WorldWideScience

Sample records for single temperature fit

  1. Robust fitting of diurnal brightness temperature cycle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Udahemuka, G

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available for a pixel concerned. Robust fitting of observed Diurnal Temperature Cycle (DTC) taken over a day of a given pixel without cloud cover and other abnormally conditions such as fire can give a data based brightness temperature model for a given pixel...

  2. Single-level resonance parameters fit nuclear cross-sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawbaugh, D. W.; Gibson, G.; Miller, M.; Page, S. L.

    1970-01-01

    Least squares analyses of experimental differential cross-section data for the U-235 nucleus have yielded single level Breit-Wigner resonance parameters that fit, simultaneously, three nuclear cross sections of capture, fission, and total.

  3. Mutation dynamics and fitness effects followed in single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Lydia; Ollion, Jean; Robert, Jerome; Song, Xiaohu; Matic, Ivan; Elez, Marina

    2018-03-16

    Mutations have been investigated for more than a century but remain difficult to observe directly in single cells, which limits the characterization of their dynamics and fitness effects. By combining microfluidics, time-lapse imaging, and a fluorescent tag of the mismatch repair system in Escherichia coli , we visualized the emergence of mutations in single cells, revealing Poissonian dynamics. Concomitantly, we tracked the growth and life span of single cells, accumulating ~20,000 mutations genome-wide over hundreds of generations. This analysis revealed that 1% of mutations were lethal; nonlethal mutations displayed a heavy-tailed distribution of fitness effects and were dominated by quasi-neutral mutations with an average cost of 0.3%. Our approach has enabled the investigation of single-cell individuality in mutation rate, mutation fitness costs, and mutation interactions. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  4. Single molecule insights on conformational selection and induced fit mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatzakis, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    . To describe the molecular basis of this behavior, two main mechanisms have been advanced: 'induced fit' and 'conformational selection'. Our understanding of these models relies primarily on NMR, computational studies and kinetic measurements. These techniques report the average behavior of a large ensemble...... of unsynchronized molecules, often masking intrinsic dynamic behavior of proteins and biologically significant transient intermediates. Single molecule measurements are emerging as a powerful tool for characterizing protein function. They offer the direct observation and quantification of the activity, abundance...

  5. Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Fitness Fitness Want to look and feel your best? Physical ... are? Check out this info: What is physical fitness? top Physical fitness means you can do everyday ...

  6. Fitting of the Thomson scattering density and temperature profiles on the COMPASS tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanikova, E.; Peterka, M.; Bohm, P.; Bilkova, P.; Aftanas, M.; Urban, J.; Hron, M.; Panek, R.; Sos, M.

    2016-01-01

    A new technique for fitting the full radial profiles of electron density and temperature obtained by the Thomson scattering diagnostic in H-mode discharges on the COMPASS tokamak is described. The technique combines the conventionally used modified hyperbolic tangent function for the edge transport barrier (pedestal) fitting and a modification of a Gaussian function for fitting the core plasma. Low number of parameters of this combined function and their straightforward interpretability and controllability provide a robust method for obtaining physically reasonable profile fits. Deconvolution with the diagnostic instrument function is applied on the profile fit, taking into account the dependence on the actual magnetic configuration.

  7. Fitting of the Thomson scattering density and temperature profiles on the COMPASS tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanikova, E. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the CAS, Za Slovankou 1782/3, 180 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Division of Fusion Plasma Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Peterka, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the CAS, Za Slovankou 1782/3, 180 00 Prague (Czech Republic); MFF Charles University, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Bohm, P., E-mail: bohm@ipp.cas.cz; Bilkova, P.; Aftanas, M.; Urban, J.; Hron, M.; Panek, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the CAS, Za Slovankou 1782/3, 180 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Sos, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the CAS, Za Slovankou 1782/3, 180 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Břehová 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic)

    2016-11-15

    A new technique for fitting the full radial profiles of electron density and temperature obtained by the Thomson scattering diagnostic in H-mode discharges on the COMPASS tokamak is described. The technique combines the conventionally used modified hyperbolic tangent function for the edge transport barrier (pedestal) fitting and a modification of a Gaussian function for fitting the core plasma. Low number of parameters of this combined function and their straightforward interpretability and controllability provide a robust method for obtaining physically reasonable profile fits. Deconvolution with the diagnostic instrument function is applied on the profile fit, taking into account the dependence on the actual magnetic configuration.

  8. Rice LTG1 is involved in adaptive growth and fitness under low ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guangwen; Wu, Fu-Qing; Wu, Weixun; Wang, Hong-Jun; Zheng, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Yunhui; Chen, Xiuling; Zhou, Kunneng; Jin, Mingna; Cheng, Zhijun; Li, Xueyong; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Haiyang; Wan, Jianmin

    2014-05-01

    Low temperature (LT) is one of the most prevalent factors limiting the productivity and geographical distribution of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Although significant progress has been made in elucidating the effect of LT on seed germination and reproductive development in rice, the genetic component affecting vegetative growth under LT remains poorly understood. Here, we report that rice cultivars harboring the dominant LTG1 (Low Temperature Growth 1) allele are more tolerant to LT (15-25°C, a temperature range prevalent in high-altitude, temperate zones and high-latitude areas), than those with the ltg1 allele. Using a map-based cloning strategy, we show that LTG1 encodes a casein kinase I. A functional nucleotide polymorphism was identified in the coding region of LTG1, causing a single amino acid substitution (I357K) that is associated with the growth rate, heading date and yield of rice plants grown at LT. We present evidence that LTG1 affects rice growth at LT via an auxin-dependent process(es). Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of this locus suggests that the ltg1 haplotype arose before the domestication of rice in tropical climates. Together, our data demonstrate that LTG1 plays an important role in the adaptive growth and fitness of rice cultivars under conditions of low ambient temperature. © 2014 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Accuracy of Digital Impressions and Fitness of Single Crowns Based on Digital Impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Lv, Pin; Liu, Yihong; Si, Wenjie; Feng, Hailan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the accuracy (precision and trueness) of digital impressions and the fitness of single crowns manufactured based on digital impressions were evaluated. #14-17 epoxy resin dentitions were made, while full-crown preparations of extracted natural teeth were embedded at #16. (1) To assess precision, deviations among repeated scan models made by intraoral scanner TRIOS and MHT and model scanner D700 and inEos were calculated through best-fit algorithm and three-dimensional (3D) comparison. Root mean square (RMS) and color-coded difference images were offered. (2) To assess trueness, micro computed tomography (micro-CT) was used to get the reference model (REF). Deviations between REF and repeated scan models (from (1)) were calculated. (3) To assess fitness, single crowns were manufactured based on TRIOS, MHT, D700 and inEos scan models. The adhesive gaps were evaluated under stereomicroscope after cross-sectioned. Digital impressions showed lower precision and better trueness. Except for MHT, the means of RMS for precision were lower than 10 μm. Digital impressions showed better internal fitness. Fitness of single crowns based on digital impressions was up to clinical standard. Digital impressions could be an alternative method for single crowns manufacturing. PMID:28793417

  10. Accuracy of Digital Impressions and Fitness of Single Crowns Based on Digital Impressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the accuracy (precision and trueness of digital impressions and the fitness of single crowns manufactured based on digital impressions were evaluated. #14-17 epoxy resin dentitions were made, while full-crown preparations of extracted natural teeth were embedded at #16. (1 To assess precision, deviations among repeated scan models made by intraoral scanner TRIOS and MHT and model scanner D700 and inEos were calculated through best-fit algorithm and three-dimensional (3D comparison. Root mean square (RMS and color-coded difference images were offered. (2 To assess trueness, micro computed tomography (micro-CT was used to get the reference model (REF. Deviations between REF and repeated scan models (from (1 were calculated. (3 To assess fitness, single crowns were manufactured based on TRIOS, MHT, D700 and inEos scan models. The adhesive gaps were evaluated under stereomicroscope after cross-sectioned. Digital impressions showed lower precision and better trueness. Except for MHT, the means of RMS for precision were lower than 10 μm. Digital impressions showed better internal fitness. Fitness of single crowns based on digital impressions was up to clinical standard. Digital impressions could be an alternative method for single crowns manufacturing.

  11. Fitted temperature-corrected Compton cross sections for Monte Carlo applications and a sampling distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienke, B.R.; Devaney, J.J.; Lathrop, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    Simple temperature-corrected cross sections, which replace the static Klein-Nishina set in a one-to-one manner, are developed for Monte Carlo applications. The reduced set is obtained from a nonlinear least-squares fit to the exact photon-Maxwellian electron cross sections by using a Klein-Nishina-like formula as the fitting equation. Two parameters are sufficient, and accurate to two decimal places, to explicitly fit the exact cross sections over a range of 0 to 100 keV in electron temperature and 0 to 1 MeV in incident photon energy. Since the fit equations are Klein-Nishina-like, existing Monte Carlo code algorithms using the Klein-Nishina formula can be trivially modified to accommodate corrections for a moving Maxwellian electron background. The simple two parameter scheme and other fits are presented and discussed and comparisons with exact predictions are exhibited. The fits are made to the total photon-Maxwellian electron cross section and the fitting parameters can be consistently used in both the energy conservation equation for photon-electron scattering and the differential cross section, as they are presently sampled in Monte Carlo photonics applications. The fit equations are motivated in a very natural manner by the asymptotic expansion of the exact photon-Maxwellian effective cross-section kernel. A probability distribution is also obtained for the corrected set of equations

  12. Optimize Etching Based Single Mode Fiber Optic Temperature Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Kumar; Dr. Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a description of etching process for fabrication single mode optical fiber sensors. The process of fabrication demonstrates an optimized etching based method to fabricate single mode fiber (SMF) optic sensors in specified constant time and temperature. We propose a single mode optical fiber based temperature sensor, where the temperature sensing region is obtained by etching its cladding diameter over small length to a critical value. It is observed that th...

  13. The mean and variance of environmental temperature interact to determine physiological tolerance and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozinovic, Francisco; Bastías, Daniel A; Boher, Francisca; Clavijo-Baquet, Sabrina; Estay, Sergio A; Angilletta, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Global climate change poses one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. Most analyses of the potential biological impacts have focused on changes in mean temperature, but changes in thermal variance will also impact organisms and populations. We assessed the combined effects of the mean and variance of temperature on thermal tolerances, organismal survival, and population growth in Drosophila melanogaster. Because the performance of ectotherms relates nonlinearly to temperature, we predicted that responses to thermal variation (±0° or ±5°C) would depend on the mean temperature (17° or 24°C). Consistent with our prediction, thermal variation enhanced the rate of population growth (r(max)) at a low mean temperature but depressed this rate at a high mean temperature. The interactive effect on fitness occurred despite the fact that flies improved their heat and cold tolerances through acclimation to thermal conditions. Flies exposed to a high mean and a high variance of temperature recovered from heat coma faster and survived heat exposure better than did flies that developed at other conditions. Relatively high survival following heat exposure was associated with low survival following cold exposure. Recovery from chill coma was affected primarily by the mean temperature; flies acclimated to a low mean temperature recovered much faster than did flies acclimated to a high mean temperature. To develop more realistic predictions about the biological impacts of climate change, one must consider the interactions between the mean environmental temperature and the variance of environmental temperature.

  14. Daphnia fed algal food grown at elevated temperature have reduced fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna B. Sikora

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Lake water temperature is negatively correlated with fatty acids content and P:C ratio in green algae. Hence, elevated temperature may indirectly reduce the fitness of Daphnia due to induced decrease in algal food quality. The aim of this study was to test the hypotheses that quality of algal food decreases with increasing temperature of its culture and that large-bodied Daphnia are more vulnerable to the temperature-related deterioration of algal food quality than small-bodied ones. Laboratory life-table experiments were performed at 20°C with large-bodied D. pulicaria and small-bodied D. cucullata fed with the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus, that had been grown at temperatures of 16, 24 or 32°C. The somatic growth rates of both species decreased significantly with increasing algal culture temperature and this effect was more pronounced in D. pulicaria than in D. cucullata. In the former species, age at first reproduction significantly increased and clutch size significantly decreased with increasing temperature of algae growth, while no significant changes in these two parameters were observed in the latter species. The proportion of egg-bearing females decreased with increasing algal culture temperature in both species. The results of this study support the notion that the quality of algal food decreases with increasing water temperature and also suggest that small-bodied Daphnia species might be less vulnerable to temperature-related decreases in algal food quality than large-bodied ones.

  15. Daphnia magna fitness during low food supply under different water temperature and brownification scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gall

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Much of our current knowledge about non-limiting dietary carbon supply for herbivorous zooplankton is based on experimental evidence and typically conducted at ~1 mg C L-1 and ~20°C. Here we ask how low supply of dietary carbon affects somatic growth, reproduction, and survival of Daphnia magna and test effects of higher water temperature (+3 °C relative to ambient and brownification (3X higher than natural water color; both predicted effects of climate change during fall cooling. We predicted that even at very low carbon supply (~5µg C L-1, higher water temperature and brownification will allow D. magna to increase its fitness. Neonates (<24 h old were incubated with lake seston for 4 weeks (October-November 2013 in experimental bottles submerged in outdoor mesocosms to explore effects of warmer and darker water. Higher temperature and brownification did not significantly affect food quality, as assessed by its fatty acid composition. Daphnia exposed to both increased temperature and brownification had highest somatic growth and were the only that reproduced, and higher temperature caused the highest Daphnia survival success. These results suggest that even under low temperature and thus lower physiological activity, low food quantity is more important than its quality for D. magna fitness.

  16. Fit of single tooth zirconia copings: comparison between various manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenade, Charlotte; Mainjot, Amélie; Vanheusden, Alain

    2011-04-01

    Various CAD/CAM processes are commercially available to manufacture zirconia copings. Comparative data on their performance in terms of fit are needed. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the internal and marginal fit of single tooth zirconia copings manufactured with a CAD/CAM process (Procera; Nobel Biocare) and a mechanized manufacturing process (Ceramill; Amann Girrbach). Abutments (n=20) prepared in vivo for ceramic crowns served as a template for manufacturing both Procera and Ceramill zirconia copings. Copings were manufactured and cemented (Clearfil Esthetic Cement; Kuraray) on epoxy replicas of stone cast abutments. Specimens were sectioned. Nine measurements were performed for each coping. Over- and under-extended margins were evaluated. Comparisons between the 2 processes were performed with a generalized linear mixed model (α=.05). Internal gap values between Procera and Ceramill groups were not significantly different (P=.13). The mean marginal gap (SD) for Procera copings (51(50) μm) was significantly smaller than for Ceramill (81(66) μm) (P<.005). The percentages of over- and under-extended margins were 43% and 57% for Procera respectively, and 71% and 29% for Ceramill. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, the marginal fit of Procera copings was significantly better than that of Ceramill copings. Furthermore, Procera copings showed a smaller percentage of over-extended margins than did Ceramill copings. Copyright © 2011 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Guidelines for the fitting of anomalous diffusion mean square displacement graphs from single particle tracking experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldad Kepten

    Full Text Available Single particle tracking is an essential tool in the study of complex systems and biophysics and it is commonly analyzed by the time-averaged mean square displacement (MSD of the diffusive trajectories. However, past work has shown that MSDs are susceptible to significant errors and biases, preventing the comparison and assessment of experimental studies. Here, we attempt to extract practical guidelines for the estimation of anomalous time averaged MSDs through the simulation of multiple scenarios with fractional Brownian motion as a representative of a large class of fractional ergodic processes. We extract the precision and accuracy of the fitted MSD for various anomalous exponents and measurement errors with respect to measurement length and maximum time lags. Based on the calculated precision maps, we present guidelines to improve accuracy in single particle studies. Importantly, we find that in some experimental conditions, the time averaged MSD should not be used as an estimator.

  18. Room temperature excitation spectroscopy of single quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Blum

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a single molecule detection scheme to investigate excitation spectra of single emitters at room temperature. We demonstrate the potential of single emitter photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy by recording excitation spectra of single CdSe nanocrystals over a wide spectral range of 100 nm. The spectra exhibit emission intermittency, characteristic of single emitters. We observe large variations in the spectra close to the band edge, which represent the individual heterogeneity of the observed quantum dots. We also find specific excitation wavelengths for which the single quantum dots analyzed show an increased propensity for a transition to a long-lived dark state. We expect that the additional capability of recording excitation spectra at room temperature from single emitters will enable insights into the photophysics of emitters that so far have remained inaccessible.

  19. Detrimental effect of temperature increase on the fitness of an amphibian ( Lissotriton helveticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloy, Valérie; Denoël, Mathieu

    2010-03-01

    Increases of global temperatures have resulted in measurable shifts in the distribution, phenology and survival of some plant and animal species. However, the mechanisms showing links between global warming and biodiversity declines remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine whether a key parameter of fitness, i.e. offspring number, could be affected by a temperature increase. To this end, we compared egg-laying traits at naturally occurring temperatures (14 °C, 18 °C and 22 °C) in palmate newts, Lissotriton helveticus. Our study suggests that water temperature increase has a negative effect on the fecundity of female newts. Females lay half as many eggs at high temperatures as they do at low temperatures, which results in a lower number of hatchlings. This study shows that global warming would affect amphibian populations. It complements other studies in pointing out that changes in phenology may not be driven only by warmer earlier temperatures but also by counter-selection during late-breeding, particularly in long-term breeders such as newts. More experimental studies should be carried out to understand the complex consequences of global warming and the proximate mechanisms of amphibian decline.

