity conditions in a single way ANOVA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales P, J.R.; Avila P, P.

    1996-01-01

    If we have consider the maximum permissible levels showed for the case of oysters, it results forbidding to collect oysters at the four stations of the El Chijol Channel ( Veracruz, Mexico), as well as along the channel itself, because the metal concentrations studied exceed these limits. In this case the application of Welch tests were not necessary. For the water hyacinth the means of the treatments were unequal in Fe, Cu, Ni, and Zn. This case is more illustrative, for the conclusion has been reached through the application of the Welch tests to treatments with heterogeneous variances. (Author)

  16. Novel effects of a single administration of ferulic acid on the regulation of blood pressure and the hepatic lipid metabolic profile in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiansyah; Ohsaki, Yusuke; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Koseki, Takuya; Komai, Michio

    2008-04-23

    We studied the effects of a single oral administration of ferulic acid (FA) on the blood pressure (BP) and lipid profile in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Male 12-week-old SHRSP were administered FA (9.5 mg/kg of body weight) and distilled water as the control (C) (1 mL) via a gastric tube. The hypotensive effect of FA was observed at the lowest value after 2 h administration. A decrease in the angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in the plasma corresponded well with the reduction of BP. Plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were lower after 2 h administration. The mRNA expression of genes involved in lipid and drug metabolism was downregulated in the FA group. These results suggest that oral administration of FA appears beneficial in improving hypertension and hyperlipidemia.

  17. Single Event Effects Test Facility Options at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemer, Bernie [ORNL; Gallmeier, Franz X [ORNL; Dominik, Laura J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Increasing use of microelectronics of ever diminishing feature size in avionics systems has led to a growing Single Event Effects (SEE) susceptibility arising from the highly ionizing interactions of cosmic rays and solar particles. Single event effects caused by atmospheric radiation have been recognized in recent years as a design issue for avionics equipment and systems. To ensure a system meets all its safety and reliability requirements, SEE induced upsets and potential system failures need to be considered, including testing of the components and systems in a neutron beam. Testing of integrated circuits (ICs) and systems for use in radiation environments requires the utilization of highly advanced laboratory facilities that can run evaluations on microcircuits for the effects of radiation. This paper provides a background of the atmospheric radiation phenomenon and the resulting single event effects, including single event upset (SEU) and latch up conditions. A study investigating requirements for future single event effect irradiation test facilities and developing options at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is summarized. The relatively new SNS with its 1.0 GeV proton beam, typical operation of 5000 h per year, expertise in spallation neutron sources, user program infrastructure, and decades of useful life ahead is well suited for hosting a world-class SEE test facility in North America. Emphasis was put on testing of large avionics systems while still providing tunable high flux irradiation conditions for component tests. Makers of ground-based systems would also be served well by these facilities. Three options are described; the most capable, flexible, and highest-test-capacity option is a new stand-alone target station using about one kW of proton beam power on a gas-cooled tungsten target, with dual test enclosures. Less expensive options are also described.

  18. Primary Teachers' Experiences Relating to the Administration Processes of High-Stakes Testing: The Case of Mathematics Annual National Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graven, Mellony; Venkat, Hamsa

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we highlight teacher experiences of the administration of high-stakes testing, in particular, of the 2012 Annual National Assessments (ANAs). The exploration is based on data gathered across two primary numeracy teacher development projects in the Eastern Cape and Gauteng in the form of open-ended questionnaires designed to elicit…

  19. Ambiguity in measuring matrix diffusion with single-well injection/recovery tracer tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessoff, S.C.; Konikow, Leonard F.

    1997-01-01

    Single-well injection/recovery tracer tests are considered for use in characterizing and quantifying matrix diffusion in dual-porosity aquifers. Numerical modeling indicates that neither regional drift in homogeneous aquifers, nor heterogeneity in aquifers having no regional drift, nor hydrodynamic dispersion significantly affects these tests. However, when drift is coupled simultaneously with heterogeneity, they can have significant confounding effects on tracer return. This synergistic effect of drift and heterogeneity may help explain irreversible flow and inconsistent results sometimes encountered in previous single-well injection/recovery tracer tests. Numerical results indicate that in a hypothetical single-well injection/recovery tracer test designed to demonstrate and measure dual-porosity characteristics in a fractured dolomite, the simultaneous effects of drift and heterogeneity sometimes yields responses similar to those anticipated in a homogeneous dual-porosity formation. In these cases, tracer recovery could provide a false indication of the occurrence of matrix diffusion. Shortening the shut-in period between injection and recovery periods may make the test less sensitive to drift. Using multiple tracers having different diffusion characteristics, multiple tests having different pumping schedules, and testing the formation at more than one location would decrease the ambiguity in the interpretation of test data.

  20. Comparative Performance of Four Single Extreme Outlier Discordancy Tests from Monte Carlo Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra P. Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using highly precise and accurate Monte Carlo simulations of 20,000,000 replications and 102 independent simulation experiments with extremely low simulation errors and total uncertainties, we evaluated the performance of four single outlier discordancy tests (Grubbs test N2, Dixon test N8, skewness test N14, and kurtosis test N15 for normal samples of sizes 5 to 20. Statistical contaminations of a single observation resulting from parameters called δ from ±0.1 up to ±20 for modeling the slippage of central tendency or ε from ±1.1 up to ±200 for slippage of dispersion, as well as no contamination (δ=0 and ε=±1, were simulated. Because of the use of precise and accurate random and normally distributed simulated data, very large replications, and a large number of independent experiments, this paper presents a novel approach for precise and accurate estimations of power functions of four popular discordancy tests and, therefore, should not be considered as a simple simulation exercise unrelated to probability and statistics. From both criteria of the Power of Test proposed by Hayes and Kinsella and the Test Performance Criterion of Barnett and Lewis, Dixon test N8 performs less well than the other three tests. The overall performance of these four tests could be summarized as N2≅N15>N14>N8.

  1. Testing of the large bore single aperture 1-meter superconducting dipoles made with phenolic inserts

    CERN Document Server

    Boschmann, H; Dubbeldam, R L; Kirby, G A; Lucas, J; Ostojic, R; Russenschuck, Stephan; Siemko, A; Taylor, T M; Vanenkov, I; Weterings, W

    1998-01-01

    Two identical single aperture 1-metre superconducting dipoles have been built in collaboration with HMA Power Systems and tested at CERN. The 87.8 mm aperture magnets feature a single layer coil wound using LHC main dipole outer layer cable, phenolic spacer type collars, and a keyed two part structural iron yoke. The magnets are designed as models of the D1 separation dipole in the LHC experimental insertions, whose nominal field is 4.5 T at 4.5 K. In this report we present the test results of the two magnets at 4.3 K and 1.9 K.

  2. Crash tests of three identical low-wing single-engine airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, C. B.; Alfaro-Bou, E.

    1983-01-01

    Three identical four place, low wing single engine airplane specimens with nominal masses of 1043 kg were crash tested under controlled free flight conditions. The tests were conducted at the same nominal velocity of 25 m/sec along the flight path. Two airplanes were crashed on a concrete surface (at 10 and 30 deg pitch angles), and one was crashed on soil (at a -30 deg pitch angle). The three tests revealed that the specimen in the -30 deg test on soil sustained massive structural damage in the engine compartment and fire wall. Also, the highest longitudinal cabin floor accelerations occurred in this test. Severe damage, but of lesser magnitude, occurred in the -30 deg test on concrete. The highest normal cabin floor accelerations occurred in this test. The least structural damage and lowest accelerations occurred in the 10 deg test on concrete.

  3. TR-PIV Performance Test for a Flow Field Measurement in a Single Rod Test Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ju Yong; Shin, Chang Hwan; Lee, Chi Young; Oh, Dong Seok; In, Wang Kee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    For large enhancement of performance of Pressurized Water Reactor(PWR), dual-cooled fuel is being developed in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI). This nuclear fuel is a ring shape fuel which is different from conventional cylindrical nuclear fuel and cooling water flows both inner and outer channel. For this fuel, it widens the surface area. But it is bigger outer diameter of fuel rods. So, interval between fuel rods narrows. This because of outer channel flow is unstable. So, measurement of turbulence flow and perturbation that influence in heat transfer elevation is important.. To understand heat transfer characteristics by turbulence, measurement of flow perturbation element is necessary. To measure these turbulence characteristics, hot wire anemometer is widely used. However, it has many disadvantages such as low durability of prove, and big probe size. For these reasons, TR-PIV(Time-Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry) system is employed for better flow measurement in our research institute. TR-PIV system is consisted of laser system and high-speed camera that have high frequency. So, was judged that can measurement complicated turbulence flow and perturbation. In this paper, introduce TR-PIV system, and with results acquiring in single rod flow through this system, and wish to introduce about after this practical use plan

  4. TR-PIV Performance Test for a Flow Field Measurement in a Single Rod Test Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ju Yong; Shin, Chang Hwan; Lee, Chi Young; Oh, Dong Seok; In, Wang Kee

    2011-01-01

    For large enhancement of performance of Pressurized Water Reactor(PWR), dual-cooled fuel is being developed in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI). This nuclear fuel is a ring shape fuel which is different from conventional cylindrical nuclear fuel and cooling water flows both inner and outer channel. For this fuel, it widens the surface area. But it is bigger outer diameter of fuel rods. So, interval between fuel rods narrows. This because of outer channel flow is unstable. So, measurement of turbulence flow and perturbation that influence in heat transfer elevation is important.. To understand heat transfer characteristics by turbulence, measurement of flow perturbation element is necessary. To measure these turbulence characteristics, hot wire anemometer is widely used. However, it has many disadvantages such as low durability of prove, and big probe size. For these reasons, TR-PIV(Time-Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry) system is employed for better flow measurement in our research institute. TR-PIV system is consisted of laser system and high-speed camera that have high frequency. So, was judged that can measurement complicated turbulence flow and perturbation. In this paper, introduce TR-PIV system, and with results acquiring in single rod flow through this system, and wish to introduce about after this practical use plan

  5. Context-dependent effects of a single administration of mirtazapine on the expression of methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin eVoigt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Re-exposure to cues repeatedly associated with methamphetamine (Meth can trigger Meth-seeking and relapse in the abstinent abuser. Weakening the conditioned Meth-associated memory during cue re-exposure may provide a means for relapse-reduction pharmacotherapy. Accordingly, we sought to determine if the atypical antidepressant mirtazapine disrupted the long-term maintenance of Meth-induced conditioned place preference (CPP when administered in conjunction with re-exposure to contextual conditioning cues, and if this effect was altered by Meth being present during cue re-exposure. First, we evaluated the effect of mirtazapine on the maintenance of Meth-induced CPP during re-exposure to either the saline- or Meth-paired chamber 12 days after conditioning. Meth conditioned rats subsequently administered mirtazapine expressed CPP independent of re-exposure to the saline- or Meth-paired chamber; but the magnitude of CPP was significantly less for mirtazapine-treated rats re-exposed to the Meth-paired chamber. Next, we evaluated the effect of mirtazapine on a ‘reinforced re-exposure’ to the Meth-paired context. Administration of mirtazapine vehicle and Meth, prior to re-exposure to the Meth-paired chamber did not disrupt the ability of rats to demonstrate CPP on day 20; however, rats administered mirtazapine and Meth prior to re-exposure to the Meth-paired chamber did not demonstrate CPP. These results indicate a context-dependent effect of mirtazapine, and that the ability of mirtazapine to disrupt the long-term maintenance of CPP is greatest when the atypical antidepressant is tested with a combination of Meth injection and contextual cues.

  6. Political administration

    OpenAIRE

    Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels

    2000-01-01

    One of the major discussions of the 1990s has been about the relation between politics and administration. The themes of the discussions have been many and varied. It has been suggested that the level of politics should concentrate on the general political outlining and entrust the remaining to the administration. It has been criticised that politicians make their decisions on the basis of single cases, which ought to be an administrative matter entirely. It has been a theme that efficient op...

  7. A field test for companded single sideband modulation Implications for capacity enhancement and transmission planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, E.; Adams, C.; Arnstein, D.

    A series of field tests of companded single sideband modulation (CSSB) technique for use in the Intelsat system is described. A 12-channel circuit group was tested between switches in Pittsburgh, and the Deutsche Bundespost (DBP) in Frankfurt via the Etam and Raisting satellite earth stations. A transponder bulk that included existing FDM-FM carriers was chosen to match the typical, Intelsat operating conditions, thus permitting the compatibility of FDM/FM and CSSB to be examined simultaneously. Results of objective performance tests are discussed, and a description of several subjective testing techniques is also given.

  8. Introduction and Administration of the Clinical Skill Test of the Medical Licensing Examination, Republic of Korea (2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Sang Kim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The first trial of the clinical skill test as part of the Korean Medical Licensing Examination was done from September 23 to December 1, 2009, in the clinical skill test center located in the National Health Personnel Licensing Examination Board (NHPLEB building, Seoul. Korea is the first country to introduce the clinical skill test as part of the medical licensing examination in Asia. It is a report on the introduction and administration of the test. The NHPLEB launched researches on the validity of introducing the clinical skill test and on the best implementation methods in 2000. Since 2006, lists of subjects of test items for the clinical skill test has been developed. The test consisted of two types of evaluation, i.e., a clinical performance examination (CPX with a standardized patient (SP and objective structured clinical examination (OSCE. The proctor (medical faculty member and SP rate the examinees’ proficiency for the OSCE and CPX respectively. Out of 3,456 applicants, 3,289 examinees (95.2% passed the test. Out of 167 examinees who failed the clinical skill test, 142 passed the written test. This means that the clinical skill test showed characteristics independent from the written test. This successful implementation of the clinical skill test is going to improve the medical graduates’ performance of clinical skills.

  9. Safety of ferric carboxymaltose immediately after infliximab administration, in a single session, in inflammatory bowel disease patients with iron deficiency: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Cortes

    Full Text Available To obtain preliminary safety and efficacy data on intravenous (IV administration of infliximab (IFX and ferric carboxymaltose (FCM to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD patients in a single treatment session.A two-phase non-interventional, observational, prospective pilot study was performed to evaluate safety and efficacy of FCM given immediately after IFX. IBD patients were recruited consecutively in the outpatient clinic in two groups. Control group patients (n = 12 received FCM on a separate day from IFX. Subsequently, single-session group patients (n = 33 received FCM after IFX on the same day. All patients received 5mg/kg IFX and 1000mg FCM for iron-restricted anemia (IRA or 500mg FCM for iron deficiency without anemia. Safety assessment was performed by recording adverse events (AEs during and immediately after infusion, 30 minutes afterwards, and via follow-up at 7 days and 8 weeks. For efficacy assessment, hematological parameters were assessed prior to FCM infusion (pre-FCM and after 8 weeks. Economic impact of FCM given immediately after IFX was assessed.All 45 patients (35 Crohn´s disease, 10 ulcerative colitis received IFX 5mg/kg. 21 patients received 500mg FCM and 24 received 1000mg. FCM administration immediately after IFX corrected iron deficiency or IRA as shown by increases in hematological parameters. No AEs were reported during the safety evaluation at the end of FCM or IFX administration, 30 minutes, 7 days and 8 weeks afterwards, in either control or single-session groups. Total cost per patient for single-session administration was 354.63€; for patients receiving IFX and FCM on separate days, it was 531.94€, giving a 177.31€ per-patient cost saving.Single-session administration of FCM after IFX was safe and effective in IBD patients and can offer a good cost-benefit ratio and improve treatment adherence. To our knowledge, this study is the first to evaluate FCM and IFX administration in a single treatment session.

  10. Benefits of Preventive Administration of Chlorella sp. on Visceral Pain and Cystitis Induced by a Single Administration of Cyclophosphamide in Female Wistar Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Lucas, Sophie; Rozan, Pascale; Guérin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Baert, Blandine; Violle, Nicolas; Saniez-Degrave, Marie-Hélène; Bisson, Jean-François

    2016-05-01

    Chlorella sp. is a green microalgae containing nutrients, vitamins, minerals, and chlorophyll. In some communities, Chlorella sp. is a traditional medicinal plant used for the management of inflammation-related diseases. In a rat model, ROQUETTE Chlorella sp. (RCs) benefits were investigated on visceral pain and associated inflammatory parameters related to cystitis both induced by cyclophosphamide (CYP). RCs was orally administered every day from day 1-16 (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight). Six hours after an intraperitoneal injection of 200 mg/kg body weight of CYP, body temperature, general behavior, food intake, and body weight were recorded. Twenty-four hours after CYP injection, rats were tested in two behavioral tests, an open field and the aversive light stimulus avoidance conditioning test, to evaluate the influence of pain on general activity and learning ability of rats. After euthanasia, bladders were weighed, their thickness was scored, and the urinary hemoglobin was measured. RCs orally administered at the two dosages significantly reduced visceral pain and associated inflammatory parameters related to cystitis both induced by CYP injection, and improved rat behavior. To conclude, RCs demonstrated beneficial effects against visceral pain and cystitis.

  11. In-flight and ground testing of single event upset sensitivity in static RAMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, K.; Dyreklev, P.; Granbom, B.; Calvet, C.; Fourtine, S.; Feuillatre, O.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the results from in-flight measurements of single event upsets (SEU) in static random access memories (SRAM) caused by the atmospheric radiation environment at aircraft altitudes. The memory devices were carried on commercial airlines at high altitude and mainly high latitudes. The SEUs were monitored by a Component Upset Test Equipment (CUTE), designed for this experiment. The in flight results are compared to ground based testing with neutrons from three different sources

  12. Hydrogeological study of single water conducting fracture using a crosshole hydraulic test apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hajime; Shimo, Michito; Yamamoto, Takuya

    1998-03-01

    The Crosshole Injection Test Apparatus has been constructed to evaluate the hydraulic properties and conditions, such as hydraulic conductivity and its anisotropy, storage coefficient, pore pressure etc. within a rock near a drift. The construction started in FY93 and completed on August FY96 as a set of equipments for the use of crosshole hydraulic test, which is composed of one injection borehole instrument, one observation borehole instrument and a set of on-ground instrument. In FY96, in-situ feasibility test was conducted at a 550 m level drift in Kamaishi In Situ Test Site which has been operated by PNC, and the performance of the equipment and its applicability to various types of injection method were confirmed. In this year, a hydrogeological investigation on the single water conducting fracture was conducted at a 250 m level drift in Kamaishi In Situ Test Site, using two boreholes, KCH-3 and KCH-4, both of which are 30 m depth and inclined by 45 degrees from the surface. Pressure responses at the KCH-3 borehole during the drilling of KCH-4 borehole, the results of Borehole TV logging and core observation indicated that a major conductive single-fracture was successfully isolated by the packers. As a result of a series of the single-hole and the crosshole tests (sinusoidal and constant flowrate test), the hydraulic parameters of the single-fracture (such as hydraulic conductivity and storage coefficient) were determined. This report shows all the test result, analysed data, and also describes the hydro-geological structure near the drift. (author)

  13. Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine Tests with Unstabilized Water-in-Fuel Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    A single-cylinder, four-stroke cycle diesel engine was operated on unstabilized water-in-fuel emulsions. Two prototype devices were used to produce the emulsions on-line with the engine. More than 350 test points were run with baseline diesel fuel an...

  14. Microwave testing of high-Tc based direct current to a single flux quantum converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplunenko, V. K.; Fischer, Gerd Michael; Ivanov, Z. G.

    1994-01-01

    Design, simulation, and experimental investigations of a direct current to a single flux quantum converter loaded with a Josephson transmission line and driven by an external 70 GHz microwave oscillator are reported. The test circuit includes nine YBaCuO Josephson junctions aligned on the grain...

  15. Should the diagnosis of COPD be based on a single spirometry test?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schermer, T.R.; Robberts, B.; Crockett, A.J.; Thoonen, B.P.; Lucas, A.; Grootens, J.; Smeele, I.J.; Thamrin, C.; Reddel, H.K.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical guidelines indicate that a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) diagnosis is made from a single spirometry test. However, long-term stability of diagnosis based on forced expiratory volume in 1 s over forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratio has not been reported. In primary care

  16. Should the diagnosis of COPD be based on a single spirometry test?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schermer, T.R.J.; Robberts, B.; Crockett, A.J.; Thoonen, B.P.A.; Lucas, A.; Grootens, J.; Smeele, I.J.; Thamrin, C.; Reddel, H.K.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical guidelines indicate that a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) diagnosis is made from a single spirometry test. However, long-term stability of diagnosis based on forced expiratory volume in 1 s over forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratio has not been reported. In primary care

  17. A single well pumping and recovery test to measure in situ acrotelm transmissivity in raised bogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, van der S.

    2004-01-01

    A quasi-steady-state single pit pumping and recovery test to measure in situ the transmissivity of the highly permeable upper layer of raised bogs, the acrotelm, is described and discussed. The basic concept is the expanding depression cone during both pumping and recovery. It is shown that applying

  18. Generalized Single-Case Randomization Tests: Flexible Analyses for a Variety of Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Joel R.; Wampold, Bruce E.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a general class of single-case statistical procedures derived from previously developed nonparametric randomization tests. Designs are illustrated that focus on the general and comparative effectiveness of alternative interventions, multiple units with differentiable characteristics, and multiple outcome measures. Provides operational…

  19. Current State of Test Development, Administration, and Analysis: A Study of Faculty Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristol, Timothy J; Nelson, John W; Sherrill, Karin J; Wangerin, Virginia S

    Developing valid and reliable test items is a critical skill for nursing faculty. This research analyzed the test item writing practice of 674 nursing faculty. Relationships between faculty characteristics and their test item writing practices were analyzed. Findings reveal variability in practice and a gap in implementation of evidence-based standards when developing and evaluating teacher-made examinations.

  20. Fabrication and testing of full-length single-cell externally fueled converters for thermionic reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, A.

    1994-01-01

    The preceding paper described designs and analyses of thermionic reactors employing full-core-length single-cell converters with their heated emitters located on the outside of their internally cooled collectors, and it presented results of detailed parametric analyses which illustrate the benefits of this unconventional design. The present paper describes the fabrication and testing of full-length prototypical converters, both unfueled and fueled, and presents parametric results of electrically heated tests. The unfueled converter tests demonstrated the practicality of operating such long converters without shorting across a 0.3-mm interelectrode gap. They produced a measured peak output of 751 watts(e) from a single diode and a peak efficiency of 15.4%. The fueled converter tests measured the parametric performance of prototypic UO 2 -fueled converters designed for subsequent in-pile testing. They employed revolver-shaped tungsten elements with a central emitter hole surrounded by six fuel chambers. The full-length converters were heated by a water-cooled RF-induction coil inside an ion-pumped vacuum chamber. This required development of high-vacuum coaxial RF feedthroughs. In-pile test rules required multiple containment of the UO 2 -fuel, which complicated the fabrication of the test article and required successful development of techniques for welding tungsten and other refractory components. The tests measured a peak power output of 530 watts(e) or 7.1 watts/cm 2 at an efficiency of 11.5%

  1. Tank selection for Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) system hot testing in a single shell tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, P.K.

    1995-01-31

    The purpose of this report is to recommend a single shell tank in which to hot test the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) in Fiscal Year 1996. The LDUA is designed to utilize a 12 inch riser. During hot testing, the LDUA will deploy two end effectors (a High Resolution Stereoscopic Video Camera System and a Still/Stereo Photography System mounted on the end of the arm`s tool interface plate). In addition, three other systems (an Overview Video System, an Overview Stereo Video System, and a Topographic Mapping System) will be independently deployed and tested through 4 inch risers.

  2. Effects of single and combined administration of fermented barley extract and gamma-aminobutyric acid on the development of atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokazono, Hideki; Omori, Toshiro; Ono, Kazuhisa

    2010-01-01

    We examined the effects single and combined administration of fermented barley extract P (FBEP), prepared from barley-shochu distillery by-products, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the development of atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. Single administration of FBEP and GABA dose-dependently reduced the development of AD-like skin lesions in mice. GABA reduced the development of AD-like skin lesions by suppressing serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and splenocyte interleukin (IL)-4 production, while FBEP reduced skin lesions without affecting the IgE or cytokine production. However, in mice with induced AD-like skin lesions, combined administration of FBEP and GABA decreased serum IgE levels and splenic cell IL-4 production, and increased splenic cell interferon-gamma production. These results suggest that combined administration of FBEP and GABA alleviated AD-like skin lesions in the NC/Nga mice by adjusting the Th1/Th2 balance to a Th1-predominant immune response.

  3. A single dose of dexamethasone encapsulated in polyethylene glycol-coated polylactic acid nanoparticles attenuates cisplatin-induced hearing loss following round window membrane administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changling; Wang, Xueling; Zheng, Zhaozhu; Chen, Dongye; Wang, Xiaoqin; Shi, Fuxin; Yu, Dehong; Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the sustained drug release properties and hearing protection effect of polyethylene glycol-coated polylactic acid (PEG-PLA) stealth nanoparticles loaded with dexamethasone (DEX). DEX was fabricated into PEG-PLA nanoparticles using an emulsion and evaporation technique, as previously reported. The DEX-loaded PEG-PLA nanoparticles (DEX-NPs) had a hydrodynamic diameter of 130±4.78 nm, and a zeta potential of -26.13±3.28 mV. The in vitro release of DEX from DEX-NPs lasted 24 days in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4), 5 days in artificial perilymph (pH 7.4), and 1 day in rat plasma. Coumarin 6-labeled NPs placed onto the round window membrane (RWM) of guinea pigs penetrated RWM quickly and accumulated to the organs of Corti, stria vascularis, and spiral ganglion cells after 1 hour of administration. The DEX-NPs locally applied onto the RWM of guinea pigs by a single-dose administration continuously released DEX in 48 hours, which was significantly longer than the free DEX that was cleared out within 12 hours after administration at the same dose. Further functional studies showed that locally administrated single-dose DEX-NPs effectively preserved outer hair cells in guinea pigs after cisplatin insult and thus significantly attenuated hearing loss at 4 kHz and 8 kHz frequencies when compared to the control of free DEX formulation. Histological analyses indicated that the administration of DEX-NPs did not induce local inflammatory responses. Therefore, prolonged delivery of DEX by PEG-PLA nanoparticles through local RWM diffusion (administration) significantly protected the hair cells and auditory function in guinea pigs from cisplatin toxicity, as determined at both histological and functional levels, suggesting the potential therapeutic benefits in clinical applications.

  4. First steps towards fuel cells testing harmonisation: Procedures and parameters for single cell performance evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunghi, P. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Perugia, Via Duranti 93, Perugia (Italy); Ubertini, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Via di Torvergata, 110, Rome (Italy)

    2004-01-01

    The great interest in Fuel Cell Systems, combined with the innovation of the device itself, has led to a huge developmental effort to make the steps necessary for future FC plant commissioning. The clearest and most effective way to evaluate the performance of a fuel cell is to measure it directly and, since few fuel cell test rigs are available at the moment, standard experimental procedures have not been realized so far. Our research group is currently performing single cell testing at the University of Perugia fuel cell laboratory and particular emphasis has been put on the definition of procedures and the testing of parameterisation. The work team strongly believes that this is the key to effective system testing and reliable performance evaluation. In this work, the test parameterisation developed by the team, and the resulting advanced control procedure used for a single MCFC experimental characterization are presented. Efforts have been dedicated to obtain some relevant non-dimensional parameters to allow an easy understanding of the results and quick comparisons with other tests under different operating conditions, or with results obtained on different cells eventually tested in different laboratories. The authors strongly emphasise this topic to avoid the data that developers and research institutions collect being of no practical use due to a lack of shared rules. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Experimental results of single screw mechanical tests: a follow-up to SAND2005-6036.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sandwook; Lee, Kenneth L.; Korellis, John S.; McFadden, Sam X.

    2006-08-01

    The work reported here was conducted to address issues raised regarding mechanical testing of attachment screws described in SAND2005-6036, as well as to increase the understanding of screw behavior through additional testing. Efforts were made to evaluate fixture modifications and address issues of interest, including: fabrication of 45{sup o} test fixtures, measurement of the frictional load from the angled fixture guide, employment of electromechanical displacement transducers, development of a single-shear test, and study the affect of thread start orientation on single-shear behavior. A286 and 302HQ, No.10-32 socket-head cap screws were tested having orientations with respect to the primary loading axis of 0{sup 0}, 45{sup o}, 60{sup o}, 75{sup o} and 90{sup o} at stroke speeds 0,001 and 10 in/sec. The frictional load resulting from the angled screw fixture guide was insignificant. Load-displacement curves of A286 screws did not show a minimum value in displacement to failure (DTF) for 60{sup o} shear tests. Tests of 302HQ screws did not produce a consistent trend in DTF with load angle. The effect of displacement rate on DTF became larger as shear angle increased for both A286 and 302HQ screws.

  6. Single-well interference slug tests to assess the vertical hydraulic conductivity of unconsolidated aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Daniel; Lefebvre, René

    2013-01-01

    SummaryMeaningful understanding of flow and solute transport in general requires the knowledge of hydraulic conductivity and its anisotropy. Various field methods allow the measurement of the horizontal component (Kh), but vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) is rarely measured, for lack of practical field tests. This paper proposes vertical interference slug tests, an adaptation of inter-well interference slug tests to a single well, for the efficient field measurement of Kv. The test is carried out in a single well between a stress and an observation interval that are vertically isolated with a three-packer assembly. An instantaneous pressure pulse is induced in the stress interval and resulting drawdowns are recorded in both the stress and the observation intervals. In a proof-of-concept field study, 12 vertical interference tests were carried out sequentially along a fully-screened well across a moderately heterogeneous and highly anisotropic aquifer made up of littoral silts and sands. A direct-push method was used to install the well, which was completed without sand-pack to allow the natural collapse of sediments in the thin annular space around the screen. Direct-push wells allow the measurement of in situ hydraulic properties of sediments and minimize well construction interferences with hydraulic tests. Drawdowns measured in stress and observation intervals of multiple tests were simultaneously inverted numerically to reconstruct heterogeneous profiles of Kh, hydraulic conductivity anisotropy (Kv/Kh), and specific storage (Ss). Results were validated by comparison of observed versus predicted drawdowns and with field and laboratory measurements of Kh and Kv made along the tested well. Results indicate that the profile of Kv values obtained with vertical interference slug tests follows a similar pattern with depth than the profile with lab measurements made with a permeameter on soil samples collected in the same intervals as the interference tests, which

  7. Effects of single cortisol administrations on human affect reviewed: Coping with stress through adaptive regulation of automatic cognitive processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, P.L.J.; Roelofs, K.

    2011-01-01

    The human stress hormone cortisol may facilitate effective coping after psychological stress. In apparent agreement, administration of cortisol has been demonstrated to reduce fear in response to stressors. For anxious patients with phobias or posttraumatic stress disorder this has been ascribed to

  8. Enhancing the Predictive Potential of Personality: Isolating Multiple Components of Trait Expression via a Single Administration Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    55 4.1 Government and Public Administration 35 2.6 Community and Social Service 29 2.1 Manufacturing 29 2.1 Hospitality and Tourism 25 1.8...beauty salon or barber shop . 34. Manage a department within a large company. 35. Start your own business. 36. Negotiate business contracts. 37

  9. Endotoxin testing of proteins for parenteral administration using the Mono Mac 6 assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Lise; Hansen, E W; Christensen, J D

    2000-01-01

    Pharmaceutical products containing proteins cause problems in testing for endotoxin and pyrogens. Many proteins interfere with the LAL test and the proteins are immunogenic in rabbits. The monocytic cell line Mono Mac 6 is an alternative assay for detection of endotoxin and other pyrogens....

  10. Screening of nanosatellite microprocessors using californium single-event latch-up test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Takahiro; Okumura, Yuta; Masui, Hirokazu; Takamiya, Koichi; Cho, Mengu

    2016-09-01

    A single-event latch-up (SEL) test using a 252Cf radioisotope was carried out. The results were compared with those of a proton test and from observation in orbit. A radioisotope can reproduce phenomena observed in orbit that are caused by protons. Considering the inexpensive nature of the 252Cf test, it is more suitable for nanosatellites that require low cost and fast delivery. A SEL occurrence rate of a commercial-off-the-shelf microprocessor was derived from the ground test results. The 252Cf test provided a SEL rate approximately 1×106 times greater than that in orbit. This data can be used to derive the minimum SEL occurrence rate in orbit and help satellite designers to evaluate the risk of SEL and take measures if necessary.

  11. Measurement of LNAPL flux using single-well intermittent mixing tracer dilution tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tim; Sale, Tom; Lyverse, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The stability of subsurface Light Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (LNAPLs) is a key factor driving expectations for remedial measures at LNAPL sites. The conventional approach to resolving LNAPL stability has been to apply Darcy's Equation. This paper explores an alternative approach wherein single-well tracer dilution tests with intermittent mixing are used to resolve LNAPL stability. As a first step, an implicit solution for single-well intermittent mixing tracer dilution tests is derived. This includes key assumptions and limits on the allowable time between intermittent mixing events. Second, single-well tracer dilution tests with intermittent mixing are conducted under conditions of known LNAPL flux. This includes a laboratory sand tank study and two field tests at active LNAPL recovery wells. Results from the sand tank studies indicate that LNAPL fluxes in wells can be transformed into formation fluxes using corrections for (1) LNAPL thicknesses in the well and formation and (2) convergence of flow to the well. Using the apparent convergence factor from the sand tank experiment, the average error between the known and measured LNAPL fluxes is 4%. Results from the field studies show nearly identical known and measured LNAPL fluxes at one well. At the second well the measured fluxes appear to exceed the known value by a factor of two. Agreement between the known and measured LNAPL fluxes, within a factor of two, indicates that single-well tracer dilution tests with intermittent mixing can be a viable means of resolving LNAPL stability. © 2012, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  12. Single-task and dual-task tandem gait test performance after concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, David R; Osternig, Louis R; Chou, Li-Shan

    2017-07-01

    To compare single-task and dual-task tandem gait test performance between athletes after concussion with controls on observer-timed, spatio-temporal, and center-of-mass (COM) balance control measurements. Ten participants (19.0±5.5years) were prospectively identified and completed a tandem gait test protocol within 72h of concussion and again 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, and 2 months post-injury. Seven uninjured controls (20.0±4.5years) completed the same protocol in similar time increments. Tandem gait test trials were performed with (dual-task) and without (single-task) concurrently performing a cognitive test as whole-body motion analysis was performed. Outcome variables included test completion time, average tandem gait velocity, cadence, and whole-body COM frontal plane displacement. Concussion participants took significantly longer to complete the dual-task tandem gait test than controls throughout the first 2 weeks post-injury (mean time=16.4 [95% CI: 13.4-19.4] vs. 10.1 [95% CI: 6.4-13.7] seconds; p=0.03). Single-task tandem gait times were significantly lower 72h post-injury (p=0.04). Dual-task cadence was significantly lower for concussion participants than controls (89.5 [95% CI: 68.6-110.4] vs. 127.0 [95% CI: 97.4-156.6] steps/minute; p=0.04). Moderately-high to high correlations between tandem gait test time and whole-body COM medial-lateral displacement were detected at each time point during dual-task gait (r s =0.70-0.93; p=0.03-0.001). Adding a cognitive task during the tandem gait test resulted in longer detectable deficits post-concussion compared to the traditional single-task tandem gait test. As a clinical tool to assess dynamic motor function, tandem gait may assist with return to sport decisions after concussion. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Automobile driver on-road performance test. Volume 2, Administrator's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-30

    This report provides procedures for setting up, administering, and scoring the Automobile Driver On-Road Performance Test (ADOPT). The ADOPT checks 21 separate driving performances. Performances are checked at pre-determined locations along a 10-minu...

  14. Estimation of single crystal elastic constants using ultrasonic testing - a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phani Kumar, K.K.; Rentala, Vamsi Krishna; Gautam, Jaiprakash; Mylavarapu, Phani

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of single crystal elastic constants (SCEC) of metallic materials is of paramount importance in the development of crystal plasticity based models as well as for studying the effect of microstructure on wave propagation. SCEC are usually determined destructively by tensile and shear loading a single crystal specimen. These constants can also be estimated non-destructively, using X-ray diffraction measurements on a polycrystalline specimen. However, the aforementioned procedures have a limitation of either the sample size (in case of X-ray diffraction) or, availability of single crystal (in case of destructive testing). Hence, in this study, an effort has been undertaken to estimate SCEC by subjecting polycrystalline specimens to ultrasonic testing. Ultrasonic longitudinal and shear velocities, longitudinal attenuation coefficient and ultrasonic backscattered grain noise will be measured on pure Cu specimen. Further, these parameters will also be calculated analytically using existing relationships involving, elastic constants, grain size probability level, ultrasonic longitudinal and shear wave velocities, attenuation coefficient and backscattered grain noise. By minimizing the difference between experimentally measured and analytically calculated ultrasonic parameters, an attempt will be made to estimate single crystal elastic constants. (author)

  15. Single well surfactant test to evaluate surfactant floods using multi tracer method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheely, Clyde Q.

    1979-01-01

    Data useful for evaluating the effectiveness of or designing an enhanced recovery process said process involving mobilizing and moving hydrocarbons through a hydrocarbon bearing subterranean formation from an injection well to a production well by injecting a mobilizing fluid into the injection well, comprising (a) determining hydrocarbon saturation in a volume in the formation near a well bore penetrating formation, (b) injecting sufficient mobilizing fluid to mobilize and move hydrocarbons from a volume in the formation near the well bore, and (c) determining the hydrocarbon saturation in a volume including at least a part of the volume of (b) by an improved single well surfactant method comprising injecting 2 or more slugs of water containing the primary tracer separated by water slugs containing no primary tracer. Alternatively, the plurality of ester tracers can be injected in a single slug said tracers penetrating varying distances into the formation wherein the esters have different partition coefficients and essentially equal reaction times. The single well tracer method employed is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,623,842. This method designated the single well surfactant test (SWST) is useful for evaluating the effect of surfactant floods, polymer floods, carbon dioxide floods, micellar floods, caustic floods and the like in subterranean formations in much less time and at much reduced cost compared to conventional multiwell pilot tests.

  16. The influence of the galenic form of 131I administration on the results of radioiodine tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Brand, J.; Staub, J.J.; Moeglen, C.; Peyer, P.

    1978-01-01

    A comparative study of thyroid uptake and PB 131 I in two groups of 20 euthyroid persons each was performed. In one group 131 I was administered in the form of capsules and in the other as a solution. The application of 131 I in capsule form showed no significant decrease of thyroid uptake at 2,24 and 48 hr but a significant diminishment of PB 131 I 48 hr after capsule ingestion. In 3 patients the scintiscans of the abdomen 24 hr after administration of three 131 I capsules (90μCi) revealed no circumscribed areas of activity. Because the iodine metabolism is dependent upon the kind of carrier, we conclude that for thyroid uptake measurements and the following 131 I therapy the same 131 I preparation should be used. (orig.) [de

  17. Measurement of single-top cross section and test of anomalous $Wtb$ coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Ji-Eun [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-01

    The top quark is most often produced in tt pairs via the strong interaction, however electroweak production of a singly-produced top quark is also possible. Electroweak single-top production is more difficult to observe than tt production. Studying single-top production is important for the following reasons. It provides direct measurement of the CKM matrix element and also single-top events are a background to several searches for SM or non-SM signals, such as Higgs boson searches. The information of spin polarization of top-quark can be used to t est anomalous W-t-b coupling. This thesis describes the result of a measurement of single-top cross-section and a test of anomalous W-t-b coupling using 4.8 f b-1 of data collected by the CDF Run II experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron. The measured cross-section is 1.83$+0.7\\atop{-0.6}$ pb and measured limit of |Vtb| is 0.41 at 95% CL. The fraction of V+A coupling is 0 ± 28 (%).

  18. A New Kind of Single-Well Tracer Test for Assessing Subsurface Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, S. K.; Vesselinov, V. V.; Lu, Z.; Reimus, P. W.; Katzman, D.

    2017-12-01

    Single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tracer tests have historically been interpreted using the idealized assumption of tracer path reversibility (i.e., negligible background flow), with background flow due to natural hydraulic gradient being an un-modeled confounding factor. However, we have recently discovered that it is possible to use background flow to our advantage to extract additional information about the subsurface. To wit: we have developed a new kind of single-well tracer test that exploits flow due to natural gradient to estimate the variance of the log hydraulic conductivity field of a heterogeneous aquifer. The test methodology involves injection under forced gradient and withdrawal under natural gradient, and makes use of a relationship, discovered using a large-scale Monte Carlo study and machine learning techniques, between power law breakthrough curve tail exponent and log-hydraulic conductivity variance. We will discuss how we performed the computational study and derived this relationship and then show an application example in which our new single-well tracer test interpretation scheme was applied to estimation of heterogeneity of a formation at the chromium contamination site at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Detailed core hole records exist at the same site, from which it was possible to estimate the log hydraulic conductivity variance using a Kozeny-Carman relation. The variances estimated using our new tracer test methodology and estimated by direct inspection of core were nearly identical, corroborating the new methodology. Assessment of aquifer heterogeneity is of critical importance to deployment of amendments associated with in-situ remediation strategies, since permeability contrasts potentially reduce the interaction between amendment and contaminant. Our new tracer test provides an easy way to obtain this information.

  19. Critical evaluation of the pulsed laser method for single event effects testing and fundamental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melinger, J.S.; Buchner, S.; McMorrow, D.; Stapor, W.J.; Weatherford, T.R.; Campbell, A.B.; Eisen, H.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the authors present an evaluation of the pulsed laser as a technique for single events effects (SEE) testing. They explore in detail the important optical effects, such as laser beam propagation, surface reflection, and linear and nonlinear absorption, which determine the nature of laser-generated charge tracks in semiconductor materials. While there are differences in the structure of laser- and ion-generated charge tracks, they show that in many cases the pulsed laser remains an invaluable tool for SEE testing. Indeed, for several SEE applications, they show that the pulsed laser method represents a more practical approach than conventional accelerator-based methods

  20. Testing of plain and fibrous concrete single cavity prestressed concrete reactor vessel models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oland, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Two single-cavity prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV) models were fabricated and tested to failure to demonstrate the structural response and ultimate pressure capacity of models cast from high-strength concretes. Concretes with design compressive strengths in excess of 70 MPa (10,000 psi) were developed for this investigation. One model was cast from plain concrete and failed in shear at the head region. The second model was cast from fiber reinforced concrete and failed by rupturing the circumferential prestressing at the sidewall of the structure. The tests also demonstrated the capabilities of the liner system to maintain a leak-tight pressure boundary. 3 refs., 4 figs

  1. Adenosine 2A receptor agonism: A single intrathecal administration attenuates motor paralysis in experimental autoimmune encephalopathy in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loram, L.C.; Strand, K.A.; Taylor, F.R.; Sloane, E.; van Dam, A.M.; Rieger, J.; Maier, S.F.; Watkins, L.R.

    2015-01-01

    A single intrathecal dose of adenosine 2A receptor (A2AR) agonist was previously reported to produce a multi-week reversal of allodynia in two different models of neuropathic pain in addition to downregulating glial activation markers in the spinal cord. We aimed to determine whether a

  2. Effectiveness Analysis of a Non-Destructive Single Event Burnout Test Methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Oser, P; Spiezia, G; Fadakis, E; Foucard, G; Peronnard, P; Masi, A; Gaillard, R

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to characterize power MosFETs regarding their tolerance to destructive Single Event Burnouts (SEB). Therefore, several non-destructive test methods have been developed to evaluate the SEB cross-section of power devices. A power MosFET has been evaluated using a test circuit, designed according to standard non-destructive test methods discussed in the literature. Guidelines suggest a prior adaptation of auxiliary components to the device sensitivity before the radiation test. With the first value chosen for the de-coupling capacitor, the external component initiated destructive events and affected the evaluation of the cross-section. As a result, the influence of auxiliary components on the device cross-section was studied. This paper presents the obtained experimental results, supported by SPICE simulations, to evaluate and discuss how the circuit effectiveness depends on the external components.

