WorldWideScience

Sample records for single terminal fade

  1. Advanced communications technology satellite high burst rate link evaluation terminal power control and rain fade software test plan, version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Richard C.

    1993-01-01

    The Power Control and Rain Fade Software was developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to support the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite High Burst Rate Link Evaluation Terminal (ACTS HBR-LET). The HBR-LET is an experimenters terminal to communicate with the ACTS for various experiments by government, university, and industry agencies. The Power Control and Rain Fade Software is one segment of the Control and Performance Monitor (C&PM) Software system of the HBR-LET. The Power Control and Rain Fade Software automatically controls the LET uplink power to compensate for signal fades. Besides power augmentation, the C&PM Software system is also responsible for instrument control during HBR-LET experiments, control of the Intermediate Frequency Switch Matrix on board the ACTS to yield a desired path through the spacecraft payload, and data display. The Power Control and Rain Fade Software User's Guide, Version 1.0 outlines the commands and procedures to install and operate the Power Control and Rain Fade Software. The Power Control and Rain Fade Software Maintenance Manual, Version 1.0 is a programmer's guide to the Power Control and Rain Fade Software. This manual details the current implementation of the software from a technical perspective. Included is an overview of the Power Control and Rain Fade Software, computer algorithms, format representations, and computer hardware configuration. The Power Control and Rain Fade Test Plan provides a step-by-step procedure to verify the operation of the software using a predetermined signal fade event. The Test Plan also provides a means to demonstrate the capability of the software.

  2. Atomically flat single terminated oxide substrate surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Abhijit; Yang, Chan-Ho; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Jeong, Yoon H.

    2017-05-01

    Scientific interest in atomically controlled layer-by-layer fabrication of transition metal oxide thin films and heterostructures has increased intensely in recent decades for basic physics reasons as well as for technological applications. This trend has to do, in part, with the coming post-Moore era, and functional oxide electronics could be regarded as a viable alternative for the current semiconductor electronics. Furthermore, the interface of transition metal oxides is exposing many new emergent phenomena and is increasingly becoming a playground for testing new ideas in condensed matter physics. To achieve high quality epitaxial thin films and heterostructures of transition metal oxides with atomically controlled interfaces, one critical requirement is the use of atomically flat single terminated oxide substrates since the atomic arrangements and the reaction chemistry of the topmost surface layer of substrates determine the growth and consequent properties of the overlying films. Achieving the atomically flat and chemically single terminated surface state of commercially available substrates, however, requires judicious efforts because the surface of as-received substrates is of chemically mixed nature and also often polar. In this review, we summarize the surface treatment procedures to accomplish atomically flat surfaces with single terminating layer for various metal oxide substrates. We particularly focus on the substrates with lattice constant ranging from 4.00 Å to 3.70 Å, as the lattice constant of most perovskite materials falls into this range. For materials outside the range, one can utilize the substrates to induce compressive or tensile strain on the films and explore new states not available in bulk. The substrates covered in this review, which have been chosen with commercial availability and, most importantly, experimental practicality as a criterion, are KTaO3, REScO3 (RE = Rare-earth elements), SrTiO3, La0.18Sr0.82Al0.59Ta0.41O3 (LSAT), Nd

  3. Compassion fade: affect and charity are greatest for a single child in need.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Västfjäll

    Full Text Available Charitable giving in 2013 exceeded $300 billion, but why do we respond to some life-saving causes while ignoring others? In our first two studies, we demonstrated that valuation of lives is associated with affective feelings (self-reported and psychophysiological and that a decline in compassion may begin with the second endangered life. In Study 3, this fading of compassion was reversed by describing multiple lives in a more unitary fashion. Study 4 extended our findings to loss-frame scenarios. Our capacity to feel sympathy for people in need appears limited, and this form of compassion fatigue can lead to apathy and inaction, consistent with what is seen repeatedly in response to many large-scale human and environmental catastrophes.

  4. Fading Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sio, Betsy Menson

    2009-01-01

    A sky fading from blue to white to red at the horizon, and water darkening from light to midnight blue. Strong diagonals slashing through the image, drawing a viewer's eyes deeper into the picture, and delicate trees poised to convey a sense of beauty. These are the fascinating strengths of the ukiyo-e woodblock prints of Japanese artist Ando…

  5. Emergency Medical Technicians Are Often Consulted on Termination of Resuscitation, and Will Terminate Resuscitation Based on Controversial Single Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind-Klausen, Troels; Glerup Lauridsen, Kasper; Bødtker, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    on abandoning CPR but this is sparsely investigated. Aim: To investigate if EMTs are involved in termination of CPR, their self-assessed competence and knowledge of guidelines on termination of CPR according to European Resuscitation Council guidelines 2015. In addition, to evaluate single factors...... competent in deciding when to abandon CPR. Several EMTs (40%) had experienced a physician terminating CPR earlier than the EMT felt was correct. The majority of EMTs (94%) did not know ERC guidelines on termination of CPR. EMTs would abandon CPR based on the following single factors: unwitnessed cardiac...... consulted on termination of CPR. They feel competent in deciding when to abandon CPR, but do not know the ERC guidelines on termination of CPR. Several EMTs would terminate CPR based on controversial single factors. Author Disclosures: T. Mygind-Klausen: None. K. G. Lauridsen: None. H. Bødker: None. B...

  6. Low SNR capacity for MIMO Rician and Rayleigh-product fading channels with single co-channel interferer and noise

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Caijun

    2010-09-01

    This paper studies the ergodic capacity of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems with a single co-channel interferer in the low signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) regime. Two MIMO models namely Rician and Rayleigh-product channels are investigated. Exact analytical expressions for the minimum energy per information bit, {Eb/N0min, and wideband slope, S0, are derived for both channels. Our results show that the minimum energy per information bit is the same for both channels while their wideband slopes differ significantly. Further, the impact of the numbers of transmit and receive antennas, the Rician K factor, the channel mean matrix and the interference-to-noise-ratio (INR) on the capacity, is addressed. Results indicate that interference degrades the capacity by increasing the required minimum energy per information bit and reducing the wideband slope. Simulation results validate our analytical results. © 2010 IEEE.

  7. STUDY OF SINGLE DOSE CARBOPROST IN TERMINATING PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhavani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Medical termination of pregnancy. It also called induced abortion. It is the medical way of getting rid of unwanted pregnancy. Efficacy of the methods in achieving complete abortion is needed. The aim of the study is to evaluate induction abortion interval when intracervical prostaglandin-E2 gel was followed by carboprost IM injections. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a prospective study for a period of 2 years. 50 cases were randomly selected from the patients attending the Gynaecology Outpatient Department seeking termination of pregnancy between 10-14 weeks of gestation. Patients are divided into 3 groups, Group - I: (25 intracervical application of 500 μg PGE2 gel, Group - II: Study group (25 500 μg PGE2 gel was instilled intracervically. After 12 hours, carboprost injections were given intramuscularly at 3 rd hourly intervals. RESULTS Results were analysed in both the groups according to age, parity, reason for seeking abortion, preinduction cervical status, cervical dilatation after 12 hours in group I and in group II induction abortion interval, incidence of incomplete abortion and incidence of side effects. CONCLUSION Carboprost intramuscular injections 3 rd hourly found to be an effective and safe method of terminating pregnancy with induction abortion interval 19.8 hours in primi and 19.3 hours in multi with a success rate of 100%.

  8. 78 FR 42009 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... Single- Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates in... assumptions--for paying plan benefits under terminating single-employer plans covered by title IV of the... assumptions are intended to reflect current conditions in the financial and annuity markets. Assumptions under...

  9. 77 FR 74353 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... Single- Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates in... interest assumptions--for paying plan benefits under terminating single-employer plans covered by title IV... interest assumptions are intended to reflect current conditions in the financial and annuity markets...

  10. 78 FR 11093 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Single- Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates in... assumptions--for paying plan benefits under terminating single-employer plans covered by title IV of the... assumptions are intended to reflect current conditions in the financial and annuity markets. Assumptions under...

  11. 78 FR 2881 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... Single- Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates in... interest assumptions--for paying plan benefits under terminating single-employer plans covered by title IV... interest assumptions are intended to reflect current conditions in the financial and annuity markets...

  12. 77 FR 2015 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... Single- Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates in... terminating single-employer plans covered by title IV of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974... the financial and annuity markets. Assumptions under the benefit payments regulation are updated...

  13. 78 FR 62426 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Single- Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates in... interest assumptions--for paying plan benefits under terminating single-employer plans covered by title IV... interest assumptions are intended to reflect current conditions in the financial and annuity markets...

  14. 78 FR 22192 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... Single- Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates in May... paying plan benefits under terminating single-employer plans covered by title IV of the Employee... reflect current conditions in the financial and annuity markets. Assumptions under the benefit payments...

  15. 78 FR 28490 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... Single- Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates in June... paying plan benefits under terminating single-employer plans covered by title IV of the Employee... reflect current conditions in the financial and annuity markets. Assumptions under the benefit payments...

  16. 77 FR 22215 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Single- Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates in May... interest assumptions--for paying plan benefits under terminating single-employer plans covered by title IV... interest assumptions are intended to reflect current conditions in the financial and annuity markets...

  17. 76 FR 27889 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Single- Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates in June...--for paying plan benefits under terminating single-employer plans covered by title IV of the Employee... reflect current conditions in the financial and annuity markets. Assumptions under the benefit payments...

  18. 78 FR 49682 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... Single- Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates in... interest assumptions--for paying plan benefits under terminating single-employer plans covered by title IV... interest assumptions are intended to reflect current conditions in the financial and annuity markets...

  19. 77 FR 62433 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Single- Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates in... interest assumptions--for paying plan benefits under terminating single-employer plans covered by title IV... interest assumptions are intended to reflect current conditions in the financial and annuity markets...

  20. 76 FR 21252 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... covered by title IV of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. DATES: Effective May 1, 2011...--for paying plan benefits under terminating single-employer plans covered by title IV of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. PBGC uses the interest assumptions in Appendix B to Part 4022 to...

  1. 77 FR 68685 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... regulation for valuation dates in December 2012. The interest assumptions are used for paying benefits under... interest assumptions--for paying plan benefits under terminating single-employer plans covered by title IV... interest assumptions are intended to reflect current conditions in the financial and annuity markets...

  2. 75 FR 69588 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates in December 2010. Interest assumptions are...--for paying plan benefits under terminating single-employer plans covered by title IV of the Employee... reflect current conditions in the financial and annuity markets. Assumptions under the benefit payments...

  3. Atmospheric-Fade-Tolerant Tracking and Pointing in Wireless Optical Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Gerardo; Lee, Shinhak

    2003-01-01

    An acquisition, tracking, and pointing (ATP) system, under development at the time of reporting the information for this article, is intended to enable a terminal in a free-space optical communication system to continue to aim its transmitting laser beam toward a receiver at a remote terminal when the laser beacon signal from the remote terminal temporarily fades or drops out of sight altogether. Such fades and dropouts can be caused by adverse atmospheric conditions (e.g., rain or clouds). They can also occur when intervening objects block the line of sight between terminals as a result of motions of those objects or of either or both terminals

  4. Sites of termination of in vitro DNA synthesis on psoralen phototreated single-stranded templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piette, J.; Hearst, J.

    1985-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA has been photochemically induced to react with 4'-hydroxymethyl-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen (HMT) and used as substrate for DNA replication with E. coli DNA polymerase I large fragment. By using the dideoxy sequencing procedure, it is possible to map the termination sites on the template photoreacted with HMT. These sites occur at the nucleotides preceding each thymine residue (and a few cytosine residues), emphasizing the fact that in a single-stranded stretch of DNA, HMT reacts with each thymine residue without any specificity regarding the flanking base sequence of the thymine residues. In addition, termination of DNA synthesis due to psoralen-adducted thymine is not influenced by the efficiency of the 3'-5' exonuclease proof-reading activity of the DNA polymerase. (author)

  5. T1 VSAT Fade Compensation Statistical Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sandra K.; Acosta, Roberto; Ugweje, Oke

    2000-01-01

    New satellite communication systems are steadily seeking to use higher frequency bands to accommodate the requirements for additional capacity. At these higher frequencies, propagation impairments that did not significantly affect the signal at lower frequencies begin to have considerable impact. In Ka-band. the next logical commercial frequency band to be used for satellite communication, attenuation of the signal due to rain is a primary concern. An experimental satellite built by NASA, the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS). launched in September 1993, is the first U.S. communication satellite operating in the Ka-band. In addition to higher carrier frequencies, a number of other new technologies, including on-board baseband processing. multiple beam antennas, and rain fade detection and compensation techniques, were designed into the ACTS. Verification experiments have been conducted since the launch to characterize the new technologies. The focus of this paper is to characterize the method used by the ACTS TI Very Small Aperture Terminal (TI VSAT) ground stations in detecting the presence of fade in the communication signal and to adaptively compensate for it by the addition of burst rate reduction and forward error correction. Measured data obtained from the ACTS program was used to validate the compensation technique. A software process was developed and demonstrated to statistically characterize the increased availability achieved by the compensation techniques in terms of the bit error rate time enhancement factor. Several improvements to the ACTS technique are discussed and possible implementations for future Ka band system are offered.

  6. Perceptual Fading without Retinal Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Po-Jang; Colas, Jaron T.

    2012-01-01

    A retinally stabilized object readily undergoes perceptual fading and disappears from consciousness. This startling phenomenon is commonly believed to arise from local bottom-up sensory adaptation to edge information that occurs early in the visual pathway, such as in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus or retinal ganglion cells. Here…

  7. Observations of anomalous fading in maiolica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, S.G.E.

    1988-01-01

    In the course of an authenticity study on Italian maiolica (tin-glazed earthenware of the Renaissance period), storage at elevated temperature was used to accelerate anomalous fading. Substantial levels of fading were observed in about half of the samples, and in these cases the variation of fading with glow curve temperature accounted for the lack of an equivalent dose plateau. Some evidence was found for a difference in the fading between alpha and beta induced thermoluminescence (TL). More importantly, some samples with unstable natural TL were found: the implications of this for dating and the circumvention of fading are discussed. (author)

  8. First-principles study of single-layer C-terminated BN quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Li-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Min; Xu, Ke-Wei

    2013-09-01

    We present a first-principles study of the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of single-layer C-terminated BN quantum dots (QDs) under different hydrotreating conditions. The morphologies of QDs with fully hydrogenated edges change slightly. For the fully bared cases, the edged C-C bonds become short and protrudent edged C atoms relax inwards therefore edged zigzag C chain tends to a straight line. The cases of the partially passivated by hydrogen atom at apex, the apex C atom is not relaxed inwards and a new C-C bond is formed. The fully hydrogenated QDs especially N-rich cases are energetically more favorable than those with bared or partially hydrogenated ones. The C-terminated BN-QDs have no magnetic moment when their protrudent edged C atoms are fully passivated by hydrogen atoms, while those with bared or partially hydrogenated edges possess magnetic moments and especially for N-rich cases their magnetic moments increase with increasing QD size n for either bared or partially hydrogenated edges. The band gap of the fully hydrogenated QDs decreases oscillatorily with increasing QD size n. Moreover, for the same size n, the energy gap is wider under N-rich condition than under B-rich condition.

  9. Wireless Energy Harvesting Using Signals from Multiple Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yunfei

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we study the average, the probability density function and the cumulative distribution function of the harvested power. In the study, the signals are transmitted from multiple sources. The channels are assumed to be either Rician fading or Gamma-shadowed Rician fading. The received signals are then harvested by using either a single harvester for simultaneous transmissions or multiple harvesters for transmissions at different frequencies, antennas or time slots. Both linear and nonlinear models for the energy harvester at the receiver are examined. Numerical results are presented to show that, when a large amount of harvested power is required, a single harvester or the linear range of a practical nonlinear harvester are more efficient, to avoid power outage. Further, the power transfer strategy can be optimized for fixed total power. Specifically, for Rayleigh fading, the optimal strategy is to put the total power at the source with the best channel condition and switch off all other sources, while for general Rician fading, the optimum magnitudes and phases of the transmitting waveforms depend on the channel parameters.

  10. Chirality-Dependent Vapor-Phase Epitaxial Growth and Termination of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bilu; Liu, Jia; Zhou, Chongwu; USC nanolab Team

    2014-03-01

    Chirality-pure single-wall carbon nanotubes are highly desired for both fundamental study and many of their technological applications. Recently, we have shown that chirality-pure short nanotubes can be used as seeds for vapor-phase epitaxial cloning growth, opening up a new route toward chirality-controlled carbon nanotube synthesis. Nevertheless, the yield of vapor-phase epitaxial growth is rather limited at the present stage, due to the lack of mechanistic understanding of the process. Here we report chirality-dependent growth kinetics and termination mechanism for the vapor-phase epitaxial growth of seven single- chirality nanotubes of (9, 1), (6, 5), (8, 3), (7, 6), (10, 2), (6, 6), and (7, 7), covering near zigzag, medium chiral angle, and near armchair semiconductors, as well as armchair metallic nanotubes. Our results reveal that the growth rates of nanotubes increase with their chiral angles while the active lifetimes of the growth hold opposite trend. Consequently, the chirality distribution of a nanotube ensemble is jointly determined by both growth rates and lifetimes. These results correlate nanotube structures and properties with their growth behaviors and deepen our understanding of chirality-controlled growth of nanotubes.

  11. Energy detector performance in Rician fading channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brkić Srđan S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyzed the problem of detection of unknown signals in the Rician fading channel. A closed-form expression for the probability of detection is derived, followed by the numerical results. The analysis was extended to the case of cooperative sensor network in which the environment can be modelled by independent Rician fading channels.

  12. Electrochemical impedance studies of capacity fading of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-06-09

    Jun 9, 2017 ... Abstract. Electrodeposited ZnO coatings suffer severe capacity fading when used as conversion anodes in sealed Li cells. Capacity fading is ... coating delivered a stable reversible capacity 16% higher than that delivered by the ..... Ni3+ which not only imparts better electronic conductivity to the material, but ...

  13. Complex Simulation Model of Mobile Fading Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Marek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the mobile communication environment the mobile channel is the main limiting obstacle to reach the best performance of wireless system. Modeling of the radio channel consists of two basic fading mechanisms - Long-term fading and Short-term fading. The contribution deals with simulation of complex mobile radio channel, which is the channel with all fading components. Simulation model is based on Clarke-Gans theoretical model for fading channel and is developed in MATLAB environment. Simulation results have shown very good coincidence with theory. This model was developed for hybrid adaptation 3G uplink simulator (described in this issue during the research project VEGA - 1/0140/03.

  14. 75 FR 6857 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Valuing and Paying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-12

    ... with valuation dates in March 2010. Interest assumptions are also published on PBGC's Web site ( http... paying plan benefits of terminating single-employer plans covered by title IV of the Employee Retirement... financial and annuity markets. These interest assumptions are found in two PBGC regulations: the regulation...

  15. 75 FR 2437 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Valuing and Paying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... with valuation dates in February 2010. Interest assumptions are also published on PBGC's Web site... and paying plan benefits of terminating single-employer plans covered by title IV of the Employee... in the financial and annuity markets. These interest assumptions are found in two PBGC regulations...

  16. 75 FR 41091 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Valuing and Paying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... with valuation dates in August 2010. Interest assumptions are also published on PBGC's Web site ( http... paying plan benefits of terminating single-employer plans covered by title IV of the Employee Retirement... financial and annuity markets. These interest assumptions are found in two PBGC regulations: the regulation...

  17. 75 FR 49407 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Valuing and Paying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... with valuation dates in September 2010. Interest assumptions are also published on PBGC's Web site... and paying plan benefits of terminating single-employer plans covered by title IV of the Employee... in the financial and annuity markets. These interest assumptions are found in two PBGC regulations...

  18. 75 FR 27189 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Valuing and Paying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... with valuation dates in June 2010. Interest assumptions are also published on PBGC's Web site ( http... paying plan benefits of terminating single-employer plans covered by title IV of the Employee Retirement... financial and annuity markets. These interest assumptions are found in two PBGC regulations: The regulation...

  19. Location Verification Systems for VANETs in Rician Fading Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Shihao; Malaney, Robert; Nevat, Ido; Peters, Gareth W.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we propose and examine Location Verification Systems (LVSs) for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) in the realistic setting of Rician fading channels. In our LVSs, a single authorized Base Station (BS) equipped with multiple antennas aims to detect a malicious vehicle that is spoofing its claimed location. We first determine the optimal attack strategy of the malicious vehicle, which in turn allows us to analyze the optimal LVS performance as a function of the Rician $K$-factor o...

  20. Enhanced detection of single-cell-secreted proteins using a fluorescent immunoassay on the protein-G-terminated glass substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yoon; Lee, Kwan Hong; Park, Hansoo; Choi, Jonghoon

    2015-01-01

    We present an evaluation of protein-G-terminated glass slides that may contain a suitable substrate for aligning the orientation of antibodies to obtain better binding moiety to the target antigen. The results of the protein-G-terminated slides were compared with those obtained with epoxy-based slides to evaluate signal enhancement for human immunoglobulin G (IgG) targets, and an increase in the average fluorescence intensity was observed for the lowest measurable amount of IgG target in the assay using protein-G-terminated slides. Applying this strategy for signal amplification to single-cell assays improves the limits of detection for human IgG protein and cytokines (interleukin-2 and interferon-γ) captured from hybridomas. Our data indicate that protein-G-terminated slides have a higher binding capacity for antigens and have better spot-to-spot consistency than that of traditional epoxy-based slides. These properties would be beneficial in the detection of fine amounts of single-cell-secreted proteins, which may provide key insights into cell-cell communication and immune responses.

  1. Fading and shadowing in wireless systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shankar, P Mohana

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive overview of fading and shadowing in wireless channels. A number of statistical models including simple, hybrid, compound and cascaded ones are presented along with a detailed discussion of diversity techniques employed to mitigate the effects of fading and shadowing. The effects of co-channel interference before and after the implementation of diversity are also analyzed. To facilitate easy understanding of the models and the analysis, the background on probability and random variables is presented with relevant derivations of densities of the sums, products, ratios as well as order statistics of random variables. The book also provides material on digital modems of interest in wireless systems. The updated edition expands the background materials on probability by offering sections on Laplace and Mellin transforms, parameter estimation, statistical testing and receiver operating characteristics. Newer models for fading, shadowing and shadowed fading are included along with th...

  2. Fading and interference mitigation in wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Panic, Stefan; Anastasov, Jelena; Spalevic, Petar

    2013-01-01

    The rapid advancement of various wireless communication system services has created the need to analyze the possibility of their performance improvement. Introducing the basic principles of digital communications performance analysis and its mathematical formalization, Fading and Interference Mitigation in Wireless Communications will help you stay up to date with recent developments in the performance analysis of space diversity reception over fading channels in the presence of cochannel interference.The book presents a unified method for computing the performance of digital communication sys

  3. PASSING STANDARDIZED ASSESSMENTS WITH FADING PROMPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Marie GREENE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 mandates that all students perform at a level of proficient on state assessments. This includes students with learning and intellectual disabilities who are inherently performing below grade level. Given that schools are held accountable for meeting these goals and some states are not allowing students to graduate if they do not pass the assessments, this is a large concern for students, parents, teachers, and administration Method: Forty-five students with a disability in writing or an intellectual disability participated in this quasi-experimental, single-group, pretest-posttest design that evaluated the effectiveness of the Fading Prompts through Graphic Organizers method for students with learning and intellectual disabilities in written expression as measured according to the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment. Results: Data analyses were conducted through the use of four dichotomies for percent differences, which compared teacher administered pretests and posttests, pretests and the state administered PSSA, teacher administered posttests and the PSSA, and the participants’ PSSA and the average state PSSA score. All forty-five students performed at a below basic level during baseline and a proficient level on the posttest. The learned skills generalized to the PSSA with forty-three students earning a passing score of proficient, while two students advanced to basic. Conclusion: Based on the outcomes of this study, it is highly recommended that this program be utilized at least for students with learning and intellectual disabilities until further research can be done.

  4. A novel unified expression for the capacity and bit error probability of wireless communication systems over generalized fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2012-07-01

    Analysis of the average binary error probabilities (ABEP) and average capacity (AC) of wireless communications systems over generalized fading channels have been considered separately in past years. This paper introduces a novel moment generating function (MGF)-based unified expression for the ABEP and AC of single and multiple link communications with maximal ratio combining. In addition, this paper proposes the hyper-Fox\\'s H fading model as a unified fading distribution of a majority of the well-known generalized fading environments. As such, the authors offer a generic unified performance expression that can be easily calculated, and that is applicable to a wide variety of fading scenarios. The mathematical formulism is illustrated with some selected numerical examples that validate the correctness of the authors\\' newly derived results. © 1972-2012 IEEE.

  5. Pigs produce only a single form of CGRP, part of which is processed to N- and C-terminal fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, T N; Bersani, M; Johnsen, A H

    1994-01-01

    Using radioimmunoassays with two different antisera, one directed towards the C-terminal and one towards the mid part of porcine and human alpha-CGRP, respectively, we isolated three immunoreactive peptides from acid/ethanol extracts of porcine spinal cord by means of HPLC. By amino acid sequence...... analysis and mass spectrometry (PDMS), the most abundant peptide was found to be identical to the 37 residue CGRP previously isolated from porcine adrenal glands and spinal cord. The two remaining peptides were identified as pCGRP(18-37) and pCGRP(19-37). Furthermore, the oxidized forms (oxidized Met...... to detect any second full-length form of CGRP. Thus, we conclude that only a single form of full-length CGRP is found in pigs and that this peptide may be cleaved to produce potentially bioactive N- and C-terminal fragments....

  6. Growth Termination and Multiple Nucleation of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Evidenced by in Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lili; He, Maoshuai; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    2017-01-01

    In order to controllably grow single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), a better understanding of the growth processes and how they are influenced by external parameters such as catalyst and gaseous environment is required. Here, we present direct evidence of growth termination of individual SWCNTs...... and successive growth of additional SWCNTs on Co catalyst particles supported on MgO by means of environmental transmission electron microscopy. Such in situ observations reveal the plethora of solid carbon formations at the local scale while it is happening and thereby elucidate the multitude of configurations...... resulting from identical external synthesis conditions, which should be considered in the quest for controlled SWCNT growth. Using CO and a mixture of and H2 as carbon sources, we show that the growth of SWCNTs terminates with a reduced tube−catalyst adhesion strength. Two main reasons for the cessation...

  7. Construction of a recombinant single chain antibody recognizing nonreducing terminal mannose residues applicable to immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Noriyuki; Iida, Noriko; Sakaue, Hiroyuki; Zhang, Wei; Wilczynski, Sharon; Fujita-Yamaguchi, Yoko

    2007-10-01

    We recently reported characterization of 25 clones isolated from a phage library displaying human scFvs using a neoglycolipid Man3-DPPE, which was synthesized from mannotriose (Man3) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE). Of those, 5A3 scFv was successfully expressed and purified as a humanized scFv-Fc form (Sakai et al., Biochemistry 46:253, 2007, Zhang et al. ibid 263). To carry out immunohistochemistry (IHC) in human tissues, a HA tag sequence was introduced to the 5A3 scFv-Fc gene and the resulting construct was transfected to murine myeloma NS0 cells. The 5A3 scFv-Fc protein expressed was affinity-purified. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under nonreducing and reducing conditions and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay confirmed that 5A3 scFv-Fc protein is dimeric and retained the ability to recognize nonreducing terminal mannose residues. IHC staining of non-neoplastic tissues by this recombinant antibody revealed that no immunoreactivity was detectable in most of 16 tissues examined. Exceptions were found in IHC staining of kidney and pancreas, which demonstrated clear staining of proximal tubules and islet of Langerhans, respectively. These results demonstrated that nonreducing terminal mannose residues are not usually present under normal physiological conditions. This study thus provided a potentially useful tool for examination of the nonreducing terminal mannose residues, which may become exposed under certain pathophysiologycal conditions.

  8. 78 FR 56603 - Allocation of Assets in Single-Employer Plans; Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... regulation for valuation dates in October 2013 and interest assumptions under the asset allocation regulation... the financial and annuity markets. Assumptions under the asset allocation regulation are updated... CORPORATION 29 CFR Parts 4022 and 4044 Allocation of Assets in Single-Employer Plans; Benefits Payable in...

  9. 76 FR 70639 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... Single- Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates in... single-employer plans covered by title IV of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. The... financial and annuity markets. Assumptions under the benefit payments regulation are updated monthly. This...

  10. Modeling cellular networks in fading environments with dominant specular components

    KAUST Repository

    AlAmmouri, Ahmad

    2016-07-26

    Stochastic geometry (SG) has been widely accepted as a fundamental tool for modeling and analyzing cellular networks. However, the fading models used with SG analysis are mainly confined to the simplistic Rayleigh fading, which is extended to the Nakagami-m fading in some special cases. However, neither the Rayleigh nor the Nakagami-m accounts for dominant specular components (DSCs) which may appear in realistic fading channels. In this paper, we present a tractable model for cellular networks with generalized two-ray (GTR) fading channel. The GTR fading explicitly accounts for two DSCs in addition to the diffuse components and offers high flexibility to capture diverse fading channels that appear in realistic outdoor/indoor wireless communication scenarios. It also encompasses the famous Rayleigh and Rician fading as special cases. To this end, the prominent effect of DSCs is highlighted in terms of average spectral efficiency. © 2016 IEEE.

  11. 76 FR 63836 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... Single- Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates in...-employer plans covered by title IV of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. The interest... regulation are the same. The interest assumptions are intended to reflect current conditions in the financial...

  12. 77 FR 28477 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... Single- Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates in June... title IV of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. The interest assumptions in the... interest assumptions are intended to reflect current conditions in the financial and annuity markets...

  13. 77 FR 8730 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Single- Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates in... covered by title IV of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. The interest assumptions in... same. The interest assumptions are intended to reflect current conditions in the financial and annuity...

  14. 77 FR 41270 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... Single- Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates in... covered by title IV of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. The interest assumptions in... same. The interest assumptions are intended to reflect current conditions in the financial and annuity...

  15. 76 FR 41689 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Single- Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates in... covered by title IV of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. The interest assumptions in... same. The interest assumptions are intended to reflect current conditions in the financial and annuity...

  16. 76 FR 50413 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... Single- Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates in...-employer plans covered by title IV of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. The interest... regulation are the same. The interest assumptions are intended to reflect current conditions in the financial...

  17. 78 FR 68739 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Single- Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates in... title IV of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. The interest assumptions in the... interest assumptions are intended to reflect current conditions in the financial and annuity markets...

  18. 77 FR 48855 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates in September 2012. The... interest assumptions are intended to reflect current conditions in the financial and annuity markets... Assets in Single-Employer Plans (29 CFR part 4044) prescribes interest assumptions for valuing benefits...

  19. Multistage electrotherapy delivered through chronically-implanted leads terminates atrial fibrillation with lower energy than a single biphasic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhan, Ajit H; Gutbrod, Sarah R; Li, Wenwen; Lang, Di; Schuessler, Richard B; Efimov, Igor R

    The goal of this study was to develop a low-energy, implantable device-based multistage electrotherapy (MSE) to terminate atrial fibrillation (AF). Previous attempts to perform cardioversion of AF by using an implantable device were limited by the pain caused by use of a high-energy single biphasic shock (BPS). Transvenous leads were implanted into the right atrium (RA), coronary sinus, and left pulmonary artery of 14 dogs. Self-sustaining AF was induced by 6 ± 2 weeks of high-rate RA pacing. Atrial defibrillation thresholds of standard versus experimental electrotherapies were measured in vivo and studied by using optical imaging in vitro. The mean AF cycle length (CL) in vivo was 112 ± 21 ms (534 beats/min). The impedances of the RA-left pulmonary artery and RA-coronary sinus shock vectors were similar (121 ± 11 Ω vs. 126 ± 9 Ω; p = 0.27). BPS required 1.48 ± 0.91 J (165 ± 34 V) to terminate AF. In contrast, MSE terminated AF with significantly less energy (0.16 ± 0.16 J; p < 0.001) and significantly lower peak voltage (31.1 ± 19.3 V; p < 0.001). In vitro optical imaging studies found that AF was maintained by localized foci originating from pulmonary vein-left atrium interfaces. MSE Stage 1 shocks temporarily disrupted localized foci; MSE Stage 2 entrainment shocks continued to silence the localized foci driving AF; and MSE Stage 3 pacing stimuli enabled consistent RA-left atrium activation until sinus rhythm was restored. Low-energy MSE significantly reduced the atrial defibrillation thresholds compared with BPS in a canine model of AF. MSE may enable painless, device-based AF therapy. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Exact capacity analysis of multihop transmission over amplify-and-forward relay fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, we propose an analytical framework on the exact computation of the average capacity of multihop transmission over amplify-and-forward relay fading channels. Our approach relies on the algebraic combination of Mellin and Laplace transforms to obtain exact single integral expressions which can be easily computed by Gauss-Chebyshev Quadrature (GCQ) rule. As such, the derived results are a convenient tool to analyze the average capacity of multihop transmission over amplify-and-forward relay fading channels. As an application of the analytical framework on the exact computation of the average capacity of multihop transmission, some examples are accentuated for generalized Nakagami-m fading channels. Numerical and simulation results, performed to verify the correctness of the proposed formulation, are in perfect agreement. ©2010 IEEE.

  1. Fading and Shadowing in Wireless Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shankar, P Mohana

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, growth in the field of wireless communications has led to an exponential rise in the number of journals catering to the research community. Still unmet, however, is the need to fully and comprehensively understand the effects of channel degradation brought on by the statistical fluctuations in the channel. These fluctuations mainly manifest as variations in signal power observed in the channel generally modeled using a variety of probability distributions, both in straight forms as well as in compound forms. While the former might explain some of the effects, it is the latter, namely, the compound models, which incorporate both short term and long term power fluctuations in the channel, explain the much more complex nature of the signals in these channels. Fading and Shadowing in Wireless Systems offers a pedagogical approach to the topic, with insight into the modeling and analysis of fading and shadowing. Beginning with statistical background and digital communications, the book is formul...

  2. Monocular depth effects on perceptual fading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Li-Chuan; Kramer, Peter; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2010-08-06

    After prolonged viewing, a static target among moving non-targets is perceived to repeatedly disappear and reappear. An uncrossed stereoscopic disparity of the target facilitates this Motion-Induced Blindness (MIB). Here we test whether monocular depth cues can affect MIB too, and whether they can also affect perceptual fading in static displays. Experiment 1 reveals an effect of interposition: more MIB when the target appears partially covered by, than when it appears to cover, its surroundings. Experiment 2 shows that the effect is indeed due to interposition and not to the target's contours. Experiment 3 induces depth with the watercolor illusion and replicates Experiment 1. Experiments 4 and 5 replicate Experiments 1 and 3 without the use of motion. Since almost any stimulus contains a monocular depth cue, we conclude that perceived depth affects perceptual fading in almost any stimulus, whether dynamic or static. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fade durations in satellite-path mobile radio propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmier, Robert G.; Bostian, Charles W.

    1986-12-01

    Fades on satellite to land mobile radio links are caused by several factors, the most important of which are multipath propagation and vegetative shadowing. Designers of vehicular satellite communications systems require information about the statistics of fade durations in order to overcome or compensate for the fades. Except for a few limiting cases, only the mean fade duration can be determined analytically, and all other statistics must be obtained experimentally or via simulation. This report describes and presents results from a computer program developed at Virginia Tech to simulate satellite path propagation of a mobile station in a rural area. It generates rapidly-fading and slowly-fading signals by separate processes that yield correct cumulative signal distributions and then combines these to simulate the overall signal. This is then analyzed to yield the statistics of fade duration.

  4. Asymptotic analysis of downlink MISO systems over Rician fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Falconet, Hugo

    2016-06-24

    In this work, we focus on the ergodic sum rate in the downlink of a single-cell large-scale multi-user MIMO system in which the base station employs N antennas to communicate with K single-antenna user equipments. A regularized zero-forcing (RZF) scheme is used for precoding under the assumption that each link forms a spatially correlated MIMO Rician fading channel. The analysis is conducted assuming N and K grow large with a non trivial ratio and perfect channel state information is available at the base station. Recent results from random matrix theory and large system analysis are used to compute an asymptotic expression of the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio as a function of the system parameters, the spatial correlation matrix and the Rician factor. Numerical results are used to evaluate the performance gap in the finite system regime under different operating conditions. © 2016 IEEE.

  5. Tackling capacity fading in vanadium flow batteries with amphoteric membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Fabio J.; Schmidt, Thomas J.; Gubler, Lorenz

    2017-11-01

    Capacity fading and poor electrolyte utilization caused by electrolyte imbalance effects are major drawbacks for the commercialization of vanadium flow batteries (VFB). The influence of membrane type (cationic, anionic, amphoteric) on these effects is studied by determining the excess and net flux of each vanadium ion in an operating VFB assembled with a cation exchange membrane (CEM), Nafion® NR212, an anion exchange membrane (AEM), Fumatech FAP-450, and an amphoteric ion exchange membrane (AIEM) synthesized in-house. It is shown that the net vanadium flux, accompanied by water transport, is directed towards the positive side for the CEM and towards the negative side for the AEM. The content of cation and anion exchange groups in the AIEM is adjusted via radiation grafting to balance the vanadium flux between the two electrolyte sides. With the AIEM the net vanadium flux is significantly reduced and capacity fading due to electrolyte imbalances can be largely eliminated. The membrane's influence on electrolyte imbalance effects is characterized and quantified in one single charge-discharge cycle by analyzing the content of the four different vanadium species in the two electrolytes. The experimental data recorded herewith conclusively explains the electrolyte composition after 80 cycles.