  20. Low temperature deformation mechanisms in LiF single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fotedar, H.L.; Stroebe, T.G.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of the deformation behavior of high purity LiF single crystals is given using yielding and work hardening data and thermally activated deformation parameters obtained in the temperature range 77-423 0 K. It is found that while the Fleischer mechanism is apparently valid experimentally over the thermally activated temperature range, vacancies produced in large numbers at 77 0 K could also play a role in determining the critical resolved shear stress at that temperature

  1. Single-molecule FRET unveils induced-fit mechanism for substrate selectivity in flap endonuclease 1

    KAUST Repository

    Rashid, Fahad

    2017-02-23

    Human flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) and related structure-specific 5\\'nucleases precisely identify and incise aberrant DNA structures during replication, repair and recombination to avoid genomic instability. Yet, it is unclear how the 5\\'nuclease mechanisms of DNA distortion and protein ordering robustly mediate efficient and accurate substrate recognition and catalytic selectivity. Here, single-molecule sub-millisecond and millisecond analyses of FEN1 reveal a protein-DNA induced-fit mechanism that efficiently verifies substrate and suppresses off-target cleavage. FEN1 sculpts DNA with diffusion-limited kinetics to test DNA substrate. This DNA distortion mutually \\'locks\\' protein and DNA conformation and enables substrate verification with extreme precision. Strikingly, FEN1 never misses cleavage of its cognate substrate while blocking probable formation of catalytically competent interactions with noncognate substrates and fostering their pre-incision dissociation. These findings establish FEN1 has practically perfect precision and that separate control of induced-fit substrate recognition sets up the catalytic selectivity of the nuclease active site for genome stability.

  2. A curve fitting method for extrinsic camera calibration from a single image of a cylindrical object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, A W; Zagar, B G

    2013-01-01

    An important step in the process of optical steel coil quality assurance is to measure the proportions of width and radius of steel coils as well as the relative position and orientation of the camera. This work attempts to estimate these extrinsic parameters from single images by using the cylindrical coil itself as the calibration target. Therefore, an adaptive least-squares algorithm is applied to fit parametrized curves to the detected true coil outline in the acquisition. The employed model allows for strictly separating the intrinsic and the extrinsic parameters. Thus, the intrinsic camera parameters can be calibrated beforehand using available calibration software. Furthermore, a way to segment the true coil outline in the acquired images is motivated. The proposed optimization method yields highly accurate results and can be generalized even to measure other solids which cannot be characterized by the identification of simple geometric primitives. (paper)

  3. A curve fitting method for extrinsic camera calibration from a single image of a cylindrical object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, A. W.; Zagar, B. G.

    2013-08-01

    An important step in the process of optical steel coil quality assurance is to measure the proportions of width and radius of steel coils as well as the relative position and orientation of the camera. This work attempts to estimate these extrinsic parameters from single images by using the cylindrical coil itself as the calibration target. Therefore, an adaptive least-squares algorithm is applied to fit parametrized curves to the detected true coil outline in the acquisition. The employed model allows for strictly separating the intrinsic and the extrinsic parameters. Thus, the intrinsic camera parameters can be calibrated beforehand using available calibration software. Furthermore, a way to segment the true coil outline in the acquired images is motivated. The proposed optimization method yields highly accurate results and can be generalized even to measure other solids which cannot be characterized by the identification of simple geometric primitives.

  4. IEFIT - An Interactive Approach to High Temperature Fusion Plasma Magnetic Equilibrium Fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Q.; Schachter, J.; Schissel, D.P.; Lao, L.L.

    1999-01-01

    An interactive IDL based wrapper, IEFIT, has been created for the magnetic equilibrium reconstruction code EFIT written in FORTRAN. It allows high temperature fusion physicists to rapidly optimize a plasma equilibrium reconstruction by eliminating the unnecessarily repeated initialization in the conventional approach along with the immediate display of the fitting results of each input variation. It uses a new IDL based graphics package, GaPlotObj, developed in cooperation with Fanning Software Consulting, that provides a unified interface with great flexibility in presenting and analyzing scientific data. The overall interactivity reduces the process to minutes from the usual hours

  5. The measurement of single particle temperature in plasma sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fincke, J.R.; Swank, W.D.; Bolsaitis, P.P.; Elliott, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    A measurement technique for simultaneously obtaining the size, velocity, temperature, and relative number density of particles entrained in high temperature flow fields is described. In determining the particle temperature from a two-color pyrometery technique, assumptions about the relative spectral emissivity of the particle are required. For situations in which the particle surface undergoes chemical reactions the assumption of grey body behavior is shown to introduce large Temperature measurement uncertainties. Results from isolated, laser heated, single particle measurements and in-flight data from the plasma spraying of WC-Co are presented. 10 refs., 5 figs

  6. Temperature dependence of bulk respiration of crop stands. Measurement and model fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Takashi; Arai, Ryuji; Tako, Yasuhiro

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine whether the temperature dependence of respiration at a crop-stand scale could be directly represented by an Arrhenius function that was widely used for representing the temperature dependence of leaf respiration. We determined temperature dependences of bulk respiration of monospecific stands of rice and soybean within a range of the air temperature from 15 to 30degC using large closed chambers. Measured responses of respiration rates of the two stands were well fitted by the Arrhenius function (R 2 =0.99). In the existing model to assess the local radiological impact of the anthropogenic carbon-14, effects of the physical environmental factors on photosynthesis and respiration of crop stands are not taken into account for the calculation of the net amount of carbon per cultivation area in crops at harvest which is the crucial parameter for the estimation of the activity concentration of carbon-14 in crops. Our result indicates that the Arrhenius function is useful for incorporating the effect of the temperature on respiration of crop stands into the model which is expected to contribute to a more realistic estimate of the activity concentration of carbon-14 in crops. (author)

  7. Seasonal temperature variations influence tapetum mitosis patterns associated with reproductive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavania, Umesh C; Basu, Surochita; Kushwaha, Jyotsana Singh; Lavania, Seshu

    2014-09-01

    Environmental stress in plants impacts many biological processes, including male gametogenesis, and affects several cytological mechanisms that are strongly interrelated. To understand the likely impact of rising temperature on reproductive fitness in the climate change regime, a study of tapetal mitosis and its accompanying meiosis over seasons was made to elucidate the influence of temperature change on the cytological events occurring during microsporogenesis. For this we used two species of an environmentally sensitive plant system, i.e., genus Cymbopogon Sprengel (Poaceae), namely Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle var. confertiflorus (Steud.) Bor (2n = 20) and Cymbopogon jwaruncusha (Jones) Schult. (2n = 20). Both species flower profusely during extreme summer (48 °C) and mild winter (15 °C) but support low and high seed fertility, respectively, in the two seasons. We have shown that tapetal mitotic patterns over seasons entail differential behavior for tapetal mitosis. During the process of tapetum development there are episodes of endomitosis that form either (i) an endopolyploid genomically imbalanced uninucleate and multinucleate tapetum, and (or) (ii) an acytokinetic multinucleate genomically balanced tapetum, with the progression of meiosis in the accompanying sporogenous tissue. The relative frequency of occurrence of the two types of tapetum mitosis patterns is significantly different in the two seasons, and it is found to be correlated with the temperature conditions. Whereas, the former (genomically imbalanced tapetum) are prevalent during the hot summer, the latter (genomically balanced tapetum) are frequent under optimal conditions. Such a differential behaviour in tapetal mitosis vis-à-vis temperature change is also correspondingly accompanied by substantial disturbances or regularity in meiotic anaphase disjunction. Both species show similar patterns. The study underpins that tapetal mitotic behaviour per se could be a reasonable indicator to

  8. Model fit versus biological relevance: Evaluating photosynthesis-temperature models for three tropical seagrass species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew P; Collier, Catherine J; Uthicke, Sven; Ow, Yan X; Langlois, Lucas; O'Brien, Katherine R

    2017-01-04

    When several models can describe a biological process, the equation that best fits the data is typically considered the best. However, models are most useful when they also possess biologically-meaningful parameters. In particular, model parameters should be stable, physically interpretable, and transferable to other contexts, e.g. for direct indication of system state, or usage in other model types. As an example of implementing these recommended requirements for model parameters, we evaluated twelve published empirical models for temperature-dependent tropical seagrass photosynthesis, based on two criteria: (1) goodness of fit, and (2) how easily biologically-meaningful parameters can be obtained. All models were formulated in terms of parameters characterising the thermal optimum (T opt ) for maximum photosynthetic rate (P max ). These parameters indicate the upper thermal limits of seagrass photosynthetic capacity, and hence can be used to assess the vulnerability of seagrass to temperature change. Our study exemplifies an approach to model selection which optimises the usefulness of empirical models for both modellers and ecologists alike.

  9. Model fit versus biological relevance: Evaluating photosynthesis-temperature models for three tropical seagrass species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew P.; Collier, Catherine J.; Uthicke, Sven; Ow, Yan X.; Langlois, Lucas; O'Brien, Katherine R.

    2017-01-01

    When several models can describe a biological process, the equation that best fits the data is typically considered the best. However, models are most useful when they also possess biologically-meaningful parameters. In particular, model parameters should be stable, physically interpretable, and transferable to other contexts, e.g. for direct indication of system state, or usage in other model types. As an example of implementing these recommended requirements for model parameters, we evaluated twelve published empirical models for temperature-dependent tropical seagrass photosynthesis, based on two criteria: (1) goodness of fit, and (2) how easily biologically-meaningful parameters can be obtained. All models were formulated in terms of parameters characterising the thermal optimum (Topt) for maximum photosynthetic rate (Pmax). These parameters indicate the upper thermal limits of seagrass photosynthetic capacity, and hence can be used to assess the vulnerability of seagrass to temperature change. Our study exemplifies an approach to model selection which optimises the usefulness of empirical models for both modellers and ecologists alike.

  10. Study of energy transfer in single and multi-emissive layer using Gaussian peak fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ju-An; Kim, You-Hyun; Kim, Nam Ho; Moon, Chang-Bum; He, Gufeng; Kim, Woo Young

    2014-01-01

    White organic light-emitting diodes(WOLEDs) were fabricated with the device structure of ITO(1800 Å)/NPB(700 Å)/emissive layer(300 Å)/Bphen(300 Å)/Liq(20 Å)/Al(1200 Å) using the two complementary colors method. Then, we investigated their electrical and optical characteristics to determine luminous efficiency, luminance and color coordinates of single, double, triple and quadruple emissive layered-WOLED. Thickness of emissive layer was fixed at 30 Å, and DPASN and BAlq were used for blue emissive host material and DCJTB was added as red dopant in the emissive layer. Then, we investigated the performance of OLEDs via its charge blocking structure and its different emissive region with emissive layers. Luminous efficiency of 5.30 cd/A at 50 mA/cm 2 of current density is obtained in WOLED device with double emissive layer of DPASN:DCJTB-0.1% (150 Å)/BAlq:DCJTB-0.1% (150 Å) and these are 80% higher than WOLED device with single emissive layer of DPASN:DCJTB-0.1% (300 Å). - Highlights: • White OLEDs with multiple-emissive layer were fabricated using p- and n-type emissive materials. • We fabricated WOLEDs only using a small quantity of fluorescent red dopant materials. • The spectroscopic analysis using multi-peak fits with a Gaussian function. • The explain electroluminescence spectra of white OLEDs with the multiple-emissive layer. • We examine changes in the number of emissive layer about white OLEDs performance

  11. Energy and temperature fluctuations in the single electron box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Tineke L van den; Brange, Fredrik; Samuelsson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In mesoscopic and nanoscale systems at low temperatures, charge carriers are typically not in thermal equilibrium with the surrounding lattice. The resulting, non-equilibrium dynamics of electrons has only begun to be explored. Experimentally the time-dependence of the electron temperature (deviating from the lattice temperature) has been investigated in small metallic islands. Motivated by these experiments, we investigate theoretically the electronic energy and temperature fluctuations in a metallic island in the Coulomb blockade regime, tunnel coupled to an electronic reservoir, i.e. a single electron box. We show that electronic quantum tunnelling between the island and the reservoir, in the absence of any net charge or energy transport, induces fluctuations of the island electron temperature. The full distribution of the energy transfer as well as the island temperature is derived within the framework of full counting statistics. In particular, the low-frequency temperature fluctuations are analysed, fully accounting for charging effects and non-zero reservoir temperature. The experimental requirements for measuring the predicted temperature fluctuations are discussed. (paper)

  12. Single Crystal Synthesis and STM Studies of High Temperature Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Alfonso

    1997-01-01

    This is a final report for the work initiated in September of 1994 under the grant NAG8-1085 - NASA/OMU, on the fabrication of bulk and single crystal synthesis, specific heat measuring and STM studies of high temperature superconductors. Efforts were made to fabricate bulk and single crystals of mercury based superconducting material. A systematic thermal analysis on the precursors for the corresponding oxides and carbonates were carried out to synthesized bulk samples. Bulk material was used as seed in an attempt to grow single crystals by a two-step self flux process. On the other hand bulk samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility, We studied the specific heat behavior in the range from 80 to 300 K. Some preliminary attempts were made to study the atomic morphology of our samples. As part of our efforts we built an ac susceptibility apparatus for measuring the transition temperature of our sintered samples.

  13. Fitting of the Thomson scattering density and temperature profiles on the COMPASS tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štefániková, Estera; Peterka, Matěj; Böhm, Petr; Bílková, Petra; Aftanas, Milan; Sos, M.; Urban, Jakub; Hron, Martin; Pánek, Radomír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 11 (2016), č. článku 11E536. ISSN 0034-6748. [Topical Conference on High-Temperature Plasma Diagnostics 2016/21./. Madison, Wisconsin, 05.06.2016-09.06.2016] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-35260S; GA MŠk(CZ) 8D15001; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015045 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : pedestal * fitting * instrument function Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: 2.11 Other engineering and technologies Impact factor: 1.515, year: 2016 http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/rsi/87/11/10.1063/1.4961554

  14. Nanoscale temperature sensing using single defects in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipp Neumann

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a novel nanoscale temperature sensing technique that is based on single atomic defects in diamonds, namely nitrogen vacancy color centers. Sample sizes range from millimeter down to a few tens of nanometers. In particular nanodiamonds were used as dispersed probes to acquire spatially resolved temperature profiles utilizing the sensitivity of the optically accessible electron spin level structure we achieve a temperature noise floor of 5mK/Mhz for bulk diamond and 130mK/Mhz for nanodiamonds and accuracies of 1mK. To this end we have developed a new decoupling technique in order to suppress to otherwise limiting effect of magnetic field fluctuations. In addition, high purity isotopically enriched 12C artificial diamonds is used. The high sensitivity to temperature changes adds to the well studied sensitivities to magnetic and electric fields and makes NV diamond a multipurpose nanoprobe. (author)

  15. Temperature-dependent mechanical properties of single-layer molybdenum disulphide: Molecular dynamics nanoindentation simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Junhua, E-mail: junhua.zhao@uni-weimar.de [Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Advanced Manufacturing Equipment and Technology of Food, Jiangnan University, 214122 Wuxi (China); Institute of Structural Mechanics, Bauhaus-University Weimar, 99423 Weimar (Germany); Jiang, Jin-Wu, E-mail: jwjiang5918@hotmail.com [Institute of Structural Mechanics, Bauhaus-University Weimar, 99423 Weimar (Germany); Rabczuk, Timon, E-mail: timon.rabczuk@uni-weimar.de [Institute of Structural Mechanics, Bauhaus-University Weimar, 99423 Weimar (Germany); School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, 136-701 Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-02

    The temperature-dependent mechanical properties of single-layer molybdenum disulphide (MoS{sub 2}) are obtained using molecular dynamics (MD) nanoindentation simulations. The Young's moduli, maximum load stress, and maximum loading strain decrease with increasing temperature from 4.2 K to 500 K. The obtained Young's moduli are in good agreement with those using our MD uniaxial tension simulations and the available experimental results. The tendency of maximum loading strain with different temperature is opposite with that of metal materials due to the short range Stillinger-Weber potentials in MoS{sub 2}. Furthermore, the indenter tip radius and fitting strain effect on the mechanical properties are also discussed.

  16. Temperature dependence of magnetoresistance in copper single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Q.; Niewczas, M.

    2018-03-01

    Transverse magnetoresistance of copper single crystals has been measured in the orientation of open-orbit from 2 K to 20 K for fields up to 9 T. The experimental Kohler's plots display deviation between individual curves below 16 K and overlap in the range of 16 K-20 K. The violation of the Kohler's rule below 16 K indicates that the magnetotransport can not be described by the classical theory of electron transport on spherical Fermi surface with a single relaxation time. A theoretical model incorporating two energy bands, spherical and cylindrical, with different relaxation times has been developed to describe the magnetoresistance data. The calculations show that the electron-phonon scattering rates at belly and neck regions of the Fermi surface have different temperature dependencies, and in general, they do not follow T3 law. The ratio of the relaxation times in belly and neck regions decreases parabolically with temperature as A - CT2 , with A and C being constants.