  3. Single-well "push-pull" partitioning tracer test for NAPL detection in the subsurface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istok, Jonathan D; Field, Jennifer A; Schroth, Martin H; Davis, Brian M; Dwarakanath, Varadarajan

    2002-06-15

    Previous environmental applications of partitioning tracer tests to detect and quantify nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contamination in the subsurface have been limited to well-to-well tests. However, theory and numerical modeling suggests that single-well injection-extraction ("push-pull") partitioning tracer tests can also potentially detect and quantify NAPL contamination. In this type of test, retardation factors for injected partitioning tracers are estimated from the increase in apparent dispersion observed in extraction-phase breakthrough curves in the presence of NAPL. A series of laboratory push-pull tests was conducted in physical aquifer models (PAMs) packed with natural aquifer sediment prepared with and without the presence of trichloroethene (TCE) NAPL. Field tests were conducted in an aquifer contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbon NAPL. Injected test solutions contained a suite of partitioning and conservative (nonpartitioning) alcohol tracers. Laboratory push-pull partitioning tracer tests were able to detect and quantify sorption of partitioning tracers to aquifer sediment (in the absence of NAPL) and to detect NAPL when it was present. NAPL saturations computed from estimated retardation factors bracketed those computed from known volumes of emplaced NAPL in the sediment pack. However, numerical modeling with assumed homogeneous NAPL distribution and linear equilibrium partitioning of tracers between aqueous and NAPL phases was unable to reproduce all features of observed breakthrough curves. Excavation of the sediment pack after all tests indicated that a portion of the emplaced NAPL had sunk to the bottom of the PAM invalidating the modeling assumption of homogeneous NAPL distribution. Moreover, the apparent dispersion in extraction-phase breakthrough curves decreased when the injection-extraction pumping rate was decreased, suggesting that mass transfer limitations existed during laboratory tests. Field push-pull partitioning tracer tests were

  4. Single-dose versus two-dose administration of methotrexate for the treatment of ectopic pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Taejong; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Kim, Mi-La; Jung, Yong Wook; Yun, Bo Seong; Seong, Seok Ju

    2016-02-01

    Can a two-dose methotrexate treatment protocol improve the treatment success rate compared with a single-dose protocol in women with an ectopic pregnancy? The two-dose protocol was not superior to the single-dose protocol for the treatment of ectopic pregnancy. Although the two-dose methotrexate protocol for ectopic pregnancy was recently introduced to combine the efficacy and convenience of the fixed multi-dose and single-dose protocols, studies comparing the success rates, treatment satisfaction and acceptability of the single-dose and two-dose treatment protocols for ectopic pregnancy are currently lacking. A randomized trial was conducted on 92 participants with tubal ectopic pregnancy, between May 2013 and April 2015. Patients who were diagnosed with tubal ectopic pregnancy and who elected to undergo systemic methotrexate treatment were randomly assigned to follow either the single-dose (n = 46) or two-dose protocol (n = 46). The primary outcome measure was treatment success without surgical intervention. The secondary outcome measures were the incidence of methotrexate-associated side effects, β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-hCG) resolution time, cost of care received and treatment satisfaction. There were no differences in baseline characteristics between the groups. The success rates between the single-dose and two-dose groups did not show a significant difference [82.6 versus 87.0%; relative risk (RR) 0.95; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-1.13]. However, the success rate in a subgroup of participants with a pretreatment β-hCG level of >5000 mIU/ml appeared to be higher in the two-dose group than in the single-dose group (80.0 versus 58.8%), although the difference was not statistically significant. No significant differences in methotrexate-associated side effects, cost or treatment satisfaction were observed between the groups. The two-dose group required a lower number of days for the β-hCG level to decrease to ectopic pregnancy. None. www

  5. Utilization of genomic testing in advanced non-small cell lung cancer among oncologists in the Veterans Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, Jennifer; Helm, Ashley; Crook, Travis; Braun, Ursula K; Chen, G John; Hayes, Teresa G

    2018-02-01

    Current national guidelines recommend genomic testing on all stage 4 non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) of adenocarcinoma histology. Mutations are most often found among young, Asian, females without a history of smoking. As these characteristics are uncommon in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patient population, we sought to understand oncologists' decision-making processes regarding utilization of genomic testing in the VHA. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 30 VHA-based medical oncologists. Interviews aimed to elicit oncologists' experiences and decision-making processes regarding genomic testing in patients with stage 4 non-small cell lung cancer with adenocarcinoma histology. Analysis was guided by principles of framework analysis. Sample size was determined by thematic saturation. We identified a wide variation in medical oncologists' genomic testing practices. Consistent with guidelines, advanced stage and adenocarcinoma histology most often influenced practice patterns among our participants. However, patient characteristics like gender, age, smoking status, and performance status were also taken in to account by some oncologists when making testing decisions. This does not reflect a widespread adoption of national guidelines for genomic testing in the VHA. Qualitative interviews with VHA-based oncologists demonstrated that genomic testing decisions are not always consistent with current national guidelines. Efforts should be made to address modifiable barriers to genomic testing in the VHA setting. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Fabrication and Testing of Full-Length Single-Cell Externally Fueled Converters for Thermionic Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-06-01

    The preceding paper described designs and analyses of thermionic reactors employing full-core-length single-cell converters with their heated emitters located on the outside of their internally cooled collectors, and it presented results of detailed parametric analyses which illustrate the benefits of this unconventional design. The present paper describes the fabrication and testing of full-length prototypical converters, both unfueled and fueled, and presents parametric results of electrically heated tests. The unfueled converter tests demonstrated the practicality of operating such long converters without shorting across a 0.3-mm interelectrode gap. They produced a measured peak output of 751 watts(e) from a single diode and a peak efficiency of 15.4%. The fueled converter tests measured the parametric performance of prototypic UO(subscript 2)-fueled converters designed for subsequent in-pile testing. They employed revolver-shaped tungsten elements with a central emitter hole surrounded by six fuel chambers. The full-length converters were heated by a water-cooled RF-induction coil inside an ion-pumped vacuum chamber. This required development of high-vacuum coaxial RF feedthroughs. In-pile test rules required multiple containment of the UO (subscript 2)-fuel, which complicated the fabrication of the test article and required successful development of techniques for welding tungsten and other refractory components. The test measured a peak power output of 530 watts(e) or 7.1 watts/cm (superscript 2) at an efficiency of 11.5%. There are three copies in the file. Cross-Reference a copy FSC-ESD-217-94-529 in the ESD files with a CID #8574.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of tedizolid following oral administration: single and multiple dose, effect of food, and comparison of two solid forms of the prodrug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Shawn D; Bien, Paul A; Muñoz, Kelly A; Minassian, Sonia L; Prokocimer, Philippe G

    2014-03-01

    The single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics (PK) of tedizolid were examined after oral administration of tedizolid phosphate disodium (TPD), including the effect of food on PK. The relative bioavailability of TPD to the free acid tedizolid phosphate was determined to bridge the results of these and other studies to the solid form of the prodrug selected for further development. Randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind single- and multiple-ascending dose studies and randomized open-label, crossover food effect and relative bioavailability studies. Clinical Research Units. Healthy subjects. Study TR701-101 enrolled 40 subjects in single-ascending dose (200-1200 mg TPD or placebo) and 40 subjects in 21-day multiple-ascending dose (200, 300, or 400 mg TPD once/day; 600 mg linezolid twice/day; or placebo) arms. Study TR701-103 was a food-effect study in 12 subjects administered 600 mg TPD. Study TR701-108 was a relative bioavailability study in 12 subjects administered 150-mg tedizolid equivalents as TPD or tedizolid phosphate. Plasma concentrations of the prodrug tedizolid phosphate, its active moiety tedizolid, and/or linezolid were collected. After administration of 200 to 600 mg TPD, tedizolid values increased approximately dose proportionally in area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ). Tedizolid half-life values were approximately 2-fold greater compared with linezolid. TPD administration with food delayed tedizolid absorption and reduced Cmax relative to the fasted state but did not alter AUC. Minimal accumulation was predicted and observed for tedizolid, whereas observed accumulation of linezolid exceeded predictions based on single-dose PK. Comparable PK of tedizolid was observed following oral administration of either TPD or tedizolid phosphate. In the multiple-ascending dose study, 3 of 24 tedizolid subjects were withdrawn under prespecified stopping rules (one each of elevated alanine

  8. Effect of low dose Lead (Pb) administration on tail immersion test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The last group served as control and were given distilled water only. In the tail immersion test, there was no significant change in reaction time for all three groups when compared to the control. In the formalin-induced pain, pain score after five and forty-five minutes also do not show significant change for all the three groups ...

  9. Superovulation with a single administration of FSH in aluminum hydroxide gel: a novel superovulation method for cattle

    OpenAIRE

    KIMURA, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Superovulation (SOV) is a necessary technique to produce large numbers of embryos for embryo transfer. In the conventional methods, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) is administered to donor cattle twice daily for 3 to 4 days. As this method is labor intensive and stresses cattle, improving this method has been desired. We previously developed a novel and simple SOV method, in which the intramuscular injection of a single dose of FSH in aluminum hydroxide gel (AH-gel) induced the growth of...

  10. Acute effects of a single, oral dose of d9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) administration in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Santos, R; Crippa, J A; Batalla, A; Bhattacharyya, S; Atakan, Z; Borgwardt, S; Allen, P; Seal, M; Langohr, K; Farré, M; Zuardi, A W; McGuire, P K

    2012-01-01

    Animal and humans studies suggest that the two main constituents of cannabis sativa, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) have quite different acute effects. However, to date the two compounds have largely been studied separately. To evaluate and compare the acute pharmacological effects of both THC and CBD in the same human volunteers. A randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo controlled trial was conducted in 16 healthy male subjects. Oral THC 10 mg or CBD 600 mg or placebo was administered in three consecutive sessions, at one-month interval. Physiological measures and symptom ratings were assessed before, and at 1, 2 and 3 hours post drug administration. The area under the curve (AUC) between baseline and 3 hours, and the maximum absolute change from baseline at 2 hours were analysed by one-way repeated measures analysis of variance, with drug condition (THC or CBD or placebo) as the factor. Relative to both placebo and CBD, administration of THC was associated with anxiety, dysphoria, positive psychotic symptoms, physical and mental sedation, subjective intoxication (AUC and effect at 2 hours: p CBD and placebo on any symptomatic, physiological variable. In healthy volunteers, THC has marked acute behavioural and physiological effects, whereas CBD has proven to be safe and well tolerated.

  11. Predicting muscle forces during the propulsion phase of single leg triple hop test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvim, Felipe Costa; Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia; Menegaldo, Luciano Luporini

    2018-01-01

    Functional biomechanical tests allow the assessment of musculoskeletal system impairments in a simple way. Muscle force synergies associated with movement can provide additional information for diagnosis. However, such forces cannot be directly measured noninvasively. This study aims to estimate muscle activations and forces exerted during the preparation phase of the single leg triple hop test. Two different approaches were tested: static optimization (SO) and computed muscle control (CMC). As an indirect validation, model-estimated muscle activations were compared with surface electromyography (EMG) of selected hip and thigh muscles. Ten physically healthy active women performed a series of jumps, and ground reaction forces, kinematics and EMG data were recorded. An existing OpenSim model with 92 musculotendon actuators was used to estimate muscle forces. Reflective markers data were processed using the OpenSim Inverse Kinematics tool. Residual Reduction Algorithm (RRA) was applied recursively before running the SO and CMC. For both, the same adjusted kinematics were used as inputs. Both approaches presented similar residuals amplitudes. SO showed a closer agreement between the estimated activations and the EMGs of some muscles. Due to inherent EMG methodological limitations, the superiority of SO in relation to CMC can be only hypothesized. It should be confirmed by conducting further studies comparing joint contact forces. The workflow presented in this study can be used to estimate muscle forces during the preparation phase of the single leg triple hop test and allows investigating muscle activation and coordination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT) on Single V-Butt Weld Integrity Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amry Amin Abas; Mohd Kamal Shah Shamsudin; Norhazleena Azaman

    2015-01-01

    Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT) utilizes arrays of piezoelectric elements that are embedded in an epoxy base. The benefit of having such kind of array is that beam forming such as steering and focusing the beam front possible. This enables scanning patterns such as linear scan, sectorial scan and depth focusing scan to be performed. Ultrasonic phased array systems can potentially be employed in almost any test where conventional ultrasonic flaw detectors have traditionally been used. Weld inspection and crack detection are the most important applications, and these tests are done across a wide range of industries including aerospace, power generation, petrochemical, metal billet and tubular goods suppliers, pipeline construction and maintenance, structural metals, and general manufacturing. Phased arrays can also be effectively used to profile remaining wall thickness in corrosion survey applications. The benefits of PAUT are simplifying inspection of components of complex geometry, inspection of components with limited access, testing of welds with multiple angles from a single probe and increasing the probability of detection while improving signal-to-noise ratio. This paper compares the result of inspection on several specimens using PAUT as to digital radiography. The specimens are welded plates with single V-butt weld made of carbon steel. Digital radiography is done using blue imaging plate with x-ray source. PAUT is done using Olympus MX2 with 5 MHz probe consisting of 64 elements. The location, size and length of defect is compared. (author)

  13. Should the diagnosis of COPD be based on a single spirometry test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermer, Tjard R; Robberts, Bas; Crockett, Alan J; Thoonen, Bart P; Lucas, Annelies; Grootens, Joke; Smeele, Ivo J; Thamrin, Cindy; Reddel, Helen K

    2016-09-29

    Clinical guidelines indicate that a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) diagnosis is made from a single spirometry test. However, long-term stability of diagnosis based on forced expiratory volume in 1 s over forced vital capacity (FEV 1 /FVC) ratio has not been reported. In primary care subjects at risk for COPD, we investigated shifts in diagnostic category (obstructed/non-obstructed). The data were from symptomatic 40+ years (ex-)smokers referred for diagnostic spirometry, with three spirometry tests, each 12±2 months apart. The obstruction was based on post-bronchodilator FEV 1 /FVC smokers or SABA users at year 1. Change from non-obstructed to obstructed was more likely for males, older subjects, current smokers and patients with lower baseline FEV 1 % predicted, and less likely for those with higher baseline BMI. Up to one-third of symptomatic (ex-)smokers with baseline obstruction on diagnostic spirometry had shifted to non-obstructed when routinely re-tested after 1 or 2 years. Given the implications for patients and health systems of a diagnosis of COPD, it should not be based on a single spirometry test.

  14. A closed-form analytical solution for thermal single-well injection-withdrawal tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yoojin; Pruess, Karsten

    2012-03-01

    Thermal single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tests entail pumping cold water into a hot and usually fractured reservoir, and monitoring the temperature recovery during subsequent backflow. Such tests have been proposed as a potential means to characterize properties of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), such as fracture spacing, connectivity, and porosity. In this paper we develop an analytical solution for thermal SWIW tests, using an idealized model of a single vertical fracture with linear flow geometry embedded in impermeable conductive wall rocks. The analytical solution shows that the time dependence of temperature recovery is dominated by the heat exchange between fracture and matrix rock, but strong thermal diffusivities of rocks as compared to typical solute diffusivities are not necessarily advantageous for characterizing fracture-matrix interactions. The effect of fracture aperture on temperature recovery during backflow is weak, particularly when the fracture aperture is smaller than 0.1 cm. The solution also shows that temperature recovery during backflow is independent of the applied injection and backflow rates. This surprising result implies that temperature recovery is independent of the height of the fracture, or the specific fracture-matrix interface areas per unit fracture length, suggesting that thermal SWIW tests will not be able to characterize fracture growth that may be achieved by stimulation treatments.

  15. Cognitive Testing of Tobacco Use Items for Administration to Cancer Patients and Survivors in Clinical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Stephanie R.; Warren, Graham W.; Crafts, Jennifer; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Ostroff, Jamie S.; Willis, Gordon; Chollette, Veronica; Mitchell, Sandra A.; Folz, Jasmine; Gulley, James L.; Szabo, Eva; Brandon, Thomas H.; Duffy, Sonia; Toll, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Background There are currently no standardized measures of tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure in patients diagnosed with cancer, and this gap hinders the conduct of studies examining the impact of tobacco on cancer treatment outcomes. Our objective was to evaluate and refine questionnaire items proposed by an expert task force to assess tobacco use. Methods Trained interviewers conducted cognitive testing with cancer patients age 21 or older with a history of tobacco use and cancer diagnosis of any stage and organ site, recruited at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (Bethesda, MD). Iterative rounds of testing and item modification were conducted to identify and resolve cognitive issues (comprehension, memory retrieval, decision/judgment, response mapping) and instrument navigation issues until no items warranted further significant modification. Results Thirty participants (6 current cigarette smokers, 1 current cigar smoker, 23 former cigarette smokers) were enrolled from September 2014 to February 2015. Most items functioned well. However, qualitative testing identified wording ambiguities related to cancer diagnosis and treatment trajectory, such as “treatment” and “surgery”; difficulties with lifetime recall; errors in estimating quantities; and difficulties with instrument navigation. Revisions to item wording, format, order, response options, and instructions resulted in a questionnaire that demonstrated navigational ease as well as good question comprehension and response accuracy. Conclusions The NCI-AACR Cancer Patient Tobacco Use Questionnaire (C-TUQ) can be utilized as a standardized item set to accelerate investigation of tobacco use in the cancer setting. PMID:27019325

  16. Single-dose Intravenous Toxicology Testing of Daebohwalryeok Pharmcopuncture in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Seung-Ho; Park, Sunju; Jeong, Jong-Jin; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Yu, Jun-Sang; Seo, Hyung-Sik; Kwon, Ki-Rok

    2015-06-01

    The aims of the study were to test the single-dose intravenous toxicity of Daebohwalryeok pharmacopuncture (DHRP) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and to estimate the crude lethal dose. The experiments were conducted at Biotoxtech Co., a Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) laboratory, according to the GLP regulation and were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Biotoxtech Co. (Approval no: 110156). The rats were divided into three groups: DHRP was injected into the rats in the two test groups at doses of 10 mL/kg and 20 mL/kg, respectively, and normal saline solution was injected into the rats in the control group. Single doses of DHRP were injected intravenously into 6 week old SD rats (5 male and 5 female rats per group). General symptoms were observed and weights were measured during the 14 day observation period after the injection. After the observation period, necropsies were done. Then, histopathological tests were performed. Weight data were analyzed with a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) by using statistical analysis system (SAS, version 9.2). No deaths and no statistical significant weight changes were observed for either male or female SD rats in either the control or the test groups during the observation period. In addition, no treatment related general symptoms or necropsy abnormalities were observed. Histopathological results showed no DHRP related effects in the 20 mL/kg DHRP group for either male or female rats. Under the conditions of this study, the results from single-dose intravenous injections of DHRP showed that estimated lethal doses for both male and female rats were above 20 mL/kg.

  17. Single-dose Intravenous Toxicology Testing of Daebohwalryeok Pharmcopuncture in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Ho Sun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of the study were to test the single-dose intravenous toxicity of Daebohwalryeok pharmacopuncture (DHRP in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats and to estimate the crude lethal dose. Methods: The experiments were conducted at Biotoxtech Co., a Good Laboratory Practice (GLP laboratory, according to the GLP regulation and were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Biotoxtech Co. (Approval no: 110156. The rats were divided into three groups: DHRP was injected into the rats in the two test groups at doses of 10 mL/kg and 20 mL/kg, respectively, and normal saline solution was injected into the rats in the control group. Single doses of DHRP were injected intravenously into 6 week old SD rats (5 male and 5 female rats per group. General symptoms were observed and weights were measured during the 14 day observation period after the injection. After the observation period, necropsies were done. Then, histopathological tests were performed. Weight data were analyzed with a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA by using statistical analysis system (SAS, version 9.2. Results: No deaths and no statistical significant weight changes were observed for either male or female SD rats in either the control or the test groups during the observation period. In addition, no treatment related general symptoms or necropsy abnormalities were observed. Histopathological results showed no DHRP related effects in the 20 mL/kg DHRP group for either male or female rats. Conclusion: Under the conditions of this study, the results from single-dose intravenous injections of DHRP showed that estimated lethal doses for both male and female rats were above 20 mL/kg.

  18. Toxicokinetics of bisphenol A in female DA/Han rats after a single i.v. and oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upmeier, A; Degen, G H; Diel, P; Michna, H; Bolt, H M

    2000-10-01

    Bisphenol A [BPA; 2,2-bis-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propane] is a monomer used in the manufacture of resins with a wide range of applications, e.g. plastic coatings in the food packaging industry. BPA has been shown to have a weak oestrogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. Despite its low oestrogenic potency there is concern that, as a consequence of slow clearance, BPA might reach biologically significant levels in humans and animals exposed to environmental levels. To address this concern, we assessed the kinetic behaviour of BPA in female DA/Han rats. Groups of female rats received 10 mg BPA/kg body weight intravenously or 10 or 100 mg BPA/kg body weight orally (by gavage). Blood samples were collected at different time-points and plasma was prepared. Free BPA in the samples was isolated by fluid-fluid extraction. BPA was measured by GC-MS which allowed the reliable determination of BPA concentrations as low as approximately 10 ng/ml plasma. Immediately after i.v. administration, the BPA plasma concentration was in the range of about 15 microg/ml and decreased rapidly within the first hour (to 700 ng/ml). The levels declined further (100 ng/ml at 2 h), and after 24 h the analytical detection limit was reached. BPA was detected in plasma as early as 10 min after gavage administration, indicating rapid initial uptake from the gastrointestinal tract. Absorption of BPA was variable. In animals receiving 10 mg/kg, maximal plasma levels were reached after 1.5 h (31 ng/ ml) and 6 h (40 ng/ml). In animals receiving 100 mg/kg, plasma levels reached maxima around 30 min (150 ng/ml) and 3 h (134 ng/ml) after administration. After 48 h BPA was at or below the detection limit in both dose groups. Fluctuations in the BPA plasma concentrations over time point to the possibility of enterohepatic recirculation and protracted absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. Using the area under the concentration-time curves (AUCs), low bioavailabilities of 16.4% and 5.6% were calculated for

  19. Single systemic administration of Ag85B of mycobacteria DNA inhibits allergic airway inflammation in a mouse model of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamatsu K

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Katsuo Karamatsu,1,2 Kazuhiro Matsuo,3 Hiroyasu Inada,4 Yusuke Tsujimura,1 Yumiko Shiogama,1,2 Akihiro Matsubara,1,2 Mitsuo Kawano,5 Yasuhiro Yasutomi1,21Laboratory of Immunoregulation and Vaccine Research, Tsukuba Primate Research Center, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Tsukuba, 2Division of Immunoregulation, Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, 3Department of Research and Development, Japan BCG Laboratory, Tokyo, 4Department of Pathology, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, 5Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, JapanAbstract: The immune responses of T-helper (Th and T-regulatory cells are thought to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation observed in asthma. The correction of immune response by these cells should be considered in the prevention and treatment of asthma. Native antigen 85B (Ag85B of mycobacteria, which cross-reacts among mycobacteria species, may play an important biological role in host–pathogen interaction since it elicits various immune responses by activation of Th cells. The current study investigated the antiallergic inflammatory effects of DNA administration of Ag85B from Mycobacterium kansasii in a mouse model of asthma. Immunization of BALB/c mice with alum-adsorbed ovalbumin followed by aspiration with aerosolized ovalbumin resulted in the development of allergic airway inflammation. Administration of Ag85B DNA before the aerosolized ovalbumin challenge protected the mice from subsequent induction of allergic airway inflammation. Serum and bronchoalveolar lavage immunoglobulin E levels, extent of eosinophil infiltration, and levels of Th2-type cytokines in Ag85B DNA-administered mice were significantly lower than those in control plasmid-immunized mice, and levels of Th1- and T-regulatory-type cytokines were enhanced by Ag85B

  20. Changes in growth hormone (GH) messenger RNA (GH mRNA) expression in the rat anterior pituitary after single interferon (IFN) alpha administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanowski, W.; Braczkowski, R.; Nowakowska-Zajdel, E.; Muc-Wierzgon, M.; Zubelewicz-Szkodzinska, B.; Kosiewicz, J.; Korzonek, I.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Interferon a (IFN-a) is a cytokine with pleiotropic effects which, via different pathways, influences the secretion of certain cytokines and hormones. Growth hormone (GH) secreted from the pituitary has physiological effects on various target tissues. The question is how IFN-a administered in various types of disease influences GH secretion. This study investigated the acute effect of IFN-a on GH mRNA expression in the rat anterior pituitary. Objective: The aim of the study was to measure the cellular expression of GH mRNA by in situ hybridisation in the anterior pituitary after a single administration of IFN-a. Material and methods: Rats were administered an intraperitoneal injection of IFN-a or saline. The rat pituitaries were taken 2 and 4 hours after IFN/saline administration and kept frozen until in situ hybridisation histochemistry. A 31 - base 35S -labelled oligonucleotide probe complementary to part of the exonic mRNA sequence coding for GH mRNA was used. All control and experimental sections were hybridised in the same hybridisation reaction. Results: Acute administration of interferon a increased GH mRNA expression in the anterior pituitary in the 4-hour group in comparison with the control group, and there was no difference between the control group and the 2-hour rats. Conclusion: A single IFN-a administration was found to exert an influence on anterior pituitary GH mRNA expression. These observations may pave the way for presenting a possible new action of IFN-a. (author) GH mRNA, anterior pituitary, interferon

  1. Are single-well "push-pull" tests suitable tracer methods for aquifer characterization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebig, Klaus; Zeilfelder, Sarah; Ito, Narimitsu; Machida, Isao; Scheytt, Traugott; Marui, Atsunao

    2013-04-01

    Recently, investigations were conducted for geological and hydrogeological characterisation of the sedimentary coastal basin of Horonobe (Hokkaido, Japan). Coastal areas are typical geological settings in Japan, which are less tectonically active than the mountain ranges. In Asia, and especially in Japan, these areas are often densely populated. Therefore, it is important to investigate the behaviour of solutes in such unconsolidated aquifers. In such settings sometimes only single boreholes or groundwater monitoring wells are available for aquifer testing for various reasons, e.g. depths of more than 100 m below ground level and slow groundwater velocities due to density driven flow. A standard tracer test with several involved groundwater monitoring wells is generally very difficult or even not possible at these depths. One of the most important questions in our project was how we can obtain information about chemical and hydraulic properties in such aquifers. Is it possible to characterize solute transport behaviour parameters with only one available groundwater monitoring well or borehole? A so-called "push-pull" test may be one suitable method for aquifer testing with only one available access point. In a push-pull test a known amount of several solutes including a conservative tracer is injected into the aquifer ("push") and afterwards extracted ("pull"). The measured breakthrough curve during the pumping back phase can then be analysed. This method has already been used previously with various aims, also in the recent project (e.g. Hebig et al. 2011, Zeilfelder et al. 2012). However, different test setups produced different tracer breakthrough curves. As no systematic evaluation of this aquifer tracer test method was done so far, nothing is known about its repeatability. Does the injection and extraction rate influence the shape of the breakthrough curve? Which role plays the often applied "chaser", which is used to push the test solution out from the

  2. Comparison of simultaneous and sequential administration of fentanyl-propofol for surgical abortion: a randomized single-blinded controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Sha, Baoyong; Zhao, Yuan; Fan, Zhe; Liu, Lin; Shen, Xin

    2017-08-01

    Propofol lipid emulsion (PLE) is a nanosized sedative, and it is used with a combination of salted antalgic prodrug, fentanyl citrate (FC). To illustrate the synergistic effect of mixing, we compared the sedation/analgesia resulting from simultaneous and sequential administration in surgically induced abortion (No. ChiCTR-IPC-15006153). Simultaneous group showed lower bispectral index, blood pressure, and heart rate, when cannula was inserted into the uterus. It also showed less frequency of hypertension, sinus tachycardia, movement, pain at the injection site, and additional FC. Therefore, premixing of PLE and FC enhanced the sedation and analgesia; stabilized the hemodynamics; lessened the incidence of movement and injection pain; and reduced the requirement of drugs.

  3. Population pharmacokinetics of methadone hydrochloride after a single intramuscular administration in adult Japanese sika deer (Cervus nippon nippon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Christopher; Marsot, Amélie; Limoges, Marie-Josée; Locatelli, Yann; Simon, Nicolas; Alvarez, Jean-Claude

    2015-03-01

    To assess the population pharmacokinetics of methadone in deer. Prospective non-randomized experimental trial. Twelve healthy adult sika deer (nine males and three females). Deer received intramuscular administration of racemic methadone hydrochloride at 0.5 mg kg(-1) or 1 mg kg(-1) . Plasma methadone and its metabolite 2-Ethylidene-1,5-Dimethyl-3,3-Diphenyl-Pyrolidine (EDDP) concentrations were determined by validated liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry methods, at times 0, 30 minutes, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12 and 24 hours. Population pharmacokinetics analysis was undertaken using a non-linear mixed effects modelling (NONMEM). A two-compartment linear disposition model best described observed time-concentration profiles of methadone and EDDP. Population parameter estimates of methadone were elimination clearance (17.3 L hour(-1) ), metabolic clearance (34.6 L hour(-1) ), volume of distribution of compartment 1 (216.0 L) and volume of distribution of compartment 2 (384.0 L). Population parameter estimates of EDDP were elimination clearance (121.0 L hour(-1) ), volume of distribution of compartment 3 (1.08 L) and volume of distribution of compartment 4 (499.5 L). The total clearance and total volume of distribution of methadone and EDDP were 51.9 L hour(-1) , 121.0 L hour (-1) , 600.0 L and 500.6 L, respectively. The methadone terminal elimination half-life was 8.19 hours. No adverse effects were observed after methadone administration. Following intramuscular injection, methadone was characterized by a large total volume of distribution, high systemic clearance and intermediate terminal half-life in sika deer. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  4. Firefly Optimization and Mathematical Modeling of a Vehicle Crash Test Based on Single-Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Klausen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper mathematical modeling of a vehicle crash test based on a single-mass is studied. The model under consideration consists of a single-mass coupled with a spring and/or a damper. The parameters for the spring and damper are obtained by analyzing the measured acceleration in the center of gravity of the vehicle during a crash. A model with a nonlinear spring and damper is also proposed and the parameters will be optimized with different damper and spring characteristics and optimization algorithms. The optimization algorithms used are interior-point and firefly algorithm. The objective of this paper is to compare different methods used to establish a simple model of a car crash and validate the results against real crash data.

  5. Single-Event Effect Testing of the Linear Technology LTC6103HMS8#PBF Current Sense Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Ka-Yen; Campola, Michael J.; Wilcox, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The LTC6103HMS8#PBF (henceforth abbreviated as LTC6103) current sense amplifier from Linear Technology was tested for both destructive and non-destructive single-event effects (SEE) using the heavy-ion cyclotron accelerator beam at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Berkeley Accelerator Effects (BASE) facility. During testing, the input voltages and output currents were monitored to detect single event latch-up (SEL) and single-event transients (SETs).

  6. Fractal and Morphological Characteristics of Single Marble Particle Crushing in Uniaxial Compression Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yidong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Crushing of rock particles is a phenomenon commonly encountered in geotechnical engineering practice. It is however difficult to study the crushing of rock particles using classical theory because the physical structure of the particles is complex and irregular. This paper aims at evaluating fractal and morphological characteristics of single rock particle. A large number of particle crushing tests are conducted on single rock particle. The force-displacement curves and the particle size distributions (PSD of crushed particles are analysed based on particle crushing tests. Particle shape plays an important role in both the micro- and macroscale responses of a granular assembly. The PSD of an assortment of rocks are analysed by fractal methods, and the fractal dimension is obtained. A theoretical formula for particle crushing strength is derived, utilising the fractal model, and a simple method is proposed for predicting the probability of particle survival based on the Weibull statistics. Based on a few physical assumptions, simple equations are derived for determining particle crushing energy. The results of applying these equations are tested against the actual experimental data and prove to be very consistent. Fractal theory is therefore applicable for analysis of particle crushing.

  7. Comparative pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of tylosin tartrate and tylosin phosphate after a single oral and i.v. administration in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, L-W; Dong, L-L; Ji, H; Feng, X-W; Li, D; Ding, R-L; Jiang, S-X

    2014-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics and oral bioavailability of tylosin tartrate and tylosin phosphate were carried out in broiler chickens according to a principle of single dose, random, parallel design. The two formulations of tylosin were given orally and intravenously at a dose level of 10 mg/kg b.w to chicken after an overnight fasting (n = 10 chickens/group). Serial blood samples were collected at different time points up to 24 h postdrug administration. A high performance liquid chromatography method was used for the determination of tylosin concentrations in chicken plasma. The tylosin plasma concentration's time plot of each chicken was analyzed by the 3P97 software. The pharmacokinetics of tylosin was best described by a one-compartmental open model 1st absorption after oral administration. After intravenous administration the pharmacokinetics of tylosin was best described by a two-compartmental open model, and there were no significant differences between tylosin tartrate and tylosin phosphate. After oral administration, there were significant differences in the Cmax (0.18 ± 0.01, 0.44 ± 0.09) and AUC (0.82 ± 0.05, 1.57 ± 0.25)between tylosin phosphate and tylosin tartrate. The calculated oral bioavailability (F) of tylosin tartrate and tylosin phosphate were 25.78% and 13.73%, respectively. Above all, we can reasonably conclude that, the absorption of tylosin tartrate is better than tylosin phosphate after oral administration. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Tidal Volume Single Breath Washout of Two Tracer Gases - A Practical and Promising Lung Function Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Florian; Stern, Georgette; Thamrin, Cindy; Fuchs, Oliver; Riedel, Thomas; Gustafsson, Per; Frey, Urs; Latzin, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    Background Small airway disease frequently occurs in chronic lung diseases and may cause ventilation inhomogeneity (VI), which can be assessed by washout tests of inert tracer gas. Using two tracer gases with unequal molar mass (MM) and diffusivity increases specificity for VI in different lung zones. Currently washout tests are underutilised due to the time and effort required for measurements. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple technique for a new tidal single breath washout test (SBW) of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and helium (He) using an ultrasonic flowmeter (USFM). Methods The tracer gas mixture contained 5% SF6 and 26.3% He, had similar total MM as air, and was applied for a single tidal breath in 13 healthy adults. The USFM measured MM, which was then plotted against expired volume. USFM and mass spectrometer signals were compared in six subjects performing three SBW. Repeatability and reproducibility of SBW, i.e., area under the MM curve (AUC), were determined in seven subjects performing three SBW 24 hours apart. Results USFM reliably measured MM during all SBW tests (n = 60). MM from USFM reflected SF6 and He washout patterns measured by mass spectrometer. USFM signals were highly associated with mass spectrometer signals, e.g., for MM, linear regression r-squared was 0.98. Intra-subject coefficient of variation of AUC was 6.8%, and coefficient of repeatability was 11.8%. Conclusion The USFM accurately measured relative changes in SF6 and He washout. SBW tests were repeatable and reproducible in healthy adults. We have developed a fast, reliable, and straightforward USFM based SBW method, which provides valid information on SF6 and He washout patterns during tidal breathing. PMID:21423739

  9. Cross-Mode Comparability of Computer-Based Testing (CBT) versus Paper-Pencil Based Testing (PPT): An Investigation of Testing Administration Mode among Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshsima, Hooshang; Hosseini, Monirosadat; Toroujeni, Seyyed Morteza Hashemi

    2017-01-01

    Advent of technology has caused growing interest in using computers to convert conventional paper and pencil-based testing (Henceforth PPT) into Computer-based testing (Henceforth CBT) in the field of education during last decades. This constant promulgation of computers to reshape the conventional tests into computerized format permeated the…

  10. Summary of Group Development and Testing for Single Shell Tank Closure at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, John, R.

    2005-04-28

    This report is a summary of the bench-scale and large scale experimental studies performed by Savannah River National Laboratory for CH2M HILL to develop grout design mixes for possible use in producing fill materials as a part of Tank Closure of the Single-Shell Tanks at Hanford. The grout development data provided in this report demonstrates that these design mixes will produce fill materials that are ready for use in Hanford single shell tank closure. The purpose of this report is to assess the ability of the proposed grout specifications to meet the current requirements for successful single shell tank closure which will include the contracting of services for construction and operation of a grout batch plant. The research and field experience gained by SRNL in the closure of Tanks 17F and 20F at the Savannah River Site was leveraged into the grout development efforts for Hanford. It is concluded that the three Hanford grout design mixes provide fill materials that meet the current requirements for successful placement. This conclusion is based on the completion of recommended testing using Hanford area materials by the operators of the grout batch plant. This report summarizes the regulatory drivers and the requirements for grout mixes as tank fill material. It is these requirements for both fresh and cured grout properties that drove the development of the grout formulations for the stabilization, structural and capping layers.

  11. Experimental study on the single event effects in pulse width modulators by laser testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wen; Guo Xiaoqiang; Chen Wei; Guo Hongxia; Lin Dongsheng; Luo Yinhong; Ding Lili; Wang Yuanming; Wang Hanning

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents single event effect (SEE) characteristics of UC1845AJ pulse width modulators (PWMs) by laser testing. In combination with analysis to map PWM circuitry in the microchip dies, the typical SEE response waveforms for laser pulses located in different circuit blocks of UC1845AJ are obtained and the SEE mechanisms are analyzed. The laser SEE test results show that there are some differences in the SEE mechanisms of different circuit blocks, and phase shifts or changes in the duty cycles of few output pulses are the main SEE behaviors for UC1845AJ. In addition, a new SEE behavior which manifests as changes in the duty cycles of many output pulses is revealed. This means that an SEE hardened design should be considered. (paper)

  12. Concurrent administration of donepezil HCl and sertraline HCl in healthy volunteers: assessment of pharmacokinetic changes and safety following single and multiple oral doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Christa F; Kumar, Dinesh; Perdomo, Carlos A; Wason, Suman; Cullen, Edward I; Pratt, Raymond D

    2004-01-01

    Aim This study evaluated the safety and pharmacokinetics (PK) of donepezil HCl and sertraline HCl when administered separately and in combination. Methods This was a randomized, open-label, three-period crossover study. In consecutive dosing periods separated by washout periods of ≥3 weeks, healthy volunteers received either oral donepezil HCI 5 mg once daily for 15 days, oral sertraline HCl 50 mg once daily for 5 days followed by 10 days of once-daily sertraline HCl 100 mg, or the simultaneous administration of oral donepezil HCl and sertraline HCl. Plasma donepezil and sertraline concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Safety was evaluated by physical and laboratory evaluations and the monitoring of adverse events (AEs). Results A total of 19 volunteers (16 male and three female) were enrolled. Three male subjects withdrew from the study prematurely due to AEs (one case of nausea/stomach cramps and one case of eosinophilia during combination treatment, and one upper respiratory tract infection during treatment with sertraline HCl alone). In subjects who completed all three treatment periods (n = 16), the concurrent administration of donepezil HCl and sertraline HCl did not alter the steady-state (day 15) PK parameters of donepezil HCl. A small (<12%) but statistically significant (P = 0.02) increase in donepezil Cmax was seen after single doses of sertraline HCl and donepezil HCl on day 1 but this was not thought to be clinically meaningful. No significant differences in the tmax or AUC0–24 h of donepezil were observed between the donepezil HCl only or donepezil HCl plus sertraline HCl groups on day 1. No significant changes in sertraline PK parameters were observed either on day 1 (single dose) or on day 15 (steady state) when sertraline HCl was co-administered with donepezil HCl. Generally, the concurrent administration of donepezil HCl and sertraline HCl was well tolerated, with no serious AEs reported

  13. A single dose of dexamethasone encapsulated in polyethylene glycol-coated polylactic acid nanoparticles attenuates cisplatin-induced hearing loss following round window membrane administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun CL

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Changling Sun,1,3,* Xueling Wang,1,* Zhaozhu Zheng,2 Dongye Chen,1 Xiaoqin Wang,2 Fuxin Shi,1 Dehong Yu,1 Hao Wu11Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Xinhua Hospital, Ear Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Translational Medicine on Ear and Nose Diseases, Shanghai, 2National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, Soochow University, Suzhou, 3Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangnan University, The Fourth People’s Hospital of Wuxi City, Wuxi, People’s Republic of China*These authors have contributed equally to this workAbstract: This study aimed to investigate the sustained drug release properties and hearing protection effect of polyethylene glycol-coated polylactic acid (PEG-PLA stealth nanoparticles loaded with dexamethasone (DEX. DEX was fabricated into PEG-PLA nanoparticles using an emulsion and evaporation technique, as previously reported. The DEX-loaded PEG-PLA nanoparticles (DEX-NPs had a hydrodynamic diameter of 130±4.78 nm, and a zeta potential of -26.13±3.28 mV. The in vitro release of DEX from DEX-NPs lasted 24 days in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4, 5 days in artificial perilymph (pH 7.4, and 1 day in rat plasma. Coumarin 6-labeled NPs placed onto the round window membrane (RWM of guinea pigs penetrated RWM quickly and accumulated to the organs of Corti, stria vascularis, and spiral ganglion cells after 1 hour of administration. The DEX-NPs locally applied onto the RWM of guinea pigs by a single-dose administration continuously released DEX in 48 hours, which was significantly longer than the free DEX that was cleared out within 12 hours after administration at the same dose. Further functional studies showed that locally administrated single-dose DEX-NPs effectively preserved outer hair cells in guinea pigs after cisplatin insult and thus significantly attenuated hearing loss at 4 kHz and 8

  14. Study of single dose toxic test of Sweet Bee Venom in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Chul, Yoon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was performed to analyse single dose toxicity of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV extracted from the bee venom in Beagle dogs. Methods : All experiments were conducted under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical study authorized institution. Male and female Beagle dogs of 5-6 months old were chosen for the pilot study of single dose toxicity of Sweet BV which was administered at the level of 9.0 ㎎/㎏ body weight which is 1300 times higher than the clinical application dosage as the high dosage, followed by 3.0 and 1.0 ㎎/㎏ as midium and low dosage, respectively. Equal amount of excipient(normal saline to the Sweet BV experiment groups was administered as the control group. Results : 1. No mortality was witnessed in all of the experiment groups. 2. Hyperemia and movement disorder were observed around the area of administration in all the experiment groups, and higher occurrence in the higher dosage treatment. 3. For weight measurement, Neither male nor female groups showed significant changes. 4. To verify abnormalities of organs and tissues, thigh muscle which treated with Sweet BV, brain, liver, lung, kidney, and spinal cords were removed and histologocal observation using H-E staining was conducted. In the histologocal observation of thigh muscle, cell infiltration, inflammation, degeneration, necrosis of muscle fiber, and fibrosis were found in both thigh tissue. And the changes depend on the dose of Sweet BV. But the other organs did not showed in any abnormality. 5. The maximum dose of Sweet BV in Beagle dogs were over 9 ㎎/㎏ in this study. Conclusions : The above findings of this study suggest that Sweet BV is a relatively safe treatment medium. Further studies on the toxicity of Sweet BV should be conducted to yield more concrete evidences.