  6. Terminal Complement Inhibitor Eculizumab in Adult Patients With Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: A Single-Arm, Open-Label Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhouri, Fadi; Hourmant, Maryvonne; Campistol, Josep M; Cataland, Spero R; Espinosa, Mario; Gaber, A Osama; Menne, Jan; Minetti, Enrico E; Provôt, François; Rondeau, Eric; Ruggenenti, Piero; Weekers, Laurent E; Ogawa, Masayo; Bedrosian, Camille L; Legendre, Christophe M

    2016-07-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare genetic life-threatening disease of chronic uncontrolled complement activation leading to thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and severe end-organ damage. Eculizumab, a terminal complement inhibitor approved for aHUS treatment, was reported to improve hematologic and renal parameters in 2 prior prospective phase 2 studies. This is the largest prospective study of eculizumab in aHUS to date, conducted in an adult population. Open-label single-arm phase 2 trial. Patients 18 years or older with aHUS (platelet count dialysis, 5 recovered kidney function before eculizumab initiation and 15 of the remaining 19 (79%) discontinued dialysis during eculizumab treatment. No patients lost existing transplants. Quality-of-life measures were significantly improved. Two patients developed meningococcal infections; both recovered, and 1 remained on eculizumab treatment. Single-arm open-label design. Results highlight the benefits of eculizumab in adult patients with aHUS: improvement in hematologic, renal, and quality-of-life parameters; dialysis discontinuation; and transplant protection. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydrogen intercalation of single and multiple layer graphene synthesized on Si-terminated SiC(0001) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sołtys, Jakub; Piechota, Jacek; Ptasinska, Maria [Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw, Pawińskiego 5a, 02-106 Warsaw (Poland); Krukowski, Stanisław, E-mail: stach@unipress.waw.pl [Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw, Pawińskiego 5a, 02-106 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sokołowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-08-28

    Ab initio density functional theory simulations were used to investigate the influence of hydrogen intercalation on the electronic properties of single and multiple graphene layers deposited on the SiC(0001) surface (Si-face). It is shown that single carbon layer, known as a buffer layer, covalently bound to the SiC substrate, is liberated after hydrogen intercalation, showing characteristic Dirac cones in the band structure. This is in agreement with the results of angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy measurements of hydrogen intercalation of SiC-graphene samples. In contrast to that hydrogen intercalation has limited impact on the multiple sheet graphene, deposited on Si-terminated SiC surface. The covalently bound buffer layer is liberated attaining its graphene like structure and dispersion relation typical for multilayer graphene. Nevertheless, before and after intercalation, the four layer graphene preserved the following dispersion relations in the vicinity of K point: linear for (AAAA) stacking, direct parabolic for Bernal (ABAB) stacking and “wizard hat” parabolic for rhombohedral (ABCA) stacking.

  8. Constant Envelope Precoding with Adaptive Receiver Constellation in MISO Fading Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shuowen; Zhang, Rui; Lim, Teng Joon

    2015-01-01

    Constant envelope (CE) precoding is an appealing transmission technique which enables the realization of high power amplifier (PA) efficiency. For CE precoding in a single-user multiple-input single-output (MISO) channel, a desired constellation is feasible at the receiver if and only if it can be scaled to lie in an annulus, whose boundaries are characterized by the instantaneous channel realization. Therefore, if a fixed receiver constellation is used for CE precoding in a fading channel, w...

  9. Asymptotic analysis of multicell massive MIMO over Rician fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Sanguinetti, Luca

    2017-06-20

    This work considers the downlink of a multicell massive MIMO system in which L base stations (BSs) of N antennas each communicate with K single-antenna user equipments randomly positioned in the coverage area. Within this setting, we are interested in evaluating the sum rate of the system when MRT and RZF are employed under the assumption that each intracell link forms a MIMO Rician uncorrelated fading channel. The analysis is conducted assuming that N and K grow large with a non-trivial ratio N/K under the assumption that the data transmission in each cell is affected by channel estimation errors, pilot contamination, and an arbitrary large scale attenuation. Numerical results are used to validate the asymptotic analysis in the finite system regime and to evaluate the network performance under different settings. The asymptotic results are also instrumental to get insights into the interplay among system parameters.

  10. On the capacity of multiple access and broadcast fading channels with full channel state information at low SNR

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2014-01-01

    We study the throughput capacity region of the Gaussian multi-access (MAC) fading channel with perfect channel state information (CSI) at the receiver and at the transmitters, at low power regime. We show that it has a multidimensional rectangle structure and thus is simply characterized by single user capacity points.More specifically, we show that at low power regime, the boundary surface of the capacity region shrinks to a single point corresponding to the sum rate maximizer and that the coordinates of this point coincide with single user capacity bounds. Inspired from this result, we propose an on-off scheme, compute its achievable rate, and show that this scheme achieves single user capacity bounds of the MAC channel for a wide class of fading channels at asymptotically low power regime. We argue that this class of fading encompasses all known wireless channels for which the capacity region of the MAC channel has even a simpler expression in terms of users\\' average power constraints only. Using the duality of Gaussian MAC and broadcast channels (BC), we deduce a simple characterization of the BC capacity region at low power regime and show that for a class of fading channels (including Rayleigh fading), time-sharing is asymptotically optimal. © 2014 IEEE.

  11. Delay-limited capacity of fading multiple access and broadcast channels in the low power regime

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2015-09-11

    We study delay-limited (also called zero-outage) capacity region of the fading multi-access channel (MAC) with Gaussian noise and perfect channel state information (CSI) at the receiver and at the transmitters (CSI-TR), in the low-power regime. We show that for fading channels where the MAC capacity region is strictly positive, it has a multidimensional rectangle structure and thus is simply characterized by single user capacity points. More specifically, we show that at low power, the boundary surface of the capacity region shrinks to a single point corresponding to the sum-rate maximizer and that the coordinates of this point coincide with single user capacity bounds. Using the duality of the Gaussian MAC and broadcast channels (BC), we show that time-sharing (or time division multiple access (TDMA)) is asymptotically optimal. © 2015 IEEE.

  12. k– fading channels: a finite state Markov modelling approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Priyanka

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... 1. Introduction. It is very common to have fading channels with memory in mobile radio communications. Multipath propagation and shadowing from obstacles result in fading, and it impacts the performance of wireless communication systems. The statistics of the mobile radio signals are described by dif-.

  13. k– fading channels: a finite state Markov modelling approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Priyanka

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... identical (i.e., when k = 1), and multipath cluster, l = 1, the SSP is maintained close to 0.1, which means that the channel fading characteristics greatly vary for all states. However, if l value is increased for low amplitude level states, the probability of being in a particular state is 0 and the fading effects are ...

  14. Fading of radio signals from spaced synchronous satellites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fading of radio signals from synchronous satellites has been investigated, by analyzing the fading records radiated from a system of spaced synchronous satellites, all radiating at 136 MHz, and observed at Legon, Ghana: longitude 0.19° west, latitude 5.63° north and magnetic dip 8.47° south; for the occurrence of ...

  15. On the capacity of multiaccess fading channels with full channel state information at low power regime

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2013-06-01

    We study the throughput capacity region of the Gaussian multiaccess (MAC) fading channel with perfect channel state information (CSI) at the receiver (CSI-R) and at the transmitters (CSI-T), at low power regime. We show that it has a multidimensional rectangle structure and thus is simply characterized by single user capacity points. More specifically, we show that at low power regime, the boundary surface of the capacity region shrinks to a single point corresponding to the sum rate maximizer and that the coordinates of this point coincide with single user capacity bounds. Inspired from this result, we propose an on-off scheme, compute its achievable rate, and provide a necessary condition on the fading channels under which this scheme achieves single user capacity bounds of the MAC channel at asymptotically low power regime. We argue that this necessary condition characterizes a class of fading that encompasses all known wireless channels, where the capacity region of the MAC channel has a simple expression in terms of users\\' average power constraints only. © 2013 IEEE.

  16. Secure Path Selection under Random Fading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furqan Jameel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Application-oriented Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs promises to be one of the most useful technologies of this century. However, secure communication between nodes in WSNs is still an unresolved issue. In this context, we propose two protocols (i.e. Optimal Secure Path (OSP and Sub-optimal Secure Path (SSP to minimize the outage probability of secrecy capacity in the presence of multiple eavesdroppers. We consider dissimilar fading at the main and wiretap link and provide detailed evaluation of the impact of Nakagami-m and Rician-K factors on the secrecy performance of WSNs. Extensive simulations are performed to validate our findings. Although the optimal scheme ensures more security, yet the sub-optimal scheme proves to be a more practical approach to secure wireless links.

  17. Autonomous detection of ISO fade point with color laser printers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ni; Maggard, Eric; Fothergill, Roberta; Jessome, Renee J.; Allebach, Jan P.

    2015-01-01

    Image quality assessment is a very important field in image processing. Human observation is slow and subjective, it also requires strict environment setup for the psychological test 1. Thus developing algorithms to match desired human experiments is always in need. Many studies have focused on detecting the fading phenomenon after the materials are printed, that is to monitor the persistence of the color ink 2-4. However, fading is also a common artifact produced by printing systems when the cartridges run low. We want to develop an automatic system to monitor cartridge life and report fading defects when they appear. In this paper, we first describe a psychological experiment that studies the human perspective on printed fading pages. Then we propose an algorithm based on Color Space Projection and K-means clustering to predict the visibility of fading defects. At last, we integrate the psychological experiment result with our algorithm to give a machine learning tool that monitors cartridge life.

  18. Synthesis of BiFeO3 thin films on single-terminated Nb : SrTiO3 (111 substrates by intermittent microwave assisted hydrothermal method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Velasco-Davalos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on a simple and fast procedure to create arrays of atomically flat terraces on single crystal SrTiO3 (111 substrates and the deposition of ferroelectric BiFeO3 thin films on such single-terminated surfaces. A microwave-assisted hydrothermal method in deionized water and ammonia solution selectively removes either (SrO34− or Ti4+ layers to ensure the same chemical termination on all terraces. Measured step heights of 0.225 nm (d111 and uniform contrast in the phase image of the terraces confirm the single termination in pure and Nb doped SrTiO3 single crystal substrates. Multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films were then deposited by the same microwave assisted hydrothermal process on Nb : SrTiO3 (111 substrates. Bi(NO33 and Fe(NO33 along with KOH served as the precursors solution. Ferroelectric behavior of the BiFeO3 films on Nb : SrTiO3 (100 substrates was verified by piezoresponse force microscopy.

  19. Channel Characteristics and Performance of MIMO E-SDM Systems in an Indoor Time-Varying Fading Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huu Phu Bui

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO systems employ advanced signal processing techniques. However, the performance is affected by propagation environments and antenna characteristics. The main contributions of the paper are to investigate Doppler spectrum based on measured data in a typical meeting room and to evaluate the performance of MIMO systems based on an eigenbeam-space division multiplexing (E-SDM technique in an indoor time-varying fading environment, which has various distributions of scatterers, line-of-sight wave existence, and mutual coupling effect among antennas. We confirm that due to the mutual coupling among antennas, patterns of antenna elements are changed and different from an omnidirectional one of a single antenna. Results based on the measured channel data in our measurement campaigns show that received power, channel autocorrelation, and Doppler spectrum are dependent not only on the direction of terminal motion but also on the antenna configuration. Even in the obstructed-line-of-sight environment, observed Doppler spectrum is quite different from the theoretical U-shaped Jakes one. In addition, it has been also shown that a channel change during the time interval between the transmit weight matrix determination and the actual data transmission can degrade the performance of MIMO E-SDM systems.

  20. Low Energy Multi-Stage Atrial Defibrillation Therapy Terminates Atrial Fibrillation with Less Energy than a Single Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenwen; Janardhan, Ajit H.; Fedorov, Vadim V.; Sha, Qun; Schuessler, Richard B.; Efimov, Igor R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Implantable device therapy of atrial fibrillation (AF) is limited by pain from high-energy shocks. We developed a low-energy multi-stage defibrillation therapy and tested it in a canine model of AF. Methods and Results AF was induced by burst pacing during vagus nerve stimulation. Our novel defibrillation therapy consisted of three stages: ST1 (1-4 low energy biphasic shocks), ST2 (6-10 ultra-low energy monophasic shocks), and ST3 (anti-tachycardia pacing). Firstly, ST1 testing compared single or multiple monophasic (MP) and biphasic (BP) shocks. Secondly, several multi-stage therapies were tested: ST1 versus ST1+ST3 versus ST1+ST2+ST3. Thirdly, three shock vectors were compared: superior vena cava to distal coronary sinus (SVC>CSd), proximal coronary sinus to left atrial appendage (CSp>LAA) and right atrial appendage to left atrial appendage (RAA>LAA). The atrial defibrillation threshold (DFT) of 1BP shock was less than 1MP shock (0.55 ± 0.1 versus 1.38 ± 0.31 J; p =0.003). 2-3 BP shocks terminated AF with lower peak voltage than 1BP or 1MP shock and with lower atrial DFT than 4 BP shocks. Compared to ST1 therapy alone, ST1+ST3 lowered the atrial DFT moderately (0.51 ± 0.46 versus 0.95 ± 0.32 J; p = 0.036) while a three-stage therapy, ST1+ST2+ST3, dramatically lowered the atrial DFT (0.19 ± 0.12 J versus 0.95 ± 0.32 J for ST1 alone, p=0.0012). Finally, the three-stage therapy ST1+ST2+ST3 was equally effective for all studied vectors. Conclusions Three-stage electrotherapy significantly reduces the AF defibrillation threshold and opens the door to low energy atrial defibrillation at or below the pain threshold. PMID:21980076

  1. A novel framework on exact average symbol error probabilities of multihop transmission over amplify-and-forward relay fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, we propose an analytical framework on the exact computation of the average symbol error probabilities (ASEP) of multihop transmission over generalized fading channels when an arbitrary number of amplify-and-forward relays is used. Our approach relies on moment generating function (MGF) framework to obtain exact single integral expressions which can be easily computed by Gauss-Chebyshev Quadrature (GCQ) rule. As such, the derived results are a convenient tool to analyze the ASEP performance of multihop transmission over amplify-and-forward relay fading channels. Numerical and simulation results, performed to verify the correctness of the proposed formulation, are in perfect agreement. © 2010 IEEE.

  2. Fade detector for the FODA-TDMA access scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celandroni, Nedo; Ferro, Erina; Marzoli, Antonio

    1989-05-01

    The First in first out Ordered Demand Assignment-Time Division Multiple Access (FODA-TDMA) satellite access scheme designed for simultaneous transmissions of real time data, like packetized voice and slow-scan images (stream traffic) and data coming from standard EDP applications, such as bulk data tansfer, interactive computer access, mailing, data base enquiry and updating (datagram traffic) is described. When deep fades are experienced due to rain attenuation, the system is able to counter the fade. Techniques to detect the fade are presented.

  3. Adaptive Modulation with Best User Selection over Non-Identical Nakagami Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Anlei

    2012-09-08

    In this paper, we analyze the performance of adaptive modulation with single-cell multiuser scheduling over independent but not identical distributed (i.n.i.d.) Nakagami fading channels. Closed-form expressions are derived for the average channel capacity, spectral efficiency, and bit-error-rate (BER) for both constant-power variable-rate and variable-power variable-rate uncoded M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (M-QAM) schemes. We also study the impact of time delay on the average BER of adaptive M-QAM. Selected numerical results show that the multiuser diversity brings a considerably better performance even over i.n.i.d. fading environments.

  4. Multiuser Diversity with Adaptive Modulation in Non-Identically Distributed Nakagami Fading Environments

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Anlei

    2012-09-08

    In this paper, we analyze the performance of adaptive modulation with single-cell multiuser scheduling over independent but not identical distributed (i.n.i.d.) Nakagami fading channels. Closed-form expressions are derived for the average channel capacity, spectral efficiency, and bit-error-rate (BER) for both constant-power variable-rate and variable-power variable-rate uncoded/coded M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (M-QAM) schemes. We also study the impact of time delay on the average BER of adaptive M-QAM. Selected numerical results show that the multiuser diversity brings a considerably better performance even over i.n.i.d. fading environments.

  5. Transmit selection for imperfect threshold-based receive MRC in Rayleigh fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2010-01-01

    The performance of multiple-antenna diversity systems in which the receiver combines signal replicas per thresholdbased maximal ratio combining (MRC) and the transmitter uses only a single antenna according to receive combined signal strength is studied. The impact of imperfect channel estimation is considered when the received signal replicas undergo independent and flat multipath fading. The analysis is applicable for arbitrary transmit antenna selection when the multiple-antenna channels experience identically distributed and non-identically distributed Rayleigh fading conditions. New closed-form expressions for the combined SNR statistics and some performance measures are presented. The system models adopted herein and the presented analytical results can be used to study the performance of different system architectures under various channel conditions when the implementation complexity is of interest. © 2009 IEEE.

  6. Fading of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Michael A.; Orton, Glenn; Baines, Kevin; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma

    2011-01-01

    One of Jupiter's most dominant features, the South Equatorial Belt, has historically gone through a "fading" cycle. The usual dark, brownish clouds turn white, and after a period of time, the region returns to its normal color. Understanding this phenomenon, the latest occurring in 2010, will increase our knowledge of planetary atmospheres. Using the near infrared camera, NSFCAM2, at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii, images were taken of Jupiter accompanied by data describing the circumstances of each observation. These images are then processed and reduced through an IDL program. By scanning the central meridian of the planet, graphs were produced plotting the average values across the central meridian, which are used to find variations in the region of interest. Calculations using Albert4, a FORTRAN program that calculates the upwelling reflected sunlight from a designated cloud model, can be used to determine the effects of a model atmosphere due to various absorption, scattering, and emission processes. Spectra that were produced show ammonia bands in the South Equatorial Belt. So far, we can deduce from this information that an upwelling of ammonia particles caused a cloud layer to cover up the region. Further investigations using Albert4 and other models will help us to constrain better the chemical make up of the cloud and its location in the atmosphere.

  7. Advanced Fade Countermeasures for DVB-S2 Systems in Railway Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Párraga Niebla

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of advanced fade countermeasures for supporting DVB-S2 reception by mobile terminals mounted on high-speed trains. Recent market studies indicate this as a potential profitable market for satellite communications, provided that integration with wireless terrestrial networks can be implemented to bridge the satellite connectivity inside railway tunnels and large train stations. In turn, the satellite can typically offer the coverage of around 80% of the railway path with existing space infrastructure. This piece of work, representing the first step of a wider study, is focusing on the modifications which may be required in the DVB-S2 standard (to be employed in the forward link in order to achieve reliable reception in a challenging environment such as the railway one. Modifications have been devised trying to minimize the impact on the existing air interface, standardized for fixed terminals.

  8. Kinetics of the Fading of Phenolphthalein in Alkaline Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Lois

    1989-01-01

    Described is an experiment which illustrates pseudo-first-order kinetics in the fading of a common indicator in an alkaline solution. Included are background information, details of materials used, laboratory procedures, and sample results. (CW)

  9. κ–μ fading channels: a finite state Markov modelling approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Finite state Markov channel (FSMC) is the automatic choice for accurate modelling of slow fading channels with memory. FSMC model for a κ–μ fading channel is investigated in this paper. Small-scale variations of the fading signal under Line-Of-Sight conditions are represented by κ–μ fading distributions. Here, FSMC is ...

  10. A new simple model for composite fading channels: Second order statistics and channel capacity

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce the most general composite fading distribution to model the envelope and the power of the received signal in such fading channels as millimeter wave (60 GHz or above) fading channels and free-space optical channels, which we term extended generalized-K (EGK) composite fading distribution. We obtain the second-order statistics of the received signal envelope characterized by the EGK composite fading distribution. Expressions for probability density function, cumulative distribution function, level crossing rate and average fade duration, moments, amount of fading and average capacity are derived. Numerical and computer simulation examples validate the accuracy of the presented mathematical analysis. © 2010 IEEE.

  11. Single amino acids in the carboxyl terminal domain of aquaporin-1 contribute to cGMP-dependent ion channel activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yool Andrea J

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aquaporin-1 (AQP1 functions as an osmotic water channel and a gated cation channel. Activation of the AQP1 ion conductance by intracellular cGMP was hypothesized to involve the carboxyl (C- terminus, based on amino acid sequence alignments with cyclic-nucleotide-gated channels and cGMP-selective phosphodiesterases. Results Voltage clamp analyses of human AQP1 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated that the nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 3–14 mM activated the ionic conductance response in a dose-dependent manner. Block of soluble guanylate cyclase prevented the response. Enzyme immunoassays confirmed a linear dose-dependent relationship between SNP and the resulting intracellular cGMP levels (up to 1700 fmol cGMP /oocyte at 14 mM SNP. Results here are the first to show that the efficacy of ion channel activation is decreased by mutations of AQP1 at conserved residues in the C-terminal domain (aspartate D237 and lysine K243. Conclusions These data support the idea that the limited amino acid sequence similarities found between three diverse classes of cGMP-binding proteins are significant to the function of AQP1 as a cGMP-gated ion channel, and provide direct evidence for the involvement of the AQP1 C-terminal domain in cGMP-mediated ion channel activation.

  12. Functional roles of the N- and C-terminal regions of the human mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos T Oliveira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical studies of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA replisome demonstrate that the mtDNA polymerase and the mtDNA helicase are stimulated by the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein (mtSSB. Unlike Escherichia coli SSB, bacteriophage T7 gp2.5 and bacteriophage T4 gp32, mtSSBs lack a long, negatively charged C-terminal tail. Furthermore, additional residues at the N-terminus (notwithstanding the mitochondrial presequence are present in the sequence of species across the animal kingdom. We sought to analyze the functional importance of the N- and C-terminal regions of the human mtSSB in the context of mtDNA replication. We produced the mature wild-type human mtSSB and three terminal deletion variants, and examined their physical and biochemical properties. We demonstrate that the recombinant proteins adopt a tetrameric form, and bind single-stranded DNA with similar affinities. They also stimulate similarly the DNA unwinding activity of the human mtDNA helicase (up to 8-fold. Notably, we find that unlike the high level of stimulation that we observed previously in the Drosophila system, stimulation of DNA synthesis catalyzed by human mtDNA polymerase is only moderate, and occurs over a narrow range of salt concentrations. Interestingly, each of the deletion variants of human mtSSB stimulates DNA synthesis at a higher level than the wild-type protein, indicating that the termini modulate negatively functional interactions with the mitochondrial replicase. We discuss our findings in the context of species-specific components of the mtDNA replisome, and in comparison with various prokaryotic DNA replication machineries.

  13. On Channel Estimation for Analog Network Coding in a Frequency-Selective Fading Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjödin Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, broadband analog network coding (ANC was introduced for high-speed transmission over the wireless (frequency-selective fading channel. However, ANC requires the knowledge of channel state information (CSI for self-information removal and coherent signal detection. In ANC, the users' pilot signals interfere during the first slot, which renders the relay unable to estimate CSIs of different users, and, consequently, four time-slot pilot-assisted channel estimation (CE is required to avoid interference. Naturally, this will reduce the capacity of ANC scheme. In this paper, we theoretically analyze the bit error rate (BER performance of bi-directional broadband ANC communication based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM radio access. We also theoretically analyze the performance of the channel estimator's mean square error (MSE. The analysis is based on the assumption of perfect timing and frequency synchronization. The achievable BER performance and the estimator's MSE for broadband ANC is evaluated by numerical and computer simulation. We discuss how, and by how much, the imperfect knowledge of CSI affects the BER performance of broadband ANC. It is shown that the CE scheme achieves a slightly higher BER in comparison with ideal CE case for a low and moderate mobile terminal speed in a frequency-selective fading channel.

  14. Secret Sharing over Fast-Fading MIMO Wiretap Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloch Matthieu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Secret sharing over the fast-fading MIMO wiretap channel is considered. A source and a destination try to share secret information over a fast-fading MIMO channel in the presence of an eavesdropper who also makes channel observations that are different from but correlated to those made by the destination. An interactive, authenticated public channel with unlimited capacity is available to the source and destination for the secret sharing process. This situation is a special case of the "channel model with wiretapper" considered by Ahlswede and Csiszár. An extension of their result to continuous channel alphabets is employed to evaluate the key capacity of the fast-fading MIMO wiretap channel. The effects of spatial dimensionality provided by the use of multiple antennas at the source, destination, and eavesdropper are then investigated.

  15. Integrated pictorial mnemonics and stimulus fading: Teaching kindergartners letter sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaff, Saskia; Verhoeven, Ludo; Bosman, Anna M T; Hasselman, Fred

    2007-09-01

    The conclusion from a vast literature on literacy acquisition is that letter knowledge is one of the best predictors of literacy development. The question of the best way to teach children letter sounds has not, as yet, been answered satisfactorily. The aim of this study was the evaluation of a computer training program using integrated-picture mnemonics combined with a fading procedure to teach children letter sounds. Thirty-nine kindergartners attending mainstream primary education participated in this study. A within-subject design was used. Each kindergartner learned letters under three conditions: (a) a fading condition in which letters are taught using a picture-supported first-sound mnemonics procedure in combination with a fading procedure; (b) an embedded condition in which letters are taught using the picture-supported first-sound-mnemonics procedure only and (c) a without-picture condition in which letters are taught using a first-sound procedure without-picture support. Dependent measures included a productive and receptive letter-sound test, and a first-sound isolation task. Productive letter-sound knowledge in the fading condition was better than in the other two conditions. In addition, kindergartners with good and those with poor first-sound isolation ability performed equally well in the fading condition. However, in the embedded and in the without-picture conditions, the kindergartners with good first-sound isolation ability outperformed those with poor isolation ability. These findings indicate that an integrated-picture mnemonics procedure combined with a fading procedure is effective in teaching kindergartners letter sounds and that the success of such a procedure does not depend on their initial first-sound isolation ability.

  16. Channel and delay estimation for base-station–based cooperative communications in frequency-selective fading channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Xu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A channel and delay estimation algorithm for both positive and negative delay, based on the distributed Alamouti scheme, has been recently discussed for base-station–based asynchronous cooperative systems in frequency-flat fading channels. This paper extends the algorithm, the maximum likelihood estimator, to work in frequency-selective fading channels. The minimum mean square error (MMSE performance of channel estimation for both packet schemes and normal schemes is discussed in this paper. The symbol error rate (SER performance of equalisation and detection for both time-reversal space-time block code (STBC and single-carrier STBC is also discussed in this paper. The MMSE simulation results demonstrated the superior performance of the packet scheme over the normal scheme with an improvement in performance of up to 6 dB when feedback was used in the frequency-selective channel at a MSE of 3 x 10–2. The SER simulation results showed that, although both the normal and packet schemes achieved similar diversity orders, the packet scheme demonstrated a 1 dB coding gain over the normal scheme at a SER of 10–5. Finally, the SER simulations showed that the frequency-selective fading system outperformed the frequency-flat fading system.

  17. Cooperative Spectrum Sensing over Non-Identical Nakagami Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Anlei

    2012-09-08

    Previous works in cooperative spectrum sensing assumed that the channels for sensing and reporting are independent identical distributed (i.i.d). A more practical and appropriate assumption, however, should be that the sensing channels and reporting channels are independent but not necessarily identically distributed (i.n.i.d). In this paper, we derive the false-alarm probability and the detection probability of cooperative spectrum sensing with energy fusion over i.n.i.d Nakagami fading channels. Selected numerical results show that cooperative spectrum sensing still gives considerably better performance results even over i.n.i.d fading channels.

  18. 75 FR 19542 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Valuing and Paying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... amends the benefit payments regulation to adopt interest assumptions for plans with valuation dates in... single-employer plans covered by title IV of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. The interest assumptions are intended to reflect current conditions in the financial and annuity markets. These...

  19. Error rates of a full-duplex system over EGK fading channels subject to laplacian interference

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2017-07-31

    This paper develops a mathematical paradigm to study downlink error rates and throughput for half-duplex (HD) terminals served by a full-duplex (FD) base station (BS). Particularly, we study the dominant intra-cell interferer problem that appears between HD users scheduled on the same FD-channel. The distribution of the dominant interference is first characterized via its distribution function, which is derived in closed-form. Assuming Nakagami-m fading, the probability of error for different modulation schemes is studied and a unified closed-form expression for the average symbol error rate is derived. To this end, we show the effective downlink throughput gain, harvested by employing FD communication at a BS that serves HD users, as a function of the signal-to-interference-ratio when compared to an idealized HD interference and noise free BS operation.

  20. Asymptotic analysis for Nakagami-m fading channels with relay selection

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Caijun

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we analyze the asymptotic outage probability performance of both decode-and-forward (DF) and amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying systems using partial relay selection and the "best" relay selection schemes for Nakagami-m fading channels. We derive their respective outage probability expressions in the asymptotic high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime, from which the diversity order and coding gain are analyzed. In addition, we investigate the impact of power allocation between the source and relay terminals and derive the diversity-multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) for these relay selection systems. The theoretical findings suggest that partial relay selection can improve the diversity of the system and can achieve the same DMT as the "best" relay selection scheme under certain conditions. © 2011 IEEE.

  1. A single base pair in the right terminal domain of tomato planta macho viroid is a virulence determinant factor on tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rugang; Padmanabhan, Chellappan; Ling, Kai-Shu

    2017-01-01

    Tomato planta macho viroid (TPMVd), including isolates previously designated as Mexican papita viroid (MPVd), causes serious disease on tomatoes in North America. Two predominant variants, sharing 93.8% sequence identity, incited distinct severe (MPVd-S) or mild (MPVd-M) symptoms on tomato. To identify virulence determinant factor, a series of chimeric infectious clones were generated using synthetic DNA approach to progressively replace each structural domain between the two variants. In bioassays on tomato 'Rutgers', three chimeras containing Terminal Left and Pathogenicity (MPVd-H1), Central (MPVd-H2), or Variable (MPVd-H3) of MPVd-S, incited mild to intermediate symptoms. However, a chimera containing Terminal Right (T R ) of MPVd-S (MPVd-H4) incited severe symptoms. Only one base-pair mutation in the T R domain between MPVd-M ( 176 U:A 185 ) and MPVd-S ( 174 G:C 183 ) was identified. A reciprocal mutant (MPVd-H5) rendered the chimeric viroid mild on tomato. This single base-pair in the T R domain was determined as the virulence determinant factor for TPMVd. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. A test case for anomalous fading correction in IRSL dating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, J.; Bos, A.J.J.; Dorenbos, P.; Murray, A.S.; Schokker, J.

    2007-01-01

    Infrared-stimulated luminescence (IRSL) dating of feldspars has the potential to date deposits beyond the age range of quartz optical (OSL) dating. Successful application of feldspar IRSL dating is, however, often precluded due to anomalous-fading, the tunnelling of electrons from one defect site to

  3. Further investigations on 'non-fading' in K-Feldspar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov

    2015-01-01

    We give a theoretical overview of non-fading infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals in feldspars, followed by intercomparison of potential methods on some sediment extracts. We observe that a more stringent thermal wash on its own is not effective in obtaining a more stable signal...

  4. Physical Layer Design in Wireless Sensor Networks for Fading Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuo Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the theoretical analysis, simulation results and suggests design in digital technology of a physical layer for wireless sensor networks. The proposed design is able to mitigate fading inside communication channel. To mitigate fading the chip interleaving technique is proposed. For the proposed theoretical model of physical layer, a rigorous mathematical analysis is conducted, where all signals are presented and processed in discrete time domain form which is suitable for further direct processing necessary for devices design in digital technology. Three different channels are used to investigate characteristics of the physical layer: additive white Gaussian noise channel (AWGN, AWG noise and flat fading channel and AWG noise and flat fading channel with interleaver and deinterleaver blocks in the receiver and transmitter respectively. Firstly, the mathematical model of communication system representing physical layer is developed based on the discrete time domain signal representation and processing. In the existing theory, these signals and their processing are represented in continuous time form, which is not suitable for direct implementation in digital technology. Secondly, the expressions for the probability of chip, symbol and bit error are derived. Thirdly, the communication system simulators are developed in MATLAB. The simulation results confirmed theoretical findings.

  5. EFFECT OF SHADOWING AND MULTIPATH FADING ON THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    irrespective of their location. The traditional macro-only network have been proved ineffective when communication signal is required for users located in the cell edge and a certain distance away from the macrocell base station. This is because of excess attenuation of the signal due to fading and shadowing. Multipath ...

  6. On the effects of fading and mobility in on-demand routing protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Nassef

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most overlooked factors in evaluating performance of ad hoc routing protocols is the variation in received signal strength known as fading. Many types of routing protocols have been proposed based on simplified assumptions and unrealistic propagation models that neglect the effect of fading. The choice of propagation models have a great impact on performance, so realistic models are necessary to consider the effect of fading as far as an accurate analysis of performance of the routing protocols is concerned. In this paper, comparative analysis of two on demand ad hoc routing protocols is performed in order to study the impact of mobility and fading on performance. The non-fading models such as free space and two ray ground are simulated for comparison with fading models such as Shadowing, Ricean, and Rayleigh fading. The simulation results reveal that the fading models have a significantly degraded network performance with respect to two mobility scenarios.

  7. Low-energy multistage atrial defibrillation therapy terminates atrial fibrillation with less energy than a single shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenwen; Janardhan, Ajit H; Fedorov, Vadim V; Sha, Qun; Schuessler, Richard B; Efimov, Igor R

    2011-12-01

    Implantable device therapy of atrial fibrillation (AF) is limited by pain from high-energy shocks. We developed a low-energy multistage defibrillation therapy and tested it in a canine model of AF. AF was induced by burst pacing during vagus nerve stimulation. Our novel defibrillation therapy consisted of 3 stages: stage (ST) 1 (1-4 low-energy biphasic [BP] shocks), ST2 (6-10 ultralow-energy monophasic [MP] shocks), and ST3 (antitachycardia pacing). First, ST1 testing compared single or multiple MP and BP shocks. Second, several multistage therapies were tested: ST1 versus ST1+ST3 versus ST1+ST2+ST3. Third, 3 shock vectors were compared: superior vena cava to distal coronary sinus, proximal coronary sinus to left atrial appendage, and right atrial appendage to left atrial appendage. The atrial defibrillation threshold (DFT) of 1 BP shock was defibrillation at or below the pain threshold.

  8. Modeling and Simulation of MIMO Mobile-to-Mobile Wireless Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Bakhshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis and design of multielement antenna systems in mobile fading channels require a model for the space-time cross-correlation among the links of the underlying multipleinput multiple-output (MIMO Mobile-to-Mobile (M-to-M communication channels. In this paper, we propose the modified geometrical two-ring model, a MIMO channel reference model for M-to-M communication systems. This model is based on the extension of single-bounce two-ring scattering model for flat fading channel under the assumption that the transmitter and the receiver are moving. Assuming single-bounce scattering model in both isotropic and nonisotropic environment, a closed-form expression for the space-time cross-correlation function (CCF between any two subchannels is derived. The proposed model provides an important framework in M-to-M system design, where includes many existing correlation models as special cases. Also, two realizable statistical simulation models are proposed for simulating both isotropic and nonisotropic reference model. The realizable simulation models are based on Sum-of-Sinusoids (SoS simulation model. Finally, the correctness of the proposed simulation models is shown via different simulation scenarios.

  9. On limits of Wireless Communications in a Fading Environment: a General Parameterization Quantifying Performance in Fading Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Grover

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The reliable services along with high throughput can be achieved by using wireless communication systems. These systems also provides a wide coverage because of their features, no doubt MIMO Communication System [1] is one among them. Features provided by these systems ensure the improved system coverage and increased data transmission rate by considering multiple numbers of transmitter and receiver antennas. In this article, the concept of equalization has been considered and finally the performance of the MIMO Systems in Rician flat fading [5] channel is compared with the Rayleigh flat fading channel. It has also been observed that the performance of these Systems in Rician Flat Fading Channel is the best as compare to the Rayleigh Flat Fading Channel [10]. It has been concluded that the successive interference methods provide better performance as compare to others, but their complexity is high. Simulation results shows that ML provides the better performance in comparison to other equalizers but Sphere decoder provides the best performance.

  10. Fading characteristics of martian analogue materials and the applicability of a correction procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthekai, P.; Jain, Mayank; Murray, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    The anomalous fading of trapped charge in martian analogue materials such as basalt and andesite rock samples is measured. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signals show rapid fading (of between 4% and 27% per decade). Fading rates obtained using high temperature thermoluminescence signals...

  11. effect of shadowing and multipath fading on the area spectral for cell

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Industry, with vast developed and deployed infrastructure for providing .... 3.2 Bandwidth Allocation. In this paper, co-channel allocation of the bandwidth ... distribution. Small -scale fading is basically of two types: Rayleigh or Rician fading which are dependent on the number of reflective paths encountered. Rayleigh fading ...

  12. A novel Alamouti transmission technique via a single RF source and a miniaturized antenna system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrabadi, Osama; Papadias, Constantinos B.