  17. Synergy effects of fluoxetine and variability in temperature lead to proportionally greater fitness costs in Daphnia: A multigenerational test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Miguel; Inocentes, Núrya; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Oliveira, Miguel

    2017-12-01

    Increased variability in water temperature is predicted to impose disproportionally greater fitness costs than mean increase in temperature. Additionally, water contaminants are currently a major source of human-induced stress likely to produce fitness costs. Global change models forecast an increase in these two human-induced stressors. Yet, in spite the growing interest in understanding how organisms respond to global change, the joint fitness effects of water pollution and increased variability in temperature remain unclear. Here, using a multigenerational design, we test the hypothesis that exposure to high concentrations of fluoxetine, a human medicine commonly found in freshwater systems, causes increased lifetime fitness costs, when associated with increased variability in temperature. Although fluoxetine and variability in temperature elicited some fitness cost when tested alone, when both stressors acted together the costs were disproportionally greater. The combined effect of fluoxetine and variability in temperature led to a reduction of 37% in lifetime reproductive success and a 17.9% decrease in population growth rate. Interestingly, fluoxetine and variability in temperature had no effect on the probability of survival. Freshwater systems are among the most imperilled ecosystems, often exposed to multiple human-induced stressors. Our results indicate that organisms face greater fitness risk when exposed to multiple stressors at the same time than when each stress acts alone. Our study highlights the importance of using a multi-generational approach to fully understand individual environmental tolerance and its responses to a global change scenario in aquatic systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Single interval Rényi entropy at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Wu, Jie-qiang

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we calculate the Rényi entropy of one single interval on a circle at finite temperature in 2D CFT. In the low temperature limit, we expand the thermal density matrix level by level in the vacuum Verma module, and calculate the first few leading terms in e -π/ T L explicitly. On the other hand, we compute the same Rényi entropy holographically. After considering the dependence of the Rényi entropy on the temperature, we manage to fix the interval-independent constant terms in the classical part of holographic Rényi entropy. We furthermore extend the analysis in [9] to higher orders and find exact agreement between the results from field theory and bulk computations in the large central charge limit. Our work provides another piece of evidence to support holographic computation of Rényi entropy in AdS3/CFT2 correspondence, even with thermal effect.

  19. Using aided cortical assessment as an objective tool to evaluate cochlear implant fitting in users with single-sided deafness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Távora-Vieira

    Full Text Available To assess the use of cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs to verify, and if necessary, optimize the cochlear implant (CI fitting of adult CI users with postlingual single-sided deafness (SSD.Sound field cortical responses to the speech tokens /m/, /g/, /t/, and /s/ were recorded from input to the CI while the normal hearing ear was masked. Responses were evaluated by visual inspection and classified as presence or absence of the CAEPs components P1, N1, P2. In case of an absence fitting was adjusted accordingly. After fitting, subjects were asked to use their new setting for 2-3 weeks for acclimatization purposes and then return for retesting. At retesting, new CAEP recordings were performed to objectively ensure that the new fitting maps effectively activated the auditory cortex.In 14/19 subjects, as per visual inspection, clear CAEPs were recorded by each speech token and were, therefore, not refit. In the other 5 subjects, CAEPs could not be evoked for at least one speech token. The fitting maps in these subjects were adjusted until clear CAEPs were evoked for all 4 speech tokens.CAEP can be used to quickly and objectively verify the suitability of CI fitting in experienced adult CI users with SSD. If used in the early post-implantation stage, this method could help CI users derive greater benefit for CI use and, therefore, be more committed to auditory training.

  20. Expanding the Operational Limits of the Single-Point Impedance Diagnostic for Internal Temperature Monitoring of Lithium-ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinner, Neil S.; Love, Corey T.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Tuttle, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Single-point impedance diagnostic technique demonstrated for lithium-ion batteries • Correlation between imaginary impedance and internal temperature determined • Instantaneous monitoring of commercial lithium-ion battery internal temperature • Expanded temperature range from −10°C up to 95°C • Non-invasive method useful for practical temperature monitoring of commercial cells - Abstract: Instantaneous internal temperature monitoring of a commercial 18650 LiCoO 2 lithium-ion battery was performed using a single-point EIS measurement. A correlation between the imaginary impedance, –Z imag , and internal temperature at 300 Hz was developed that was independent of the battery’s state of charge. An Arrhenius-type dependence was applied, and the activation energy for SEI ionic conductivity was found to be 0.13 eV. Two separate temperature-time experiments were conducted with different sequences of temperature, and single-point impedance tests at 300 Hz were performed to validate the correlation. Limitations were observed with the upper temperature range (68°C < T < 95°C), and consequently a secondary, empirical fit was applied for this upper range to improve accuracy. Average differences between actual and fit temperatures decreased around 3-7°C for the upper range with the secondary correlation. The impedance response at this frequency corresponded to the anode/SEI layer, and the SEI is reported to be thermally stable up to around 100°C, at which point decomposition may occur leading to battery deactivation and/or total failure. It is therefore of great importance to be able to track internal battery temperatures up to this critical point of 100°C, and this work demonstrates an expansion of the single-point EIS diagnostic to these elevated temperatures

  1. Temperature dependence of the defect luminescence in La2Be2O5 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogorodnikov, I.N.; Pustovarov, V.A.

    2015-01-01

    Temperature quenching (TQ) curves in the temperature range of 80–500 K have been studied for both the undoped, and doped with RE 3+ -ions (RE = Ce, Eu, Er, Pr, Nd) lanthanum beryllate (BLO) single crystals. Photoluminescence spectra and TQ-curves were recorded upon excitation in the absorption bands of the lattice defects. The reaction rate model has been developed to describe the experimental results. The model includes two competing processes with characteristic temperatures: thermal quenching of intracenter PL (T 1 ) and thermally stimulated migration of electronic excitations (T 2 ). The competition between these two processes leads to the observed non-monotonic TQ-curves. The rationalized formulas using three parameters (intensity, activation energy, characteristic temperature), were developed to describe each of these processes. Within the framework of the unified model, all the experimental results were described and the best fit parameters were obtained. Classification of the investigated lanthanum beryllate crystals was carried out in line with the best fit parameters obtained for the TQ-curves. - Highlights: • We studied La 2 Be 2 O 5 (BLO) single crystals (pristine and RE 3+ -doped). • We studied PL emission spectra of defects in BLO and BLO:RE 3+ . • Temperature quenching of the defect PL emission was studied at 80–500 K. • We developed the reaction rate model to describe non-monotonic TQ-curves. • TQ-curves were parameterized for BLO, BLO:RE 3+ (RE = Ce, Pr, Eu, Nd, Er).

  2. High temperature microhardness of ZrB2 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Xuan; Chen Chunhua; Otani, Shigeki

    2002-01-01

    Vickers microhardness of (0001), (101-bar 0) and (112-bar 0) planes of ZrB 2 single crystal prepared by the floating zone method has been investigated at various temperatures and loading times. As the temperature increases from 25 deg. C to 1000 deg. C, hardness drops from ∼20.9 GN m -2 of all planes to ∼7.85 GN m -2 for (0001) plane and ∼4.91 GN m -2 for (101-bar 0) and (112-bar 0) planes. The hardness of (101-bar 0) and (112-bar 0) planes exhibits almost same tendency and is always lower than that of (0001) plane by about 35%. The thermal softening coefficients of all three planes strongly depends on the temperature range with clear inflections at 400 deg. C and 700 deg. C. The loading time dependence of hardness is used to calculate the activation energy for creep. In addition, a relationship was found that shows the variation of hardness with temperature to be proportional to the variation with the loading time in a specific temperature range. (rapid communication)

  3. Temperature dependence of single-particle properties in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, W.; Lu, G.C.; Li, Z.H.; Lombardo, U.; Schulze, H.-J.

    2006-01-01

    The single-nucleon potential in hot nuclear matter is investigated in the framework of the Brueckner theory by adopting the realistic Argonne V 18 or Nijmegen 93 two-body nucleon-nucleon interaction supplemented by a microscopic three-body force. The rearrangement contribution to the single-particle potential induced by the ground state correlations is calculated in terms of the hole-line expansion of the mass operator and provides a significant repulsive contribution in the low-momentum region around and below the Fermi surface. Increasing temperature leads to a reduction of the effect, while increasing density makes it become stronger. The three-body force suppresses somewhat the ground state correlations due to its strong short-range repulsion, increasing with density. Inclusion of the three-body force contribution results in a quite different temperature dependence of the single-particle potential at high enough densities as compared to that adopting the pure two-body force. The effects of three-body force and ground state correlations on the nucleon effective mass are also discussed

  4. Single-temperature quantum engine without feedback control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Juyeon; Talkner, Peter; Kim, Yong Woon

    2017-08-01

    A cyclically working quantum-mechanical engine that operates at a single temperature is proposed. Its energy input is delivered by a quantum measurement. The functioning of the engine does not require any feedback control. We analyze work, heat, and the efficiency of the engine for the case of a working substance that is governed by the laws of quantum mechanics and that can be adiabatically compressed and expanded. The obtained general expressions are exemplified for a spin in an adiabatically changing magnetic field and a particle moving in a potential with slowly changing shape.

  5. Interference fit effect on holed single plates loaded with tension-tension stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Croccolo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the influence of interference fit coupling on the fatigue strength of holed plates. The effect was investigated both experimentally and numerically. Axial fatigue tests have been carried out on holed specimens made of high performance steel (1075MPa of Ultimate strength and 990MPa of Yield strength with or without a pin, made of the same material, press fitted into their central hole. Three different conditions have been investigated: free hole specimens, specimens with 0.6% of nominal specific interference and specimens with 2% of nominal specific interference. The experimental stress-life (S–N curves pointed out an increased fatigue life of the interference fit specimens compared with the free hole ones. The numerical investigation was performed in order to analyse the stress fields by applying an elastic plastic 2D simulation with a commercial Finite Element software. The stress history and distribution along the contact interference of the fitted samples indicates a significant reduction of the local stress range due to the externally applied loading (remote stress since a residual and compressive stress field is generated by the pin insertion.

  6. Temperature dependence of microwave absorption phenomena in single and biphase soft magnetic microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Kammouni, Rhimou, E-mail: elkammounirhimou@gmail.com [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Vázquez, Manuel [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Lezama, Luis [Depto. Química Inorgánica, Universidad País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Bilbao (Spain); Kurlyandskaya, Galina [Depto. Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Bilbao (Spain); Dept. Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kraus, Ludek [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-11-15

    The microwave absorption phenomena of single and biphase magnetic microwires with soft magnetic behavior have been investigated as a function of DC applied magnetic field using two alternative techniques: (i) absorption measurements in the temperature range of 4–300 K using a spectrometer operating at X-band frequency, at 9.5 GHz, and (ii) room-temperature, RT, ferromagnetic resonance measurements in a network analyzer in the frequency range up to 20 GHz. Complementary low-frequency magnetic characterization was performed in a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer. Studies have been performed for 8 μm diameter small-magnetostriction amorphous CoFeSiB single-phase microwire, coated by micrometric Pyrex layer, and after electroplating an external shell, 2 µm or 4 µm thick, of FeNi alloys. For single phase CoFeSiB microwire, a single absorption is observed, whose DC field dependence of resonance frequency at RT fits to a Kittel-law behavior for in-plane magnetized thin film. The temperature dependence behavior shows a monotonic increase in the resonance field, H{sub r}, with temperature. A parallel reduction of the circular anisotropy field, H{sub K}, is deduced from the temperature dependence of hysteresis loops. For biphase, CoFeSiB/FeNi, microwires, the absorption phenomena at RT also follow the Kittel condition. The observed opposite evolution with temperature of resonance field, H{sub r}, in 2 and 4 µm thick FeNi samples is interpreted considering the opposite sign of magnetostriction of the respective FeNi layers. The stress-induced magnetic anisotropy field, H{sub K}, in the FeNi shell is deduced to change sign at around 130 K. - Highlights: • A single absorption phenomenon is observed for single phase CoFeSiB. • The T dependence of the microwave behavior shows a monotonic increase of H{sub r} with T. • The absorption at RT follows the Kittel condition for biphase CoFe/FeNi microwires. • The T dependence of resonant field of CoFe/FeNi is interpreted to be

  7. Single-Antenna Temperature- and Humidity-Sounding Microwave Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Daniel J.; Pukala, David M.; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn H.; Soria, Mary M.; Owen, Heather R.; Tanner, Alan B.; Bruneau, Peter J.; Johnson, Alan K.; Kagaslahti, Pekka P.; Gaier, Todd C.

    2011-01-01

    For humidity and temperature sounding of Earth s atmosphere, a single-antenna/LNA (low-noise amplifier) is needed in place of two separate antennas for the two frequency bands. This results in significant mass and power savings for GeoSTAR that is comprised of hundreds of antennas per frequency channel. Furthermore, spatial anti-aliasing would reduce the number of horns. An anti-aliasing horn antenna will enable focusing the instrument field of view to the hurricane corridor by reducing spatial aliasing, and thus reduce the number of required horns by up to 50 percent. The single antenna/receiver assembly was designed and fabricated by a commercial vendor. The 118 183-GHz horn is based upon a profiled, smooth-wall design, and the OMT (orthomode transducer) on a quad-ridge design. At the input end, the OMT presents four ver y closely spaced ridges [0.0007 in. (18 m)]. The fabricated assembly contains a single horn antenna and low-noise broadband receiver front-end assembly for passive remote sensing of both temperature and humidity profiles in the Earth s atmosphere at 118 and 183 GHz. The wideband feed with dual polarization capability is the first broadband low noise MMIC receiver with the 118 to 183 GHz bandwidth. This technology will significantly reduce PATH/GeoSTAR mass and power while maintaining 90 percent of the measurement capabilities. This is required for a Mission-of-Opportunity on NOAA s GOES-R satellite now being developed, which in turn will make it possible to implement a Decadal-Survey mission for a fraction of the cost and much sooner than would otherwise be possible.

  8. Mechanical properties of low temperature proton irradiated single crystal copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schildcrout, M.

    1975-01-01

    Single crystal copper samples, of varying degrees of cold work, were irradiated near either liquid helium or liquid nitrogen temperature by 10.1-MeV protons. The internal friction and dynamic Young's modulus were observed as a function of either temperature or integrated proton flux. The primary effect of irradiation was to produce dislocation pinning. The initial pinning rate was found to be very sensitive to cold work. During irradiation it was found that heavily cold worked samples (25 percent compression) exhibited, almost exclusively, exponential pinning given by Y = e/sup --lambda phi/. This is attributed to the immobilization, rather than shortening, of loop lengths and is characterized by the pinning constant lambda. Exponential pinning was also found, to a smaller degree, in less heavily cold worked samples. Cold work appears to reduce the ''effective volume'' within which the defect clusters produced by irradiation, can immobilize dislocation segments. The bulk effect was observed after dislocation pinning was completed. Expressed in terms of the fractional change in Young's modulus per unit concentration of irradiation induced defects, it was measured at liquid helium temperature to be --18.5 +- 3. An anelastic process occurring near 10 0 K for low kHz frequencies and due to stress-induced ordering of point defects produced by irradiation has also been studied. The peak height per unit fluence was found to decrease with increasing cold work. The peak was not observed in samples compressed 25 percent. For the most carefully handled sample the activation energy was (1.28 +- 0.05) x 10 -2 eV, the attempt frequency was 10/sup 11.6 +- .8/ s -1 , the shape factor was 0.20, and the half width of the peak was 11 percent larger than the theoretical value calculated from the Debye equation for a single relaxation process

  9. Temperature measurement and control system for transtibial prostheses: Single subject clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoseiri, Kamiar; Zheng, Yong Ping; Leung, Aaron K L; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Aminian, Gholamreza; Masoumi, Mehdi; Safari, Mohammad Reza

    2018-01-01

    The snug fit of a prosthetic socket over the residual limb can disturb thermal balance and put skin integrity in jeopardy by providing an unpleasant and infectious environment. The prototype of a temperature measurement and control (TM&C) system was previously introduced to resolve thermal problems related to prostheses. This study evaluates its clinical application in a setting with reversal, single subject design. The TM&C system was installed on a fabricated prosthetic socket of a man with unilateral transtibial amputation. Skin temperature of the residual limb without prosthesis at baseline and with prosthesis during rest and walking was evaluated. The thermal sense and thermal comfort of the participant were also evaluated. The results showed different skin temperature around the residual limb with a temperature decrease tendency from proximal to distal. The TM&C system decreased skin temperature rise after prosthesis wearing. The same situation occurred during walking, but the thermal power of the TM&C system was insufficient to overcome heat build-up in some regions of the residual limb. The participant reported no significant change of thermal sense and thermal comfort. Further investigations are warranted to examine thermography pattern of the residual limb, thermal sense, and thermal comfort in people with amputation.

  10. The PGI enzyme system and fitness response to temperature as a measure of environmental tolerance in an invasive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Caroline Lefort

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the field of invasion ecology, the determination of a species’ environmental tolerance, is a key parameter in the prediction of its potential distribution, particularly in the context of global warming. In poikilothermic species such as insects, temperature is often considered the most important abiotic factor that affects numerous life-history and fitness traits through its effect on metabolic rate. Therefore the response of an insect to challenging temperatures may provide key information as to its climatic and therefore spatial distribution. Variation in the phosphoglucose-6-isomerase (PGI metabolic enzyme-system has been proposed in some insects to underlie their relative fitness, and is recognised as a key enzyme in their thermal adaptation. However, in this context it has not been considered as a potential mechanism contributing to a species invasive cability. The present study aimed to compare the thermal tolerance of an invasive scarabaeid beetle, Costelytra zealandica (White with that of the closely related, and in part sympatrically occurring, congeneric non-invasive species C. brunneum (Broun, and to consider whether any correlation with particular PGI genotypes was apparent. Third instar larvae of each species were exposed to one of three different temperatures (10, 15 and 20 °C over six weeks and their fitness (survival and growth rate measured and PGI phenotyping performed via cellulose acetate electrophoresis. No consistent relationship between PGI genotypes and fitness was detected, suggesting that PGI may not be contributing to the invasion success and pest status of C. zealandica.

  11. Flow visualization study of two phase flow in a single bend outlet feeder pipe and horizontal annulus of outlet end-fitting of a CANDU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supa-Amornkul, S.; Lister, D.H.; Steward, F.R.