  15. Evaluation of canine adverse food reactions by patch testing with single proteins, single carbohydrates and commercial foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Cornelia; Mariani, Claire; Mueller, Ralf S

    2017-10-01

    Adverse food reaction (AFR) is an important differential diagnosis for the pruritic dog. It is usually diagnosed by feeding an elimination diet with a novel protein and carbohydrate source for eight weeks followed by subsequent food provocation. A previous study demonstrated that patch testing dogs with foods had a high sensitivity and negative predictability for selection of elimination diet ingredients. The aim of this study was to investigate patch testing with proteins, carbohydrates and dry commercial dog food in dogs to determine whether there was value in patch testing to aid the diagnosis of canine adverse food reaction. Twenty five privately owned dogs, with confirmed AFR, underwent provocation trials with selected food antigens and patch testing. For proteins, carbohydrates and dry dog food the sensitivity of patch testing was 100%, 70% and 22.2%, respectively; the negative predictive values of patch testing were 100%, 79% and 72%. The positive predictive values of patch testing for proteins and carbohydrates were 75% and 74%, respectively. This study confirmed that patch testing may be useful for the selection of a suitable protein source for an elimination diet in dogs with suspected AFR, but not as a diagnostic tool for canine AFR. Results for proteins are more reliable than for carbohydrates and the majority of positive patch test reactions were observed with raw protein. Patch testing with commercial dog food does not seem to be useful. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  16. Design of a single-borehole hydraulic test programme allowing for interpretation-based errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J.H.

    1987-07-01

    Hydraulic testing using packers in single boreholes is one of the most important sources of data to safety assessment modelling in connection with the disposal of radioactive waste. It is also one of the most time-consuming and expensive. It is important that the results are as reliable as possible and as accurate as necessary for the use that is made of them. There are many causes of possible error and inaccuracy ranging from poor field practice to inappropriate interpretation procedure. The report examines and attempts to quantify the size of error arising from the accidental use of an inappropriate or inadequate interpretation procedure. In doing so, it can be seen which interpretation procedure or combination of procedures results in least error. Lastly, the report attempts to use the previous conclusions from interpretation to propose forms of field test procedure where interpretation-based errors will be minimised. Hydraulic tests (sometimes known as packer tests) come in three basic forms: slug/pulse, constant flow and constant head. They have different characteristics, some measuring a variable volume of rock (dependent on hydraulic conductivity) and some having a variable duration (dependent on hydraulic conductivity). A combination of different tests in the same interval is seen as desirable. For the purposes of assessing interpretation-based errors, slug and pulse tests are considered together as are constant flow and constant head tests. The same method is used in each case to assess errors. The method assumes that the simplest analysis procedure (cylindrical flow in homogeneous isotropic porous rock) will be used on each set of field data. The error is assessed by calculating synthetic data for alternative configurations (e.g. fissured rock, anisotropic rock, inhomogeneous rock - i.e. skin - etc.) and then analyzing this data using the simplest analysis procedure. 28 refs., 26 figs

  17. Plasma concentrations of buprenorphine following a single subcutaneous administration of a sustained release formulation of buprenorphine in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullian, Chiara; Lema, Pablo; Lavoie, Melissa; Dodelet-Devillers, Aurore; Beaudry, Francis; Vachon, Pascal

    2016-07-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the potential use of slow release buprenorphine in sheep. Twelve adult female sheep (6 Dorset and 6 Suffolk, 12 months of age) were used for this project and were divided into 2 experimental groups (n = 6/group comprising 3 Dorset and 3 Suffolk sheep). Sustained release (SR) buprenorphine was administered subcutaneously in the scapular region at a concentration of 0.1 mg/kg body weight (BW) for group 1 and of 0.05 mg/kg BW for group 2. Following blood collections at selected time points, plasma concentrations of buprenorphine was performed by tandem liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Mean buprenorphine concentration was above 0.1 ng/mL at 48 h up to 192 h post-injection for group 1 and it was above 0.1 ng/mL at 48 h up to 72 h post-injection for group 2. In conclusion, a long lasting potential analgesic plasma level of buprenorphine is attained following a single subcutaneous injection of 0.1 mg/kg BW of SR buprenorphine in sheep. However the effective analgesic plasma threshold still needs to be determined in sheep.

  18. Effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin after administration of a single oral dose in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, I-H; Kwon, K-I; Kim, M-S

    2013-03-01

    Rosuvastatin is a highly effective inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase and is used for the treatment of patients with hyperlipidemia. We examined the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin by administering it while fasting and after intake of low-fat and high-fat meals. We administered a single 10-mg oral dose of rosuvastatin while fasting and after intake of a low-fat and high-fat meal in a parallel design. The plasma concentrations of rosuvastatin were measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and the pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin was analyzed using both noncompartmental and compartmental models. The values of area under the curve at 24 h (AUC 24 h ) and peak plasma concentration (C max) in fed conditions were significantly lower than the corresponding values in the fasting conditions. In addition, consumption of a high-fat meal significantly delayed the time required to achieve the maximum concentration (T max) of rosuvastatin. Both the models sufficiently explained the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin and showed that the volume of distribution (V c) was increased and absorption rate constant (K a) was decreased in fed dogs. These findings suggest that food intake affects both the rate and extent of absorption of rosuvastatin, and that rosuvastatin should be administered on an empty stomach to avoid food effect. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. THE EFFECT OF SINGLE NICKEL AND COMBINED NICKEL AND ZINC PERORAL ADMINISTRATION ON HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Emrichová

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of single nickel (NiCl2 and nickel in combination with zinc (ZnCl2 on selected haematological parameters of rabbits: white blood cell, red blood cell, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, platelets, mean platelet volume, red cell distribution width, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, basophils. Twenty rabbits of broiler line Californian were used in this experiment. The animals were divided into the five groups, four animals in each ones (control group K and experimental groups E1, E2, E3 and E4. Animals were fed ad libitum using KKV1 feeding mixture (FM with or without nickel and zinc addition for 90 days follows: group E1 received 17.5 g of NiCl2.100 kg-1 FM; group E2 35 g NiCl2.100 kg-1 FM; group E3 17.5 g NiCl2 + 30 g ZnCl2.100 kg-1 FM and group E4 35 g NiCl2 + 30 g ZnCl2.100 kg-1 FM. The parameters were analysed using Advia – 120. Blood was collected into tubes containing anticoagulant agents K – EDTA. Statistical analyse showed a significant changes (P 0.05. Nickel has negative effect on some haematological parameters, but zinc can eliminates its influence.

  20. Consistency of maternal telephone administration of the asthma control test using postpartum recall compared to repeated measures during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ronghui; Li, Mofei; Johnson, Diana L; Luo, Yunjun; Chambers, Christina D

    2017-05-01

    Suboptimal asthma control during pregnancy may impact perinatal outcomes. U.S. guidelines recommend questionnaires to assess asthma control including the Asthma Control Test (ACT). It is unknown in a research setting to what extent recall differs by the time between symptom occurrence and the administration of the questionnaire. Between 2009-2014, 196 pregnant asthmatic women were recruited by the Organization of Teratology Information Specialists (OTIS) MotherToBaby Pregnancy Studies. Participants were administered the ACT at enrollment, gestational weeks 20 and 32, and shortly after delivery. The same women were also administered the ACT retrospectively at approximately 6 months postpartum. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the in-pregnancy and retrospective continuous ACT scores for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters were: 0.67 (95% CI: 0.58, 0.74), 0.61 (0.52, 0.70) and 0.65 (0.56, 0.72), respectively. When dichotomized into well-controlled asthma (ACT score ≥ 20) versus otherwise, the chi-square test for all three trimesters resulted in p values pregnancy (recall bias) influenced postpartum responses. The retrospectively recalled ACT score obtained postpartum was substantially different compared to in-pregnancy administration of the same questionnaire which could reflect test-retest variability as well as attenuation of recall. Documentation of the magnitude and direction of these differences could be useful in interpretation of the impact of asthma control when the ACT is used in retrospective case-control studies for pregnancy outcomes.

  1. A single intranasal administration of virus-like particle vaccine induces an efficient protection for mice against human respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yue-Ying; Fu, Yuan-Hui; Yan, Yi-Fei; Hua, Ying; Ma, Yao; Zhang, Xiu-Juan; Song, Jing-Dong; Peng, Xiang-Lei; Huang, Jiaqiang; Hong, Tao; He, Jin-Sheng

    2017-08-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important pediatric pathogen causing acute viral respiratory disease in infants and young children. However, no licensed vaccines are currently available. Virus-like particles (VLPs) may bring new hope to producing RSV VLP vaccine with high immunogenicity and safety. Here, we constructed the recombinants of matrix protein (M) and fusion glycoprotein (F) of RSV, respectively into a replication-deficient first-generation adenoviral vector (FGAd), which were used to co-infect Vero cells to assemble RSV VLPs successfully. The resulting VLPs showed similar immunoreactivity and function to RSV virion in vitro. Moreover, Th1 polarized response, and effective mucosal virus-neutralizing antibody and CD8 + T-cell responses were induced by a single intranasal (i.n.) administration of RSV VLPs rather than intramuscular (i.m.) inoculation, although the comparable RSV F-specific serum IgG and long-lasting RSV-specific neutralizing antibody were detected in the mice immunized by both routes. Upon RSV challenge, VLP-immunized mice showed increased viral clearance but decreased signs of enhanced lung pathology and fewer eosinophils compared to mice immunized with formalin-inactivated RSV (FI-RSV). In addition, a single i.n. RSV VLP vaccine has the capability to induce RSV-specific long-lasting neutralizing antibody responses observable up to 15 months. Our results demonstrate that the long-term and memory immune responses in mice against RSV were induced by a single i.n. administration of RSV VLP vaccine, suggesting a successful approach of RSV VLPs as an effective and safe mucosal vaccine against RSV infection, and an applicable and qualified platform of FGAd-infected Vero cells for VLP production. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Tamoxifen Forms DNA Adducts In Human Colon After Administration Of A Single [14C]-Labeled Therapeutic Dose.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K; Tompkins, E M; Boocock, D J; Martin, E A; Farmer, P B; Turteltaub, K W; Ubick, E; Hemingway, D; Horner-Glister, E; White, I H

    2007-05-23

    Tamoxifen is widely prescribed for the treatment of breast cancer and is also licensed in the U.S. for the prevention of this disease. However, tamoxifen therapy is associated with an increased occurrence of endometrial cancer in women and there is also evidence that it may elevate the risk of colorectal cancer. The underlying mechanisms responsible for tamoxifen-induced carcinogenesis in women have not yet been elucidated but much interest has focussed on the role of DNA adduct formation. We investigated the propensity of tamoxifen to bind irreversibly to colorectal DNA when given to ten women as a single [{sup 14}C]-labeled therapeutic (20 mg) dose, {approx}18 h prior to undergoing colon resections. Using the sensitive technique of accelerator mass spectrometry, coupled with HPLC separation of enzymatically digested DNA, a peak corresponding to authentic dG-N{sup 2}-tamoxifen adduct was detected in samples from three patients, at levels ranging from 1-7 adducts/10{sup 9} nucleotides. No [{sup 14}C]-radiolabel associated with tamoxifen or its major metabolites was detected. The presence of detectable CYP3A4 protein in all colon samples suggests this tissue has the potential to activate tamoxifen to {alpha}-hydroxytamoxifen, in addition to that occurring in the systemic circulation, and direct interaction of this metabolite with DNA could account for the binding observed. Although the level of tamoxifeninduced damage displayed a degree of inter-individual variability, when present it was {approx}10-100 times higher than that reported for other suspect human colon carcinogens such as PhIP. These findings provide a mechanistic basis through which tamoxifen could increase the incidence of colon cancers in women.

  3. SRAM single event upset calculation and test using protons in the secondary beam in the BEPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yuanming; Guo Hongxia; Zhang Fengqi; Zhang Keying; Chen Wei; Luo Yinhong; Guo Xiaoqiang, E-mail: wangym2007@gmail.com [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China)

    2011-09-15

    The protons in the secondary beam in the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC) are first analyzed and a large proportion at the energy of 50-100 MeV supply a source gap of high energy protons. In this study, the proton energy spectrum of the secondary beam was obtained and a model for calculating the proton single event upset (SEU) cross section of a static random access memory (SRAM) cell has been presented in the BEPC secondary beam proton radiation environment. The proton SEU cross section for different characteristic dimensions has been calculated. The test of SRAM SEU cross sections has been designed, and a good linear relation between SEUs in SRAM and the fluence was found, which is evidence that an SEU has taken place in the SRAM. The SEU cross sections were measured in SRAM with different dimensions. The test result shows that the SEU cross section per bit will decrease with the decrease of the characteristic dimensions of the device, while the total SEU cross section still increases upon the increase of device capacity. The test data accords with the calculation results, so the high-energy proton SEU test on the proton beam in the BEPC secondary beam could be conducted. (semiconductor physics)

  4. Adverse effects of intravenous acetazolamide administration for evaluation of cerebrovascular reactivity using brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography in patients with major cerebral artery steno-occlusive diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Hideo; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Suzuki, Taro; Kuroda, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Yoshida, Kenji; Kubo, Yoshitaka; Ogawa, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Adverse effects of intravenous acetazolamide administration for evaluation of cerebrovascular reactivity using brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were prospectively investigated in 100 patients with major cerebral artery, atherosclerotic, and steno-occlusive diseases. All patients underwent two SPECT studies (with and without acetazolamide challenge) at an interval of 2 or 3 days, received a questionnaire immediately after each SPECT study, and returned the answered questionnaire within 7 days after the study. None of the 100 patients studied experienced any symptoms during the SPECT study without acetazolamide challenge. Sixty-three patients (63%) developed symptoms during the SPECT study with acetazolamide challenge, such as headache, nausea, dizziness, tinnitus, numbness of the extremities, motor weakness of the extremities, and general malaise 1-3 hours (mean 1.6 hours) after administration of acetazolamide, and these symptoms lasted for 0.5-72 hours (mean 7.9 hours). Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that younger age (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.896-0.980, p=0.0047) and female sex (95% CI 1.178-16.129, p=0.0274) were significantly associated with development of symptoms with acetazolamide challenge. The incidences of the development of symptoms with acetazolamide challenge were 91% (21/23) and 41% (12/29) in subgroups of women <70 years and men ≥70 years, respectively. Patients should be informed of such adverse effects of intravenous acetazolamide administration prior to the acetazolamide challenge test for evaluation of cerebrovascular reactivity. (author)

  5. Aerobic and Anaerobic Swimming Force Evaluation in One Single Test Session for Young Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros Sousa, Filipe Antônio; Rodrigues, Natalia Almeida; Messias, Leonardo Henrique Dalcheco; Queiroz, Jair Borges; Manchado-Gobatto, Fulvia Barros; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to propose and validate the tethered swimming lactate minimum test (TSLacmin) estimating aerobic and anaerobic capacity in one single test session, using force as measurement parameter. 6 male and 6 female young swimmers (age=15.7±1.1 years; height=173.3±9.5 cm; weight=66.1±9.5 kg) performed 4 sessions comprising i) an all-out 30 s test and incremental test (TSLacmin); ii) 30 min of tethered swimming at constant intensity (2 sessions); iii) free-swimming time trials used to calculate critical velocity. Tethered swimming sessions used an acquisition system enabling maximum (Fmax) and mean (Fmean) force measurement and intensity variation. The tethered all-out test lasting 30 s resulted in hyperlactatemia of 7.9±2.0 mmol·l -1 . TSLacmin presented a 100% success applicability rate, which is equivalent to aerobic capacity in 75% of cases. TSLacmin intensity was 37.7±7.3 N, while maximum force in the all-out test was 105±27 N. Aerobic and anaerobic TSLacmin parameters were significantly related to free-swimming performance (r=-0.67 for 100 m and r=-0.80 for 200 m) and critical velocity (r=0.80). TSLacmin estimates aerobic capacity in most cases, and both aerobic and anaerobic force parameters are well related to critical velocity and free swimming performance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. 20 CFR 652.210 - What are the Act's requirements for administration of the work test and assistance to UI claimants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the Act's requirements for administration of the work test and assistance to UI claimants? 652.210 Section 652.210 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND FUNCTIONING OF STATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Wagner-Peyser Act Services in a...

  7. An Open-label, Single-dose, Pharmacokinetic Study of Factor VIII Activity After Administration of Moroctocog Alfa (AF-CC) in Male Chinese Patients With Hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongzhong; Wu, Runhui; Hu, Pei; Sun, Feifei; Xu, Lihong; Liang, Yali; Nepal, Sunil; Qu, Peng Roger; Huard, Francois; Korth-Bradley, Joan M

    2017-07-01

    Hemophilia A represents up to 80% of all hemophilia cases in China. In patients with this condition, bleeding can be prevented and controlled by administering clotting factor VIII (FVIII). Since their initial availability, recombinant FVIII products have undergone several iterations to enhance their safety. Moroctocog alfa albumin-free cell culture (AF-CC) is among the third generation of recombinant FVIII products and received regulatory approval in China in August 2012. The present study characterizes the single-dose pharmacokinetic parameters of FVIII activity (FVIII:C) after administration of moroctocog alfa (AF-CC) in male Chinese patients with hemophilia A. This multicenter, open-label, single-dose study enrolled 13 male Chinese patients diagnosed with severe hemophilia A (FVIII:C hemophilia A. The pharmacokinetic profile in older patients was similar to that previously reported with recombinant FVIII products in studies with a predominantly white population; younger patients had reduced exposure to FVIII:C. The single doses of moroctocog alfa (AF-CC) were well tolerated; 2 cases of transient, low-titer FVIII inhibitor development were observed. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02461992. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Saving lives or saving dollars: The Trump administration rescinds plans to require sleep apnea testing in commercial transportation operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan SF

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. In another move favoring business interests and against the common good, the Trump administration’s Department of Transportation announced recently that they are rescinding plans to require testing for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA in train and commercial motor vehicle operators (1. As exemplified by its withdrawal from the Paris climate accords, this decision is another example of how the current administration disregards scientific findings and present-day events in establishing policy that will be detrimental to Americans. Let us step back for a moment and briefly review the evidence that the Trump administration has ignored. •\tIt is well established that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA can result in daytime sleepiness (2 and that sleepiness is detrimental to safe operation of a train or motor vehicle. •\tMany studies have established that persons with OSA have an increased risk of motor vehicle crashes (3. •\tStudies in commercial truck drivers have observed that this population has …

  9. Single-well push-pull test in transient Forchheimer flow field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanrong; Zhan, Hongbin; Wang, Yanxin

    2017-06-01

    Using the single-well push-pull (SWPP) test to quantify in situ aquifer characteristics associated with solute transport (dispersion coefficient, geobiochemical reaction rates), the accuracy of parameter estimation was not only dependent on the solute transport models but also the groundwater flow models. However, many previous studies on the SWPP test were based on assumptions over-simplifying the flow field, namely, groundwater flow followed Darcy's law; flow was in the steady state during the entire test duration; the wellbore storage could be negligible. In this study, we have carefully examined such assumptions by developing a new finite-difference model of the SWPP test under the transient Forchheimer flow condition, considering the wellbore storage. The SWPP test included an injection phase, a chaser phase, a rest phase, and an extraction phase. The results showed that the concentration of the steady-state flow solution was greater than that of the transient flow solution at the beginning, and its peak value was also greater than that of the transient flow solution. The difference between the breakthrough curves (BTCs) of the transient flow SWPP model and the steady-state flow SWPP model was not negligible, and such a difference increased with the decreasing specific storage. We also found that BTCs were not sensitive to the inertial force coefficient, while they were sensitive to the wellbore storage. BTCs with different radius of the wellbore (rw) were clearly different from each other, and a larger rw resulted in a greater concentration at the well during the extraction phase.

  10. Crash tests of four identical high-wing single-engine airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, V. L., Jr.; Hayduk, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Four identical four place, high wing, single engine airplane specimens with nominal masses of 1043 kg were crash tested at the Langley Impact Dynamics Research Facility under controlled free flight conditions. These tests were conducted with nominal velocities of 25 m/sec along the flight path angles, ground contact pitch angles, and roll angles. Three of the airplane specimens were crashed on a concrete surface; one was crashed on soil. Crash tests revealed that on a hard landing, the main landing gear absorbed about twice the energy for which the gear was designed but sprang back, tending to tip the airplane up to its nose. On concrete surfaces, the airplane impacted and remained in the impact attitude. On soil, the airplane flipped over on its back. The crash impact on the nose of the airplane, whether on soil or concrete, caused massive structural crushing of the forward fuselage. The liveable volume was maintained in both the hard landing and the nose down specimens but was not maintained in the roll impact and nose down on soil specimens.

  11. Additive Manufacturing Thermal Performance Testing of Single Channel GRCop-84 SLM Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Chance P.; Cross, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The surface finish found on components manufactured by sinter laser manufacturing (SLM) is rougher (0.013 - 0.0006 inches) than parts made using traditional fabrication methods. Internal features and passages built into SLM components do not readily allow for roughness reduction processes. Alternatively, engineering literature suggests that the roughness of a surface can enhance thermal performance within a pressure drop regime. To further investigate the thermal performance of SLM fabricated pieces, several GRCop-84 SLM single channel components were tested using a thermal conduction rig at MSFC. A 20 kW power source running at 25% duty cycle and 25% power level applied heat to each component while varying water flow rates between 2.1 - 6.2 gallons/min (GPM) at a supply pressure of 550 to 700 psi. Each test was allowed to reach quasi-steady state conditions where pressure, temperature, and thermal imaging data were recorded. Presented in this work are the heat transfer responses compared to a traditional machined OHFC Copper test section. An analytical thermal model was constructed to anchor theoretical models with the empirical data.

  12. A single sample GnRHa stimulation test in the diagnosis of precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdani Parvin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH has been the standard test for diagnosing central precocious puberty. Because GnRH is no longer available, GnRH analogues (GnRHa are now used. Random LH concentration, measured by the third-generation immunochemiluminometric assay, is a useful screening tool for central precocious puberty. However, GnRHa stimulation test should be considered, when a basal LH measurement is inconclusive. However optimal sampling times for luteinizing hormone (LH have yet to be established. Purpose To determine the appropriate sampling time for LH post leuprolide challenge. Methods A retrospective analysis of multi-sample GnRHa stimulation tests performed in 155 children (aged 1–9 years referred for precocious puberty to Texas Children’s Hospital. After 20 mcg/kg of SQ leuprolide acetate, samples were obtained at 0, 1, 3, and 6 hours. Results Of 71 children with clinical evidence of central precocious puberty, fifty nine children had a peak LH >5 mIU/mL. 52 (88% of these responders had positive responses at 1 hour (95% CI is 80–96%, whereas all 59 children (100% had a peak LH response >5 mIU/mL at 3 hours (95% CI is 94-100%, P = 0.005. Conclusions A single serum LH sample collected 3 hours post GnRHa challenge is the optimal sample to establish the diagnosis of central precocious puberty.

  13. First indirect x-ray imaging tests with an 88-mm diameter single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A. H. [Fermilab; Macrander, A. T. [Argonne

    2017-02-01

    Using the 1-BM-C beamline at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), we have performed the initial indirect x - ray imaging point-spread-function (PSF) test of a unique 88-mm diameter YAG:Ce single crystal of only 100 - micron thickness. The crystal was bonded to a fiber optic plat e (FOP) for mechanical support and to allow the option for FO coupling to a large format camera. This configuration resolution was compared to that of self - supported 25-mm diameter crystals, with and without an Al reflective coating. An upstream monochromator was used to select 17-keV x-rays from the broadband APS bending magnet source of synchrotron radiation. The upstream , adjustable Mo collimators were then used to provide a series of x-ray source transverse sizes from 200 microns down to about 15-20 microns (FWHM) at the crystal surface. The emitted scintillator radiation was in this case lens coupled to the ANDOR Neo sCMOS camera, and the indirect x-ray images were processed offline by a MATLAB - based image processing program. Based on single Gaussian peak fits to the x-ray image projected profiles, we observed a 10.5 micron PSF. This sample thus exhibited superior spatial resolution to standard P43 polycrystalline phosphors of the same thickness which would have about a 100-micron PSF. Lastly, this single crystal resolution combined with the 88-mm diameter makes it a candidate to support future x-ray diffraction or wafer topography experiments.

  14. SAT administrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havas, A.

    1998-01-01

    SAT Administrator is the Information System for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training Program Design. It supports the design of training programs in the following phases: job analysis; task analysis; competency analysis; task competency association; definition of learning objectives to competencies; training program design; definition of test items. The general structure of the database and management software supports application of the SAT Administrator in any nuclear power installation

  15. NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) Single Event Effects (SEE) Test Guideline Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie D.; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2018-01-01

    The following are updated or new subjects added to the FPGA SEE Test Guidelines manual: academic versus mission specific device evaluation, single event latch-up (SEL) test and analysis, SEE response visibility enhancement during radiation testing, mitigation evaluation (embedded and user-implemented), unreliable design and its affects to SEE Data, testing flushable architectures versus non-flushable architectures, intellectual property core (IP Core) test and evaluation (addresses embedded and user-inserted), heavy-ion energy and linear energy transfer (LET) selection, proton versus heavy-ion testing, fault injection, mean fluence to failure analysis, and mission specific system-level single event upset (SEU) response prediction. Most sections within the guidelines manual provide information regarding best practices for test structure and test system development. The scope of this manual addresses academic versus mission specific device evaluation and visibility enhancement in IP Core testing.

  16. Test of a single module of the J-PET scanner based on plastic scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskal, P.; Niedźwiecki, Sz.; Bednarski, T.; Czerwiński, E.; Kapłon, Ł.; Kubicz, E.; Moskal, I.; Pawlik-Niedźwiecka, M.; Sharma, N. G.; Silarski, M.; Zieliński, M.; Zoń, N.; Białas, P.; Gajos, A.; Kochanowski, A.; Korcyl, G.; Kowal, J.; Kowalski, P.; Kozik, T.; Krzemień, W.; Molenda, M.; Pałka, M.; Raczyński, L.; Rudy, Z.; Salabura, P.; Słomski, A.; Smyrski, J.; Strzelecki, A.; Wieczorek, A.; Wiślicki, W.

    2014-11-01

    A Time of Flight Positron Emission Tomography scanner based on plastic scintillators is being developed at the Jagiellonian University by the J-PET collaboration. The main challenge of the conducted research lies in the elaboration of a method allowing application of plastic scintillators for the detection of low energy gamma quanta. In this paper we report on tests of a single detection module built out from the BC-420 plastic scintillator strip (with dimensions of 5×19×300 mm3) read out at two ends by Hamamatsu R5320 photomultipliers. The measurements were performed using collimated beam of annihilation quanta from the 68Ge isotope and applying the Serial Data Analyzer (Lecroy SDA6000A) which enabled sampling of signals with 50 ps intervals. The time resolution of the prototype module was established to be better than 80 ps (σ) for a single level discrimination. The spatial resolution of the determination of the hit position along the strip was determined to be about 0.93 cm (σ) for the annihilation quanta. The fractional energy resolution for the energy E deposited by the annihilation quanta via the Compton scattering amounts to σ(E) / E ≈ 0.044 /√{ E(MeV) } and corresponds to the σ(E) / E of 7.5% at the Compton edge.

  17. Approach avoidance training in the eating domain: testing the effectiveness across three single session studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniela; Jostmann, Nils B; Wiers, Reinout W; Holland, Rob W

    2015-02-01

    Dual-process models propose that impulsive behavior plays a key role in the development and maintenance of maladaptive eating patterns. Research outside the eating domain suggests that approach avoidance training, a paradigm which aims to modify automatic behavioral dispositions toward critical stimuli, is an effective tool to weaken unhealthy impulses. The present research tested the effectiveness of approach avoidance training in the eating domain. We conducted three single session studies with varying methodologies in a normal-weight female student population (total N = 258), in which one group was always trained to avoid pictures of unhealthy food and to approach pictures of healthy food or neutral objects. We found no conclusive evidence that approach avoidance training can change participants' implicit and explicit food preferences and eating behavior. We discuss the potential and the limitations of approach avoidance training in the eating domain and provide suggestions for future research avenues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Compendium of Single-Event Latchup and Total Ionizing Dose Test Results of Commercial Analog to Digital Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irom, Farokh; Agarwal, Shri G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports single-event latchup and total dose results for a variety of analog to digital converters targeted for possible use in NASA spacecraft's. The compendium covers devices tested over the last 15 years.

  19. Single test isolated lupus anticoagulant positivity is associated with increased plasma levels of inflammatory markers and dyslipidemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, S A; Nybo, M; Laustrup, H

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a single positive test for lupus anticoagulant (LA) is associated with levels of inflammatory markers and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, independent of autoimmune disease, thrombophilia and occurrence of other antiphospholipid antibodies. METHODS: In a ...

  20. Single-well tracer push-pull test sensitivity w. r. to fracture aperture and spacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghergut, I.; Behrens, H.; Karmakar, S.; Sauter, M.

    2012-04-01

    Dealing with a parallel-fracture system of infinite lateral extension, four characteristic regimes of tracer signal sensitivity w. r. to fracture aperture and w. r. to fracture spacing s (whose reciprocal defines fracture density, or the fluid-rock interface area per volume) can be identified during the pull phase of a single-well push-pull test, also depending upon the ratio between push-phase duration Tpush and a characteristic time scale Ts (defined by s2 / D = Ts , with D denoting the tracer's effective diffusion coefficient): early-time regime: tracer signals are sensitive w. r. to fracture aperture, but insensitive w. r. to fracture spacing; sensitivity w. r. to fracture aperture first increases, then decreases with Tpush / Ts (thus there will be an optimum in terms of to Tpush / Ts , at early pull times); mid-time regime: tracer signals are sensitive w. r. to fracture spacing, but insensitive w. r. to fracture aperture; sensitivity w. r. to fracture spacing increases with Tpush / Ts ; late-time regime: with increasing pull duration, tracer signals become increasingly insensitive w. r. to fracture spacing, while regaining sensitivity w. r. to fracture aperture; 'very late'-time regime: sensitivity w. r. to fracture aperture becomes independent upon Tpush / Ts . From these different regimes, some recommendations can be derived regarding the design and dimensioning of dual-tracer single-well push-pull tests for the specific purposes of geothermal reservoir characterization, using conservative solutes and heat as tracers. Acknowledgement: This study is funded by MWK Niedersachsen (Lower-Saxony's Science and Culture Ministry) and by Baker Hughes (Celle) within task unit 'G6' of the Collaborative Research Project 'gebo' (Geothermal Energy and High-Performance Drilling).

  1. The Effect of Chronic Oral Administration of Withania Somnifera Root on Learning and Memory in Diabetic Rats Using Passive Avoidance Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Roghani

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diabetes mellitus (especially type I is accompanied with disturbances in learning, memory, and cognitive skills in the human society and experimental animals. Considering the potential anti-diabetic effect of the medicinal plant Withania somnifera (ashwagandha and the augmenting effect of its consumption on the memory and mental health, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of chronic oral administration of ashwagandha root on learning and memory in diabetic rats using passive avoidance test. Materials & Methods: For this purpose, male Wistar diabetic rats were randomly divided into control, ashwagandha-treated control, diabetic, and ashwagandha-treated diabetic groups. Ashwagandha treatment continued for 1 to 2 months. For induction of diabetes, streptozotocin was injected i.p. at a single dose of 60 mg/kg. Serum glucose level was determined before the study and at 4th and 8th weeks after the experiment. In addition, for evaluation of learning and memory, initial latency (IL and step-through latency (STL were determined after 1 and 2 months using passive avoidance test. Results: It was found that one- and two-month administration of ashwagandha root at a weight ratio of 1/15 has not any significant hypoglycemic effect in treated control and diabetic groups. Furthermore, there was a significant increase (p<0.05 in IL in diabetic and ashwagandha-treated diabetic groups after two months compared to control group. In this respect, there was no significant difference between diabetic and ashwagandha-treated diabetic groups. In addition, STL significantly increased in ashwagandha-treated control group after 1 (p<0.01 and 2 (p<0.05 month in comparison to control group. On the other hand, STL significantly decreased (p<0.05 in diabetic group and significantly increased (p<0.05 in ashwagandha-treated diabetic group as compared to control group after two months. Conclusion: In summary, chronic oral administration of

  2. The stimulatory effect of single-dose pre-irradiation administration of indomethacin and diclofenac on haemopoietic recovery in the spleen of gamma-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozubik, A.; Pospisil, M.; Netikova, J.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the work was to examine the effect of the single-dose pre-irradiation administration of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, i.e. indomethacin (0.15 mg/mouse) and diclofenac (0.6 mg/mouse) on the recovery of haemopoiesis in the spleen of whole-body irradiated male mice (CBA x C57BL/10)F 1 . It was shown that the administation of these substances 1-24 h prior to sublethal irradiation stimulates the recovery of the proliferation activity of the spleen and the formation of endogenous spleen colonies. These results can be explained as the inhibitory effect of the substances administered on biosynthesis of prostaglandins. (author)

  3. Cerebral histamine H1 receptor binding potential measured with PET under a test dose of olopatadine, an antihistamine, is reduced after repeated administration of olopatadine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senda, Michio; Kubo, Nobuo; Adachi, Kazuhiko; Ikari, Yasuhiko; Matsumoto, Keiichi; Shimizu, Keiji; Tominaga, Hideyuki

    2009-06-01

    Some antihistamine drugs that are used for rhinitis and pollinosis have a sedative effect as they enter the brain and block the H(1) receptor, potentially causing serious accidents. Receptor occupancy has been measured with PET under single-dose administration in humans to classify antihistamines as more sedating or as less sedating (or nonsedating). In this study, the effect of repeated administration of olopatadine, an antihistamine, on the cerebral H(1) receptor was measured with PET. A total of 17 young men with rhinitis underwent dynamic brain PET with (11)C-doxepin at baseline, under an initial single dose of 5 mg of olopatadine (acute scan), and under another 5-mg dose after repeated administration of olopatadine at 10 mg/d for 4 wk (chronic scan). The H(1) receptor binding potential was estimated using Logan graphical analysis with cerebellum as reference region input. The acute scan showed a slight decrease in H(1) receptor binding potential across the cerebral cortex (by 15% in the frontal cortex), but the chronic scan showed a marked decrease (by 45% from the acute scan in the frontal cortex). Behavioral data before and after the PET scans did not reveal any sedative effect. The results may be interpreted as either intracerebral accumulation of olopatadine or H(1) receptor downregulation due to repeated administration. The study shows feasibility and potential value for PET in evaluating the pharmacologic effect of a drug not only after a single dose but also after repeated administration.

  4. Single-Event Effect Testing of the Cree C4D40120D Commercial 1200V Silicon Carbide Schottky Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, J.-M.; Casey, M. C.; Wilcox, E. P.; Kim, Hak; Topper, A. D.

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the single event effect (SEE) susceptibility of the commercial silicon carbide 1200V Schottky diode manufactured by Cree, Inc. Heavy-ion testing was conducted at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron Single Event Effects Test Facility (TAMU). Its purpose was to evaluate this device as a candidate for use in the Solar-Electric Propulsion flight project.

  5. Conditioning geostatistical simulations of a bedrock fluvial aquifer using single well pumping tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, A.; Bentley, L. R.; Hayashi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Geostatistical simulation is a powerful tool to explore the uncertainty associated with heterogeneity in groundwater and reservoir studies. Nonetheless, conditioning simulations merely with lithological information does not utilize all of the available information and so some workers additionally condition simulations with flow data. In this study, we introduce an approach to condition geostatistical simulations of the Paskapoo Formation, which is a paleo-fluvial system consisting of sandstone channels embedded in mudstone. The conditioning data consist of two-hour single well pumping tests extracted from the public water well database in Alberta, Canada. In this approach, lithologic models of an entire watershed are simulated and conditioned with hard lithological data using transition probability geostatistics (TPROGS). Then, a segment of the simulation around a pumping well was used to populate a flow model (FEFLOW) with either sand or mudstone. The values of the hydraulic conductivity and specific storage of sand and mudstone were then adjusted to minimize the difference between simulated and actual pumping test data using the parameter estimation program PEST. If the simulated data do not adequately match the measured data, the lithologic model is updated by locally deforming the lithology distribution using the probability perturbation method (PPM) and the model parameters are again updated with PEST. This procedure is repeated until the simulated and measured data agree within a pre-determined tolerance. The procedure is repeated for each pumping well that has pumping test data. The method constrains the lithological simulations and provides estimates of hydraulic conductivity and specific storage that are consistent with the pumping test data. Eventually, the simulations will be combined in watershed scale groundwater models.

  6. The effects of honey and vitamin E administration on apoptosis in testes of rat exposed to noise stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Hemadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: A variety of stress factors are known to inhibit male reproductive functions. So this study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of honey and vitamin E on the germinative and somatic cells of testes of rats exposed to noise stress. Materials and Methods: Mature male wistar rats (n0 = 24 were randomly grouped as follows: Group 1 (honey + noise stress, 2 (vitamin E + noise stress, 3 (noise stress, and 4 as the control group. In groups 1, 2, and 3, rats were exposed to noise stress. In groups 1 and 2, rats also were given honey and vitamin E, respectively, orally for 50 days. After that, the germinative and somatic cells of testes parenchyma were isolated by digesting the whole testes by a standard method. Next, viability, apoptosis, and necrosis of the cells were evaluated by TUNEL kit and flow cytometry. Results: The rates of apoptosis and necrosis of the testicular cells were increased (P = 0.003 and P = 0.001, respectively, but viability of these cells decreased in testes of rats exposed to noise stress (P = 0.003. However, administration of honey and vitamin E were significantly helpful in keeping the cells of testis parenchyma alive, which suffers from noise pollution (P < 0.05 and P < 0.05, respectively. Conclusions: Noise stress has negative influences on the cells of testicular tissue by increasing apoptotic and necrotic cells. However, the associated enhancement in healthy cells suggests that honey and vitamin E have positive influences on the testis parenchyma.

  7. Comparison of the Local Tolerability to 5 Long-acting Drug Nanosuspensions with Different Stabilizing Excipients, Following a Single Intramuscular Administration in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanza, Ronnie; Darville, Nicolas; van Heerden, Marjolein; De Jonghe, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the effects of common nanosuspension-stabilizing excipients on the nature and temporal evolution of histopathological changes at intramuscular (i.m.) administration sites, 5 groups of 39 male rats per group received a single injection of 1 of the 5 analogous crystalline drug nanosuspensions containing 200 mg/ml of an antiviral compound with particle sizes of ±200 nm and identical vehicle compositions, except for the type of nanosuspension stabilizer. The investigated stabilizers were poloxamer 338, poloxamer 407, d-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1,000-succinate (TPGS), polysorbate 80, and polysorbate 80 combined with egg phosphatidylglycerol. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry revealed progressive inflammatory changes at the i.m. administration sites and the draining lymph nodes that differed according to the time point of sacrifice and the type of stabilizer. Although the overall time course of inflammatory changes was similar across the groups, differences in the nature, severity, and timing of the inflammatory response were observed between animals injected with poloxamer- or TPGS-containing nanosuspensions and those injected with formulations containing polysorbate 80. A more severe and prolonged active inflammatory phase, the presence of multinucleate giant cells, prolonged macrophage infiltration of the formulation depot, and more persistent histiocytic infiltrates in the lymph nodes were observed in the polysorbate 80-containing nanosuspension groups. Such vehicle-mediated effects could influence the overall tolerability profile of long-acting nanosuspensions.

  8. Results of single borehole hydraulic tests in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory project. FY 2012 - FY 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoe, Hironori; Takeuchi, Ryuji

    2016-11-01

    This report summarize the results of the single borehole hydraulic tests of 151 sections carried out at the -300 m Stage and the -500 m Stage of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory from FY 2012 to FY 2015. The details of each test (test interval depth, geology, etc.) as well as the interpreted hydraulic parameters and analytical methods used are presented in this report. Furthermore, the previous results of the single borehole hydraulic tests carried out in the Regional Hydrogeological Study Project and the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory Project before FY 2012 are also summarized in this report. (author)

  9. ASSERT validation against the Stern Laboratories' single-phase pressure drop tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddington, G.M.; Kiteley, J.C.; Carver, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the preliminary validation of ASSERT-IV against the single-phase pressure drop tests from the 37-element CHF (critical heat flux) experiments conducted at Stern Laboratories, and shows how this study fits into the overall ASSERT validation plan. The effects on the pressure drop of several friction and form loss models are evaluated, including the geometry-based K-factor model. The choice of friction factor has a small effect on the predicted channel pressure drop, compared to the form loss model choice. Using the uniform K-factors of Hameed, the computed pressure drops are in excellent agreement with the experimental results from the nominal pressure tube tests. For future ASSERT applications, either Hameed's uniform K-factors or the geometry-based model using Idelchik's thick-edged orifice equation are recommended, as are the friction factor correlations of Colebrook-White, Selander, and Aly and Groeneveld. More analysis of the geometry-based K-factor model is required. (author). 23 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs

  10. Creep lifing methodologies applied to a single crystal superalloy by use of small scale test techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffs, S.P., E-mail: s.p.jeffs@swansea.ac.uk [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Singleton Park SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Lancaster, R.J. [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Singleton Park SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Garcia, T.E. [IUTA (University Institute of Industrial Technology of Asturias), University of Oviedo, Edificio Departamental Oeste 7.1.17, Campus Universitario, 33203 Gijón (Spain)

    2015-06-11

    In recent years, advances in creep data interpretation have been achieved either by modified Monkman–Grant relationships or through the more contemporary Wilshire equations, which offer the opportunity of predicting long term behaviour extrapolated from short term results. Long term lifing techniques prove extremely useful in creep dominated applications, such as in the power generation industry and in particular nuclear where large static loads are applied, equally a reduction in lead time for new alloy implementation within the industry is critical. The latter requirement brings about the utilisation of the small punch (SP) creep test, a widely recognised approach for obtaining useful mechanical property information from limited material volumes, as is typically the case with novel alloy development and for any in-situ mechanical testing that may be required. The ability to correlate SP creep results with uniaxial data is vital when considering the benefits of the technique. As such an equation has been developed, known as the k{sub SP} method, which has been proven to be an effective tool across several material systems. The current work now explores the application of the aforementioned empirical approaches to correlate small punch creep data obtained on a single crystal superalloy over a range of elevated temperatures. Finite element modelling through ABAQUS software based on the uniaxial creep data has also been implemented to characterise the SP deformation and help corroborate the experimental results.

  11. Estimating transmissivity from single-well pumping tests in heterogeneous aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechstein, Armin; Attinger, Sabine; Krieg, Ronald; Copty, Nadim K.