    2010-01-01

    A novel space-time transmission technique that emulates Alamouti code with a single RF source is proposed in this paper. An orthogonal block of two BPSK signals is transmitted over a duration of two symbol periods by exciting one RF port of a two-element antenna system every symbol period while...... terminating the other port with its matching impedance. Besides the orthogonality of the signals, the array far-field is a linear mixture of two orthonormal basis functions onto which the BPSK signals are mapped, hence independent fading among the signals is almost always guaranteed....

  13. Single-layer ionic conduction on carboxyl-terminated silane monolayers patterned by constructive lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Jonathan; Burshtain, Doron; Zeira, Assaf; Yoffe, Alexander; Maoz, Rivka; Sagiv, Jacob

    2015-06-01

    Ionic transport plays a central role in key technologies relevant to energy, and information processing and storage, as well as in the implementation of biological functions in living organisms. Here, we introduce a supramolecular strategy based on the non-destructive chemical patterning of a highly ordered self-assembled monolayer that allows the reproducible fabrication of ion-conducting surface patterns (ion-conducting channels) with top -COOH functional groups precisely definable over the full range of length scales from nanometre to centimetre. The transport of a single layer of selected metal ions and the electrochemical processes related to their motion may thus be confined to predefined surface paths. As a generic solid ionic conductor that can accommodate different mobile ions in the absence of any added electrolyte, these ion-conducting channels exhibit bias-induced competitive transport of different ionic species. This approach offers unprecedented opportunities for the realization of designed ion-conducting systems with nanoscale control, beyond the inherent limitations posed by available ionic materials.

  14. Fading characteristics of martian analogue materials and the applicability of a correction procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthekai, P.; Jain, M.; Murray, A.S.; Thomsen, K.J.; Botter-Jensen, L.

    2008-01-01

    The anomalous fading of trapped charge in martian analogue materials such as basalt and andesite rock samples is measured. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signals show rapid fading (of between 4% and 27% per decade). Fading rates obtained using high temperature thermoluminescence signals are smaller. The importance of knowing whether a standard fading correction method is applicable to samples of unknown age is illustrated by application to an 'infinitely old' known-age basalt, for which both the uncorrected and fading-corrected natural signals lie within the approximately linear region of the growth curve

  15. Novel MGF-based expressions for the average bit error probability of binary signalling over generalized fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2014-04-01

    The main idea in the moment generating function (MGF) approach is to alternatively express the conditional bit error probability (BEP) in a desired exponential form so that possibly multi-fold performance averaging is readily converted into a computationally efficient single-fold averaging - sometimes into a closed-form - by means of using the MGF of the signal-to-noise ratio. However, as presented in [1] and specifically indicated in [2] and also to the best of our knowledge, there does not exist an MGF-based approach in the literature to represent Wojnar\\'s generic BEP expression in a desired exponential form. This paper presents novel MGF-based expressions for calculating the average BEP of binary signalling over generalized fading channels, specifically by expressing Wojnar\\'s generic BEP expression in a desirable exponential form. We also propose MGF-based expressions to explore the amount of dispersion in the BEP for binary signalling over generalized fading channels.

  16. Radio resource allocation over fading channels under statistical delay constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Le-Ngoc, Tho

    2017-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents radio resource allocation schemes for buffer-aided communications systems over fading channels under statistical delay constraints in terms of upper-bounded average delay or delay-outage probability. This Brief starts by considering a source-destination communications link with data arriving at the source transmission buffer. The first scenario, the joint optimal data admission control and power allocation problem for throughput maximization is considered, where the source is assumed to have a maximum power and an average delay constraints. The second scenario, optimal power allocation problems for energy harvesting (EH) communications systems under average delay or delay-outage constraints are explored, where the EH source harvests random amounts of energy from renewable energy sources, and stores the harvested energy in a battery during data transmission. Online resource allocation algorithms are developed when the statistical knowledge of the random channel fading, data arrivals...

  17. An Implementation of Nonlinear Multiuser Detection in Rayleigh Fading Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A blind nonlinear interference cancellation receiver for code-division multiple-access- (CDMA- based communication systems operating over Rayleigh flat-fading channels is proposed. The receiver which assumes knowledge of the signature waveforms of all the users is implemented in an asynchronous CDMA environment. Unlike the conventional MMSE receiver, the proposed blind ICA multiuser detector is shown to be robust without training sequences and with only knowledge of the signature waveforms. It has achieved nearly the same performance of the conventional training-based MMSE receiver. Several comparisons and experiments are performed based on examining BER performance in AWGN and Rayleigh fading in order to verify the validity of the proposed blind ICA multiuser detector.

  18. FADES: A tool for automated fault analysis of complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.

    1990-01-01

    FADES is an Expert System for performing fault analyses on complex connected systems. By using a graphical editor to draw components and link them together the FADES system allows the analyst to describe a given system. The knowledge base created is used to qualitatively simulate the system behaviour. By inducing all possible component failures in the system and determining their effects, a set of facts is built up. These facts are then used to create Fault Trees, or FMEA tables. The facts may also be used for explanation effects and to generate diagnostic rules allowing system instrumentation to be optimised. The prototype system has been built and tested and is preently undergoing testing by users. All comments from these trials will be used to tailor the system to the requirements of the user so that the end product performs the exact task required

  19. Development of a heterogeneous microwave network fade simulation tool applicable to networks that span Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Kevin S.; Basarudin, Hafiz

    2011-08-01

    Several research groups in Europe are developing joint channel simulators for arbitrarily complex networks of terrestrial and slant path, microwave telecommunications links. Currently, the Hull Rain Fade Network Simulator (HRFNS) developed at University of Hull can simulate rain fade on arbitrary terrestrial networks in the southern United Kingdom, producing joint rain fade time series with a 10 s integration time. This paper reports on work to broaden the function of the existing HRFNS to include slant paths such as Earth-space links and communications to high altitude platforms and unmanned airborne systems. The area of application of the new simulation tool is being extended to the whole of Europe, and other fade mechanisms are being included. Nimrod/OPERA has been chosen as the input meteorological data sets for the new system to simulate rain fade. Zero-degree isotherm heights taken from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Data are used in conjunction with the Eden-Bacon sleet (wet snow) model to introduce melting layer effects. Other fading mechanisms, including cloud fade, scintillation and absorption losses by atmospheric gasses, can be added to the simulator. The simulator is tested against ITU-R models for rain fade distribution experienced by terrestrial and Earth-space links in the southern United Kingdom. Statistics of fade dynamics, i.e., fade slope and fade duration, for a simulated Earth-space link are compared to International Telecommunication Union models.

  20. Developing a numerical simulation for fading in feldspar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A.; Greilich, Steffen; Jain, Mayank

    2009-01-01

    Most models describing anomalous fading in feldspars are based on analytical solutions. As an alternative approach we present an entirely numerical model based on statistical sampling that simulates stepwise the charge creation/trapping and recombination in a given phosphor. We assume the number...... of nearest-neighbor distances with time. The best agreement with experimental data is achieved if we assume the crystal to consist of small subvolumes (nanocrystals) only within which charge carriers are allowed to recombine....

  1. Blind equalization and fading channel signal recovery of OFDM modulation

    OpenAIRE

    Stranges, Anthony G.

    2011-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Algorithms for blind equalization and data recovery of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexed (OFDM) signals transmitted through fading channels are implemented and simulated in this thesis. The channel is estimated without knowledge of the transmitted sequence (i.e., blindly) using a least mean squares (LMS) adaptive filter and filter bank precoders. This method was used to estimate channel characteristics using both binary and...

  2. Capacity of Fading Channels in the Low Power Regime

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2013-01-01

    The low power regime has attracted various researchers in the information theory and communication communities to understand the performance limits of wireless systems. Indeed, the energy consumption is becoming one of the major limiting factors in wireless systems. As such, energy-efficient wireless systems are of major importance to the next generation wireless systems designers. The capacity is a metric that measures the performance limit of a wireless system. The study of the ergodic capacity of some fading channels in the low power regime is the main subject of this thesis. In our study, we consider that the receiver has always a full knowledge of the channel state information. However, we assume that the transmitter has possibly imperfect knowledge of the channel state information, i.e. he knows either perfectly the channel or only an estimated version of the channel. Both radio frequency and free space optical communication channel models are considered. The main contribution of this work is the explicit characterization of how the capacity scales as function of the signal-to-noise ratio in the low power regime. This allows us to characterize the gain due to the perfect knowledge compared to no knowledge of the channel state information at the transmitter. In particular, we show that the gain increases logarithmically for radio frequency communication. However, the gain increases as log2(Pavg) or log4(Pavg) for free-space optical communication, where Pavg is the average power constraint imposed to the input. Furthermore, we characterize the capacity of cascaded fading channels and we applied the result to Rayleigh-product fading channel and to a free-space optical link over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence in the presence of pointing errors. Finally, we study the capacity of Nakagami-m fading channel under quality of service constraints, namely the effective capacity. We have shown that the effective capacity converges to Shannon capacity in the very low

  3. Troxler Fading, Eye Movements, and Retinal Ganglion Cell Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Bachy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present four movies demonstrating the effect of flicker and blur on the magnitude and speed of adaptation for foveal and peripheral vision along the three color axes that isolate retinal ganglion cells projecting to magno, parvo, and konio layers of the LGN. The demonstrations support the eye movement hypothesis for Troxler fading for brightness and color, and demonstrate the effects of flicker and blur on adaptation of each class of retinal ganglion cells.

  4. Radiation degradation of molasses pigment. The fading color and product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawai, Teruko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Tanabe, Hiroko; Sawai, Takeshi [Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center (Japan)

    1993-02-01

    Water demand in Tokyo has increased rapidly. Because of the scarcity of water supply sources within the city, Tokyo is dependent on the water from other prefectures. Recycling of municipal effluent is an effective means of coping with water shortage in Tokyo. We have studied the radiation treatment of waste water for recycling. In this paper, the radiation decomposition methods for fading color of molasses pigment in the effluent from the sewage treatment plant and in the food industry wastwater were reported. The refractory organic substances (molasses pigment) in samples were degraded by gamma irradiation. The COD values decreased and the dark brown color faded with increasing dosage. The high molecular weight components of molasses pigment were degraded to lower molecular weight substances and were decomposed finally to carbon dioxide. The organic acids, such as formic acid, acetic acid, oxalic acid, citric acid and succinic acid were measured as intermediates of radiolytic decomposition. When we added hydrogen peroxide in samples to the gamma irradiation process, the dark brown color of molasses pigment faded with greater efficiency. (author).

  5. Analysis of Fade Dynamic at Ku-Band in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siat Ling Jong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates fade dynamics of satellite communication systems in equatorial heavy rain region based on a one year of Ku-band propagation measurement campaign carried out in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM, Johor, Malaysia. First order statistics of rain attenuation are deduced and the results are found to be in good agreement with those obtained from other beacon measurements gathered within the same area (Kuala Lumpur. Moreover, the fade duration and slope statistics of the satellite signal variations are also carefully derived and subsequently compared with the ITU-R recommendation model. Such information is useful for the system operator and radio communication engineer for the design of appropriate fade mitigation techniques as well as the quality of service that could be offered to the user (according to the time interval for a typical day. Further evaluation on the performances of several ITU-R models in the heavy rain region are needed based on the measurement database available of this climatic region.

  6. Fading Puppy Syndrome Associated with Toxocara canis Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayez Salib

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this work was studying the role of Toxocara canis infection in fading puppy syndrome and evaluating its treatment. Twelve German shepherd puppies suffered from fading puppy syndrome and their dam were presented. The dead puppies (N.=8 were necropsied. On the other hand, living puppies (N.=4 and their dam were examined both clinically and parasitologically. The collected worms from necropsied puppies were parasitologically identified as Toxocara canis and their counts ranged from 48 to 75 per puppy. The live cases were treated by Flubendazole. The parasitological examinations of stool of live puppies and dam revealed eggs identified as Toxocara canis eggs and their counts ranged from 50 to 350 eggs per gram stool. Post-treatment counts of Toxocara canis worms in stool of live puppies and their dam were ranged from 13 to 79 worms per animal. The results of treatment proved the efficacy of Flubendazole for eradication of Toxocara canis. Toxocara canis considers one of the causes of fading puppy syndrome and could be cured by Flubendazole .

  7. Secrecy Capacity Analysis over α−μ Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, Hongjiang

    2017-02-15

    In this work, we study the secrecy capacity of the classic Wyner’s model over the α − μ fading channels, where α and μ specify the nonlinearity and clustering of fading channels, respectively. The average secrecy capacity (ASC) is derived in closed-form by using the extended generalized bivariate Fox’s Hfunction (EGBFHF). Moreover, the asymptotic analysis of ASC in high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime is conducted. The asymptotic results unveil that the ASC follows the scaling law of Θ(ln p), where p stands for the ratio between the average powers of main channels and eavesdropping channels. Moreover, the ASC can be enhanced by increasing the transmit SNR, while there exists a ceiling of ASC as the SNRs at both sides are improved simultaneously. The accuracy of the analytical results is validated by Monte-Carlo simulations. The numerical results show that rigorous fading channels are beneficial to the secrecy performance, that is, serious nonlinearity (small α) and sparse clustering (small μ) will lead to the improvement of ASC.

  8. Radiation degradation of molasses pigment. The fading color and product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Tanabe, Hiroko; Sawai, Takeshi

    1993-01-01

    Water demand in Tokyo has increased rapidly. Because of the scarcity of water supply sources within the city, Tokyo is dependent on the water from other prefectures. Recycling of municipal effluent is an effective means of coping with water shortage in Tokyo. We have studied the radiation treatment of waste water for recycling. In this paper, the radiation decomposition methods for fading color of molasses pigment in the effluent from the sewage treatment plant and in the food industry wastwater were reported. The refractory organic substances (molasses pigment) in samples were degraded by gamma irradiation. The COD values decreased and the dark brown color faded with increasing dosage. The high molecular weight components of molasses pigment were degraded to lower molecular weight substances and were decomposed finally to carbon dioxide. The organic acids, such as formic acid, acetic acid, oxalic acid, citric acid and succinic acid were measured as intermediates of radiolytic decomposition. When we added hydrogen peroxide in samples to the gamma irradiation process, the dark brown color of molasses pigment faded with greater efficiency. (author)

  9. Fading AGN Candidates: AGN Histories and Outflow Signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keel, William C.; Maksym, W. Peter [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Lintott, Chris J. [Astrophysics, Oxford University and Adler Planetarium, 1300 S. Lakeshore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Bennert, Vardha N.; Scott, Bryan; Showley, Charles; Flatland, Kelsi [Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 (United States); Chojnowski, S. Drew [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 (United States); Moiseev, Alexei; Smirnova, Aleksandrina [Special Astrophysical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Arkhyz, 369167 (Russian Federation); Schawinski, Kevin; Sartori, Lia F. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Straße 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Urry, C. Megan [Department of Physics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520-8120 (United States); Pancoast, Anna [Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Schirmer, Mischa, E-mail: wkeel@ua.edu [Gemini Observatory, La Serena (Chile)

    2017-02-01

    We consider the energy budgets and radiative history of eight fading active galactic nuclei (AGNs), identified from an energy shortfall between the requirements to ionize very extended (radius > 10 kpc) ionized clouds and the luminosity of the nucleus as we view it directly. All show evidence of significant fading on timescales of ≈50,000 yr. We explore the use of minimum ionizing luminosity Q {sub ion} derived from photoionization balance in the brightest pixels in H α at each projected radius. Tests using presumably constant Palomar–Green QSOs, and one of our targets with detailed photoionization modeling, suggest that we can derive useful histories of individual AGNs, with the caveat that the minimum ionizing luminosity is always an underestimate and subject to uncertainties about fine structure in the ionized material. These consistency tests suggest that the degree of underestimation from the upper envelope of reconstructed Q {sub ion} values is roughly constant for a given object and therefore does not prevent such derivation. The AGNs in our sample show a range of behaviors, with rapid drops and standstills; the common feature is a rapid drop in the last ≈2×10{sup 4} yr before the direct view of the nucleus. The e -folding timescales for ionizing luminosity are mostly in the thousands of years, with a few episodes as short as 400 yr. In the limit of largely obscured AGNs, we find additional evidence for fading from the shortfall between even the lower limits from recombination balance and the maximum luminosities derived from far-infrared fluxes. We compare these long-term light curves, and the occurrence of these fading objects among all optically identified AGNs, to simulations of AGN accretion; the strongest variations over these timespans are seen in models with strong and local (parsec-scale) feedback. We present Gemini integral-field optical spectroscopy, which shows a very limited role for outflows in these ionized structures. While rings and

  10. Exact Symbol Error Probability of Square M-QAM Signaling over Generalized Fading Channels subject to Additive Generalized Gaussian Noise

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2013-07-01

    This paper considers the average symbol error probability of square Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) coherent signaling over flat fading channels subject to additive generalized Gaussian noise. More specifically, a generic closedform expression in terms of the Fox H function and the bivariate Fox H function is offered for the extended generalized-K fading case. Simplifications for some special fading distributions such as generalized-K fading, Nakagami-m fading, and Rayleigh fading and special additive noise distributions such as Gaussian and Laplacian noise are then presented. Finally, the mathematical formalism is illustrated by some numerical examples verified by computer based simulations for a variety of fading and additive noise parameters.

  11. Diversity detection in non-Gaussian noise employing the generalized approach to signal processing in noise with fading diversity channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzlukov, Vyacheslav

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of M-ary signal detection based on the generalized approach to signal processing (GASP) in noise over a single-input multiple-output (SIMO) channel affected by frequency-dispersive Rayleigh distributed fading and corrupted by additive non-Gaussian noise modeled as spherically invariant random process. We derive both the optimum generalized detector (GD) structure based on GASP and a suboptimal reduced-complexity GD applying the low energy coherence approach jointly with the GASP in noise. Both GD structures are independent of the actual noise statistics. We also carry out a performance analysis of both GDs and compare with the conventional receivers. The performance analysis is carried out with reference to the case that the channel is affected by a frequency-selective fading and for a binary frequency-shift keying (BFSK) signaling format. The results obtained through both a Chernoff-bounding technique and Monte Carlo simulations reveal that the adoption of diversity also represents a suitable means to restore performance in the presence of dispersive fading and impulsive non-Gaussian noise. It is also shown that the suboptimal GD incurs a limited loss with respect to the optimum GD and this loss is less in comparison with the conventional receiver.

  12. Backwards Faded Scaffolding Impact on Pre-Service Teachers’ Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    In response to national reform movements calling for future teachers to be prepared to design and deliver science instruction using the principles of inquiry in the context of Earth system science, we created and evaluated an innovative curriculum for specially designed courses for pre-service elementary education and secondary undergraduates based upon an inquiry-oriented teaching approach framed by the notions of backwards faded-scaffolding as an overarching theme for inquiry-oriented instruction. Students completed both structured- and open-inquiry projects using online scientific data bases, particularly those available from NASA, and presented the results of their investigations several times throughout the semester as a mini-science conference. Using a single-group, multiple-measures, quasi-experimental design, students demonstrated enhanced content knowledge of astronomy and inquiry as well as attitudes and self-efficacy toward teaching as measured by the Test of Astronomy STandards (TOAST), the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument - Version B, and the Attitudes Toward Science Inventory. We adopted a model of inquiry where: (i) students are engaged in questions; (ii) students are designing plans to pursue data; and (iii) students are generating and defending conclusions based on evidence they have collected. We developed an approach that is directly in contrast with the open inquiry “science fair” model to specifically use carefully scaffolded, shorter term inquiries, placing the most challenging aspects of “question generation” at the end of the lessons. In this model, during students' first experience with inquiry they are guided through the entire process, from research question to the appropriate content and format for a scientific conclusion. In their second experience, students generate their conclusions independently, with the previous experience set out as a guide for content and format. They are required to make sense of data that has

  13. Optimal Training for Time-Selective Wireless Fading Channels Using Cutoff Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Lang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the optimal allocation of resources—power and bandwidth—between training and data transmissions for single-user time-selective Rayleigh flat-fading channels under the cutoff rate criterion. The transmitter exploits statistical channel state information (CSI in the form of the channel Doppler spectrum to embed pilot symbols into the transmission stream. At the receiver, instantaneous, though imperfect, CSI is acquired through minimum mean-square estimation of the channel based on some set of pilot observations. We compute the ergodic cutoff rate for this scenario. Assuming estimator-based interleaving and -PSK inputs, we study two special cases in-depth. First, we derive the optimal resource allocation for the Gauss-Markov correlation model. Next, we validate and refine these insights by studying resource allocation for the Jakes model.

  14. Compensating for Channel Fading in DS-CDMA Communication Systems Employing ICA Neural Network Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Overbye

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the impact of channel fading on the bit error rate of a DS-CDMA communication system. The system employs detectors that incorporate neural networks effecting methods of independent component analysis (ICA, subspace estimation of channel noise, and Hopfield type neural networks. The Rayleigh fading channel model is used. When employed in a Rayleigh fading environment, the ICA neural network detectors that give superior performance in a flat fading channel did not retain this superior performance. We then present a new method of compensating for channel fading based on the incorporation of priors in the ICA neural network learning algorithms. When the ICA neural network detectors were compensated using the incorporation of priors, they give significantly better performance than the traditional detectors and the uncompensated ICA detectors. Keywords: CDMA, Multi-user Detection, Rayleigh Fading, Multipath Detection, Independent Component Analysis, Prior Probability Hebbian Learning, Natural Gradient

  15. OPRA capacity bounds for selection diversity over generalized fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Hanif, Muhammad Fainan

    2014-05-01

    Channel side information at the transmitter can increase the average capacity by enabling optimal power and rate adaptation. The resulting optimal power and rate adaptation (OPRA) capacity rarely has a closed-form analytic expression. In this paper, lower and upper bounds on OPRA capacity for selection diversity scheme are presented. These bounds hold for variety of fading channels including log-normal and generalized Gamma distributed models and have very simple analytic expressions for easy evaluation even for kth best path selection. Some selected numerical results show that the newly proposed bounds closely approximate the actual OPRA capacity. © 2014 IEEE.

  16. Dependence of (anomalous) fading of infra-red stimulated luminescence on trap occupancy in feldspars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthekai, P.; Jain, Mayank; Gach, Grzegorz

    2013-01-01

    Dose dependency of anomalous fading of infra-red stimulated luminescence (IRSL) from feldspars has been investigated using radiations of different ionisation qualities. The rate of fading of the IRSL signal after proton irradiation (9.4–30%/decade) is on an average almost twice compared to that a...... on the number density of the trapped charge carriers. These results support the hypothesis that anomalous fading occurs across randomly distributed donor-acceptor distances as opposed to pairs with a fixed distance....

  17. An MGF-based capacity analysis of equal gain combining over fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2010-09-01

    Exact average capacity results for L-branch coherent equal-gain combining (EGC) in correlated and uncorrelated fading channels are not known. This paper develops a novel framework (approach) for capacity analysis of L-branch EGC in generalized fading channels. In addition, Gamma shadowed generalized Nakagami-m fading model is proposed in order to statistically model the fading environments in high frequencies such as 60 GHz and above. Some simulations are carried out and then the obtained results are accentuated by means of numerical analysis based on the proposed framework. Numerical and simulation results, performed to verify the correctness of the proposed framework, are in perfect agreement. ©2010 IEEE.

  18. Efficient incremental relaying for packet transmission over fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel relaying scheme for packet transmission over fading channels, which improves the spectral efficiency of cooperative diversity systems by utilizing limited feedback from the destination. Our scheme capitalizes on the fact that relaying is only required when direct transmission suffers deep fading. We calculate the packet error rate for the proposed efficient incremental relaying (EIR) scheme with both amplify and forward and decode and forward relaying. We compare the performance of the EIR scheme with the threshold-based incremental relaying (TIR) scheme. It is shown that the efficiency of the TIR scheme is better for lower values of the threshold. However, the efficiency of the TIR scheme for higher values of threshold is outperformed by the EIR. In addition, three new threshold-based adaptive EIR are devised to further improve the efficiency of the EIR scheme. We calculate the packet error rate and the efficiency of these new schemes to provide the analytical insight. © 2014 IEEE.

  19. Color transplant for reverse ageing of faded artworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Mastio, A.; Piva, A.; Barni, M.; Cappellini, V.; Stefanini, L.

    2008-02-01

    Nowadays, photographs are one of the most used media for communication. Images are used for the representation of documents, Cultural goods, and so on: they are used to pass on a wedge of historical memory of the society. Since its origin, the photographic technique has got several improvements; nevertheless, photos are liable to several damages, both concerning the physical support and concerning the colors and figures which are depicted in it: for example, think about scratches or rips happened to a photo, or think about the fading or red (or yellow) toning concerning the colors of a photo. In this paper, we propose a novel method which is able to assess the original beauty of digital reproductions of aged photos, as well as digital reproductions of faded goods. The method is based on the comparison of the degraded image with a not-degraded one showing similar contents; thus, the colors of the not-degraded image can be transplanted in the degraded one. The key idea is a dualism between the analytical mechanics and the color theory: for each of the degraded and not-degraded images we compute first a scatter plot of the x and y normalized coordinates of their colors; these scatter diagrams can be regarded as a system of point masses, thus provided of inertia axes and an inertia ellipsoid. Moving the scatter diagram of the degraded image over the one belonging to the not-degraded image, the colors of the degraded image can be restored.

  20. The fading of irradiated blue-colored pearls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Shinichi

    1982-01-01

    The fading of irradiated and natural blue-colored pearls was investigated in this experiment. Thirty natural blue-colored pearls and sixty irradiated blue-colored pearls were used. Some of them were placed at a light position of RT. Another pearls were placed at a dark position of 50 0 C. The irradiated pearls placed at a light position of RT didn't show remarkable fading in their color in 294 days. But the natural blue-colored pearls showed a little recovery from 4% to 8% in reflection factors in 223 days at RT. The irradiated pearls placed at a dark position of 50 0 C showed the recovery from 9% to 14% in 264 days independently of irradiation times. The natural blue-colored pearls also showed the bleaching from 5% to 10% in reflection factor in 86 days at 50 0 C. Both irradiated and natural blue-colored pearls hardly showed their remarkable changes in their chromaticities independently of temperatures. (author)

  1. A 100 kpc nebula associated with the `Teacup' fading quasar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar-Martín, M.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.; Humphrey, A.; Silva, M.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Piqueras-López, J.; Emonts, B.

    2018-02-01

    We report the discovery of an ˜100 kpc ionized nebula associated with the radio-quiet type 2 quasar (QSO2) nicknamed the `Teacup' (z = 0.085). The giant nebula is among the largest known around active galaxies at any z. We propose that it is part of the circumgalactic medium (CGM) of the QSO2 host, which has been populated with tidal debris by galactic interactions. This rich gaseous medium has been rendered visible due to the illumination by the powerful active nucleus (AGN). Subsolar abundances (˜0.5 Z⊙) are tentatively favoured by AGN photoionization models. We also report the detection of coronal emission (Fe+6) from the NE bubble, at ˜9 kpc from the AGN. The detection of coronal lines at such large distances from the AGN and the [N II] λ6583/Hα, [S II] λλ6716,6731/Hα, [O I] λ6300/Hα optical emission-line ratios of the giant nebula are consistent with the fading quasar scenario proposed by Gagne et al. The fading rate appears to have been faster in the last ˜46 000 yr. Deep wide field integral field spectroscopy of giant nebulae around powerful AGN such as the `Teacup's' with instruments such as MUSE on VLT opens up a way to detect and study the elusive material from the CGM around massive active galaxies thanks to the illumination by the luminous AGN.

  2. Study of the alkaline fading of phenolphthalein in microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shiyan; Chen, Zhiyun; An, Xueqin; Shen, Weiguo

    2011-06-09

    The reactions of the alkaline fading of phenolphthalein (PN) have been studied in water/sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane microemulsions by monitoring the absorbance changes of PN in the system with the time and the results compared with those found for the same reactions in aqueous solutions. It was found that the values of the equilibrium constants and the forward reaction rate constants in the microemulsions were significantly larger than that in aqueous solutions and decreased with increasing the molar ratio of water to AOT (ω), except for that with low ω. The temperature dependence of the reaction rate constant was analyzed to obtain the values of free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of activation, which suggests the existence of an isokinetic relationship and a common mechanism for the reactions occurring in the microemulsions with different ω. It was also observed that the competition between the reactions of the alkaline fading of PN and the hydrolyzation of AOT in water/AOT/isooctane microemulsions when the reaction time was sufficiently long.

  3. Average bit error probability of binary coherent signaling over generalized fading channels subject to additive generalized gaussian noise

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2012-06-01

    This letter considers the average bit error probability of binary coherent signaling over flat fading channels subject to additive generalized Gaussian noise. More specifically, a generic closed form expression in terms of the Fox\\'s H function is offered for the extended generalized-K fading case. Simplifications for some special fading distributions such as generalized-K fading and Nakagami-m fading and special additive noise distributions such as Gaussian and Laplacian noise are then presented. Finally, the mathematical formalism is illustrated by some numerical examples verified by computer based simulations for a variety of fading and additive noise parameters. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Terminal myelocystocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Chandra, Anil

    2002-12-01

    Terminal myelocystocele is an unusual form of occult spinal dysraphism. It consists of a cystic dilatation of a low-lying terminal cord herniated posteriorly through a skin covered lumbosacral spina bifida. This condition is often associated with OEIS complex i.e. opmphalocele, exstrophy of the bladder, imperforate anus and spinal abnormality. We studied 4 cases of terminal myelocystocele. They revealed no preoperative neurological deficit. None of these had associated OEIS complex. One of the cyst was unique due to presence of copious amount of pus in its cavity. All four cases underwent successful repair and surgery remained uneventful in all of them. No child showed neurological deterioration during the follow-up.

  5. Using Stimulus Fading without Escape Extinction to Increase Compliance with Toothbrushing in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Michele R.; Kenzer, Amy L.; Coffman, Christine M.; Tarbox, Courtney M.; Tarbox, Jonathan; Lanagan, Taira M.

    2013-01-01

    Routine toothbrushing is an essential part of good oral hygiene. This study investigated the use of stimulus fading without escape extinction to increase compliance with toothbrushing with three children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A 30-step stimulus fading hierarchy was implemented; gradually increasing the proximity of the toothbrush to…

  6. An attempt to correct for the fading in million year old basaltic rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthekai, P.; Jain, Mayank; Cunha, Pedro P.

    2011-01-01

    The use of feldspar for luminescence dating has been restricted because of anomalous fad-ing. This has made its application to several important geological problems such as volcanic terrains difficult. Presently, two correction procedures are used to correct for anomalous fading. The present study...

  7. Spoon Distance Fading with and without Escape Extinction as Treatment for Food Refusal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Kristi D.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Patel, Meeta R.; Bachmeyer, Melanie H.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the characteristics of meals that serve as motivating operations (MOs) for escape behavior. In the current investigation, we showed that the distance at which a therapist held a spoon from a child's lips served as an MO for escape behavior. Based on these results, we implemented spoon distance fading, compared fading with and…

  8. Fading of auramine-stained mycobacterial smears and implications for external quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minion, Jessica; Shenai, Shubhada; Vadwai, Viral; Tipnis, Tejashree; Greenaway, Christina; Menzies, Dick; Ramsay, Andrew; Rodrigues, Camilla; Pai, Madhukar

    2011-05-01

    Light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy is being scaled up for tuberculosis control, but fading of auramine-stained slides could compromise external quality assurance. We stored auramine-stained slides and reexamined them over time. Slides stored in all environments faded quickly, with significant changes in the proportion of positive slides in as little as 1 week.

  9. Combined diversity and improved energy detection in cooperative spectrum sensing with faded reporting channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Nallagonda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we evaluate the performance of cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS where each cognitive radio (CR employs an improved energy detector (IED with multiple antennas and uses selection combining (SC for detecting the primary user (PU in noisy and faded sensing (S channels. We derive an expression for the probability of false alarm and expressions for probability of missed detection in non-faded (AWGN and Rayleigh faded sensing environments in terms of cumulative distribution function (CDF. Each CR transmits its decision about PU via noisy and faded reporting (R channel to fusion center (FC. In this paper we assume that S-channels are noisy and Rayleigh faded while several cases of fading are considered for R-channels such as: (i Hoyt (or Nakagami-q, (ii Rayleigh, (iii Rician (or Nakagami-n, and (iv Weibull. A Binary Symmetric channel (BSC with a fixed error probability (r in the R-channel is also considered. The impact of fading in R-channel, S-channel and several network parameters such as IED parameter, normalized detection threshold, number of CRs, and number of antennas on missed detection and total error probability is assessed. The effects of Hoyt, Rician, and Weibull fading parameters on overall performance of IED-CSS are also highlighted.

  10. effect of shadowing and multipath fading on the area spectral for cell

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    base station. This is because of excess attenuation of the signal due to fading and shadowing. Multipath fading and shadowing are major causes of performance degradation in mobile communication systems. This phenomenon which arises as a result of propagation effects (like scattering, diffraction and reflection), renders ...

  11. An Alternative Method to Compute the Bit Error Probability of Modulation Schemes Subject to Nakagami- Fading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeiro Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents an alternative method for determining exact expressions for the bit error probability (BEP of modulation schemes subject to Nakagami- fading. In this method, the Nakagami- fading channel is seen as an additive noise channel whose noise is modeled as the ratio between Gaussian and Nakagami- random variables. The method consists of using the cumulative density function of the resulting noise to obtain closed-form expressions for the BEP of modulation schemes subject to Nakagami- fading. In particular, the proposed method is used to obtain closed-form expressions for the BEP of -ary quadrature amplitude modulation ( -QAM, -ary pulse amplitude modulation ( -PAM, and rectangular quadrature amplitude modulation ( -QAM under Nakagami- fading. The main contribution of this paper is to show that this alternative method can be used to reduce the computational complexity for detecting signals in the presence of fading.

  12. Quantum illumination for enhanced detection of Rayleigh-fading targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Quntao; Zhang, Zheshen; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2017-08-01

    Quantum illumination (QI) is an entanglement-enhanced sensing system whose performance advantage over a comparable classical system survives its usage in an entanglement-breaking scenario plagued by loss and noise. In particular, QI's error-probability exponent for discriminating between equally likely hypotheses of target absence or presence is 6 dB higher than that of the optimum classical system using the same transmitted power. This performance advantage, however, presumes that the target return, when present, has known amplitude and phase, a situation that seldom occurs in light detection and ranging (lidar) applications. At lidar wavelengths, most target surfaces are sufficiently rough that their returns are speckled, i.e., they have Rayleigh-distributed amplitudes and uniformly distributed phases. QI's optical parametric amplifier receiver—which affords a 3 dB better-than-classical error-probability exponent for a return with known amplitude and phase—fails to offer any performance gain for Rayleigh-fading targets. We show that the sum-frequency generation receiver [Zhuang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 040801 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.040801]—whose error-probability exponent for a nonfading target achieves QI's full 6 dB advantage over optimum classical operation—outperforms the classical system for Rayleigh-fading targets. In this case, QI's advantage is subexponential: its error probability is lower than the classical system's by a factor of 1 /ln(M κ ¯NS/NB) , when M κ ¯NS/NB≫1 , with M ≫1 being the QI transmitter's time-bandwidth product, NS≪1 its brightness, κ ¯ the target return's average intensity, and NB the background light's brightness.

  13. Terminal Ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2012-01-01

    This book covers the important issues of terminal ballistics in a comprehensive way combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. The first chapter reviews the experimental equipment which are used for ballistic tests and the diagnostics for material characterization under impulsive loading conditions. The second chapter covers essential features of the codes which are used for terminal ballistics such as the Euler vs. Lagrange schemes and meshing techniques, as well as the most popular material models. The third chapter, devoted to the penetration mechanics of rigid penetrators, brings the update of modeling in this field. The fourth chapter deals with plate perforation and the fifth chapter deals with the penetration mechanics of shaped charge jets and eroding long rods. The last two chapters discuss several techniques for the disruption and defeating of the main threats in armor design. Throughout the book the authors demonstrate the advantages of numerical simulations in unde...

  14. On the capacity of multiple access and broadcast fading Channels with full channel state information at low power regime

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2013-07-01

    We study the throughput capacity region of the Gaussian multi-access (MAC) fading channel with perfect channel state information (CSI) at the receiver and at the transmitters (CSI-TR), at low power regime. We show that it has a multidimensional rectangle structure and thus is simply characterized by single user capacity points. More specifically, we show that at low power regime, the boundary surface of the capacity region shrinks to a single point corresponding to the sum-rate maximizer and that the coordinates of this point coincide with single user capacity bounds. Using the duality of Gaussian MAC and broadcast channels (BC), we provide a simple characterization of the BC capacity region at low power regime. © 2013 IEEE.

  15. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  16. Ear-to-Ear On-Body Channel Fading in the ISM-band for Tangentially-Polarized Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The ear-to-ear on-body channel fading has been studied in the ISM-band. The ear-to-ear path gain was measured on six persons in an indoor environment for a duration of 200 s. The channel fading has been characterized in terms of empirical cumulative distribution functions (CDF), average fade...