    2005-01-01

    'Full text:' In CANDU-6 reactors, the pressurized high-temperature coolant flows through 380 fuel channels passing horizontally through the core. Each end of a fuel channel has a stainless steel annular end-fitting connected to a carbon steel feeder pipe. The outlet coolant, which is at 310 o C with up to 0.30 steam voidage, turns through 90 o as it passes from flow in the annular end-fitting to pipe flow in the feeder via a Grayloc connector. Since 1996, several CANDU stations have reported excessive corrosion of their outlet feeder pipes; especially between the first metre, which consisted of single or double bends. Early studies related the attack to the hydrodynamics of the coolant and verified that it was a type of flow accelerated corrosion. In order to understand the hydrodynamics of the coolant in the outlet feeders by flow-visualization, a full-scale transparent test section simulating the geometry and orientation of an outlet feeder bend with its upstream annular end-fitting were fabricated. The feeder consisted of a 54 mm inside diameter acrylic pipe with a 73 o bend, connecting to an acrylic simulation of a Grayloc flanged fitting and annular end-fitting. The annular end-fitting consisted of an inner pipe, 110 mm outer diameter, and an outer pipe, 150 mm inner diameter, both 190.7 cm long in length. The tests were performed with water and air at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The maximum water volumetric flow rate was 19 L/s and the volume fraction of air varied from 0.05 to 0.56. The phase distributions within the feeder pipe and along the length of the annulus were investigated with a digital video recorder. Size, concentration and velocity of the air bubbles at particular locations were studied with a high-speed digital still camera and a high-speed digital video camera. Phase distributions and variations in bubble size with velocity were determined. Particular attention was paid to the flow pattern at the inside of the bend, where a CFD

  12. Flow visualization study of two phase flow in a single bend outlet feeder pipe and horizontal annulus of outlet end-fitting of a CANDU reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supa-Amornkul, S.; Lister, D.H.; Steward, F.R. [Univ. of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick (Canada)]. E-mail: h796e@unb.ca; dlister@unb.ca; fsteward@unb.ca

    2005-07-01

    'Full text:' In CANDU-6 reactors, the pressurized high-temperature coolant flows through 380 fuel channels passing horizontally through the core. Each end of a fuel channel has a stainless steel annular end-fitting connected to a carbon steel feeder pipe. The outlet coolant, which is at 310{sup o}C with up to 0.30 steam voidage, turns through 90{sup o} as it passes from flow in the annular end-fitting to pipe flow in the feeder via a Grayloc connector. Since 1996, several CANDU stations have reported excessive corrosion of their outlet feeder pipes; especially between the first metre, which consisted of single or double bends. Early studies related the attack to the hydrodynamics of the coolant and verified that it was a type of flow accelerated corrosion. In order to understand the hydrodynamics of the coolant in the outlet feeders by flow-visualization, a full-scale transparent test section simulating the geometry and orientation of an outlet feeder bend with its upstream annular end-fitting were fabricated. The feeder consisted of a 54 mm inside diameter acrylic pipe with a 73{sup o} bend, connecting to an acrylic simulation of a Grayloc flanged fitting and annular end-fitting. The annular end-fitting consisted of an inner pipe, 110 mm outer diameter, and an outer pipe, 150 mm inner diameter, both 190.7 cm long in length. The tests were performed with water and air at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The maximum water volumetric flow rate was 19 L/s and the volume fraction of air varied from 0.05 to 0.56. The phase distributions within the feeder pipe and along the length of the annulus were investigated with a digital video recorder. Size, concentration and velocity of the air bubbles at particular locations were studied with a high-speed digital still camera and a high-speed digital video camera. Phase distributions and variations in bubble size with velocity were determined. Particular attention was paid to the flow pattern at the inside

  13. Temperature and fluence effects in lead implanted cobalt single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, A.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.; Johnson, E.; Steenstrup, S.; Chernysh, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    The channeled sputtering yields of the hcp and fcc phases of cobalt depend on the crystal structure and the radiation induced damage. Earlier irradiations of cobalt with argon ions channeled in the hcp direction give sputtering yields higher than expected in the temperature range 100-350deg C. This effect was attributed to a combination of radiation induced damage and a possible implantation induced hcp --> fcc phase transition. Sputtering yields for cobalt single crystals irradiated with 150 keV Pb + ions along the direction of the hcp phase and the direction of the fcc phase have been measured using the weightloss method. The radiation damage and the amount of lead retained in the implanted surface has been investigated by 'in situ' RBS/channeling analysis. Measured partial sputtering yields of lead ≅ 1 atom/ion indicate preferential sputtering of lead atoms. (orig.)

  14. Near-infrared refractive index of synthetic single crystal and polycrystalline diamonds at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurov, V. Yu.; Bushuev, E. V.; Popovich, A. F.; Bolshakov, A. P.; Ashkinazi, E. E.; Ralchenko, V. G.

    2017-12-01

    We measured the refractive index n(T) and thermo-optical coefficient β(T) = (1/n)(dn/dT) of high quality synthetic diamonds from room temperature to high temperatures, up to 1520 K, in near-infrared spectral range at wavelength 1.56 μm, using a low-coherence interferometry. A type IIa single crystal diamond produced by high pressure-high temperature technique and a transparent polycrystalline diamond grown by chemical vapor deposition were tested and revealed a very close n(T) behavior, with n = 2.384 ± 0.001 at T = 300 K, monotonically increasing to 2.428 at 1520 K. The n(T) data corrected to thermal expansion of diamond are well fitted with 3rd order polynomials, and alternatively, with the Bose-Einstein model with an effective oscillator frequency of 970 cm-1. Almost linear n(T) dependence is observed above 800 K. The thermo-optical coefficient is found to increase monotonically from (0.6 ± 0.1) × 10-5 K-1 (300 K) to (2.0 ± 0.1) × 10-5 K-1 (1300 K) with a tendency to saturation at >1200 K. These β(T) values are an order of magnitude lower than those known for Si, GaAs, and InP. The obtained results significantly extend the temperature range, where the refractive index of diamond was previously measured.

  15. Multivariable polynomial fitting of controlled single-phase nonlinear load of input current total harmonic distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Roman; Markiewicz, Przemysław; Pabjańczyk, Wiesława

    2018-04-01

    The power systems usually include a number of nonlinear receivers. Nonlinear receivers are the source of disturbances generated to the power system in the form of higher harmonics. The level of these disturbances describes the total harmonic distortion coefficient THD. Its value depends on many factors. One of them are the deformation and change in RMS value of supply voltage. A modern LED luminaire is a nonlinear receiver as well. The paper presents the results of the analysis of the influence of change in RMS value of supply voltage and the level of dimming of the tested luminaire on the value of the current THD. The analysis was made using a mathematical model based on multivariable polynomial fitting.

  16. Multivariable polynomial fitting of controlled single-phase nonlinear load of input current total harmonic distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikora Roman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The power systems usually include a number of nonlinear receivers. Nonlinear receivers are the source of disturbances generated to the power system in the form of higher harmonics. The level of these disturbances describes the total harmonic distortion coefficient THD. Its value depends on many factors. One of them are the deformation and change in RMS value of supply voltage. A modern LED luminaire is a nonlinear receiver as well. The paper presents the results of the analysis of the influence of change in RMS value of supply voltage and the level of dimming of the tested luminaire on the value of the current THD. The analysis was made using a mathematical model based on multivariable polynomial fitting.

  17. Single and competitive adsorption of OMPs by carbon nanotubes - mechanism and fitting models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, Gabriela; Dudziak, Mariusz; Bohdziewicz, Jolanta; Kudlek, Edyta

    2017-11-01

    The adsorption of three organic micropollutants (diclofenac - DFN, pentachlorophenol - PCP and octylphenol - OP) on two kinds of carbon nanotubes (single walled carbon nanotubes - SWCNT and single walled carbon nanotubes with amine group - SWCNT-NH2) was investigated, in single and bicomponent solution at pH 5. SWCNT-NH2 had three times lower specific surface area than SWCNT. Significant differences were observed in sorption capacity of SWCNT and SWCNT-NH2 for given chemicals. The sorption uptake changes in the following order: OP > PCP > DFN for SWCNT and DFN > PCP > OP for SWCNT-NH2. A few times higher adsorption of OP on SWCNT came from low OP solubility in water in comparison to PCP and DFN. While, higher adsorption of DFN and PCP on SWCNT-NH2 was a result of electrostatic attraction between dissociated form of these chemicals and positively charged SWCNT-NH2 at pH 5. In adsorption from bicomponent solution, significant competition was observed between PCP and DFN due to similar adsorption mechanism on SWCNT-NH2. Opposite tendency was observed for SWCNT, DFN did not greatly affect adsorption of PCP and OP since they were very easily absorbable by sigma-sigma interaction.

  18. Single and competitive adsorption of OMPs by carbon nanotubes – mechanism and fitting models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamińska Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of three organic micropollutants (diclofenac – DFN, pentachlorophenol – PCP and octylphenol – OP on two kinds of carbon nanotubes (single walled carbon nanotubes – SWCNT and single walled carbon nanotubes with amine group – SWCNT-NH2 was investigated, in single and bicomponent solution at pH 5. SWCNT-NH2 had three times lower specific surface area than SWCNT. Significant differences were observed in sorption capacity of SWCNT and SWCNT-NH2 for given chemicals. The sorption uptake changes in the following order: OP > PCP > DFN for SWCNT and DFN > PCP > OP for SWCNT-NH2. A few times higher adsorption of OP on SWCNT came from low OP solubility in water in comparison to PCP and DFN. While, higher adsorption of DFN and PCP on SWCNT-NH2 was a result of electrostatic attraction between dissociated form of these chemicals and positively charged SWCNT-NH2 at pH 5. In adsorption from bicomponent solution, significant competition was observed between PCP and DFN due to similar adsorption mechanism on SWCNT-NH2. Opposite tendency was observed for SWCNT, DFN did not greatly affect adsorption of PCP and OP since they were very easily absorbable by sigma-sigma interaction.

  19. Fitness Effects of Chlorpyrifos in the Damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum Strongly Depend upon Temperature and Food Level and Can Bridge Metamorphosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between pollutants and suboptimal environmental conditions can have severe consequences for the toxicity of pollutants, yet are still poorly understood. To identify patterns across environmental conditions and across fitness-related variables we exposed Enallagma cyathigerum damselfly larvae to the pesticide chlorpyrifos at two food levels or at two temperatures and quantified four fitness-related variables (larval survival, development time, mass at emergence and adult cold resistance). Food level and temperature did not affect survival in the absence of the pesticide, yet the pesticide reduced survival only at the high temperature. Animals reacted to the pesticide by accelerating their development but only at the high food level and at the low temperature; at the low food level, however, pesticide exposure resulted in a slower development. Chlorpyrifos exposure resulted in smaller adults except in animals reared at the high food level. Animals reared at the low food level and at the low temperature had a higher cold resistance which was not affected by the pesticide. In summary our study highlight that combined effects of exposure to chlorpyrifos and the two environmental conditions (i) were mostly interactive and sometimes even reversed in comparison with the effect of the environmental condition in isolation, (ii) strongly differed depending on the fitness-related variable under study, (iii) were not always predictable based on the effect of the environmental condition in isolation, and (iv) bridged metamorphosis depending on which environmental condition was combined with the pesticide thereby potentially carrying over from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems. These findings are relevant when extrapolating results of laboratory tests done under ideal environmental conditions to natural communities. PMID:23840819

  20. Fitness Effects of Chlorpyrifos in the Damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum Strongly Depend upon Temperature and Food Level and Can Bridge Metamorphosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizanne Janssens

    Full Text Available Interactions between pollutants and suboptimal environmental conditions can have severe consequences for the toxicity of pollutants, yet are still poorly understood. To identify patterns across environmental conditions and across fitness-related variables we exposed Enallagma cyathigerum damselfly larvae to the pesticide chlorpyrifos at two food levels or at two temperatures and quantified four fitness-related variables (larval survival, development time, mass at emergence and adult cold resistance. Food level and temperature did not affect survival in the absence of the pesticide, yet the pesticide reduced survival only at the high temperature. Animals reacted to the pesticide by accelerating their development but only at the high food level and at the low temperature; at the low food level, however, pesticide exposure resulted in a slower development. Chlorpyrifos exposure resulted in smaller adults except in animals reared at the high food level. Animals reared at the low food level and at the low temperature had a higher cold resistance which was not affected by the pesticide. In summary our study highlight that combined effects of exposure to chlorpyrifos and the two environmental conditions (i were mostly interactive and sometimes even reversed in comparison with the effect of the environmental condition in isolation, (ii strongly differed depending on the fitness-related variable under study, (iii were not always predictable based on the effect of the environmental condition in isolation, and (iv bridged metamorphosis depending on which environmental condition was combined with the pesticide thereby potentially carrying over from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems. These findings are relevant when extrapolating results of laboratory tests done under ideal environmental conditions to natural communities.

  1. A new general method for simultaneous fitting of temperature and concentration dependence of reaction rates yields kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for HIV reverse transcriptase specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, An; Ziehr, Jessica L; Johnson, Kenneth A

    2017-04-21

    Recent studies have demonstrated the dominant role of induced fit in enzyme specificity of HIV reverse transcriptase and many other enzymes. However, relevant thermodynamic parameters are lacking, and equilibrium thermodynamic methods are of no avail because the key parameters can only be determined by kinetic measurement. By modifying KinTek Explorer software, we present a new general method for globally fitting data collected over a range of substrate concentrations and temperatures and apply it to HIV reverse transcriptase. Fluorescence stopped-flow methods were used to record the kinetics of enzyme conformational changes that monitor nucleotide binding and incorporation. The nucleotide concentration dependence was measured at temperatures ranging from 5 to 37 °C, and the raw data were fit globally to derive a single set of rate constants at 37 °C and a set of activation enthalpy terms to account for the kinetics at all other temperatures. This comprehensive analysis afforded thermodynamic parameters for nucleotide binding ( K d , Δ G , Δ H , and Δ S at 37 °C) and kinetic parameters for enzyme conformational changes and chemistry (rate constants and activation enthalpy). Comparisons between wild-type enzyme and a mutant resistant to nucleoside analogs used to treat HIV infections reveal that the ground state binding is weaker and the activation enthalpy for the conformational change step is significantly larger for the mutant. Further studies to explore the structural underpinnings of the observed thermodynamics and kinetics of the conformational change step may help to design better analogs to treat HIV infections and other diseases. Our new method is generally applicable to enzyme and chemical kinetics. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Model fit versus biological relevance: Evaluating photosynthesis-temperature models for three tropical seagrass species

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew P. Adams; Catherine J. Collier; Sven Uthicke; Yan X. Ow; Lucas Langlois; Katherine R. O’Brien

    2017-01-01

    When several models can describe a biological process, the equation that best fits the data is typically considered the best. However, models are most useful when they also possess biologically-meaningful parameters. In particular, model parameters should be stable, physically interpretable, and transferable to other contexts, e.g. for direct indication of system state, or usage in other model types. As an example of implementing these recommended requirements for model parameters, we evaluat...

  3. Single and combined effects of microcystin- and saxitoxin-producing cyanobacteria on the fitness and antioxidant defenses of cladocerans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da S Ferrão-Filho, Aloysio; de Abreu S Silva, Daniel; de Oliveira, Taissa A; de Magalhães, Valéria Freitas; Pflugmacher, Stephan; da Silva, Eduardo Mendes

    2017-10-01

    Cyanobacteria produce different toxic compounds that affect animal life, among them hepatotoxins and neurotoxins. Because cyanobacteria are able to produce a variety of toxic compounds at the same time, organisms may be, generally, subjected to their combined action. In the present study, we demonstrate the single and combined effects on cladocerans of cyanobacteria that produce microcystins (hepatotoxins) and saxitoxins (neurotoxins). Animals were exposed (either singly or combined) to 2 strains of cyanobacteria isolated from the same environment (Funil Reservoir, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). The effects on clearance rate, mobility, survivorship, fecundity, population increase rate (r), and the antioxidant enzymes glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) were measured. Cladoceran species showed a variety of responses to cyanobacterial exposures, going from no effect to impairment of swimming movement, lower survivorship, fecundity, and general fitness (r). Animals ingested cyanobacteria in all treatments, although at lower rates than good food (green algae). Antioxidant defense responses were in accordance with fitness responses, suggesting that oxidative stress may be related to such effects. The present study emphasizes the need for testing combined actions of different classes of toxins, because this is often, and most likely, the scenario in a more eutrophic world with global climatic changes. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2689-2697. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  4. Random phenotypic variation of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) single-gene knockouts fits a double pareto-lognormal distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, John H; Robb, Daniel T; Poe, Amy R

    2012-01-01

    Distributed robustness is thought to influence the buffering of random phenotypic variation through the scale-free topology of gene regulatory, metabolic, and protein-protein interaction networks. If this hypothesis is true, then the phenotypic response to the perturbation of particular nodes in such a network should be proportional to the number of links those nodes make with neighboring nodes. This suggests a probability distribution approximating an inverse power-law of random phenotypic variation. Zero phenotypic variation, however, is impossible, because random molecular and cellular processes are essential to normal development. Consequently, a more realistic distribution should have a y-intercept close to zero in the lower tail, a mode greater than zero, and a long (fat) upper tail. The double Pareto-lognormal (DPLN) distribution is an ideal candidate distribution. It consists of a mixture of a lognormal body and upper and lower power-law tails. If our assumptions are true, the DPLN distribution should provide a better fit to random phenotypic variation in a large series of single-gene knockout lines than other skewed or symmetrical distributions. We fit a large published data set of single-gene knockout lines in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to seven different probability distributions: DPLN, right Pareto-lognormal (RPLN), left Pareto-lognormal (LPLN), normal, lognormal, exponential, and Pareto. The best model was judged by the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Phenotypic variation among gene knockouts in S. cerevisiae fits a double Pareto-lognormal (DPLN) distribution better than any of the alternative distributions, including the right Pareto-lognormal and lognormal distributions. A DPLN distribution is consistent with the hypothesis that developmental stability is mediated, in part, by distributed robustness, the resilience of gene regulatory, metabolic, and protein-protein interaction networks. Alternatively, multiplicative cell growth, and the mixing of

  5. Temperature behavior of the hole density of (Bi,Pb)-2212 single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghafari, Aliakbar; Janowitz, Christoph; Dwelk, Helmut; Krapf, Alica; Manzke, Recardo [Institute of Physics, Humboldt University of Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Ariffin, Ahmad Kamal [Dept. of Physics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim (Malaysia)

    2012-07-01

    One of the most puzzling anomalies of high-T{sub c} cuprates is the strong temperature dependence of the Hall coefficient (R{sub H}) and the hole density (n{sub H}). Gor'kov and Teitel'baum (GT) showed by using experimental data of La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} (LSCO) that the number of holes per Cu atom, n{sub H}, changes with temperature according to n{sub H}(T,x)=n{sub 0}(x)+n{sub 1}(x)exp(-{Delta}(x)/T). To clarify the temperature dependence of n{sub H} we have determined n{sub H} by X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) at the CuL{sub 3} edge for nearly optimum and slightly underdoped (Bi,Pb)-2212 single crystals. Our results point out that the GT formula cannot fit our data and therefore must be extended to the three terms.