    2016-01-01

    Although aquifers are naturally heterogeneous, the interpretation of pumping tests is commonly performed under the assumption of aquifer homogeneity. This yields interpreted hydraulic parameters averaged over a domain of uncertain extent which disguises their relation to the underlying heterogeneity. In this study, we numerically investigate the sensitivity of the transient drawdown at the pumping well, to nonuniform distributions of transmissivity in confined aquifers. Frechet kernels and their time derivative are used to estimate two spatially averaged transmissivities, denoted the equivalent and interpreted transmissivity, Teq and Tin, respectively, for the case of single-well pumping tests. Interrelating Teq and Tin is achieved by modeling Tin in terms of a distance dependent, radially heterogeneous field. In weakly heterogeneous aquifers, Teq approximates TPW, the local transmissivity at the pumped well. With increasing degree of heterogeneity, Teq deviates from TPW as pumping propagates. Tin starts at TPW, approaching the spatial geometric mean of transmissivity during late pumping times. Limits of the proposed spatial weighting functions are investigated by treating the interpreted storativity, Sest, as an indicator for flow connectivity. It is shown numerically that the spatial weights for Teq and Tin agree well to the underlying heterogeneity if . Finally, implications for applying the concepts of Teq and Tin to heterogeneous domains, and, for real world applications are discussed. It is found that time-dependent spatial averages of Tin agree well with estimates of the interpreted transmissivity from the Continuous-Derivation method.

  12. Segmental-dependent membrane permeability along the intestine following oral drug administration: Evaluation of a triple single-pass intestinal perfusion (TSPIP) approach in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Arik; West, Brady T; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-02-15

    In this paper we evaluate a modified approach to the traditional single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) rat model in investigating segmental-dependent permeability along the intestine following oral drug administration. Whereas in the traditional model one single segment of the intestine is perfused, we have simultaneously perfused three individual segments of each rat intestine: proximal jejunum, mid-small intestine and distal ileum, enabling to obtain tripled data from each rat compared to the traditional model. Three drugs, with different permeabilities, were utilized to evaluate the model: metoprolol, propranolol and cimetidine. Data was evaluated in comparison to the traditional method. Metoprolol and propranolol showed similar P(eff) values in the modified model in all segments. Segmental-dependent permeability was obtained for cimetidine, with lower P(eff) in the distal parts. Similar P(eff) values for all drugs were obtained in the traditional method, illustrating that the modified model is as accurate as the traditional, throughout a wide range of permeability characteristics, whether the permeability is constant or segment-dependent along the intestine. Three-fold higher statistical power to detect segmental-dependency was obtained in the modified approach, as each subject serves as his own control. In conclusion, the Triple SPIP model can reduce the number of animals utilized in segmental-dependent permeability research without compromising the quality of the data obtained.

  13. Acceptance of Provider Initiated HIV Testing and Counseling among Tuberculosis Patients in East Wollega Administrative Zone, Oromia Regional State, Western Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakjira Kebede

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is a powerful risk factor for the development of tuberculosis. This study assessed the acceptance and associated factors that can affect provider initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC among tuberculosis patients at the East Wollega administrative zone, Oromia regional state, western Ethiopia, from January to August, 2010. A single population proportion formula is used to calculate the total sample size of 406 and the cluster sampling technique was used to select 13 health centers that provide PITC services. The sample size was proportionally allocated to each health center. The study participants were selected using a simple random sampling technique using the lottery method. Structured questionnaire was used for collection of sociodemographic data. From the total of study subjects, 399 (98.2% TB patients were initiated for HIV test and 369 (92.5% patients accepted the initiation. Of those, 353 (95.5% patients had taken HIV test and received their results. According to the reviewed documents, the prevalence of HIV among tuberculosis (TB patients in the study area was 137 (33.7%. The logistic regression result showed the PITC was significantly associated with their knowledge about HIV (AOR = 3.22, 95% CI: 1.3–7.97, self-perceived risk (AOR = 2.93, 95% CI: 1.12–7.66, educational status (AOR = 3.51, 95% CI: 1.13–10.91, and knowledge on transmission of HIV/AIDS (AOR = 7.56, 95% CI: 1.14–40.35 which were significantly associated with the acceptance of PITC among TB patients. Therefore, this study’s results showed, the prevalence of HIV among TB patient was high; to enhance the acceptance of PITC among TB patients, health extension workers must provide health education during home-to-home visiting. TB treatment supervisors also provide counseling intensively for all forms of TB patients during their first clinical encounter.

  14. Enhanced local bioavailability of single or compound drugs delivery to the inner ear through application of PLGA nanoparticles via round window administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hui; Wen, Xingxing; Wen, Lu; Tirelli, Nicola; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Yue; Su, Huanpeng; Yang, Fan; Chen, Gang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the potential of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) for carrying single or compound drugs traversing the round window membrane (RWM) was examined after the round window (RW) administration of different NPs to guinea pigs. First, coumarin-6 was incorporated into PLGA NPs as a fluorescent probe to investigate its ability to cross the RWM. Then, PLGA NPs with salvianolic acid B (Sal B), tanshinone IIA (TS IIA), and total panax notoginsenoside (PNS) including notoginsenoside R1 (R1), ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), and ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) were developed to evaluate whether NPs loaded with compound drugs would pass through the RWM and improve the local bioavailability of these agents. PLGA NPs loaded with single or compound drugs were prepared by the emulsification solvent evaporation method, and their particle size distribution, particle morphology, and encapsulation efficiency were characterized. In vitro release study showed sustained-release profiles of Sal B, TS IIA, and PNS from the NPs. The pharmacokinetic results showed that NPs applied to the RWM significantly improved drug distribution within the inner ear. The AUC0-t of coumarin-6 in the perilymph (PL) following RW administration of NPs was 4.7-fold higher than that of coumarin-6 solution, and the Cmax was 10.9-fold higher. Furthermore, the AUC(0-t) of R1, Rg1, and Rb1 were 4.0-, 3.1-, and 7.1-fold greater, respectively, after the application of NPs compared to the compound solution, and the Cmax were, respectively, 14.4-, 10.0-, and 16.7-fold higher. These findings suggest that PLGA NPs with unique properties at the nanoscale dimensions have a powerful ability to transport single or compound drugs into the PL through the RWM and remarkably enhance the local bioavailability of the encapsulated drugs in the inner ear. The use of PLGA NPs as nanoscale delivery vehicles to carry drugs across the RWM may be a promising strategy for the treatment of inner ear diseases.

  15. A discrete Single Delay Model for the Intra-Venous Glucose Tolerance Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panunzi Simona

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the increasing importance of identifying insulin resistance, a need exists to have a reliable mathematical model representing the glucose/insulin control system. Such a model should be simple enough to allow precise estimation of insulin sensitivity on a single patient, yet exhibit stable dynamics and reproduce accepted physiological behavior. Results A new, discrete Single Delay Model (SDM of the glucose/insulin system is proposed, applicable to Intra-Venous Glucose Tolerance Tests (IVGTTs as well as to multiple injection and infusion schemes, which is fitted to both glucose and insulin observations simultaneously. The SDM is stable around baseline equilibrium values and has positive bounded solutions at all times. Applying a similar definition as for the Minimal Model (MM SI index, insulin sensitivity is directly represented by the free parameter KxgI of the SDM. In order to assess the reliability of Insulin Sensitivity determinations, both SDM and MM have been fitted to 40 IVGTTs from healthy volunteers. Precision of all parameter estimates is better with the SDM: 40 out of 40 subjects showed identifiable (CV xgI from the SDM, 20 out of 40 having identifiable SI from the MM. KxgI correlates well with the inverse of the HOMA-IR index, while SI correlates only when excluding five subjects with extreme SI values. With the exception of these five subjects, the SDM and MM derived indices correlate very well (r = 0.93. Conclusion The SDM is theoretically sound and practically robust, and can routinely be considered for the determination of insulin sensitivity from the IVGTT. Free software for estimating the SDM parameters is available.

  16. Single-step brazing process for mono-block joints and mechanical testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casalegno, V.; Ferraris, M.; Salvo, M.; Rizzo, S.; Merola, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Plasma facing components act as actively cooled thermal shields to sustain thermal and particle loads during normal and transient operations in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). The plasma-facing layer is referred to as 'armour', which is made of either carbon fibre reinforced carbon composite (CFC) or tungsten (W). CFC is the reference design solution for the lower part of the vertical target of the ITER divertor. The armour is joined onto an actively cooled substrate, the heat sink, made of precipitation hardened copper alloy CuCrZr through a thin pure copper interlayer to decrease, by plastic deformation, the joint interface stresses; in fact, the CFC to Cu joint is affected by the CTE mismatch between the ceramic and metallic material. A new method of joining CFC to copper and CFC/Cu to CuCrZr alloy was effectively developed for the flat-type configuration; the feasibility of this process also for mono-block geometry and the development of a procedure for testing mono-block-type mock-ups is described in this work. The mono-block configuration consists of copper alloy pipe shielded by CFC blocks. It is worth noting that in mono-block configuration, the large thermal expansion mismatch between CFC and copper alloy is more significant than for flat-tile configuration, due to curved interfaces. The joining technique foresees a single-step brazing process: the brazing of the three materials (CFC-Cu-CuCrZr) can be performed in a single heat treatment using the same Cu/Ge based braze. The composite surface was modified by solid state reaction with chromium with the purpose of increasing the wettability of CFC by the brazing alloy. The CFC substrate reacts with Cr which, forming a carbide layer, allows a large reduction of the contact angle; then, the brazing of CFC to pure copper and pure copper to CuCrZr by the same treatment is feasible. This process allows to obtain good joints using a non-active brazing

  17. Setting Passing Scores on Passage-Based Tests: A Comparison of Traditional and Single-Passage Bookmark Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaggs, Gary; Hein, Serge F.; Awuor, Risper

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a variation of the bookmark standard setting procedure for passage-based tests is proposed in which separate ordered item booklets are created for the items associated with each passage. This variation is compared to the traditional bookmark procedure for a fifth-grade reading test. The results showed that the single-passage…

  18. Reliability of Single-Leg Balance and Landing Tests in Rugby Union; Prospect of Using Postural Control to Monitor Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan C. Troester, Jason G. Jasmin, Rob Duffield

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the inter-trial (within test and inter-test (between test reliability of single-leg balance and single-leg landing measures performed on a force plate in professional rugby union players using commercially available software (SpartaMARS, Menlo Park, USA. Twenty-four players undertook test – re-test measures on two occasions (7 days apart on the first training day of two respective pre-season weeks following 48h rest and similar weekly training loads. Two 20s single-leg balance trials were performed on a force plate with eyes closed. Three single-leg landing trials were performed by jumping off two feet and landing on one foot in the middle of a force plate 1m from the starting position. Single-leg balance results demonstrated acceptable inter-trial reliability (ICC = 0.60-0.81, CV = 11-13% for sway velocity, anterior-posterior sway velocity, and mediolateral sway velocity variables. Acceptable inter-test reliability (ICC = 0.61-0.89, CV = 7-13% was evident for all variables except mediolateral sway velocity on the dominant leg (ICC = 0.41, CV = 15%. Single-leg landing results only demonstrated acceptable inter-trial reliability for force based measures of relative peak landing force and impulse (ICC = 0.54-0.72, CV = 9-15%. Inter-test results indicate improved reliability through the averaging of three trials with force based measures again demonstrating acceptable reliability (ICC = 0.58-0.71, CV = 7-14%. Of the variables investigated here, total sway velocity and relative landing impulse are the most reliable measures of single-leg balance and landing performance, respectively. These measures should be considered for monitoring potential changes in postural control in professional rugby union.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF SINGLE CELL SO2 DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimke, J; Timothy Steeper, T

    2006-09-15

    This document reports work performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that further develops the use of a proton exchange membrane or PEM-type electrochemical cell to produce hydrogen via SO{sub 2}-depolarized water electrolysis. This work was begun at SRNL in 2005. This research is valuable in achieving the ultimate goal of an economical hydrogen production process based on the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Cycle. The HyS Process is a hybrid thermochemical cycle that may be used in conjunction with advanced nuclear reactors or centralized solar receivers to produce hydrogen by water-splitting. Like all other sulfur-based cycles, HyS utilizes the high temperature thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid to produce oxygen. The unique aspect of HyS is the generation of hydrogen in a water electrolyzer that is operated under conditions where dissolved sulfur dioxide depolarizes the anodic reaction, resulting in substantial voltage reduction. Sulfur dioxide is oxidized at the anode, producing sulfuric acid that is sent to the acid decomposition portion of the cycle. The focus of this work was to conduct single cell electrolyzer tests in order to prove the concept of SO{sub 2}-depolarization and to determine how the results can be used to evaluate the performance of key components of the HyS Process. A test facility for conducting SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) testing was designed, constructed and commissioned. The maximum cell current is 50 amperes, which is equivalent to a hydrogen production rate of approximately 20 liters per hour. Feed to the anode of the electrolyzer is sulfuric acid solutions containing dissolved sulfur dioxide. The partial pressure of sulfur dioxide may be varied in the range of 1 to 6 atm (15 to 90 psia). Temperatures may be controlled in the range from ambient to 80 C. Hydrogen generated at the cathode of the cell is collected for the purpose of flow measurement and composition analysis. The test facility proved to be easy to

  20. Single well injection withdrawal tests (SWIW) in fractured rock. Some aspects on interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neretnieks, Ivars [Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-08-15

    Single-Well-Injection-Withdrawal, SWIW, tests are used to try to extract information on fracture apertures, sorption and diffusion properties and dispersion information in individual fractures. It is done by injecting a given amount of traced water into an isolated fracture. After a waiting period water is withdrawn from the fracture and the tracer concentration is measured. The concentration time curve is fitted to a model and the parameter values quantifying the different interaction mechanisms are determined. A number of different mechanisms influence the recovery of the tracer. One or more of the following mechanisms are considered. They include: dispersion due to velocity differences, sorption on fracture surface and on infill, diffusion in rock fragments in the fracture, diffusion between 'streamlines', diffusion into rock matrix and other stagnant water volumes, sorption kinetics and slow drift of the plume caused by the natural gradient. Many of the interaction mechanisms can influence the recovery curve in a similar way. For example, diffusion into rock matrix water and into stagnant water in the fracture adjacent to the flowing channels cannot be distinguished if only one tracer is used. Tracers with different properties can in principle be used but they will encounter different parts of the fracture, the sorbing tracer will move out less from the injection point than a nonsorbing tracer will. Diffusion and sorption in small particles in the flowpath can influence the recovery curve in a similar way as rock matrix diffusion does. Dispersion caused by diffusion between 'streamlines', Taylor dispersion, can give very different results in channels of different shapes. Such dispersion effects can be difficult to distinguish from matrix diffusion effects. Dispersion coefficients obtained in a SWIW test may have little relation to dispersion of a tracer moving from A to B. This is partly due to the different mechanisms and partly due to

  1. Single well injection withdrawal tests (SWIW) in fractured rock. Some aspects on interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretnieks, Ivars

    2007-08-01

    Single-Well-Injection-Withdrawal, SWIW, tests are used to try to extract information on fracture apertures, sorption and diffusion properties and dispersion information in individual fractures. It is done by injecting a given amount of traced water into an isolated fracture. After a waiting period water is withdrawn from the fracture and the tracer concentration is measured. The concentration time curve is fitted to a model and the parameter values quantifying the different interaction mechanisms are determined. A number of different mechanisms influence the recovery of the tracer. One or more of the following mechanisms are considered. They include: dispersion due to velocity differences, sorption on fracture surface and on infill, diffusion in rock fragments in the fracture, diffusion between 'streamlines', diffusion into rock matrix and other stagnant water volumes, sorption kinetics and slow drift of the plume caused by the natural gradient. Many of the interaction mechanisms can influence the recovery curve in a similar way. For example, diffusion into rock matrix water and into stagnant water in the fracture adjacent to the flowing channels cannot be distinguished if only one tracer is used. Tracers with different properties can in principle be used but they will encounter different parts of the fracture, the sorbing tracer will move out less from the injection point than a nonsorbing tracer will. Diffusion and sorption in small particles in the flowpath can influence the recovery curve in a similar way as rock matrix diffusion does. Dispersion caused by diffusion between 'streamlines', Taylor dispersion, can give very different results in channels of different shapes. Such dispersion effects can be difficult to distinguish from matrix diffusion effects. Dispersion coefficients obtained in a SWIW test may have little relation to dispersion of a tracer moving from A to B. This is partly due to the different mechanisms and partly due to different time scales

  2. Single-Event Latchup Testing of the Micrel MIC4424 Dual Power MOSFET Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellish, J. A.; Boutte, A.; Kim, H.; Phan, A.; Topper, A.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted 47 exposures of four different MIC4424 devices and did not observe any SEL or high-current events. This included worst-case conditions with a LET of 81 MeV-sq cm/mg, applied voltage of 18.5 V, a case temperature greater than 120 C, and a final fluence of 1x10(exp 7)/sq cm. We also monitored both the outputs for the presence of SETs. While the period of the 1 MHz square wave was slightly altered in some cases, no pulses were added or deleted. 1. Purpose: The purpose of this testing is to characterize the BiCMOS/DMOS Micrel MIC4424 dual, non-inverting MOSFET driver for single-event latchup (SEL) susceptibility. These data will be used for flight lot evaluation purposes. 2. Devices Tested: The MIC4423/4424/4425 family are highly reliable BiCMOS/DMOS buffer/driver MOSFET drivers. They are higher output current versions of the MIC4426/4427/4428. They can survive up to 5V of noise spiking, of either polarity, on the ground pin. They can accept, without either damage or logic upset, up to half an amp of reverse current (either polarity) forced back into their outputs. Primarily intended for driving power MOSFETs, the MIC4423/4424/4425 drivers are suitable for driving other loads (capacitive, resistive, or inductive) which require low-impedance, high peak currents, and fast switching times. Heavily loaded clock lines, coaxial cables, or piezoelectric transducers are some examples. The only known limitation on loading is that total power dissipated in the driver must be kept within the maximum power dissipation limits of the package. Five (5) parts were provided for SEL testing. We prepared four parts for irradiation and reserved one piece as an un-irradiated control. More information about the devices can be found in Table 1. The parts were prepared for testing by removing the lid from the CDIP package to expose the target die. The parts were then soldered to small copper circuit adapter boards for easy handling. These parts are fabricated in a bulk Bi

  3. Inflammatory changes upon a single maximal exercise test in depressed patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettger, Silke; Müller, Hans-Josef; Oswald, Klaus; Puta, Christian; Donath, Lars; Gabriel, Holger H W; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2010-04-16

    Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have repeatedly been described to exhibit both a humoral as well as a cellular pro-inflammatory state. Acute exercise, representing physical stress, can further aggravate such an immune dysbalance. In the light of recommended exercise programmes for depressed patients, we aimed to investigate the inflammatory response to exercise in patients with MDD. Blood cells counts and concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1ss and IL-6 as well as the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were obtained before and after a single maximum exercise test in 15 patients suffering from MDD and 15 controls applying a stepwise exhaustion protocol. Patients showed increased white cell counts before and after exercise. While starting from different baseline levels, however, the relative increase in both humoral and cellular inflammatory parameters did not differ between groups. The results from this study suggest that physical training programmes for MDD patients do not bear a dramatically increased risk for acute pro-inflammatory exacerbations. Thus, continuous training programmes that have been shown to reduce the pro-inflammatory state in these patients can be recommended. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Happy eating: the single target implicit association test predicts overeating after positive emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Peggy; Jansen, Anita; Houben, Katrijn; Roefs, Anne

    2013-08-01

    For many years, questionnaires have been considered the standard when examining emotional eating behavior. However, recently, some controversy has arisen about these questionnaires, and their usefulness in identifying emotional eaters has been questioned. The current study aimed to investigate the Single Target Implicit Association Test (ST-IAT) as a measure of emotional eating. Two ST-IATs (assessing food-positive and food-negative associations respectively) and the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) were compared in undergraduate students. A positive, negative or neutral mood was induced by means of a film clip, and milkshake consumption was measured during and after the mood induction. It was hypothesized that participants with strong emotion-food associations on the ST-IATs (i.e., IAT-emotional eaters) would consume more food in the emotion induction condition corresponding to that emotion, as compared to those with weak emotion-food associations as well as to those in the neutral condition. Participants who scored high on both the positive and negative ST-IATs ate more during a positive mood induction than during a negative mood induction. This effect did not extend to milkshake consumption after the mood induction procedure. In addition, IAT-positive emotional eaters consumed more food than IAT-non-emotional eaters. No effects of the DEBQ on milkshake consumption were found. It is concluded that the ST-IAT has potential as a measure of emotional eating. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. THE DESIGN, FABRICATION AND PRELIMINARY TESTING OF AN INDIGENOUS SINGLE SCREW EXTRUDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FOLASAYO T. FAYOSE

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries including Nigeria have become dumping grounds of unserviceable and broken down imported machineries because of poor adaptation. Detailed study and design of machines to suit local conditions will prevent poor adaptation of imported machines and high initial costs. In this study, a single screw starch extruder was designed, fabricated and tested using locally available materials. The extruder is the dry type and it has 27.12 kg/s capacity, a compression ratio of 4.5: 1 and is powered by a 5.5 kW electric motor. It consists of a hopper, feeding screw, extruder screw rotating in a barrel and variable die, all made of stainless steel. A unit of the machine costs N 470, 390.00.00 as at April 2015. When used to process cassava flour, a maximum temperature of 114°C was attained through viscous dissipation, up to an actual screw speed of 98.96 rpm (1.65 Hz and extruder efficiency of 64%. Barrel temperature varied directly with extrusion time in a polynomial trend while actual extruder screw speed and efficiency varied inversely with extrusion time and it is best fitted with a polynomial trend.

  6. Electrical resistivity monitoring of the single heater test in Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.

    1997-10-01

    Of the several thermal, mechanical and hydrological measurements being used to monitor the rockmass response in the Single Heater Test, electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is being used to monitor the movement of liquid water with a special interest in the movement of condensate out of the system. Images of resistivity change were calculated using data collected before, during and after the heating episode. This report will concentrate on the results obtained after heating ceased; previous reports discuss the results obtained during the heating phase. The changes recovered show a region of increasing resistivity approximately centered around the heater as the rock mass cooled. The size of this region grows with time and the resistivity increases become stronger. The increases in resistivity are caused by both temperature and saturation changes. The Waxman Smits model has been used to calculate rock saturation after accounting for temperature effects. The saturation estimates suggest that during the heating phase, a region of drying forms around the heater. During the cooling phase, the dry region has remained relatively stable. Wetter rock regions which developed below the heater during the heating phase, are slowly becoming smaller in size during the cooling phase. The last set of images indicate that some rewetting of the dry zone may be occurring. The accuracy of the saturation estimates depends on several factors that are only partly understood

  7. Preparation, characterization and single cell testing of new ionic conducting polymers for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano, P. G.; del Río y, C.; Acosta, J. L.

    In this work, heterogeneous sulfonation and both, structural and electrical characterization of a mixture composed on block copolymer ionomers (HSBS and EPDM) and commercial silica, are studied. The incorporation of sulfonic groups was checked by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR). Microstructure was studied by means of dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Also, water uptake and methanol crossover were determined, and the results were compared with those of Nafion ® 117. Electrical behavior was recorded by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) at different hydration times. Results show that sulfonation of the styrene rings has effectively occurred. Conductivity values are similar to Nafion and they improve with hydration time. Methanol crossover is lower than in Nafion. Finally, a single complete proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) as a whole was tested obtaining the polarization and power curves at different temperatures and pressures, and modeling it by an electrical equivalent circuit (EC) in the symmetrical mode (SM) configuration using the EIS technique. This study offers a physical interpretation relating physical parameters to several processes occurring in the system. Power density values are higher than in Nafion.

  8. Single-crate stand-alone CAMAC control system for a negative ion source test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juras, R.C.; Ziegler, N.F.

    1979-01-01

    A single-crate CAMAC system was configured to control a negative ion source development facility at ORNL and control software was written for the crate microcomputer. The software uses inputs from a touch panel and a shaft encoder to control the various operating parameters of the test facility and uses the touch panel to display the operating status. Communication to and from the equipment at ion source potential is accomplished over optical fibers from an ORNL-built CAMAC module. A receiver at ion source potential stores the transmitted data and some of these stored values are then used to control discrete parameters of the ion source (i.e., power supply on or off). Other stored values are sent to a multiplexed digital-to-analog converter to provide analog control signals. A transmitter at ion source potential transmits discrete status information and several channels of analog data from an analog-to-digital converter back to the ground-potential receiver where it is stored to be read and displayed by the software

  9. Database Administrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  10. Pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and PK-PD integration of ceftiofur after a single intravenous, subcutaneous and subcutaneous-LA administration in lactating goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Varón, Emilio; Cárceles-García, Carlos; Serrano-Rodríguez, Juan Manuel; Cárceles-Rodríguez, Carlos M

    2016-10-13

    Bacterial pneumonia in goats is usually caused by Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. Another important infection disease in lactating goats is intramammary infection producing mastitis, usually associated with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. However, treatment of bacterial pneumonia in goats not affected by mastitis problems should be restricted to antimicrobials with scant penetration to milk in order to avoid long withdrawal times. Ceftiofur is a third-generation cephalosporin antimicrobial with activity against various gram-positive and gram-negative, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria encountered by domestic animals. The objectives of the present study were to establish the serum concentration-time profile for ceftiofur in lactating goats after intravenous, subcutaneous and a SC-long-acting ceftiofur formulation; to determine ceftiofur penetration into milk; to determine in vitro and ex vivo activity of ceftiofur establishing MIC, MBC, MPC and time-kill profiles against field strains of M. haemolytica and finally to calculate the main surrogate markers of efficacy. The pharmacokinetics studies revealed an optimal PK properties for the SC-LA formulation tested. Ceftiofur was well absorbed following SC and SC-LA administration, with absolute bioavailabilities (F) of 85.16 and 84.43 %, respectively. After ceftiofur analysis from milk samples, no concentrations were found at any sampling time. The MIC, MBC and MPC data of ceftiofur against five M. haemolytica strains isolated from goats affected by pneumonia were tested showing excelent sensitivity of ceftiofur against this pathogen. For PK-PD analysis, ratios were calculated suggesting a high level of bacterial kill against the five strains of M. haemolytica tested. The systemic ceftiofur exposure achieved in lactating goats following IV, SC and especially with the SC-LA administration is consistent with the predicted PK-PD ratios needed for a positive therapeutic outcome for M. haemolytica

  11. Intravenous iron administration for post-operative anaemia management after colorectal cancer surgery in clinical practice: a single-centre, retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laso-Morales, María Jesús; Vives, Roser; Gómez-Ramírez, Susana; Pallisera-Lloveras, Anna; Pontes, Caridad

    2018-03-05

    Evidence on the role of intravenous iron (IVI) supplementation after colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery is rather scant. This study was aimed at assessing the benefit of postoperative IVI administration after elective CRC surgery at our institution. This was a single-centre, retrospective observational study including all patients who underwent CRC surgery during 2014. Anaemia was defined as a haemoglobin (Hb) <13 g/dL, regardless of gender. Anaemic patients received 200 mg IVI up to three times a week to cover iron deficiency (IVI group). Those who did not receive IVI were placed on standard care (NIVI group). The primary outcome was the proportion of anaemic patients on post-operative day (POD)1 and POD30. Secondary outcomes included Hb changes from POD1 to POD30, transfusion requirements and complication rates. Of the 159 patients studied, 139 (87%) presented with anaemia: 47 (34%) of these received post-operative IVI and 92 (66%) did not. Patients in the IVI group had lower POD1 Hb levels compared to those in the NIVI group (p=0.001). On POD30, only 103 had their Hb measured (34 IVI, 69 NIVI). Anaemia was more prevalent and more severe among the patients in the IVI group (p=0.027), despite their greater increment in Hb (2.0±1.5 g/dL vs 1.1±1.2 g/dL; p=0.001). Eleven patients needed post-operative transfusions (7 IVI, 4 NIVI; p=0.044). There were no differences in post-operative complication rates between the groups. No IVI-related adverse events were recorded DISCUSSION: Compared with standard care, post-operative IVI administration to anaemic patients improved the recovery of Hb levels at POD30, without increasing post-operative complications.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of Active Components of Yokukansan, a Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine after a Single Oral Administration to Healthy Japanese Volunteers: A Cross-Over, Randomized Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Kitagawa

    Full Text Available Yokukansan (YKS is a traditional Japanese herbal medicine called kampo medicine in Japan. Its extract comprises seven crude drugs: Atractylodis lanceae rhizoma, Poria, Cnidii rhizoma, Uncariae uncis cum ramulus, Angelicae radix, Bupleuri radix, and Glycyrrhizae radix. YKS is used to treat neurosis, insomnia, as well as behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.To confirm the exposure and pharmacokinetics of the active components of YKS in healthy volunteers.A randomized, open-label, 3-arm, 3-period, crossover trial was conducted on 21 healthy Japanese volunteers at the Kochi Medical University between May 2012 and November 2012.Single oral administration of YKS (2.5 g, 5.0 g, or 7.5 g/day during each period.Plasma concentrations of three active compounds in YKS, namely 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA, geissoschizine methyl ether (GM, and hirsuteine (HTE.The mean maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax of GM and HTE increased dose-dependently (ranges: 0.650-1.98 ng/mL and 0.138-0.450 ng/mL, respectively. The times to maximum plasma concentration after drug administration (tmax were 0.500 h for GM and 0.975-1.00 h for HTE. The apparent elimination half-lives (t1/2 were 1.72-1.95 h for GM and 2.47-3.03 h for HTE. These data indicate the rapid absorption and elimination of GM and HTE. On the other hand, the Cmax, tmax, and t1/2 of GA were 57.7-108 ng/mL, 8.00-8.01 h, and 9.39-12.3 h, respectively.We demonstrated that pharmacologically active components of YKS are detected in humans. Further, we determined the pharmacokinetics of GM, HTE, and GA. This information will be useful to elucidate the pharmacological effects of YKS.Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center JAPIC CTI-121811.

  13. Evaluating Upper-Body Strength and Power From a Single Test: The Ballistic Push-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ran; Hoffman, Jay R; Sadres, Eliahu; Bartolomei, Sandro; Muddle, Tyler W D; Fukuda, David H; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2017-05-01

    Wang, R, Hoffman, JR, Sadres, E, Bartolomei, S, Muddle, TWD, Fukuda, DH, and Stout, JR. Evaluating upper-body strength and power from a single test: the ballistic push-up. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1338-1345, 2017-The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of the ballistic push-up (BPU) exercise and to develop a prediction model for both maximal strength (1 repetition maximum [1RM]) in the bench press exercise and upper-body power. Sixty recreationally active men completed a 1RM bench press and 2 BPU assessments in 3 separate testing sessions. Peak and mean force, peak and mean rate of force development, net impulse, peak velocity, flight time, and peak and mean power were determined. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to examine the reliability of the BPU. Stepwise linear regression was used to develop 1RM bench press and power prediction equations. Intraclass correlation coefficient's ranged from 0.849 to 0.971 for the BPU measurements. Multiple regression analysis provided the following 1RM bench press prediction equation: 1RM = 0.31 × Mean Force - 1.64 × Body Mass + 0.70 (R = 0.837, standard error of the estimate [SEE] = 11 kg); time-based power prediction equation: Peak Power = 11.0 × Body Mass + 2012.3 × Flight Time - 338.0 (R = 0.658, SEE = 150 W), Mean Power = 6.7 × Body Mass + 1004.4 × Flight Time - 224.6 (R = 0.664, SEE = 82 W); and velocity-based power prediction equation: Peak Power = 8.1 × Body Mass + 818.6 × Peak Velocity - 762.0 (R = 0.797, SEE = 115 W); Mean Power = 5.2 × Body Mass + 435.9 × Peak Velocity - 467.7 (R = 0.838, SEE = 57 W). The BPU is a reliable test for both upper-body strength and power. Results indicate that the mean force generated from the BPU can be used to predict 1RM bench press, whereas peak velocity and flight time measured during the BPU can be used to predict upper-body power. These findings support the potential use of the BPU as a valid method to evaluate upper-body strength and power.

  14. Effect of Administration of Single Dose GnRH Agonist in Luteal Phase on Outcome of ICSI-ET Cycles in Women with Previous History of IVF/ICSI Failure: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafardoust, Simin; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Kamali, Koroush; Mokhtar, Sara; Badehnoosh, Bita; Arjmand-Teymouri, Fatemeh; Fatemi, Farnaz; Mohammadzadeh, Afsaneh

    2015-01-01

    Background GnRH agonist administration in the luteal phase has been suggested to beneficially affect the outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and embryo transfer (ET) cycles. This blind randomized controlled study evaluates the effect of GnRH (Gonadotropine Releasing Hormone) agonist administration on ICSI outcome in GnRH antagonist ovarian stimulation protocol in women with 2 or more previous IVF/ICSI-ET failures. Methods One hundred IVF failure women who underwent ICSI cycles and stimulated with GnRH antagonist ovarian stimulation protocol, were included in the study. Women were randomly assigned to intervention (received a single dose injection of GnRH agonist (0.1 mg of Decapeptil) subcutaneously 6 days after oocyte retrieval) and control (did not receive GnRH agonist) groups. Implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were the primary outcome measures. Results Although the age of women, the number of embryos transferred in the current cycle and the quality of the transferred embryos were similar in the two groups, there was a significantly higher rate of implantation (Mann Whitney test, p = 0.041) and pregnancy (32.6% vs. 12.5%, p = 0.030, OR = 3.3, 95%CI, 1.08 to 10.4) in the intervention group. Conclusion Our results suggested that, in addition to routine luteal phase support using progesterone, administration of 0.1 mg of Decapeptil 6 days after oocyte retrieval in women with previous history of 2 or more IVF/ICSI failures led to a significant improvement in implantation and pregnancy rates after ICSI following ovarian stimulation with GnRH antagonist protocol. PMID:25927026

  15. Effect of a Single Administration of Focused Extracorporeal Shock Wave in the Relief of Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness: Results of a Partially Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckenstein, Johannes; Friton, Mara; Himmelreich, Heiko; Banzer, Winfried

    2017-05-01

    To examine the effects of a single administration of focused extracorporeal shock wave therapy on eccentric exercise-induced delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Three-arm randomized controlled study. University research center. Participants (N=46; 23 women) had a mean age of 29.0±3.0 years and a mean body mass index of 23.8±2.8kg/m 2 . Participants were randomly allocated to verum- (energy flux density, .06-.09mJ/mm 2 ; pulse ratio per point, 200) or sham-focused extracorporeal shock wave therapy (no energy) at 7 equidistant points along the biceps muscle or no intervention. The primary outcome was the difference in pain intensity. Secondary outcomes included maximum isometric voluntary force (MIVF), pressure pain threshold (PPT), and impairment in daily life. Despite descriptive clinically meaningful differences, mixed-effects analysis (group × time) of changes to baseline did not reveal significant differences in the reduction of pain intensity between groups (F 2,42 =2.5, P=.094). MIVF was not significantly different between groups (F 2,43 =1.9, P=.159). PTT (F 2,43 =0.2, P=.854) and daily life impairment (F 2,42 =1.4, P=.248) were not significantly decreased over time, and there were no differences between groups in the post hoc analysis. DOMS is a common symptom in people participating in exercise, sports, or recreational physical activities. A single treatment with focused extracorporeal shock wave therapy causes clinically relevant effects in the relief of pain, increase in force, and improvement of pain-associated impairments of daily living. Still, results need to be cautiously interpreted because of the pilot character of this study. Focused extracorporeal shock wave therapy might present an option in the midterm recovery from DOMS (72h) and be an approach to enhance the return to play in athletes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Development and MASH full-scale crash testing of a high-mounting-height temporary single sign support with aluminum sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Work zone traffic control devices such as temporary single sign supports are a primary means to communicate : information to motorists in work zone areas. The Federal Highway Administration and the Manual on Uniform Traffic : Control Devices require ...

  17. Correlation of single-breath count test and neck flexor muscle strength with spirometry in myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikh, Bakri; Arnold, W David; Gharibshahi, Shahram; Reynolds, Jerold; Freimer, Miriam; Kissel, John T

    2016-01-01

    Although formal spirometry is the gold standard for monitoring respiratory function in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), such testing is often delayed or unavailable. There is a need for a simple bedside test that can accurately measure respiratory function. We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional, single-blind study in adults with acetylcholine receptor antibody positive MG. Participants performed the single breath count test (SBCT) and underwent manual muscle strength testing, and a respiratory therapist performed spirometry blinded to SBCT and strength results. Thirty-one patients, aged 57 ± 19 years participated. SBCT showed significant correlations with forced vital capacity (FVC), negative inspiratory force, and neck flexor strength (P strength (P = 0.02) but no correlation with shoulder abductor strength. These data suggest that the SBCT and neck flexor strength testing are valuable tools for bedside assessment of respiratory function in MG patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Reduced lung lesions in pigs challenged 25 weeks after the administration of a single dose of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine at approximately 1 week of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, S C; St Aubin, L B; Sabbadini, L G; Kula, J; Vogelaar, J; Runnels, P; Peters, A R

    2009-09-01

    Two independent studies assessed the duration of immunity of an inactivated adjuvanted Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine against mycoplasmal pneumonia in seronegative (study A, n=52) and seropositive (study B, n=52) pigs. The pigs were allocated randomly to treatment and were then injected with a single dose of either the vaccine or a placebo at approximately 1 week of age. Twenty-five weeks after treatment administration, the pigs were challenged with a virulent strain (LI 36, Strain 232) of M. hyopneumoniae and the extent of lung lesions consistent with mycoplasmal pneumonia was assessed 4 weeks later. In study A, the geometric mean lung lesion score (expressed as least squares mean percentages of lung lesions) was significantly (P=0.0001) lower in vaccinated (0.3%, n=20) than in control pigs (5.9%, n=24) seronegative to M. hyopneumoniae at enrolment; similarly, in study B, the extent of lung lesions was significantly reduced (P=0.0385) in seropositive vaccinated pigs (2.0%, n=22) compared to controls (4.5%, n=26). At the end of the investigation period, 4 weeks after challenge, mean antibody sample-to-positive (S/P) ratios were significantly higher both in seronegative (P=0.0012) and seropositive (P=0.0001) vaccinated pigs (mean values=0.77 and 0.81, respectively) than in controls (mean values=0.51 and 0.38, respectively).

  19. Typing of 49 autosomal SNPs by single base extension and capillary electrophoresis for forensic genetic testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Tomas Mas, Carmen; Morling, Niels

    2012-01-01

    We describe a method for simultaneous amplification of 49 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by multiplex PCR and detection of the SNP alleles by single base extension (SBE) and capillary electrophoresis. All the SNPs may be amplified from only 100 pg of genomic DNA and the length...

  20. FY2016 ILAW Glass Corrosion Testing with the Single-Pass Flow-Through Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeway, James J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Asmussen, Robert M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Parruzot, Benjamin PG [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cordova, Elsa [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Benjamin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Leavy, Ian I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephenson, John R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McElroy, Erin M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-04-21

    The inventory of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) produced at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will be disposed of at the near-surface, on-site Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). When groundwater comes into contact with the waste form, the glass will corrode and radionuclides will be released into the near-field environment. Because the release of the radionuclides is dependent on the dissolution rate of the glass, it is important that the performance assessment (PA) model accounts for the dissolution rate of the glass as a function of various chemical conditions. To accomplish this, an IDF PA model based on Transition State Theory (TST) can be employed. The model is able to account for changes in temperature, exposed surface area, and pH of the contacting solution as well as the effect of silicon concentrations in solution, specifically the activity of orthosilicic acid (H4SiO4), whose concentration is directly linked to the glass dissolution rate. In addition, the IDF PA model accounts for the alkali-ion exchange process as sodium is leached from the glass and into solution. The effect of temperature, pH, H4SiO4 activity, and the rate of ion-exchange can be parameterized and implemented directly into the PA rate law model. The rate law parameters are derived from laboratory tests with the single-pass flow-through (SPFT) method. To date, rate law parameters have been determined for seven ILAW glass compositions, thus additional rate law parameters on a wider range of compositions will supplement the existing body of data for PA maintenance activities. The data provided in this report can be used by ILAW glass scientists to further the understanding of ILAW glass behavior, by IDF PA modelers to use the rate law parameters in PA modeling efforts, and by Department of Energy (DOE) contractors and decision makers as they assess the IDF PA program.

  1. C.O.D. toughness testing of medium strength steel as a preliminary development for single specimen J integral toughness tests of SA533-B steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, P.; Tait, R.B.; Garrett, G.G.

    1981-10-01

    The primary purpose of this project is to set up a test facility and to develop the necessary expertise to enable reliable elasto-plastic fracture toughness tests to be performed. Initially, tests are to be conducted on material similar to that used in the Koeberg pressure vessel walls, with the ultimate goal of performing single specimen J integral tests on the pressure vessel steel itself to determine through-thickness toughness variations. The project will comprise a number of stages, each one necessary for the development of the techniques used in J integral testing. These include: (i) development of an appropriate specimen design, of suitable size and shape that is applicable to both crack opening displacement (C.O.D.) and J integral tests; (ii) development, testing and calibration of the necessary associated mechanical and electrical equipment (e.g. clip gauge, amplifiers, interface unit, etc.), with (iii) an estimation of the probable errors and noise levels with a view to their elimantion, leading to (iv) perfection of the sensitivity and reproducibility of, firstly, the multiple specimen C.O.D. technique and, secondly, the multiple specimen J integral techniques. (v) Based on the above techniques, development of the single specimen J integral test method incorporating development of a computerised testing procedure. All the above procedure is to be conducted on similar, but non-Koeberg pressure vessel material ('ROQ Tough'). (vi) Finally, development and testing of both multiple specimen and single specimen J integral tests on actual SA533B material and an investigation of the through thickness toughness and fatigue crack propagation behaviour

  2. Towards a Unified Testing Framework for Single-Sided Deafness Studies: A Consensus Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Heyning, Paul; Távora-Vieira, Dayse; Mertens, Griet; Van Rompaey, Vincent; Rajan, Gunesh P; Müller, Joachim; Hempel, John Martin; Leander, Daniel; Polterauer, Daniel; Marx, Mathieu; Usami, Shin-Ichi; Kitoh, Ryosuke; Miyagawa, Maiko; Moteki, Hideaki; Smilsky, Kari; Baumgartner, Wolf-Dieter; Keintzel, Thomas Georg; Sprinzl, Georg Mathias; Wolf-Magele, Astrid; Arndt, Susan; Wesarg, Thomas; Zirn, Stefan; Baumann, Uwe; Weissgerber, Tobias; Rader, Tobias; Hagen, Rudolf; Kurz, Anja; Rak, Kristen; Stokroos, Robert; George, Erwin; Polo, Ruben; Medina, María Del Mar; Henkin, Yael; Hilly, Ohad; Ulanovski, David; Rajeswaran, Ranjith; Kameswaran, Mohan; Di Gregorio, Maria Fernanda; Zernotti, Mario E

    2016-01-01

    While hearing aids for a contralateral routing of signals (CROS-HA) and bone conduction devices have been the traditional treatment for single-sided deafness (SSD) and asymmetric hearing loss (AHL), in recent years, cochlear implants (CIs) have increasingly become a viable treatment choice, particularly in countries where regulatory approval and reimbursement schemes are in place. Part of the reason for this shift is that the CI is the only device capable of restoring bilateral input to the auditory system and hence of possibly reinstating binaural hearing. Although several studies have independently shown that the CI is a safe and effective treatment for SSD and AHL, clinical outcome measures in those studies and across CI centers vary greatly. Only with a consistent use of defined and agreed-upon outcome measures across centers can high-level evidence be generated to assess the safety and efficacy of CIs and alternative treatments in recipients with SSD and AHL. This paper presents a comparative study design and minimum outcome measures for the assessment of current treatment options in patients with SSD/AHL. The protocol was developed, discussed, and eventually agreed upon by expert panels that convened at the 2015 APSCI conference in Beijing, China, and at the CI 2016 conference in Toronto, Canada. A longitudinal study design comparing CROS-HA, BCD, and CI treatments is proposed. The recommended outcome measures include (1) speech in noise testing, using the same set of 3 spatial configurations to compare binaural benefits such as summation, squelch, and head shadow across devices; (2) localization testing, using stimuli that rove in both level and spectral content; (3) questionnaires to collect quality of life measures and the frequency of device use; and (4) questionnaires for assessing the impact of tinnitus before and after treatment, if applicable. A protocol for the assessment of treatment options and outcomes in recipients with SSD and AHL is presented

  3. Racial/ethnic and gender differences among older adults in nonmonogamous partnerships, time spent single, and human immunodeficiency virus testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harawa, Nina T; Leng, Mei; Kim, Junyeop; Cunningham, William E

    2011-12-01

    A higher frequency of nonmonogamy, due in part to lower marriage prevalence, may contribute to elevated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease rates among older blacks. To examine race and gender differences in nonmonogamy, time spent single (i.e., not married or cohabiting), and HIV testing in older adults, we analyzed US population-based data from the 2005-2006 National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project for 2825 heterosexual participants ages 57 to 85 years. Blacks spent greater portions of their adult lives single than did Hispanics or whites and were far more likely to report recent nonmonogamous partnerships (23.4% vs. 10.0% and 8.2%). Among individuals reporting sex in the prior 5 years, nonmonogamous partnerships were strongly associated with time spent single during the period. Control for time spent single and other covariates reduced the association of black race with nonmonogamous partnerships for men, but increased it for women. Less than 20% reported ever testing for HIV; less than 6% had been recommended testing by a provider. Testing rates, highest in black men and white women, differed little by history of nonmonogamous partnerships within gender strata. Singlehood helps to explain higher nonmonogamous partnership rates in older black men but not in older black women. Older adults rarely receive or are recommended HIV testing, a key strategy for reducing heterosexual HIV transmission.