  17. Peer-Monitoring vs. Micro-Script Fading for Enhancing Knowledge Acquisition when Learning in Computer-Supported Argumentation Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyias, Yannis; Demetriadis, Stavros

    2012-01-01

    Research on computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) has strongly emphasized the value of providing student support with micro-scripts, which should withdraw (fade-out) allowing students to practice the acquired skills. However, research on fading shows conflicting results and some researchers suggest that the impact of fading is enhanced…

  18. A novel marker for terminal Schwann cells, homocysteine-responsive ER-resident protein, as isolated by a single cell PCR-differential display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Ryo; Yaoi, Takeshi; Okajima, Seiichiro; Kobashi, Hiroaki; Kubo, Toshikazu; Fushiki, Shinji

    2003-09-05

    Terminal Schwann cells (TSCs) that cover motor neuron terminals are known to play important roles in maintaining neuromuscular junctions, as well as in the repair process after nerve injury. However, molecular characteristics of TSCs remain unknown, because of the difficulties in analyzing them due to their paucity. We have established a method of selectively and efficiently collecting TSCs so that cDNA analysis can be done properly. The expression of 1-2% of whole mRNAs was compared between myelinating Schwann cells (MSCs) and TSCs, and it turned out that approximately one-third of the bands could be categorized as cell-type-specific bands. TSCs thus constitute a distinct entity from the viewpoint of gene expression. As one of the cDNA clones belonging to TSC-specific bands was identified homocysteine-responsive ER-resident protein (Herp), and in situ hybridization confirmed that Herp mRNA is expressed in TSCs on motor nerve terminals but not in MSCs, both in developing and adult rats. In conclusion, we have been able to identify Herp as a novel molecular marker for TSCs.

  19. Conserved Patterns of Microbial Immune Escape: Pathogenic Microbes of Diverse Origin Target the Human Terminal Complement Inhibitor Vitronectin via a Single Common Motif.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresia Hallström

    Full Text Available Pathogenicity of many microbes relies on their capacity to resist innate immunity, and to survive and persist in an immunocompetent human host microbes have developed highly efficient and sophisticated complement evasion strategies. Here we show that different human pathogens including Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as the fungal pathogen Candida albicans, acquire the human terminal complement regulator vitronectin to their surface. By using truncated vitronectin fragments we found that all analyzed microbial pathogens (n = 13 bound human vitronectin via the same C-terminal heparin-binding domain (amino acids 352-374. This specific interaction leaves the terminal complement complex (TCC regulatory region of vitronectin accessible, allowing inhibition of C5b-7 membrane insertion and C9 polymerization. Vitronectin complexed with the various microbes and corresponding proteins was thus functionally active and inhibited complement-mediated C5b-9 deposition. Taken together, diverse microbial pathogens expressing different structurally unrelated vitronectin-binding molecules interact with host vitronectin via the same conserved region to allow versatile control of the host innate immune response.

  20. Text-fading based training leads to transfer effects on children’s sentence reading fluency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telse eNagler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies used a text-fading procedure as a training tool with the goal to increase silent reading fluency (i.e., proficient reading rate and comprehension. In recently published studies, this procedure resulted in lasting reading enhancements for adult and adolescent research samples. However, studies working with children reported mixed results. While reading rate improvements were observable for Dutch reading children in a text-fading training study, reading fluency improvements in standardized reading tests post-training attributable to the fading manipulation were not detectable. These results raise the question of whether text-fading training is not effective for children or whether research design issues have concealed possible transfer effects. Hence, the present study sought to investigate possible transfer effects resulting from a text-fading based reading training program, using a modified research design. Over a period of three weeks, two groups of German third-graders read sentences either with an adaptive text-fading procedure or at their self-paced reading rate. A standardized test measuring reading fluency at the word, sentence, and text level was conducted pre- and post-training. Text level reading fluency improved for both groups equally. Post-training gains at the word level were found for the text-fading group, however, no significant interaction between groups was revealed for word reading fluency. Sentence level reading fluency gains were found for the text-fading group, which significantly differed from the group of children reading at their self-paced reading routine. These findings provide evidence for the efficacy of text-fading as a training method for sentence reading fluency improvement also for children.

  1. A unified MGF-based capacity analysis of diversity combiners over generalized fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2012-03-01

    Unified exact ergodic capacity results for L-branch coherent diversity combiners including equal-gain combining (EGC) and maximal-ratio combining (MRC) are not known. This paper develops a novel generic framework for the capacity analysis of L-branch EGC/MRC over generalized fading channels. The framework is used to derive new results for the gamma-shadowed generalized Nakagami-m fading model which can be a suitable model for the fading environments encountered by high frequency (60 GHz and above) communications. The mathematical formalism is illustrated with some selected numerical and simulation results confirming the correctness of our newly proposed framework. © 2012 IEEE.

  2. Analysis of rain fade duration models for Earth-to-satellite path based on data measured in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, Hassan; Rafiqul, Islam Md; Al-Khateeb, Khalid A S

    2013-01-01

    Statistical analysis of rain fade duration is crucial information for system engineer to design and plan a fade mitigation technique (FMT) for the satellite communication system. An investigation is carried out based on data measured of one year period in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from satellite path of MEASAT3. This paper presents statistical analysis of measured fade duration on high elevation angle (77.4°) in Ku-band compared to three prediction models of fade duration. It is found that none of the models could predict measured fade duration distribution accurately

  3. Cooperative Cognitive Radio Systems over Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2013-05-08

    This thesis aims to investigate the incorporation of cooperative techniques in cognitive radio networks over Nakagami-m fading channels. These last years, spectrum sharing mechanisms has gained a lot of interest in the wireless communication domain. Using cooperation in a cognitive set up make the use of spectrum much more efficient. Moreover, it helps to extend the coverage area of the cognitive network and also to reduce the transmitting power and, thus, the generated interference. In this work, we consider two particular scenarios for cooperative cognitive radio systems. The first scenario consider multihop regenerative relaying in an underlay cognitive set up. The cooperation is performed in the secondary system, in the presence of multiple primary users. Both interference power and peak power constraints are taking into account. Closed-form expressions for the statistical characteristics and multiple end- to-end performance metrics are derived. Different scenarios are presented to illustrate the obtained results and Monte Carlo simulations confirm the accuracy of our analytical derivations. In the second part of this work, we consider an overlay cognitive network with the spectrally efficient two-phase two-way relaying protocol. Two relay selection techniques, optimizing both the primary and the secondary communication, are presented. The overall outage performance is investigated and an optimal power allocation scheme, that ameliorate the outage performance of the system, is proposed. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate and compare the obtained results.

  4. The thermodynamics of simple materials with fading memory

    CERN Document Server

    Day, William Alan

    1972-01-01

    This Tract gives an account of certain recent attempts to construct a satisfactory theory of thermodynamics for materials which have a memory for the past. Naturally it draws heavily on the writings of those who have made significant contributions to the field. I am particularly grateful to Professor C. A. Truesdell of The lohns Hopkins University for his invitation to write the Tract and to Professor A. E. Green of Oxford for his comments on various parts of the manuscript. Hertford College, Oxford December 1971 W. A. Day Contents Introduction 1 Chapter 1 Preliminaries 5 1. 1 Vector and Tensor Analysis. 5 1. 2 Paths and Line Integrals . 7 1. 3 Kinematics and the Balance Laws 11 1. 4 Simple Materials with Memory 15 21 Chapter 2 A Theory of Thermodynamics . 2. 1 Processes. 21 2. 2 The Thermodynamic Inequality . 23 2. 3 Heat Conduction Inequalities . 24 2. 4 The Conversion of Heat into Mechanical Work 27 31 The Construction of the Entropy Chapter 3 The Clausius Inequality 31 3. 1 3. 2 Fading Memory . 34 3. 3 Th...

  5. Internal tides and deep diel fades in acoustic intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrew W; Henyey, Frank S; Andrew, Rex K; Mercer, James A; Worcester, Peter F; Dzieciuch, Matthew A; Colosi, John A

    2016-11-01

    A mechanism is presented by which the observed acoustic intensity is made to vary due to changes in the acoustic path that are caused by internal-tide vertical fluid displacements. The position in range and depth of large-scale caustic structure is determined by the background sound-speed profile. Internal tides cause a deformation of the background profile, changing the positions of the caustic structures-which can introduce intensity changes at a distant receiver. Gradual fades in the acoustic intensity occurring over timescales similar to those of the tides were measured during a low-frequency (284-Hz) acoustic scattering experiment in the Philippine Sea in 2009 [White et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134(4), 3347-3358 (2013)]. Parabolic equation and Hamiltonian ray-tracing calculations of acoustic propagation through a plane-wave internal tide environmental model employing sound-speed profiles taken during the experiment indicate that internal tides could cause significant gradual changes in the received intensity. Furthermore, the calculations demonstrate how large-scale perturbations to the index of refraction can result in variation in the received intensity.

  6. Analysis of Coded FHSS Systems with Multiple Access Interference over Generalized Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam A. Zummo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the effect of interference on the performance of coded FHSS systems. This is achieved by modeling the physical channel in these systems as a block fading channel. In the derivation of the bit error probability over Nakagami fading channels, we use the exact statistics of the multiple access interference (MAI in FHSS systems. Due to the mathematically intractable expression of the Rician distribution, we use the Gaussian approximation to derive the error probability of coded FHSS over Rician fading channel. The effect of pilot-aided channel estimation is studied for Rician fading channels using the Gaussian approximation. From this, the optimal hopping rate in coded FHSS is approximated. Results show that the performance loss due to interference increases as the hopping rate decreases.

  7. Laboratory fading rates of various luminescence signals from feldspar-rich sediment extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Murray, A.S.; Jain, Mayank

    2008-01-01

    Feldspar as a retrospective dosimeter is receiving more and more attention because of its useful luminescence properties; in particular the dose response curve extends to significantly higher doses than quartz. However, feldspars have one major disadvantage; both the thermoluminescence (TL......) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signals exhibit anomalous (athermal) fading. Much of the OSL work carried out on feldspars in recent years has focussed on determining fading rates and correcting for them. Almost all work has been carried out using IR stimulation at 50 degrees C detected in the blue...... region of the spectrum. In contrast, we have determined fading rates for various sedimentary feldspar samples using different stimulation and detection windows. If the initial part of the OSL signal is used the lowest fading rate is observed with post-IR blue stimulation (UV detection), but if a later...

  8. Achievable capacity of a spectrum sharing system over hyper fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ekin, Sabit

    2009-11-01

    Cognitive radio with spectrum sharing feature is a promising technique to address the spectrum under-utilization problem in dynamically changing environments. In this paper, achievable capacity gain of spectrum sharing systems over dynamic fading environments is studied. For the analysis, a theoretical fading model called hyper fading model that is suitable to the dynamic nature of cognitive radio channel is proposed. Closed-form expression of probability density function (PDF) and cumulative density function (CDF) of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for secondary users in spectrum sharing systems are derived. In addition, the capacity gains achievable with spectrum sharing systems in high and low power regions are obtained. Numerical simulations are performed to study the effects of different fading figures, average powers, interference temperature, and number of secondary users on the achievable capacity.

  9. A tone-aided dual vestigial sideband system for digital communications on fading channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Stephen M.; Saulnier, Gary J.; Rafferty, William

    1989-01-01

    A spectrally efficient tone-aided dual vestigial sideband (TA/DVSB) system for digital data communications on fading channels is presented and described analytically. This PSK (phase-shift-keying) system incorporates a feed-forward, tone-aided demodulation technique to compensate for Doppler frequency shift and channel- induced, multipath fading. In contrast to other tone-in-band-type systems, receiver synchronization is derived from the complete data VSBs. Simulation results for the Rician fading channel are presented. These results demonstrate the receiver's ability to mitigate performance degradation due to fading and to obtain proper data carrier synchronization, suggesting that the proposed TA/DVSB system has promise for this application. Simulated BER (bit-error rate) data indicate that the TA/DVSB system effectively alleviates the channel distortions of the land mobile satellite application.

  10. Continuous-variable quantum key distribution in uniform fast-fading channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastasiou, Panagiotis; Weedbrook, Christian; Pirandola, Stefano

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the performance of several continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocols in the presence of uniform fading channels. These are lossy channels whose transmissivity changes according to a uniform probability distribution. We assume the worst-case scenario where an eavesdropper induces a fast-fading process, where she chooses the instantaneous transmissivity while the remote parties may only detect the mean statistical effect. We analyze coherent-state protocols in various configurations, including the one-way switching protocol in reverse reconciliation, the measurement-device-independent protocol in the symmetric configuration, and its extension to a three-party network. We show that, regardless of the advantage given to the eavesdropper (control of the fading), these protocols can still achieve high rates under realistic attacks, within reasonable values for the variance of the probability distribution associated with the fading process.

  11. MGF Approach to the Analysis of Generalized Two-Ray Fading Models

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Milind

    2015-01-01

    We analyze a class of Generalized Two-Ray (GTR) fading channels that consist of two line of sight (LOS) components with random phase plus a diffuse component. We derive a closedform expression for the moment generating function (MGF) of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for this model, which greatly simplifies its analysis. This expression arises from the observation that the GTR fading model can be expressed in terms of a conditional underlying Rician distribution. We illustrate the approach to derive simple expressions for statistics and performance metrics of interest such as the amount of fading, the level crossing rate, the symbol error rate, and the ergodic capacity in GTR fading channels. We also show that the effect of considering a more general distribution for the phase difference between the LOS components has an impact on the average SNR.

  12. Terminal ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively discusses essential aspects of terminal ballistics, combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. Employing a unique approach to numerical simulations as a measure of sensitivity for the major physical parameters, the new edition also includes the following features: new figures to better illustrate the problems discussed; improved explanations for the equation of state of a solid and for the cavity expansion process; new data concerning the Kolsky bar test; and a discussion of analytical modeling for the hole diameter in a thin metallic plate impacted by a shaped charge jet. The section on thick concrete targets penetrated by rigid projectiles has now been expanded to include the latest findings, and two new sections have been added: one on a novel approach to the perforation of thin concrete slabs, and one on testing the failure of thin metallic plates using a hydrodynamic ram.

  13. Lysophospholipid receptors are differentially expressed in rat terminal Schwann cells, as revealed by a single cell rt-PCR and in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashi, Hiroaki; Yaoi, Takeshi; Oda, Ryo; Okajima, Seiichiro; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu; Fushiki, Shinji

    2006-04-22

    Terminal Schwann cells (TSCs) that cover motor neuron terminals, are known to play an important role in maintaining neuromuscular junctions, as well as in the repair process after nerve injury. However, the molecular characteristics of TSCs remain unknown, because of the difficulties in analyzing them due to their paucity. By using our previously reported method of selectively and efficiently collecting TSCs, we have analyzed the difference in expression patterns of lysophospholipid (LPL) receptor genes (LPA1, LPA2, LPA3, S1P1, S1P2, S1P3, S1P4, and S1P5) between TSCs and myelinating Schwann cells (MSCs). LPL, which includes lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), is the bioactive lipid that induces a myriad of cellular responses through specific members of G-protein coupled receptors for LPA. It turned out that LPA3 was expressed only in TSCs, whereas S1P1 was expressed in TSCs and skeletal muscle, but not in MSCs. Other types of LPL receptor genes, including LPA1, S1P2, S1P3, S1P4, were expressed in both types of Schwann cells. None of the LPL receptor gene family showed MSCs-specific expression.

  14. The Effects of Reinforcer Pairing and Fading on Preschoolers' Snack Selections

    OpenAIRE

    Solberg, Katherine M; Hanley, Gregory P; Layer, Stacy A; Ingvarsson, Einar T

    2007-01-01

    The effects of reinforcement pairing and fading on preschoolers' snack selections were evaluated in a multiple baseline design. Baseline preferences for snack options were assessed via repeated paired-item preference assessments. Edible, social, and activity-based reinforcers were then exclusively paired with a less preferred snack option. Once the snack paired with reinforcement was selected most frequently, the three types of reinforcement were systematically faded. Frequent selections of t...

  15. Asymptotic SER performance comparison of MPSK and MDPSK in wireless fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Xuegui

    2015-02-01

    We propose a general framework to investigate asymptotic relative performance between M-ary phase-shift keying (MPSK) and M-ary differential phase-shift keying (MDPSK) in wireless fading channels. Using this framework, we provide an alternative derivation for the closed-form expression of the asymptotic performance loss of MDPSK w.r.t. MPSK in an additive white Gaussian noise channel. The same performance loss is also shown to be true for the lognormal fading channels.

  16. Fade Analysis of ORCA DATA Beam at NTTR and Pax River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    and compare these results with UCF theoretical models. The data includes mean power in the bucket ( PIB ) and mean PIF, with and without the AO...statistical prediction model for estimating various parameters associated with the data beam, such as Fried’s parameter, Strehl ratio, PIB and PIF. In this...captured power in the bucket ( PIB ) by the receiver aperture and the fade statistics associated with the data beam. The fractional fade time (also called the

  17. High SNR BER comparison of coherent and differentially coherent modulation schemes in lognormal fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Xuegui

    2014-09-01

    Using an auxiliary random variable technique, we prove that binary differential phase-shift keying and binary phase-shift keying have the same asymptotic bit-error rate performance in lognormal fading channels. We also show that differential quaternary phase-shift keying is exactly 2.32 dB worse than quaternary phase-shift keying over the lognormal fading channels in high signal-to-noise ratio regimes.

  18. On the performance of multiuser scheduling with post-examining under non-identical fading

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2012-06-11

    We investigate the performance of a multiuser downlink access scheme based on a post-selection switch and examine algorithm. The studied scheme sequentially switches over the users that experience independent and non-identically distributed fading conditions, and selects a single user with an acceptable channel quality as compared to a pre-selected signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) threshold. If no one of the users can satisfy the target channel quality, the base station (BS) takes the advantage of the knowledge of all users channels and serves the user with the best channel quality among all users. This scheme reduces considerably the feedback load but offers a lower average spectral efficiency (ASE) as compared to that of the full feedback system with instantaneous best user selection. On the other hand, it improves the system performances, such as outage probability and average bit error rate (BER), as compared to a system that is based on a standard switching scheme without post-selection. Numerical results for the ASE average BER, and average feed back load, are presented for the cases of outdated and non-outdated rate-adaptive modulation scheme operating over independent and non-identically distributed users.

  19. Joint Scheduling for Dual-Hop Block-Fading Broadcast Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2012-09-16

    In this paper, we propose joint user-and-hop scheduling over dual-hop block-fading broadcast channels in order to exploit multi-user diversity gains and multi-hop diversity gains all together. To achieve this objective, the first and second hops are scheduled opportunistically based on the channel state information and as a prerequisite we assume that the relay, which is half-duplex and operates using decode-and-forward, is capable of storing the received packets from the source until the channel condition of the destined user becomes good to be scheduled. We formulate the joint scheduling problem as maximizing the weighted sum of the long term achievable rates by the users under a stability constraint, which means that on the long term the rate received by the relay should equal the rate transmitted by it, in addition to constant or variable power constraints. We show that this problem is equivalent to a single-hop broadcast channel by treating the source as a virtual user with an optimal priority weight that maintains the stability constraint. We show how to obtain the source weight either off-line based on channel statistics or on real-time based on channel measurements. Furthermore, we consider special cases including the maximum sum rate scheduler and the proportional fair scheduler. We demonstrate via numerical results that our proposed joint scheduling scheme enlarges the rate region as compared with a scheme that employs multi-user scheduling alone.

  20. Fading Characteristics of Wireless Channel on High-Speed Railway in Hilly Terrain Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyu Luan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the fading characteristics of wireless channel on High-Speed Railway (HSR in hilly terrain scenario. Due to the rapid speed, the fading characteristics of HSR channel are highly correlated with time or Transmit-Receive distance and have their own special property. To investigate the fading characteristics, the measurement is conducted on the Guangzhou-Shenzhen passenger-dedicated line in China with the speed of 295 km/h in the data-collection area at 2.4 GHz. From the measured data, the amplitude of each path is estimated by using the Subspace-Alternating Generalized Expectation-Maximization (SAGE algorithm along with other parameters of channel impulse responses. Then the fading parameters, including path loss, shadow fading, and K-factor, are analysed. With the numerical results in the measurement and analysis, the fading characteristics have been revealed and modelled. It is supposed that this work has a promotion for HSR communication system design and improvement.

  1. Capacity limits of spectrum-sharing systems over hyper-fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ekin, Sabit

    2011-01-20

    Cognitive radio (CR) with spectrum-sharing feature is a promising technique to address the spectrum under-utilization problem in dynamically changing environments. In this paper, the achievable capacity gain of spectrum-sharing systems over dynamic fading environments is studied. To perform a general analysis, a theoretical fading model called hyper-fading model that is suitable to the dynamic nature of CR channel is proposed. Closed-form expressions of probability density function (PDF) and cumulative density function (CDF) of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for secondary users (SUs) in spectrum-sharing systems are derived. In addition, the capacity gains achievable with spectrum-sharing systems in high and low power regions are obtained. The effects of different fading figures, average fading powers, interference temperatures, peak powers of secondary transmitters, and numbers of SUs on the achievable capacity are investigated. The analytical and simulation results show that the fading figure of the channel between SUs and primary base-station (PBS), which describes the diversity of the channel, does not contribute significantly to the system performance gain. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Product of the powers of generalized Nakagami-m variates and performance of cascaded fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we analyze the fading statistics of a generic fading distribution, termed the N-product Generalized Nakagami-m (GNM) distribution (N*GNM distribution), constructed as the product of the power of N statistically independent and non-identically distributed GNM random variables, for the purpose of modeling the cascaded fading channels. In particular, using the Fox\\'s H function, we derive the probability density function, the cumulative distribution function, the moment generating function and the moments of such channels in closed-form. These derived results are a convenient tool to statistically model the cascaded GNM fading channels and to analyze the performance of digital communication systems over these kinds of channels. As such, generic closed-form expressions for the amount of fading, the outage probability, the capacity, the outage capacity and the average bit error probabilities of digital communications systems over cascaded GNM fading channels are presented. Numerical and simulation results, performed to verify the correctness of the proposed formulation, are in perfect agreement.

  3. Theoretical Studies on the Physical and Environmental Factors Which Govern the Thermal Fading of Thermoluminescence Signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasheedy, M.S.; El-Sherif, M.A.; Hefni, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Thermoluminescence solid-state detector is widely used to determine the dose in personnel and environmental monitoring for radiation protection purposes, for instance in the field of nuclear power production, medicine and research. However, thermal fading is a limiting factor for a long-term application, especially where temperature is changing significantly during the accumulation period. This paper studied the influence of temperature and duration of storage after irradiation on the thermal fading of the TL signal. Also, this paper discussed the dependence of the thermal fading on the trap parameters of TL glow peak. The most important parameters, which were considered here include the order of kinetics b, the depth of the trap level E (eV) and the frequency factor S (s-1). The dependence of the thermal fading on thermal stability parameters, namely trap depths and frequency factors for the glow peaks is discussed. The variation of the thermal fading as a function of the order of kinetics is demonstrated. In addition, this paper discussed the dependence of the thermal fading on the absorbed dose in case of first-, second- and general-order kinetics. The above-mentioned studies were arranged considering the models of first-, second- and general-order of kinetics

  4. Wireless Transmission of Big Data: A Transmission Time Analysis over Fading Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wen-Jing

    2018-04-10

    In this paper, we investigate the transmission time of a large amount of data over fading wireless channel with adaptive modulation and coding (AMC). Unlike traditional transmission systems, where the transmission time of a fixed amount of data is typically regarded as a constant, the transmission time with AMC becomes a random variable, as the transmission rate varies with the fading channel condition. To facilitate the design and optimization of wireless transmission schemes for big data applications, we present an analytical framework to determine statistical characterizations for the transmission time of big data with AMC. In particular, we derive the exact statistics of transmission time over block fading channels. The probability mass function (PMF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) of transmission time are obtained for both slow and fast fading scenarios. We further extend our analysis to Markov channel, where transmission time becomes the sum of a sequence of exponentially distributed time slots. Analytical expression for the probability density function (PDF) of transmission time is derived for both fast fading and slow fading scenarios. These analytical results are essential to the optimal design and performance analysis of future wireless transmission systems for big data applications.

  5. Robustness of predictive sensor network routing in fading channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraleedharan, Rajani; Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2005-06-01

    Sensors have varied constraints, which make the network challenging for communicating with peers. In this paper, an extension, to the physical layer of the previous predictive sensor network model using the ant system is proposed. The tiny and low-cost sensor nodes are made of RF wireless links, where the states of the nodes vary with respect to time and environment. The ant system is a learning algorithm, that can be used to solve any NP hard communication problem and possesses characteristics such as robustness and versatility. The ant system possesses unique features that keep the network functional by detecting weak links and re-routing the agents. The swarm agents are distributed along the network, where the agent communicates with its neighbors (agents) by means of pheromone deposition and tabu list. The transition probability in the ant system includes an objective function, which is influenced by the poset weights. The poset weights on each of the orthogonal communication parameters greatly affects the decisions made by ant system. The agents carry updated information of its previous nodes, which helps in monitoring the strength of the communication links. Through simulation, comparison between DSSS-BPSK and Bluetooth-GFSK signals are shown. This paper demonstrates the robustness of the model under slow/fast fading, and energy loss at node during transmission. Implementation of this algorithm should be able to handle hostile environmental conditions and human tampering of data. The performance of the network is evaluated based on accuracy and response time of the agents within the network.

  6. Termination unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traeholt, Chresten [Frederiksberg, DK; Willen, Dag [Klagshamn, SE; Roden, Mark [Newnan, GA; Tolbert, Jerry C [Carrollton, GA; Lindsay, David [Carrollton, GA; Fisher, Paul W [Heiskell, TN; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann [Jaegerspris, DK

    2014-01-07

    This invention relates to a termination unit comprising an end-section of a cable. The end section of the cable defines a central longitudinal axis and comprising end-parts of N electrical phases, an end-part of a neutral conductor and a surrounding thermally insulation envelope adapted to comprising a cooling fluid. The end-parts of the N electrical phases and the end-part of the neutral conductor each comprising at least one electrical conductor and being arranged in the cable concentrically around a core former with a phase 1 located relatively innermost, and phase N relatively outermost in the cable, phase N being surrounded by the neutral conductor, electrical insulation being arrange between neighboring electrical phases and between phase N and the neutral conductor, and wherein the end-parts of the neutral conductor and the electrical phases each comprise a contacting surface electrically connected to at least one branch current lead to provide an electrical connection: The contacting surfaces each having a longitudinal extension, and being located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section of the cable. The branch current leads being individually insulated from said thermally insulation envelope by individual electrical insulators.

  7. Regulation of StAR by the N-terminal Domain and Coinduction of SIK1 and TIS11b/Znf36l1 in Single Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinwoo; Tong, Tiegang; Duan, Haichuan; Foong, Yee Hoon; Musaitif, Ibrahim; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Jefcoate, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The cholesterol transfer function of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is uniquely integrated into adrenal cells, with mRNA translation and protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation occurring at the mitochondrial outer membrane (OMM). The StAR C-terminal cholesterol-binding domain (CBD) initiates mitochondrial intermembrane contacts to rapidly direct cholesterol to Cyp11a1 in the inner membrane (IMM). The conserved StAR N-terminal regulatory domain (NTD) includes a leader sequence targeting the CBD to OMM complexes that initiate cholesterol transfer. Here, we show how the NTD functions to enhance CBD activity delivers more efficiently from StAR mRNA in adrenal cells, and then how two factors hormonally restrain this process. NTD processing at two conserved sequence sites is selectively affected by StAR PKA phosphorylation. The CBD functions as a receptor to stimulate the OMM/IMM contacts that mediate transfer. The NTD controls the transit time that integrates extramitochondrial StAR effects on cholesterol homeostasis with other mitochondrial functions, including ATP generation, inter-organelle fusion, and the major permeability transition pore in partnership with other OMM proteins. PKA also rapidly induces two additional StAR modulators: salt-inducible kinase 1 (SIK1) and Znf36l1/Tis11b. Induced SIK1 attenuates the activity of CRTC2, a key mediator of StAR transcription and splicing, but only as cAMP levels decline. TIS11b inhibits translation and directs the endonuclease-mediated removal of the 3.5-kb StAR mRNA. Removal of either of these functions individually enhances cAMP-mediated induction of StAR. High-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (HR-FISH) of StAR RNA reveals asymmetric transcription at the gene locus and slow RNA splicing that delays mRNA formation, potentially to synchronize with cholesterol import. Adrenal cells may retain slow transcription to integrate with intermembrane NTD activation. HR-FISH resolves individual 3.5-kb St

  8. Accelerator terminal voltage stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, J. A.; Kolonko, J. J.; Phillips, S. H.; Lunstrum, S. J.

    1992-02-01

    Measurements reported at the 11th International Conference on Applications of Accelerators in Research and Industry [Schroeder et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B56/B57 (1991) 1033] for a 1 MV single-ended Pelletron accelerator equipped with corona probe and tank liner voltage stabilizers have been extended by measuring the resonant yield of γ-rays from the 27Al(p, γ) 28Si reaction at 992 keV. Results show that terminal voltage stability is consistent with the earlier measurement of 31 V FWHM for ripple at 1 MV for periods of about one-half ( {1}/{2}) hour.

  9. Accelerator terminal voltage stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferry, J.A.; Kolonko, J.J.; Phillips, S.H.; Lunstrum, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements reported at the 11th International Conference on Applications of Accelerators in Research and Industry for a 1 MV single-ended Pelletron accelerator equipped with corona probe and tank liner voltage stabilizers have been extended by measuring the resonant yield of γ-rays from the 27 Al(p,γ) 28 Si reaction at 992 keV. Results show that terminal voltage stability is consistent with the earlier measurement of 31 V FWHM for ripple at 1 MV for periods of about one-half (1/2) hour. (orig.)

  10. Initiation and termination of the bacteriophage phi X174 rolling circle DNA replication in vivo: packaging of plasmid single-stranded DNA into bacteriophage phi X174 coats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ende, A.; Teertstra, R.; Weisbeek, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    The bacteriophage phi X174 viral (+) origin when inserted in a plasmid can interact in vivo with the A protein produced by infecting phi X174 phages. A consequence of this interaction is packaging of single-stranded plasmid DNA into preformed phage coats resulting in infective particles (1). This

  11. On Amplify-and-Forward Relaying Over Hyper-Rayleigh Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Alvi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Relayed transmission holds promise for the next generation of wireless communication systems due to the performance gains it can provide over non-cooperative systems. Recently hyper-Rayleigh fading, which represents fading conditions more severe than Rayleigh fading, has received attention in the context of many practical communication scenarios. Though power allocation for Amplify-and-Forward (AF relaying networks has been studied in the literature, a theoretical analysis of the power allocation problem for hyper-Rayleigh fading channels is a novel contribution of this work. We develop an optimal power allocation (OPA strategy for a dual-hop AF relaying network in which the relay-destination link experiences hyper-Rayleigh fading. A new closed-form expression for the average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR at destination is derived and it is shown to provide a new upper-bound on the average SNR at destination, which outperforms a previously proposed upper-bound based on the well-known harmonic-geometric mean inequality. An OPA across the source and relay nodes, subject to a sum-power constraint, is proposed and it is shown to provide measurable performance gains in average SNR and SNR outage at the destination relative to the case of equal power allocation.

  12. Search for stable energy levels in materials exhibiting strong anomalous fading: The case of apatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymeris, George S.; Giannoulatou, Valeria; Sfampa, Ioanna K.; Tsirliganis, Nestor C.; Kitis, George

    2014-01-01

    The thermally assisted OSL signal resulting from very deep traps was studied in the case of three fluorapatite samples, one chlorapatite as well as one collophanite cryptocrystalline carbonite phosphorite sample of various origins. Intense thermally assisted OSL signal was monitored while stimulating at 200 °C in all samples subjected to the present study, indicating the prevalence of the existence of these very deep traps. Anomalous fading effect is ubiquitous for all TL and OSL signals of all apatite samples subjected to the present study. The anomalous fading of the thermally assisted OSL signal arising from very deep traps is strongly differentiated from the anomalous fading of electron trap excited at temperatures below 500 °C. The thermally assisted OSL signal arising from very deep traps was found to clearly be more stable, showing much less anomalous fading over time. The possible implications of this finding in dating of both apatites and feldspars are also briefly discussed. - Highlights: • All apatite samples of the present study yield strong thermally assisted OSL (TA-OSL) signal. • In all cases, TA-OSL signal is much more stable compared to TL and conventional OSL, based on the corresponding anomalous fading rates. • This experimental feature could be extremely beneficial for luminescence dating

  13. Color fading of the blue compliance indicator encapsulated in removable clear Invisalign Teen® aligners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Timm Cornelius; Göz, Gernot

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the color fading in aqueous solutions of the blue dot wear-compliance indicators of the Invisalign Teen® System outside the oral cavity. The compliance indicators in the Invisalign Teen aligners were tested for color resistance in various aqueous models with no saliva involved. Color fading was observed as a function of time, pH, and temperature while compliance indicators were stored in drinking water or sour soft drinks and in conjunction with the use of cleaning tablets and a dishwasher. The findings of color fading were consistent with the color changes observed when the aligners were being worn by patients. Color fading, notably as observed in connection with acidic soft drinks and cleaning techniques, introduces uncertainty into the assessment of actual patient compliance, as reflected by the fading colors of compliance indicators. Compliance indicators are not immune to simple intentional or unintentional manipulations. Therefore, they can best show an estimate of wear time but cannot be recommended as objective wear-time indicators.

  14. EFFECTS OF RICIAN FADING ON THE OPERATION OF AERONAUTICAL SATELLITE OFDM CHANNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of Rician fading on messages transmission via the aeronautical satellite OFDM channel with adaptive modulation and the development of a method for estimating the parameters of such a channel. Methods: To study the effect of Rician fading on messages transmission via aeronautical satellite OFDM channel with adaptive modulation the original model of the communication channel “Aircraft-Satellite-Ground Station” was built using software package MATLAB Sіmulіnk. The model includes “Aircraft Transmitter”, “Uplink/Downlink Path”, “Satellite Transponder”, and “Ground Station Receiver”. Each modulator block in the modulation bank performs convolutional coding and puncturing using code rates of ½, ²/3, and ¾, data interleaving, BPSK, QPSK, 16-QAM, and 64-QAM modulation. Results: Dependences of Estimated channel SNR on the ratio between the power of the LOS component and the diffuse component, on the downlink gain and delay in the diffuse component for different Doppler spectrum types and Doppler frequency offsets were obtained. A method for estimating the parameters of the satellite channels with fading was proposed. Discussion: The realistic model of aeronautical satellite OFDM link with Rician fading is developed for the first time on a basis of IEEE 802.11a standard and used for channel parameters evaluation. Proposed in this article approach can be considered as a method for estimating parameters of the channel with fading.

  15. Coal terminal developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venter, J.

    2008-02-15

    The article reports developments at many coal terminals worldwide. These include Bulgaria's Port of Bourgas Temrinal 2A, Spain's Tarragona Port Services (TPS) terminal, New Zealand's Lyttleton Port of Christchurch (LPC), Kinder Morgan's terminals in the USA (the International Marine terminal, Cora terminal, Grand Rivers terminal and Fairless Hills terminal) and Croatia's Port of Ploce. Developments at coal terminals in France and Belgium are also summarized. Global transportation services offered by Rhenus are described. 12 photos.

  16. Analysis of Fade Detection and Compensation Experimental Results in a Ka-Band Satellite System. Degree awarded by Akron Univ., May 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sandra

    2001-01-01

    The frequency bands being used for new satellite communication systems are constantly increasing to accommodate the requirements for additional capacity. At these higher frequencies, propagation impairments that did not significantly affect the signal at lower frequencies begin to have considerable impact. In Ka-band, the next logical commercial frequency band to be used for satellite communication, attenuation of the signal due to rain is a primary concern. An experimental satellite built by NASA, the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS), launched in September 1993, is the first US communication satellite operating in the Ka-band. In addition to higher carrier frequencies, a number of other new technologies, including onboard baseband processing, multiple beam antennas, and rain fade detection and compensation techniques, were designed into the ACTS. Verification experiments have been conducted since the launch to characterize the new technologies. The focus of this thesis is to describe and validate the method used by the ACTS Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) ground stations in detecting the presence of fade in the communication signal and to adaptively compensate for it by the addition of burst rate reduction and forward error correction. Measured data obtained from the ACTS program is used to validate the compensation technique. In this thesis, models in MATLAB are developed to statistically characterize the increased availability achieved by the compensation techniques in terms of the bit error rate time enhancement factor. Several improvements to the ACTS technique are discussed and possible implementations for future Ka-band systems are also presented.

  17. Joint Parameter Estimation for the Two-Wave with Diffuse Power Fading Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Lopez-Fernandez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks deployed within metallic cavities are known to suffer from a very severe fading, even in strong line-of-sight propagation conditions. This behavior is well-captured by the Two-Wave with Diffuse Power (TWDP fading distribution, which shows great fit to field measurements in such scenarios. In this paper, we address the joint estimation of the parameters K and Δ that characterize the TWDP fading model, based on the observation of the received signal envelope. We use a moment-based approach to derive closed-form expressions for the estimators of K and Δ, as well as closed-form expressions for their asymptotic variance. Results show that the estimation error is close to the Cramer-Rao lower bound for a wide range of values of the parameters K and Δ. The performance degradation due to a finite number of observations is also analyzed.