  6. Elevated temperatures and long drought periods have a negative impact on survival and fitness of strongylid third stage larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp-Lawitzke, Friederike; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Demeler, Janina

    2016-04-01

    In grazing cattle, infections with gastrointestinal nematodes pose some of the most important health threats and subclinical infections result in considerable production losses. While there is little doubt that climate change will affect grazing ruminants directly, mean temperature increases of ∼ 3°C and longer drought stress periods in summer may also influence the free-living stages of parasitic nematodes. Hostile climatic conditions reduce the number of L3s on pasture and therefore the refugium, which is expected to result in a higher selection pressure, accelerating development of resistance against anthelmintic drugs. The aim of the current experiments was to investigate the effects of drought stress and different temperature/humidity ranges over time on the survival and fitness of Cooperia oncophora L3s and their distribution in grass and soil under controlled conditions using a climate chamber. Grass containers inoculated with L3s were analysed after 1-6weeks using descriptive statistics as well as linear models. A large proportion of L3s was recovered from soil where fitness was also better preserved than on grass. Numbers and fitness of recovered L3s declined with duration in the climate chamber under both temperature profiles. However, the results of the linear models confirmed that higher temperatures (20-33°C versus 17-22.6°C) significantly impaired survival, distribution and fitness of L3s. Application of drought stress, known as another important factor, had a surprisingly smaller impact than its duration or higher temperatures. The climate chamber enabled exclusion of confounding factors and therefore accurate interpretation of the investigated climatic aspects. The obtained results highlight the relative importance of those factors, and will help to design better models for the population dynamics of L3s on pasture in the future. Additionally, the outcomes of these investigations may offer explanations regarding interdependencies of development

  7. Electrically pumped single-photon emission at room temperature from a single InGaN/GaN quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Saniya; Frost, Thomas; Hazari, Arnab; Bhattacharya, Pallab, E-mail: pkb@eecs.umich.edu [Center for Photonics and Multiscale Nanomaterials, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, 1301 Beal Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2014-10-06

    We demonstrate a semiconductor quantum dot based electrically pumped single-photon source operating at room temperature. Single photons emitted in the red spectral range from single In{sub 0.4}Ga{sub 0.6}N/GaN quantum dots exhibit a second-order correlation value g{sup (2)}(0) of 0.29, and fast recombination lifetime ∼1.3 ±0.3 ns at room temperature. The single-photon source can be driven at an excitation repetition rate of 200 MHz.

  8. Measuring temperature dependence of soil respiration: importance of incubation time, soil type, moisture content and model fits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, L. A.; Robinson, J.; O'Neill, T.; Ryburn, J.; Arcus, V. L.

    2015-12-01

    Developing robust models of the temperature response and sensitivity of soil respiration is critical for determining changes carbon cycling in response to climate change and at daily to annual time scales. Currently, approaches for measuring temperature dependence of soil respiration generally use long incubation times (days to weeks and months) at a limited number of incubation temperatures. Long incubation times likely allow thermal adaptation by the microbial population so that results are poorly representative of in situ soil responses. Additionally, too few incubation temperatures allows for the fit and justification of many different predictive equations, which can lead to inaccuracies when used for carbon budgeting purposes. We have developed a method to rapidly determine the response of soil respiration rate to wide range of temperatures. An aluminium block with 44 sample slots is heated at one end and cooled at the other to give a temperature gradient from 0 to 55°C at about one degree increments. Soil respiration is measured within 5 hours to minimise the possibility of thermal adaptation. We have used this method to demonstrate the similarity of temperature sensitivity of respiration for different soils from the same location across seasons. We are currently testing whether long-term (weeks to months) incubation alter temperature response and sensitivity that occurs in situ responses. This method is also well suited for determining the most appropriate models of temperature dependence and sensitivity of soil respiration (including macromolecular rate theory MMRT). With additional testing, this method is expected to be a more reliable method of measuring soil respiration rate for soil quality and modelling of soil carbon processes.

  9. Calculations of mechanisms for balance control during narrow and single-leg standing in fit older adults: A reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, A C; Thorstensson, A; Tarassova, O; Halvorsen, K

    2011-07-01

    For older people balance control in standing is critical for performance of activities of daily living without falling. The aims were to investigate reliability of quantification of the usage of the two balance mechanisms M(1) 'moving the centre of pressure' and M(2) 'segment acceleration' and also to compare calculation methods based on a combination of kinetic (K) and kinematic (Km) data, (K-Km), or Km data only concerning M(2). For this purpose nine physically fit persons aged 70-78 years were tested in narrow and single-leg standing. Data were collected by a 7-camera motion capture system and two force plates. Repeated measure ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests were used to detect differences between the standing tasks. Reliability was estimated by ICCs, standard error of measurement including its 95% CI, and minimal detectable change, whereas Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to investigate agreement between the two calculation methods. The results indicated that for the tasks investigated, M(1) and M(2) can be measured with acceptable inter- and intrasession reliability, and that both Km and K-Km based calculations may be useful for M(2), although Km data may give slightly lower values. The proportional M(1):M(2) usage was approximately 9:1, in both anterio-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) directions for narrow standing, and about 2:1 in the AP and of 1:2 in the ML direction in single-leg standing, respectively. In conclusion, the tested measurements and calculations appear to constitute a reliable way of quantifying one important aspect of balance capacity in fit older people. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A polymer electrolyte membrane for high temperature fuel cells to fit vehicle applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mingqiang; Scott, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) PTFE/PBI composite membranes doped with H 3 PO 4 were fabricated to improve the performance of high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFC). The composite membranes were fabricated by immobilising polybenzimidazole (PBI) solution into a hydrophobic porous PTFE membrane. The mechanical strength of the membrane was good exhibiting a maximum load of 35.19 MPa. After doping with the phosphoric acid, the composite membrane had a larger proton conductivity than that of PBI doped with phosphoric acid. The PTFE/PBI membrane conductivity was greater than 0.3 S cm -1 at a relative humidity 8.4% and temperature of 180 deg. C with a 300% H 3 PO 4 doping level. Use of the membrane in a fuel cell with oxygen, at 1 bar overpressure gave a peak power density of 1.2 W cm -2 at cell voltages >0.4 V and current densities of 3.0 A cm -2 . The PTFE/PBI/H 3 PO 4 composite membrane did not exhibit significant degradation after 50 h of intermittent operation at 150 deg. C. These results indicate that the composite membrane is a promising material for vehicles driven by high temperature PEMFCs.

  11. Design of Water Temperature Control System Based on Single Chip Microcomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hanhong; Yan, Qiyan

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we mainly introduce a multi-function water temperature controller designed with 51 single-chip microcomputer. This controller has automatic and manual water, set the water temperature, real-time display of water and temperature and alarm function, and has a simple structure, high reliability, low cost. The current water temperature controller on the market basically use bimetal temperature control, temperature control accuracy is low, poor reliability, a single function. With the development of microelectronics technology, monolithic microprocessor function is increasing, the price is low, in all aspects of widely used. In the water temperature controller in the application of single-chip, with a simple design, high reliability, easy to expand the advantages of the function. Is based on the appeal background, so this paper focuses on the temperature controller in the intelligent control of the discussion.

  12. Rapid single flux quantum logic in high temperature superconductor technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shunmugavel, K.

    2006-01-01

    A Josephson junction is the basic element of rapid single flux quantum logic (RSFQ) circuits. A high operating speed and low power consumption are the main advantages of RSFQ logic over semiconductor electronic circuits. To realize complex RSFQ circuits in HTS technology one needs a reproducible

  13. Synthesis and room temperature single crystal EPR studies of a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Hamiltonian parameters calculated from single crystal rotations are: g ... studies on two nickel complexes with SalX ligands (X = NH, NCH3) have shown the ..... here the positive sign is required for a shell that is less than half-filled and the ...

  14. Room temperature exchange bias in SmFeO_3 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaoxiong; Cheng, Xiangyi; Gao, Shang; Song, Junda; Ruan, Keqing; Li, Xiaoguang

    2016-01-01

    Exchange bias phenomenon is generally ascribed to the unidirectional magnetic shift along the field axes at interface of two magnetic materials. Room temperature exchange bias is found in SmFeO_3 single crystal. The behavior after different cooling procedure is regular, and the training behavior is attributed to the athermal training and its pinning origin is attributed to the antiferromagnetic clusters. Its being single phase and occurring at room temperature make it an appropriate candidate for application. - Graphical abstract: Room temperature exchange bias was found in oxide single crystal. Highlights: • Room temperature exchange bias has been discovered in single-crystalline SmFeO_3. • Its pinning origin is attributed to the antiferromagnetic clusters. • Its being single phase and occurring at room temperature make it an appropriate candidate for application.

  15. Analytic energy gradients for the coupled-cluster singles and doubles method with the density-fitting approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozkaya, Uğur; Sherrill, C. David

    2016-01-01

    An efficient implementation is presented for analytic gradients of the coupled-cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) method with the density-fitting approximation, denoted DF-CCSD. Frozen core terms are also included. When applied to a set of alkanes, the DF-CCSD analytic gradients are significantly accelerated compared to conventional CCSD for larger molecules. The efficiency of our DF-CCSD algorithm arises from the acceleration of several different terms, which are designated as the “gradient terms”: computation of particle density matrices (PDMs), generalized Fock-matrix (GFM), solution of the Z-vector equation, formation of the relaxed PDMs and GFM, back-transformation of PDMs and GFM to the atomic orbital (AO) basis, and evaluation of gradients in the AO basis. For the largest member of the alkane set (C 10 H 22 ), the computational times for the gradient terms (with the cc-pVTZ basis set) are 2582.6 (CCSD) and 310.7 (DF-CCSD) min, respectively, a speed up of more than 8-folds. For gradient related terms, the DF approach avoids the usage of four-index electron repulsion integrals. Based on our previous study [U. Bozkaya, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 124108 (2014)], our formalism completely avoids construction or storage of the 4-index two-particle density matrix (TPDM), using instead 2- and 3-index TPDMs. The DF approach introduces negligible errors for equilibrium bond lengths and harmonic vibrational frequencies.

  16. Single-atom reversible recording at room temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaade, Ulrich; Stokbro, Kurt; Lin, Rong

    2001-01-01

    investigate two important aspects of using this single-atom switch as a memory device. First, the switching is electron stimulated, and through detailed modelling the switching probability per electron is accurately deduced. Second, we have investigated the possibilities for desorbing single hydrogen atoms...... to construct ordered arrays of switches to manufacture a memory device. Two desorption mechanisms have been considered: the well known electron-induced desorption at negative sample bias and a novel mechanism probably involving elastic deformation of the tip. For both mechanisms mechanical stability of the STM...... is of crucial importance. With our equipment it was possible to create a row of four switches in a controlled way.(Some figures in this article are in colour only in the electronic version)....

  17. Optical power limiting and transmitting properties of cadmium iodide single crystals: Temperature dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. Idrish, E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.a [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia)] [Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia)] [Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)

    2009-09-14

    Optical limiting properties of the single crystals of cadmium iodide are investigated using ns laser pulses. It is found that the transmissions in the crystals increase with increasing temperature. However, they limit the transmissions at high input powers. The limiting power is found to be higher at higher temperature. From the measured transmission data, the photon absorption coefficients are estimated. The temperature dependence of the coefficients shows a decrease in magnitude with increasing temperature. This might be due to the temperature-dependent bandgap shift of the material. The results demonstrate that the cadmium iodide single crystals are promising materials for applications in optical power limiting devices.

  18. Optical power limiting and transmitting properties of cadmium iodide single crystals: Temperature dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M. Idrish

    2009-01-01

    Optical limiting properties of the single crystals of cadmium iodide are investigated using ns laser pulses. It is found that the transmissions in the crystals increase with increasing temperature. However, they limit the transmissions at high input powers. The limiting power is found to be higher at higher temperature. From the measured transmission data, the photon absorption coefficients are estimated. The temperature dependence of the coefficients shows a decrease in magnitude with increasing temperature. This might be due to the temperature-dependent bandgap shift of the material. The results demonstrate that the cadmium iodide single crystals are promising materials for applications in optical power limiting devices.

  19. Temperature dependence of the dispersion of single crystals SrCl/sub 2/. [Temperature coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzin, M P [L' vovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (Ukrainian SSR)

    1976-01-01

    The dispersion of the refractive index of SrCl/sub 2/ monocrystals in the spectral range 300-700 nm at temperatures of 223, 295 adn 373 K has been studied. The temperature coefficient of the refractive index as a function of the wave length has been determined for the room temperature. The function resembles the corresponding dependence for alkali-halide crystals.

  20. Single crystal NMR studies of high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, C.H.; Durand, D.J.; Zax, D.B.; Slichter, C.P.; Rice, J.P.; Bukowski, E.D.; Ginsberg, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report Cu NMR studies in the normal state of a single crystal of the T/sub c/ = 90 K superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O/sub 7/minus/δ/. The authors have measured the magnetic shift tensor, the electric field gradient tensor, the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate tensor, and the time dependence and functional form of the transverse decay. From these data they obtain information about the charge state and magnetic state of the Cu atoms, and the existence and size of the electronic exchange coupling between spins of adjacent Cu atoms. 18 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Low-temperature phonoemissive tunneling rates in single molecule magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Garg, Anupam

    2016-03-01

    Tunneling between the two lowest energy levels of single molecule magnets with Ising type anisotropy, accompanied by the emission or absorption of phonons, is considered. Quantitatively accurate calculations of the rates for such tunneling are performed for a model Hamiltonian especially relevant to the best studied example, Fe8. Two different methods are used: high-order perturbation theory in the spin-phonon interaction and the non-Ising-symmetric parts of the spin Hamiltonian, and a novel semiclassical approach based on spin-coherent-state-path-integral instantons. The methods are found to be in good quantitative agreement with other, and consistent with previous approaches to the problem. The implications of these results for magnetization of molecular solids of these molecules are discussed briefly.

  2. RF Application of High Temperature Single Domain Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferendeci, M.

    2004-01-01

    Large single domain YBa2Cu3Ox materials have been successfully fabricated with superb RF properties by employing the seeded-melt growth (SMG) method. Commercially available Y-123 and Y-211 phase precursor powders were mixed thoroughly and pressed into various solid and cavity shapes. The solid pieces were then diced into cylindrical flat plates and polished. Following the growth procedure, the materials were then oxygenated in an oven for at least 7 days. The plates were then used as a part of a dielectric resonator cavity and the surface resistances were measured. The cavities were also tested in a closed cycle cryo cooler. The cavity resonance frequencies for the TM010 and TE111 modes, and the corresponding quality factors (Q values) were measured. From the measured Q values, the surface resistances of the cavity surfaces were calculated. Experimentally measured surface resistance values and various combinations of cavity structures for realizing highly selective RF filters will be presented

  3. Effect of water temperature on the fit of provisional crown margins during polymerization: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivekanandan Ramkumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effect of water temperature on the marginal fit of bis-acrylic composite provisional crown during resin polymerization. Materials and Methods: Precisely machined 10 brass master dies were designed to simulate molar teeth. Five brass dies were selected and precisely machined to simulate all ceramic crown preparation. An acrylic jaw replica was made in which brass dies were arranged equidistant from each other. A custom-made metallic tray was fabricated on the acrylic jaw replica to make polyvinyl siloxane impression matrix. Bis-acrylic composite resin provisional crowns were made using polyvinyl siloxane impression matrix. Provisional crowns were polymerized at room temperature (Group I direct technique, on dental stone cast; Group I indirect technique crowns and at different water temperatures (Group II direct technique crowns. The vertical marginal gap between all the provisional crown margins and the finish line of brass dies was measured using a Research Stereomicroscope System. Results: The results were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA test and Newman-Keul′s test. The results showed that crowns polymerized in 20°C and 30°C water had marginal gap approximately three times smaller than those polymerized in 30°C air, due to the reduced polymerization shrinkage. Conclusion: This study shows that crowns polymerized in 20°C and 30°C water had mean vertical marginal gap approximately three times smaller than those polymerized in 30°C air. It was approximately closer to that of crowns fabricated by indirect technique. Warmer water also supposedly hastens polymerization.