  4. Histopathological evaluation of supportive effects of Rosa damascene on mice testes, following long term administration of copper sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsanollah Sakhaee

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Administration of the essential oil of R. damascene owning to its antioxidant properties is able to protect the testis and epididymal sperm from the adverse effects of copper poisoning in mice.

  5. Single-Leg Hop Test Performance and Isokinetic Knee Strength After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueyoshi, Ted; Nakahata, Akihiro; Emoto, Gen; Yuasa, Tomoki

    2017-11-01

    Isokinetic strength and hop tests are commonly used to assess athletes' readiness to return to sport after knee surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the results of single-leg hop and isokinetic knee strength testing in athletes who underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) upon returning to sport participation as well as to study the correlation between these 2 test batteries. The secondary purpose was to compare the test results by graft type (patellar tendon or hamstring). It was hypothesized that there would be no statistically significant limb difference in either isokinetic knee strength or single-leg hop tests, that there would be a moderate to strong correlation between the 2 test batteries, and that there would be no significant difference between graft types. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Twenty-nine high school and collegiate athletes who underwent ACLR participated in this study. At the time of return to full sport participation, a series of hop tests and knee extension/flexion isokinetic strength measurements were conducted. The results were analyzed using analysis of variance and Pearson correlation ( r ). The timed 6-m hop test was the only hop test that showed a significant difference between the involved and uninvolved limbs (2.3 and 2.2 seconds, respectively; P = .02). A significant difference between limbs in knee strength was found for flexion peak torque/body weight at 180 deg/s ( P = .03), flexion total work/body weight at 180 deg/s ( P = .04), and flexion peak torque/body weight at 300 deg/s ( P = .03). The strongest correlation between the hop tests and knee strength was found between the total distance of the hop tests and flexion total work/body weight at 300 deg/s ( r = 0.69) and between the timed 6-m hop test and flexion peak torque/body weight at 300 deg/s ( r = -0.54). There was no statistically significant difference in hop test performance or isokinetic knee strength between graft types

  6. Pharmacokinetics and Tolerance of the Phage Endolysin-Based Candidate Drug SAL200 after a Single Intravenous Administration among Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Soo Youn; Jang, In Jin; Yoon, Seonghae; Jang, Kyungho; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Cho, Joo Youn; Seong, Moon-Woo; Jung, Gi Mo; Yoon, Seong Jun; Kang, Sang Hyeon

    2017-06-01

    This study was a phase 1, single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dosing, and dose-escalating study of intravenous SAL200. It is a new candidate drug for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant staphylococcal infections based on a recombinant form of the phage endolysin SAL-1. The study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerance among healthy male volunteers after the intravenous infusion of single ascending doses of SAL200 (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg of body weight). SAL200 was well tolerated, and no serious adverse events (AEs) were observed in this clinical study. Most AEs were mild, self-limiting, and transient. The AEs reported in more than three participants were fatigue, rigors, headache, and myalgia. No clinically significant values with respect to the findings of clinical chemistry, hematology, and coagulation analyses, urinalysis, vital signs, and physical examinations were observed, and no notable trends in our electrocardiogram (ECG) results for any tested dose were noticed. A greater-than-dose-proportional increase with regard to systemic exposure and the maximum serum concentration was observed when the SAL200 dose was increased from 0.1 mg/kg to 10 mg/kg. This investigation constitutes the first-in-human phase 1 study of an intravenously administered, phage endolysin-based drug. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT01855048 and at the Clinical Research Information Service [https://cris.nih.go.kr/cris/] under identifier KCT0000968.). Copyright © 2017 Jun et al.

  7. Criticality of Low-Energy Protons in Single-Event Effects Testing of Highly-Scaled Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.; Marshall, Paul W.; Rodbell, Kenneth P.; Gordon, Michael S.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Schwank, James R.; Dodds, Nathaniel A.; Castaneda, Carlos M.; Berg, Melanie D.; Kim, Hak S.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We report low-energy proton and low-energy alpha particle single-event effects (SEE) data on a 32 nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) latches and static random access memory (SRAM) that demonstrates the criticality of using low-energy protons for SEE testing of highly-scaled technologies. Low-energy protons produced a significantly higher fraction of multi-bit upsets relative to single-bit upsets when compared to similar alpha particle data. This difference highlights the importance of performing hardness assurance testing with protons that include energy distribution components below 2 megaelectron-volt. The importance of low-energy protons to system-level single-event performance is based on the technology under investigation as well as the target radiation environment.

  8. Single-Event Transient Testing of the Crane Aerospace and Electronics SMHF2812D Dual DC-DC Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Megan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this testing was to characterize the Crane Aerospace & Electronics (Crane) Interpoint SMHF2812D for single-event transient (SET) susceptibility. These data shall be used for flight lot evaluation, as well as qualification by similarity of the SMHF family of converters, all of which use the same active components.

  9. Diagnostic accuracy: theoretical models for preimplantation genetic testing of a single nucleus using the fluorescence in situ hybridization technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scriven, P. N.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and use theoretical models to investigate the accuracy of the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique in testing a single nucleus from a preimplantation embryo without the complicating effect of mosaicism. Mathematical models were constructed for

  10. 42 CFR 84.1145 - Silica dust test; non-powered single-use dust respirators; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1145 Silica dust test; non-powered single-use dust... shall be used. (c) Air exhaled through the respirator will be 35° ±2 °C. with 94 ±3 percent relative...

  11. Intestinal and hepatic contributions to the pharmacokinetic interaction between gamithromycin and rifampicin after single-dose and multiple-dose administration in healthy foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, S; Wallstabe, S; Scheuch, E; Oswald, S; Hasan, M; Wegner, D; Grube, M; Venner, M; Ullrich, A; Siegmund, W

    2017-12-14

    Standard treatment of foals with severe abscessing lung infection caused by Rhodococcus equi using rifampicin and a macrolide antibiotic can be compromised by extensive inhibition and/or induction of drug metabolising enzymes (e.g. CYP3A4) and transport proteins (e.g. P-glycoprotein), as has been shown for rifampicin and clarithromycin. The combination of rifampicin with the new, poorly metabolised gamithromycin, a long-acting analogue of azithromycin and tulathromycin with lower pharmacokinetic interaction potential, might be a suitable alternative. To evaluate the pharmacokinetic interactions and pulmonary distribution of rifampicin and gamithromycin in healthy foals, and to investigate the cellular uptake of gamithromycin in vitro. Controlled, four-period, consecutive, single-dose and multiple-dose study. Pharmacokinetics and lung distribution of rifampicin (10 mg/kg) and gamithromycin (6 mg/kg) were measured in nine healthy foals using LC-MS/MS. Enzyme induction was confirmed using the 4β-OH-cholesterol/cholesterol ratio. Affinity of gamithromycin to drug transport proteins was evaluated in vitro using equine hepatocytes and MDCKII-cells stably transfected with human OATP1B1, OATP1B3 and OATP2B1. Rifampicin significantly (Pgamithromycin (16.2 ± 4.77 vs. 8.57 ± 3.10 μg × h/mL) by decreasing the total body clearance. Otherwise, gamithromycin significantly lowered plasma exposure of single- and multiple-dose rifampicin (83.8 ± 35.3 and 112 ± 43.1 vs. 164 ± 96.7 μg × h/mL) without a change in metabolic ratio and half-life. Gamithromycin was identified as an inhibitor of human OATP1B1, OATP1B3 and OATP2B1 and as a substrate of OATP2B1. In addition, it was extracted by equine hepatocytes via a mechanism which could be inhibited by rifampicin. Influence of gamithromycin on pulmonary distribution of rifampicin was not evaluated. The plasma exposure of gamithromycin is significantly increased by co-administration of rifampicin which is most

  12. A single center, open label study of intradermal administration of an inactivated purified chick embryo cell culture rabies virus vaccine in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recuenco, Sergio; Warnock, Eli; Osinubi, Modupe O V; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2017-08-03

    In the USA, rabies vaccines (RVs) are licensed for intramuscular (IM) use only, although RVs are licensed for use by the intradermal (ID) route in many other countries. Recent limitations in supplies of RV in the USA reopened discussions on the more efficient use of available biologics, including utilization of more stringent risk assessments, and potential ID RV administration. A clinical trial was designed to compare the immunogenic and adverse effects of a purified chicken embryo cell (PCEC) RV administered ID or IM. Enrollment was designed in four arms, ID Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (Pre-EP), IM Pre-EP, ID Booster, and IM Booster vaccination. Enrollment included 130 adult volunteers. The arms with IM administration received vaccine according to the current ACIP recommendations: Pre-EP, three 1mL (2.5 I.U.) RV doses, each on day 0, 7, and 21; or a routine Booster, one 1ml dose. The ID groups received the same schedule, but doses administered were in a volume of 0.1mL (0.25 I.U.). The rate of increase in rabies virus neutralizing antibody titers 14-21days after vaccination were similar in the ID and correspondent IM groups. The GMT values for ID vaccination were slightly lower than those for IM vaccination, for both naïve and booster groups, and these differences were statistically significant by t-test. Fourteen days after completing vaccination, all individuals developed RV neutralizing antibody titers over the minimum arbitrary value obtained with the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Antibodies were over the set threshold until the end of the trial, 160days after completed vaccination. No serious adverse reactions were reported. Most frequent adverse reactions were erythema, induration and tenderness, localized at the site of injection. Multi use of 1mL rabies vaccine vials for ID doses of 0.1 was demonstrated to be both safe and inmunogenic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Exposure of fatty acids after a single oral administration of sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) and sunflower oil in human adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gonzales, Carla; Villegas, Leon

    2014-01-01

    Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) is a potential oilseed crop because it is rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA) (omega-3 fatty acid). To evaluate the exposure of fatty acids after a single oral administration of sacha inchi or sunflower oil in healthy volunteers. Plasma fatty acids concentrations were assayed by Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector in 18 adult subjects. After fasting, blood samples were obtained at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h after ingestion of 10 or 15 ml of sacha inchi oil or sunflower oil. The proportion ALA/linoleic acid was 1.37 in sacha inchi oil and 0.01 in sunflower oil. ALA, lauric acid, palmitic acid, linolelaidic acid, cis-8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid, cis-13,16-docosadienoic acid and cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels changed over time after sacha inchi oil ingestion but not with sunflower oil. The time at maximal concentration (tmax) for ALA was 2 h after sacha inchi oil ingestion. No ALA in plasma was observed after sunflower oil consumption. The maximal concentration of ALA was 2.84 ± 0.36 mg/ml in women and 0.94 ± 0.57 mg/ml in men, p  0.05). There is a trend for higher plasma ALA levels with 15 ml sacha inchi oil. After 2 h of consumption, plasma delta triacylglycerol were reduced with sunflower oil but slightly increased with sacha inchi oil. A reduction in plasma delta triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein cholesterol was observed with both oils. Consumption of sacha inchi oil increased ALA and DHA in plasma.

  14. Validity and reliability of the single-trial line drill test of anaerobic power in basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatouros, I G; Laparidis, K; Kambas, A; Chatzinikolaou, A; Techlikidou, E; Katrabasas, I; Douroudos, I; Leontsini, D; Berberidou, F; Draganidis, D; Christoforidis, C; Tsoukas, D; Kelis, S; Taxildaris, K

    2011-03-01

    This study evaluated the validity, reliability, and sensitivity of the single-trial line drill test (SLDT) for anaerobic power assessment. Twenty-four volunteers were assigned to either a control (C, N.=12) or an experimental (BP, N.=12 basketball players) group. SLDT's (time-to-complete) concurrent validity was evaluated against the Wingate testing (WAnT: mean [MP] and peak power [PP]) and a 30-sec vertical jump testing test (VJT: mean height and MP). Blood lactate concentration was measured at rest and immediately post-test. SLDT's reliability [test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), coefficient of variation (CV), Bland-Altman plots] and sensitivity were determined (one-way ANOVA). Kendall's tau correlation analysis revealed correlations (Pbasketball players.

  15. Incorporating Probability Models of Complex Test Structures to Perform Technology Independent FPGA Single Event Upset Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, M. D.; Kim, H. S.; Friendlich, M. A.; Perez, C. E.; Seidlick, C. M.; LaBel, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    We present SEU test and analysis of the Microsemi ProASIC3 FPGA. SEU Probability models are incorporated for device evaluation. Included is a comparison to the RTAXS FPGA illustrating the effectiveness of the overall testing methodology.

  16. Fabrication and Testing of Full-Length Single-Cell Externally Fueled Converters for Thermionic Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    1995-08-01

    Paper presented at the 29th IECEC in Monterey, CA in August 1994. The present paper describes the fabrication and testing of full-length prototypcial converters, both unfueled and fueled, and presents parametric results of electrically heated tests.

  17. The administration of a single dose of a multivalent (DHPPiL4R vaccine prevents clinical signs and mortality following virulent challenge with canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus or canine parvovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wilson

    2014-01-01

    In conclusion, we demonstrated that a single administration of a minimum titre, multivalent vaccine to dogs of six weeks of age is efficacious and prevents clinical signs and mortality caused by CAV-1 and CDV; prevents clinical signs and significantly reduces virus shedding caused by CAV-2; and prevents clinical signs, leucopoenia and viral excretion caused by CPV.

  18. Single Group, Pre- and Post-Test Research Designs: Some Methodological Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Emma; Torgerson, Carole J.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides two illustrations of some of the factors that can influence findings from pre- and post-test research designs in evaluation studies, including regression to the mean (RTM), maturation, history and test effects. The first illustration involves a re-analysis of data from a study by Marsden (2004), in which pre-test scores are…

  19. Flow tests of a single fuel element coolant channel for a compact fast reactor for space power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springborn, R. H.

    1971-01-01

    Water flow tests were conducted on a single-fuel-element cooling channel for a nuclear concept to be used for space power. The tests established a method for measuring coolant flow rate which is applicable to water flow testing of a complete mockup of the reference reactor. The inlet plenum-to-outlet plenum pressure drop, which approximates the overall core pressure drop, was measured and correlated with flow rate. This information can be used for reactor coolant flow and heat transfer calculations. An analytical study of the flow characteristics was also conducted.

  20. The development of evaluating tensile property method used the single notched ring test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Bong Kook; Koo, Jae Mean; Seok, Chang Sung

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the single notched specimen which was proposed the previous study was used to evaluate of the transverse tensile property of zircaloy cladding. The single notched specimen has notches which give stress intensity effect, so both FEM and experiment are needed for the same time. Take a coincidence of tensile behavior about both FEM and experiment, then obtain stress and strain from FEM only. The influence of notch was estimated by comparing the result of experimental, FEM. Then the relationship between stress-strain and displacement was evaluated

  1. High-energy heavy ion testing of VLSI devices for single event ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Single event upset is defined by NASA as 'radiation- induced errors in microelectronic circuits caused when charged particles (usually from the radiation belts or from cosmic rays) lose energy by ionizing the medium through which they pass, leaving behind a wake of elec- tron-hole pairs'. SEU are transient soft errors and ...

  2. Testing the Efficacy of a Scholarship Program for Single Parent, Post-Freshmen, Full Time Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Dick M., II; Kaka, Sarah J.; Tygret, Jennifer A.; Cathcart, Katy

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the efficacy of a scholarship program designed to assist single parent, post-freshmen, full time undergraduate students and predictors of success among a sample of said students, where success is defined as progress toward completion, academic achievement, and degree completion. Results of fixed effects regression and…

  3. Analysis and Testing of Ajax-based Single-page Web Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesbah, A.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation has focused on better understanding the shifting web paradigm and the consequences of moving from the classical multi-page model to an Ajax-based single-page style. Specifically to that end, this work has examined this new class of software from three main software engineering

  4. Design and Testing of a Thermostable Platform for Multimerization of Single Domain Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    from the blood of sharks and camelids (camels and llamas). Largely due to their small size (12‒14 kDa), these molecules have substantial thermostability...H.J. Properties, production, and applications of camelid single domain antibody fragments. Appl. Microbiol. Biot. 2007, 77, 13‒22. 2. Goldman

  5. Single cells for forensic DNA analysis--from evidence material to test tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brück, Simon; Evers, Heidrun; Heidorn, Frank; Müller, Ute; Kilper, Roland; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a method that, while providing morphological quality control, allows single cells to be obtained from the surfaces of various evidence materials and be made available for DNA analysis in cases where only small amounts of cell material are present or where only mixed traces are found. With the SteREO Lumar.V12 stereomicroscope and UV unit from Zeiss, it was possible to detect and assess single epithelial cells on the surfaces of various objects (e.g., glass, plastic, metal). A digitally operated micromanipulator developed by aura optik was used to lift a single cell from the surface of evidence material and to transfer it to a conventional PCR tube or to an AmpliGrid(®) from Advalytix. The actual lifting of the cells was performed with microglobes that acted as carriers. The microglobes were held with microtweezers and were transferred to the DNA analysis receptacles along with the adhering cells. In a next step, the PCR can be carried out in this receptacle without removing the microglobe. Our method allows a single cell to be isolated directly from evidence material and be made available for forensic DNA analysis. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. The anomaly in a breakthrough curve of a single well "push-pull" tracer test: A density driven effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilfelder, Sarah; Hebig, Klaus; Ito, Narimitsu; Machida, Isao; Scheytt, Traugott; Marui, Atsunao

    2013-04-01

    What method is appropriate to investigate an aquifer when there is only one well available? A single well "push-pull" tracer test (PP Test) may be a suitable method in order to characterize an aquifer and to obtain information about the hydraulic and chemical properties when only one well is available for the investigations. In a PP test, a test solution that contains a known amount of solutes and a conservative tracer is injected into the aquifer ("push") and extracted afterwards ("pull"). Optionally, the test solution is flushed out of the well and the casing with untreated test solution with a so called "chaser" before being extracted. Also between the injection and the extraction phase a drifting time may be included. The breakthrough of the tracer during the extraction phase is measured and used for analyses and interpretation. In the last three years, several PP Test campaigns were conducted at two different test sites in Japan (Hebig et al. 2011, Zeilfelder et al. 2012). The aim was to investigate the applicability of the PP Test method in different geological settings and in different types of aquifers. The latest field campaign thus focussed on the question how variations of the setup are influencing the breakthrough curve of the PP Test in order to develop and enhance this method. Also the standardization of the PP Test was an aim of this study. During the campaign, a total of seven PP Tests were performed, while only single aspects of the setup were varied from test to test. The tests differed in injection and extraction rate, in the salinity of the injected test solution and in the use of a chaser solution. The general shapes of the breakthrough curves were similar and conclusions about the repeatability of the PP Test could be drawn. However, a sharp anomaly was observed in the breakthrough curve of one specific setup type. By repeating this PP test under the same boundary conditions, we were able to recreate the anomaly and could exclude any technical

  7. Building a Robust Tumor Profiling Program: Synergy between Next-Generation Sequencing and Targeted Single-Gene Testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Hiemenz

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing (NGS is a powerful platform for identifying cancer mutations. Routine clinical adoption of NGS requires optimized quality control metrics to ensure accurate results. To assess the robustness of our clinical NGS pipeline, we analyzed the results of 304 solid tumor and hematologic malignancy specimens tested simultaneously by NGS and one or more targeted single-gene tests (EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, NPM1, FLT3, and JAK2. For samples that passed our validated tumor percentage and DNA quality and quantity thresholds, there was perfect concordance between NGS and targeted single-gene tests with the exception of two FLT3 internal tandem duplications that fell below the stringent pre-established reporting threshold but were readily detected by manual inspection. In addition, NGS identified clinically significant mutations not covered by single-gene tests. These findings confirm NGS as a reliable platform for routine clinical use when appropriate quality control metrics, such as tumor percentage and DNA quality cutoffs, are in place. Based on our findings, we suggest a simple workflow that should facilitate adoption of clinical oncologic NGS services at other institutions.

  8. Building a Robust Tumor Profiling Program: Synergy between Next-Generation Sequencing and Targeted Single-Gene Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemenz, Matthew C; Kadauke, Stephan; Lieberman, David B; Roth, David B; Zhao, Jianhua; Watt, Christopher D; Daber, Robert D; Morrissette, Jennifer J D

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a powerful platform for identifying cancer mutations. Routine clinical adoption of NGS requires optimized quality control metrics to ensure accurate results. To assess the robustness of our clinical NGS pipeline, we analyzed the results of 304 solid tumor and hematologic malignancy specimens tested simultaneously by NGS and one or more targeted single-gene tests (EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, NPM1, FLT3, and JAK2). For samples that passed our validated tumor percentage and DNA quality and quantity thresholds, there was perfect concordance between NGS and targeted single-gene tests with the exception of two FLT3 internal tandem duplications that fell below the stringent pre-established reporting threshold but were readily detected by manual inspection. In addition, NGS identified clinically significant mutations not covered by single-gene tests. These findings confirm NGS as a reliable platform for routine clinical use when appropriate quality control metrics, such as tumor percentage and DNA quality cutoffs, are in place. Based on our findings, we suggest a simple workflow that should facilitate adoption of clinical oncologic NGS services at other institutions.

  9. Evaluation of the single-pass flow-through test to support a low-activity waste specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrail, B.P.; Peeler, D.K.

    1995-09-01

    A series of single-pass flow-through (SPFT) tests was performed on five reference low-activity waste glasses and a reference glass from the National Institute of Standards and Technology to support a product specification for low-activity waste (LAW) forms. The results showed that the SPFT test provides a means to quantitatively distinguish among LAW glass forms in terms of their forward reaction rate at a given temperature and solution pH. Two of the test glasses were also subjected to SPFT testing at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Forward reaction rate constants calculated from the ANL test data were 100 to over 1,000 times larger than the values obtained from the SPFT tests conducted at PNL. An analysis of the ANL results showed that they were inconsistent with independent measurements done on glasses of similar composition, the known pH-dependence of the forward rate, and with the results from low surface-area-to-volume, short duration product consistency tests. Because the data set obtained from the SPFT tests done at PNL was consistent with each of these same factors, a detailed examination of the test procedures used at both laboratories was performed to determine the cause(s) of the discrepancy. The omission of background subtraction in the data analysis procedure and the short-duration (on the order of hours) of the ANL tests are factors that may have significantly affected the calculated rates

  10. Initial Results of Accelerated Stress Testing on Single-Channel and Multichannel Drivers: Solid-State Lighting Technology Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2018-02-28

    This report is the first in a series of studies on accelerated stress testing (AST) of drivers used for SSL luminaires, such as downlights, troffers, and streetlights. A representative group of two-stage commercial driver products was exposed to an AST environment consisting of 75°C and 75% relative humidity (7575). These drivers were a mix of single-channel drivers (i.e., a single output current for one LED primary) and multichannel drivers (i.e., separate output currents for multiple LED primaries). This AST environment was chosen because previous testing on downlights with integrated drivers demonstrated that 38% of the sample population failed in less than 2,500 hours of testing using this method. In addition to AST test results, the performance of an SSL downlight product incorporating an integrated, multichannel driver during extended room temperature operational life (RTOL) testing is also reported. A battery of measurements was used to evaluate these products during accelerated testing, including full electrical characterization (i.e., power consumption, PF, total harmonic distortion [THD], and inrush current) and photometric characterization of external LED loads attached to the drivers (i.e., flicker performance and lumen maintenance).

  11. Evaluation of the curative and preventive efficacy of a single oral administration of afoxolaner against cat flea Ctenocephalides felis infestations on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, James S; Dumont, Pascal; Chester, Theodore S; Young, David R; Fourie, Josephus J; Larsen, Diane L

    2014-04-02

    The efficacy of orally administered afoxolaner for treatment and prevention of repeated infestations with adult Ctenocephalides felis on dogs was evaluated in two studies after administration of a beef-flavored soft chew. In each study, 32 dogs were divided randomly into four equal groups. Dogs in Groups 1 and 3 were not treated and served as controls. Dogs in Groups 2 and 4 were treated on Day 0 with a combination of chewable tablets to be as close as possible to the minimum therapeutic dose of 2.5mg/kg. All animals were infested experimentally with unfed C. felis (100 ± 5) on Days -1, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. Flea killing efficacy was evaluated in both studies while, efficacy against flea egg production was assessed in Study 1. Live fleas were counted at 12 (Groups 1 and 2) and 24h (Groups 3 and 4), after treatment or after weekly infestations. In Study 1, flea eggs were collected and counted at either 12 or 24h after each flea infestation on Days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. The results of both studies demonstrate the long lasting and rapid efficacy of afoxolaner against C. felis, when administered as a single oral dose to dogs. For flea counts conducted 24h after treatment or infestation, efficacy was 100% for all time points up to Day 36 in both studies, except for one time point (99.9% on Day 22) for Study 2. For flea counts performed 12h after treatment or infestation, efficacy was ≥ 95.2% until Day 21 in both studies. Efficacy at 12h was ≥ 93.0% on Day 35 in Study 1 and ≥ 89.7% on Day 35 in Study 2. The treated groups had significantly fewer fleas than untreated control dogs in both studies for all flea counts (p=0.003 Study 1, p=0.0006 Study 2). In Study 1, for all egg counts performed at or beyond Day 7, efficacy in egg reduction was >99% for all time points between Days 7 and 35. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Single event upset tests of a RISC-based fault-tolerant computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimbrough, J.R.; Butner, D.N.; Colella, N.J.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Shaeffer, D.L.; McKnett, C.L.; Coakley, P.G.; Casteneda, C.

    1996-03-23

    The project successfully demonstrated that dual lock-step comparison of commercial RISC processors is a viable fault-tolerant approach to handling SEU in space environment. The fault tolerant approach on orbit error rate was 38 times less than the single processor error rate. The random nature of the upsets and appearance in critical code section show it is essential to incorporate both hardware and software in the design and operation of fault-tolerant computers.

  13. Measuring Participation of Rehabilitation Patients: Test-Retest Reliability and Mode of Administration Concordance of the Participation Measure-3 Domains, 4 Dimensions (PM-3D4D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Hang

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the test-retest reliability and the concordance between the interviewer-administered version and the self-administered version of a newly developed participation measure, Participation Measure-3 Domains, 4 Dimensions (PM-3D4D). Multicenter observational study. Outpatient rehabilitation programs. Rehabilitation outpatients (N=262) participated in the study, including those (n=202) who participated in the test-retest study and those (n=60) who participated in the 2 modes of the administration study. Not applicable. The PM-3D4D includes 19 items measuring participation in productivity, social, and community domains across 4 dimensions: diversity of participation, frequency of participation, desire for change, and difficulty in participation. The test-retest reliability was good across domains and dimensions (intraclass correlation coefficients, .76-.96) as well as in neurological and nonneurological groups. The test-retest reliability was also mostly good at the item level. A high concordance was found between the 2 administration modes (intraclass correlation coefficients, 0.96-1.00). The study results lend support to the use of the PM-3D4D to reliably assess participation of rehabilitation patients. The high concordance between the 2 administration modes suggests the potential use of the instrument in population-based research. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Automated anesthesia carts reduce drug recording errors in medication administrations - A single center study in the largest tertiary referral hospital in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Du, Yingying; Zhao, Yingying; Ren, Yang; Zhang, Wei

    2017-08-01

    To clinically evaluate a type of patented automated anesthesia cart in medication administrations in anesthesia. This was a prospectively randomized open label clinical trial. In 10 designated operating suits in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, in China. 1066 cases originated from 10,812 medication administrations in anesthesia were randomized. 78 registered anesthesiologists managed the medication. The patients received medication administrations in anesthesia with either an automated or a conventional manual cart. American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, sex, duration of anesthesia and surgical specialty, errors in administration of medications (incorrect medication given (substitution), medication not given (omission) and drug recordings errors"), compliance and satisfaction were recorded. The total error rate was 7.3% with the automated anesthesia carts (1 in 14 administrations) and 11.9% with conventional manual carts (1 in 8 administrations). Automated anesthesia carts significantly reduced the drug recording error rate compared to conventional manual carts (Perrors omission errors was found between groups of automated anesthesia carts and conventional manual carts. The anesthesiologists' compliance with the automated anesthesia carts was unsatisfactory, and all the errors in medication recordings with the automated anesthesia carts were due to the incorrect use of the carts. Most of the participating anesthesiologists preferred the automated anesthesia carts (Perrors in medication administrations of anesthesia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Columbia University flow instability experimental program: Volume 2. Single tube uniformly heated tests -- Part 2: Uncertainty analysis and data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, T.; Maciuca, C.; McAssey, E.V. Jr.; Reddy, D.G.; Yang, B.W.

    1990-05-01

    In June 1988, Savannah River Laboratory requested that the Heat Transfer Research Facility modify the flow excursion program, which had been in progress since November 1987, to include testing of single tubes in vertical down-flow over a range of length to diameter (L/D) ratios of 100 to 500. The impetus for the request was the desire to obtain experimental data as quickly as possible for code development work. In July 1988, HTRF submitted a proposal to SRL indicating that by modifying a facility already under construction the data could be obtained within three to four months. In January 1990, HTFR issued report CU-HTRF-T4, part 1. This report contained the technical discussion of the results from the single tube uniformly heated tests. The present report is part 2 of CU-HTRF-T4 which contains further discussion of the uncertainty analysis and the complete set of data

  16. Standardized testing with chlorhexidine in perioperative allergy – a large single-centre evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjørring Opstrup, Morten; Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Krøigaard, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perioperative allergic reactions to chlorhexidine are often severe and easily overlooked. Although rare, the prevalence remains unknown. Correct diagnosis is crucial, but no validated provocation model exists, and other diagnostic tests have never been evaluated. The aims were...... to estimate 1) the prevalence of chlorhexidine allergy and 2) the specificity and sensitivity for diagnostic tests for chlorhexidine allergy. METHODS: We included all patients investigated for suspected perioperative allergic reactions in the Danish Anaesthesia Allergy Centre during 2004-2012. The following...... the diameter of negative control. Chlorhexidine allergy was post hoc defined as a relevant clinical reaction to chlorhexidine combined with two or more positive tests. Based on this definition, sensitivity and specificity were estimated for each test. RESULTS: In total, 22 out of 228 patients (9.6%) met...

  17. The Influence of Intersections on Fuel Consumption in Urban Arterial Road Traffic: A Single Vehicle Test in Harbin, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Wu

    Full Text Available The calculating method for fuel consumption (FC was put forward and calibrated and the characteristics of the fuel consumption on intersections were analyzed based on 18 groups of vehicular operating data which were acquired from the test experiment of a single vehicle along the urban arterial roads in Harbin, China. The results obtained show that 50.36% of the fuel consumption for the test vehicle was used at the area of intersections compared with 28.9% of the influencing distance and 68.5% of the running time; and 78.4% of them was burnt at the stages of acceleration and idling. Meanwhile, the type

  18. Clinical value of single versus composite provocative clinical tests in the assessment of painful shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaffi, Fausto; Ciapetti, Alessandro; Carotti, Marina; Gasparini, Stefania; Filippucci, Emilio; Grassi, Walter

    2010-04-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the clinical value of the provocative clinical tests and propose a composite index for the assessment of painful shoulder, using ultrasonography (US) as reference method. Two hundred three patients with painful shoulder underwent both clinical and US evaluations. The physical examination was carried out performing the Hawkins, Jobe, Patte, Gerber, and Speed tests. Each test was included in a composite index namely, SNAPSHOT (Simple Numeric Assessment of Pain by SHOulder Tests). The US examination was performed by a rheumatologist experienced in US and blinded to clinical findings. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, positive and negative likelihood ratio of each clinical test were calculated. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to assess the performance of the composite SNAPSHOT index. Sensitivity was low for the clinical diagnosis of all shoulder abnormalities. The highest sensitivity and smallest negative likelihood ratio were found for the Hawkins (63.88% and 0.50%) and Patte (62.21% and 0.52%) tests. Specificity was good for Speed (76.33%), Gerber (75.42%), and Patte (74.20%) tests. Patte and Speed tests were the most accurate (71.12% and 66.41%, respectively). The calculated area under the ROC curve related to the SNAPSHOT composite index was 0.881 +/- 0.026. With an optimal cut-off point of 3, the sensitivity and specificity were 75.8% and 87.5%, respectively. The results of the present study showed that SNAPSHOT is a feasible, informative and quantitative composite index for the assessment of painful shoulder in the clinical setting.

  19. Standardized testing with chlorhexidine in perioperative allergy--a large single-centre evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opstrup, M S; Malling, H-J; Krøigaard, M; Mosbech, H; Skov, P S; Poulsen, L K; Garvey, L H

    2014-10-01

    Perioperative allergic reactions to chlorhexidine are often severe and easily overlooked. Although rare, the prevalence remains unknown. Correct diagnosis is crucial, but no validated provocation model exists, and other diagnostic tests have never been evaluated. The aims were to estimate (i) the prevalence of chlorhexidine allergy in perioperative allergy and (ii) the specificity and sensitivity for diagnostic tests for chlorhexidine allergy. We included all patients investigated for suspected perioperative allergic reactions in the Danish Anaesthesia Allergy Centre during 2004-2012. The following tests were performed: specific IgE (Immunocap® ; Phadia AB, Sweden), histamine release test (HR) (RefLab ApS, Denmark), skin prick test (SPT) and intradermal test (IDT). Positivity criteria were as follows: specific IgE >0.35 kUA/l; HR class 1-12; SPT mean wheal diameter ≥3 mm; IDT mean wheal diameter ≥ twice the diameter of negative control. Chlorhexidine allergy was post hoc defined as a relevant clinical reaction to chlorhexidine combined with two or more positive tests. Based on this definition, sensitivity and specificity were estimated for each test. In total, 22 of 228 patients (9.6%) met the definition of allergy to chlorhexidine. Estimated sensitivity and specificity were as follows: specific IgE (sensitivity 100% and specificity 97%), HR (sensitivity 55% and specificity 99%), SPT (sensitivity 95% and specificity 97%) and IDT (sensitivity 68% and specificity 100%). In patients investigated for suspected perioperative allergic reactions, 9.6% were diagnosed with allergy to chlorhexidine. Using our definition of chlorhexidine allergy, the highest combined estimated sensitivity and specificity was found for specific IgE and SPT. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A single administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin that produces reduced food and water intake induces long-lasting expression of corticotropin-releasing factor, arginine vasopressin, and proopiomelanocortin in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Bo-Hyun; Hong, Chang Gwun; Kim, Soo-Young; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Shin, Seung Keon; Kang, Seungwoo; Lee, Kuem-Ju; Kim, Yong-Ku; Lee, Min-Soo; Shin, Kyung-Ho

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism by which a single administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) reduces food and water intake is unclear. We examined whether such a food and water intake-reducing single administration of TCDD induced changes in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), arginine vasopressin (AVP), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) expression in rat brain. To observe time-dependent changes in these neuropeptides, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given TCDD (50 μg/kg) and terminated 1, 2, 4, or 7 days later. In addition, to observe dose-dependent changes in feeding and neuropeptides, rats were also given a range of TCDD doses (12.5, 25, or 50 μg/kg) and terminated 14 days later. TCDD suppressed food and water intake over 14 days in a dose-dependent manner. TCDD treatment also increased CRF and POMC mRNA levels in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and arcuate nucleus, respectively, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These increases were related to decreased food intake following TCDD administration. TCDD treatment increased AVP and CRF mRNA levels in the PVN, and these increases were related to decreased water intake. Interestingly, the increases in CRF, AVP and POMC expression were observed 7 to 14 days after TCDD administration. These results suggest that a single administration of TCDD induced long-lasting increases in CRF, AVP, and POMC mRNA levels in the hypothalamus and that these changes are related to reduced food and water intake 7 to 14 days after TCDD administration

  1. Test-retest reliability of single and paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation parameters in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsen, A M; Haag, A; Duddek, C; Balkenhol, K; Bugiel, H; Bauer, S; Mylius, V; Menzler, K; Rosenow, F

    2016-03-15

    To determine the influence of different factors on test-retest reliability of frequently used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) parameters while controlling for potential confounders in healthy subjects. TMS was applied in 93 healthy volunteers (61% male) twice (mean retest interval of 34.0 ± 25.6 (SD) days) between 7 am and 2 pm by four investigators (sessions n investigator A=47, investigator B=95, investigator C=28, investigator D=16). Women were assessed in their follicular phase. Test stimulus (TS), resting motor threshold (RMT), short latency intracortical inhibition (SICI), intracortical facilitation (ICF) and cortical silent period (SCP) were analyzed. Good test-retest reliabilities were observed for TS (r=.880) and RMT (r=.826), moderate for visual and automated analyzed CSP durations (resp. r=.466, r=.486), and poor for ICF (r=-.159). Reliable change indexes are reported. Gender (e.g. automated CSP women: r=.538 vs. men: r=.422), re-test interval and method of CSP-analysis did not influence reliabilities. In a large sample of healthy volunteers we found good to moderate test-retest reliabilities in all but one TMS-parameter. Automated analysis of the CSP did not prove to be more reliable than visual determination. This study contains analyses of re-test reliability in TMS considering several confounding factors. For the first time it presents reliable change indices for all frequently used TMS parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparable pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of two epoetin alfa formulations Eporon® and Eprex® following a single subcutaneous administration in healthy male volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon S

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sumin Yoon,1 Su-jin Rhee,1 Sun Ju Heo,2 Tae Young Oh,2 Seo Hyun Yoon,1 Joo-Youn Cho,1 SeungHwan Lee,1,3 Kyung-Sang Yu1,3 1Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul, 2Dong-A ST Co. Ltd., Seoul, 3Clinical Trials Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea Purpose: This study aimed to assess and compare the pharmacokinetic (PK and pharmacodynamic (PD properties following a single subcutaneous injection of epoetin alfa (Eporon® with those of the comparator (Eprex® in healthy male subjects. Subjects and methods: A randomized, double-blind, two-sequence, crossover study was conducted. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive a single dose, that is, 4,000 IU, of the test or comparator epoetin alfa. After 4 weeks, all subjects received the alternative formulation. The primary PK parameters, maximum observed concentration (Cmax and area under the curve extrapolated to infinity (AUCinf, were calculated with the serum erythropoietin (EPO concentrations from blood samples collected for 144 h after dosing. The reticulocyte, hematocrit, hemoglobin and red blood cell counts were measured up to 312 h as PD markers. The primary PD parameters, maximum observed effect (Emax and area under the effect curve (AUEC, were obtained from the baseline-corrected reticulocyte count. The serum EPO concentration and the reticulocyte count were used to assess the concentration–response relationship. The tolerability and immunogenicity profiles were assessed together. Results: Forty-two subjects completed the study. The mean EPO concentration–time profiles were comparable between the two formulations. The geometric mean ratios (90% CI of the Cmax and AUCinf were 0.908 (0.843–0.978 and 1.049 (0.999–1.101, respectively, both of which were within the regulatory range of 0.80–1.25. Additionally, the PD and tolerability profiles were similar between the two

  3. Study on Single-yarn Pullout Test of Ballistic Resistant Fabric under Different Preloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Q. C.; Lei, Z. K.; Y Qin, F.; Li, W. K.; Bai, R. X.

    2017-12-01

    During bullet penetrating fabric, the pull-out force of yarn in fabric is related to the impact resistance of fabric when the yarn is pulled out from the fabric. The complex uncrimping and friction slip behavior occur during the yarn pullout process, which is critical to learn the impact resistance of fabric. Based on digital image correlation technique, the deformation behavior of Kevlar 49 fabric subjected to preload during the single-yarn pullout process was studied in this paper. The pullout force and displacement curve shows a straight rise and an oscillated decrease. In the linear rise stage, the yarn uncrimping causes a static friction effect. The maximum of the pullout force is not linearly increased with the preload. In the oscillating descending stage, the local descent of the pullout force indicates that the yarn end is gradually withdrawn from the fabric, and the local rise indicates that the yarn end moves to the next weft/warp interaction until the yarn is completely pulled out. The shear deformation of fabric corresponds to the single-yarn pullout process.

  4. Standard practice for measurement of the glass dissolution rate using the single-pass flow-through test method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes a single-pass flow-through (SPFT) test method that can be used to measure the dissolution rate of a homogeneous silicate glass, including nuclear waste glasses, in various test solutions at temperatures less than 100°C. Tests may be conducted under conditions in which the effects from dissolved species on the dissolution rate are minimized to measure the forward dissolution rate at specific values of temperature and pH, or to measure the dependence of the dissolution rate on the concentrations of various solute species. 1.2 Tests are conducted by pumping solutions in either a continuous or pulsed flow mode through a reaction cell that contains the test specimen. Tests must be conducted at several solution flow rates to evaluate the effect of the flow rate on the glass dissolution rate. 1.3 This practice excludes static test methods in which flow is simulated by manually removing solution from the reaction cell and replacing it with fresh solution. 1.4 Tests may be conducted wit...

  5. Application of modern tests for stationarity to single-trial MEG data: transferring powerful statistical tools from econometrics to neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipiński, Lech; König, Reinhard; Sielużycki, Cezary; Kordecki, Wojciech

    2011-10-01

    Stationarity is a crucial yet rarely questioned assumption in the analysis of time series of magneto- (MEG) or electroencephalography (EEG). One key drawback of the commonly used tests for stationarity of encephalographic time series is the fact that conclusions on stationarity are only indirectly inferred either from the Gaussianity (e.g. the Shapiro-Wilk test or Kolmogorov-Smirnov test) or the randomness of the time series and the absence of trend using very simple time-series models (e.g. the sign and trend tests by Bendat and Piersol). We present a novel approach to the analysis of the stationarity of MEG and EEG time series by applying modern statistical methods which were specifically developed in econometrics to verify the hypothesis that a time series is stationary. We report our findings of the application of three different tests of stationarity--the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Schin (KPSS) test for trend or mean stationarity, the Phillips-Perron (PP) test for the presence of a unit root and the White test for homoscedasticity--on an illustrative set of MEG data. For five stimulation sessions, we found already for short epochs of duration of 250 and 500 ms that, although the majority of the studied epochs of single MEG trials were usually mean-stationary (KPSS test and PP test), they were classified as nonstationary due to their heteroscedasticity (White test). We also observed that the presence of external auditory stimulation did not significantly affect the findings regarding the stationarity of the data. We conclude that the combination of these tests allows a refined analysis of the stationarity of MEG and EEG time series.