  18. On the capacity of Rician fading channels with full channel state information at low SNR

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2012-06-01

    The capacity of flat Rayleigh fading channels with full channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter and at the receiver at asymptotically low SNR has been recently shown to scale essentially as SNR log (1/SNR). In this paper, we investigate the Rician fading channel capacity with full CSI, and show that the capacity of this channel scales essentially as 1/1+K SNR log (1 /SNR), where K is the Rician factor. This characterization includes perfect CSI at both the transmitter and the receiver or noisy CSI at the transmitter and perfect CSI at the receiver. We also show that one-bit CSI at the transmitter is enough to achieve this asymptotic capacity using an On-Off power control scheme. Our framework may be seen as a generalization of previous works as it captures the Rayleigh fading channel as a special case by letting K goes to zero. © 2012 IEEE.

  19. A pancultural perspective on the fading affect bias in autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Timothy D; Batteson, Tamzin J; Bohn, Annette; Crawford, Matthew T; Ferguson, Georgie V; Schrauf, Robert W; Vogl, Rodney J; Walker, W Richard

    2015-01-01

    The fading affect bias (FAB) refers to the negative affect associated with autobiographical events fading faster than the positive affect associated with such events, a reliable and valid valence effect established by researchers in the USA. The present study examined the idea that the FAB is a ubiquitous emotion regulating phenomenon in autobiographical memory that is present in people from a variety of cultures. We tested for evidence of the FAB by sampling more than 2400 autobiographical event descriptions from 562 participants in 10 cultures around the world. Using variations on a common method, each sample evidenced a FAB: positive affect faded slower than negative affect did. Results suggest that in tandem with local norms and customs, the FAB may foster recovery from negative life events and promote the retention of the positive emotions, within and outside of the USA. We discuss these findings in the context of Keltner and Haidt's levels of analysis theory of emotion and culture.

  20. Trait anxiety reduces affective fading for both positive and negative autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, W Richard; Yancu, Cecile N; Skowronski, John J

    2014-01-01

    The affect associated with negative events fades faster than the affect associated with positive events (the Fading Affect Bias; the FAB). The research that we report examined the relation between trait anxiety and the FAB. Study 1 assessed anxiety using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale; Studies 2 and 3 used the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Studies 1 and 2 used retrospective procedures to probe positive event memories and negative event memories while Study 3 used a diary procedure. The results of all 3 studies showed that increased anxiety was associated with both a lowered FAB and lower overall affect fading for both positive events and negative events. These results suggest that for people free of trait anxiety, the FAB reflects the operation of a healthy coping mechanism in autobiographical memory that is disrupted by trait anxiety.

  1. Outage performance of Decode-and-Forward partial selection in Nakagami-m fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Benjillali, Mustapha

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the outage performance of Decode-and-Forward with partial selection relaying in dualhop cooperative Nakagami-m fading links. The source, based on the unique knowledge of local first hop channel state information, selects the best relay to increase the chances of successful decoding and hence the possibility of cooperation when the direct link is also available. After deriving the exact distribution of the sum of two gamma variates with the same shape parameter, the outage probability of the system-with and without the direct link-is obtained in closed-form. We also derive the ε-outage capacity in different particular cases, and the obtained results- when the channel model is reduced to a Rayleigh fading-are either new or correspond to those previously obtained in other works. Simulation results confirm the accuracy of our analysis for a large selection of system and fading parameters. © 2009 IEEE.

  2. Improvement of capacity fading resistance of LiMn 2O 4 by amphoteric oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Bin; Shin, Ho Chul; Lee, Wan-Gyu; Cho, Won Il; Jang, Ho

    The capacity fading of LiMn 2O 4 is improved by adding amphoteric oxides such as Al 2O 3, ZnO, SnO 2, and ZrO 2 to the cathode slurry. The effectiveness of the amphoteric oxides on the fade resistance of LiMn 2O 4 is compared by measuring the capability of scavenging hydrofluoric acid (HF) in the electrolyte by the oxides using a pH meter and by BET surface analysis. Results suggest that the capacity fading is determined by the reactivity of oxides with HF and the effective surface-area of the oxide particles when they were mixed in the slurry. Zinc oxide is the most effective of the oxides in scavenging HF.

  3. Multiple-Symbol Decision-Feedback Space-Time Differential Decoding in Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaodong

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Space-time differential coding (STDC is an effective technique for exploiting transmitter diversity while it does not require the channel state information at the receiver. However, like conventional differential modulation schemes, it exhibits an error floor in fading channels. In this paper, we develop an STDC decoding technique based on multiple-symbol detection and decision-feedback, which makes use of the second-order statistic of the fading processes and has a very low computational complexity. This decoding method can significantly lower the error floor of the conventional STDC decoding algorithm, especially in fast fading channels. The application of the proposed multiple-symbol decision-feedback STDC decoding technique in orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM system is also discussed.

  4. Symbol Error Probability of DF Relay Selection over Arbitrary Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George C. Alexandropoulos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new analytical expression for the moment generating function (MGF of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio of dual-hop decode-and-forward (DF relaying systems with relay selection when operating over Nakagami-m fading channels. The derived MGF expression, which is valid for arbitrary values of the fading parameters of both hops, is subsequently utilized to evaluate the average symbol error probability (ASEP of M-ary phase shift keying modulation for the considered DF relaying scheme under various asymmetric fading conditions. It is shown that the MGF-based ASEP performance evaluation results are in excellent agreement with equivalent ones obtained by means of computer simulations, thus validating the correctness of the presented MGF expression.

  5. Outage performance of reactive cooperation in Nakagami-m fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Benjillali, Mustapha

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the outage performance of Decode-and-Forward with reactive relaying in dual-hop cooperetive Nakagaml-m fading links. The destination, based on the umque knowledge of local second hop channel state information, selects the best relay to increase the chances of cooperation when the direct link is also available. After deriving the exact distribution of the variables of interest, the outage probability of the system - with and without the direct link - is obtained in closed-form, and the ε-outage capacity is derived in the particular c.se wh.ere the channel model is reduced to a Rayleigh fading. Simulation results confirm the accuracy of our analysis for a large selection of system and fading parameters.

  6. Partial relay selection based on shadowing side information over generalized composite fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, in contrast to the relay selection protocols available in the literature, we propose a partial relay selection protocol utilizing only the shadowing side information of the relays instead of their full channel side information in order to select a relay in a dual-hop relaying system through the available limited feedback channels and power budget. We then presented an exact unified performance expression combining the average bit error probability, ergodic capacity, and moments-generating function of the proposed partial relay selection over generalized fading channels. Referring to the unified performance expression introduced in [1], we explicitly offer a generic unified performance expression that can be easily calculated and that is applicable to a wide variety of fading scenarios. Finally, as an illustration of the mathematical formalism, some numerical and simulation results are generated for an extended generalized-K fading environment, and these numerical and simulation results are shown to be in perfect agreement. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. Scandium Terminal Imido Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Erli; Chu, Jiaxiang; Chen, Yaofeng

    2018-02-20

    Research into transition metal complexes bearing multiply bonded main-group ligands has developed into a thriving and fruitful field over the past half century. These complexes, featuring terminal M═E/M≡E (M = transition metal; E = main-group element) multiple bonds, exhibit unique structural properties as well as rich reactivity, which render them attractive targets for inorganic/organometallic chemists as well as indispensable tools for organic/catalytic chemists. This fact has been highlighted by their widespread applications in organic synthesis, for example, as olefin metathesis catalysts. In the ongoing renaissance of transition metal-ligand multiple-bonding chemistry, there have been reports of M═E/M≡E interactions for the majority of the metallic elements of the periodic table, even some actinide metals. In stark contrast, the largest subgroup of the periodic table, rare-earth metals (Ln = Sc, Y, and lanthanides), have been excluded from this upsurge. Indeed, the synthesis of terminal Ln═E/Ln≡E multiple-bonding species lagged behind that of the transition metal and actinide congeners for decades. Although these species had been pursued since the discovery of a rare-earth metal bridging imide in 1991, such a terminal (nonpincer/bridging hapticities) Ln═E/Ln≡E bond species was not obtained until 2010. The scarcity is mainly attributed to the energy mismatch between the frontier orbitals of the metal and the ligand atoms. This renders the putative terminal Ln═E/Ln≡E bonds extremely reactive, thus resulting in the formation of aggregates and/or reaction with the ligand/environment, quenching the multiple-bond character. In 2010, the stalemate was broken by the isolation and structural characterization of the first rare-earth metal terminal imide-a scandium terminal imide-by our group. The double-bond character of the Sc═N bond was unequivocally confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Theoretical investigations revealed the presence

  8. Composite and Cascaded Generalized-K Fading Channel Modeling and Their Diversity and Performance Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2010-12-01

    The introduction of new schemes that are based on the communication among nodes has motivated the use of composite fading models due to the fact that the nodes experience different multipath fading and shadowing statistics, which subsequently determines the required statistics for the performance analysis of different transceivers. The end-to-end signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) statistics plays an essential role in the determination of the performance of cascaded digital communication systems. In this thesis, a closed-form expression for the probability density function (PDF) of the end-end SNR for independent but not necessarily identically distributed (i.n.i.d.) cascaded generalized-K (GK) composite fading channels is derived. The developed PDF expression in terms of the Meijer-G function allows the derivation of subsequent performance metrics, applicable to different modulation schemes, including outage probability, bit error rate for coherent as well as non-coherent systems, and average channel capacity that provides insights into the performance of a digital communication system operating in N cascaded GK composite fading environment. Another line of research that was motivated by the introduction of composite fading channels is the error performance. Error performance is one of the main performance measures and derivation of its closed-form expression has proved to be quite involved for certain systems. Hence, in this thesis, a unified closed-form expression, applicable to different binary modulation schemes, for the bit error rate of dual-branch selection diversity based systems undergoing i.n.i.d. GK fading is derived in terms of the extended generalized bivariate Meijer G-function.

  9. Novel 1:1 labeling and purification process for C-terminal thioester and single cysteine recombinant proteins using generic peptidic toolbox reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portal, Christophe F; Seifert, Jan-Marcus; Buehler, Christof; Meisner-Kober, Nicole-Claudia; Auer, Manfred

    2014-07-16

    We developed a versatile set of chemical labeling reagents which allow dye ligation to the C-terminus of a protein or a single internal cysteine and target purification in a simple two-step process. This simple process results in a fully 1:1 labeled conjugate suitable for all quantitative fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging experiments. We refer to a "generic labeling toolbox" because of the flexibility to choose one of many available dyes, spacers of different lengths and compositions which increase the target solubility, a variety of affinity purification tags, and different cleavage chemistries to release the 1:1 labeled proteins. Studying protein function in vitro or in the context of live cells and organisms is of vital importance in biological research. Although label free detection technologies gain increasing interest in molecular recognition science, fluorescence spectroscopy is still the most often used detection technique for assays and screens both in academic as well as in industrial groups. For generations, fluorescence spectroscopists have labeled their proteins of interest with small fluorescent dyes by random chemical linking on the proteins' exposed lysines and cysteines. Chemical reactions with a certain excess of activated esters or maleimides of longer wavelength dyes hardly ever result in quantitative labeling of the target protein. Most of the time, more than one exposed amino acid side chain reacts. This results in a mixture of dye-protein complexes of different labeling stoichiometries and labeling sites. Only mass spectrometry allows resolving the precise chemical composition of the conjugates. In "classical" ensemble averaging fluorescent experiments, these labeled proteins are still useful, and quantification of, e.g., ligand binding experiments, is achieved via knowledge of the overall protein concentration and a fluorescent signal change which is proportional to the amount of complex formed. With the development of fluorescence

  10. Towards a non-fading signal in feldspar: Insight into charge transport and tunnelling from time-resolved optically stimulated luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank; Ankjærgaard, Christina

    2011-01-01

    , where in the latter case the band tail state occupancy likely arises from thermalisation of conduction band electrons. The important outcome of this study is a comprehensive physical model based on a single dosimetric trap that successfully explains wide-ranging luminescence phenomena in feldspars......Feldspars are an attractive alternative to quartz for extending the dose range, and for dating volcanic terrains such as on Mars and Iceland. Unfortunately, charge stored in the feldspar lattice undergoes anomalous fading leading to an underestimation in the dose estimates. In this paper we use...

  11. "Paintings Fade Like Flowers": Pigment Analysis and Digital Reconstruction of a Faded Pink Lake Pigment in Vincent van Gogh's Undergrowth with Two Figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieberg, Jeffrey E; Knutås, Per; Hostettler, Kurt; Smith, Gregory D

    2017-05-01

    Color fading in Vincent van Gogh's Undergrowth with Two Figures was studied chemically to facilitate the creation of a digital reconstruction of fugitive colors . The painting contains a field of white, green, orange, and yellow flowers under a canopy of poplar trees with two central figures-a man and a woman, arms entwined. From Van Gogh's letters, however, it is known that he painted the picture with some pink flowers, which appear to have altered, presumably to white. Raman spectroscopy was applied to microsamples of paint to identify the faded pigment as geranium lake, which in this painting consists of the dye, eosin (2',4',5',7'-tetrabromofluorescein). For the first time, lead(II) sulfate has been specifically identified as the likely inorganic substrate for a geranium lake used by Van Gogh in the last months of his life. Microfocus X-ray fluorescence (MXRF) spectroscopy was subsequently used in situ to analyze the white flowers to identify bromine as a proxy for eosin, thus indicating an original pink coloration. Of the 387 white flowers analyzed, 37.7% contained measurable bromine and were, therefore, originally pink. Several cross-sections from these formerly pink areas were assessed using a combination of visual inspection and microcolorimetry to create a colored mask in Adobe Photoshop to digitally reconstruct a suggestion of the original appearance of the painting with regard to the faded flowers. Additionally, microfadeometry was undertaken for the first time on a painting cross-section sample to understand the actual fading kinetics of the underlying bright pink geranium lake used by Van Gogh. A combination of Raman microspectroscopy, MXRF, and scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) were utilized in situ and on paint microsamples to identify the complete palette used to create Undergrowth with Two Figures.

  12. Opportunistic relaying in multipath and slow fading channel: Relay selection and optimal relay selection period

    KAUST Repository

    Sungjoon Park,

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we present opportunistic relay communication strategies of decode and forward relaying. The channel that we are considering includes pathloss, shadowing, and fast fading effects. We find a simple outage probability formula for opportunistic relaying in the channel, and validate the results by comparing it with the exact outage probability. Also, we suggest a new relay selection algorithm that incorporates shadowing. We consider a protocol of broadcasting the channel gain of the previously selected relay. This saves resources in slow fading channel by reducing collisions in relay selection. We further investigate the optimal relay selection period to maximize the throughput while avoiding selection overhead. © 2011 IEEE.

  13. Performance of quasi-optimum digital FM demodulators for fading channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharamsi, M. T.; Gupta, S. C.

    1975-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of digital demodulation of FM signals transmitted over Rayleigh and Rician fading channels. The Rayleigh and Rician fading channels are represented by two quadrature multiplicative nonzero mean white Gaussian processes in addition to an additive zero-mean white Gaussian noise. Quasi-optimum digital baseband demodulation algorithms using various nonlinear estimation techniques are derived. The digital demodulator structures are then simulated on a digital computer for an FM system with first order message spectrum for various values of the parameters for Rayleigh and Rician channels.

  14. Performance analysis of digital FM demodulators for fading channels in the threshold region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharamsi, M. T.; Gupta, S. C.

    1976-01-01

    The quasi-optimum digital FM demodulators for fading channels reported earlier (1975) reflected the system performance accurately under high signal to noise ratio conditions. In this paper, the prediction of the system performance for low SNR values is considered. A new set of error variance algorithms is developed from the filter algorithm assuming a Gaussian distribution for the state estimation errors and taking the effect of high frequency terms into consideration. Simulation analysis for an FM system with Rician fading channel shows that these algorithms predict the system performance accurately in the threshold region.

  15. MGF approach to the capacity analysis of Generalized Two-Ray fading models

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Milind

    2015-09-11

    We propose a class of Generalized Two-Ray (GTR) fading channels that consists of two line of sight (LOS) components with random phase and a diffuse component. Observing that the GTR fading model can be expressed in terms of the underlying Rician distribution, we derive a closed-form expression for the moment generating function (MGF) of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of this model. We then employ this approach to compute the ergodic capacity with receiver side information. The impact of the underlying phase difference between the LOS components on the average SNR of the signal received is also illustrated. © 2015 IEEE.

  16. Higher order capacity statistics of multi-hop transmission systems over Rayleigh fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present an exact analytical expression to evaluate the higher order statistics of the channel capacity for amplify and forward (AF) multihop transmission systems operating over Rayleigh fading channels. Furthermore, we present simple and efficient closed-form expression to the higher order moments of the channel capacity of dual hop transmission system with Rayleigh fading channels. In order to analyze the behavior of the higher order capacity statistics and investigate the usefulness of the mathematical analysis, some selected numerical and simulation results are presented. Our results are found to be in perfect agreement. © 2012 IEEE.

  17. An Empirical Rate Constant Based Model to Study Capacity Fading in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivatsan Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional model based on solvent diffusion and kinetics to study the formation of the SEI (solid electrolyte interphase layer and its impact on the capacity of a lithium ion battery is developed. The model uses the earlier work on silicon oxidation but studies the kinetic limitations of the SEI growth process. The rate constant of the SEI formation reaction at the anode is seen to play a major role in film formation. The kinetics of the reactions for capacity fading for various battery systems are studied and the rate constants are evaluated. The model is used to fit the capacity fade in different battery systems.

  18. Performance of Cooperative Spectrum Sensing over Non-Identical Fading Environments

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Anlei

    2012-09-08

    Different from previous works in cooperative spec- trum sensing that assumed the sensing channels independent identically distributed (i.i.d.), we investigate in this paper the independent but not identically distributed (i.n.i.d.) situations. In particular, we derive the false-alarm probability and the detection probability of cooperative spectrum sensing with the scheme of energy fusion over i.n.i.d. Rayleigh, Nakagami, and Rician fading channels. From the selected numerical results, we can see that cooperative spectrum sensing still gives considerably better performance even over i.n.i.d. fading environments.

  19. Electrical characterization of single molecule and Langmuir–Blodgett monomolecular films of a pyridine-terminated oligo(phenylene-ethynylene derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrry M. Osorio

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Monolayer Langmuir–Blodgett (LB films of 1,4-bis(pyridin-4-ylethynylbenzene (1 together with the “STM touch-to-contact” method have been used to study the nature of metal–monolayer–metal junctions in which the pyridyl group provides the contact at both molecule–surface interfaces. Surface pressure vs area per molecule isotherms and Brewster angle microscopy images indicate that 1 forms true monolayers at the air–water interface. LB films of 1 were fabricated by deposition of the Langmuir films onto solid supports resulting in monolayers with surface coverage of 0.98 × 10−9 mol·cm−2. The morphology of the LB films that incorporate compound 1 was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM. AFM images indicate the formation of homogeneous, monomolecular films at a surface pressure of transference of 16 mN·m−1. The UV–vis spectra of the Langmuir and LB films reveal that 1 forms two dimensional J-aggregates. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM, in particular the “STM touch-to-contact” method, was used to determine the electrical properties of LB films of 1. From these STM studies symmetrical I–V curves were obtained. A junction conductance of 5.17 × 10−5 G0 results from the analysis of the pseudolinear (ohmic region of the I–V curves. This value is higher than that of the conductance values of LB films of phenylene-ethynylene derivatives contacted by amines, thiols, carboxylate, trimethylsilylethynyl or acetylide groups. In addition, the single molecule I–V curve of 1 determined using the I(s method is in good agreement with the I–V curve obtained for the LB film, and both curves fit well with the Simmons model. Together, these results not only indicate that the mechanism of transport through these metal–molecule–metal junctions is non-resonant tunneling, but that lateral interactions between molecules within the LB film do not strongly influence the molecule conductance. The results presented here

  20. The Biotechnological Applications of Recombinant Single-Domain Antibodies are Optimized by the C-Terminal Fusion to the EPEA Sequence (C Tag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Djender

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We designed a vector for the bacterial expression of recombinant antibodies fused to a double tag composed of 6xHis and the EPEA amino acid sequence. EPEA sequence (C tag is tightly bound by a commercial antibody when expressed at the C-term end of a polypeptide. The antigen is released in the presence of 2 M MgCl2. Consequently, constructs fused to the 6xHis-C tags can be purified by two successive and orthogonal affinity steps. Single-domain antibodies were produced either in the periplasmic or in the cytoplasmic space of E. coli. Surprisingly, the first affinity purification step performed using the EPEA-binding resin already yielded homogeneous proteins. The presence of the C tag did not interfere with the binding activity of the antibodies, as assessed by FACS and SPR analyses, and the C tag was extremely effective for immunoprecipitating HER2 receptor. Finally, the Alexa488-coupled anti-C tag allowed for simplification of FACS and IF analyses. These results show that a tag of minimal dimensions can be effectively used to improve the applicability of recombinant antibodies as reagents. In our hands, C tag was superior to His-tag in affinity purification and pull-down experiments, and practical in any other standard immune technique.

  1. An Investigation of the Impact of Instructional Fading Using Completion Problems on Student Performance in Principles of Accounting Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingry, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    The effects of instructional fading using completion problems on student performance were investigated in this study. Instructional fading is the gradual withdrawal of the amount of assistance provided to the student and was accomplished in this study using completion problems. They were used to gradually transition the student from completely…

  2. An exploration of the relationship among valence, fading affect, rehearsal frequency, and memory vividness for past personal events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Meghan I H; Zengel, Bettina; Skowronski, John J

    2017-07-01

    The affect associated with negative (or unpleasant) memories typically tends to fade faster than the affect associated with positive (or pleasant) memories, a phenomenon called the fading affect bias (FAB). We conducted a study to explore the mechanisms related to the FAB. A retrospective recall procedure was used to obtain three self-report measures (memory vividness, rehearsal frequency, affective fading) for both positive events and negative events. Affect for positive events faded less than affect for negative events, and positive events were recalled more vividly than negative events. The perceived vividness of an event (memory vividness) and the extent to which an event has been rehearsed (rehearsal frequency) were explored as possible mediators of the relation between event valence and affect fading. Additional models conceived of affect fading and rehearsal frequency as contributors to a memory's vividness. Results suggested that memory vividness was a plausible mediator of the relation between an event's valence and affect fading. Rehearsal frequency was also a plausible mediator of this relation, but only via its effects on memory vividness. Additional modelling results suggested that affect fading and rehearsal frequency were both plausible mediators of the relation between an event's valence and the event's rated memory vividness.

  3. A new approach towards anomalous fading correction for feldspar IRSL dating - tests on samples in field satuarion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kars, R.; Wallinga, J.; Cohen, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    Anomalous fading of the feldspar infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signal hampers possibilities of using feldspar IRSL to obtain burial ages for sediments beyond the dating range of quartz optically stimulated luminescence. Here, we propose a new approach to quantify anomalous fading of the

  4. Effectiveness of a fading emulator in evaluating the performance of MIMO systems by comparison with a propagation test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamamoto, Atsushi; Sakata, T.; Hayashi, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a MIMO spatial fading emulator, used to represent a street microcell environment. The fading emulator can reproduce a multipath radio propagation environment with either a uniform or non-uniform angular power spectrum (APS) in the horizontal plane. In this paper, we used...

  5. Clinical Factors Associated With Adherence to the Premedication Protocol for Withdrawal of Mechanical Ventilation in Terminally Ill Patients: A 4-Year Experience at a Single Medical Center in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Hui; Huang, Pei-Wei; Hung, Chia-Yen; Lee, Shu-Hui; Kao, Chen-Yi; Wang, Hung-Ming; Hung, Yu-Shin; Su, Po-Jung; Kuo, Yung-Chia; Hsieh, Chia-Hsun; Chou, Wen-Chi

    2018-05-01

    Data on end-of-life care practices in Asia are scarce. This study aimed to analyze the clinical factors associated with the recommended premedication protocol for mechanical ventilation withdrawal, in Taiwan. A total of 135 terminally ill patients who had mechanical ventilation withdrawn between 2013 and 2016 from a single medical center in Taiwan were enrolled. A premedication protocol of morphine and midazolam intravenous bolus was routinely recommended for the patients before mechanical ventilation withdrawal. Receipt of opioids and/or benzodiazepines during the withdrawal process was defined as full (both), partial (1 drug), and no (none) adherence. The clinical factors relevant to the adherence of recommended premedication protocol for mechanical ventilation withdrawal were analyzed. Overall, 126 (93.3%) patients died, 8 (5.9%) patients were transferred to other institutions for further care, and 1 (0.7%) patient was discharged to home after mechanical ventilation withdrawal. The median survival time was 45 minutes, and 102 (75.6%) patients died within 1 day after the withdrawal process. The full, partial, and no adherence rates for premedication guideline were 17.8%, 40.0%, and 42.2%, respectively. The main diagnosis of cancer, receipt of hospice care, and preservation of spontaneous respiration were independent variables associated with the partial or full adherence to the premedication protocol. Our data show that adherence to the premedication protocol for mechanical ventilation withdrawal in terminally ill patients was inadequate in Taiwan. Promoting hospice care and educating medical personnel in the compassionate withdrawal of mechanical ventilation, especially in patients with noncancer disease, are warranted.

  6. Capacity Fade and Its Mitigation in Li-Ion Cells with Silicon-Graphite Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bareño, Javier [Chemical; Shkrob, Ilya A. [Chemical; Gilbert, James A. [Chemical; Klett, Matilda [Chemical; Abraham, Daniel P. [Chemical

    2017-09-15

    In this study we scrutinize the causes for capacity fade in lithium-ion cells containing silicongraphite (Si-Gr) blends in the negative electrode and examine approaches for minimizing this fade. The causal mechanisms are inferred from data obtained by electrochemistry, microscopy, spectroscopy and thermogravimetry techniques. The presence of SiOxFy signals in the Si-Gr electrode, LixPOyFz compounds in the electrolyte, and SiO2 species on the NCM523 positive electrode, highlight the crucial role of hydrolytically generated HF, which accelerates the degradation of Si particles. The hydrolysis could result from residual moisture in the current electrode fabrication process, which uses aqueous binders. Water can also be released when silanol groups on the Si nanoparticles react with HF to form Si-F compounds. We note that the primary cause of capacity fade in the full cells is the loss of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) integrity resulting from volume changes in Si particles during electrochemical cycling. Adding fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) to the conventional electrolyte slows capacity fade through the formation of a cross linked polymer with elastomeric properties. Further gains in cell longevity are possible by excluding water during electrode fabrication, using hydrolytically stable lithium salts, and adopting electrolyte systems that provide more elasticity to the SEI layers.

  7. On Channel Estimation for OFDM/TDM Using MMSE-FDE in a Fast Fading Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gacanin Haris

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract MMSE-FDE can improve the transmission performance of OFDM combined with time division multiplexing (OFDM/TDM, but knowledge of the channel state information and the noise variance is required to compute the MMSE weight. In this paper, a performance evaluation of OFDM/TDM using MMSE-FDE with pilot-assisted channel estimation over a fast fading channel is presented. To improve the tracking ability against fast fading a robust pilot-assisted channel estimation is presented that uses time-domain filtering on a slot-by-slot basis and frequency-domain interpolation. We derive the mean square error (MSE of the channel estimator and then discuss a tradeoff between improving the tracking ability against fading and the noise reduction. The achievable bit error rate (BER performance is evaluated by computer simulation and compared with conventional OFDM. It is shown that the OFDM/TDM using MMSE-FDE achieves a lower BER and a better tracking ability against fast fading in comparison with conventional OFDM.

  8. Capacity fade modelling of lithium-ion battery under cyclic loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, T. R.; Chung, Yongmann M.; Wang, Jihong

    2016-10-01

    A pseudo two-dimensional (P2D) electro-chemical lithium-ion battery model is presented in this paper to study the capacity fade under cyclic charge-discharge conditions. The Newman model [1,2] has been modified to include a continuous solvent reduction reaction responsible for the capacity fade and power fade. The temperature variation inside the cell is accurately predicted using a distributed thermal model coupled with the internal chemical heat generation. The model is further improved by linking the porosity variation with the electrolyte partial molar concentration, thereby proving a stronger coupling between the battery performance and the chemical properties of electrolyte. The solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer growth is estimated for different cut-off voltages and charging current rates. The results show that the convective heat transfer coefficient as well as the porosity variation influences the SEI layer growth and the battery life significantly. The choice of an electrolyte decides the conductivity and partial molar concentration, which is found to have a strong influence on the capacity fade of the battery. The present battery model integrates all essential electro-chemical processes inside a lithium-ion battery under a strong implicit algorithm, proving a useful tool for computationally fast battery monitoring system.

  9. Effects of Script Fading on the Abilities of Children with Autism to Reciprocate Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedoff, Marc Alan

    2009-01-01

    Teaching communication skills to children with autism is a primary concern because speech and/or language delay characterize autism. One method of teaching verbal communication skills to children with autism is script fading. This study examined the effects of teaching children with autism to exchange information to peers about objects and…

  10. The fading phase of Igbo language and culture: path to its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fading phase of Igbo language and culture: path to its revitalisation. ... philosophy of the Igbo man towards himself, his environment and his personal effects, and has discovered that the bane of Igbo language and culture is the Igbo man's attitude towards that which is his, and his easy enchantment with foreign cultures.

  11. Performance of transmit-reference radio system in frequency-selective fading channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jing; Haartsen, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Noise-based Transmit-Reference (TR) radio system is a simple and practical candidate for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication applications. This paper evaluates the performance of the Transmit-Reference radio system in a frequency-selective fading channel by theoretical analysis and computer

  12. INTERFERENCE REJECTION OF SIGNALS BY ADAPTIVE MINIMUM MEAN SQUARE ERROR CRITERION OVER RAYLEIGH FADING CHANNELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMITA SONI

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Channel time-variation (or fading is the major source of impairment in digital wireless communications. This occurs due to mobility of the user or of the objects in the propagation environment. The limited spectral bandwidth necessitates the use of resource sharing schemes between multiple users. As the transmission medium is shared between the users, this leads to interference between the users. Sharing of resource results in interference such as multiple access interference. This paper deals with methods to study and mitigate such interference considering Rayleigh fading channels. There are various classes of fading conditions. The use of CDMA is under active research as a viable alternative to TDMA and FDMA. Performance in this system is limited by narrowband and multiple access interference. Various methods are used to mitigate them. But here, linear MMSE detector is considered. MMSE technique results in interference rejection. Its adaptive form is applied to Rayleigh fading channels, which are reflective and nondispersive. It results into better results than before.

  13. Wake Up: The American Dream Is Fading, and Our Future Is at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David

    1988-01-01

    Citing some alarming statistics concerning our aging population, declining middle-class birthrates, a burgeoning underclass, and the broadening gap between the rich and poor, this article deplores our society's inability to confront the fading "American Dream" and urges schools to begin recruiting more poor and minority children to the middle…

  14. Investigating Human Impact in the Environment with Faded Scaffolded Inquiry Supported by Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Todd; Longhurst, Max; Duffy, Aaron M.; Wolf, Paul G.; Nagy, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Teaching science as inquiry is advocated in all national science education documents and by leading science and science teaching organizations. In addition to teaching science as inquiry, we recognize that learning experiences need to connect to students' lives. This article details how we use a sequence of faded scaffolded inquiry supported by…

  15. Differences in the dynamic properties of rain fade between temperate and tropical regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodkaveekityada, Peeramed; Fukuchi, Hajime

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the dynamic properties of rain attenuation is important for designing effective attenuation mitigation methods, especially for Ka-band frequencies, which are particularly sensitive to degradation by rain attenuation. In this paper, the fade duration and fade slope are estimated using satellite data from Thailand and Japan, to investigate the characteristics of rain attenuation in tropical and temperate regions, respectively. For the tropical region, data from the Thaicom 2 and 3 satellites are used, and data from a Japanese communication satellite (CS) are used for the temperate area. Due to the different operating frequencies of the Thaicom 2 and 3 and the CS satellites, the scaling formula from the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) R P.618-12 is used to standardize the data. The Thaicom satellite frequencies of 12.57 (Thaicom 2) and 12.59 (Thaicom 3) GHz in the Ku-band are scaled up to 19.45 GHz, the operating frequency of the CS satellite. Finally, differences of the fade duration and fade slope property in tropical and temperate areas are found and it is confirmed that the rain attenuation effect in tropical areas is more serious than in temperate areas.

  16. Different types of inks having certain medicolegal importance: Deciphering the faded and physically erased handwriting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Abd-ElAziz Abd-ElZaher

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Disappearing ink is a type of ink which could be used to forge documents as it will fade away without any trace within 40–65 h. Erasable ink is another type of ink easily removed by certain rubbers incorporated in each pen. Both types of inks were applied separately on different types of papers (checks, standard white foolscap, and plain white A4 paper. For vanishing ink, it was observed visually in the first 6 h and then every 6 h. It was found that the vanishing ink disappeared completely within 2 h on checks, 36 h on standard white foolscap paper, and 40 h on plain white A4 paper. For erasable ink, the written strokes were manipulated manually using the incorporated eraser. Deciphering the faded writing failed by the conventional methods, but oblique light can reveal the indentation marks. The faded writing became visible when treated with weak alkaline (NaOH solutions. Erasable ink was deciphered with the aid of infra-red radiation combined with VSC-6000 as clear white traces against red fluorescence. It was concluded that the use of a weak (NaOH solution is an effective method for revealing the faded writing, and the infra-red illumination is also effective.

  17. A semi-emperical formula for the expression of TL fading of natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The TL fading trend of natural dolerite samples obtained from Abeokuta in South Western Nigeria for varying post annealing irradiation doses and varying post irradiation storage times prior to readout has been investigated with a view of establishing a semi-empirical formula that best describes this phenomenon in this ...

  18. Outage Probability of MRC for κ-μ Shadowed Fading Channels under Co-Channel Interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changfang; Shu, Minglei; Wang, Yinglong; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Chongqing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, exact closed-form expressions are derived for the outage probability (OP) of the maximal ratio combining (MRC) scheme in the κ-μ shadowed fading channels, in which both the independent and correlated shadowing components are considered. The scenario assumes the received desired signals are corrupted by the independent Rayleigh-faded co-channel interference (CCI) and background white Gaussian noise. To this end, first, the probability density function (PDF) of the κ-μ shadowed fading distribution is obtained in the form of a power series. Then the incomplete generalized moment-generating function (IG-MGF) of the received signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) is derived in the closed form. By using the IG-MGF results, closed-form expressions for the OP of MRC scheme are obtained over the κ-μ shadowed fading channels. Simulation results are included to validate the correctness of the analytical derivations. These new statistical results can be applied to the modeling and analysis of several wireless communication systems, such as body centric communications.

  19. Chebyshev-based technique for automated restoration of digital copies of faded photographic prints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchaev, Dmitry V.; Uchaev, Denis V.; Malinnikov, Vasiliy A.

    2017-01-01

    We present a technique for automated restoration of digital images obtained from faded photographic prints. The proposed defading technique uses our early proposed image contrast enhancement algorithm based on a contrast measure of images in the Chebyshev moment transform domain. Obtained experimental results demonstrate some advantages of the technique as compared to other widely used image enhancement methods.

  20. [Priming dose of atracurium: measuring orbicularis oculi muscle fade and tracheal intubation conditions.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locks, Giovani de Figueiredo; Almeida, Maria Cristina Simões de

    2003-12-01

    The priming principle consists of administering a low neuromuscular blocker dose, minutes before the total dose for tracheal intubation, to shorten non-depolarizing blockers onset. There is, however, the risk for muscle fade and bronchoaspiration. Laryngeal muscles are of especial interest for tracheal intubation maneuvers and airway protection. Since their direct monitoring imposes technical difficulties, it has been reported that orbicularis oculi correlates with laryngeal muscles in terms of sensitivity to neuromuscular blocks. This study aimed at evaluating the presence of orbicularis oculi muscle fade after priming atracurium dose and at comparing clinical tracheal intubation conditions after two priming dose intervals. Participated in this study 35 adult patients, physical status ASA I or II, without risk factors for bronchoaspiration and submitted to elective surgeries. General anesthesia was induced with alfentanil and propofol and patients were manually ventilated under mask. Surface electrodes were then positioned on the temporal branch of the facial nerve, and the acceleration transducer was placed on the orbicularis oculi. Priming atracurium dose (0.02 mg.kg-1) was administered and T4/T1 ratio was evaluated every minute during 5 minutes in 20 cases (G1) and during 7 minutes in 13 cases (G2). After this interval, complementary atracurium dose (0.5 mg.kg-1) was administered and tracheal intubation was performed one minute later. Fade was defined as T4/T1 ratio below 0.9. There has been no fade in any patient during the monitoring interval. In 80% and 69% of G1 or G2 patients, respectively, tracheal intubation was classified as clinically acceptable (p > 0.05). Priming atracurium dose (0.02 mg.kg-1) does not determine orbicularis oculi fade and there is no difference between 5 or 7 minutes priming intervals.