  4. Effect of water temperature on the fit of provisional crown margins during polymerization: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, Vivekanandan; Sangeetha, Arunachalam; Kumar, Vinaya

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of water temperature on the marginal fit of bis-acrylic composite provisional crown during resin polymerization. Precisely machined 10 brass master dies were designed to simulate molar teeth. Five brass dies were selected and precisely machined to simulate all ceramic crown preparation. An acrylic jaw replica was made in which brass dies were arranged equidistant from each other. A custom-made metallic tray was fabricated on the acrylic jaw replica to make polyvinyl siloxane impression matrix. Bis-acrylic composite resin provisional crowns were made using polyvinyl siloxane impression matrix. Provisional crowns were polymerized at room temperature (Group I direct technique, on dental stone cast; Group I indirect technique crowns) and at different water temperatures (Group II direct technique crowns). The vertical marginal gap between all the provisional crown margins and the finish line of brass dies was measured using a Research Stereomicroscope System. The results were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and Newman-Keul's test. The results showed that crowns polymerized in 20°C and 30°C water had marginal gap approximately three times smaller than those polymerized in 30°C air, due to the reduced polymerization shrinkage. This study shows that crowns polymerized in 20°C and 30°C water had mean vertical marginal gap approximately three times smaller than those polymerized in 30°C air. It was approximately closer to that of crowns fabricated by indirect technique. Warmer water also supposedly hastens polymerization.

  5. Single layer porous gold films grown at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Renyun; Hummelgard, Magnus; Olin, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    Large area porous gold films can be used in several areas including electrochemical electrodes, as an essential component in sensors, or as a conducting material in electronics. Here, we report on evaporation induced crystal growth of large area porous gold films at 20, 40 and 60 deg. C. The gold films were grown on liquid surface at 20 deg. C, while the films were grown on the wall of beakers when temperature increased to 40 and 60 deg. C. The porous gold films consisted of a dense network of gold nanowires as characterized by TEM and SEM. TEM diffraction results indicated that higher temperature formed larger crystallites of gold wires. An in situ TEM imaging of the coalescence of gold nanoparticles mimicked the process of the growth of these porous films, and a plotting of the coalescence time and the neck radius showed a diffusion process. The densities of these gold films were also characterized by transmittance, and the results showed film grown at 20 deg. C had the highest density, while the film grown at 60 deg. C had the lowest consistent with SEM and TEM characterization. Electrical measurements of these gold films showed that the most conductive films were the ones grown at 40 deg. C. The conductivities of the gold films were related to the amount of contamination, density and the diameter of the gold nanowires in the films. In addition, a gold film/gold nanoparticle hybrid was made, which showed a 10% decrease in transmittance during hybridization, pointing to applications as chemical and biological sensors.

  6. Room-Temperature Single-Photon Source for Secure Quantum Communication

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are asking for four years of support for PhD student Justin Winkler's work on a research project entitled "Room temperature single photon source for secure...

  7. Comparison of Single-Point and Continuous Sampling Methods for Estimating Residential Indoor Temperature and Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James D; Magnusson, Brianna M; Eggett, Dennis; Collingwood, Scott C; Bernhardt, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    Residential temperature and humidity are associated with multiple health effects. Studies commonly use single-point measures to estimate indoor temperature and humidity exposures, but there is little evidence to support this sampling strategy. This study evaluated the relationship between single-point and continuous monitoring of air temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, and absolute humidity over four exposure intervals (5-min, 30-min, 24-hr, and 12-days) in 9 northern Utah homes, from March-June 2012. Three homes were sampled twice, for a total of 12 observation periods. Continuous data-logged sampling was conducted in homes for 2-3 wks, and simultaneous single-point measures (n = 114) were collected using handheld thermo-hygrometers. Time-centered single-point measures were moderately correlated with short-term (30-min) data logger mean air temperature (r = 0.76, β = 0.74), apparent temperature (r = 0.79, β = 0.79), relative humidity (r = 0.70, β = 0.63), and absolute humidity (r = 0.80, β = 0.80). Data logger 12-day means were also moderately correlated with single-point air temperature (r = 0.64, β = 0.43) and apparent temperature (r = 0.64, β = 0.44), but were weakly correlated with single-point relative humidity (r = 0.53, β = 0.35) and absolute humidity (r = 0.52, β = 0.39). Of the single-point RH measures, 59 (51.8%) deviated more than ±5%, 21 (18.4%) deviated more than ±10%, and 6 (5.3%) deviated more than ±15% from data logger 12-day means. Where continuous indoor monitoring is not feasible, single-point sampling strategies should include multiple measures collected at prescribed time points based on local conditions.

  8. Dependence on liquid temperature and purity of light emission characteristics in single cavitation bubble luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbaglia, Mario O; Bonetto, Fabian J [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas and Instituto Balseiro, Centro Atomico Bariloche, Av. Bustillo 9500, CP8400, Rio Negro (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Instituto Balseiro, and Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Laboratorio de Cavitacion y Biotecnologia, Centro Atomico Bariloche, Av. Bustillo 9500, CP8400, Rio Negro (Argentina)

    2004-02-15

    We produced single bubbles in water using a visible pulsed laser and studied the characteristics of the light emitted during the bubble collapse time as a function of the water temperature for different water purity values. The water temperature ranged from freezing point (0 deg. C) to near boiling. We measured the luminescence pulse for the mentioned temperature range at various purity values. We also obtained the average bubble lifetime and the average luminescence pulse emitted as a function of water temperature. The main conclusion was that the luminescence can be modified by the water quality and by the water temperature. Maximum luminescence was obtained near the water freezing point.

  9. Dependence on liquid temperature and purity of light emission characteristics in single cavitation bubble luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaglia, Mario O.; Bonetto, Fabian J.

    2004-01-01

    We produced single bubbles in water using a visible pulsed laser and studied the characteristics of the light emitted during the bubble collapse time as a function of the water temperature for different water purity values. The water temperature ranged from freezing point (0 deg. C) to near boiling. We measured the luminescence pulse for the mentioned temperature range at various purity values. We also obtained the average bubble lifetime and the average luminescence pulse emitted as a function of water temperature. The main conclusion was that the luminescence can be modified by the water quality and by the water temperature. Maximum luminescence was obtained near the water freezing point

  10. Low-Temperature and Rapid Growth of Large Single-Crystalline Graphene with Ethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Lin, Li; Sun, Luzhao; Zhang, Jincan; Rui, Dingran; Li, Jiayu; Wang, Mingzhan; Tan, Congwei; Kang, Ning; Wei, Di; Xu, H Q; Peng, Hailin; Liu, Zhongfan

    2018-01-01

    Future applications of graphene rely highly on the production of large-area high-quality graphene, especially large single-crystalline graphene, due to the reduction of defects caused by grain boundaries. However, current large single-crystalline graphene growing methodologies are suffering from low growth rate and as a result, industrial graphene production is always confronted by high energy consumption, which is primarily caused by high growth temperature and long growth time. Herein, a new growth condition achieved via ethane being the carbon feedstock to achieve low-temperature yet rapid growth of large single-crystalline graphene is reported. Ethane condition gives a growth rate about four times faster than methane, achieving about 420 µm min -1 for the growth of sub-centimeter graphene single crystals at temperature about 1000 °C. In addition, the temperature threshold to obtain graphene using ethane can be reduced to 750 °C, lower than the general growth temperature threshold (about 1000 °C) with methane on copper foil. Meanwhile ethane always keeps higher graphene growth rate than methane under the same growth temperature. This study demonstrates that ethane is indeed a potential carbon source for efficient growth of large single-crystalline graphene, thus paves the way for graphene in high-end electronical and optoelectronical applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Ground surface temperature history at a single site in southern Portugal reconstructed from borehole temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Correia, A.; Šafanda, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 29, 3/4 (2001), s. 155-165 ISSN 0921-8181 Grant - others:NATO(XX) CP(CZ)4/D/96/PO; UNESCO(XX) IGCP No.428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : recent climate * global warming * borehole temperatures * Portugal Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.381, year: 2001

  12. Parasitic bipolar amplification in a single event transient and its temperature dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zheng; Chen Shu-Ming; Chen Jian-Jun; Qin Jun-Rui; Liu Rong-Rong

    2012-01-01

    Using three-dimensional technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation, parasitic bipolar amplification in a single event transient (SET) current of a single transistor and its temperature dependence are studied. We quantify the contributions of different current components in a SET current pulse, and it is found that the proportion of parasitic bipolar amplification in total collected charge is about 30% in both 130-nm and 90-nm technologies. The temperature dependence of parasitic bipolar amplification and the mechanism of the SET pulse are also investigated and quantified. The results show that the proportion of charge induced by parasitic bipolar increases with rising temperature, which illustrates that the parasitic bipolar amplification plays an important role in the charge collection of a single transistor

  13. Study of the temperature evolution of defect agglomerates in neutron irradiated molybdenum single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambri, O.A.; Zelada-Lambri, G.I.; Cuello, G.J.; Bozzano, P.B.; Garcia, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Small angle neutron scattering as a function of temperature, differential thermal analysis, electrical resistivity and transmission electron microscopy studies have been performed in low rate neutron irradiated single crystalline molybdenum, at room temperature, for checking the evolution of the defects agglomerates in the temperature interval between room temperature and 1200 K. The onset of vacancies mobility was found to happen in temperatures within the stage III of recovery. At around 550 K, the agglomerates of vacancies achieve the largest size, as determined from the Guinier approximation for spherical particles. In addition, the decrease of the vacancy concentration together with the dissolution of the agglomerates at temperatures higher than around 920 K was observed, which produce the release of internal stresses in the structure.

  14. Study of the temperature evolution of defect agglomerates in neutron irradiated molybdenum single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambri, O.A. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario. Member of the CONICET' s Research Staff, Avda. Pellegrini 250, (2000) Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Laboratorio de Materiales, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica, Avda. Pellegrini 250, (2000) Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina)], E-mail: olambri@fceia.unr.edu.ar; Zelada-Lambri, G.I. [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Laboratorio de Materiales, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica, Avda. Pellegrini 250, (2000) Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina); Cuello, G.J. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble (France); Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Facultad de Ciencias y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao, Pais Vasco (Spain); Bozzano, P.B. [Laboratorio de Microscopia Electronica. Unidad de Actividad Materiales, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avda. Gral. Paz 1499, (1650) San Martin (Argentina); Garcia, J.A. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Facultad de Ciencias y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao, Pais Vasco (Spain)

    2009-04-15

    Small angle neutron scattering as a function of temperature, differential thermal analysis, electrical resistivity and transmission electron microscopy studies have been performed in low rate neutron irradiated single crystalline molybdenum, at room temperature, for checking the evolution of the defects agglomerates in the temperature interval between room temperature and 1200 K. The onset of vacancies mobility was found to happen in temperatures within the stage III of recovery. At around 550 K, the agglomerates of vacancies achieve the largest size, as determined from the Guinier approximation for spherical particles. In addition, the decrease of the vacancy concentration together with the dissolution of the agglomerates at temperatures higher than around 920 K was observed, which produce the release of internal stresses in the structure.

  15. 12-Channel Peltier array temperature control unit for single molecule enzymology studies using capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Douglas B; Reinfelds, Gundars; Henderson, Anna

    2014-08-01

    Capillary electrophoresis has been used to demonstrate that individual molecules of a given enzyme support different catalytic rates. In order to determine how rate varies with temperature, and determine activation energies for individual β-galactosidase molecules, a 12-channel Peltier array temperature control device was constructed where the temperature of each cell was separately controlled. This array was used to control the temperature of the central 30 cm of a 50 cm long capillary, producing a temperature gradient along its length. Continuous flow single β-galactosidase molecule assays were performed allowing measurement of the catalytic rates at different temperatures. Arrhenius plots were produced and the distribution of activation energies for individual β-galactosidase molecules was found to be 56 ± 10 kJ/mol with a range of 34-72 kJ/mol. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Photon antibunching in single-walled carbon nanotubes at telecommunication wavelengths and room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Takumi, E-mail: endou@az.appi.keio.ac.jp; Ishi-Hayase, Junko; Maki, Hideyuki, E-mail: maki@appi.keio.ac.jp [Department of Applied Physics and Physico-Informatics, Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2015-03-16

    We investigated the photoluminescence of individual air-suspended single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) from 6 to 300 K. Time-resolved and antibunching measurements over the telecommunication wavelength range were performed using a superconducting single-photon detector. We detected moderate temperature independent antibunching behavior over the whole temperature range studied. To investigate the exciton dynamics, which is responsible for the antibunching behavior, we measured excitation-power and temperature dependence of the photoluminescence spectra and lifetime decay curves. These measurements suggested an exciton confinement effect that is likely caused by high-dielectric amorphous carbon surrounding the SWNTs. These results indicate that SWNTs are good candidates for light sources in quantum communication technologies operating in the telecommunication wavelength range and at room temperature.

  17. Improved Temperature Diagnostic for Non-Neutral Plasmas with Single-Electron Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanman, Sabrina; Evans, Lenny; Fajans, Joel; Hunter, Eric; Nelson, Cheyenne; Sierra, Carlos; Wurtele, Jonathan

    2016-10-01

    Plasma temperature diagnostics in a Penning-Malmberg trap are essential for reliably obtaining cold, non-neutral plasmas. We have developed a setup for detecting the initial electrons that escape from a trapped pure electron plasma as the confining electrode potential is slowly reduced. The setup minimizes external noise by using a silicon photomultiplier to capture light emitted from an MCP-amplified phosphor screen. To take advantage of this enhanced resolution, we have developed a new plasma temperature diagnostic analysis procedure which takes discrete electron arrival times as input. We have run extensive simulations comparing this new discrete algorithm to our existing exponential fitting algorithm. These simulations are used to explore the behavior of these two temperature diagnostic procedures at low N and at high electronic noise. This work was supported by the DOE DE-FG02-06ER54904, and the NSF 1500538-PHY.

  18. Evaluation of marginal fit of single implant-supported metal-ceramic crowns prepared by using presintered metal blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasali, Baris; Sarac, Duygu; Kaleli, Necati; Sarac, Yakup Sinasi

    2018-02-01

    Recently, presintered metal blocks for nonprecious and precious metal implant-supported restorations have gained popularity in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) systems. However, few studies have evaluated the marginal discrepancy of implant-supported restorations made with these new alloy systems. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the milling-sintering method with the lost-wax and milling methods in terms of the marginal fit of implant-supported metal-ceramic restorations. Thirty implant abutments screwed to implant analogs were embedded into acrylic resin to investigate marginal fit and then divided according to fabrication methods into the following 3 groups (n=10): lost-wax (LW; control group), milling (M), and milling-sintering (MS). Porcelain material was applied to all specimens after completion of the fabrication process. Subsequently, all specimens were cemented to implant abutments for the measurement of marginal discrepancies. Twelve marginal discrepancy measurements were recorded on each implant abutment by using a stereomicroscope. The arithmetic mean of these 12 measurements was considered the mean marginal discrepancy value of each abutment. Data were statistically analyzed by using 1-way ANOVA and Tukey honest significant difference tests (α=.05). The lowest mean marginal discrepancy values (81 ±2 μm) were observed in the M group, which was significantly different (Pmarginal discrepancy values (99 ±2 μm) were observed in the MS group. The results revealed that restorations prepared by the milling-sintering method provided clinically acceptable results (marginal fit. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Micromechanical properties of C70 single crystals in the temperature range 77-350 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubenets, S.V.; Natsik, V.D.; Fomenko, L.S.; Rusakova, A.V.; Natsik, V.D.; Osip'yan, Yu.A.; Orlov, V.I.; Sidorov, N.S.; Izotov, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    Hexagonal single crystals of C 70 up to a size down to 1-2 mm were grown which allowed for the first time to investigate their low-temperature mechanical properties. Morphology, microplasticity anisotropy and the temperature dependence of Vickers microhardness HV (T) of the C 70 crystals in the temperature range 77-350 K involving all known phase transitions have been studied with the aid of optical microscopy and microindentation. The association of the features of HV (T) dependence with orientation phase transformations has been analyzed. It is suggested that anisotropy of microplasticity in the C 70 crystals correlates with the active slip systems.

  20. Shape of isolated domains in lithium tantalate single crystals at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shur, V. Ya.; Akhmatkhanov, A. R.; Baturin, I. S.; Chezganov, D. S.; Lobov, A. I.; Smirnov, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    The shape of isolated domains has been investigated in congruent lithium tantalate (CLT) single crystals at elevated temperatures and analyzed in terms of kinetic approach. The obtained temperature dependence of the growing domain shape in CLT including circular shape at temperatures above 190 °C has been attributed to increase of relative input of isotropic ionic conductivity. The observed nonstop wall motion and independent domain growth after merging in CLT as opposed to stoichiometric lithium tantalate have been attributed to difference in wall orientation. The computer simulation has confirmed applicability of the kinetic approach to the domain shape explanation

  1. Quantitative analysis of circadian single cell oscillations in response to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Ute; Schlichting, Julia Katharina; Kramer, Achim; Herzel, Hanspeter

    2018-01-01

    Body temperature rhythms synchronize circadian oscillations in different tissues, depending on the degree of cellular coupling: the responsiveness to temperature is higher when single circadian oscillators are uncoupled. So far, the role of coupling in temperature responsiveness has only been studied in organotypic tissue slices of the central circadian pacemaker, because it has been assumed that peripheral target organs behave like uncoupled multicellular oscillators. Since recent studies indicate that some peripheral tissues may exhibit cellular coupling as well, we asked whether peripheral network dynamics also influence temperature responsiveness. Using a novel technique for long-term, high-resolution bioluminescence imaging of primary cultured cells, exposed to repeated temperature cycles, we were able to quantitatively measure period, phase, and amplitude of central (suprachiasmatic nuclei neuron dispersals) and peripheral (mouse ear fibroblasts) single cell oscillations in response to temperature. Employing temperature cycles of different lengths, and different cell densities, we found that some circadian characteristics appear cell-autonomous, e.g. period responses, while others seem to depend on the quality/degree of cellular communication, e.g. phase relationships, robustness of the oscillation, and amplitude. Overall, our findings indicate a strong dependence on the cell's ability for intercellular communication, which is not only true for neuronal pacemakers, but, importantly, also for cells in peripheral tissues. Hence, they stress the importance of comparative studies that evaluate the degree of coupling in a given tissue, before it may be used effectively as a target for meaningful circadian manipulation.