  6. 75 FR 80665 - Sixty-Seventh Report of the TSCA Interagency Testing Committee to the Administrator of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... of the Priority Testing List The Priority Testing List includes 2 alkylphenols, 12 lead compounds, 16... Challenge Program orphan Recommended. chemicals. 60 May 2007 12 Lead and lead compounds Recommended. I... Agriculture Clifford P. Rice, Member. Laura L. McConnell, Alternate. Department of Defense Vacant. Department...

  7. An evaluation testing technique of single event effect using Beam Blanking SEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, J.; Hada, T.; Pesce, A.; Akutsu, T.; Matsuda, S. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Space Center; Igarashi, T.; Baba, S.

    1997-03-01

    Beam Blanking SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) testing technique has been applied to CMOS SRAM devices to evaluate the occurence of soft errors on memory cells. Cross-section versus beam current and LET curves derived from BBSEM and heavy ion testing technique, respectively, have been compared. A linear relation between BBSEM current and heavy ion LET has been found. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the application of focused pulsed electron beam could be a reliable, convenient and inexpensive tool to investigate the effects of heavy ions and high energy particles on memory devices for space application. (author)

  8. Histocompatibility Testing for Organ Transplantation Purposes in Albania: A Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkena Shyti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Histocompatibility testing (HT which includes donor-recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA matching, cross-match testing (XMT and anti-HLA antibody searching are crucial examinations in solid organ transplantation aiming to avoid the hyperacute graft rejection and also to predict the immunological outcome of the graft. Aims: The aim of this study was to analyse the tissue typing data collected at the Laboratory of Immunology and Histocompatibility of the University Hospital Center of Tirana, Albania, in order to define those actions that should be taken for improvements in the situation of kidney transplantation in Albania. Design: Descriptive study. Methods: The donor/recipient cross-match testing was performed through a standard complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC assay using separated donor T and B cells that were tested in parallel with the recipient serum sample. All recipient sera were screened for anti-Class I and anti-Class II HLA antibodies using a bead based Luminex anti-HLA antibody screening test. In the case of detected positivity, an allele-specific anti-HLA antibody determination was conducted with the respective Luminex anti-Class I and Class II HLA antibody determination kits. Results: A total of 174 recipients and 202 donors were typed for the purpose of living donor kidney transplantation at our laboratory between January 2006 and December 2012. The mean age and female gender proportion of patients were 34.9 years and 34.5%, respectively, and 48.0 years and 65.3% for the donors, respectively. Here, 25.9% of the patients reported a positive complement-dependent cytotoxicity cross-match test and/or a positive anti-HLA antibody testing result. Eighteen patients that were negative for the complement-dependent cytotoxicity cross-match test were positive for anti-HLA antibodies. Conclusion: The predominant causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD in our patient population are chronic pyelonephritis and

  9. Improving preimplantation genetic diagnosis for Fragile X syndrome: two new powerful single-round multiplex indirect and direct tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Emmanuelle; Nicod, Jean-Christophe; Gardes, Nathalie; Kastner, Claire; Becker, Nicolas; Celebi, Catherine; Pirrello, Olivier; Rongières, Catherine; Koscinski, Isabelle; Gosset, Philippe; Moutou, Céline

    2016-02-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FraX) is caused by the expansion of an unstable CGG repeat located in the Fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1) gene. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) can be proposed to couples at risk of transmitting the disease, that is, when the female carries a premutation or a full mutation. We describe two new single-cell, single-round multiplex PCR for indirect and direct diagnosis of FraX on biopsied embryos. These tests include five unpublished, highly heterozygous simple sequence repeats, and the co-amplification of non-expanded CGG repeats for the direct test. Heterozygosity of the new markers ranged from 69 to 81%. The mean rate of non-informative marker included in the tests was low (26% and 23% for the new indirect and direct tests, respectively). This strategy allows offering a PGD for FraX to 96% of couples requesting it in our centre. A conclusive genotype was obtained in all cells with a rate of cells presenting an allele dropout ranging from 17% for the indirect test to 26% for the direct test. The new indirect test was applied for eight PGD cycles: 32 embryos were analysed, 9 were transferred and 3 healthy babies were born. By multiplexing these highly informative markers, robustness of the diagnosis is improved and the loss of potentially healthy embryos (because they are non-diagnosed or misdiagnosed) is limited. This may increase the chances of success of couples requesting a PGD for FraX, in particular, when premature ovarian insufficiency in premutated women leads to a reduced number of embryos available for analysis.

  10. Single well thermal tracer test, a new experimental set up for characterizing thermal transport in fractured media

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Bernardie, Jérôme; Bour, Olivier; Guihéneuf, Nicolas; Chatton, Eliot; Labasque, Thierry; Longuevergne, Laurent; Le Lay, Hugo; Koch, Floriant; Gerard, Marie-Françoise; Le Borgne, Tanguy

    2017-04-01

    Thermal transport in fractured media depends on the hydrological properties of fractures and thermal characteristics of rock. Tracer tests using heat as tracer can thus be a good alternative to characterize fractured media for shallow geothermal needs. This study investigates the possibility of implementing a new thermal tracer test set up, the single well thermal tracer test, to characterize hydraulic and thermal transport properties of fractured crystalline rock. The experimental setup is based on injecting hot water in a fracture isolated by a double straddle packer in the borehole while pumping and monitoring the temperature in a fracture crossing the same borehole at greater elevation. One difficulty comes from the fact that injection and withdrawal are achieved in the same borehole involving thermal losses along the injection tube that may disturb the heat recovery signal. To be able to well localize the heat influx, we implemented a Fiber-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (FO-DTS) which allows the temperature monitoring with high spatial and temporal resolution (29 centimeters and 30 seconds respectively). Several tests, at different pumping and injection rates, were performed in a crystalline rock aquifer at the experimental site of Ploemeur (H+ observatory network). We show through signal processing how the thermal breakthrough may be extracted thanks to Fiber-Optic distributed temperature measurements. In particular, we demonstrate how detailed distributed temperature measurements were useful to identify different inflows and to estimate how much heat was transported and stored within the fractures network. Thermal breakthrough curves of single well thermal tracer tests were then interpreted with a simple analytical model to characterize hydraulic and thermal characteristics of the fractured media. We finally discuss the advantages of these tests compared to cross-borehole thermal tracer tests.

  11. Screening Test Procedure For Long Life Single Mode Step Index Separate Confinement Heterostructure Single Quantum Well (Sinsch-Sqw) Laser Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, William J.

    1989-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to establish an effective burn-in and screening procedure for long life SINSCH-SQW laser diodes. The laser diodes were grown by MOCVD and processed with 20μ wide oxide defined stripes. The devices had a high reflective back facet coating with a small etalon bonded to a passivated front facet to ensure single mode operation. The laser diodes were bonded p-side up to copper heat sinks using indium solder. A total of 48 devices were selected prior to burn-in and were operated at 200mA constant current for 2000 hours at an average heat sink temperature of 55°C. The average initial output power was 45mW per device. At the end of the test, the output powers ranged from lmW to 85mW. Most of the devices with the low final power failed catastrophically within 24 hours from the start of the test. Many laser diodes showed very little change in output power while others degraded gradually by varying amounts. Failure analysis showed that failures were facet, bulk, or heat sink related. The temporal output power degradations (i.e., gradual degradation, etc.) can be explained by the identified failure mechanisms. From the test results and failure analysis, a screening strategy based on inspection and burn-in can be devised to reject devices that may fail early. Also, improvements in processing can provide potential yield improvements. After accounting for degradation related to processing, a very long material lifetime is predicted for these SINSCH-SQW laser diodes.

  12. Test-compatible confidence intervals for adaptive two-stage single-arm designs with binary endpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzmann, Kevin; Kieser, Meinhard

    2018-01-01

    Inference after two-stage single-arm designs with binary endpoint is challenging due to the nonunique ordering of the sampling space in multistage designs. We illustrate the problem of specifying test-compatible confidence intervals for designs with nonconstant second-stage sample size and present two approaches that guarantee confidence intervals consistent with the test decision. Firstly, we extend the well-known Clopper-Pearson approach of inverting a family of two-sided hypothesis tests from the group-sequential case to designs with fully adaptive sample size. Test compatibility is achieved by using a sample space ordering that is derived from a test-compatible estimator. The resulting confidence intervals tend to be conservative but assure the nominal coverage probability. In order to assess the possibility of further improving these confidence intervals, we pursue a direct optimization approach minimizing the mean width of the confidence intervals. While the latter approach produces more stable coverage probabilities, it is also slightly anti-conservative and yields only negligible improvements in mean width. We conclude that the Clopper-Pearson-type confidence intervals based on a test-compatible estimator are the best choice if the nominal coverage probability is not to be undershot and compatibility of test decision and confidence interval is to be preserved. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Official Position of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology Social Security Administration Policy on Validity Testing: Guidance and Recommendations for Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafetz, M D; Williams, M A; Ben-Porath, Y S; Bianchini, K J; Boone, K B; Kirkwood, M W; Larrabee, G J; Ord, J S

    2015-01-01

    The milestone publication by Slick, Sherman, and Iverson (1999) of criteria for determining malingered neurocognitive dysfunction led to extensive research on validity testing. Position statements by the National Academy of Neuropsychology and the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology (AACN) recommended routine validity testing in neuropsychological evaluations. Despite this widespread scientific and professional support, the Social Security Administration (SSA) continued to discourage validity testing, a stance that led to a congressional initiative for SSA to reevaluate their position. In response, SSA commissioned the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to evaluate the science concerning the validation of psychological testing. The IOM concluded that validity assessment was necessary in psychological and neuropsychological examinations (IOM, 2015 ). The AACN sought to provide independent expert guidance and recommendations concerning the use of validity testing in disability determinations. A panel of contributors to the science of validity testing and its application to the disability process was charged with describing why the disability process for SSA needs improvement, and indicating the necessity for validity testing in disability exams. This work showed how the determination of malingering is a probability proposition, described how different types of validity tests are appropriate, provided evidence concerning non-credible findings in children and low-functioning individuals, and discussed the appropriate evaluation of pain disorders typically seen outside of mental consultations. A scientific plan for validity assessment that additionally protects test security is needed in disability determinations and in research on classification accuracy of disability decisions.

  14. Human-milk intake measured by administration of deuterium oxide to the mother: a comparison with the test-weighing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butte, N.F.; Wong, W.W.; Patterson, B.W.; Garza, C.; Klein, P.D.

    1988-01-01

    A comparison was made between the dose-to-the-mother deuterium-dilution method and the conventional test-weighing technique for determining human-milk intake in five exclusively breast-fed infants and in four breast-fed infants who received supplemental foods. After administration of 2 H to the mothers human milk and infant urine were sampled over 14 d and analyzed for 2 H: 1 H ratios by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Infant total body water was determined by 18 O dilution. The test-weighing procedure was conducted for 5 d consecutively. The intake of human milk (mean +/- SD) estimated by 2 H dilution was 648 +/- 63 g/d and estimated by test-weighing was 636 +/- 84 g/d. The mean difference between the two methods was not significantly different from 0. The 2 H-dilution and test-weighing techniques provide similar estimates of human-milk intake

  15. Particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) personal exposure evaluation on mechanics and administrative officers at the motor vehicle testing center at Pulo Gadung, DKI Jakarta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizky, Zuly Prima; Yolla, Patricia Bebby; Ramdhan, Doni Hikmat

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in both the short and long term has been known to cause deaths and health effects, especially related to the heart, blood vessels, and lungs. Based on this information, researchers conducted this study at a motor vehicle testing center unit at Pulo Gadung, in Jarkarta, to determine the concentration of PM2.5 that workers were exposed to. The major source of PM2.5 in this area is from the exhaust of gas emissions from motor vehicles, which is one of the largest contributors to the levels of PM in urban areas. Ten mechanics were picked from 16 mechanics that work in this station. Four administration workers from different posts were also picked to participate. The researcher conducted the PM2.5 personal exposure measurement during weekdays from 6 to 14 April 2015 (2 workers/day). This research was conducted to measure the particle number concentration with size administrative officer group that consisted of four administrative workers were exposed to an average of 103.28 μm/m3. Once converted and compared with the World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines, the PM2.5 exposure of the mechanics and administrative officers exceeded the recommended exposure (25 μm/m3).

  16. Single venom-based immunotherapy effectively protects patients with double positive tests to honey bee and Vespula venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Referring to individuals with reactivity to honey bee and Vespula venom in diagnostic tests, the umbrella terms “double sensitization” or “double positivity” cover patients with true clinical double allergy and those allergic to a single venom with asymptomatic sensitization to the other. There is no international consensus on whether immunotherapy regimens should generally include both venoms in double sensitized patients. Objective We investigated the long-term outcome of single venom-based immunotherapy with regard to potential risk factors for treatment failure and specifically compared the risk of relapse in mono sensitized and double sensitized patients. Methods Re-sting data were obtained from 635 patients who had completed at least 3 years of immunotherapy between 1988 and 2008. The adequate venom for immunotherapy was selected using an algorithm based on clinical details and the results of diagnostic tests. Results Of 635 patients, 351 (55.3%) were double sensitized to both venoms. The overall re-exposure rate to Hymenoptera stings during and after immunotherapy was 62.4%; the relapse rate was 7.1% (6.0% in mono sensitized, 7.8% in double sensitized patients). Recurring anaphylaxis was statistically less severe than the index sting reaction (P = 0.004). Double sensitization was not significantly related to relapsing anaphylaxis (P = 0.56), but there was a tendency towards an increased risk of relapse in a subgroup of patients with equal reactivity to both venoms in diagnostic tests (P = 0.15). Conclusions Single venom-based immunotherapy over 3 to 5 years effectively and long-lastingly protects the vast majority of both mono sensitized and double sensitized Hymenoptera venom allergic patients. Double venom immunotherapy is indicated in clinically double allergic patients reporting systemic reactions to stings of both Hymenoptera and in those with equal reactivity to both venoms in diagnostic tests who have not reliably identified the

  17. Full-Scale Crash Tests and Analyses of Three High-Wing Single

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Martin S.; Littell, Justin D.; Stimson, Chad M.; Jackson, Karen E.; Mason, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Emergency Locator Transmitter Survivability and Reliability (ELTSAR) project was initiated in 2014 to assess the crash performance standards for the next generation of ELT systems. Three Cessna 172 aircraft have been acquired to conduct crash testing at NASA Langley Research Center's Landing and Impact Research Facility. Testing is scheduled for the summer of 2015 and will simulate three crash conditions; a flare to stall while emergency landing, and two controlled flight into terrain scenarios. Instrumentation and video coverage, both onboard and external, will also provide valuable data of airframe response. Full-scale finite element analyses will be performed using two separate commercial explicit solvers. Calibration and validation of the models will be based on the airframe response under these varying crash conditions.

  18. Testing Single and Combinations of Amendments for Stabilization of Metals in Contrasting Extremely Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siebielec G.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Metals can be stabilized by soil amendments that increase metals adsorption or alter their chemical forms. Such treatments may limit the risk related to the contamination through reduction of metal transfer to the food chain (reduction of metal uptake by plants and its availability to soil organisms and metals migration within the environment. There is a need for experiments comparing various soil amendments available at reasonable amounts under similar environmental conditions. The other question is whether all components of soil environment or soil functions are similarly protected after remediation treatment. We conducted a series of pot studies to test some traditional and novel amendments and their combinations. The treatments were tested for several highly Zn/Cd/Pb contaminated soils. Among traditional amendments composts were the most effective – they ensured plant growth, increased soil microbial activity, reduced Cd in earthworms, reduced Pb bioaccessibility and increased share of unavailable forms of Cd and Pb.

  19. Photovoltaic power system tests on an 8-kilowatt single-phase line-commutated inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    Efficiency and power factor were measured as functions of solar array voltage and current. The effects of input shunt capacitance and series inductance were determined. Tests were conducted from 15 to 75 percent of the 8 kW rated inverter input power. Measured efficiencies ranged from 76 percent to 88 percent at about 50 percent of rated inverter input power. Power factor ranged from 36 percent to 72 percent.

  20. Design of a single flat null-screen for testing a parabolic trough solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Oliva, Víctor Iván; Campos-García, Manuel; Román-Hernández, Edwin; Santiago-Alvarado, Agustín

    2014-11-01

    We present a null-screen design for testing the shape quality of the reflecting surface of a parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC). This technique is inexpensive, the whole surface is tested at once, and it is easy to implement. For this, we propose the design of a flat null-screen perpendicular to the optical axis of the PTSC in such a way that it allows testing of the full aperture; we compute the caustic associated with the reflected light rays on the desired surface and analyze the parameters that determine the null-screen dimensions. Additionally, we perform a numerical simulation to analyze the accuracy of the method by introducing random displacement errors into the measured data. Accuracies >0.35 mrad were found to evaluate the quality of surfaces with this method. The errors in the determination of the coordinates of the centroids of the reflected images must be measured with an accuracy >0.5 pixels, and the errors in the coordinates of the spots of the null-screen must be <0.5 mm.

  1. Single-dose local administration of parathyroid hormone (1-34, PTH) with β-tricalcium phosphate/collagen (β-TCP/COL) enhances bone defect healing in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhou-Shan; Zhou, Wan-Shu; Wu, Xin-Jing; Wang, Lin; Yang, Min; Xie, Jia-Bing; Xu, Zhu-Jun; Ding, Guo-Zheng

    2018-02-01

    Parathyroid hormone (1-34, PTH) combined β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) achieves stable bone regeneration without cell transplantation in previous studies. Recently, with the development of tissue engineering slow release technology, PTH used locally to promote bone defect healing become possible. This study by virtue of collagen with a combination of drugs and has a slow release properties, and investigated bone regeneration by β-TCP/collagen (β-TCP/COL) with the single local administration of PTH. After the creation of a rodent critical-sized femoral metaphyseal bone defect, β-TCP/COL was prepared by mixing sieved granules of β-TCP and atelocollagen for medical use, then β-TCP/COL with dripped PTH solution (1.0 µg) was implanted into the defect of OVX rats until death at 4 and 8 weeks. The defected area in distal femurs of rats was harvested for evaluation by histology, micro-CT, and biomechanics. The results of our study show that single-dose local administration of PTH combined local usage of β-TCP/COL can increase the healing of defects in OVX rats. Furthermore, treatments with single-dose local administration of PTH and β-TCP/COL showed a stronger effect on accelerating the local bone formation than β-TCP/COL used alone. The results from our study demonstrate that combination of single-dose local administration of PTH and β-TCP/COL had an additive effect on local bone formation in osteoporosis rats.

  2. Behavioral Public Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan; Jilke, Sebastian; Olsen, Asmus Leth

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral public administration is the analysis of public administration from the micro-level perspective of individual behavior and attitudes by drawing on insights from psychology on the behavior of individuals and groups. The authors discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw...... theories. As such, behavioral public administration complements traditional public administration. Furthermore, it could be a two-way street for psychologists who want to test the external validity of their theories in a political-administrative setting. Finally, four principles are proposed to narrow...

  3. 3D Imaging with a Single-Aperture 3-mm Objective Lens: Concept, Fabrication and Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korniski, Ron; Bae, Sam Y.; Shearn, Mike; Manohara, Harish; Shahinian, Hrayr

    2011-01-01

    There are many advantages to minimally invasive surgery (MIS). An endoscope is the optical system of choice by the surgeon for MIS. The smaller the incision or opening made to perform the surgery, the smaller the optical system needed. For minimally invasive neurological and skull base surgeries the openings are typically 10-mm in diameter (dime sized) or less. The largest outside diameter (OD) endoscope used is 4mm. A significant drawback to endoscopic MIS is that it only provides a monocular view of the surgical site thereby lacking depth information for the surgeon. A stereo view would provide the surgeon instantaneous depth information of the surroundings within the field of view, a significant advantage especially during brain surgery. Providing 3D imaging in an endoscopic objective lens system presents significant challenges because of the tight packaging constraints. This paper presents a promising new technique for endoscopic 3D imaging that uses a single lens system with complementary multi-bandpass filters (CMBFs), and describes the proof-of-concept demonstrations performed to date validating the technique. These demonstrations of the technique have utilized many commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components including the ones used in the endoscope objective.

  4. Single-photon test of hyper-complex quantum theories using a metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopio, Lorenzo M; Rozema, Lee A; Wong, Zi Jing; Hamel, Deny R; O'Brien, Kevin; Zhang, Xiang; Dakić, Borivoje; Walther, Philip

    2017-04-21

    In standard quantum mechanics, complex numbers are used to describe the wavefunction. Although this has so far proven sufficient to predict experimental results, there is no theoretical reason to choose them over real numbers or generalizations of complex numbers, that is, hyper-complex numbers. Experiments performed to date have proven that real numbers are insufficient, but the need for hyper-complex numbers remains an open question. Here we experimentally probe hyper-complex quantum theories, studying one of their deviations from complex quantum theory: the non-commutativity of phases. We do so by passing single photons through a Sagnac interferometer containing both a metamaterial with a negative refractive index, and a positive phase shifter. To accomplish this we engineered a fishnet metamaterial to have a negative refractive index at 780 nm. We show that the metamaterial phase commutes with other phases with high precision, allowing us to place limits on a particular prediction of hyper-complex quantum theories.

  5. Efficacy of Single-dose and 2-dose Intravenous Administration of Ramosetron in Preventing Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting After Laparoscopic Gynecologic Operation: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Phase 2 Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Banghyun; Kim, Kidong; Suh, Dong Hoon; Shin, Hyun-Jung; No, Jae Hong; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Jee, Byung Chul; Hwang, Jung Won; Do, Sang Hwan; Kim, Yong Beom

    2017-06-01

    This randomized trial investigated whether a 2-dose administration of intravenous ramosetron (5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor antagonist) is more effective than a single-dose administration in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in 89 patients who were scheduled to undergo laparoscopic operation for benign gynecologic diseases and to receive intravenous patient-controlled analgesia for relief of postoperative pain. After assignment at a ratio of 1:1, intravenous ramosetron (0.3 mg) was initially administered at the end of skin closure in all patients. Thereafter, ramosetron (0.3 mg) and placebo were administered to the study and control groups, respectively, at 4 hours after the operation. The baseline and operative characteristics were similar between the groups. The incidence of PONV during the 24-hour period after operation which was assessed as the primary endpoint did not differ between the groups. No serious adverse events occurred in either group. A 2-dose administration of intravenous ramosetron may not be superior to a single-dose administration in preventing PONV in patients undergoing laparoscopic operation for benign gynecologic diseases.

  6. Merging single-well and inter-well tracer tests into one forced-gradient dipole test, at the Heletz site within the MUSTANG project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Horst; Ghergut, Julia; Bensabat, Jac; Niemi, Auli; Licha, Tobias; Ptak, Thomas; Sauter, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The Heletz site[1] in Israel was chosen for conducting a CO2 transport experiment within the MUSTANG project[2], whose aim is to demonstrate and validate leading-edge techniques for CCS site characterization, process monitoring and risk assessment. The major CO2 injection experiment at Heletz was supposed to be preceded and accompanied by a sequence of single-well 'push-then-pull' (SW) and inter-well (IW) tracer tests, aimed at characterizing transport properties of the storage formation, in accordance to a number of general and specific principles[3],[4]. - Instead of the rather luxurious {SW1, IW1, SW2, IW2} test sequence described in our previous work[5], we now propose a drastically economized tracer test concept, which lets the sampling stages of SW and IW tests merge into a single fluid production stage, and relies on a forced-gradient dipole flow field at any time of the overall test. Besides cost reduction, this economized design also improves on operational aspects, as well as on issues of parameter ambiguity and of scale disparity between SW and IW flow fields: (i) the new design renders SW test results more representative for the aquifer sector ('angle') actually interrogated by the IW dipole test; (ii) the new design saves time and costs on the SW test (fluid sampling for SW 'pull' now being conducted simultaneously with IW-related sampling and monitoring), while allowing for a considerably longer duration of SW 'pull' signals than had originally been intended, whose late-time tailings help improve the quantification of non-advective processes and parameters, which are of great relevance to mid- and long-term trapping mechanisms ('residual trapping', 'mineral trapping'); (iii) the quasi-simultaneous execution of fluid injection/production for the IW and SW tests considerably reduces the overall hydraulic imbalance that was originally associated with the SW test, thus preventing formation damage and supporting hydrogeomechanical stability; (iv) the new

  7. Standard test method for isotopic analysis of uranium hexafluoride by double standard single-collector gas mass spectrometer method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This is a quantitative test method applicable to determining the mass percent of uranium isotopes in uranium hexafluoride (UF6) samples with 235U concentrations between 0.1 and 5.0 mass %. 1.2 This test method may be applicable for the entire range of 235U concentrations for which adequate standards are available. 1.3 This test method is for analysis by a gas magnetic sector mass spectrometer with a single collector using interpolation to determine the isotopic concentration of an unknown sample between two characterized UF6 standards. 1.4 This test method is to replace the existing test method currently published in Test Methods C761 and is used in the nuclear fuel cycle for UF6 isotopic analyses. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro...

  8. Total spinal anaesthesia as a complication of local anaesthetic test-dose administration through an epidural catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffek, M; Owczuk, R; Szlyk-Augustyn, M; Lasinska-Kowara, M; Wujtewicz, M

    2004-10-01

    We describe a case of total spinal anaesthesia, which occurred after a 3-ml lignocaine (20 mg ml(-1)) test dose was administered through an epidural catheter in a 79-year-old patient scheduled for gastrectomy under combined general and epidural anaesthesia. The surgery was postponed, and the patient required admission to the intensive therapy unit. Spinal MRI from the total spinal cord did not reveal any pathology. During the next 24 h the patient recovered and after 11 days was successfully operated on under general anaesthesia. No late complications followed. We presume that during placement, the epidural catheter had migrated to the spinal canal as a result of technical difficulties. Although controversial, we consider that administering a standard test dose of local anaesthetic via an epidural catheter is recommended, especially in high-risk patients and when epidural space identification or catheter placement poses technical difficulties. A test dose of local anaesthetic does not fully prevent complications.

  9. Intraoperative monitoring of an aspect of executive functions: administration of the Stroop test in 9 adult patients during awake surgery for resection of frontal glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Michel; Du Boisgueheneuc, Foucaud; Pluchon, Claudette; Bouyer, Coline; Stal, Veronique; Bataille, Benoit; Guillevin, Carole Menuel; Gil, Roger

    2013-06-01

    Awake brain surgery allows extensive intraoperative monitoring of not only motor and sensory functions and language but also executive functions. To administer the Stroop test intraoperatively to avoid dramatic side effects such as akinetic mutism and to monitor executive functions in an attempt to optimize the benefit/risk balance of surgery. A series of 9 adult patients with frontal glioma were operated on for gross tumor resection under local anesthesia. All procedures involved the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Three types of response to the Stroop test were observed: 3 patients had a Stroop effect only for stimulation of the contralateral ACC; 3 patients had a Stroop effect for stimulation of the ipsilateral ACC; and 3 patients had no Stroop effect. Preoperative and postoperative neuropsychological and surgical results are presented and discussed. Stimulation sites eliciting a Stroop effect are compared with published image-based data, and insight provided by these surgical data regarding ACC function and plasticity is discussed. No operative complication related to intraoperative administration of the Stroop test was observed. Administration of the Stroop test during resection of gliomas involving the ACC in adult patients is an option for intraoperative monitoring of executive functions during awake surgery. Globally, these results suggest functional compensation, mediated by plasticity mechanisms, by contralateral homologous regions of the ACC in adult patients with frontal glioma.

  10. Reverse-Transcriptase PCR Detection of Leptospira: Absence of Agreement with Single-Specimen Microscopic Agglutination Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Jesse J; Balassiano, Ilana; Mohamed-Hadley, Alisha; Vital-Brazil, Juliana Magalhães; Sahoo, Malaya K; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2015-01-01

    Reference diagnostic tests for leptospirosis include nucleic acid amplification tests, bacterial culture, and microscopic agglutination testing (MAT) of acute and convalescent serum. However, clinical laboratories often do not receive paired specimens. In the current study, we tested serum samples using a highly sensitive real-time nucleic acid amplification test for Leptospira and compared results to MAT performed on the same specimens. 478 serum samples from suspected leptospirosis cases in Rio de Janeiro were tested using a real-time RT-PCR for the diagnosis of leptospirosis, malaria and dengue (the Lepto-MD assay). The Lepto-MD assay detects all species of Leptospira (saprophytic, intermediate, and pathogenic), and in the current study, we demonstrate that this assay amplifies both Leptospira RNA and DNA. Dengue virus RNA was identified in 10 patients, and no cases of malaria were detected. A total of 65 samples (13.6%) were positive for Leptospira: 35 samples (7.3%) in the Lepto-MD assay, 33 samples (6.9%) by MAT, and 3 samples tested positive by both (kappa statistic 0.02). Poor agreement between methods was consistent regardless of the titer used to define positive MAT results or the day of disease at sample collection. Leptospira nucleic acids were detected in the Lepto-MD assay as late as day 22, and cycle threshold values did not differ based on the day of disease. When Lepto-MD assay results were added to the MAT results for all patients in 2008 (n=818), the number of detected leptospirosis cases increased by 30.4%, from 102 (12.5%) to 133 (16.3%). This study demonstrates a lack of agreement between nucleic acid detection of Leptospira and single-specimen MAT, which may result from the clearance of bacteremia coinciding with the appearance of agglutinating antibodies. A combined testing strategy for acute leptospirosis, including molecular and serologic testing, appears necessary to maximize case detection.

  11. Deck and Cable Dynamic Testing of a Single-span Bridge Using Radar Interferometry and Videometry Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piniotis, George; Gikas, Vassilis; Mpimis, Thanassis; Perakis, Harris

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the dynamic testing of a roadway, single-span, cable-stayed bridge for a sequence of static load and ambient vibration monitoring scenarios. Deck movements were captured along both sideways of the bridge using a Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and a Ground-based Microwave Interfererometer (GBMI) system. Cable vibrations were measured at a single point location on each of the six cables using the GBMI technique. Dynamic testing involves three types of analyses; firstly, vibration analysis and modal parameter estimation (i. e., natural frequencies and modal shapes) of the deck using the combined DIC and GBMI measurements. Secondly, dynamic testing of the cables is performed through vibration analysis and experimental computation of their tension forces. Thirdly, the mechanism of cable-deck dynamic interaction is studied through their Power Spectra Density (PSD) and the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) analyses. Thereby, the global (deck and cable) and local (either deck or cable) bridge modes are identified, serving a concrete benchmark of the current state of the bridge for studying the evolution of its structural performance in the future. The level of synergy and complementarity between the GBMI and DIC techniques for bridge monitoring is also examined and assessed.

  12. Innovation design of beta test loop system for heat transfer experiments in single-phase and two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiswanta; Edy Sumarno; Joko Prasetio W; Ainur Rosidi; G B Heru K

    2013-01-01

    Innovation design of BETA test loop has been done. BETA test loop is a research facility used as a support for experiments of reactor accident simulation. The innovation was performed to prepare experimental facilities in order to study flow of heat transfer in single-phase and two-phase flows. The design was executed by modifying new piping of UUB's primary system, addition of heat flux measurements and imaging thermal for easiness of experimental result analysis. UUB development and experiments were carried out to understand heat transfer process in the narrow gap of two-phase flow considering this phenomenon is one of the conditions postulated in PWR typed nuclear power plant accident scenario. The innovation design of BETA test loop is still in the planning stages so that the design has not been constructed. Piping systems made of SS-304 with the ability to use a maximum pressure of 10 bar with a diameter of % inch pipe to, from the calculation of minimal design that is 7.27 mm. If the tube SS-304 - ASTM B88 is the wall thickness of 0.083 inches. From this design it is indicated that the design is able to be fabricated and used for experimental study of heat transfer in single-phase and two-phase flows. (author)

  13. Use of single-well tracer dilution tests to evaluate LNAPL flux at seven field sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Nicholas; Sale, Tom; Smith, Tim; Lyverse, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Petroleum liquids, referred to as light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs), are commonly found beneath petroleum facilities. Concerns with LNAPLs include migration into clean soils, migration beyond property boundaries, and discharges to surface water. Single-well tracer dilution techniques were used to measure LNAPL fluxes through 50 wells at 7 field sites. A hydrophobic tracer was mixed into LNAPL in a well. Intensities of fluorescence associated with the tracer were measured over time using a spectrometer and a fiber optic cable. LNAPL fluxes were estimated using observed changes in the tracer concentrations over time. Measured LNAPL fluxes range from 0.006 to 2.6 m/year with a mean and median of 0.15 and 0.064 m/year, respectively. Measured LNAPL fluxes are two to four orders of magnitude smaller than a common groundwater flux of 30 m/year. Relationships between LNAPL fluxes and possible governing parameters were evaluated. Observed LNAPL fluxes are largely independent of LNAPL thickness in wells. Natural losses of LNAPL through dissolution, evaporation, and subsequent biodegradation, were estimated using a simple mass balance, measured LNAPL fluxes in wells, and an assumed stable LNAPL extent. The mean and median of the calculated loss rates were found to be 24.0 and 5.0 m3/ha/year, respectively. Mean and median losses are similar to values reported by others. Coupling observed LNAPL fluxes to observed rates of natural LNAPL depletion suggests that natural losses of LNAPL may be an important parameter controlling the overall extent of LNAPL bodies.

  14. Status of High Power Tests of Normal Conducting Single-Cell Standing Wave Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolgashev, Valery; /SLAC; Tantawi, Sami; /SLAC; Yeremian, Anahid; /SLAC; Higashi, Yasuo; /KEK, Tsukuba; Spataro, Bruno; /INFN, Rome

    2012-06-25

    Our experiments are directed toward the understanding of the physics of rf breakdown in systems that can be used to accelerate electron beams at {approx}11.4 GHz. The structure geometries have apertures, stored energy per cell, and rf pulse duration close to that of the NLC or CLIC. The breakdown rate is the main parameter that we use to compare rf breakdown behavior for different structures at a given set of rf pulse parameters (pulse shape and peak power) at 60 Hz repetition rate. In our experiments, the typical range of the breakdown rate is from one per few hours to {approx}100 per hour. To date we have tested 29 structures. We consistently found that after the initial conditioning, the behavior of the breakdown rate is reproducible for structures of the same geometry and material, and the breakdown rate dependence on peak magnetic fields is stronger than on peak surface electric fields for structures of different geometries. Below we report the main results from tests of seven structures made from hard copper, soft copper alloys and hard-copper alloys. Additional details on these and other structures will be discussed in future publications.

  15. Assessing Potential Impacts of CO2 Leakage on Shallow Groundwater Quality in the SECARB Phase III Early Test site Using Single-well Push-Pull Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C.; Mickler, P. J.; Reedy, R. C.; Scanlon, B. R.

    2012-12-01

    A single-well push-pull test was conducted in the Cranfield shallow aquifer, the SECARB Phase III early test site, for assessing potential impacts of CO2 leakage on groundwater quality. A total of 3800 liter of groundwater equilibrated with CO2 gas at a partial pressure of 1.105 Pa was injected into a confined sand interval at ~ 70 m depth. NaBr solution was added to the injected solution as tracer. The injected groundwater incubated within the interval for about two days. Chemical parameters (pH, temperature, alkalinity, and electric conductivity) were measured on-site and water samples were collected for chemical (major ions, trace elements, and dissolved inorganic carbon, DIC) as well as for stable carbon isotopic analyses. Mineralogical analyses using XR-D and SEM techniques indicate that aquifer sediments are dominated by silicates. Concentrations of the Br tracer in the recovered samples show mixing of background water with the injected solution. Major ions, especially, Ca, Mg, K, and Si show obvious enrichment, indicating that mobilization of these ions occurred from aquifer sediments to groundwater and may be dominated by dissolution of silicates and possible carbonate minerals. δ13C of DIC of the recovered samples may also suggest potential dissolution of carbonates. Concentrations of trace elements show mobilization after injection of CO2 enriched groundwater. Mobilization of trace elements could be due to co-dissolution of silicates and carbonates and desorption from the surface of aquifer sediments. However, mass balance calculations suggest that ion mobilization is limited and; therefore, potential risks of CO2 are low, especially for arsenic and lead with concentrations in the recovered samples ~30 times less than the EPA maximum contamination level. Results of the single-well push-pull test were also compared to a laboratory batch experiment of water-rock-CO2 interactions. Overall reaction rates of most ions estimated are higher in the batch

  16. 75 FR 42441 - Sixty-Sixth Report of the TSCA Interagency Testing Committee to the Administrator of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Priority Testing List includes 2 alkylphenols, 12 lead compounds, 16 chemicals with insufficient dermal... HPV Challenge Program Recommended orphan chemicals 60 May 2007 12 Lead and lead Recommended compounds... Agriculture Clifford P. Rice, Member Laura L. McConnell, Alternate Department of Defense Vacant Department of...

  17. Tidal volume single breath washout of two tracer gases--a practical and promising lung function test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Florian; Stern, Georgette; Thamrin, Cindy; Fuchs, Oliver; Riedel, Thomas; Gustafsson, Per; Frey, Urs; Latzin, Philipp

    2011-03-10

    Small airway disease frequently occurs in chronic lung diseases and may cause ventilation inhomogeneity (VI), which can be assessed by washout tests of inert tracer gas. Using two tracer gases with unequal molar mass (MM) and diffusivity increases specificity for VI in different lung zones. Currently washout tests are underutilised due to the time and effort required for measurements. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple technique for a new tidal single breath washout test (SBW) of sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)) and helium (He) using an ultrasonic flowmeter (USFM). The tracer gas mixture contained 5% SF(6) and 26.3% He, had similar total MM as air, and was applied for a single tidal breath in 13 healthy adults. The USFM measured MM, which was then plotted against expired volume. USFM and mass spectrometer signals were compared in six subjects performing three SBW. Repeatability and reproducibility of SBW, i.e., area under the MM curve (AUC), were determined in seven subjects performing three SBW 24 hours apart. USFM reliably measured MM during all SBW tests (n = 60). MM from USFM reflected SF(6) and He washout patterns measured by mass spectrometer. USFM signals were highly associated with mass spectrometer signals, e.g., for MM, linear regression r-squared was 0.98. Intra-subject coefficient of variation of AUC was 6.8%, and coefficient of repeatability was 11.8%. The USFM accurately measured relative changes in SF(6) and He washout. SBW tests were repeatable and reproducible in healthy adults. We have developed a fast, reliable, and straightforward USFM based SBW method, which provides valid information on SF(6) and He washout patterns during tidal breathing.

  18. Tidal volume single breath washout of two tracer gases--a practical and promising lung function test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Singer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small airway disease frequently occurs in chronic lung diseases and may cause ventilation inhomogeneity (VI, which can be assessed by washout tests of inert tracer gas. Using two tracer gases with unequal molar mass (MM and diffusivity increases specificity for VI in different lung zones. Currently washout tests are underutilised due to the time and effort required for measurements. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple technique for a new tidal single breath washout test (SBW of sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6 and helium (He using an ultrasonic flowmeter (USFM. METHODS: The tracer gas mixture contained 5% SF(6 and 26.3% He, had similar total MM as air, and was applied for a single tidal breath in 13 healthy adults. The USFM measured MM, which was then plotted against expired volume. USFM and mass spectrometer signals were compared in six subjects performing three SBW. Repeatability and reproducibility of SBW, i.e., area under the MM curve (AUC, were determined in seven subjects performing three SBW 24 hours apart. RESULTS: USFM reliably measured MM during all SBW tests (n = 60. MM from USFM reflected SF(6 and He washout patterns measured by mass spectrometer. USFM signals were highly associated with mass spectrometer signals, e.g., for MM, linear regression r-squared was 0.98. Intra-subject coefficient of variation of AUC was 6.8%, and coefficient of repeatability was 11.8%. CONCLUSION: The USFM accurately measured relative changes in SF(6 and He washout. SBW tests were repeatable and reproducible in healthy adults. We have developed a fast, reliable, and straightforward USFM based SBW method, which provides valid information on SF(6 and He washout patterns during tidal breathing.

  19. Aspects of Lubrication in a Reciprocating Single-ring Test Rig and Further Implementation to Engine Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Dellis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A major concern in modern engine design is the issue of the lubrication regime at the piston-liner assembly. To fully understand the complex lubrication phenomena between the piston-rings and cylinder liner in reciprocating engines and at the same time achieve minimal energy losses with the oncoming emission regulations, it is important to characterize the developing oil film. This dynamic process involves many factors, such as piston-ring and piston dynamics, starved lubrication, liner geometry deformation, lubricant - additive degradation and blow-by, which, in turn, enhance the difficulty of interpreting engine experimental results. The simplified test rig is used as a platform to develop oil film measuring techniques and study experimental results from different sensors by means of a robust and solid technique without the engine testing ambiguities, at different lubrication regimes. This paper is focused on experimental findings from the simplified test rig and how these can be applied on specially modified engines, with the respective sensors fitted. A comparison between the single-ring test rig and the engine visualization results is attempted so that similar forms of cavitation identified, be further studied. Moreover, a calibration coefficient for LIF engine experiments can be derived via the simplified test rig arrangement.

  20. High-Gradient Test of a 3 GHz Single-Cell Cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Verdú-Andrés, S; Bonomi, R; Degiovanni, A; Garlasché, M; Garonna, A; Mellace, C; Pearce, P; S. Verdú-Andrés; Wegner, R

    2010-01-01

    Pro­ton and car­bon ion beams pre­sent ad­van­ta­geous depth-dose dis­tri­bu­tions with re­spect to X-rays. Car­bon ions allow a bet­ter con­trol of "ra­diore­sis­tant" tu­mours due to their high­er bi­o­log­i­cal re­sponse. For deep-seat­ed tu­mours pro­ton and car­bon ion beams of some nA and en­er­gies of about 200 MeV and 400 MeV/u re­spec­tive­ly are need­ed. For these ap­pli­ca­tions TERA pro­posed the "cy­clinac": a high-fre­quen­cy linac which boosts the hadrons ac­cel­er­at­ed by a cy­clotron. The di­men­sions of the com­plex can be re­duced if high­er ac­cel­er­at­ing gra­di­ents are achieved in the linac. To test the max­i­mum achiev­able fields, a 3 GHz cav­i­ty has been built by TERA. The 19 mm-long cell is fore­seen to be ex­cit­ed at 200 Hz by 3 us RF puls­es and should reach a 40 MV/m ac­cel­er­at­ing gra­di­ent, which cor­re­sponds to a peak sur­face elec­tric field Es of 260 MV/m. In a first high-pow­er test per­for...

  1. Depth-discrete specific storage in fractured sedimentary rock using steady-state and transient single-hole hydraulic tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Patryk M.; Cherry, John A.; Parker, Beth L.