  1. Characterisation of mobile radio channels for small multiantenna terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotterman, Wim Anton Theo

    The Ph.D. thesis "Characterisation of mobile radio channels for small multiantenna terminals" discusses the work on and presents the results of the Ph.D. project "Smart antennas for small terminals". The scope of the project was to determine whether the use of multiple antennas on small handheld...... of large measurement campaigns have been held, in indoor situations, outdoor-to-indoor and outdoors, with users and at 2.14~GHz with approximately 10~MHz bandwidth (-6dB). The measured data have been processed and analysed, with respect to classical channel descriptions, diversity-specific properties...... for multiantenna operation, and user influences. Additionally, the reduction of rank of narrow band channels on small observation intervals is discussed. One of the consequences is that fading prediction is limited to about less than a wavelength ahead in practical circumstances....

  2. ktup Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. ktop Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. kfxe Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. kmsy Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. kroc Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. kacv Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. Terminated Multifamily Mortgages Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Includes all terminated HUD Multifamily insured mortgages. It includes the Holder and Servicer at the time the mortgage was terminated. The data is good as of...

  9. katw Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. klax Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. ksea Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. pafa Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. kprc Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. katl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  5. kiwd Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. kttn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. kagc Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. kbmi Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. kapn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. kgon Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. First-Order Statistical Characteristics of Macrodiversity System with Three Microdiversity MRC Receivers in the Presence of k-µ Short-Term Fading and Gamma Long-Term Fading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Jaksic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrodiversity system with macrodiversity SC receiver and three microdiversity MRC (maximum ratio combining receivers is considered. Independent k-μ short-term fading and correlated Gamma long-term fading are present at the inputs of microdiversity MRC receivers. For this model, the probability density function and the cumulative density function of microdiversity MRC receivers and macrodiversity SC receiver output signal envelopes are calculated. Influences of Gamma shadowing severity, k-μ multipath fading severity, Rician factor and correlation coefficient at probability density function, and cumulative density function of macrodiversity SC receiver output signal envelopes are graphically presented.

  12. Evaluasi Kinerja Angkutan Umum Trayek Terminal Oebobo - Terminal Kupang Pp Dan Terminal Kupang - Terminal Noelbaki Pp

    OpenAIRE

    Safe, Yohanes T; Udiana, I Made; Bella, Rosmiyati A

    2015-01-01

    Beberapa ruas jalan pada Trayek Terminal Oebobo-Terminal Kupang PP dan trayek Terminal Kupang-Terminal Noelbaki PP, pada jam-jam puncak angkutan umum yang ada cenderung digunakan melebihi kapasitas maksimumnya. Keadaan sebaliknya terjadi pada jam non-puncak, kendaraan umum setengah kosong dan harus melakukan kompetisi dengan angkutan umum lainnya untuk mendapatkan penumpang. Tujuan dari penelitian adalah mengetahui kinerja pelayanan angkutan umum, kebutuhan angkutan umum dan membuat rekomenda...

  13. Evaluation of fading factor and self-dose for glass dosimeter and thermoluminescence dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, T.; Yamanishi, H.; Miyake, H.; Komura, K.

    2000-01-01

    The glass dosimeter (GD) and thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) are both passive radiation detectors. They are often used for measuring environmental radiation. In order to measure low dose rate preciously, it is important to evaluate decreased dose due to fading and self-dose during the exposure period. We evaluate the fading factor and self-dose of thee passive detectors, GD and TLD. We select Ogoya tunnel for the experiment. The tunnel is suitable field for measuring faded dose and self-dose because it is low cosmic radiation. At the center of the tunnel, the intensity of cosmic ray is reduced to about 1/177 than the outside of the funnel. We prepared two sets of dosimeters. One set consists of five GDs, five TLDs and some pre-irradiated GDs and TLDs that are exposed to standard radiation of 4 mGy by Cs-137. These dosimeters are put in the 10 cm thick lead box in order to shield the terrestrial gamma ray. One set is located at the center of the tunnel and the other is the outside of the funnel. The dosimeters were exposed for ten months, from May 1998 to March 1999. After the exposure, the readers of dosimeters are carried into the funnel to read out the signals promptly as soon as taking out the dosimeters. As a result of the measurement, four kinds of data are taken for GD and TLD respectively. Assumed that the self-dose and cosmic ray are constant during exposure, the four independent unknown quantities, a self-dose a dose due to cosmic ray and a fading coefficient at the center of the tunnel and at the outside, are considered. Therefore four simultaneous equations should be obtained. From these examinations, the faded dose of GD is less than 1%, but that of TLD is about 16% during ten months. The coefficient for compensation of fading of GD and TLD is given as the half of the each value. At the outside of the tunnel, the measured dose rate of cosmic ray that can pass through the 10 cm lead is evaluated to be about 16 nGy/h by both detectors. The self

  14. Exponential fading to white of black holes in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barceló, Carlos; Carballo-Rubio, Raúl; Garay, Luis J

    2017-01-01

    Quantization of the gravitational field may allow the existence of a decay channel of black holes into white holes with an explicit time-reversal symmetry. The definition of a meaningful decay probability for this channel is studied in spherically symmetric situations. As a first nontrivial calculation, we present the functional integration over a set of geometries using a single-variable function to interpolate between black-hole and white-hole geometries in a bounded region of spacetime. This computation gives a finite result which depends only on the Schwarzschild mass and a parameter measuring the width of the interpolating region. The associated probability distribution displays an exponential decay law on the latter parameter, with a mean lifetime inversely proportional to the Schwarzschild mass. In physical terms this would imply that matter collapsing to a black hole from a finite radius bounces back elastically and instantaneously, with negligible time delay as measured by external observers. These results invite to reconsider the ultimate nature of astrophysical black holes, providing a possible mechanism for the formation of black stars instead of proper general relativistic black holes. The existence of both this decay channel and black stars can be tested in future observations of gravitational waves. (paper)

  15. Organizational Relationship Termination Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Geersbro, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Most firms are involved in a number of customer relationships that drain the firm's resources. However, many firms are hesitant to address this problem. This paper investigates customer relationship termination at the organizational level. We develop and analyze the organizational dimensions...... that a firm's percentage of unwanted customers decreases significantly as acceptance of termination increases, if the firm's definition of unwanted customers is well understood, and if a firm has clear termination routines. In addition, general focus on profitability and external constraints on relationship...... termination are found to significantly affect a firm's relationship termination competence. The findings suggest that managers should regard termination as a legitimate option in customer relationship management. In order to decrease the number of unwanted customers, managers must accept termination...

  16. A Unified Simulation Approach for the Fast Outage Capacity Evaluation over Generalized Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir B.

    2016-01-06

    The outage capacity (OC) is among the most important performance metrics of communication systems over fading channels. The evaluation of the OC, when equal gain combining (EGC) or maximum ratio combining (MRC) diversity techniques are employed, boils down to computing the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the sum of channel envelopes (equivalently amplitudes) for EGC or channel gains (equivalently squared enveloped/ amplitudes) for MRC. Closed-form expressions of the CDF of the sum of many generalized fading variates are generally unknown and constitute open problems. We develop a unified hazard rate twisting Importance Sampling (IS) based approach to efficiently estimate the CDF of the sum of independent arbitrary variates. The proposed IS estimator is shown to achieve an asymptotic optimality criterion, which clearly guarantees its efficiency. Some selected simulation results are also shown to illustrate the substantial computational gain achieved by the proposed IS scheme over crude Monte Carlo simulations.

  17. Fading prediction in thermoluminescent materials using computerised glow curve deconvolution (CGCD)

    CERN Document Server

    Furetta, C; Weng, P S

    1999-01-01

    The fading of three different thermoluminescent (TL) materials, CaF sub 2 : Tm (TLD-300), manocrystalline LiF : Mg,Ti (DTG-4) and MgB sub 4 O sub 7 : Dy,Na has been studied at room temperature and at 50 deg. C of storage. The evolution as a function of the elapsed time of the whole glow curve as well as of the individual peaks has been analysed using the Computerised Glow Curve Deconvolution (CGCD) program developed at the NTHU. The analysis allows to predict the loss of the dosimetric information and to make any correction is necessary for using the TL dosimeters in practical applications. Furthermore, it is well demonstrated that using CGCD it is not necessary to anneal the peaks having a rapid fading to avoid, then, any interfering effect on the more stable peaks.

  18. Electrochemical capacity fading of polyaniline electrode in supercapacitor: An XPS analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Deng

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To understand the electrochemical capacity fading of the polyaniline (PANI electrodes in supercapacitors, for the first time, their chemical structure change during electrochemical cycles was traced with XPS analysis after the HCl doped PANI electrodes were subjected to the cyclic voltammetry test in 1.0 M H2SO4 electrolyte for different cycle numbers. The results showed that the chlorine disappeared in the electrode surface, while the surface element contents of sulfur and oxygen increased with the electrochemical cycles increased. It demonstrated that the hydrolytic degradation of the PANI chains and exchange of dopant occurred during the electrochemical cycling, causing the fading in the mechanical and electrochemical performance of the PANI electrodes. This understanding should lead to better design of the conductive polymer-based energy storage devices.

  19. Turbo coding, turbo equalisation and space-time coding for transmission over fading channels

    CERN Document Server

    Hanzo, L; Yeap, B

    2002-01-01

    Against the backdrop of the emerging 3G wireless personal communications standards and broadband access network standard proposals, this volume covers a range of coding and transmission aspects for transmission over fading wireless channels. It presents the most important classic channel coding issues and also the exciting advances of the last decade, such as turbo coding, turbo equalisation and space-time coding. It endeavours to be the first book with explicit emphasis on channel coding for transmission over wireless channels. Divided into 4 parts: Part 1 - explains the necessary background for novices. It aims to be both an easy reading text book and a deep research monograph. Part 2 - provides detailed coverage of turbo conventional and turbo block coding considering the known decoding algorithms and their performance over Gaussian as well as narrowband and wideband fading channels. Part 3 - comprehensively discusses both space-time block and space-time trellis coding for the first time in literature. Par...

  20. Systems, methods and computer-readable media for modeling cell performance fade of rechargeable electrochemical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, Kevin L

    2013-08-27

    A system includes an electrochemical cell, monitoring hardware, and a computing system. The monitoring hardware periodically samples performance characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The computing system determines cell information from the performance characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The computing system also develops a mechanistic level model of the electrochemical cell to determine performance fade characteristics of the electrochemical cell and analyzing the mechanistic level model to estimate performance fade characteristics over aging of a similar electrochemical cell. The mechanistic level model uses first constant-current pulses applied to the electrochemical cell at a first aging period and at three or more current values bracketing a first exchange current density. The mechanistic level model also is based on second constant-current pulses applied to the electrochemical cell at a second aging period and at three or more current values bracketing the second exchange current density.

  1. Distributed detection in UWB sensor networks under non-orthogonal Nakagami-m fading

    KAUST Repository

    Mehbodniya, Abolfazl

    2011-09-01

    Several attractive features of ultra wideband (UWB) communications make it a good candidate for physical-layer of wireless sensor networks (WSN). These features include low power consumption, low complexity and low cost of implementation. In this paper, we present an opportunistic power assignment strategy for distributed detection in parallel fusion WSNs, considering a Nakagami-m fading model for the communication channel and time-hopping (TH) UWB for the transmitter circuit of the sensor nodes. In a parallel fusion WSN, local decisions are made by local sensors and transmitted through wireless channels to a fusion center. The fusion center processes the information and makes the final decision. Simulation results are provided for the global probability of detection error and relative performance gain to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed power assignment strategy in different fading environments. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. On the capacity of cognitive radio under limited channel state information over fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2011-06-01

    A spectrum-sharing communication system where the secondary user is aware of the instantaneous channel state information (CSI) of the secondary link, but knows only the statistics and an estimated version of the secondary transmitter-primary receiver (ST-PR) link, is investigated. The optimum power profile and the ergodic capacity of the secondary link are derived for general fading channels (with continuous probability density function) under average and peak transmit-power constraints and with respect to two different interference constraints: an interference outage constraint and a signal-to-interference (SI) outage constraint. When applied to Rayleigh fading channels, our results show, for instance, that the interference constraint is harmful at high-power regime, whereas at low-power regime, it has a marginal impact and no-interference performance may be achieved. © 2011 IEEE.

  3. Performance analysis of power-efficient adaptive interference cancelation in fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2010-12-01

    This paper analyzes the performance of a -steering scheme for highly correlated receive antennas in the presence of statistically unordered co-channel interferers over multipath fading channels. An adaptive activation of receive antennas according to the interfering signals fading conditions is considered in the analysis. Analytical expressions for various system performance measures, including the outage probability, average error probability of different signaling schemes, and raw moments of the combined signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) are obtained in exact forms. Numerical and simulation results for the performance-complexity tradeoff of this scheme is presented and then compared with that of full-size arbitrary interference cancelation and no cancelation scenarios. ©2010 IEEE.

  4. On the outage capacity of the block fading channel at low-power regime

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2014-06-01

    Outage performance of the M-block fading with additive white Gaussian noise (BF-AWGN) is investigated at low-power regime. We consider delay-constrained constant-rate communications with perfect channel state information (CSI) at both the transmitter and the receiver (CSI-TR), under a short-term power constraint. We show that selection diversity that allocates all the power to the strongest block is asymptotically optimal. Then, we provide a simple characterization of the outage probability in the regime of interest. We quantify the reward due to CSI-TR over the constant-rate constant-power scheme and show that this reward increases with the delay constraint. For instance, for Rayleigh fading, we find that a power gain up to 4.3 dB is achievable. © 2014 IEEE.

  5. On Outage Performance of Spectrum-Sharing Communication over M-Block Fading

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, AbdulRahman

    2015-12-06

    In this paper, we consider a cognitive radio system in which a block-fading channel is assumed. Each transmission frame consists of M blocks and each block undergoes a different channel gain. Instantaneous channel state information about the interference links remains unknown to the primary and secondary users. We minimize the secondary user\\'s targeted outage probability over the block-fading channels. To protect the primary user, a statistical constraint on its targeted outage probability is enforced. The secondary user\\'s targeted outage region and the corresponding optimal power are derived. We also propose two sub-optimal power strategies and derive compact expressions for the corresponding outage probabilities. These probabilities are shown to be asymptotic lower and upper bounds on the outage probability. Utilizing these bounds, we derive the exact diversity order of the secondary user outage probability. Selected numerical results are presented to characterize the system\\'s behavior.

  6. Design and Performance Analysis of MISO-ORM-DCSK System over Rayleigh Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel chaotic communication system, named Orthogonality-based Reference Modulated-Differential Chaos Shift Keying (ORM-DCSK, is proposed to enhance the performance of RM-DCSK. By designing an orthogonal chaotic generator (OCG, the intrasignal interference components in RM-DCSK are eliminated. Also, the signal frame format is expanded so the average bit energy is reduced. As a result, the proposed system has less interference in decision variables. Furthermore, to investigate the bit error rate (BER performance over Rayleigh fading channels, the MISO-ORM-DCSK is studied. The BER expressions of the new system are derived and analyzed over AWGN channel and multipath Rayleigh fading channel. All simulation results not only show that the proposed system can obtain significant improvement but also verify the analysis in theory.

  7. A unified simulation approach for the fast outage capacity evaluation over generalized fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir B.

    2015-06-14

    The outage capacity (OC) is among the most important performance metrics of communication systems over fading channels. The evaluation of the OC, when Equal Gain Combining (EGC) or Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC) diversity techniques are employed, boils down to computing the Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) of the sum of channel envelopes (equivalently amplitudes) for EGC or channel gain (equivalently squared enveloped/amplitudes) for MRC. Closed-form expressions of the CDF of the sum of many generalized fading variates are generally unknown and constitute open problems. In this paper, we develop a unified hazard rate twisting Importance Sampling (IS) based approach to efficiently estimate the CDF of the sum of independent arbitrary variates. The proposed IS estimator is shown to achieve an asymptotic optimality criterion, which clearly guarantees its efficiency. Some selected simulation results are also shown to illustrate the substantial computational gain achieved by the proposed IS scheme over crude Monte-Carlo simulations.

  8. Capacity of spectrum sharing Cognitive Radio systems over Nakagami fading channels at low SNR

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we study the ergodic capacity of Cognitive Radio (CR) spectrum sharing systems at low power regime. We focus on Nakagami fading channels. We formally define the low power regime and present closed form expressions of the capacity in the low power regime under various types of interference and/or power constraints, depending on the available channel state information (CSI) of the cross link (CL) between the secondary user transmitter and the primary user receiver. We explicitly characterize two regimes where either the interference constraint or the power constraint dictates the optimal power profile. Our framework also highlights the effects of different fading parameters on the secondary link ergodic capacity. Interestingly, we show that the low power regime analysis provides a specific insight on the capacity behavior of CR that has not been reported by previous studies. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. Algebraic lattice Codes achieve the capacity of the compound block-fading channel

    OpenAIRE

    Campello, A; Ling, C; Belfiore, JC

    2016-01-01

    We propose a lattice coding scheme that achieves the capacity of the compound block-fading channel. Our lattice construction exploits the multiplicative structure of number fields and their group of units to absorb ill-conditioned channel realizations. To shape the constellation, a discrete Gaussian distribution over the lattice points is applied. A by-product of our results is a refined analysis of the probability of error of the lattice Gaussian distribution in the AWGN channel.

  10. Low complexity iterative MLSE equalization of M-QAM signals in extremely long rayleigh fading channels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Myburgh, HC

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available used to overcome the ISI introduced by long fading channels are Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) [6] and Turbo Equalization [7]. By exploiting the orthogonality properties of the Fourier matrix, OFDM modulation can almost... completely eliminate the effect of multipath on the system performance while maintaining trivial per symbol complexity. OFDM, however, is very susceptible to Doppler shift, suffers from a large peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), and requires large...

  11. Temporal and Spatial Characterization of GPS Fading From Ionospheric Irregularities Under Low latitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paula, E. R.; Moraes, A. D. O.; Vani, B. C.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Abdu, M. A.; Galera Monico, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    The ionosphere over the peak of the anomaly represents a treat for navigation systems based on GNSS. Brazilian territory is mostly under this harsh layer for satellite communication in general and in particular for navigation, like GPS users, where their receivers tracking performance are damaged under scintillation conditions. Ionospheric scintillation is responsible for significant degradation in the accuracy of navigation and positioning. Phase shifts accompanied by amplitude fades significantly degrades the signal-to-noise ratio of the received signal disrupting the channel and loosing navigation performance. The stronger the scintillations are, more difficulty will be for the GNSS receiver tracking loops to recover the phase and code replicas. These phenomena under specific geophysical conditions may severely affect the system availability and positioning. In this work the temporal characteristics of amplitude scintillation will be analyzed at the three available GPS frequencies, L1, L2C and L5. Aspect like fading duration and depth will be evaluated and compared among the three available frequencies for the current solar cycle. This work will use GPS scintillation data recorded during six months of data during 2014 to 2015 at three stations under Brazilian territory located near the southern crest of the equatorial ionization anomaly. The analysis will be performed focusing on the fading profile of the three frequencies comparing how the fading of those signals behave statistically between them. Aspects like loss of lock, spatial orientation between the signal across the ionospheric irregularity will also be discussed showing how much more susceptible the new frequencies might be in comparison to the widely used and studied L1 frequency.

  12. Optimal transmitter power of an intersatellite optical communication system with reciprocal Pareto fading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian

    2010-02-10

    This paper shows that optical signal transmission over intersatellite links with swaying transmitters can be described as an equivalent fading model. In this model, the instantaneous signal-to-noise ratio is stochastic and follows the reciprocal Pareto distribution. With this model, we show that the transmitter power can be minimized, subject to a specified outage probability, by appropriately adjusting some system parameters, such as the transmitter gain.

  13. Train of four fade in a child with stiff baby syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, C

    2012-02-03

    A case is described of a child with stiff baby syndrome who underwent open reduction and femoral shortening of congenital dislocated hip under general anaesthesia. Neuromuscular function was measured electromyographically and demonstrated a great degree of train of four fade (57%) after sevoflurane inhalational induction of anaesthesia. The response to suxamethonium (2 mg x kg(-1)) was normal. The neuromuscular response to volatile anaesthetic agents and suxamethonium may be abnormal in these children with stiff baby syndrome and intraoperative neuromuscular monitoring is recommended.

  14. Capacity bounds for kth best path selection over generalized fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Hanif, Muhammad Fainan

    2014-02-01

    Exact ergodic capacity calculation for fading wireless channels typically involves time-consuming numerical evaluation of infinite integrals. In this paper, lower and upper bounds on ergodic capacity for kth best path are presented. These bounds have simple analytic expressions which allow their fast evaluation. Numerical results show that the newly proposed bounds closely approximate the exact ergodic capacity for a large variety of system configurations. © 1997-2012 IEEE.

  15. Physical Layer Security for Cooperative Relaying Over Generalized-K Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ling

    2018-02-02

    In this letter, we analyze the secrecy performance for a cooperative diversity system with amplify-and-forward (AF) over generalized-K fading channels. More specifically, some lower bounds on the secrecy performance, such as secure outage probability (SOP), average secrecy capacity (ASC), and strictly positive secrecy capacity (SPSC), are derived in closed-form. Finally, we provide simulation results to verify the accuracy of our analytical results.

  16. OFDM RF power-fading circumvention for long-reach WDM-PON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, C W; Yeh, C H; Sung, J Y

    2014-10-06

    We propose and demonstrate an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) radio-frequency (RF) power-fading circumvention scheme for long-reach wavelength-division-multiplexed passive-optical-network (LR-WDM-PON); hence the same capacity of 40 Gb/s can be provided to all the optical-networking-units (ONUs) in the LR-WDM-PON. Numerical analysis and proof-of-concept experiment are performed.

  17. Unified Importance Sampling Schemes for Efficient Simulation of Outage Capacity over Generalized Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir B.

    2015-11-13

    The outage capacity (OC) is among the most important performance metrics of communication systems operating over fading channels. Of interest in the present paper is the evaluation of the OC at the output of the Equal Gain Combining (EGC) and the Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC) receivers. In this case, it can be seen that this problem turns out to be that of computing the Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) for the sum of independent random variables. Since finding a closedform expression for the CDF of the sum distribution is out of reach for a wide class of commonly used distributions, methods based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations take pride of price. In order to allow for the estimation of the operating range of small outage probabilities, it is of paramount importance to develop fast and efficient estimation methods as naive Monte Carlo (MC) simulations would require high computational complexity. In this line, we propose in this work two unified, yet efficient, hazard rate twisting Importance Sampling (IS) based approaches that efficiently estimate the OC of MRC or EGC diversity techniques over generalized independent fading channels. The first estimator is shown to possess the asymptotic optimality criterion and applies for arbitrary fading models, whereas the second one achieves the well-desired bounded relative error property for the majority of the well-known fading variates. Moreover, the second estimator is shown to achieve the asymptotic optimality property under the particular Log-normal environment. Some selected simulation results are finally provided in order to illustrate the substantial computational gain achieved by the proposed IS schemes over naive MC simulations.

  18. Analytical evaluation of adaptive-modulation-based opportunistic cognitive radio in nakagami-m fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yunfei

    2012-09-01

    The performance of adaptive modulation for cognitive radio with opportunistic access is analyzed by considering the effects of spectrum sensing, primary user (PU) traffic, and time delay for Nakagami- m fading channels. Both the adaptive continuous rate scheme and the adaptive discrete rate scheme are considered. Numerical examples are presented to quantify the effects of spectrum sensing, PU traffic, and time delay for different system parameters. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  19. Codebook Design and Hybrid Digital/Analog Coding for Parallel Rayleigh Fading Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Shuying; Larsson, Erik G.; Skoglund, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Low-delay source-channel transmission over parallel fading channels is studied. In this scenario separate sourceand channel coding is highly suboptimal. A scheme based on hybrid digital/analog joint source-channel coding istherefore proposed, employing scalar quantization and polynomial-based analog bandwidth expansion. Simulationsdemonstrate substantial performance gains. Funding agencies|European Community|248993|EL-LIIT||Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation||

  20. Electrochemical performances and capacity fading behaviors of activated carbon/hard carbon lithium ion capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xianzhong; Zhang, Xiong; Liu, Wenjie; Wang, Kai; Li, Chen; Li, Zhao; Ma, Yanwei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Three-electrode pouch cell is used to investigate the capacity fading of AC/HC LIC. • the electrode potential swing is critical for the cycleability of a LIC cell. • Different capacity fading behaviors are discussed. • A large-capacity LIC pouch cell has been assembled with a specific energy of 18.1 Wh kg −1 based on the total weight. - Abstract: Lithium ion capacitor (LIC) is one of the most promising electrochemical energy storage devices, which offers rapid charging-discharging capability and long cycle life. We have fabricated LIC pouch cells using an electrochemically-driven lithium pre-doping method through a three-electrode pouch cell structure. The active materials of cathode and anode of LIC cell are activated carbon and pre-lithiated hard carbon, respectively. The electrochemical performances and the capacity fading behaviors of LICs in the voltage range of 2.0 − 4.0 V have been studied. The specific energy and specific power reach 73.6 Wh kg −1 and 11.9 kW kg −1 based on the weight of the active materials in both cathode and anode, respectively. Since the cycling performance is actually determined by hard carbon anode, the anode potential swings are emphasized. The capacity fading of LIC upon cycling is proposed to be caused by the increases of internal resistance and the consumption of lithium stored in anode. Finally, a large-capacity LIC pouch cell has been assembled with a maximum specific energy of 18.1 Wh kg −1 and a maximum specific power of 3.7 kW kg −1 based on the weight of the whole cell.

  1. The capacity of the cascaded fading channel in the low power regime

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we present a simple way to compute the ergodic capacity of cascaded channels with perfect channel state information at both the transmitter and the receiver. We apply our generic results to the Rayleigh-double fading channel, and to the free-space optical channel in the presence of pointing errors and we express their low signal-to-noise ratio capacities. We mainly focus on the low signal-to-noise ratio range.

  2. Apparatus and Method for Elimination of Polarization-Induced Fading in Fiber-optic Sensor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hon Man (Inventor); Parker, Jr., Allen R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The invention is an apparatus and method of eliminating polarization-induced fading in interferometric fiber-optic sensor system having a wavelength-swept laser optical signal. The interferometric return signal from the sensor arms are combined and provided to a multi-optical path detector assembly and ultimately to a data acquisition and processing unit by way of a switch that is time synchronized with the laser scan sweep cycle.

  3. On the low SNR capacity of MIMO fading channels with imperfect channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2014-06-01

    The capacity of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Rayleigh fading channels with full knowledge of channel state information (CSI) at both the transmitter and the receiver (CSI-TR) has been shown recently to scale at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) essentially as SNR log(1/SNR), independently of the number of transmit and receive antennas. In this paper, we investigate the ergodic capacity of MIMO Rayleigh fading channel with estimated channel state information at the transmitter (CSI-T) and possibly imperfect channel state information at the receiver (CSI-R). Our framework can be seen as a generalization of previous works as it can capture the perfect CSI-TR as a special case when the estimation error variance goes to zero. In this paper, we mainly focus on the low SNR regime, and we show that the capacity scales as (1-α) SNR log(1/SNR), where α is the estimation error variance. This characterization shows the loss of performance due to error estimation over the perfect channel state information at both the transmitter and the receiver. As a by-product of our new analysis, we show that our framework can be also extended to characterize the capacity of MIMO Rician fading channels at low SNR with possibly imperfect CSI-T and CSI-R. © 1972-2012 IEEE.

  4. On the low SNR capacity of MIMO fading channels with imperfect channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2014-05-01

    The capacity of Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Rayleigh fading channels with full knowledge of channel state information (CSI) at both the transmitter and the receiver (CSI-TR) has been shown recently to scale at low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) essentially as SNR log(1=SNR), independently of the number of transmit and receive antennas. In this paper, we investigate the ergodic capacity of MIMO Rayleigh fading channel with estimated channel state information at the transmitter (CSI-T) and possibly imperfect channel state information at the receiver (CSI-R). Our framework can be seen as a generalization of previous works as it can capture the perfect CSI-TR as a special case when the estimation error variance goes to zero. In our work, we mainly focus on the low SNR regime and we show that the capacity scales as (1-α) SNR log(1=SNR), where α is the estimation error variance. This characterization shows the loss of performance due to error estimation over the perfect channel state information at both the transmitter and the receiver. As a by-product of our new analysis, we show that our framework can also be extended to characterize the capacity of MIMO Rician fading channels at low SNR with possibly imperfect CSI-T and CSI-R. © 2014 IFIP.

  5. Analisis Unjuk Kerja Convolutional Code pada Sistem MIMO MC-DSSS Melalui Kanal Rayleigh Fading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Agus Mahabojana Dwi Prayoga

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Kombinasi antara sistem MIMO (multiple input multiple output, OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, dan spread spectrum serta adanya teknik pengkodean kanal mampu mengurangi efek fading dan error yang terjadi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbandingan performansi dari sistem MIMO MC-DSSS (multi carrier-direct sequence spread spectrum Uncoded atau tanpa pengkodean kanal dan MIMO MC-DSSS Convolutional Code atau dengan pengkodean kanal Convolutional yang melalui kanal Rayleigh Fading, ditinjau dari nilai dan grafik BER (bit error rate berbanding Eb/No (energy per bit to noise power spectral density ratio. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode simulasi dengan menggunakan program Matlab R2015a. Hasil dari simulasi didapat unjuk kerja sistem MIMO MC-DSSS dengan Convolutional Code memiliki hasil yang lebih baik dari MIMO MC-DSSS. Pada kanal transmisi Rayleigh Fading untuk mencapi nilai BER sebesar 10-3 pada sistem MIMO MC-DSSS dengan Convolutional Code dibutuhkan Eb/No sebesar -7 dB. Sedangkan pada sistem MIMO MC-DSSS dibutuhkan Eb/No sebesar -3 dB.[turnitin 20%, 7-11-2016

  6. Achievable rate of spectrum sharing cognitive radio systems over fading channels at low-power regime

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2014-11-01

    We study the achievable rate of cognitive radio (CR) spectrum sharing systems at the low-power regime for general fading channels and then for Nakagami fading. We formally define the low-power regime and present the corresponding closed-form expressions of the achievable rate lower bound under various types of interference and/or power constraints, depending on the available channel state information of the cross link (CL) between the secondary-user transmitter and the primary-user receiver. We explicitly characterize two regimes where either the interference constraint or the power constraint dictates the optimal power profile. Our framework also highlights the effects of different fading parameters on the secondary link (SL) ergodic achievable rate. We also study more realistic scenarios when there is either 1-bit quantized channel feedback from the CL alone or 2-bit feedback from both the CL and the SL and propose simple power control schemes and show that these schemes achieve the previously achieved rate at the low-power regime. Interestingly, we show that the low-power regime analysis provides a specific insight into the maximum achievable rate behavior of CR that has not been reported by previous studies.

  7. Dynamic rain fade compensation techniques for the advanced communications technology satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.

    1992-01-01

    The dynamic and composite nature of propagation impairments that are incurred on earth-space communications links at frequencies in and above the 30/20 GHz Ka band necessitate the use of dynamic statistical identification and prediction processing of the fading signal in order to optimally estimate and predict the levels of each of the deleterious attenuation components. Such requirements are being met in NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) project by the implementation of optimal processing schemes derived through the use of the ACTS Rain Attenuation Prediction Model and nonlinear Markov filtering theory. The ACTS Rain Attenuation Prediction Model discerns climatological variations on the order of 0.5 deg in latitude and longitude in the continental U.S. The time-dependent portion of the model gives precise availability predictions for the 'spot beam' links of ACTS. However, the structure of the dynamic portion of the model, which yields performance parameters such as fade duration probabilities, is isomorphic to the state-variable approach of stochastic control theory and is amenable to the design of such statistical fade processing schemes which can be made specific to the particular climatological location at which they are employed.

  8. Adaptive Estimation of Multiple Fading Factors for GPS/INS Integrated Navigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jiang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Kalman filter has been widely applied in the field of dynamic navigation and positioning. However, its performance will be degraded in the presence of significant model errors and uncertain interferences. In the literature, the fading filter was proposed to control the influences of the model errors, and the H-infinity filter can be adopted to address the uncertainties by minimizing the estimation error in the worst case. In this paper, a new multiple fading factor, suitable for the Global Positioning System (GPS and the Inertial Navigation System (INS integrated navigation system, is proposed based on the optimization of the filter, and a comprehensive filtering algorithm is constructed by integrating the advantages of the H-infinity filter and the proposed multiple fading filter. Measurement data of the GPS/INS integrated navigation system are collected under actual conditions. Stability and robustness of the proposed filtering algorithm are tested with various experiments and contrastive analysis are performed with the measurement data. Results demonstrate that both the filter divergence and the influences of outliers are restrained effectively with the proposed filtering algorithm, and precision of the filtering results are improved simultaneously.

  9. Adaptive Estimation of Multiple Fading Factors for GPS/INS Integrated Navigation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chen; Zhang, Shu-Bi; Zhang, Qiu-Zhao

    2017-06-01

    The Kalman filter has been widely applied in the field of dynamic navigation and positioning. However, its performance will be degraded in the presence of significant model errors and uncertain interferences. In the literature, the fading filter was proposed to control the influences of the model errors, and the H-infinity filter can be adopted to address the uncertainties by minimizing the estimation error in the worst case. In this paper, a new multiple fading factor, suitable for the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Inertial Navigation System (INS) integrated navigation system, is proposed based on the optimization of the filter, and a comprehensive filtering algorithm is constructed by integrating the advantages of the H-infinity filter and the proposed multiple fading filter. Measurement data of the GPS/INS integrated navigation system are collected under actual conditions. Stability and robustness of the proposed filtering algorithm are tested with various experiments and contrastive analysis are performed with the measurement data. Results demonstrate that both the filter divergence and the influences of outliers are restrained effectively with the proposed filtering algorithm, and precision of the filtering results are improved simultaneously.

  10. Fading characteristics of maritime propagation channel for beyond geometrical horizon communications in C-band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Raulefs, Ronald; Jost, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    The design of a maritime communication system requires the understanding of the wireless propagation channel above the sea. For broadband communication systems, a carrier frequency in the C-band is of interest because of allocatable spectrum. Therefore, the German Aerospace Center performed a long-distance channel measurement campaign at 5.2 GHz on the North sea to investigate large and small-scale fading characteristics. The results show that our measurement data conforms with the ITU-R and the Bullington's path loss model to predict the power loss caused by diffraction over the Earth's surface. Further, the first tap of the channel impulse response experiences Rician fading due to superposition of a strong line-of-sight (LoS) path and multipath components originating from the sea surface and ship body. We found that the fading of the second tap follows a Rician distribution, but with a much smaller K-factor compared to the first tap. The K-factor showed a dependence on the distance between the transmitter and receiver. Particularly, the K-factor of the first tap decreases significantly when the distance between the transmitter and receiver is larger than the clearance distance of the first Fresnel zone. Therefore, we propose a distance-dependent K-factor model for the first and the second tap.

  11. Efficient Cooperative Protocols for Full-Duplex Relaying over Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Khafagy, Mohammad Galal

    2015-02-24

    In this work, efficient protocols are studied for full-duplex relaying (FDR) with loopback interference over Nakagami-m block fading channels. Recently, a selective decodeand- forward (DF) protocol was proposed for FDR, and was shown to outperform existing protocols in terms of outage over Rayleigh-fading channels. In this work, we propose an incremental selective DF protocol that offers additional power savings, yet yields the same outage performance. We evaluate their outage performance over independent non-identically distributed Nakagami-m fading links, and study their relative performance in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio cumulative distribution function via closed-form expressions. The offered diversity gain is also derived. In addition, we study their performance relative to their half-duplex counterparts, as well as known non-selective FDR protocols. We corroborate our theoretical results with simulation, and confirm that selective cooperation protocols outperform the known non-selective protocols in terms of outage. Finally, we show that depending on the loopback interference level, the proposed protocols can outperform their half-duplex counterparts when high spectral efficiencies are targeted.

  12. On the capacity of nakagami-m fading Channels with full channel state information at low SNR

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2012-06-01

    The capacity of flat Rayleigh fading channels with full channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter and at the receiver at asymptotically low SNR has been recently shown to scale essentially as SNR log(1/SNR)}. In this paper, we investigate the Nakagami-m fading channel capacity with full CSI, and show that the capacity of this channel scales essentially as m/ Omega SNR log(1/SNR), where m is the Nakagami-m fading parameter and where Ω is the channel mean-square. We also show that one-bit CSI at the transmitter is enough to achieve this asymptotic capacity using an On-Off power control scheme. Our framework may be seen as a generalization of previous works as it captures the Rayleigh fading channel as a special case by taking m=1. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. Error Rates of M-PAM and M-QAM in Generalized Fading and Generalized Gaussian Noise Environments

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2013-07-01

    This letter investigates the average symbol error probability (ASEP) of pulse amplitude modulation and quadrature amplitude modulation coherent signaling over flat fading channels subject to additive white generalized Gaussian noise. The new ASEP results are derived in a generic closed-form in terms of the Fox H function and the bivariate Fox H function for the extended generalized-K fading case. The utility of this new general closed-form is that it includes some special fading distributions, like the Generalized-K, Nakagami-m, and Rayleigh fading and special noise distributions such as Gaussian and Laplacian. Some of these special cases are also treated and are shown to yield simplified results.