  2. Temperature persistent bistability and threshold switching in a single barrier heterostructure hot-electron diode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stasch, R.; Hey, R.; Asche, M.

    1996-01-01

    Bistable current–voltage characteristics caused by competition of tunneling through and field-enhanced thermionic emission across a single barrier are investigated in an n–-GaAs/Al0.34Ga0.66As/n+-GaAs structure. The S-shaped part of the characteristic persists in the whole temperature regime...

  3. Variation of low temperature internal friction of microplastic deformation of high purity molybdenum single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal-Val, P.P.; Kaufmann, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    Amplitude and temperature spectra of ultrasound absorption in weakly deformed high purity molybdenum single crystals of different orientations were measured. The results were discussed in terms of parameter changes related to quasiparticle or dislocation oscillations, respectively, dislocation point defect interactions as well as defect generation at microplastic deformation. (author)

  4. Room-temperature near-field reflection spectroscopy of single quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Hvam, Jørn Marcher; Madsen, Steen

    1997-01-01

    . This technique suppresses efficiently the otherwise dominating far-field background and reduces topographic artifacts. We demonstrate its performance on a thin, strained near-surface CdS/ZnS single quantum well at room temperature. The optical structure of these topographically flat samples is due to Cd...

  5. Retrieving Single Scattering Albedos and Temperatures from CRISM Hyperspectral Data Using Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L.; Arvidson, R. E.; O'Sullivan, J. A.

    2018-04-01

    We use a neural network (NN) approach to simultaneously retrieve surface single scattering albedos and temperature maps for CRISM data from 1.40 to 3.85 µm. It approximates the inverse of DISORT which simulates solar and emission radiative streams.

  6. Room temperature strong coupling effects from single ZnO nanowire microcavity

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Ayan; Heo, Junseok; Bayraktaroglu, Adrian; Guo, Wei; Ng, Tien Khee; Phillips, Jamie; Ooi, Boon S.; Bhattacharya, Pallab

    2012-01-01

    Strong coupling effects in a dielectric microcavity with a single ZnO nanowire embedded in it have been investigated at room temperature. A large Rabi splitting of ?100 meV is obtained from the polariton dispersion and a non

  7. A low-temperature sample orienting device for single crystal spectroscopy at the SNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherline, T E; Solomon, L; Roberts, C K II; Bruce, D; Gaulin, B; Granroth, G E, E-mail: sherlinete@ornl.gov

    2010-11-01

    A low temperature sample orientation device providing three axes of rotation has been successfully built and is in testing for use on several spectrometers at the spallation neutron source (SNS). Sample rotation about the vertical ({omega}) axis of nearly 360 deg. and out of plane tilts ({phi} and v) of from -3.4 deg. to 4.4 deg. and from -2.8 deg. to 3.5 deg., respectively, are possible. An off-the-shelf closed cycle refrigerator (CCR) is mounted on a room temperature sealed rotary flange providing {omega} rotations of the sample. Out-of-plane tilts are made possible by piezoelectric actuated angular positioning devices mounted on the low temperature head of the CCR. Novel encoding devices based on magnetoresistive sensors have been developed to measure the tilt stage angles. This combination facilitates single crystal investigations from room temperature to 3.1 K. Commissioning experiments of the rotating CCR for both powder and single crystal samples have been performed on the ARCS spectrometer at the SNS. For the powder sample this device was used to continuously rotate the sample and thus average out any partial orientation of the powder. The powder rings observed in S(Q) are presented. For the single crystal sample, the rotation was used to probe different regions of momentum transfer (Q-space). Laue patterns obtained from a single crystal sample at two rotation angles are presented.

  8. Variation of low temperature internal friction of microplastic deformation of high purity molybdenum single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal-Val, P.P. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kharkov. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst. Nizkikh Temperatur); Kaufmann, H.J. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin)

    1984-08-01

    Amplitude and temperature spectra of ultrasound absorption in weakly deformed high purity molybdenum single crystals of different orientations were measured. The results were discussed in terms of parameter changes related to quasiparticle or dislocation oscillations, respectively, dislocation point defect interactions as well as defect generation at microplastic deformation.

  9. Study of the possibility of growing germanium single crystals under low temperature gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovskih, V. A.; Kasimkin, P. V.; Shlegel, V. N.; Vasiliev, Y. V.; Gridchin, V. A.; Podkopaev, O. I.; Zhdankov, V. N.

    2014-03-01

    The possibility of growing germanium single crystals under low temperature gradients in order to produce a dislocation-free material has been studied. Germanium crystals with a dislocation density of about 100-200 cm-2 have been grown in a system with a weight control of crystal growth at maximum axial gradients of about 1.5 K/cm.

  10. Cu-Al-Ni Shape Memory Single Crystal Wires with High Transformation Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautcoeur, Alain; Fouché, Florian; Sicre, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    CN-250X is a new material with higher performance than Nickel-Titanium Shape Memory Alloy (SMA). For space mechanisms, the main disadvantage of Nickel-Titanium Shape Memory Alloy is the limited transformation temperature. The new CN-250X Nimesis alloy is a Cu-Al-Ni single crystal wire available in large quantity because of a new industrial process. The triggering of actuators made with this Cu-Al-Ni single crystal wire can range from ambient temperature to 200 C in cycling and even to 250 C in one-shot mode. Another advantage of CN-250X is a better shape recovery (8 to 10%) than Ni-Ti (6 to 7%). Nimesis is the first company able to produce this type of material with its new special industrial process. A characterization study is presented in this work, including the two main solicitation modes for this material: tensile and torsion. Different tests measure the shape recovery of Cu-Al-Ni single crystals wires during heating from room temperature to a temperature higher than temperature of end of martensitic transformation.

  11. Low-temperature optical characterization of a near-infrared single-photon emitter in nanodiamonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siyushev, P; Jacques, V; Kaiser, F; Jelezko, F; Wrachtrup, J [3.Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Stuttgart, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Aharonovich, I; Castelletto, S; Prawer, S [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, VA 3010 (Australia); Mueller, T; Lombez, L; Atatuere, M [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: v.jacques@physik.uni-stuttgart.de

    2009-11-15

    In this paper, we study the optical properties of single defects emitting in the near infrared (NIR) in nanodiamonds at liquid helium temperature. The nanodiamonds are synthesized using a microwave chemical vapor deposition method followed by nickel implantation and annealing. We show that single defects exhibit several striking features at cryogenic temperature: the photoluminescence is strongly concentrated into a sharp zero-phonon line (ZPL) in the NIR, the radiative lifetime is in the nanosecond range and the emission is linearly polarized. The spectral stability of the defects is then investigated. An optical resonance linewidth of 4 GHz is measured using resonant excitation on the ZPL. Although Fourier-transform-limited emission is not achieved, our results show that it might be possible to use consecutive photons emitted in the NIR by single defects in diamond nanocrystals to perform two photon interference experiments, which are at the heart of linear quantum computing protocols.

  12. High-temperature performance of the brazement of molybdenum single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakoa, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Molybdenum is utilized in the fields of high-temperature vacuum industry, electrical and electronic industry, and chemical industries. For the wider application of this material, however, it is necessary to obtain a joining with good quality. In this investigation, high-temperature brazing of a single-crystalline molybdenum was performed. Then the bend properties of the brazement after a high-temperature annealing were evaluated. The single-crystalline molybdenum had been produced by the secondary recrystallization method. Brazing was performed in vacuum at 2273K using Mo-40Ru alloy powder as a brazing material. The brazement was investigated via optical microscopy, EPMA, Knoop hardness, and three point bending. In this paper the effects of annealing in hydrogen and vacuum are discussed

  13. Colloidal lenses allow high-temperature single-molecule imaging and improve fluorophore photostability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jerrod J.; Stavrakis, Stavros; Quake, Stephen R.

    2010-02-01

    Although single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy was first demonstrated at near-absolute zero temperatures (1.8 K), the field has since advanced to include room-temperature observations, largely owing to the use of objective lenses with high numerical aperture, brighter fluorophores and more sensitive detectors. This has opened the door for many chemical and biological systems to be studied at native temperatures at the single-molecule level both in vitro and in vivo. However, it is difficult to study systems and phenomena at temperatures above 37 °C, because the index-matching fluids used with high-numerical-aperture objective lenses can conduct heat from the sample to the lens, and sustained exposure to high temperatures can cause the lens to fail. Here, we report that TiO2 colloids with diameters of 2 µm and a high refractive index can act as lenses that are capable of single-molecule imaging at 70 °C when placed in immediate proximity to an emitting molecule. The optical system is completed by a low-numerical-aperture optic that can have a long working distance and an air interface, which allows the sample to be independently heated. Colloidal lenses were used for parallel imaging of surface-immobilized single fluorophores and for real-time single-molecule measurements of mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes at 70 °C. Fluorophores in close proximity to TiO2 also showed a 40% increase in photostability due to a reduction of the excited-state lifetime.

  14. Transformed model fitting. A straightforward approach to evaluation of anisotropic SANS from nickel-base single-crystal superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strunz, P.

    1999-01-01

    Schematic description of a special evaluation procedure for data treatment of anisotropic Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) is presented. The use of the discussed procedure is demonstrated on a data taken from investigation of precipitation in single-crystal nickel-base superalloys. (author)

  15. Concept for room temperature single-spin tunneling force microscopy with atomic spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Adam

    A study of a force detected single-spin magnetic resonance measurement concept with atomic spatial resolution is presented. The method is based upon electrostatic force detection of spin-selection rule controlled single electron tunneling between two electrically isolated paramagnetic states. Single-spin magnetic resonance detection is possible by measuring the force detected tunneling charge noise on and off spin resonance. Simulation results of this charge noise, based upon physical models of the tunneling and spin physics, are directly compared to measured atomic force microscopy (AFM) system noise. The results show that the approach could provide single-spin measurement of electrically isolated defect states with atomic spatial resolution at room temperature.

  16. The relationship of normal body temperature, end-expired breath temperature, and BAC/BrAC ratio in 98 physically fit human test subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, J Mack; Burris, James M; Hughes, James R; Cunningham, Margaret P

    2010-06-01

    The relationship between normal body temperature, end-expired breath temperature, and blood alcohol concentration (BAC)/breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) ratio was studied in 98 subjects (84 men, 14 women). Subjects consumed alcohol sufficient to produce a BrAC of at least 0.06 g/210 L 45-75 min after drinking. Breath samples were analyzed using an Intoxilyzer 8000 specially equipped to measure breath temperature. Venous blood samples and body temperatures were then taken. The mean body temperature of the men (36.6 degrees C) was lower than the women (37.0 degrees C); however, their mean breath temperatures were virtually identical (men: 34.5 degrees C; women: 34.6 degrees C). The BAC exceeded the BrAC for every subject. BAC/BrAC ratios were calculated from the BAC and BrAC analytical results. There was no difference in the BAC/BrAC ratios for men (1:2379) and women (1:2385). The correlation between BAC and BrAC was high (r = 0.938, p body temperature and end-expired breath temperature, body temperature and BAC/BrAC ratio, and breath temperature and BAC/BrAC ratio were much lower. Neither normal body temperature nor end-expired breath temperature was strongly associated with BAC/BrAC ratio.

  17. Low temperature synthesis and field emission characteristics of single to few layered graphene grown using PECVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Avshish; Khan, Sunny; Zulfequar, M.; Harsh; Husain, Mushahid, E-mail: mush_reslab@rediffmail.com

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Graphene was synthesized by PECVD system at a low temperature of 600 °C. • From different characterization techniques, the presence of single and few layered graphene was confirmed. • X-ray diffraction pattern of the graphene showed single crystalline nature of the film. • The as-grown graphene films were observed extremely good field emitters with long term emission current stability. - Abstract: In this work, high-quality graphene has successfully been synthesized on copper (Cu) coated Silicon (Si) substrate at very large-area by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. This method is low cost and highly effective for synthesizing graphene relatively at low temperature of 600 °C. Electron microscopy images have shown that surface morphology of the grown samples is quite uniform consisting of single layered graphene (SLG) to few layered graphene (FLG). Raman spectra reveal that graphene has been grown with high-quality having negligible defects and the observation of G and G' peaks is also an indicative of stokes phonon energy shift caused due to laser excitation. Scanning probe microscopy image also depicts the synthesis of single to few layered graphene. The field emission characteristics of as-grown graphene samples were studied in a planar diode configuration at room temperature. The graphene samples were observed to be a good field emitter having low turn-on field, higher field amplification factor and long term emission current stability.

  18. Single-footprint retrievals of temperature, water vapor and cloud properties from AIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irion, Fredrick W.; Kahn, Brian H.; Schreier, Mathias M.; Fetzer, Eric J.; Fishbein, Evan; Fu, Dejian; Kalmus, Peter; Wilson, R. Chris; Wong, Sun; Yue, Qing

    2018-02-01

    Single-footprint Atmospheric Infrared Sounder spectra are used in an optimal estimation-based algorithm (AIRS-OE) for simultaneous retrieval of atmospheric temperature, water vapor, surface temperature, cloud-top temperature, effective cloud optical depth and effective cloud particle radius. In a departure from currently operational AIRS retrievals (AIRS V6), cloud scattering and absorption are in the radiative transfer forward model and AIRS single-footprint thermal infrared data are used directly rather than cloud-cleared spectra (which are calculated using nine adjacent AIRS infrared footprints). Coincident MODIS cloud data are used for cloud a priori data. Using single-footprint spectra improves the horizontal resolution of the AIRS retrieval from ˜ 45 to ˜ 13.5 km at nadir, but as microwave data are not used, the retrieval is not made at altitudes below thick clouds. An outline of the AIRS-OE retrieval procedure and information content analysis is presented. Initial comparisons of AIRS-OE to AIRS V6 results show increased horizontal detail in the water vapor and relative humidity fields in the free troposphere above the clouds. Initial comparisons of temperature, water vapor and relative humidity profiles with coincident radiosondes show good agreement. Future improvements to the retrieval algorithm, and to the forward model in particular, are discussed.

  19. Single Ion transient-IBIC analyses of semiconductor devices using a cryogenic temperature stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.; Legge, G.J.F.; Jagadish, C.

    1998-01-01

    A new Transient - IBIC data acquisition and analysis system at MARC is described. A discussion on the need for single ion control and temperature control is also given. The recorded signal is used as the trigger for beam pulsing. The new cryostatic temperature control stage is introduced. Data is presented on line profiles across the edge of a Au-Si junction collected over the temperature range of 25-300K using a developed C-V and I-V variable temperature stage incorporating a liquid helium cryostat. It demonstrates the potential improvements in spatial resolution in materials of long lifetime by mapping on timing windows around the prompt charge component in the charge transient

  20. Hardness of high-pressure high-temperature treated single-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, S.; Nojima, Y.; Yokomae, T.; Okino, F.; Touhara, H.

    2007-01-01

    We have performed high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) treatments of high quality single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) over a wide pressure-temperature range up to 13 GPa-873 K and have investigated the hardness of the HPHT-treated SWCNTs using a nanoindentation technique. It was found that the hardness of the SWCNTs treated at pressures greater than 11 GPa and at temperatures higher than 773 K is about 10 times greater than that of the SWCNTs treated at low temperature. It was also found that the hardness change of the SWCNTs is related to the structural change by the HPHT treatments which was based on synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements

  1. Single molecule dynamics at a mechanically controllable break junction in solution at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Tatsuya; Kiguchi, Manabu; Takase, Mai; Nagasawa, Fumika; Nabika, Hideki; Ikeda, Katsuyoshi; Uosaki, Kohei; Ueno, Kosei; Misawa, Hiroaki; Murakoshi, Kei

    2013-01-23

    The in situ observation of geometrical and electronic structural dynamics of a single molecule junction is critically important in order to further progress in molecular electronics. Observations of single molecular junctions are difficult, however, because of sensitivity limits. Here, we report surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of a single 4,4'-bipyridine molecule under conditions of in situ current flow in a nanogap, by using nano-fabricated, mechanically controllable break junction (MCBJ) electrodes. When adsorbed at room temperature on metal nanoelectrodes in solution to form a single molecule junction, statistical analysis showed that nontotally symmetric b(1) and b(2) modes of 4,4'-bipyridine were strongly enhanced relative to observations of the same modes in solid or aqueous solutions. Significant changes in SERS intensity, energy (wavenumber), and selectivity of Raman vibrational bands that are coincident with current fluctuations provide information on distinct states of electronic and geometrical structure of the single molecule junction, even under large thermal fluctuations occurring at room temperature. We observed the dynamics of 4,4'-bipyridine motion between vertical and tilting configurations in the Au nanogap via b(1) and b(2) mode switching. A slight increase in the tilting angle of the molecule was also observed by noting the increase in the energies of Raman modes and the decrease in conductance of the molecular junction.

  2. Temperature increases on the external root surface during endodontic treatment using single file systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkocak, I; Taşkan, M M; Gökt Rk, H; Aytac, F; Karaarslan, E Şirin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate increases in temperature on the external root surface during endodontic treatment with different rotary systems. Fifty human mandibular incisors with a single root canal were selected. All root canals were instrumented using a size 20 Hedstrom file, and the canals were irrigated with 5% sodium hypochlorite solution. The samples were randomly divided into the following three groups of 15 teeth: Group 1: The OneShape Endodontic File no.: 25; Group 2: The Reciproc Endodontic File no.: 25; Group 3: The WaveOne Endodontic File no.: 25. During the preparation, the temperature changes were measured in the middle third of the roots using a noncontact infrared thermometer. The temperature data were transferred from the thermometer to the computer and were observed graphically. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance at a significance level of 0.05. The increases in temperature caused by the OneShape file system were lower than those of the other files (P file showed the highest temperature increases. However, there were no significant differences between the Reciproc and WaveOne files. The single file rotary systems used in this study may be recommended for clinical use.