    2016-11-01

    A method is presented for obtaining depth-discrete values of specific storage (Ss) from single-hole hydraulic tests in fractured rock boreholes using straddle packers (1.5-17 m test intervals). Low flow constant head (CH) step tests analyzed using the Thiem method provide transmissivity (T) values free from non-Darcian error. Short-term, constant-rate pumping tests (0.5-2 h) analyzed using the Cooper-Jacob approximation of the Theis method provide S from the hydraulic diffusivity using the Darcian T value from the CH step test. This synergistic use of two types of hydraulic tests avoids the common source of error when pumping tests (injection or withdrawal) are conducted at higher flow rates and thereby induce non-Darcian flow resulting in the underestimation of T. Other errors, such as well bore storage and leakage, can also substantially influence S by causing a shift in the time axis of the Cooper-Jacob semi-log plot. In this approach, the Darcian T values from the CH step tests are used in the analysis of the transient pumping test data for calculating S throughout the pumping test using the Cooper-Jacob approximation to minimize all of the aforementioned errors, resulting in more representative S values. The effect of these non-idealities on the measured drawdown is illustrated using the Theis equation with the Darcian T and S values to calculate drawdown for comparison to measured data. The Ss values for tests in sandstone obtained from this approach are more consistent with confined aquifer conditions than values derived from the traditional Cooper-Jacob method, and are within the range of field and lab values presented from a compilation of literature values for fractured sandstone. (10-7-10-5 m-1) This method for obtaining Ss values from short-interval, straddle packer tests improves the estimation of both K and Ss and provides opportunity to study their spatial distribution in fractured rock.

  2. Development of a reference material of a single DNA molecule for the quality control of PCR testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Junichi; Hatano, Shuko; Futo, Satoshi; Yoshii, Junji; Nakae, Hiroki; Naito, Shigehiro; Takabatake, Reona; Kitta, Kazumi

    2014-09-02

    We developed a reference material of a single DNA molecule with a specific nucleotide sequence. The double-strand linear DNA which has PCR target sequences at the both ends was prepared as a reference DNA molecule, and we named the PCR targets on each side as confirmation sequence and standard sequence. The highly diluted solution of the reference molecule was dispensed into 96 wells of a plastic PCR plate to make the average number of molecules in a well below one. Subsequently, the presence or absence of the reference molecule in each well was checked by real-time PCR targeting for the confirmation sequence. After an enzymatic treatment of the reaction mixture in the positive wells for the digestion of PCR products, the resultant solution was used as the reference material of a single DNA molecule with the standard sequence. PCR analyses revealed that the prepared samples included only one reference molecule with high probability. The single-molecule reference material developed in this study will be useful for the absolute evaluation of a detection limit of PCR-based testing methods, the quality control of PCR analyses, performance evaluations of PCR reagents and instruments, and the preparation of an accurate calibration curve for real-time PCR quantitation.

  3. Single molecule measurements of DNA helicase activity with magnetic tweezers and t-test based step-finding analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Yeonee; Strub, Marie-Paule; Neuman, Keir C.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic tweezers is a versatile and easy to implement single-molecule technique that has become increasingly prevalent in the study of nucleic acid based molecular motors. Here, we provide a description of the magnetic tweezers instrument and guidelines for measuring and analyzing DNA helicase activity. Along with experimental methods, we describe a robust method of single-molecule trajectory analysis based on the Student’s t-test that accommodates continuous transitions in addition to the discrete transitions assumed in most widely employed analysis routines. To illustrate the single-molecule unwinding assay and the analysis routine, we provide DNA unwinding measurements of Escherichia coli RecQ helicase under a variety of conditions (Na+, ATP, temperature, and DNA substrate geometry). These examples reveal that DNA unwinding measurements under various conditions can aid in elucidating the unwinding mechanism of DNA helicase but also emphasize that environmental effects on DNA helicase activity must be considered in relation to in vivo activity and mechanism. PMID:27131595

  4. Image reconstruction in single photon emission computed tomography for radioactive waste testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouletaut, P.

    1993-02-01

    The aim of this study is to reconstruct by tomography the spatial distribution of the activity of an object which emits photons. First, an analysis of the imaging qualities of a tomograph in terms of physical parameters related to the measurement process is proposed. Then, an algorithm which evaluates, the self-attenuation of the emitted photons and corrects for the collimator aperture angle is developed; this computation corresponds to a subdivision of the object into voxels and to a parallel geometry of the projections. Two algebraic reconstruction methods have been studied; one using a regularized least-squares technique, the other using a bayesian approach. We show by computer simulations the dependence of the reconstruction on the condition number of the self-attenuation matrix and on the estimation errors of this matrix. Then, the reconstruction is tested on experimental data; the images we reconstruct on a square grid of ten by ten voxels from one hundred twenty measurements show an accurate location of the sources; their activities are efficiently estimated when the collimator aperture angle is well taken into account in the self-attenuation matrix

  5. Test of single degree of freedom acoustic treatment impedance models for multimodal acoustic propagation in duct with flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccouche, Ryan; Moreau, Soléne; Ben Tahar, Mabrouk

    2017-06-01

    Passive acoustic treatments, also called liners, are the main solution to noise problems. The Single Degree Of Freedom (SDOF) acoustic treatment, composed of a thin material (perforated plate) affixed to air cavities with a rigid bottom, constitutes a solution. Predicting sound level reduction by an SDOF treatment requires reliable acoustic impedance models. An experimental/numerical method has been developed for a duct with an acoustic treatment to test acoustic impedance models of SDOF treatment with a multimodal propagation in the presence of a mean flow. This method is based on the comparison of experimental results from an aeroacoustic bench composed of a circular duct with a treated area, and numerical results from an FEM-PML axisymmetric model based on Galbrun's equation. The numerical results are confronted with experimental results to test impedance models up to M 0 =±0.25.

  6. Testing a Poisson counter model for visual identification of briefly presented, mutually confusable single stimuli in pure accuracy tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Markussen, Bo; Bundesen, Claus

    2012-06-01

    The authors propose and test a simple model of the time course of visual identification of briefly presented, mutually confusable single stimuli in pure accuracy tasks. The model implies that during stimulus analysis, tentative categorizations that stimulus i belongs to category j are made at a constant Poisson rate, v(i, j). The analysis is continued until the stimulus disappears, and the overt response is based on the categorization made the greatest number of times. The model was evaluated by Monte Carlo tests of goodness of fit against observed probability distributions of responses in two extensive experiments and also by quantifications of the information loss of the model compared with the observed data by use of information theoretic measures. The model provided a close fit to individual data on identification of digits and an apparently perfect fit to data on identification of Landolt rings.

  7. A gold nanoparticles-based colorimetric test to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms for improvement of personalized therapy of psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsella, Alessandra; Valentini, Paola; Tarantino, Paolo; Congedo, Maurizio; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2016-04-01

    We report a simple, rapid and low-cost test, based on gold nanoparticles, for the naked-eye colorimetric detection of a signature of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) relevant for the personalized medicine of psoriasis patients. We validated the colorimetric assay on real-world DNA samples from a cohort of 30 psoriasis patients and we compared the results, in double-blind, with those obtained with two state-of-the-art instrumental techniques, namely reverse dot blotting and direct sequencing, finding 100% agreement. We demonstrated high accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the colorimetric test that can be easily adapted for the genotypization of different SNPs, important for the pharmacogenomics of various diseases, and in other fields, such as food traceability and population structure analysis.

  8. Validity of Cognitive ability tests – comparison of computerized adaptive testing with paper and pencil and computer-based forms of administrations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žitný, P.; Halama, P.; Jelínek, Martin; Květon, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2012), s. 181-194 ISSN 0039-3320 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP406/09/P284 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : item response theory * computer ized adaptive testing * paper and pencil * computer -based * criterion and construct validity * efficiency Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.215, year: 2012

  9. A Pilot Study on Single-dose Toxicity Testing of Hominis placenta Pharmacopuncture in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo-Hwan Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to analyze the toxicity and to find the lethal dose of the test substance Hominis placenta pharmacopuncture when used as a single-dose in 6 week old, male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Methods: All experiments were conducted at Biotoxtech (Chungwon, Korea, an institution authorized to perform non clinical studies, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP. SD rats were chosen for the pilot study. Doses of Hominis placenta pharmacopuncture extracts, 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 mL, were administered to the experimental group, and 0.5 mL doses of normal saline solution were administered to the control group. This study was conducted under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee. Results: No deaths or abnormalities occurred in any of the groups. Also, no significant changes in body weights were observed among the groups, and no significant differences in hematology/biochemistry, necropsy, and histopathology results were noted. Hematologically, some changes in the male rats in two experimental groups were observed, but those changes had no clinical or toxicological meaning because they were not dose dependent. Histopathological tests on the injected parts showed cell infiltration in the male rats in one of the experimental groups; however, that result was due to spontaneous generation and had no toxicological meaning. Therefore, this study showed that Hominis placenta pharmacopuncture had no effect on the injected parts in terms of clinical signs, body weight, hematology, clinical chemistry, and necropsy. Conclusion: As a result of single-dose tests of the test substance Hominis placenta pharmacopuncture in 4 groups of rats, the lethal dose for both males and females exceeded 0.5 mL/animal. Therefore, the above findings suggest that treatment with Hominis placenta pharmacopuncture is relatively safe. Further studies on this subject are needed.

  10. Cognitive testing of tobacco use items for administration to patients with cancer and cancer survivors in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Stephanie R; Warren, Graham W; Crafts, Jennifer L; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Ostroff, Jamie S; Willis, Gordon B; Chollette, Veronica Y; Mitchell, Sandra A; Folz, Jasmine N M; Gulley, James L; Szabo, Eva; Brandon, Thomas H; Duffy, Sonia A; Toll, Benjamin A

    2016-06-01

    To the authors' knowledge, there are currently no standardized measures of tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure in patients diagnosed with cancer, and this gap hinders the conduct of studies examining the impact of tobacco on cancer treatment outcomes. The objective of the current study was to evaluate and refine questionnaire items proposed by an expert task force to assess tobacco use. Trained interviewers conducted cognitive testing with cancer patients aged ≥21 years with a history of tobacco use and a cancer diagnosis of any stage and organ site who were recruited at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, Maryland. Iterative rounds of testing and item modification were conducted to identify and resolve cognitive issues (comprehension, memory retrieval, decision/judgment, and response mapping) and instrument navigation issues until no items warranted further significant modification. Thirty participants (6 current cigarette smokers, 1 current cigar smoker, and 23 former cigarette smokers) were enrolled from September 2014 to February 2015. The majority of items functioned well. However, qualitative testing identified wording ambiguities related to cancer diagnosis and treatment trajectory, such as "treatment" and "surgery"; difficulties with lifetime recall; errors in estimating quantities; and difficulties with instrument navigation. Revisions to item wording, format, order, response options, and instructions resulted in a questionnaire that demonstrated navigational ease as well as good question comprehension and response accuracy. The Cancer Patient Tobacco Use Questionnaire (C-TUQ) can be used as a standardized item set to accelerate the investigation of tobacco use in the cancer setting. Cancer 2016;122:1728-34. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  11. Central site monitoring: results from a test of accuracy in identifying trials and sites failing Food and Drug Administration inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Anne S; Manukyan, Zorayr; Purohit-Sheth, Tejashri; Gensler, Gary; Okwesili, Paul; Meeker-O'Connell, Ann; Ball, Leslie; Marler, John R

    2014-04-01

    Site monitoring and source document verification account for 15%-30% of clinical trial costs. An alternative is to streamline site monitoring to focus on correcting trial-specific risks identified by central data monitoring. This risk-based approach could preserve or even improve the quality of clinical trial data and human subject protection compared to site monitoring focused primarily on source document verification. To determine whether a central review by statisticians using data submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) by clinical trial sponsors can identify problem sites and trials that failed FDA site inspections. An independent Analysis Center (AC) analyzed data from four anonymous new drug applications (NDAs) where FDA had performed site inspections overseen by FDA's Office of Scientific Investigations (OSI). FDA team members in the OSI chose the four NDAs from among all NDAs with data in Study Data Tabulation Model (SDTM) format. Two of the NDAs had data that OSI had deemed unreliable in support of the application after FDA site inspections identified serious data integrity problems. The other two NDAs had clinical data that OSI deemed reliable after site inspections. At the outset, the AC knew only that the experimental design specified two NDAs with significant problems. FDA gave the AC no information about which NDAs had problems, how many sites were inspected, or how many were found to have problems until after the AC analysis was complete. The AC evaluated randomization balance, enrollment patterns, study visit scheduling, variability of reported data, and last digit reference. The AC classified sites as 'High Concern', 'Moderate Concern', 'Mild Concern', or 'No Concern'. The AC correctly identified the two NDAs with data deemed unreliable by OSI. In addition, central data analysis correctly identified 5 of 6 (83%) sites for which FDA recommended rejection of data and 13 of 15 sites (87%) for which any regulatory deviations were

  12. Testing the single-pass VOC removal efficiency of an active green wall using methyl ethyl ketone (MEK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpy, Fraser; Clements, Nicholas; Pollinger, Max; Dengel, Andy; Mulvihill, Isaac; He, Chuan; Irga, Peter

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, research into the efficacy of indoor air biofiltration mechanisms, notably living green walls, has become more prevalent. Whilst green walls are often utilised within the built environment for their biophilic effects, there is little evidence demonstrating the efficacy of active green wall biofiltration for the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at concentrations found within an interior environment. The current work describes a novel approach to quantifying the VOC removal effectiveness by an active living green wall, which uses a mechanical system to force air through the substrate and plant foliage. After developing a single-pass efficiency protocol to understand the immediate effects of the system, the active green wall was installed into a 30-m 3 chamber representative of a single room and presented with the contaminant 2-butanone (methyl ethyl ketone; MEK), a VOC commonly found in interior environments through its use in textile and plastic manufacture. Chamber inlet levels of MEK remained steady at 33.91 ± 0.541 ppbv. Utilising a forced-air system to draw the contaminated air through a green wall based on a soil-less growing medium containing activated carbon, the combined effects of substrate media and botanical component within the biofiltration system showed statistically significant VOC reduction, averaging 57% single-pass removal efficiency over multiple test procedures. These results indicate a high level of VOC removal efficiency for the active green wall biofilter tested and provide evidence that active biofiltration may aid in reducing exposure to VOCs in the indoor environment.

  13. Temporal effects of intramuscular administration of medetomidine hydrochloride or xylazine hydrochloride to healthy dogs on tear flow measured by use of a Schirmer tear test I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Teppei; Ishihara, Satoko; Oka, Miina; Sako, Kaori; Sato, Yoko; Maeta, Noritaka; Tamura, Katsutoshi; Furumoto, Kayo; Furukawa, Toshinori

    2016-04-01

    To determine the temporal effects on tear flow measurements obtained by use of a Schirmer tear test (STT) I after IM administration of various doses of medetomidine or xylazine to healthy dogs. 5 healthy purpose-bred male Beagles. Each dog received IM injections of 2.0 mL of physiologic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control treatment); 0.1% medetomidine hydrochloride (5, 10, 20, and 40 μg/kg), and 2.0% xylazine hydrochloride (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/kg). Treatments were injected into the semimembranosus muscles; there was at least a 1-week interval between successive injections. Order of treatments was determined via a randomized Latin square crossover design. The STT I was performed on both eyes before (baseline) and 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 24 hours after each injection. STT I values decreased significantly within 45 minutes after injection of medetomidine or xylazine, which was followed by gradual recovery. The lowest mean STT I value was administration yielded significant effects for all sedation treatments. IM administration of medetomidine or xylazine to dogs reduced tear flow in a dose-related manner. Artificial tear solution or ophthalmic ointment should be used to protect the ocular surface when these drugs are administered to dogs.

  14. Challenging diagnosis — Icterus associated with a single perforating duodenal ulcer after long-term nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug administration in a dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A dog developed icterus, vomiting, and anorexia 2 wk after orthopedic surgery and treatment with meloxicam for approximately 1 y. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a single perforated duodenal ulcer. The most likely cause of the hyperbilirubinemia was intrahepatic cholestasis resulting from peritonitis associated with the perforation. PMID:15283521

  15. pH(stat) vs. single extraction tests to evaluate heavy metals and arsenic leachability in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigol, A; Mateu, J; González-Núñez, R; Rauret, G; Vidal, M

    2009-01-19

    Here we compared the pH(stat) test, which examines the leachability of major elements (Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, and Mn), dissolved organic carbon, and trace elements (Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, and As) in a wide pH range, with single extraction tests based on the use of mild extractants (calcium chloride, acetic acid or EDTA). For this purpose, we examined samples from a variety of environmental conditions (sludges, mineral soils, organic soils, and soils with particulate and/or soluble contamination). Extraction yields obtained with CaCl(2) (0.01 mol L(-1)) and CH(3)COOH (0.43 mol L(-1)) correlated well with those from the pH(stat) at the same pH (r=0.98 and 0.95, respectively), while the use of EDTA (0.05 mol L(-1)) led to systematically higher extraction yields than those quantified with the pH(stat) at the same pH. However, the pH(stat) test had three distinct advantages: (1) it revealed the relationship between the solubility of the main soil phases and pH; (2) it showed the variation in pollutant leachability due to changes in pH; and (3) it better predicted the maximum contaminant availability. Thus we propose that the pH(stat) is the best laboratory tests to evaluate the contaminant leachability over a wide range of sample types (soil, sludge, and sediment).

  16. Performance evaluation testing of wells in the gradient control system at a federally operated Confined Disposal Facility using single well aquifer tests, East Chicago, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, David C.; Unthank, Michael D.

    2016-12-08

    values from the initial air slug test during the 2015 testing period for MW–11A and MW–14A are an order of magnitude less than those derived from the final test during the 2014 testing period indicating the development of a low conductivity skin between the final test of the 2014 testing period and the beginning of the 2015 testing period that created a decrease in the connection of the monitoring well screen to the surrounding aquifer material.Repeated step drawdown and recovery testing of the extraction wells tested during this study provided results that indicate a slight increase in the development of a skin and a decrease in the connectivity of the extraction wells with the Calumet aquifer. Hydraulic conductivity values obtained from the test results were relatively similar in EW–4B and EW–14A but were substantially lower for EW–11C. This difference may be due to the presence of finer grained silt deposits in the area surrounding well nest 11. Skin factors calculated during the step drawdown and recovery analysis were lowest in EW–11C and relatively similar in EW–4B and EW–14A. Calculated skin factors increased slightly in the analysis of data collected in 2015 from that collected in 2014.Comparisons of the specific-capacity values calculated from well development data collected following extraction well installation to those calculated during the single well aquifer tests at EW–4B, EW–14A and EW–11C indicate that the productivity of extraction wells on the CDF property has diminished since 2008. Values calculated for monitoring wells MW–4A, MW–11A, and MW–14A were used to evaluate the decrease in air slug derived hydraulic conductivity for monitoring wells within the groundwater cutoff wall between testing in 2014 and 2015.Results from testing by this study indicate that implementation of an air slug testing regimen of the monitoring wells that control the gradient control system at the CDF throughout the course of a year may help

  17. Effects of sediment-spiked lufenuron on benthic macroinvertebrates in outdoor microcosms and single-species toxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, T C M; Bas, D A; Belgers, J D M; Bibbe, L; Boerwinkel, M-C; Crum, S J H; Diepens, N J; Kraak, M H S; Vonk, J A; Roessink, I

    2016-08-01

    Sediment ecotoxicity studies were conducted with lufenuron to (i) complement the results of a water-spiked mesocosm experiment with this lipophilic benzoylurea insecticide, (ii) to explore the predictive value of laboratory single-species tests for population and community-level responses of benthic macroinvertebrates, and (iii) to calibrate the tier-1 effect assessment procedure for sediment organisms. For this purpose the concentration-response relationships for macroinvertebrates between sediment-spiked microcosms and those of 28-d sediment-spiked single-species toxicity tests with Chironomus riparius, Hyalella azteca and Lumbriculus variegatus were compared. Lufenuron persisted in the sediment of the microcosms. On average, 87.7% of the initial lufenuron concentration could still be detected in the sediment after 12 weeks. Overall, benthic insects and crustaceans showed treatment-related declines and oligochaetes treatment-related increases. The lowest population-level NOEC in the microcosms was 0.79μg lufenuron/g organic carbon in dry sediment (μg a.s./g OC) for Tanytarsini, Chironomini and Dero sp. Multivariate analysis of the responses of benthic macroinvertebrates revealed a community-level NOEC of 0.79μg a.s./g OC. The treatment-related responses observed in the microcosms are in accordance with the results of the 28-d laboratory toxicity tests. These tests showed that the insect C. riparius and the crustacean H. azteca were approximately two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the oligochaete L. variegatus. In our laboratory tests, using field-collected sediment, the lowest 28-d EC10 (0.49μg a.s./g OC) was observed for C. riparius (endpoint survival), while for the standard OECD test with this species, using artificial sediment, a NOEC of 2.35μg a.s./g OC (endpoint emergence) is reported. In this particular case, the sediment tier-1 effect assessment using the chronic EC10 (field-collected sediment) or chronic NOEC (artificial sediment) of C

  18. Effects of sediment-spiked lufenuron on benthic macroinvertebrates in outdoor microcosms and single-species toxicity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, T.C.M., E-mail: theo.brock@wur.nl [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Bas, D.A. [Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Belgers, J.D.M. [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Bibbe, L. [Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boerwinkel, M-C.; Crum, S.J.H. [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Diepens, N.J. [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Kraak, M.H.S.; Vonk, J.A. [Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Roessink, I. [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • In outdoor microcosms constructed with lufenuron-spiked sediment we observed that this insecticide persistent in the sediment compartment. • Sediment exposure to lufenuron caused population-level declines (insects and crustaceans) and increases (mainly oligochaete worms) of benthic invertebrates. • The direct and indirect effects observed in the microcosms were supported by results of sediment-spiked single species tests with Chironomus riparius, Hyalella azteca and Lumbriculus variegatus. • The tier-1 effect assessment procedure for sediment organisms recommended by the European Food Safety Authority is protective for the treatment-related responses observed in the microcosm test. - Abstract: Sediment ecotoxicity studies were conducted with lufenuron to (i) complement the results of a water-spiked mesocosm experiment with this lipophilic benzoylurea insecticide, (ii) to explore the predictive value of laboratory single-species tests for population and community-level responses of benthic macroinvertebrates, and (iii) to calibrate the tier-1 effect assessment procedure for sediment organisms. For this purpose the concentration-response relationships for macroinvertebrates between sediment-spiked microcosms and those of 28-d sediment-spiked single-species toxicity tests with Chironomus riparius, Hyalella azteca and Lumbriculus variegatus were compared. Lufenuron persisted in the sediment of the microcosms. On average, 87.7% of the initial lufenuron concentration could still be detected in the sediment after 12 weeks. Overall, benthic insects and crustaceans showed treatment-related declines and oligochaetes treatment-related increases. The lowest population-level NOEC in the microcosms was 0.79 μg lufenuron/g organic carbon in dry sediment (μg a.s./g OC) for Tanytarsini, Chironomini and Dero sp. Multivariate analysis of the responses of benthic macroinvertebrates revealed a community-level NOEC of 0.79 μg a.s./g OC. The treatment

  19. The comparative performance of the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test in Irish cattle, using tuberculin PPD combinations from different manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, M; Clegg, T A; Murphy, F; More, S J

    2011-07-05

    Ireland currently obtains its avian and bovine tuberculin purified protein derivatives (PPDs) from a single source. Because problems of supply or quality cannot be discounted, it is prudent that Ireland identify alternative supplier(s) as part of a broad risk management strategy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the performance of a number of different tuberculin combinations (that is, pairings of bovine and avian PPD; with different manufacturers) in the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test (SICTT), as currently performed in Ireland. The study was randomised, controlled and double-blinded. A total of 2172 cattle were used in the study. Each animal was tested using two SICTTs, the first based on the tuberculin combination in current use, and the second using one of six trial tuberculin combinations. Analyses were conducted to compare both reactor-status and skin increase. For each control/trial tuberculin combination, there was good agreement between the control and trial reactor-status. Differences in skin increases were mainly confined to animals categorised as either negative or severe inconclusive. However, the measured differences were minor, and unlikely to have a significant impact on the actual test outcome, either for individual animals or for herds. In conclusion, while further studies determining sensitivity and specificity in Ireland would have to be done in the event of a change in tuberculin PPD there should be minimal disruption of the national programme if alternative tuberculin PPDs meeting WHO, OIE and EU regulations were used. In this study, the precision of the guinea pig bio-assay to assess tuberculin potency was low and therefore Ireland should maintain its practice of periodically assessing potency in naturally infected cattle, even though this is not currently required under WHO, OIE or EU Regulations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Lymphatic filariasis mapping by Immunochromatographic Test cards and baseline microfilaria survey prior to mass drug administration in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koroma Joseph B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National mapping of lymphatic filariasis (LF was conducted using Immunochromatographic tests (ICT in 2005 to determine endemicity and geographic spread of the disease. A baseline microfilaria survey was then conducted to determine LF prevalence and microfilaria intensity. Methods In 2005 1,982 persons of 15 years and over from 14 health districts were selected and fingertip blood samples were tested with ICT cards. In 2007-8 blood samples were taken between 10 p.m. and 2 a.m. and examined for microfilaria (mf from 9,288 persons from 16 sentinel sites representing each district and 2 additional sites for districts with populations over 500,000 (Bo and Kenema. Results The overall LF prevalence by ICT cards was 21% (males 28%, females 15%. All districts had a prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti antigen > 1%. Distribution of LF prevalence showed a strong spatial correlation pattern with high prevalence in a large area in the northeast gradually decreasing to a relatively low prevalence in the southwest coast. High prevalence was found in the northeast, Bombali (52%, Koinadugu (46%, Tonkolili (37% and Kono (30%. Low prevalence was found in the southwest, Bonthe (3% and Pujehun (4%. The mf prevalence was higher in the northeast: Bombali, 6.7%, Koinadugu 5.7%, Port Loko 4.4% and Kono 2.4%. Overall there was a significant difference in mf prevalence by gender: males 2.9%, females 1.8% (p = 0.0002 and within districts in Kailahun, Kono, Port Loko, Moyamba and Koinadugu (all p 20 years (2.5% than in people ≤ 20 years (1.7% (p = 0.043. The overall arithmetic mean mf density was 50.30 mf/ml among mf-positive individuals and 1.19 mf/ml in the population examined which varied significantly between districts. Conclusions The ICT results showed that LF was endemic nationwide and that preventive chemotherapy (PCT was justified across the country. Both the ICT and microfilaraemia surveys found that prevalence was greater in males than females

  1. Establishment of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) model by a single iv administration of Escherichia coli-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to cynomolgus monkeys and evaluation of its pathophysiological status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minomo, Hirofumi; Inoue, Kengo; Sakaki, Shuko; Okazaki, Takanobu; Kobayashi, Kinji; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Miyata, Atsuro

    2017-02-01

    We prepared a DIC model by administrating LPS to cynomolgus monkeys, and investigated its potential for evaluations of new medicines for DIC therapy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) collected from cynomolgus monkeys were incubated with LPS (8 types), and TNF-α levels in the media were measured. LPS from Escherichia coli (K-235) was most appropriate in terms of larger increases and smaller variation in TNF-α levels. PBMC from rats, cynomolgus monkeys or humans were incubated with LPS (K-235), and the TNF-α response to LPS was investigated. The response was comparable between cynomolgus monkeys and humans but small in rats. In an in vivo experiment, LPS (K-235) was administered once intravenously to cynomolgus monkeys with or without recombinant human thrombomodulin (rhTM) to investigate any changes in coagulation and fibrinolysis biomarkers and the suppressive effect of rhTM. The liver, kidney, and lung were examined histopathologically. Almost all of the changes resembled the pathophysiological status of human DIC and were suppressed by co-administration of rhTM. The DIC model resembling human DIC was established by LPS (K-235) treatment in cynomolgus monkeys, and therapeutic effect of rhTM was noted, suggesting that this model is useful in evaluations of the efficacy of new medicines for DIC therapy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Administrating Solr

    CERN Document Server

    Mohan, Surendra

    2013-01-01

    A fast-paced, example-based guide to learning how to administrate, monitor, and optimize Apache Solr.""Administrating Solr"" is for developers and Solr administrators who have a basic knowledge of Solr and who are looking for ways to keep their Solr server healthy and well maintained. A basic working knowledge of Apache Lucene is recommended, but this is not mandatory.

  3. Administrative Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  4. Space administration

    OpenAIRE

    Worthington, Scott; Worthington, Scott

    2015-01-01

    My dissertation consists of two parts. The larger portion is an hour-long piece for double bass, electronics, and projected text called Space Administration. The second portion, this essay, discusses my musical background leading up to Space Administration, details of the composition itself, and what new directions I see in my work that in part stem from creating the piece Space Administration

  5. Testing single and double limb standing balance performance: comparison of COP path length evaluation between two devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, Lars; Roth, Ralf; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2012-07-01

    Center of pressure (COP) path length evaluation was commonly applied to measure postural sway and usually obtained from gold standard force plates. Thus, we comparatively investigated the feasible and less-expensive GKS® balance system (GKS) with the Kistler® force platform (KIS). 34 non-specifically trained but active adults (14 males, 20 females, age: 25.4±4.8 years; weight: 69.3±12.3 kg; height: 1.75±0.09 m, sports activity: 5.8±3.6 hours per week) were randomly tested on both devices during double and single limb stance with opened and closed eyes. Irrespective of the analysed time frame, repeated measures analyses of variances revealed higher path length readings for GKS compared to KIS for 30 s (F=6.8, p=0.01) and 10 s (F=21.2, p=0.001). Large effect sizes of the COP path length differences between GKS and KIS decreased from easy tasks (double limb, eyes open; d(30-s)=2.55, d(10-s)=2.04) to the most severe task (single limb, eyes closed; d(30-s)=0.02, d(10-s)=0.23). According to Bland and Altman, the limits of agreements indicated a high random variability component (between 29%, double limb, eyes open and 67%, single limb, eyes closed). The overall intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) across all four standing balance tasks were moderate for the 30 s- (0.57) as well as the 10 s-analysis (0.65). In conclusion, the COP path length displacements obtained from the GKS balance system seem to differ with a considerable random variability from Kistler force platform data. Thus, measurements of the evaluated devices should not be used interchangeably. Further methodological investigations regarding balance measures seem warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Workplace testing of the new single sphere neutron spectrometer based on Dysprosium activation foils (Dy-SSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedogni, R., E-mail: roberto.bedogni@lnf.infn.it [INFN-LNF (Frascati National Laboratories), Via E. Fermi n. 40-00044 Frascati (Italy); Gomez-Ros, J.M. [INFN-LNF (Frascati National Laboratories), Via E. Fermi n. 40-00044 Frascati (Italy); CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Esposito, A.; Gentile, A.; Chiti, M.; Palacios-Perez, L. [INFN-LNF (Frascati National Laboratories), Via E. Fermi n. 40-00044 Frascati (Italy); Angelone, M. [ENEA C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Tana, L. [A.O. Universitaria Pisana-Ospedale S. Chiara, Via Bonanno Pisano, Pisa (Italy)

    2012-08-21

    A photon insensitive passive neutron spectrometer consisting of a single moderating polyethylene sphere with Dysprosium activation foils arranged along three perpendicular axes was designed by CIEMAT and INFN. The device is called Dy-SSS (Dy foil-based Single Sphere Spectrometer). It shows nearly isotropic response in terms of neutron fluence up to 20 MeV. The first prototype, previously calibrated with 14 MeV neutrons, has been recently tested in workplaces having different energy and directional distributions. These are a 2.5 MeV nearly mono-chromatic and mono-directional beam available at the ENEA Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG) and the photo-neutron field produced in a 15 MV Varian CLINAC DHX medical accelerator, located in the Ospedale S. Chiara (Pisa). Both neutron spectra are known through measurements with a Bonner Sphere Spectrometer. In both cases the experimental response of the Dy-SSS agrees with the reference data. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the spectrometric capability of the new device are independent from the directional distribution of the neutron field. This opens the way to a new generation of moderation-based neutron instruments, presenting all advantages of the Bonner sphere spectrometer without the disadvantage of the repeated exposures. This concept is being developed within the NESCOFI@BTF project of INFN (Commissione Scientifica Nazionale 5).

  7. Design and first tests of miniature K010X soft x-ray streak and single-frame camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, V. B.; Feldman, G. G.; Myasnikov, A. F.; Chernyshev, N. V.; Shubski, I. I.; Liu, Jingru; Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Xueqin; Zheng, Guoxin; Xiao, Weiwei

    2007-01-01

    Description of a new K010X soft X-ray camera and the first results of it tests carried out in Russia and China are presented. In a streak mode the full sweep time for a 2 cm sweep route length on the image converter screen is from 2 ns up to 600 microseconds. In a single-frame mode the corresponding frame duration is from ~10 ns up to ~ 660 microseconds. Spatial resolution in a single frame mode was not less than 5 l.p./mm for soft X-ray radiation and not less 10 l.p./mm for UV radiation. Spatial resolution in a streak mode for soft X-ray radiation was from 5 up to 10 l.p./mm and for UV radiation on all the sweep ranges was not less than 10 l.p./mm, except for the range of 1 ns/cm where it was 5 l.p./mm. Limiting temporal resolution for UV radiation was near 10 ps and a dynamic range was 200 when full sweep time was 60 ns. The camera has small 430×115×200 mm dimensions, 5.0 kg weight and 10 VA power consumption.

  8. Workplace testing of the new single sphere neutron spectrometer based on Dysprosium activation foils (Dy-SSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedogni, R.; Gómez-Ros, J.M.; Esposito, A.; Gentile, A.; Chiti, M.; Palacios-Pérez, L.; Angelone, M.; Tana, L.

    2012-01-01

    A photon insensitive passive neutron spectrometer consisting of a single moderating polyethylene sphere with Dysprosium activation foils arranged along three perpendicular axes was designed by CIEMAT and INFN. The device is called Dy-SSS (Dy foil-based Single Sphere Spectrometer). It shows nearly isotropic response in terms of neutron fluence up to 20 MeV. The first prototype, previously calibrated with 14 MeV neutrons, has been recently tested in workplaces having different energy and directional distributions. These are a 2.5 MeV nearly mono-chromatic and mono-directional beam available at the ENEA Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG) and the photo-neutron field produced in a 15 MV Varian CLINAC DHX medical accelerator, located in the Ospedale S. Chiara (Pisa). Both neutron spectra are known through measurements with a Bonner Sphere Spectrometer. In both cases the experimental response of the Dy-SSS agrees with the reference data. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the spectrometric capability of the new device are independent from the directional distribution of the neutron field. This opens the way to a new generation of moderation-based neutron instruments, presenting all advantages of the Bonner sphere spectrometer without the disadvantage of the repeated exposures. This concept is being developed within the NESCOFI@BTF project of INFN (Commissione Scientifica Nazionale 5).

  9. Workplace testing of the new single sphere neutron spectrometer based on Dysprosium activation foils (Dy-SSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedogni, R.; Gómez-Ros, J. M.; Esposito, A.; Gentile, A.; Chiti, M.; Palacios-Pérez, L.; Angelone, M.; Tana, L.

    2012-08-01

    A photon insensitive passive neutron spectrometer consisting of a single moderating polyethylene sphere with Dysprosium activation foils arranged along three perpendicular axes was designed by CIEMAT and INFN. The device is called Dy-SSS (Dy foil-based Single Sphere Spectrometer). It shows nearly isotropic response in terms of neutron fluence up to 20 MeV. The first prototype, previously calibrated with 14 MeV neutrons, has been recently tested in workplaces having different energy and directional distributions. These are a 2.5 MeV nearly mono-chromatic and mono-directional beam available at the ENEA Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG) and the photo-neutron field produced in a 15 MV Varian CLINAC DHX medical accelerator, located in the Ospedale S. Chiara (Pisa). Both neutron spectra are known through measurements with a Bonner Sphere Spectrometer. In both cases the experimental response of the Dy-SSS agrees with the reference data. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the spectrometric capability of the new device are independent from the directional distribution of the neutron field. This opens the way to a new generation of moderation-based neutron instruments, presenting all advantages of the Bonner sphere spectrometer without the disadvantage of the repeated exposures. This concept is being developed within the NESCOFI@BTF project of INFN (Commissione Scientifica Nazionale 5).

  10. Effects of acute and repeated dose administration of caffeine and pentoxifylline on diazepam-induced mouse behavior in the hole-board test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, V S; Santos, F A; Paula, W G; Silva, R M; Campos, A R

    1999-05-01

    The behavioral effects of methyl xanthines and their interactions with benzodiazepines have not been clearly established in animal models of anxiety. The present study extended the previous studies to determine the effects of acute and repeated administration of caffeine, a non-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor and pentoxyfylline, a specific type-4 phosphodiesterase (PDE4) inhibitor on (1) baseline anxiety-like behavior and (2) the response to an acute challenge with diazepam on anxiety-like behavior in the hole-board test. Mice were observed for the number of head-dips they made into the holes of the hole-board apparatus during a 5-min period, starting 30 min after acute (20 mg/kg) and repeated oral dose (20 mg/kg, twice a day for 4 days) administration of caffeine and pentoxifylline. In separate experiments, the response to an acute challenge with graded doses of diazepam (0.375 3 mg/kg, SC) was observed in naive mice or mice on acute and repeated dose regimen with methyl xanthines. Mice on acute but not after repeated dose regimen demonstrated a significantly increased number of hole-dips, indicating an anxiolytic-like effect of methylxanthines. Diazepam at the lower doses (0.375 and 0.75 mg/kg) but not at the highest doses (1.5 and 3 mg/kg) examined produced a significant anxiolytic-like effect. After an acute dose exposure of mice to caffeine and pentoxifylline, a rightward shift in the dose-response curve of diazepam was observed and particularly at 1.5 mg/kg dose, the net effect of diazepam was significantly enhanced which was, however, impaired upon repeated administration, more so with caffeine than with pentoxifylline. It is concluded that the xanthine drugs exert anxiolytic-like activity similar to diazepam in the hole-board test. In addition, they seem to modulate the anxiolytic effects of diazepam after both acute and repeated administration, probably as a result of an endogenous adenosinergic mechanism which may have therapeutic significance.

  11. In situ bend testing of niobium-reinforced alumina nanocomposites with and without single-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, Katherine E.; Jiang Dongtao; Lemberg, Joseph A.; Koester, Kurt J.; Ritchie, Robert O.; Mukherjee, Amiya K.

    2008-01-01

    Alumina-based nanocomposites were fabricated and consolidated via spark plasma sintering. The effect of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and niobium additions to nanocrystalline alumina was examined by in situ bend testing. The addition of 10 vol.% niobium to nanocrystalline alumina provided substantial improvement of fracture toughness (6.1 MPa m 1/2 )-almost three times that of nanocrystalline alumina. Observation of cracks emanating from Vickers indents, as well as bend specimen fracture surfaces, reveal the operation of ductile phase toughening in the Nb-Al 2 O 3 nanocomposites. Further addition of 5 vol.% SWCNTs to the 10 vol.%Nb-Al 2 O 3 revealed a more porous structure and less impressive fracture toughness-having an indentation and bend fracture toughness of 2.9 MPa m 1/2 and 3.3 MPa m 1/2 , respectively

  12. Testing the accuracy of a Bayesian central-dose model for single-grain OSL, using known-age samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerin, Guillaume; Combès, Benoit; Lahaye, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    remains a difficult task, given the typically considerable dispersion in equivalent dose values measured by OSL - and the numerous sources of such dispersion in measurements. Here, we present the study of 19 samples for which independent age control is available, and whose ages range from 2 to 46ka. Based......-grain OSL and reference ages is about twice as large for the standard approach (12%) as with the Bayesian model (7%). Statistical tests show that, based on our (limited) dataset, the difference between the two models seems to be significant for samples in the age range 4-46ka. Finally, the influence...... on multi-grain OSL age estimates, these samples are presumed to have been both well-bleached at burial, and unaffected by mixing after deposition. Two ways of estimating single-grain ages are then compared: the standard approach on the one hand, consisting of applying the Central Age Model to De values...

  13. Single administration of recombinant IL-6 restores the gene expression of lipogenic enzymes in liver of fasting IL-6-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavito, A L; Cabello, R; Suarez, J

    2016-01-01

    lipogenic enzymes. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Gene and protein expression of lipogenic enzymes were examined in livers of wild-type (WT) and IL-6-deficient (IL-6(-/-) ) mice during fasting and re-feeding conditions. Effects of exogenous IL-6 administration on gene expression of these enzymes were evaluated...... in vivo. The involvement of STAT3 in mediating these IL-6 responses was investigated by using siRNA in human HepG2 cells. KEY RESULTS: During feeding, the up-regulation in the hepatic expression of lipogenic genes presented similar time kinetics in WT and IL-6(-/-) mice. During fasting, expression...... of lipogenic genes decreased gradually over time in both strains, although the initial drop was more marked in IL-6(-/-) mice. Protein levels of hepatic lipogenic enzymes were lower in IL-6(-/-) than in WT mice at the end of the fasting period. In WT, circulating IL-6 levels paralleled gene expression...

  14. Growth responses following a single intra-muscular hGH plasmid administration compared to daily injections of hGH in dwarf mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuti, Eliza; Cecchi, Claudia R; Oliveira, Nelio A J; Vieira, Daniel P; Jensen, Thomas G; Jorge, Alexander A L; Bartolini, Paolo; Peroni, Cibele N

    2012-12-01

    In previous work, sustained levels of circulating human growth hormone (hGH) and a highly significant weight increase were observed after electrotransfer of naked plasmid DNA (hGH-DNA) into the muscle of immunodeficient dwarf mice (lit/scid). In the present study, the efficacy of this in vivo gene therapy strategy is compared to daily injections (5 μg/twice a day) of recombinant hGH (r-hGH) protein, as assessed on the basis of several growth parameters. The slopes of the two growth curves were found to be similar (P > 0.05): 0.095 g/mouse/d for protein and 0.094 g/mouse/d for DNA injection. In contrast, the weight increases averaged 35.5% (P hGH-DNA administration thus appears to be comparable to repeated hormone injections for promoting growth and may represent a feasible alternative for the treatment of growth hormone deficiency.

  15. Criterion for traffic phases in single vehicle data and empirical test of a microscopic three-phase traffic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, Boris S; Klenov, Sergey L; Hiller, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Based on empirical and numerical microscopic analyses, the physical nature of a qualitatively different behaviour of the wide moving jam phase in comparison with the synchronized flow phase-microscopic traffic flow interruption within the wide moving jam phase-is found. A microscopic criterion for distinguishing the synchronized flow and wide moving jam phases in single vehicle data measured at a single freeway location is presented. Based on this criterion, empirical microscopic classification of different local congested traffic states is performed. Simulations made show that the microscopic criterion and macroscopic spatiotemporal objective criteria lead to the same identification of the synchronized flow and wide moving jam phases in congested traffic. Microscopic models in the context of three-phase traffic theory have been tested based on the microscopic criterion for the phases in congested traffic. It is found that microscopic three-phase traffic models can explain both microscopic and macroscopic empirical congested pattern features. It is obtained that microscopic frequency distributions for vehicle speed difference as well as fundamental diagrams and speed correlation functions can depend on the spatial co-ordinate considerably. It turns out that microscopic optimal velocity (OV) functions and time headway distributions are not necessarily qualitatively different, even if local congested traffic states are qualitatively different. The reason for this is that important spatiotemporal features of congested traffic patterns are lost in these as well as in many other macroscopic and microscopic traffic characteristics, which are widely used as the empirical basis for a test of traffic flow models, specifically, cellular automata traffic flow models

  16. Administrative Circulars

    CERN Multimedia

    Département des Ressources humaines

    2004-01-01

    Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 2) - May 2004 Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period of staff members This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 1) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 3) - May 2004 Staff members contracts This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 2) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 4) - May 2004 Procedure governing the career evolution of staff members This circular has also been revised. It Administrative Circulars Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 3) - December 2001 and brings up to date the French version (Rev. 4) published on the HR Department Web site in January 2004. Operational Circular N° 7 - May 2004 Work from home This circular has been drawn up. Operational Circular N° 8 - May 2004 Dealing with alcohol-related problems...