  14. One-dimensional TRFLP-SSCP is an effective DNA fingerprinting strategy for soil Archaea that is able to simultaneously differentiate broad taxonomic clades based on terminal fragment length polymorphisms and closely related sequences based on single stranded conformation polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Colby A; Sliwinski, Marek K

    2013-09-01

    DNA fingerprinting methods provide a means to rapidly compare microbial assemblages from environmental samples without the need to first cultivate species in the laboratory. The profiles generated by these techniques are able to identify statistically significant temporal and spatial patterns, correlations to environmental gradients, and biological variability to estimate the number of replicates for clone libraries or next generation sequencing (NGS) surveys. Here we describe an improved DNA fingerprinting technique that combines terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (TRFLP) and single stranded conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) so that both can be used to profile a sample simultaneously rather than requiring two sequential steps as in traditional two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis. For the purpose of profiling Archaeal 16S rRNA genes from soil, the dynamic range of this combined 1-D TRFLP-SSCP approach was superior to TRFLP and SSCP. 1-D TRFLP-SSCP was able to distinguish broad taxonomic clades with genetic distances greater than 10%, such as Euryarchaeota and the Thaumarchaeal clades g_Ca. Nitrososphaera (formerly 1.1b) and o_NRP-J (formerly 1.1c) better than SSCP. In addition, 1-D TRFLP-SSCP was able to simultaneously distinguish closely related clades within a genus such as s_SCA1145 and s_SCA1170 better than TRFLP. We also tested the utility of 1-D TRFLP-SSCP fingerprinting of environmental assemblages by comparing this method to the generation of a 16S rRNA clone library of soil Archaea from a restored Tallgrass prairie. This study shows 1-D TRFLP-SSCP fingerprinting provides a rapid and phylogenetically informative screen of Archaeal 16S rRNA genes in soil samples. © 2013.

  15. Study on the Effect of Calcium and Potassium Spray on Date Bunch Fading Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Shekofteh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Date bunch fading disorder has been one of the most important problems, which caused economic damage to date plantation area of Iran. It has been first reported on Mozafti cultivar in Kahnuj area, Kerman province. It has often been observed on soft and mid ripening cultivars such as Mozafti, Mordaseng and Kalote. Furthermore, it usually appears on Mozafti cultivar when fruits change from Khalal to Rutab stage. The most important symptoms of this disorder are sudden wilting of fruits and necrotic strips on the upper surface of the main bunch stalk. Incidence and development of these symptoms increase by high temperature, low relative humidity, and hot and dry wind. Several research studies have been carried out on this disorder so far, but the only research about the effect of nutrition on disorder was performed by Rosta (2003. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of calcium and potassium spray on date bunch fading and some traits of date fruit in Rigan region, Kerman province. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block designs with three replicates in Rigan located in east south of Kerman province, Iran, in 2012. Treatments were: T1: control, T2: spray of calcium nitrate at the concentration of 5 ppm, T3: spray of potassium sulfate at the concentration of 5 ppm, and T4: combined spray of calcium nitrate and potassium sulfate at the concentration of 5 ppm. Treatments were applied at Kimri, Hobabok and Khalal stages. Sampling was performed from 3 date palms (3 bunches from each date palm were selected randomly at the second date harvest. Totally, the traits of 200 fruits were measured in each date palm. The traits measured in the present study were: fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit weight, stone weight, stone diameter, and bunch fading percentage. Results and Discussions: According to the data of variance analysis, treatments had a significant effect on wet fruit

  16. CONTAINER TERMINALS IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart W. WIEGMANS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the linkage between logistics (in particular, the management of marketing channel flows and transport markets, while also the interaction between these two markets and intermodal container terminals is analysed. The marketing channel theory is used to describe all relevant actors and flows that run through marketing channels, starting with customer needs and ending with customer satisfaction. Porter's theory of competitive advantages is used to review competitive forces in both markets. Finally, a competitor analysis is performed for the logistics and transport market. These theories are applied so as to be able to determine the competitive position of intermodal container terminals with a view to the management of marketing channel flows and the physical transport of freight flows. Hence, the central question of this paper is: Which markets are served by intermodal container terminals and with whom are they competing? At present, neither the maritime container terminals nor the continental container terminals appear to have a significant influence in the logistics service market; they concentrate mainly on the physical movement of containers (transshipment. Furthermore, maritime container terminals and continental container terminals are not dominant players in the transport service market. Our conclusion is that continental terminals are predominantly competing with unimodal road transport, with neighbouring continental terminals and with barge transport companies.

  17. Mappings of terminal continua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz J. Charatonik

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a terminal continuum introduced in 1973 by G. R. Gordh Jr., for hereditarily unicoherent continua is extended to arbitrary continua. Mapping properties of these two concepts are investigated. Especially the invariance of terminality under mappings satisfying some special conditions is studied. In particular, we conclude that the invariance holds for atomic mappings.

  18. Managing terminal restlessness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repro

    compounded by the memory of unre- lieved suffering. ... progressive impairment of memory, judge- ment and thinking. ... of palliative sedation for refractory symp- toms in dying patients. Managing terminal restlessness. Terminal restlessness presents many challenges, not least recognition of the problem and its. c a u s e s .

  19. Simulation analysis of an improved optical triangular-shaped pulse train generator based on quadrupling RF modulation incorporating fiber dispersion-induced power fading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Ning, Tigang; Pei, Li; Jian, Wei; You, Haidong; Chen, Hongyao; Li, Chao; Zhang, Chan; Ma, Shaoshuo

    2013-12-01

    We report an improved approach to generate optical triangular-shaped pulse train using quadrupling RF modulation and fiber dispersion-induced power fading. In the proposal, quadrupling RF modulation (via a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator) is employed to generate four primary optical sidebands (±2nd and ±6th) in spectrum. Then a piece of single mode fiber is connected as the dispersive media. Because of the power degradation induced by fiber dispersion, the undesired 8th order harmonic in optical intensity can be removed. It is found that when the modulation index is adjusted to a proper value (m = 4.438), optical intensity with its expression corresponding to the Fourier expansion of idea triangular-shaped waveform can be found. Since the quadrupling RF modulation technique is employed, repetition rate of the target pulse train is four times of the driving frequency, which makes pulse train generation with higher repetition rate or smaller pulse duration possible.

  20. Cross-Layer Framework for Multiuser Real Time H.264/AVC Video Encoding and Transmission over Block Fading MIMO Channels Using Outage Probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavche Pejoski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a framework for cross-layer optimized real time multiuser encoding of video using a single layer H.264/AVC and transmission over MIMO wireless channels. In the proposed cross-layer adaptation, the channel of every user is characterized by the probability density function of its channel mutual information and the performance of the H.264/AVC encoder is modeled by a rate distortion model that takes into account the channel errors. These models are used during the resource allocation of the available slots in a TDMA MIMO communication system with capacity achieving channel codes. This framework allows for adaptation to the statistics of the wireless channel and to the available resources in the system and utilization of the multiuser diversity of the transmitted video sequences. We show the effectiveness of the proposed framework for video transmission over Rayleigh MIMO block fading channels, when channel distribution information is available at the transmitter.

  1. Bit Error Rate Performance of a MIMO-CDMA System Employing Parity-Bit-Selected Spreading in Frequency Nonselective Rayleigh Fading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude D'Amours

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We analytically derive the upper bound for the bit error rate (BER performance of a single user multiple input multiple output code division multiple access (MIMO-CDMA system employing parity-bit-selected spreading in slowly varying, flat Rayleigh fading. The analysis is done for spatially uncorrelated links. The analysis presented demonstrates that parity-bit-selected spreading provides an asymptotic gain of 10log(Nt dB over conventional MIMO-CDMA when the receiver has perfect channel estimates. This analytical result concurs with previous works where the (BER is determined by simulation methods and provides insight into why the different techniques provide improvement over conventional MIMO-CDMA systems.

  2. A performance study of two hop transmission in mixed underlay RF and FSO fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we present the performance analysis of a dual-hop transmission system composed of asymmetric radio frequency (RF) and free-space optical (FSO) links in underlay cognitive networks. For the RF link, we consider an underlay cognitive network where the secondary users share the spectrum with licensed primary users, where indoor femtocells act as a practical example for such networks. More specifically, we assume that the RF link is subject to an interference constraint. The FSO link accounts for pointing errors and both types of detection techniques (i.e. intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) as well as heterodyne detection). On the other hand, RF link is modeled by the Rayleigh fading distribution that applies power control to maintain the interference at the primary network below a specific threshold whereas the FSO link is modeled by a unified Gamma-Gamma fading distribution. With this model, we derive new exact closed-form expressions for the cumulative distribution function, the probability density function, the moment generating function, and the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-interference plus noise ratio of these systems in terms of the Meijer\\'s G functions. We then capitalize on these results to offer new exact closed-form expressions for the outage probability, the higher-order amount of fading, and the average error rate for binary and Mary modulation schemes, all in terms of Meijer\\'s G functions. All our new analytical results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations and are illustrated by some selected numerical results.

  3. System Performance of Concatenated STBC and Block Turbo Codes in Dispersive Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Tai Chan

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available A new scheme of concatenating the block turbo code (BTC with the space-time block code (STBC for an OFDM system in dispersive fading channels is investigated in this paper. The good error correcting capability of BTC and the large diversity gain characteristics of STBC can be achieved simultaneously. The resulting receiver outperforms the iterative convolutional Turbo receiver with maximum- a-posteriori-probability expectation maximization (MAP-EM algorithm. Because of its ability to perform the encoding and decoding processes in parallel, the proposed system is easy to implement in real time.

  4. Outage probability analysis of wireless sensor networks in the presence of channel fading and spatial correlation

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Murad, Tamim M.

    2011-07-01

    Evaluating the reliability of wireless sensor networks is becoming more important as theses networks are being used in crucial applications. The outage probability defined as the probability that the error in the system exceeds a maximum acceptable threshold has recently been used as a measure of the reliability of such systems. In this work we find the outage probability of wireless sensor network in different scenarios of distributed sensing where sensors\\' readings are affected by spatial correlation and in the presence of channel fading. © 2011 IEEE.

  5. Methods and Apparatuses for Signaling with Geometric Constellations in a Raleigh Fading Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Maged F. (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Communication systems are described that use signal constellations, which have unequally spaced (i.e. `geometrically` shaped) points. In many embodiments, the communication systems use specific geometric constellations that are capacity optimized at a specific SNR, over the Raleigh fading channel. In addition, ranges within which the constellation points of a capacity optimized constellation can be perturbed and are still likely to achieve a given percentage of the optimal capacity increase compared to a constellation that maximizes d.sub.min, are also described. Capacity measures that are used in the selection of the location of constellation points include, but are not limited to, parallel decode (PD) capacity and joint capacity.

  6. Effects of fading and spatial correlation on node selection for estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Murad, Tamim M.

    2010-06-01

    In densely deployed sensor networks, correlation among measurements may be high. Spatial sampling through node selection is usually used to minimize this correlation and to save energy consumption. However because of the fading nature of the wireless channels, extra care should be taken when performing this sampling. In this paper, we develop expressions for the distortion which include the channel effects. The asymptotic behavior of the distortion as the number of sensors or total transmit power increase without bound is also investigated. Further, based on the channel and position information we propose and test several node selection schemes.

  7. Experimental characterization and mitigation of turbulence induced signal fades within an ad hoc FSO network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Joaquin; Zvanovec, Stanislav; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Popoola, Wasiu O

    2014-02-10

    Optical beams propagating through the turbulent atmospheric channel suffer from both the attenuation and phase distortion. Since future wireless networks are envisaged to be deployed in the ad hoc mesh topology, this paper presents the experimental laboratory characterization of mitigation of turbulence induced signal fades for two ad hoc scenarios. Results from measurements of the thermal structure constant along the propagation channels, changes of the coherence lengths for different turbulence regimes and the eye diagrams for partially correlated turbulences in free space optical channels are discussed. Based on these results future deployment of optical ad hoc networks can be more straightforwardly planned.

  8. Nonleaking battery terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45% KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a KOH electrolyte in a plastic case are considered.

  9. Comsat's TDMA traffic terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, M. C.; Bogaert, W. M.

    1985-06-01

    Comsat has installed two traffic terminals in the Etam earth-station and is currently installing a third in the new Roaring Creek earth-station to access the Intelsat TDMA network. This paper describes the Comsat TDMA traffic terminal equipment from the supergroup interface to the antenna. Comsat's 1: N redundancy approach for terrestrial interface equipment and DSI unit back-up is described as well as electrical path length, amplitude and group delay equalization techniques, special on-line RF monitoring and failure reporting facilities and the operation and maintenance center which can operate and perform diagnostic testing on up to four traffic terminals from a central location.

  10. Exact Performance Analysis of Dual-Hop Semi-Blind AF Relaying over Arbitrary Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Minghua

    2011-10-01

    Relay transmission is promising for future wireless systems due to its significant cooperative diversity gain. The performance of dual-hop semi-blind amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying systems was extensively investigated, for transmissions over Rayleigh fading channels or Nakagami- fading channels with integer fading parameter. For the general Nakagami- fading with arbitrary values, the exact closed-form system performance analysis is more challenging. In this paper, we explicitly derive the moment generation function (MGF), probability density function (PDF) and moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over arbitrary Nakagami- fading channels with semi-blind AF relay. With these results, the system performance evaluation in terms of outage probability, average symbol error probability, ergodic capacity and diversity order, is conducted. The analysis developed in this paper applies to any semi-blind AF relaying systems with fixed relay gain, and two major strategies for computing the relay gain are compared in terms of system performance. All analytical results are corroborated by simulation results and they are shown to be efficient tools to evaluate system performance.

  11. Age-dependent values of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide are superior to a single cut-point for ruling out suspected systolic dysfunction in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Per; Collinson, Paul O; Doughty, Robert N

    2010-01-01

    The study evaluated the use of age-related decision limits for N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), for ruling out suspected systolic dysfunction in symptomatic patients in primary care, compared with the present standards.......The study evaluated the use of age-related decision limits for N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), for ruling out suspected systolic dysfunction in symptomatic patients in primary care, compared with the present standards....

  12. Terminated Multifamily Mortgages Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This dataset includes all terminated HUD Multifamily mortgages except those from the Hospital Mortgage Insurance Program. It includes the Holder and Servicer at the...

  13. Energy-harvesting in cooperative AF relaying networks over log-normal fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Rabie, Khaled M.

    2016-07-26

    Energy-harvesting (EH) and wireless power transfer are increasingly becoming a promising source of power in future wireless networks and have recently attracted a considerable amount of research, particularly on cooperative two-hop relay networks in Rayleigh fading channels. In contrast, this paper investigates the performance of wireless power transfer based two-hop cooperative relaying systems in indoor channels characterized by log-normal fading. Specifically, two EH protocols are considered here, namely, time switching relaying (TSR) and power splitting relaying (PSR). Our findings include accurate analytical expressions for the ergodic capacity and ergodic outage probability for the two aforementioned protocols. Monte Carlo simulations are used throughout to confirm the accuracy of our analysis. The results show that increasing the channel variance will always provide better ergodic capacity performance. It is also shown that a good selection of the EH time in the TSR protocol, and the power splitting factor in the PTS protocol, is the key to achieve the best system performance. © 2016 IEEE.

  14. Secure Multiple-Antenna Block-Fading Wiretap Channels with Limited CSI Feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2017-07-18

    In this paper, we investigate the ergodic secrecy capacity of a block-fading wiretap channel with limited channel knowledge at the transmitter. We consider that the legitimate receiver, the eavesdropper and the transmitter are equipped with multiple antennas and that the receiving nodes are aware of their respective channel matrices. The transmitter, on the other hand, is only provided by a B-bit feedback of the main channel state information. The feedback bits are sent by the legitimate receiver, at the beginning of each fading block, over an error-free public link with limited capacity. The statistics of the main and the eavesdropper channel state information are known at all nodes. Assuming an average transmit power constraint, we establish upper and lower bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity. Then, we present a framework to design the optimal codebooks for feedback and transmission. In addition, we show that the proposed lower and upper bounds coincide asymptotically as the capacity of the feedback link becomes large, i.e. $B \\ ightarrow \\\\infty$ ; hence, fully characterizing the ergodic secrecy capacity in this case. Besides, we analyze the asymptotic behavior of the presented secrecy rates, at high Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), and evaluate the gap between the bounds.

  15. Outage Analysis of Spectrum-Sharing over M-Block Fading with Sensing Information

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, Abdulrahman

    2016-07-13

    Future wireless technologies, such as, 5G, are expected to support real-time applications with high data throughput, e.g., holographic meetings. From a bandwidth perspective, cognitive radio is a promising technology to enhance the system’s throughput via sharing the licensed spectrum. From a delay perspective, it is well known that increasing the number of decoding blocks will improve the system robustness against errors, while increasing the delay. Therefore, optimally allocating the resources to determine the tradeoff of tuning the length of decoding blocks while sharing the spectrum is a critical challenge for future wireless systems. In this work, we minimize the targeted outage probability over the block-fading channels while utilizing the spectrum-sharing concept. The secondary user’s outage region and the corresponding optimal power are derived, over twoblocks and M-blocks fading channels. We propose two suboptimal power strategies and derive the associated asymptotic lower and upper bounds on the outage probability with tractable expressions. These bounds allow us to derive the exact diversity order of the secondary user’s outage probability. To further enhance the system’s performance, we also investigate the impact of including the sensing information on the outage problem. The outage problem is then solved via proposing an alternating optimization algorithm, which utilizes the verified strict quasiconvex structure of the problem. Selected numerical results are presented to characterize the system’s behavior and show the improvements of several sharing concepts.

  16. Performance Analysis of Ad Hoc Dispersed Spectrum Cognitive Radio Networks over Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Muneer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio systems can utilize dispersed spectrum, and thus such approach is known as dispersed spectrum cognitive radio systems. In this paper, we first provide the performance analysis of such systems over fading channels. We derive the average symbol error probability of dispersed spectrum cognitive radio systems for two cases, where the channel for each frequency diversity band experiences independent and dependent Nakagami- fading. In addition, the derivation is extended to include the effects of modulation type and order by considering M-ary phase-shift keying ( -PSK and M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation -QAM schemes. We then consider the deployment of such cognitive radio systems in an ad hoc fashion. We consider an ad hoc dispersed spectrum cognitive radio network, where the nodes are assumed to be distributed in three dimension (3D. We derive the effective transport capacity considering a cubic grid distribution. Numerical results are presented to verify the theoretical analysis and show the performance of such networks.

  17. Multi-Sensor Optimal Data Fusion Based on the Adaptive Fading Unscented Kalman Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bingbing; Hu, Gaoge; Gao, Shesheng; Zhong, Yongmin; Gu, Chengfan

    2018-02-06

    This paper presents a new optimal data fusion methodology based on the adaptive fading unscented Kalman filter for multi-sensor nonlinear stochastic systems. This methodology has a two-level fusion structure: at the bottom level, an adaptive fading unscented Kalman filter based on the Mahalanobis distance is developed and serves as local filters to improve the adaptability and robustness of local state estimations against process-modeling error; at the top level, an unscented transformation-based multi-sensor optimal data fusion for the case of N local filters is established according to the principle of linear minimum variance to calculate globally optimal state estimation by fusion of local estimations. The proposed methodology effectively refrains from the influence of process-modeling error on the fusion solution, leading to improved adaptability and robustness of data fusion for multi-sensor nonlinear stochastic systems. It also achieves globally optimal fusion results based on the principle of linear minimum variance. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed methodology for INS/GNSS/CNS (inertial navigation system/global navigation satellite system/celestial navigation system) integrated navigation.

  18. Exact capture probability analysis of GSC receivers over i.n.d. Rayleigh fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sungsik

    2013-07-01

    A closed-form expression of the capture probability of generalized selection combining (GSC) RAKE receivers was introduced in [1]. The idea behind this new performance metric is to quantify how the remaining set of uncombined paths affects the overall performance both in terms of loss in power and increase in interference levels. In this previous work, the assumption was made that the fading is both independent and identically distributed from path to path. However, the average strength of each path is different in reality. In order to derive a closed-form expression of the capture probability over independent and non-identically distributed (i.n.d.) fading channels, we need to derive the joint statistics of ordered non-identical exponential variates. With this motivation in mind, we first provide in this paper some new order statistics results in terms of both moment generating function (MGF) and probability density function (PDF) expressions under an i.n.d. assumption and then derive a new exact closed-form expression for the capture probability GSC RAKE receivers in this more realistic scenario. © 2013 IEEE.

  19. Analytical bounds on the area spectral efficiency of uplink heterogeneous networks over generalized fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Muhammad

    2014-06-01

    Heterogeneous networks (HetNets) are envisioned to enable next-generation cellular networks by providing higher spectral and energy efficiency. A HetNet is typically composed of multiple radio access technologies where several low-power low-cost operators or user-deployed small-cell base stations (SBSs) complement the macrocell network. In this paper, we consider a two-tier HetNet where the SBSs are arranged around the edge of the reference macrocell such that the resultant configuration is referred to as cell-on-edge (COE). Each mobile user in a small cell is considered capable of adapting its uplink transmit power according to a location-based slow power control mechanism. The COE configuration is observed to increase the uplink area spectral efficiency (ASE) and energy efficiency while reducing the cochannel interference power. A moment-generating-function (MGF)-based approach has been exploited to derive the analytical bounds on the uplink ASE of the COE configuration. The derived expressions are generalized for any composite fading distribution, and closed-form expressions are presented for the generalized- K fading channels. Simulation results are included to support the analysis and to show the efficacy of the COE configuration. A comparative performance analysis is also provided to demonstrate the improvements in the performance of cell-edge users of the COE configuration compared with that of macro-only networks (MoNets) and other unplanned deployment strategies. © 2013 IEEE.

  20. The mechanism of capacity fade of rechargeable alkaline manganese dioxide zinc cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuwei; Kordesch, Karl

    Recent experiments showed, that in contrast to traditional opinion, if the cathode was protected by anode limitation the capacity fade of Rechargeable Alkaline Manganese Dioxide Zinc (RAM™) cells was not caused by the EMD cathode, but by the gelled zinc anode. The key is the electrolyte. The cathode competition for the electrolyte and the increasing requirement of chemically formed ZnO for more electrolyte caused an electrolyte deficiency at the front face of the anode and finally caused precipitation of zincate and passivation of zinc. The crust is a mixed material of precipitation and passivation products. The low solubility ZnO is formed by decomposition of electrochemically generated zincate ions [Zn(OH) 4] 2- and also by recombination of zinc with oxygen during overcharge. The progressively thickened "crust" at the front face of the anode increases the resistance, then finally causes the cell to fade. The crusting is a redistribution of active material and electrolyte between the front and rear of the cylindrical gelled zinc anode. More electrolyte and proper charging can delay such a "crusting" phenomenon.

  1. Multi-Sensor Optimal Data Fusion Based on the Adaptive Fading Unscented Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingbing Gao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new optimal data fusion methodology based on the adaptive fading unscented Kalman filter for multi-sensor nonlinear stochastic systems. This methodology has a two-level fusion structure: at the bottom level, an adaptive fading unscented Kalman filter based on the Mahalanobis distance is developed and serves as local filters to improve the adaptability and robustness of local state estimations against process-modeling error; at the top level, an unscented transformation-based multi-sensor optimal data fusion for the case of N local filters is established according to the principle of linear minimum variance to calculate globally optimal state estimation by fusion of local estimations. The proposed methodology effectively refrains from the influence of process-modeling error on the fusion solution, leading to improved adaptability and robustness of data fusion for multi-sensor nonlinear stochastic systems. It also achieves globally optimal fusion results based on the principle of linear minimum variance. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed methodology for INS/GNSS/CNS (inertial navigation system/global navigation satellite system/celestial navigation system integrated navigation.

  2. Maximizing Expected Achievable Rates for Block-Fading Buffer-Aided Relay Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2016-05-25

    In this paper, the long-term average achievable rate over block-fading buffer-aided relay channels is maximized using a hybrid scheme that combines three essential transmission strategies, which are decode-and-forward, compress-and-forward, and direct transmission. The proposed hybrid scheme is dynamically adapted based on the channel state information. The integration and optimization of these three strategies provide a more generic and fundamental solution and give better achievable rates than the known schemes in the literature. Despite the large number of optimization variables, the proposed hybrid scheme can be optimized using simple closed-form formulas that are easy to apply in practical relay systems. This includes adjusting the transmission rate and compression when compress-and-forward is the selected strategy based on the channel conditions. Furthermore, in this paper, the hybrid scheme is applied to three different models of the Gaussian block-fading buffer-aided relay channels, depending on whether the relay is half or full duplex and whether the source and the relay have orthogonal or non-orthogonal channel access. Several numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the achievable rate results and compare them to the upper bounds of the ergodic capacity for each one of the three channel models under consideration.

  3. Wireless Power Transfer in Cooperative DF Relaying Networks with Log-Normal Fading

    KAUST Repository

    Rabie, Khaled M.

    2017-02-07

    Energy-harvesting (EH) and wireless power transfer in cooperative relaying networks have recently attracted a considerable amount of research attention. Most of the existing work on this topic however focuses on Rayleigh fading channels which represents outdoor environments. Unlike these studies, in this paper we analyze the performance of wireless power transfer in two-hop decode-and- forward (DF) cooperative relaying systems in indoor channels characterized by log-normal fading. Three well-known EH protocols are considered in our evaluations: a) time switching relaying (TSR), b) power splitting relaying (PSR) and c) ideal relaying receiver (IRR). The performance is evaluated in terms of the ergodic outage probability for which we derive accurate analytical expressions for the three systems under consideration. Results reveal that careful selection of the EH time and power splitting factors in the TSR- and PSR-based system are important to optimize performance. It is also presented that the optimized PSR system has near- ideal performance and that increasing the source transmit power and/or the energy harvester efficiency can further improve performance.

  4. Space-Time Water-Filling for Composite MIMO Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the ergodic capacity and channel outage probability for a composite MIMO channel model, which includes both fast fading and shadowing effects. The ergodic capacity and exact channel outage probability with space-time water-filling can be evaluated through numerical integrations, which can be further simplified by using approximated empirical eigenvalue and maximal eigenvalue distribution of MIMO fading channels. We also compare the performance of space-time water-filling with spatial water-filling. For MIMO channels with small shadowing effects, spatial water-filling performs very close to space-time water-filling in terms of ergodic capacity. For MIMO channels with large shadowing effects, however, space-time water-filling achieves significantly higher capacity per antenna than spatial water-filling at low to moderate SNR regimes, but with a much higher channel outage probability. We show that the analytical capacity and outage probability results agree very well with those obtained from Monte Carlo simulations.

  5. The intrinsic cause of color fading in sliced cooked cured beef during chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Yu, Chensha; Guo, Juanjuan; Wu, Mengting; Xu, Yunqiang; Yi, Hongchao; Sun, Weiqing

    2017-10-01

    The relationship between color change and other physical and chemical characteristics of sliced cooked cured beef (SCCB) during chilled storage were investigated using principal components analysis (PCA) to determine the color fading causes. Samples were prepared and stored at 8°C for up to 35 days in a vacuum package to simulate a supermarket storage environment; related indicators were measured periodically every week. The results showed that the first PC explained 59.82% of the total variation, and the second explained 22.28%. PC1 was a concentrated reflection of color changes of SCCB during storage and PC2 was an environment factor causing the change of color. The change in apparent redness is mainly caused by redox reaction of the nitroso hemochromogen (NH) (eigenvectors of a*, C and NH in PC1 were all the maximum value of 0.28); a* was correlated with NH (0.96), free sulfhydryls (0.98), carbonyl derivatives (-0.95) formed during protein oxidation, and malondialdehyde (-0.98) and dienes (-0.92) formed by lipid oxidation. Color fading was significantly correlated with oxidizing and reducing power, existing forms of nitrogen and with the pH of the meat matrix. Changes in the internal environment of the sample initially influenced L* and b* values, and subsequently a*. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. K Coverage Probability of 5G Wireless Cognitive Radio Network under Shadow Fading Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur S. Kang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Land mobile communication is burdened with typical propagation constraints due to the channel characteristics in radio systems.Also,the propagation characteristics vary form place to place and also as the mobile unit moves,from time to time.Hence,the tramsmission path between transmitter and receiver varies from simple direct LOS to the one which is severely obstructed by buildings,foliage and terrain.Multipath propagation and shadow fading effects affect the signal strength of an arbitrary Transmitter-Receiver due to the rapid fluctuations in the phase and amplitude of signal which also determines the average power over an area of tens or hundreds of meters.Shadowing introduces additional fluctuations,so the received local mean power varies around the area –mean.The present section deals with the performance analysis of fifth generation wireless cognitive radio network on the basis of signal and interference level based k coverage probability under the shadow fading effects.

  7. On the Secrecy Capacity Region of the Block-Fading BCC with Limited CSI Feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2017-02-07

    In this work, we examine the secrecy capacity region of the block-fading broadcast channel with confidential messages (BCC) when the transmitter has limited knowledge of the channel. In particular, we consider a two-user communication system where the transmitter has one common message to be transmitted to both users and one confidential message intended to only one of them. The confidential message has to be kept secret from the other user to whom the information is not intended. The transmitter is not aware of the channel state information (CSI) of neither channel and is only provided by limited CSI feedback sent at the beginning of each fading block. Assuming an error-free feedback link, we characterize the secrecy capacity region of this channel and show that even with a 1-bit CSI feedback, a positive secrecy rate can still be achieved. Then, we look at the case where the feedback link is not error- free and is rather a binary erasure channel (BEC). In the latter case, we provide an achievable secrecy rate region and show that as long as the erasure event is not a probability 1 event, the transmitter can still transmit the confidential information with a positive secrecy rate.

  8. Reduced nicotine exposure and abstinence outcome in two nicotine fading methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, P G; Lando, H A

    1991-01-01

    Two methods of nicotine fading as a smoking cessation preparation technique were compared. A brand-switching procedure and a three-stage set of "Nicotine Faders" graduated filters were the preparation strategies. Both methods implemented a putative 30-50-80% nicotine exposure reduction schedule in three weekly phases. There were a total of 110 study participants (57 in brand switching) enrolled in eight clinic groups. Results indicated that at the 80% reduction level, meaningful reductions in nicotine (measured by its metabolite cotinine) and carbon monoxide (CO) exposure were measurable with both nicotine fading procedures. Overall pooled nicotine and CO exposure drops from baselines of 48.2% and 35.5%, respectively, were recorded. The abstinence outcome measures (pooled 1-year abstinence prevalence = 30.9%) were not significantly different between the two preparation strategies. Trends in nicotine and CO exposure drops, and abstinence outcome measures, however, were consistently in favor of the graduated filters. Potential advantages of filters in the context of a preparation-for-quitting strategy were suggested.

  9. Age-dependent values of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide are superior to a single cut-point for ruling out suspected systolic dysfunction in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Per; Collinson, Paul O; Doughty, Robert N

    2010-01-01

    The study evaluated the use of age-related decision limits for N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), for ruling out suspected systolic dysfunction in symptomatic patients in primary care, compared with the present standards....

  10. Visual communication and terminal equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Cheol Hui

    1988-06-01

    This book is divided two parts about visual communication and terminal equipment. The first part introduces visual communication, which deals with foundation of visual communication, technique of visual communication, equipment of visual communication, a facsimile and pictorial image system. The second part contains terminal equipment such as telephone, terminal equipment for data transmission on constitution and constituent of terminal equipment for data transmission, input device and output device, terminal device and up-to-date terminal device.

  11. On the low SNR capacity of maximum ratio combining over rician fading channels with full channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2013-04-01

    In this letter, we study the ergodic capacity of a maximum ratio combining (MRC) Rician fading channel with full channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter and at the receiver. We focus on the low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) regime and we show that the capacity scales as L ΩK+L SNRx log(1SNR), where Ω is the expected channel gain per branch, K is the Rician fading factor, and L is the number of diversity branches. We show that one-bit CSI feedback at the transmitter is enough to achieve this capacity using an on-off power control scheme. Our framework can be seen as a generalization of recently established results regarding the fading-channels capacity characterization in the low-SNR regime. © 2012 IEEE.

  12. New Exact and Asymptotic Results of Dual-Branch MRC over Correlated Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Quwaiee, Hessa

    2015-05-01

    We present in this paper a new performance analysis results of dual-branch maximal-ratio combining over correlated Nakagami-m fading channels with arbitrary fading parameter. In particular, we derive exact closed-form expressions of the outage probability, the average bit error rate, and the ergodic capacity in terms of the extended generalized bivariate Meijer G- function. Moreover, we also provide simple closed- form asymptotic expressions in the high signal-to- noise ratio regime of these three fundamental performance measures. © 2015 IEEE.

  13. Asymptotic Performance Analysis of the k-th Best Link Selection over Wireless Fading Channels: An Extreme Value Theory Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Badarneh, Yazan Hussein

    2018-01-25

    We consider a general selection-diversity (SD) scheme in which the k-th best link is selected from a number of links. We use extreme value theory (EVT) to derive simple closed-form asymptotic expressions for the average throughput, effective throughput and average bit error probability (BEP) for the k-th best link over various channel models that are widely used to characterize fading in wireless communication systems. As an application example, we consider the Weibull fading channel model and verify the accuracy of the derived asymptotic expressions through Monte Carlo simulations.

  14. Exploring the "intensity fading" phenomenon in the study of noncovalent interactions by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yanes, Oscar; Aviles, Francesc X; Roepstorff, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The difficulties to detect intact noncovalent complexes involving proteins and peptides by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry have hindered a widespread use of this approach. Recently, "intensity fading MS" has been presented as an alternative strategy to detect noncovalent interactions in solution...... the intensity fading phenomenon, as well as a comparison with the strategy based on the direct detection of intact complexes by MALDI MS. For this purpose, the study is focused on two different protease-inhibitor complexes naturally occurring in solution, together with a heterogeneous mixture of nonbinding...

  15. On the symbol error rate of M-ary MPSK over generalized fading channels with additive Laplacian noise

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2014-06-01

    This paper considers the symbol error rate of M-ary phase shift keying (MPSK) constellations over extended Generalized-K fading with Laplacian noise and using a minimum distance detector. A generic closed form expression of the conditional and the average probability of error is obtained and simplified in terms of the Fox\\'s H function. More simplifications to well known functions for some special cases of fading are also presented. Finally, the mathematical formalism is validated with some numerical results examples done by computer based simulations. © 2014 IEEE.

  16. On the Symbol Error Rate of M-ary MPSK over Generalized Fading Channels with Additive Laplacian Noise

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2015-01-07

    This work considers the symbol error rate of M-ary phase shift keying (MPSK) constellations over extended Generalized-K fading with Laplacian noise and using a minimum distance detector. A generic closed form expression of the conditional and the average probability of error is obtained and simplified in terms of the Fox’s H function. More simplifications to well known functions for some special cases of fading are also presented. Finally, the mathematical formalism is validated with some numerical results examples done by computer based simulations [1].

  17. Downlink Error Rates of Half-duplex Users in Full-duplex Networks over a Laplacian Inter-User Interference Limited and EGK fading

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2017-03-14

    This paper develops a mathematical framework to study downlink error rates and throughput for half-duplex (HD) terminals served by a full-duplex (FD) base station (BS). The developed model is used to motivate long term pairing for users that have non-line of sight (NLOS) interfering link. Consequently, we study the interferer limited problem that appears between NLOS HD users-pair that are scheduled on the same FD channel. The distribution of the interference is first characterized via its distribution function, which is derived in closed form. Then, a comprehensive performance assessment for the proposed pairing scheme is provided by assuming Extended Generalized- $cal{K}$ (EGK) fading for the downlink and studying different modulation schemes. To this end, a unified closed form expression for the average symbol error rate is derived. Furthermore, we show the effective downlink throughput gain harvested by the pairing NLOS users as a function of the average signal-to-interferenceratio when compared to an idealized HD scenario with neither interference nor noise. Finally, we show the minimum required channel gain pairing threshold to harvest downlink throughput via the FD operation when compared to the HD case for each modulation scheme.

  18. Tandem Terminal Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    OAK-B135 Tandem Terminal Ion Source. The terminal ion source (TIS) was used in several experiments during this reporting period, all for the(sup 7)Be((gamma))(sup 8)B experiment. Most of the runs used(sup 1)H(sup+) at terminal voltages from 0.3 MV to 1.5 MV. One of the runs used(sup 2)H(sup+) at terminal voltage of 1.4 MV. The other run used(sup 4)He(sup+) at a terminal voltage of 1.37 MV. The list of experiments run with the TIS to date is given in table 1 below. The tank was opened four times for unscheduled source repairs. On one occasion the tank was opened to replace the einzel lens power supply which had failed. The 10 kV unit was replaced with a 15 kV unit. The second time the tank was opened to repair the extractor supply which was damaged by a tank spark. On the next occasion the tank was opened to replace a source canal which had sputtered away. Finally, the tank was opened to replace the discharge bottle which had been coated with aluminum sputtered from the exit canal

  19. Research Paper Risk factors for premature termination of treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: A single-parent household and the presence of a child or oppositional defiant disorder were risk factors for premature termination of treatment, while the presence of a maternal psychiatric diagnosis was associated with a lower likelihood of terminating treatment prematurely. Conducting a scholastic assessment ...

  20. Prediction of Transcriptional Terminators in Bacillus subtilis and Related Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In prokaryotes, genes belonging to the same operon are transcribed in a single mRNA molecule. Transcription starts as the RNA polymerase binds to the promoter and continues until it reaches a transcriptional terminator. Some terminators rely on the presence of the Rho protein, whereas others function independently of Rho. Such Rho-independent terminators consist of an inverted repeat followed by a stretch of thymine residues, allowing us to predict their presence directly from the DNA sequence. Unlike in Escherichia coli, the Rho protein is dispensable in Bacillus subtilis, suggesting a limited role for Rho-dependent termination in this organism and possibly in other Firmicutes. We analyzed 463 experimentally known terminating sequences in B. subtilis and found a decision rule to distinguish Rho-independent transcriptional terminators from non-terminating sequences. The decision rule allowed us to find the boundaries of operons in B. subtilis with a sensitivity and specificity of about 94%. Using the same decision rule, we found an average sensitivity of 94% for 57 bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes phylum, and a considerably lower sensitivity for other bacteria. Our analysis shows that Rho-independent termination is dominant for Firmicutes in general, and that the properties of the transcriptional terminators are conserved. Terminator prediction can be used to reliably predict the operon structure in these organisms, even in the absence of experimentally known operons. Genome-wide predictions of Rho-independent terminators for the 57 Firmicutes are available in the Supporting Information section.

  1. Transmit power optimization for green multihop relaying over Nakagami-m fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Randrianantenaina, Itsikiantsoa

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the optimal transmit power strategy to maximize the energy efficiency of a multihop relaying network. Considering the communication between a source and a destination through multiple Amplify-and-Forward relays, we first give the expression of the total instantaneous system energy consumption. Then, we define the energy efficiency in our context and obtain its expression in closed-form when the communication is over Nakagami-m fading channels. The analysis yields to the derivation of a global transmit power strategy where each individual node is contributing to the end-to-end overall energy efficiency. Numercial results are presented to illustrate the analysis. Comparison with Monte Carlo simulation results confirms the accuracy of our derivations, and assesses the gains of the proposed power optimization strategy. © 2014 IEEE.

  2. On the Ergodic Capacity of Dual-Branch Correlated Log-Normal Fading Channels with Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Quwaiee, Hessa

    2015-05-01

    Closed-form expressions of the ergodic capacity of independent or correlated diversity branches over Log-Normal fading channels are not available in the literature. Thus, it is become of an interest to investigate the behavior of such metric at high signal-to-noise (SNR). In this work, we propose simple closed-form asymptotic expressions of the ergodic capacity of dual-branch correlated Log- Normal corresponding to selection combining, and switch-and-stay combining. Furthermore, we capitalize on these new results to find new asymptotic ergodic capacity of correlated dual- branch free-space optical communication system under the impact of pointing error with both heterodyne and intensity modulation/direct detection. © 2015 IEEE.

  3. Acoustic echo cancellation for full-duplex voice transmission on fading channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangil; Messer, Dion D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of an adaptive acoustic echo canceler for a hands-free cellular phone operating on a fading channel. The adaptive lattice structure, which is particularly known for faster convergence relative to the conventional tapped-delay-line (TDL) structure, is used in the initialization stage. After convergence, the lattice coefficients are converted into the coefficients for the TDL structure which can accommodate a larger number of taps in real-time operation due to its computational simplicity. The conversion method of the TDL coefficients from the lattice coefficients is derived and the DSP56001 assembly code for the lattice and TDL structure is included, as well as simulation results and the schematic diagram for the hardware implementation.

  4. Performance of equal gain combining with quantized phases in rayleigh fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Rizvi, Umar H.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the error probability of equal gain combining with quantized channel phase compensation for binary phase shift keying signalling over Rayleigh fading channels. The probability density and characteristic functions of the combined signal amplitude are derived and used to compute the analytic expressions for the bit error probability in dependance of the number of quantization levels L, the number of diversity branches N-R and the average received signal-to-noise ratio. The analysis is utilized to outline the trade-off between N-R and L and to compare the performance with non-coherent binary frequency shift keying and differential binary phase shift keying schemes under diversity reception. © 2011 IEEE.

  5. How Equalization Techniques Affect the TCP Performance of MC-CDMA Systems in Correlated Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Leonardi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of several equalization techniques for multicarrier code division multiple access systems on the performance at both lower and upper layers (i.e., physical and TCP layers. Classical techniques such as maximal ratio combining, equal gain combining, orthogonality restoring combining, minimum mean square error, as well as a partial equalization (PE are investigated in time- and frequency-correlated fading channels with various numbers of interferers. Their impact on the performance at upper level is then studied. The results are obtained through an integrated simulation platform carefully reproducing all main aspects affecting the quality of service perceived by the final user, allowing an investigation of the real gain produced by signal processing techniques at TCP level.

  6. Capacity of Cognitive Radio with Partial Channel Distribution Information in Rayleigh Fading Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D.; Li, Q.

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates the capacity of the secondary user (SU) in a cognitive radio (CR) network in Rayleigh fading environments. Different from existing works where perfect channel state information (CSI) or channel distribution information (CDI) of the interference link from the SU to the primary user (PU) is assumed to be available, this paper assumes that only partial CDI is available. Specifically, we assume the distribution parameter is unknown and estimated from a set of channel gain samples. With such partial CDI, closed-form expressions for the ergodic and outage capacities of the SU are obtained under the transmit power and the interference outage constraints. It is shown that the capacity with partial CDI is not degraded compared to that with perfect CDI if the interference outage constraint is loose. It is also shown that the capacity can be significantly improved by increasing the number of channel gain samples.

  7. Diagnosis of power fade mechanisms in high-power lithium-ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, D. P.; Liu, J.; Chen, C. H.; Hyung, Y. E.; Stoll, M.; Elsen, N.; MacLaren, S.; Twesten, R.; Haasch, R.; Sammann, E.; Petrov, I.; Amine, K.; Henriksen, G.

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) need long-lived high-power batteries as energy storage devices. Batteries based on lithium-ion technology can meet the high-power goals but have been unable to meet HEV calendar-life requirements. As part of the US Department of Energy's Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program, diagnostic studies are being conducted on 18650-type lithium-ion cells that were subjected to accelerated aging tests at temperatures ranging from 40 to 70 °C. This article summarizes data obtained by gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, electron microscopy, X-ray spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques, and identifies cell components that are responsible for the observed impedance rise and power fade.

  8. A novel reduced-complexity group detection structure in MIMO frequency selective fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2010-09-01

    In this paper a novel reduced complexity detection method named modified symbol flipping method is introduced and its advantages on reducing the burden of the calculations at the receiver compared to the optimum maximum likelihood detection method on multiple input- multiple output frequency selective fading channels are explained. The initial concept of the symbol flipping method is derived from a preliminary detection scheme named bit flipping which was introduced in [1]. The detection structure employed in this paper is ing, detection, and cancellation. On the detection stage, the proposed method is employed and the results are compared to the group maximum likelihood detection scheme proposed in [2]. Simulation results show that a 6 dB performance gain can be achieved at the expense of a slight increase in complexity in comparison with the conventional symbol flipping scheme. © 2010 Crown.

  9. An information-guided channel-hopping scheme for block-fading channels with estimation errors

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2010-12-01

    Information-guided channel-hopping technique employing multiple transmit antennas was previously proposed for supporting high data rate transmission over fading channels. This scheme achieves higher data rates than some mature schemes, such as the well-known cyclic transmit antenna selection and space-time block coding, by exploiting the independence character of multiple channels, which effectively results in having an additional information transmitting channel. Moreover, maximum likelihood decoding may be performed by simply decoupling the signals conveyed by the different mapping methods. In this paper, we investigate the achievable spectral efficiency of this scheme in the case of having channel estimation errors, with optimum pilot overhead for minimum meansquare error channel estimation, when transmitting over blockfading channels. Our numerical results further substantiate the robustness of the presented scheme, even with imperfect channel state information. ©2010 IEEE.

  10. Upper and lower bounds for the ergodic capacity of MIMO Jacobi fading channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafkha, Amor; Bonnefoi, Rémi

    2017-05-29

    In multi-(core/mode) optical fiber communication, the transmission channel can be modeled as a complex sub-matrix of the Haar-distributed unitary matrix (complex Jacobi unitary ensemble). In this letter, we present new analytical expressions of the upper and lower bounds for the ergodic capacity of multiple-input multiple-output Jacobi-fading channels. Recent results on the determinant of the Jacobi unitary ensemble are employed to derive a tight lower bound on the ergodic capacity. We use Jensen's inequality to provide an analytical closed-form upper bound to the ergodic capacity at any signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Closed-form expressions of the ergodic capacity, at low and high SNR regimes, are also derived. Simulation results are presented to validate the accuracy of the derived expressions.

  11. Consumption Factor Optimization for Multihop Relaying over Nakagami-m Fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Randrianantenaina, Itsikiantsoa

    2015-10-06

    In this paper, the energy efficiency of multihop relaying over Nakagami-m fading channels is investigated. The “consumption factor”, adopted as a metric to evaluate the energy efficiency, is derived for both amplify-and-forward and decodeand- forward relaying strategies. Then, based on the obtained expressions, we propose a power allocation strategy maximizing the consumption factor. In addition, a sub-optimal, low complexity, power allocation algorithm is proposed and analyzed, and the obtained power allocation scheme is compared in terms of energy efficiency to other power allocation schemes from the literature. Analytical and simulation results confirm the accuracy of our derivations, and assess the performance gains of the proposed approach.

  12. MIMO Fading Emulator Development with FPGA and Its Application to Performance Evaluation of Mobile Radio Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Karasawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present four new developments for a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO over-the-air measurement system based on our previous studies. The first two developments relate to the channel model for multipath environment generation. One is a further simplification of the circuit configuration without performance degradation by reducing the number of delay generation units, which dominate the performance limit when implementing the circuit on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA. The other is to realize spatial correlation characteristics among the input ports on the transmission side, whereas the previously proposed channel model did not consider this correlation. The third development involves the details of implementing the MIMO fading emulator on an FPGA as a two-stage scheme. The fourth is the demonstration of application examples of the developed system.

  13. A study of optimization problem for amplify-and-forward relaying over weibull fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ikki, Salama Said

    2010-09-01

    This paper addresses the power allocation and relay positioning problems in amplify-and-forward cooperative networks operating in Weibull fading environments. We study adaptive power allocation (PA) with fixed relay location, optimal relay location with fixed power allocation, and joint optimization of the PA and relay location under total transmit power constraint, in order to minimize the outage probability and average error probability at high signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Analytical results are validated by numerical simulations and comparisons between the different optimization schemes and their performance are provided. Results show that optimum PA brings only coding gain, while optimum relay location yields, in addition to the latter, diversity gains as well. Also, joint optimization improves both, the diversity gain and coding gain. Furthermore, results illustrate that the analyzed adaptive algorithms outperform uniform schemes. ©2010 IEEE.

  14. A novel method for combating dispersion induced power fading in dispersion compensating fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebedev, Alexander; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the performance of 60 GHz double sideband (DSB) radio over fiber (RoF) links that employ dispersion compensating fiber (DCF). Error free transmission of 3 Gbps signals over 1 m of wireless distance is reported. In order to overcome experimentally observed chromatic...... dispersion (CD) induced power fading of radio frequency (RF) signal, we propose a method for improvement of RF carrier-to-noise (C/N) ratio through introduction of a degree of RF frequency tunability. Overall results improve important aspects of directly modulated RoF systems and demonstrate the feasibility...... of high carrier frequency and wide bandwidth RF signals delivery in RoF links including DCF fiber. Error free performance that we obtain for 3 Gbps amplitude shift-keying (ASK) signals enables uncompressed high-definition 1080p video delivery....

  15. Outage and Capacity Performance Evaluation of Distributed MIMO Systems over a Composite Fading Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The exact closed-form expressions regarding the outage probability and capacity of distributed MIMO (DMIMO systems over a composite fading channel are derived. This is achieved firstly by using a lognormal approximation to a gamma-lognormal distribution when a mobile station (MS in the cell is in a fixed position, and the so-called maximum ratio transmission/selected combining (MRT-SC and selected transmission/maximum ratio combining (ST-MRC schemes are adopted in uplink and downlink, respectively. Then, based on a newly proposed nonuniform MS cell distribution model, which is more consistent with the MS cell hotspot distribution in an actual communication environment, the average outage probability and capacity formulas are further derived. Finally, the accuracy of the approximation method and the rationality of the corresponding theoretical analysis regarding the system performance are proven and illustrated by computer simulations.

  16. Windows Terminal Servers Orchestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowiec, Sebastian; Gaspar, Ricardo; Smith, Tim

    2017-10-01

    Windows Terminal Servers provide application gateways for various parts of the CERN accelerator complex, used by hundreds of CERN users every day. The combination of new tools such as Puppet, HAProxy and Microsoft System Center suite enable automation of provisioning workflows to provide a terminal server infrastructure that can scale up and down in an automated manner. The orchestration does not only reduce the time and effort necessary to deploy new instances, but also facilitates operations such as patching, analysis and recreation of compromised nodes as well as catering for workload peaks.

  17. Terminal lucidity phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin Demirkol

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Unexpected symptom remission in psychiatric and neurologic disesases shortly before patients' death have been known since last 250 years but not received enough attention. This phenomenon is called terminal lucidity. Terminal lucidity can be experienced at patients with diagnosis of dementia, schizophrenia, brain abscess, brain tumour, stroke and mood disorders. Explanatory models about reasons and neurobiology of this phenomenon will contribute to develop new treatment strategies about mentioned diseases and to pass the last times before death better [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(3.000: 559-563

  18. X-RAY FADING AND EXPANSION IN THE “MINIATURE SUPERNOVA REMNANT” OF GK PERSEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takei, D.; Drake, J. J.; Slane, P.; Yamaguchi, H.; Uchiyama, Y.; Katsuda, S.

    2015-01-01

    We report on a second epoch of Chandra X-ray imaging spectroscopy of the spatially resolved old nova remnant GK Persei. An ACIS-S3 observation of 97.4 ks was conducted in 2013 November after a lapse of 13.8 yr from the last visit in 2000. The X-ray emitting nebula appeared more faint and patchy compared with the first epoch. The flux decline was particularly evident in fainter regions and the mean decline was 30%–40% in the 0.5–1.2 keV energy band. A typical expansion of the brightest part of the remnant was 1.″9, which corresponds to an expansion rate of 0.″14 yr −1 . The soft X-ray spectra extracted from both the 2000 and 2013 data can be explained by a non-equilibrium ionization collisional plasma model convolved with interstellar absorption, though do not allow us to constrain the origin of the flux evolution. The plasma temperature has not significantly evolved since the 2000 epoch and we conclude that the fading of the X-ray emission is due largely to expansion. This implies that recent expansion has been into a lower density medium, a scenario that is qualitatively consistent with the structure of the circumstellar environment photographed soon after the initial explosion more than a century ago. Fainter areas are fading more quickly than brighter areas, indicating that they are fainter because of a lower ambient medium density and consequently more rapid expansion

  19. X-RAY FADING AND EXPANSION IN THE “MINIATURE SUPERNOVA REMNANT” OF GK PERSEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takei, D. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Drake, J. J.; Slane, P. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Yamaguchi, H. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Uchiyama, Y. [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, 3-34-1 Nishi-Ikebukuro, Toshima, Tokyo 171-8501 (Japan); Katsuda, S., E-mail: takei@spring8.or.jp [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

    2015-03-10

    We report on a second epoch of Chandra X-ray imaging spectroscopy of the spatially resolved old nova remnant GK Persei. An ACIS-S3 observation of 97.4 ks was conducted in 2013 November after a lapse of 13.8 yr from the last visit in 2000. The X-ray emitting nebula appeared more faint and patchy compared with the first epoch. The flux decline was particularly evident in fainter regions and the mean decline was 30%–40% in the 0.5–1.2 keV energy band. A typical expansion of the brightest part of the remnant was 1.″9, which corresponds to an expansion rate of 0.″14 yr{sup −1}. The soft X-ray spectra extracted from both the 2000 and 2013 data can be explained by a non-equilibrium ionization collisional plasma model convolved with interstellar absorption, though do not allow us to constrain the origin of the flux evolution. The plasma temperature has not significantly evolved since the 2000 epoch and we conclude that the fading of the X-ray emission is due largely to expansion. This implies that recent expansion has been into a lower density medium, a scenario that is qualitatively consistent with the structure of the circumstellar environment photographed soon after the initial explosion more than a century ago. Fainter areas are fading more quickly than brighter areas, indicating that they are fainter because of a lower ambient medium density and consequently more rapid expansion.

  20. Throughput and Delay Analysis of HARQ with Code Combining over Double Rayleigh Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Chelli, Ali

    2018-01-15

    This paper proposes the use of hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) with code combining (HARQ-CC) to offer reliable communications over double Rayleigh channels. The double Rayleigh fading channel is of particular interest to vehicle-to-vehicle communication systems as well as amplify-and-forward relaying and keyhole channels. This work studies the performance of HARQ-CC over double Rayleigh channels from an information theoretic perspective. Analytical approximations are derived for the $\\\\epsilon$-outage capacity, the average number of transmissions, and the throughput of HARQ-CC. Moreover, we evaluate the delay experienced by Poisson arriving packets for HARQ-CC. We provide analytical expressions for the average waiting time, the packets sojourn time, the average consumed power, and the energy efficiency. In our investigation, we take into account the impact of imperfect feedback on different performance metrics. Additionally, we explore the tradeoff between energy efficiency and the throughput. The proposed scheme is shown to maintain the outage probability below a specified threshold $\\\\epsilon$ which ensures the link reliability. Meanwhile, HARQ-CC adapts implicitly the transmission rate to the channel conditions such that the throughput is maximized. Our results demonstrate that HARQ-CC allows improving the achievable communication rate compared to fixed time diversity schemes. To maximize the throughput of HARQ-CC, the rate per HARQ round should be less than the rate required to meet the outage constraint. Our investigation of the performance of HARQ-CC over Rayleigh and double Rayleigh channels shows that double Rayleigh channels have a higher severity of fading and result in a larger degradation of the throughput. Our analysis reveals that HARQ with incremental redundancy (HARQ-IR) achieves a larger throughput compared to HARQ-CC, while HARQ-CC is simpler to implement, has a lower decoding

  1. Energy-Efficient Optimization for HARQ Schemes over Time-Correlated Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Zheng

    2018-03-19

    Energy efficiency of three common hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) schemes including Type I HARQ, HARQ with chase combining (HARQ-CC) and HARQ with incremental redundancy (HARQ-IR), is analyzed and joint power allocation and rate selection to maximize the energy efficiency is investigated in this paper. Unlike prior literature, time-correlated fading channels is considered and two widely concerned quality of service (QoS) constraints, i.e., outage and goodput constraints, are also considered in the optimization, which further differentiates this work from prior ones. Using a unified expression of asymptotic outage probabilities, optimal transmission powers and optimal rate are derived in closed-forms to maximize the energy efficiency while satisfying the QoS constraints. These closed-form solutions then enable a thorough analysis of the maximal energy efficiencies of various HARQ schemes. It is revealed that with low outage constraint, the maximal energy efficiency achieved by Type I HARQ is $\\\\frac{1}{4\\\\ln2}$ bits/J, while HARQ-CC and HARQ-IR can achieve the same maximal energy efficiency as $\\\\frac{\\\\kappa_\\\\infty}{4\\\\ln2}$ bits/J where $\\\\kappa_\\\\infty = 1.6617$. Moreover, time correlation in the fading channels has a negative impact on the energy efficiency, while large maximal allowable number of transmissions is favorable for the improvement of energy efficiency. The effectiveness of the energy-efficient optimization is verified by extensive simulations and the results also show that HARQ-CC can achieve the best tradeoff between energy efficiency and spectral efficiency among the three HARQ schemes.

  2. Antecedents of Customer Relationship Termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    relationships as a managerial task. This paper contributes by (1) developing a conceptualization of relationship termination competence and (2) analyzing its antecedents. The empirical results identify termination acceptance, definition non-customers, organizational relationship termination routines......To end business relationships, or to more actively terminate relationships, has long been acknowledged as part of customer relationship management. However, compared to other elements such as initiation and maintenance of relationships, little is known about the termination of business...

  3. New Experimental Technique for Nodularity and Mg Fading Control in Compacted Graphite Iron Production on Laboratory Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, Juan Carlos; Domeij, Björn; González, Daniel; Amieva, José Manuel; Diószegi, Attila

    2017-11-01

    The narrow production window for compacted graphite iron material (CGI) drastically reduces the possibilities to produce it in small batches outside an industrial environment. This fact hinders laboratory-scale investigations on CGI solidification. This work presents a solution to that issue by introducing an experimental technique to produce graphitic cast iron of the main three families. Samples of a base hypereutectic spheroidal graphite iron (SGI) were re-melted in a resistance furnace under Ar atmosphere. Varying the holding time at 1723 K (1450 °C), graphitic irons ranging from spheroidal to lamellar were produced. Characterization of the graphite morphology evolution, in terms of nodularity as a function of holding time, is presented. The nodularity decay for the SGI region suggests a linear correlation with the holding time. In the CGI region, nodularity deterioration shows a slower rate, concluding with the sudden appearance of lamellar graphite. The fading process of magnesium, showing agreement with previous researchers, is described by means of empirical relations as a function of holding time and nodularity. The results on nodularity fade and number of nodules per unit area fade suggest that both phenomena occur simultaneously during the fading process of magnesium.

  4. A novel ergodic capacity analysis of diversity combining and multihop transmission systems over generalized composite fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2012-06-01

    Ergodic capacity is an important performance measure associated with reliable communication at the highest rate at which information can be sent over the channel with a negligible probability of error. In the shadow of this definition, diversity receivers (such as selection combining, equal-gain combining and maximal-ratio combining) and transmission techniques (such as cascaded fading channels, amplify-and-forward multihop transmission) are deployed in mitigating various performance impairing effects such as fading and shadowing in digital radio communication links. However, the exact analysis of ergodic capacity is in general not always possible for all of these forms of diversity receivers and transmission techniques over generalized composite fading environments due to it\\'s mathematical intractability. In the literature, published papers concerning the exact analysis of ergodic capacity have been therefore scarce (i.e., only [1] and [2]) when compared to those concerning the exact analysis of average symbol error probability. In addition, they are essentially targeting to the ergodic capacity of the maximal ratio combining diversity receivers and are not readily applicable to the capacity analysis of the other diversity combiners / transmission techniques. In this paper, we propose a novel moment generating function-based approach for the exact ergodic capacity analysis of both diversity receivers and transmission techniques over generalized composite fading environments. As such, we demonstrate how to simultaneously treat the ergodic capacity analysis of all forms of both diversity receivers and multihop transmission techniques. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. Path Loss, Shadow Fading, and Line-Of-Sight Probability Models for 5G Urban Macro-Cellular Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Shu; Thomas, Timothy; Rappaport, Theodore S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents key parameters including the line-of-sight (LOS) probability, large-scale path loss, and shadow fading models for the design of future fifth generation (5G) wireless communication systems in urban macro-cellular (UMa) scenarios, using the data obtained from propagation...

  6. Making Wireless Terminals Simpler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Skovgaard; Popovski, Petar; De Carvalho, Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    equalization in the downlink, which these requirements lead to. We propose to solve the problem by applying pre-processing at the base station, thereby rendering the terminal simple. We establish a general MIMO block transmission model, and derive different transmit/receive filters, based on the Linear Minimum...

  7. The Tiny Terminators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 5. The Tiny Terminators - Mosquitoes and Diseases. P K Sumodan. General Article Volume 6 Issue 5 May 2001 pp 48-55. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/05/0048-0055 ...

  8. Trauma and termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, F

    1995-02-01

    The author suggests a particular reading of the thesis put forward by Freud in 'Analysis terminable and interminable' that an effective and more definitive conclusion may be expected in analyses of cases with traumatic aetiology. This reading shifts the emphasis from the patient's history to the possibility of its crystallising in focal nuclei emerging within the analytic relationship under the pressure of the termination. The revival of separation anxieties which cannot be worked through, and their crystallisation in precipitating traumatic events, may give rise to decisive psychic work allowing the analysis to be brought to a conclusion. Two case histories are presented to show how the end of the analysis assumes the form of a new trauma, which reactivates in the present, traumatic anxieties from the patient's own infantile history. In the first case a premature birth and in the second a miscarriage, originally experienced as isolated automatic events without time or history, are relived in the terminal phase as vicissitudes of the transference, so that new meaning can be assigned to them and they can be withdrawn from the somatic cycle of repetition. The powerful tendency to act out and the intense countertransference pressure on the analyst are discussed in the light of the specificities of this phase, which is crucial to the success of the analysis. This leads to a re-examination, in the concluding notes, of some theoretical questions inherent in the problem of the termination and, in particular, to a discussion of the ambiguous concept of a natural ending.

  9. Antecedents of Customer Relationship Termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Geersbro, Jens

    To end business relationships, or to more actively terminate relationships, has long been acknowledged as part of customer relationship management. However, compared to other elements such as initiation and maintenance of relationships, little is known about the termination of business...... relationships as a managerial task. This paper contributes by (1) developing a conceptualization of relationship termination competence and (2) analyzing its antecedents. The empirical results identify termination acceptance, definition non-customers, organizational relationship termination routines......, and motivation as significant antecedents. Because of this, managers need to develop their organizations in order to use relationship termination as a vital strategy....

  10. Stochastic Power Control for Time-Varying Long-Term Fading Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalambous Charalambos D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new time-varying (TV long-term fading (LTF channel model which captures both the space and time variations of wireless systems is developed. The proposed TV LTF model is based on a stochastic differential equation driven by Brownian motion. This model is more realistic than the static models usually encountered in the literature. It allows viewing the wireless channel as a dynamical system, thus enabling well-developed tools of adaptive and nonadaptive estimation and identification techniques to be applied to this class of problems. In contrast with the traditional models, the statistics of the proposed model are shown to be TV, but converge in steady state to their static counterparts. Moreover, optimal power control algorithms (PCAs based on the new model are proposed. A centralized PCA is shown to reduce to a simple linear programming problem if predictable power control strategies (PPCS are used. In addition, an iterative distributed stochastic PCA is used to solve for the optimization problem using stochastic approximations. The latter solely requires each mobile to know its received signal-to-interference ratio. Generalizations of the power control problem based on convex optimization techniques are provided if PPCS are not assumed. Numerical results show that there are potentially large gains to be achieved by using TV stochastic models, and the distributed stochastic PCA provides better power stability and consumption than the distributed deterministic PCA.

  11. Exact capture probability analysis of GSC receivers over Rayleigh fading channel

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sungsik

    2010-01-01

    For third generation systems and ultrawideband systems, RAKE receivers have been introduced due to the advantage of RAKE receivers which is their ability to combine different replicas of the transmitted signal arriving at different delays in a rich multipath environment. In principle, RAKE receivers combine all resolvable paths which gives the best performance in a rich diversity environment. However, this is usually costly in terms of hardware required as the number of RAKE fingers increases. Therefore, generalized selection combining (GSC) RAKE reception was proposed and has been studied by many researcher as an alternative to the classical two fundamental diversity schemes: maximal ratio combining and selection combining. Previous work on performance analyses of GSC RAKE receivers based on the signal to noise ratio focused on the development of methodologies to derive exact closedform expressions for various performance measures. However, the remaining set of uncombined paths affect the overall performance both in terms of loss in power. Therefore, to have a full understanding of the performance of GSC RAKE receivers, we introduce in this paper the notion of capture probability, which is defined as the ratio of the captured power (essentially combined paths power) to that of the total available power. The major difficulty in these problems is to derive some joint statistics of ordered exponential variates. With this motivation in mind, we capitalize in this paper on some new order statistics results to derive exact closed-form expressions for the capture probability over independent and identically distributed Rayleigh fading channels. © 2010 IEEE.

  12. Channel allocation and rate adaptation for relayed transmission over correlated fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Hwang, Kyusung

    2009-09-01

    We consider, in this paper, channel allocation and rate adaptation scheme for relayed transmission over correlated fading channels via cross-layer design. Specifically, jointly considering the data link layer buffer occupancy and channel quality at both the source and relay nodes, we develop an optimal channel allocation and rate adaptation policy for a dual-hop relayed transmission. As such the overall transmit power for the relayed system is minimized while a target packet dropping rate (PDR) due to buffer over flows is guaranteed. In order to find such an optimal policy, the channel allocation and rate adaptation transmission framework is formulated as a constraint Markov decision process (CMDP). The PDR performance of the optimal policy is compared with that of two conventional suboptimal schemes, namely the channel quality based and the buffer occupancy based channel allocation schemes. Numerical results show that for a given power budget, the optimal scheme requires significantly less power than the conventional schemes in order to maintain a target PDR. ©2009 IEEE.

  13. Improving 3D-Turbo Code's BER Performance with a BICM System over Rayleigh Fading Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Classical Turbo code suffers from high error floor due to its small Minimum Hamming Distance (MHD. Newly-proposed 3D-Turbo code can effectively increase the MHD and achieve a lower error floor by adding a rate-1 post encoder. In 3D-Turbo codes, part of the parity bits from the classical Turbo encoder are further encoded through the post encoder. In this paper, a novel Bit-Interleaved Coded Modulation (BICM system is proposed by combining rotated mapping Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM and 3D-Turbo code to improve the Bit Error Rate (BER performance of 3D-Turbo code over Raleigh fading channel. A key-bit protection scheme and a Two-Dimension (2D iterative soft demodulating-decoding algorithm are developed for the proposed BICM system. Simulation results show that the proposed system can obtain about 0.8-1.0 dB gain at BER of 10^{-6}, compared with the existing BICM system with Gray mapping QAM.

  14. Modeling fade patterns of nipple areola complex tattoos following breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levites, Heather A; Fourman, Mitchell S; Phillips, Brett T; Fromm, Indira M; Khan, Sami U; Dagum, Alexander B; Bui, Duc T

    2014-12-01

    Nipple-areolar complex (NAC) tattoos are an effective cosmetic solution for creating a finished look following breast reconstruction procedures. NAC tattoos are prone to significant fading, leading patients to seek revisions. This study was designed to quantify changes in NAC tattoo appearance over time. A total of 71 images of 39 patients were analyzed for NAC tattoo color and shape by 5 blinded medical student graders using a customized scoring system. Subsequently, each image was analyzed using ColorPic software (Iconico, New York, NY). Red/green/blue and hue/saturation/value color parameters were collected. Color quantities were normalized to the individual patient's skin tone to control for variability in lighting. Spearman correlations and nonlinear regressions were calculated utilizing GraphPad Prism 6.0 (GraphPad, La Jolla, CA). The length of time after tattoo placement inversely correlated with color score (P tattoo placement was also inversely correlated with all quantitative color parameters. Each color parameter fit a 1-phase exponential decay model. The decline in qualitative color and shape score agrees with clinical experience of tattoo quality declining over time. The color qualities of the tattoo approach those of the patient's skin over time, ultimately reaching a plateau. This can be modeled using a 1-phase decay equation. In practice, tattoo colors may be selected that compensate for the predictable changes that will occur. The results of this study will help optimize tattoo color and may alleviate the need for NAC tattoo revisions.

  15. Protection of Video Packets over a Wireless Rayleigh Fading Link: FEC versus ARQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Moeneclaey

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Video content can be provided to an end user by transmitting video data as a sequence of internet protocol (IP packets over the network. When the network contains a wireless link, packet erasures occur because of occasional deep fades. In order to maintain a sufficient video quality at the end user, video packets must be protected against erasures by means of a suitable form of error control. In this contribution, we investigate two types of error control: (1 forward error correction (FEC, which involves the transmission of parity packets that enables recovery of a limited number of erased video packets, and (2 the use of an automatic repeat request (ARQ protocol, where the receiver requests the retransmission of video packets that have been erased. We point out that FEC and ARQ considerably reduce the probability of unrecoverable packet loss, because both error control techniques provide a diversity gain, as compared to the case where no protection against erasures is applied. We derive a simple analytical expression for the diversity gain resulting from FEC or ARQ, in terms of the channel coherence time, the allowable latency, and (for FEC the allowable overhead or (for ARQ the time interval between (retransmissions of copies of a same packet. In the case of HDTV transmission over a 60 GHz indoor wireless link, ARQ happens to outperform FEC.

  16. Fading Coronal Structure and the Onset of Turbulence in the Young Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest, C. E.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Viall, N. M.; Cranmer, S. R.

    2016-09-01

    Above the top of the solar corona, the young, slow solar wind transitions from low-β, magnetically structured flow dominated by radial structures to high-β, less structured flow dominated by hydrodynamics. This transition, long inferred via theory, is readily apparent in the sky region close to 10° from the Sun in processed, background-subtracted solar wind images. We present image sequences collected by the inner Heliospheric Imager instrument on board the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO/HI1) in 2008 December, covering apparent distances from approximately 4° to 24° from the center of the Sun and spanning this transition in the large-scale morphology of the wind. We describe the observation and novel techniques to extract evolving image structure from the images, and we use those data and techniques to present and quantify the clear textural shift in the apparent structure of the corona and solar wind in this altitude range. We demonstrate that the change in apparent texture is due both to anomalous fading of the radial striae that characterize the corona and to anomalous relative brightening of locally dense puffs of solar wind that we term “flocculae.” We show that these phenomena are inconsistent with smooth radial flow, but consistent with the onset of hydrodynamic or magnetohydrodynamic instabilities leading to a turbulent cascade in the young solar wind.

  17. FADING CORONAL STRUCTURE AND THE ONSET OF TURBULENCE IN THE YOUNG SOLAR WIND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeForest, C. E.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Viall, N. M.; Cranmer, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    Above the top of the solar corona, the young, slow solar wind transitions from low- β , magnetically structured flow dominated by radial structures to high- β , less structured flow dominated by hydrodynamics. This transition, long inferred via theory, is readily apparent in the sky region close to 10° from the Sun in processed, background-subtracted solar wind images. We present image sequences collected by the inner Heliospheric Imager instrument on board the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory ( STEREO /HI1) in 2008 December, covering apparent distances from approximately 4° to 24° from the center of the Sun and spanning this transition in the large-scale morphology of the wind. We describe the observation and novel techniques to extract evolving image structure from the images, and we use those data and techniques to present and quantify the clear textural shift in the apparent structure of the corona and solar wind in this altitude range. We demonstrate that the change in apparent texture is due both to anomalous fading of the radial striae that characterize the corona and to anomalous relative brightening of locally dense puffs of solar wind that we term “flocculae.” We show that these phenomena are inconsistent with smooth radial flow, but consistent with the onset of hydrodynamic or magnetohydrodynamic instabilities leading to a turbulent cascade in the young solar wind.

  18. Performance of fading multi-user diversity for underlay cognitive networksy

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Having multiple secondary users (SUs) can be exploited to achieve multiuser diversity and improve the throughput of the underlay secondary network. In the cognitive setting, satisfying the interference constraint is essential, and thus, a scheduling scheme is considered where some SUs are preselected based on the low interference power. From this subset, the SU that yields the highest throughput is selected for transmission. This scheduling scheme helps to lower the interference power while giving good throughput. For an independent but not identically distributed Nakagami-m fading channel, we obtain exact closed-form expressions of the capacity of this scheduling scheme. Furthermore, the scheduling time of SUs is characterized and closed-form expressions for the mean time after which a SU is selected for transmission are obtained. Numerical simulations are performed to corroborate the derived analytical results. Our results show that at low interference threshold, increasing transmit power of the SUs is not beneficial and results in reduced capacity. Furthermore, the channel idle time (i.e. time that no user is utilizing the channel) reduces with increasing the number of SUs. © 2013 IEEE.

  19. A tâtonnement process with fading memory, stabilization and optimal speed of convergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalli, Fausto; Naimzada, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to provide a way to improve stability and convergence rate of a price adjustment mechanism that converges to a Walrasian equilibrium. We focus on a discrete tâtonnement based on a two-agent, two-good exchange economy, and we introduce memory, assuming that the auctioneer adjusts prices not only using the current excess demand, but also making use of the past excess demand functions. In particular, we study the effect of computing a weighted average of the current and the previous excess demands (finite two level memory) and of all the previous excess demands (infinite memory). We show that suitable weights’ distributions have a stabilizing effect, so that the resulting price adjustment process converge toward the competitive equilibrium in a wider range of situations than the process without memory. Finally, we investigate the convergence speed toward the equilibrium of the proposed mechanisms. In particular, we show that using infinite memory with fading weights approaches the competitive equilibrium faster than with a distribution of quasi-uniform weights.

  20. MC-DS-CDMA System based on DWT and STBC in ITU Multipath Fading Channels Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Abdullah Khadam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the performance of multicarrier direct sequence code division multiple access (MC-DS-CDMA in fixed MC-DS-CDMA and Mobile MC-DS-CDMA applications have been improved by using the compensations of space time block coding and Discrete Fast Fourier transforms (FFT or Discrete Wavelets transform DWT. These MC-DS-CDMA systems had been simulated using MATLAB 2015a. Through simulation of the proposed system, various parameters can be changed and tested. The Bit Error Rate (BERs of these systems are obtained over wide range of signal to noise ratio. All simulation results had been compared with each other using different subcarrier size of FFT or DWT with STBC for 1,2,3 and 4 antennas in transmitter and under different ITU multipath fading channels and different Doppler frequencies (fd. The proposed structures of STBC-MC-DS-CDMA system based on (DWT batter than based on (FFT in varies Doppler frequencies and subcarrier size. Also, proposed system with STBC based on 4 transmitters better than other systems based on 1 or 2 or 3 transmitters in all Doppler frequencies and subcarrier size in all simulation results.