  17. Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of PTC124, a nonaminoglycoside nonsense mutation suppressor, following single- and multiple-dose administration to healthy male and female adult volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirawat, Samit; Welch, Ellen M; Elfring, Gary L; Northcutt, Valerie J; Paushkin, Sergey; Hwang, Seongwoo; Leonard, Eileen M; Almstead, Neil G; Ju, William; Peltz, Stuart W; Miller, Langdon L

    2007-04-01

    Nonsense (premature stop codon) mutations are causative in 5% to 15% of patients with monogenetic inherited disorders. PTC124, a 284-Dalton 1,2,4-oxadiazole, promotes ribosomal readthrough of premature stop codons in mRNA and offers therapeutic potential for multiple genetic diseases. The authors conducted 2 phase I studies of PTC124 in 62 healthy adult volunteers. The initial, single-dose study evaluated doses of 3 to 200 mg/kg and assessed fed-fasting status on pharmacokinetics following a dose of 50 mg/kg. The subsequent multiple-dose study evaluated doses from 10 to 50 mg/kg/dose twice per day (bid) for up to 14 days. PTC124 administered orally as a liquid suspension was palatable and well tolerated through single doses of 100 mg/kg. At 150 and 200 mg/kg, PTC124 induced mild headache, dizziness, and gastrointestinal events. With repeated doses through 50 mg/kg/dose bid, reversible transaminase elevations Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  18. Development and testing of single-shell tank waste retrieval technologies: Milestone M-45-01 summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, E.J.

    1994-08-01

    This report summarizes the activities undertaken to develop single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval technology and complete scale-model testing. Completion of these activities fulfills the commitment of Milestone M-45-01 of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (the Tri-Party Agreement). Initial activities included engineering studies that compiled and evaluated data on all known retrieval technologies. Based on selection criteria incorporating regulatory, safety, and operational issues, several technologies were selected for further evaluation and testing. The testing ranged from small-scale, bench-top evaluations of individual technologies to full-scale integrated tests of multiple subsystems operating concurrently as a system using simulated wastes. The current baseline retrieval method for SSTs is hydraulic sluicing. This method has been used successfully in the past to recover waste from SSTs. Variations of this hydraulic or ''past practice'' sluicing may be used to retrieve the waste from the majority of the SSTs. To minimize the potential for releases to the soil, arm-based retrieval systems may be used to recover waste from tanks that are known or suspected to have leaked. Both hydraulic sluicing and arm-based retrieval will be demonstrated in the first SST. Hydraulic sluicing is expected to retrieve most of the waste, and arm-based retrieval will retrieve wastes that remain after sluicing. Subsequent tanks will be retrieved by either hydraulic sluicing or arm-based methods, but not both. The method will be determined by waste characterization, tank integrity (leak status), and presence of in-tank hardware. Currently, it is assumed that approximately 75% of all SSTs will be retrieved by hydraulic sluicing and the remaining tanks by arm-based methods

  19. Fractional Models Simulating Non-Fickian Behavior in Four-Stage Single-Well Push-Pull Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kewei; Zhan, Hongbin; Yang, Qiang

    2017-11-01

    Four-stage single-well push-pull (SWPP) tracer tests, including injection, chasing, resting, and pumping, were conducted in a fractured aquifer at Newark basin. An anomalous transport phenomenon observed in the SWPP tests is the linear decline of breakthrough curves (BTCs) at late time with slope of -1.8 in log-log plots. A time-dependent fractional model is developed to interpret the anomalous transport behavior. This model considers a time-dependent power law memory function and a time-dependent fractional advection-dispersion operator. The fractional advection-dispersion equations (fADE) are solved in a radial coordinate system using the implicit Euler method. A semi-analytical solution of the first-order rate-limited mobile-immobile model (FORMIM) is derived for comparison. It is found that both the nonlocal transport in time and space can produce the long-tailed BTC. A smaller time-fractional or space-fractional index leads to a lower peak concentration and a larger late-time slope. The mass distribution of the fractional-in-space (FS) model exhibits power law decline at the leading plume edge. Early breakthrough during pumping is not observed because the mobile mass at the start of pumping is nonzero and more concentrated near the wellbore. The capacity ratio is an important factor that affects the peak concentration. A larger capacity ratio leads to greater peak concentration. A smaller time-fractional index in the injection, chasing, or resting stage will move the BTC downward and the slope of the late time BTC is determined by the space-fractional index over all stages and the time-fractional index in the pumping stage. The capability of the existing models to recover the BTC of the SWPP test is discussed and some guidelines for how to choose the appropriate model to interpret the SWPP test data are proposed.

  20. Test Standard Revision Update: JESD57, "Procedures for the Measurement of Single-Event Effects in Semiconductor Devices from Heavy-Ion Irradiation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The JEDEC JESD57 test standard, Procedures for the Measurement of Single-Event Effects in Semiconductor Devices from Heavy-Ion Irradiation, is undergoing its first revision since 1996. In this talk, we place this test standard into context with other relevant radiation test standards to show its importance for single-event effect radiation testing for space applications. We show the range of industry, government, and end-user party involvement in the revision. Finally, we highlight some of the key changes being made and discuss the trade-space in which setting standards must be made to be both useful and broadly adopted.

  1. [Impact of the ExSel(®) test administration on the excessive salt consumption in hypertensive patients followed in general practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, F; Lim, H; Girerd, X

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the impact of the Exsel(®) test administration on salt intake in hypertensive subjects followed in general practice. In a group practice of general practitioners in the Île-de-France, the ExSel(®) test http://www.comitehta.org/testez-vous/consommez-vous-du-sel-en-exces-test-exsel/ was administered to 329 outpatients. The questionnaire was filled in the waiting room and then commented by the doctor. In patients treated for hypertension, 24hours urinary Na was prescribed after the consultation. Excessive salt consumption (ESC) was defined as a urinary Na≥200mmol/day. The population included subjects aged on average 57 years with 43 % of hypertensive patients. According Exsel(®), an ESC was suspected in 36 % of patients and was more common in treated hypertensive patients (44 %; [36-52]) in hypertensive men (57 %; [46-68]) than among non-hypertensive (31 %; [24-38]) and non hypertensive women (18 % [11-25]). Urinary Na has been finally performed by 63 % of subjects and 24hours excretion was 157±56mmol in men and 123±39mmol in women. After this 24hours urinary sodium evaluation, subsequent to ExSel(®) test, ESC frequency was lower among men (19 %) and very low among women (5 %). To estimate the ESC, the ExSel(®) test is easily performed in general practice while 24hours urinary sodium is more difficult to obtain. Achieving an ExSel(®) test was accompanied by a decrease in the frequency of excessive salt consumers with a greater effect in women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Separation of input function for rapid measurement of quantitative CMRO{sub 2} and CBF in a single PET scan with a dual tracer administration method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudomi, Nobuyuki; Watabe, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Takuya; Iida, Hidehiro [Department of Investigative Radiology, Advanced Medical-Engineering Center, National Cardiovascular Center-Research Institute, 5-7-1, Fujishirodai, Suita, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan)

    2007-04-07

    Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) images can be quantified using positron emission tomography (PET) by administrating {sup 15}O-labelled water (H{sup 15}{sub 2}O) and oxygen ({sup 15}O{sub 2}). Conventionally, those images are measured with separate scans for three tracers C{sup 15}O for CBV, H{sup 15}{sub 2}O for CBF and {sup 15}O{sub 2} for CMRO{sub 2}, and there are additional waiting times between the scans in order to minimize the influence of the radioactivity from the previous tracers, which results in a relatively long study period. We have proposed a dual tracer autoradiographic (DARG) approach (Kudomi et al 2005), which enabled us to measure CBF, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} rapidly by sequentially administrating H{sup 15}{sub 2}O and {sup 15}O{sub 2} within a short time. Because quantitative CBF and CMRO{sub 2} values are sensitive to arterial input function, it is necessary to obtain accurate input function and a drawback of this approach is to require separation of the measured arterial blood time-activity curve (TAC) into pure water and oxygen input functions under the existence of residual radioactivity from the first injected tracer. For this separation, frequent manual sampling was required. The present paper describes two calculation methods: namely a linear and a model-based method, to separate the measured arterial TAC into its water and oxygen components. In order to validate these methods, we first generated a blood TAC for the DARG approach by combining the water and oxygen input functions obtained in a series of PET studies on normal human subjects. The combined data were then separated into water and oxygen components by the present methods. CBF and CMRO{sub 2} were calculated using those separated input functions and tissue TAC. The quantitative accuracy in the CBF and CMRO{sub 2} values by the DARG approach did not exceed the acceptable range, i.e., errors in those

  3. A precise evaluation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in two plasma samples following a single administration of 57Co-B12 vitamin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, E.E.; Rockmann, R.L.; Barreto, T.M.; Eston, T.E.; Papaleo Netto, M.; Carvalho, N.

    1974-01-01

    Through a logarithmic regression performed with the contings of 4 plasma samples withdrawn at 20,40,60 and 80 minutes after a venous injection of vitamin B 12 - 57 Co, the glomerular filtration-rate(GFR) in 11 patients, performing simultaneously the same study with EDTA- 51 Cr in 3 of them, is evaluated. The values obtained through the regression straight line are compared with those given by only 2 points, in the 6 possible combinations: 20 and 40 minutes, 20 and 60 minutes, 20 and 80 minutes, 40 and 60 minutes, 40 and 80 minutes, 60 and 80 minutes. The pair of points obtained at 20 and 80 minutes determined the straight line most similar to the logarithmic regression and as a simplification of the method, the withdraw of only 2 plasma samples, at and 80 minutes after a single injection of vitamin B 12 -57 Co is proposed [pt

  4. Radioprotective effects in mice by a single dose of subcutaneous administration of cobaltous chloride post γ-rays irradiation with a sublethal dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumo, Yoshiro; Ogata, Hiromitsu

    1993-01-01

    Radioprotective effects were investigated in mice which received subcutaneously a single dose of each inorganic metal: Co, Cu, Rb, Sr, Mo and W 24 hours post irradiation of 60 Co γ-rays with a sublethal dose. The effects were observed in mice injected with Co at an optimum dosage of 20 mg/kg·body weight. Then to elucidate mechanisms of the effects, mice were injected with Co containing the radioactive tracer ( 60 Co) following the radiation exposure, measured elimination of the radioactivity for 7 days, then sacrificed and divided to some tissues and organs. The radioactivity in whole body during this period resulted in a markedly higher retention than that for mice injected with [ 60 Co] alone, as well as liver in the organs. These higher retentions appeared to be related to the radioprotective effects. (author)

  5. Single step modified ink staining for Tzanck test: quick detection of herpetic giant cells in Tzanck smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Hitoshi; Akeda, Tomoko; Yamanaka, Kei-Ichi; Isoda, Kenichi; Gabazza, Esteban C

    2012-02-01

    Tzanck test has been recently re-evaluated as a method for the diagnosis of herpes virus infection. Giemsa staining for the Tzanck test is time-consuming and laborious. There is a need to develop simple and quick staining methods for bedside diagnosis of this disease. We report a single step and quick method for staining herpes giant cells in Tzanck smears using routinely available inks and physiological saline. A keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) was cultured on a slide glass and stained with various commercially available blue, blue-black and black inks serially diluted with physiological saline. Clinical smear samples from herpes lesions were also stained with these solutions without specific pretreatment. The nuclei of HaCaT were clearly stained showing high contrast with the cytoplasm using 5% Parker-Quink blue-black ink saline solution. Concentration of ink solution higher or lower than 5% resulted in less contrast. Blue or black inks or other manufacturers' inks can also be used, but staining of the cultured keratinocytes was less clear. Smear of clinical samples from herpes lesions were also stained with 5% ink solution. The nuclei of the multinucleated giant cells were clearly stained, and the sample could be immediately used for microscopic examination. One step staining of Tzanck smear using this diluted ink solution is an inexpensive and a convenient bedside diagnostic tool for the dermatologist. © 2011 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  6. Accurate single nucleotide variant detection in viral populations by combining probabilistic clustering with a statistical test of strand bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Deep sequencing is a powerful tool for assessing viral genetic diversity. Such experiments harness the high coverage afforded by next generation sequencing protocols by treating sequencing reads as a population sample. Distinguishing true single nucleotide variants (SNVs) from sequencing errors remains challenging, however. Current protocols are characterised by high false positive rates, with results requiring time consuming manual checking. Results By statistical modelling, we show that if multiple variant sites are considered at once, SNVs can be called reliably from high coverage viral deep sequencing data at frequencies lower than the error rate of the sequencing technology, and that SNV calling accuracy increases as true sequence diversity within a read length increases. We demonstrate these findings on two control data sets, showing that SNV detection is more reliable on a high diversity human immunodeficiency virus sample as compared to a moderate diversity sample of hepatitis C virus. Finally, we show that in situations where probabilistic clustering retains false positive SNVs (for instance due to insufficient sample diversity or systematic errors), applying a strand bias test based on a beta-binomial model of forward read distribution can improve precision, with negligible cost to true positive recall. Conclusions By combining probabilistic clustering (implemented in the program ShoRAH) with a statistical test of strand bias, SNVs may be called from deeply sequenced viral populations with high accuracy. PMID:23879730

  7. Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of SMT C1100, a 2-Arylbenzoxazole Utrophin Modulator, following Single- and Multiple-Dose Administration to Pediatric Patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Ricotti

    Full Text Available SMT C1100 is a utrophin modulator being evaluated as a treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. This study, the first in pediatric DMD patients, reports the safety, tolerability and PK parameters of single and multiple doses of SMT C1100, as well as analyze potential biomarkers of muscle damage.This multicenter, Phase 1 study enrolled 12 patients, divided equally into three groups (A-C. Group A were given 50 mg/kg on Days 1 and 11, and 50 mg/kg bid on Days 2 to 10. Group B and C received 100 mg/kg on Days 1 and 11; Group B and Group C were given 100 mg/kg bid and 100 mg/kg tid, respectively, on Days 2 to 10. A safety review was performed on all patients following the single dose and there was at least 2 weeks between each dose escalation, for safety and PK review. Adverse events (AEs were monitored throughout the study.Most patients experienced mild AEs and there were no serious AEs. Two patients required analgesia for pain (headache, ear pain and toothache. One patient experienced moderate psychiatric AEs (abnormal behaviour and mood swings. Plasma concentrations of SMT C1100 at Days 1 and 11 indicated a high degree of patient variability regardless of dose. Unexpectedly the SMT C1100 levels were significantly lower than similar doses administered to healthy volunteers in an earlier clinical study. In general, individual baseline changes of creatine phosphokinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase levels fell with SMT C1100 dosing.SMT C1100 was well tolerated in pediatric DMD patients.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02383511.

  8. Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of SMT C1100, a 2-Arylbenzoxazole Utrophin Modulator, following Single- and Multiple-Dose Administration to Pediatric Patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricotti, Valeria; Spinty, Stefan; Roper, Helen; Hughes, Imelda; Tejura, Bina; Robinson, Neil; Layton, Gary; Davies, Kay; Muntoni, Francesco; Tinsley, Jonathon

    2016-01-01

    SMT C1100 is a utrophin modulator being evaluated as a treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). This study, the first in pediatric DMD patients, reports the safety, tolerability and PK parameters of single and multiple doses of SMT C1100, as well as analyze potential biomarkers of muscle damage. This multicenter, Phase 1 study enrolled 12 patients, divided equally into three groups (A-C). Group A were given 50 mg/kg on Days 1 and 11, and 50 mg/kg bid on Days 2 to 10. Group B and C received 100 mg/kg on Days 1 and 11; Group B and Group C were given 100 mg/kg bid and 100 mg/kg tid, respectively, on Days 2 to 10. A safety review was performed on all patients following the single dose and there was at least 2 weeks between each dose escalation, for safety and PK review. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored throughout the study. Most patients experienced mild AEs and there were no serious AEs. Two patients required analgesia for pain (headache, ear pain and toothache). One patient experienced moderate psychiatric AEs (abnormal behaviour and mood swings). Plasma concentrations of SMT C1100 at Days 1 and 11 indicated a high degree of patient variability regardless of dose. Unexpectedly the SMT C1100 levels were significantly lower than similar doses administered to healthy volunteers in an earlier clinical study. In general, individual baseline changes of creatine phosphokinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase levels fell with SMT C1100 dosing. SMT C1100 was well tolerated in pediatric DMD patients. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02383511.

  9. Comparative pharmacokinetics of tylosin or florfenicol after a single intramuscular administration at two different doses of tylosin-florfenicol combination in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Hee; Gebru, Elias; Chang, Zhi-Qiang; Choi, Jae-Young; Hwang, Mi-Hyun; Kang, Eun-Hee; Lim, Jong-Hwan; Yun, Hyo-In; Park, Seung-Chun

    2008-01-01

    Clinical pharmacokinetic profiles were investigated following intramuscular (i.m.) administration to pigs with a commercial tylosin-florfenicol combination product at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg tylosin and 5 mg/kg florfenicol or 10 mg/kg tylosin and 20 mg/kg florfenicol. The quantitation limit (QL) of florfenicol was 0.1 microg/ml, the inter-day and intra-day precision (CV%) were both beow 10%. The quantitation limit (QL) of tylosin was 0.05 microg/mL. The pharmacokinetic characteristics after i.m. doses were fitted by a one compartment open model. A fourfold decrease in the normal dose of each drug (20 mg/kg to 5 mg/kg for florfenicol, and 10 mg/kg to 2.5 mg/kg for tylosin) resulted in a corresponding two fold decrease in each drug of the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and the area under curve (AUC) values.

  10. Administrative Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, the paper critically addresses administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives, the relation between knowledge and governing...... of administrative technology, tracing how the humanistic values of education embed and are embedded within ‘the professional nursery teacher' as an object and subject of administrative practice. Rather than undermining the humanistic potential of education, it is argued that the technology of accounting...

  11. Webmin administrator's cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Karzynski, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Written in a cookbook format with practical recipes this book helps you to perform various administrative tasks using Webmin and enables you to perform common jobs more efficiently.This book is perfect for System administrators who want to learn more advanced concepts of Webmin and how it can help to set up a server for development, testing or deployment.

  12. An open-label phase 1 dose-escalation clinical trial of a single intravenous administration of gemcitabine in dogs with advanced solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconato, L; Finotello, R; Bonfanti, U; Dacasto, M; Beatrice, L; Pizzoni, S; Leone, V F; Balestra, G; Furlanello, T; Rohrer Bley, C; Aresu, L

    2015-01-01

    A broad range of gemcitabine dosages have been used in dogs. To determine maximally tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), and preliminary antitumor activity of intravenous administration of gemcitabine in dogs with advanced solid tumors. Twenty-two client-owned dogs. Dogs with advanced cancer were prospectively enrolled in an open-label Phase 1 study of gemcitabine. Gemcitabine was administered as a 30-minute intravenous bolus starting at 800 mg/m(2), using escalation of 50 mg/m(2) increments with 3 dogs per dose level. MTD was established based on the number of dogs experiencing DLT assessed after 1 cycle. Treatment continued until disease progression or unacceptable toxicosis. Additional dogs were enrolled at MTD to better characterize tolerability, and to assess the extent and duration of gemcitabine excretion. Twenty-two dogs were treated at 4 dose levels, ranging from 800 to 950 mg/m(2). Neutropenia was identified as DLT. MTD was 900 mg/m(2). DLT consisting of grade 4 febrile neutropenia was observed at 950 mg/m(2) in 2 dogs. There were no nonhematologic DLTs. Twenty dogs received multiple doses, and none had evidence of severe toxicosis from any of their subsequent treatments. At 900 mg/m(2), 2 complete and 5 partial responses were observed in dogs with measurable tumors. The amount of gemcitabine excreted in urine decreased over time, and was undetectable after the first 24 hours. The recommended dose of gemcitabine for future Phase 2 studies is weekly 900 mg/m(2). In chemotherapy-naïve dogs with advanced solid tumor this dose level merits further evaluation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  13. Testing pollen of single and stacked insect-resistant Bt-maize on in vitro reared honey bee larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmen P Hendriksma

    Full Text Available The ecologically and economic important honey bee (Apis mellifera is a key non-target arthropod species in environmental risk assessment (ERA of genetically modified (GM crops. Honey bee larvae are directly exposed to transgenic products by the consumption of GM pollen. But most ERA studies only consider responses of adult bees, although Bt-proteins primarily affect the larval phases of target organisms. We adopted an in vitro larvae rearing system, to assess lethal and sublethal effects of Bt-pollen consumption in a standardized eco-toxicological bioassay. The effects of pollen from two Bt-maize cultivars, one expressing a single and the other a total of three Bt-proteins, on the survival and prepupae weight of honey bee larvae were analyzed. The control treatments included pollen from three non-transgenic maize varieties and of Heliconia rostrata. Three days old larvae were fed the realistic exposure dose of 2 mg pollen within the semi-artificial diet. The larvae were monitored over 120 h, until the prepupal stage, where larvae terminate feeding and growing. Neither single nor stacked Bt-maize pollen showed an adverse effect on larval survival and the prepupal weight. In contrast, feeding of H. rostrata pollen caused significant toxic effects. The results of this study indicate that pollen of the tested Bt-varieties does not harm the development of in vitro reared A. mellifera larvae. To sustain the ecosystem service of pollination, Bt-impact on A. mellifera should always be a crucial part of regulatory biosafety assessments. We suggest that our approach of feeding GM pollen on in vitro reared honey bee larvae is well suited of becoming a standard bioassay in regulatory risk assessments schemes of GM crops.

  14. Testing pollen of single and stacked insect-resistant Bt-maize on in vitro reared honey bee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksma, Harmen P; Härtel, Stephan; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    The ecologically and economic important honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a key non-target arthropod species in environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) crops. Honey bee larvae are directly exposed to transgenic products by the consumption of GM pollen. But most ERA studies only consider responses of adult bees, although Bt-proteins primarily affect the larval phases of target organisms. We adopted an in vitro larvae rearing system, to assess lethal and sublethal effects of Bt-pollen consumption in a standardized eco-toxicological bioassay. The effects of pollen from two Bt-maize cultivars, one expressing a single and the other a total of three Bt-proteins, on the survival and prepupae weight of honey bee larvae were analyzed. The control treatments included pollen from three non-transgenic maize varieties and of Heliconia rostrata. Three days old larvae were fed the realistic exposure dose of 2 mg pollen within the semi-artificial diet. The larvae were monitored over 120 h, until the prepupal stage, where larvae terminate feeding and growing. Neither single nor stacked Bt-maize pollen showed an adverse effect on larval survival and the prepupal weight. In contrast, feeding of H. rostrata pollen caused significant toxic effects. The results of this study indicate that pollen of the tested Bt-varieties does not harm the development of in vitro reared A. mellifera larvae. To sustain the ecosystem service of pollination, Bt-impact on A. mellifera should always be a crucial part of regulatory biosafety assessments. We suggest that our approach of feeding GM pollen on in vitro reared honey bee larvae is well suited of becoming a standard bioassay in regulatory risk assessments schemes of GM crops.

  15. Comparison of postoperative analgesic efficacy of intraoperative single-dose intravenous administration of dexketoprofen trometamol and diclofenac sodium in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anıl, Ali; Kaya, Fatma Nur; Yavaşcaoğlu, Belgin; Mercanoğlu Efe, Esra; Türker, Gürkan; Demirci, Abdurrahman

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the effects of intravenous single-dose dexketoprofen trometamol and diclofenac sodium 30 minutes before the end of the surgery on relief of postoperative pain in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A randomized fashion. Sixty (American Society of Anesthesiologist class I-II) patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were divided into 2 groups Patients in group DT received 50 mg dexketoprofen trometamol, whereas patients in group DS received 75 mg diclofenac sodium, intravenously 30 minutes before the end of surgery. Postoperative pain intensity, morphine consumption with patient-controlled analgesia, time to first analgesic requirement, complications, rescue analgesic (intravenous tenoxicam 20 mg) requirement, and duration of hospital stay were recorded. Postoperative pain visual analog scale scores were similar in the follow-up periods (P > .05). Patient-controlled analgesia morphine consumption was significantly less in group DT compared with group DS in all postoperative follow-up periods (2 and 4 hours: P dexketoprofen trometamol 30 minutes before the end of surgery provided effective analgesia with reduced consumption of opioids and requirement for rescue analgesic compared with diclofenac sodium in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. For this reason, we believe that, as a part of multimodal analgesia, dexketoprofen trometamol provides more effective analgesia than diclofenac sodium in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The dataset from administration of single or combined immunomodulation agents to modulate anti-FVIII antibody responses in FVIII plasmid or protein primed hemophilia A mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Lien Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemophilia A mice with pre-existing inhibitory antibodies against factor VIII (FVIII were treated with single agents, AMD3100 and GCS-F, respectively. Inhibitor titers in treated mice and control HemA inhibitors mice were followed over time. Total B cells and plasma cells (PCs were characterized by flow cytometry. HemA inhibitor mice were then treated with a combination regimen of IL-2/IL-2mAb complexes plus rapamycin and AMD3100. Finally, HemA inhibitor mice were treated with a new combination therapy using include IL-2/IL-2mAb complexes + Anti-CD20+AMD3100+G-CSF. The timeline of combination therapy was illustrated. Inhibitor titers following treatment in FVIII plasmid or protein induced inhibitor mice were evaluated overtime. A representative figure and gating strategies to characterize the subsets of Treg cells and B cells are presented. Please see http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellimm.2016.01.005 [1] for interpretation and discussion of these data and results.

  17. Investigation of the bioequivalence of montelukast chewable tablets after a single oral administration using a validated LC-MS/MS method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid AN

    2015-09-01

    geometric means were 101.2%, 101.6%, and 98.11% for area under the curve (AUC0→last, AUC0→inf, and Cmax, respectively. The 90% confidence intervals were within the predefined limits of 80.00%–125.00% as specified by the US Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency for BE studies.Conclusion: Broncast® pediatric chewable tablets (5 mg/tablet are bioequivalent to Singulair® pediatric chewable tablets (5 mg/tablet, with a similar safety profile. This suggests that these two formulations can be considered interchangeable in clinical practice. Keywords: montelukast, bioequivalence, chewable, safety, efficacy

  18. MASH test 3-11 of the TxDOT single slope bridge rail (type SSTR) on pan-formed bridge deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this crash test was to determine whether the TxDOT Single Slope Traffic Rail (Type : SSTR) would perform acceptably on a pan-formed deck when tested according to the guidelines set forth in : Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware (MAS...

  19. Interpretation of Flow Logs from Nevada Test Site Boreholes to Estimate Hydraulic Conductivity Using Numerical Simulations Constrained by Single-Well Aquifer Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C. Amanda; Halford, Keith J.; Laczniak, Randell J.

    2010-01-01

    Hydraulic conductivities of volcanic and carbonate lithologic units at the Nevada Test Site were estimated from flow logs and aquifer-test data. Borehole flow and drawdown were integrated and interpreted using a radial, axisymmetric flow model, AnalyzeHOLE. This integrated approach is used because complex well completions and heterogeneous aquifers and confining units produce vertical flow in the annular space and aquifers adjacent to the wellbore. AnalyzeHOLE simulates vertical flow, in addition to horizontal flow, which accounts for converging flow toward screen ends and diverging flow toward transmissive intervals. Simulated aquifers and confining units uniformly are subdivided by depth into intervals in which the hydraulic conductivity is estimated with the Parameter ESTimation (PEST) software. Between 50 and 150 hydraulic-conductivity parameters were estimated by minimizing weighted differences between simulated and measured flow and drawdown. Transmissivity estimates from single-well or multiple-well aquifer tests were used to constrain estimates of hydraulic conductivity. The distribution of hydraulic conductivity within each lithology had a minimum variance because estimates were constrained with Tikhonov regularization. AnalyzeHOLE simulated hydraulic-conductivity estimates for lithologic units across screened and cased intervals are as much as 100 times less than those estimated using proportional flow-log analyses applied across screened intervals only. Smaller estimates of hydraulic conductivity for individual lithologic units are simulated because sections of the unit behind cased intervals of the wellbore are not assumed to be impermeable, and therefore, can contribute flow to the wellbore. Simulated hydraulic-conductivity estimates vary by more than three orders of magnitude across a lithologic unit, indicating a high degree of heterogeneity in volcanic and carbonate-rock units. The higher water transmitting potential of carbonate-rock units relative

  20. Regional long-term production modeling from a single well test, Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B.J.; Kurihara, M.; White, M.D.; Moridis, G.J.; Wilson, S.J.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Gaddipati, M.; Masuda, Y.; Collett, T.S.; Hunter, R.B.; Narita, H.; Rose, K.; Boswell, R.

    2011-01-01

    salinity (5 ppt), and formation temperature (3.3-3.9 ??C). This paper presents the approach and results of extrapolating regional forward production modeling from history-matching efforts on the results from a single well test. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Regional long-term production modeling from a single well test, Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Brian J.; Kurihara, Masanori; White, Mark D.; Moridis, George J.; Wilson, Scott J.; Pooladi-Darvish, Mehran; Gaddipati, Manohar; Masuda, Yoshihiro; Collett, Timothy S.; Hunter, Robert B.; Narita, Hideo; Rose, Kelly; Boswell, Ray

    2011-02-01

    water salinity (5 ppt), and formation temperature (3.3–3.9 °C). Finally, this paper presents the approach and results of extrapolating regional forward production modeling from history-matching efforts on the results from a single well test.

  2. Interpretation of Flow Logs from Nevada Test Site Boreholes to Estimate Hydraulic conductivity Using Numerical Simulations Constrained by Single-Well Aquifer Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, C. Amanda; Halford, Keith J.; Laczniak, Randell J.

    2010-02-12

    Hydraulic conductivities of volcanic and carbonate lithologic units at the Nevada Test Site were estimated from flow logs and aquifer-test data. Borehole flow and drawdown were integrated and interpreted using a radial, axisymmetric flow model, AnalyzeHOLE. This integrated approach is used because complex well completions and heterogeneous aquifers and confining units produce vertical flow in the annular space and aquifers adjacent to the wellbore. AnalyzeHOLE simulates vertical flow, in addition to horizontal flow, which accounts for converging flow toward screen ends and diverging flow toward transmissive intervals. Simulated aquifers and confining units uniformly are subdivided by depth into intervals in which the hydraulic conductivity is estimated with the Parameter ESTimation (PEST) software. Between 50 and 150 hydraulic-conductivity parameters were estimated by minimizing weighted differences between simulated and measured flow and drawdown. Transmissivity estimates from single-well or multiple-well aquifer tests were used to constrain estimates of hydraulic conductivity. The distribution of hydraulic conductivity within each lithology had a minimum variance because estimates were constrained with Tikhonov regularization. AnalyzeHOLE simulated hydraulic-conductivity estimates for lithologic units across screened and cased intervals are as much as 100 times less than those estimated using proportional flow-log analyses applied across screened intervals only. Smaller estimates of hydraulic conductivity for individual lithologic units are simulated because sections of the unit behind cased intervals of the wellbore are not assumed to be impermeable, and therefore, can contribute flow to the wellbore. Simulated hydraulic-conductivity estimates vary by more than three orders of magnitude across a lithologic unit, indicating a high degree of heterogeneity in volcanic and carbonate-rock units. The higher water transmitting potential of carbonate-rock units relative

  3. Effects of fluoxetine on the amygdala and the hippocampus after administration of a single prolonged stress to male Wistar rates: In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fang; Xiao, Bing; Wen, Lili; Shi, Yuxiu

    2015-05-30

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety- and memory-based disorder. The hippocampus and amygdala are key areas in mood regulation. Fluoxetine was found to improve the anxiety-related symptoms of PTSD patients. However, little work has directly examined the effects of fluoxetine on the hippocampus and the amygdala. In the present study, male Wistar rats received fluoxetine or vehicle after exposure to a single prolonged stress (SPS), an animal model of PTSD. In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) was performed -1, 1, 4, 7 and 14 days after SPS to examine the effects of fluoxetine on neurometabolite changes in amygdala, hippocampus and thalamus. SPS increased the N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) and choline moieties (Cho)/Cr ratios in the bilateral amygdala on day 4, decreased the NAA/Cr ratio in the left hippocampus on day 1, and increased both ratios in the right hippocampus on day 14. But no significant change was found in the thalamus. Fluoxetine treatment corrected the SPS increases in the NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr levels in the amygdala on day 4 and in the hippocampus on day 14, but it failed to normalise SPS-associated decreases in NAA/Cr levels in the left hippocampus on day 1. These results suggested that metabolic abnormalities in the amygdala and the hippocampus were involved in SPS, and different effects of fluoxetine in correcting SPS-induced neurometabolite changes among the three areas. These findings have implications for fluoxetine treatment in PTSD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Administration of Ramelteon, a Melatonin Receptor Agonist, on the Duration of Stay in the ICU: A Single-Center Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikimi, Mitsuaki; Numaguchi, Atsushi; Takahashi, Kunihiko; Miyagawa, Yasuhiro; Matsui, Kota; Higashi, Michiko; Makishi, Go; Matsui, Shigeyuki; Matsuda, Naoyuki

    2018-03-27

    Occurrence of delirium in the ICU is associated with a longer stay in the ICU. To examine whether the use of ramelteon, a melatonin agonist, can prevent delirium and shorten the duration of ICU stay of critically ill patients. A single-center, triple-blinded, randomized placebo-controlled trial. ICU of an academic hospital. Eligible patients were ICU patients who could take medicines orally or through a nasogastric tube during the first 48 hours of admission. The intervention group received ramelteon (8 mg/d), and the control group received placebo (1 g/d of lactose powder) at 20:00 hours every day until discharge from the ICU. A total of 88 subjects were randomized to the ramelteon group (45 subjects) or the placebo group (43 subjects). As the primary endpoint, there was a trend toward decrease in the duration of ICU stay (4.56 d) in the ramelteon group compared with the placebo group (5.86 d) (p = 0.082 and p = 0.028 before and after adjustments). As the secondary endpoints, statistically significant decreases in the occurrence rate (24.4% vs 46.5%; p = 0.044) and duration (0.78 vs 1.40 d; p = 0.048) of delirium were observed in the ramelteon group. The nonintubated patients of the ramelteon group showed statistically significantly fewer awakenings per night and a higher proportion of nights without awakenings. Ramelteon tended to decrease the duration of ICU stay as well as decreased the occurrence rate and duration of delirium statistically significantly.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  5. Clinical experience with a single-nucleotide polymorphism-based non-invasive prenatal test for five clinically significant microdeletions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, K; Iyengar, S; Kalyan, A; Lan, C; Simon, A L; Stosic, M; Kobara, K; Ravi, H; Truong, T; Ryan, A; Demko, Z P; Benn, P

    2018-02-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) can currently predict a subset of submicroscopic abnormalities associated with severe clinical manifestations. We retrospectively analyzed the performance of SNP-based NIPT in 80 449 referrals for 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and 42 326 referrals for 1p36, cri-du-chat, Prader-Willi, and Angelman microdeletion syndromes over a 1-year period, and compared the original screening protocol with a revision that reflexively sequenced high-risk calls at a higher depth of read. The prevalence of these microdeletion syndromes was also estimated in the referral population. The positive predictive value of the original test was 15.7% for 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, and 5.2% for the other 4 disorders combined. With the revised protocol, these values increased to 44.2% for 22q11.2 and 31.7% for the others. The 0.33% false-positive rate (FPR) for 22q11.2 deletion syndrome decreased to 0.07% with the revised protocol. Similarly, the FPR for the other 4 disorders combined decreased from 0.56% to 0.07%. Minimal prevalences were estimated to be 1 in 1255 for 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and 1 in 1464 for 1p36, cri-du-chat, and Angelman syndromes combined. Our results show that these microdeletions are relatively common in the referral population, and that the performance of SNP-based NIPT is improved with high-depth resequencing. © 2017 The Authors. Clinical Genetics published by John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The predictive validity of a single leg bridge test for hamstring injuries in Australian Rules Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckleton, Grant; Cook, Jill; Pizzari, Tania

    2014-04-01

    Hamstring muscle strain injuries (HMSI) are the greatest injury problem in kicking sports such as Australian Rules Football. Reduced hamstring muscle strength is commonly perceived to be a risk factor for hamstring injury; however, evidence is inconclusive. Testing hamstring strength with the hip and knee at functional angles and assessing endurance parameters may be more relevant for examining the risk of hamstring injury. The primary aim of this prospective study was to examine if reduced hamstring muscle strength assessed with the single leg hamstring bridge (SLHB) was a risk factor for hamstring injury. Hamstring muscle strength of 482 amateur and semielite players from 16 football clubs, mean age 20.7 (range 16-34 years), was tested during the 2011 preseason. Players were then monitored throughout the 2011 playing season for HMSI. A total of 28 hamstring injuries, 16 right and 12 left, were recorded. Players who sustained a right HMSI during the season had a significantly lower mean right SLHB score (p=0.029), were older (p=0.002) and were more likely to have sustained a past right hamstring injury (p=0.02) or right knee injury (p=0.035). For left-sided hamstring injury, the injured group was more likely to be left leg dominant (p=0.001), older athletes (p=0.002) and there was a trend towards a history of left hamstring injury (p=0.07). This study demonstrated a significant deficit in preseason SLHB scores on the right leg of players that subsequently sustained a right-sided hamstring injury. Age, previous knee injury and a history of hamstring injury were other risk factors supported in this study. Low hamstring strength appears to be a risk factor for hamstring injury; however, due to the confounding variables and low injury rate in this study, further studies are required.

  7. Evaluation of a Novel Single-administration Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Seasonally Varied Dietary Patterns among Women in Rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rebecca K; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Christian, Parul; Leclerq, Steven C; Khatry, Subarna K; Wu, Lee S F; Stewart, Christine P; West, Keith P

    2015-01-01

    Novel dietary assessment methods are needed to study chronic disease risk in agrarian cultures where food availability is highly seasonal. In 16,320 rural Nepalese women, we tested a novel food frequency questionnaire, administered once, to assess past 7-day intake and usual frequency of intake throughout the year for year-round foods and when in season for seasonal foods. Spearman rank correlations between usual and past 7-day intakes were 0.12-0.85 and weighted kappa statistics, representing chance-corrected agreement, were 0.10-0.80, with better agreement for frequently consumed foods. The questionnaire performed well, but may require refinement for settings of extremely low dietary diversity.

  8. No effect of acute, single dose oral administration of Momordica charantia Linn., on glycemia, energy expenditure and appetite: a pilot study in non-diabetic overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasbia, Gursevak S; Arnason, Jon Thor; Imbeault, Pascal

    2009-10-29

    Momordica charantia Linn. Cucurbitaceae (MC), has been used to treat glycemic impairment in humans for centuries. The objective of this study was to determine the acute effect of MC on postprandial glucose levels, energy expenditure/fuel mixture and appetite in overweight men. Five healthy overweight men were supplemented on three randomized conditions where (1) no MC (placebo), (2) 50 mg/kg body weight (MC50) or (3) 100 mg/kg body weight of freeze dried MC were administered orally prior to a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Plasma glucose and insulin levels were measured before and during the OGTT. Energy expenditure as well as carbohydrate and lipid oxidation rates were measured by indirect calorimetry. Visual analogue scales were used to rate appetite profile. Plasma glucose and insulin levels significantly increased during the OGTT (p diabetic overweight men.

  9. Long-term outcomes of {sup 131}Iodine mIBG therapy in metastatic gastrointestinal pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: single administration predicts non-responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulholland, Nicola; Chakravartty, Riddhika; Devlin, Lindsey; Kalogianni, Eleni; Corcoran, Ben; Vivian, Gillian [King' s College Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    {sup 131}Iodine (I131)-metaiodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) is a radionuclide-based treatment option for metastatic gastrointestinal-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP NET). This study aimed at identifying prognostic indicators of long-term outcome based on initial evaluation following a first mIBG treatment (7400 MBq) in a patient cohort with such tumours, with a secondary aim of evaluating progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) following mIBG therapy. Retrospective review of the hospital records was performed to identify a cohort of 38 adult patients who underwent {sup 131}Iodine-mIBG therapy over a 9-year period for metastatic GEP NETs and neuroendocrine tumours with an unknown primary. Treatment response was evaluated based on radiological criteria (RECIST1.1), biochemical markers [serum Chromogranin A (CgA)/urinary 5HIAA] and symptomatic response at clinical follow-up, all evaluated at 3-6 months from first mIBG treatment. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) from the first mIBG treatment were recorded. At 3-6 months following a single mIBG therapy, 75 %, 67 %, and 63 % of patients showed either a partial response (PR) or stable disease (SD) on radiological, biochemical, and symptomatic criteria, respectively. Complete response (CR) was not seen in any patient. OS from the date of diagnosis and from the first therapy was 8 years +/-1.1 (95 % CI 5.7 to 10.2 years) and 4 years+/-0.69 (95 % CI 2.6-5.3 years), respectively. Twenty-nine percent of patients were alive at 10 years. Significant survival advantage was seen in patients with SD/PR as compared to those who had progressive disease (PD) for each of these three criteria. Biochemical, radiological (RECIST 1.1) and symptomatic assessment of disease status at 3 to 6 months after first I131-mIBG therapy stratifies patients with a poor prognosis. This can be used to identify patients who may benefit from alternative strategies of treatment. (orig.)

  10. 3D DIC tests of mirrors for the single-mirror small-size telescope of CTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rataj, M.; Malesa, M.; Kujawińska, M.; Płatos, Ł.; Wawer, P.; Seweryn, K.; Malowany, K.

    2015-10-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation very high energy gamma-ray observatory. Three classes of telescopes, of large, medium and small sizes are designed and developed for the observatory. The single-mirror option for the small-size telescopes (SST-1M), of 4 m diameter, dedicated to the observations of the highest energy gamma-rays above several TeV, consists of 18 hexagonal mirror facets of 78 cm flat-to-flat. The goal of the work described in this paper is the investigation of a surface shape quality of the mirror facets of the SST-1M CTA telescope. The mirrors measured are made of composite materials formed using sheet moulding compound (SMC) technology. This solution is being developed as an alternative to glass mirrors, to minimize the production cost of hundreds of mirrors for the network of telescopes, while retaining the optical quality of the telescope. To evaluate the progress of design, production technology and the mirrors' functionality in operating conditions, the three-dimensional (3D) Digital Image Correlation (DIC) method was selected and implemented for testing selected mirrors. The method and measurement procedure are described. The novel measurement approach based on 3D DIC has been proven to be well suited to the investigation of the mirrors' behavior with temperature, producing the necessary accuracy.