  3. Performance evaluation of a piezoactuator-based single-stage valve system subjected to high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Juncheol; Han, Chulhee; Chung, Jye Ung; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel single-stage valve system activated by a piezostack actuator is proposed and experimentally evaluated at both room temperature (20 °C) and high temperature (100 °C) conditions. A hinge-lever displacement amplifier is adopted in the valve system to magnify the displacement generated from the piezostack actuator. After explaining the operating principle of the proposed piezostack-driven single-stage valve system, the geometric dimensions and mechanical properties of the valve components are discussed in details. An experimental apparatus is then manufactured to evaluate the performances of the valve system such as flow rate. The experimental apparatus consists of a heat chamber, which can regulate the temperature of the valve system and oil, pneumatic-hydraulic cylinders, a hydraulic circuit, a pneumatic circuit, electronic devices, an interface card, and a high voltage amplifier. The pneumatic-hydraulic cylinder transforms the pneumatic pressure into hydraulic pressure. The performances of the valve system regarding spool response, pressure drop, and flow rate are evaluated and presented. In addition, the performance of the valve system under high temperature condition is compared with that under room temperature condition. The experimental results are plotted in both frequency and time domains.

  4. Performance evaluation of a piezoactuator-based single-stage valve system subjected to high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Juncheol; Han, Chulhee; Ung Chung, Jye; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel single-stage valve system activated by a piezostack actuator is proposed and experimentally evaluated at both room temperature (20 °C) and high temperature (100 °C) conditions. A hinge-lever displacement amplifier is adopted in the valve system to magnify the displacement generated from the piezostack actuator. After explaining the operating principle of the proposed piezostack-driven single-stage valve system, the geometric dimensions and mechanical properties of the valve components are discussed in details. An experimental apparatus is then manufactured to evaluate the performances of the valve system such as flow rate. The experimental apparatus consists of a heat chamber, which can regulate the temperature of the valve system and oil, pneumatic-hydraulic cylinders, a hydraulic circuit, a pneumatic circuit, electronic devices, an interface card, and a high voltage amplifier. The pneumatic-hydraulic cylinder transforms the pneumatic pressure into hydraulic pressure. The performances of the valve system regarding spool response, pressure drop, and flow rate are evaluated and presented. In addition, the performance of the valve system under high temperature condition is compared with that under room temperature condition. The experimental results are plotted in both frequency and time domains. (paper)

  5. Quantum interference effects at room temperature in OPV-based single-molecule junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arroyo, Carlos R.; Frisenda, Riccardo; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    Interference effects on charge transport through an individual molecule can lead to a notable modulation and suppression on its conductance. In this letter, we report the observation of quantum interference effects occurring at room temperature in single-molecule junctions based on oligo(3......)-phenylenevinylene (OPV3) derivatives, in which the central benzene ring is coupled to either para- or meta-positions. Using the break-junction technique, we find that the conductance for a single meta-OPV3 molecule wired between gold electrodes is one order of magnitude smaller than that of a para-OPV3 molecule...

  6. Fluorescence blinking in MEH-PPV single molecules at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzov, O.; Cichos, F.; Borczyskowski, C. von; Scheblykin, I.

    2005-01-01

    Fluorescence intensity transients of single molecules of the conjugated polymer poly[2-methoxy,5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene-vinylene] (MEH-PPV) were studied at 15 K. Fluorescence blinking behavior was observed despite the expected low-temperature suppression of energy migration in such disordered molecular systems. Presence of the fluorescence blinking effect at 15 K indicates that the single molecules possess a collapsed conformation with characteristic size of not more than several nanometers, which corresponds to only a few exciton hops over a polymer chain

  7. A method enabling simultaneous pressure and temperature measurement using a single piezoresistive MEMS pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantlović, Miloš; Stanković, Srđan; Jokić, Ivana; Lazić, Žarko; Smiljanić, Milče; Obradov, Marko; Vukelić, Branko; Jakšić, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a high-performance, simple and low-cost method for simultaneous measurement of pressure and temperature using a single piezoresistive MEMS pressure sensor. The proposed measurement method utilizes the parasitic temperature sensitivity of the sensing element for both pressure measurement correction and temperature measurement. A parametric mathematical model of the sensor was established and its parameters were calculated using the obtained characterization data. Based on the model, a real-time sensor correction for both pressure and temperature measurements was implemented in a target measurement system. The proposed method was verified experimentally on a group of typical industrial-grade piezoresistive sensors. The obtained results indicate that the method enables the pressure measurement performance to exceed that of typical digital industrial pressure transmitters, achieving at the same time the temperature measurement performance comparable to industrial-grade platinum resistance temperature sensors. The presented work is directly applicable in industrial instrumentation, where it can add temperature measurement capability to the existing pressure measurement instruments, requiring little or no additional hardware, and without adverse effects on pressure measurement performance. (paper)

  8. Impact of temperature on single event upset measurement by heavy ions in SRAM devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tianqi; Geng Chao; Zhang Zhangang; Gu Song; Tong Teng; Xi Kai; Hou Mingdong; Liu Jie; Zhao Fazhan; Liu Gang; Han Zhengsheng

    2014-01-01

    The temperature dependence of single event upset (SEU) measurement both in commercial bulk and silicon on insulator (SOI) static random access memories (SRAMs) has been investigated by experiment in the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). For commercial bulk SRAM, the SEU cross section measured by 12 C ions is very sensitive to the temperature. The temperature test of SEU in SOI SRAM was conducted by 209 Bi and 12 C ions, respectively, and the SEU cross sections display a remarkable growth with the elevated temperature for 12 C ions but keep constant for 209 Bi ions. The impact of temperature on SEU measurement was analyzed by Monte Carlo simulation. It is revealed that the SEU cross section is significantly affected by the temperature around the threshold linear energy transfer of SEU occurrence. As the SEU occurrence approaches saturation, the SEU cross section gradually exhibits less temperature dependency. Based on this result, the experimental data measured in HIRFL was analyzed, and then a reasonable method of predicting the on-orbit SEU rate was proposed. (semiconductor devices)

  9. Defect types and room-temperature ferromagnetism in undoped rutile TiO2 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-Xiang; Qin, Xiu-Bo; Zheng, Li-Rong; Li, Yu-Xiao; Cao, Xing-Zhong; Li, Zhuo-Xin; Yang, Jing; Wang, Bao-Yi

    2013-03-01

    Room-temperature ferromagnetism has been experimentally observed in annealed rutile TiO2 single crystals when a magnetic field is applied parallel to the sample plane. By combining X-ray absorption near the edge structure spectrum and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, Ti3+—VO defect complexes (or clusters) have been identified in annealed crystals at a high vacuum. We elucidate that the unpaired 3d electrons in Ti3+ ions provide the observed room-temperature ferromagnetism. In addition, excess oxygen ions in the TiO2 lattice could induce a number of Ti vacancies which obviously increase magnetic moments.

  10. Single-sided natural ventilation driven by wind pressure and temperature difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Heiselberg, Per

    2008-01-01

    -scale wind tunnel experiments have been made with the aim of making a new expression for calculation of the airflow rate in single-sided natural ventilation. During the wind tunnel experiments it was found that the dominating driving force differs between wind speed and temperature difference depending......Even though opening a window for ventilation of a room seems very simple, the flow that occurs in this situation is rather complicated. The amount of air going through the window opening will depend on the wind speed near the building, the temperatures inside and outside the room, the wind...

  11. Specific heat studies of pure Nb3Sn single crystals at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escudero, R; Morales, F; Bernes, S

    2009-01-01

    Specific heat measurements performed on high purity vapor-grown Nb 3 Sn crystals show clear features related to both the martensitic and superconducting transitions. Our measurements indicate that the martensitic anomaly does not display hysteresis, meaning that the martensitic transition could be a weak first-order or a second-order thermodynamic transition. Careful measurements of the two transition temperatures display an inverse correlation between them. At low temperature, specific heat measurements show the existence of a single superconducting energy gap feature.

  12. Defect types and room-temperature ferromagnetism in undoped rutile TiO2 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dong-Xiang; Cao Xing-Zhong; Li Zhuo-Xin; Yang Jing; Wang Bao-Yi; Qin Xiu-Bo; Zheng Li-Rong; Li Yu-Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Room-temperature ferromagnetism has been experimentally observed in annealed rutile TiO 2 single crystals when a magnetic field is applied parallel to the sample plane. By combining X-ray absorption near the edge structure spectrum and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, Ti 3+ —V O defect complexes (or clusters) have been identified in annealed crystals at a high vacuum. We elucidate that the unpaired 3d electrons in Ti 3+ ions provide the observed room-temperature ferromagnetism. In addition, excess oxygen ions in the TiO 2 lattice could induce a number of Ti vacancies which obviously increase magnetic moments

  13. Temperature-dependent index of refraction of monoclinic Ga2O3 single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Indranil; Bhatt, R; Ganesamoorthy, S; Saxena, A; Karnal, A K; Gupta, P K; Sinha, A K; Deb, S K

    2011-11-01

    We present temperature-dependent refractive index along crystallographic b[010] and a direction perpendicular to (100)-plane for monoclinic phase (β) Ga(2)O(3) single crystal grown by the optical floating zone technique. The experimental results are consistent with the theoretical result of Litimein et al.1. Also, the Sellmeier equation for wavelengths in the range of 0.4-1.55 μm is formulated at different temperatures in the range of 30-175 °C. The thermal coefficient of refractive index in the above specified range is ~10(-5)/°C. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  14. The Lifetime Estimate for ACSR Single-Stage Splice Connector Operating at Higher Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Graziano, Joe; Chan, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the continuation of Part I effort to develop a protocol of integrating analytical and experimental approaches to evaluate the integrity of a full tension single-stage splice connector (SSC) assembly during service at high operating temperature.1The Part II efforts are mainly focused on the thermal mechanical testing, thermal-cycling simulation and its impact on the effective lifetime of the SSC system. The investigation indicates that thermal cycling temperature and frequency, conductor cable tension loading, and the compressive residual stress field within a SSC system have significant impact on the SSC integrity and the associated effective lifetime.

  15. High-quality bulk hybrid perovskite single crystals within minutes by inverse temperature crystallization

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.

    2015-07-06

    Single crystals of methylammonium lead trihalide perovskites (MAPbX3; MA=CH3NH3+, X=Br− or I−) have shown remarkably low trap density and charge transport properties; however, growth of such high-quality semiconductors is a time-consuming process. Here we present a rapid crystal growth process to obtain MAPbX3 single crystals, an order of magnitude faster than previous reports. The process is based on our observation of the substantial decrease of MAPbX3 solubility, in certain solvents, at elevated temperatures. The crystals can be both size- and shape-controlled by manipulating the different crystallization parameters. Despite the rapidity of the method, the grown crystals exhibit transport properties and trap densities comparable to the highest quality MAPbX3 reported to date. The phenomenon of inverse or retrograde solubility and its correlated inverse temperature crystallization strategy present a major step forward for advancing the field on perovskite crystallization.

  16. Surface single-molecule dynamics controlled by entropy at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrig, J. C.; Penedo, M.; Parschau, M.; Schwenk, J.; Marioni, M. A.; Hudson, E. W.; Hug, H. J.

    2017-02-01

    Configuration transitions of individual molecules and atoms on surfaces are traditionally described using an Arrhenius equation with energy barrier and pre-exponential factor (attempt rate) parameters. Characteristic parameters can vary even for identical systems, and pre-exponential factors sometimes differ by orders of magnitude. Using low-temperature scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) to measure an individual dibutyl sulfide molecule on Au(111), we show that the differences arise when the relative position of tip apex and molecule changes by a fraction of the molecule size. Altering the tip position on that scale modifies the transition's barrier and attempt rate in a highly correlated fashion, which results in a single-molecular enthalpy-entropy compensation. Conversely, appropriately positioning the STM tip allows selecting the operating point on the compensation line and modifying the transition rates. The results highlight the need to consider entropy in transition rates of single molecules, even at low temperatures.

  17. Shearing single crystal magnesium in the close-packed basal plane at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ming; Li, Lili; Zhao, Guangming

    2018-05-01

    Shear behaviors of single crystal magnesium (Mg) in close-packed (0001) basal plane along the [ 1 bar 2 1 bar 0 ], [ 1 2 bar 10 ], [ 10 1 bar 0 ] and [ 1 bar 010 ] directions were studied using molecular dynamics simulations via EAM potential. The results show that both shear stress-strain curves along the four directions and the motion path of free atoms during shearing behave periodic characteristics. It reveals that the periodic shear displacement is inherently related to the crystallographic orientation in single crystal Mg. Moreover, different temperatures in a range from 10 to 750 K were considered, demonstrating that shear modulus decreases with increasing temperatures. The results agree well with the MTS model. It is manifested that the modulus is independent with the shear direction and the size of the atomic model. This work also demonstrates that the classical description of shear modulus is still effective at the nanoscale.

  18. Single Photon, Spin, and Charge in Diamond Semiconductor at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuki Doi

    2014-01-01

    The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond is a promising candidate for a qubit driven at room temperature. In order to derive potential of NV center, manipulation of their charge state is a very important topic. Here we succeeded to electrically control between single NV-/NV0 by means of current injection. This method allows us to very stable charge state control. (author)

  19. Temperature dependence of CIE-x,y color coordinates in YAG:Ce single crystal phosphor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rejman, M.; Babin, Vladimir; Kučerková, Romana; Nikl, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 187, Jul (2017), s. 20-25 ISSN 0022-2313 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA04010135 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : YAG:Ce * single-crystal * simulation * energy level lifetime * white LED * CIE * temperature dependence Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.686, year: 2016

  20. Phenotypic plasticity in a complex world: interactive effects of food and temperature on fitness components of a seed beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwell, R Craig; Wallin, William G; Hitchcock, Lisa J; Fox, Charles W

    2007-08-01

    Most studies of phenotypic plasticity investigate the effects of an individual environmental factor on organism phenotypes. However, organisms exist in an ecologically complex world where multiple environmental factors can interact to affect growth, development and life histories. Here, using a multifactorial experimental design, we examine the separate and interactive effects of two environmental factors, rearing host species (Vigna radiata, Vigna angularis and Vigna unguiculata) and temperature (20, 25, 30 and 35 degrees C), on growth and life history traits in two populations [Burkina Faso (BF) and South India (SI)] of the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. The two study populations of beetles responded differently to both rearing host and temperature. We also found a significant interaction between rearing host and temperature for body size, growth rate and female lifetime fecundity but not larval development time or larval survivorship. The interaction was most apparent for growth rate; the variance in growth rate among hosts increased with increasing temperature. However, the details of host differences differed between our two study populations; the degree to which V. unguiculata was a better host than V. angularis or V. radiata increased at higher temperatures for BF beetles, whereas the degree to which V. unguiculata was the worst host increased at higher temperatures for SI beetles. We also found that the heritabilities of body mass, growth rate and fecundity were similar among rearing hosts and temperatures, and that the cross-temperature genetic correlation was not affected by rearing host, suggesting that genetic architecture is generally stable across rearing conditions. The most important finding of our study is that multiple environmental factors can interact to affect organism growth, but the degree of interaction, and thus the degree of complexity of phenotypic plasticity, varies among traits and between populations.

  1. Understanding size effects on the strength of single crystals through high-temperature micropillar compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler, Rafael; Wheeler, Jeffrey M.; Chang, Hyung-Jun; Segurado, Javier; Michler, Johann; Llorca, Javier; Molina-Aldareguia, Jon M.

    2014-01-01

    Compression tests of 〈1 1 1〉-oriented LiF single-crystal micropillars 1–5 μm in diameter were carried out from 25 °C to 250 °C. While the flow stress at ambient temperature was independent of the micropillar diameter, a strong size effect developed with elevated temperature. This behavior was explained by rigorously accounting for the different contributions to the flow stress of the micropillars as a function of temperature and pillar diameter: the lattice resistance, the forest hardening; and the size-dependent contribution as a result of the operation of single-arm dislocation sources. This was possible because the micropillars were obtained by chemically etching away the surrounding matrix in directionally solidified LiF–NaCl and LiF–KCl eutectics, avoiding any use of focused ion beam methods, yielding micropillars with a controlled dislocation density, independent of the sample preparation technique. In particular, the role of the lattice resistance on the size effect of micrometer-size single crystals was demonstrated unambiguously for the first time. This result rationalizes the different values of power-law exponent for the size effect found in the literature for face-centered cubic and body-centered cubic metals as well as for covalent and ionic solids

  2. Tracing Single Electrons in a Disordered Polymer Film at Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilma, Kevin; Issac, Abey; Chen, Zhijian; Würthner, Frank; Hildner, Richard; Köhler, Jürgen

    2016-04-21

    The transport of charges lies at the heart of essentially all modern (opto-) electronic devices. Although inorganic semiconductors built the basis for current technologies, organic materials have become increasingly important in recent years. However, organic matter is often highly disordered, which directly impacts the charge carrier dynamics. To understand and optimize device performance, detailed knowledge of the transport mechanisms of charge carriers in disordered matter is therefore of crucial importance. Here we report on the observation of the motion of single electrons within a disordered polymer film at room temperature, using single organic chromophores as probe molecules. The migration of a single electron gives rise to a varying electric field in its vicinity, which is registered via a shift of the emission spectra (Stark shift) of a chromophore. The spectral shifts allow us to determine the electron mobility and reveal for each nanoenvironment a distinct number of different possible electron-transfer pathways within the rugged energy landscape of the disordered polymer matrix.

  3. Extension of an anisotropic creep model to general high temperature deformation of a single crystal superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, L.M.; Ghosh, R.N.; McLean, M.

    1993-01-01

    A physics based model has been developed that accounts for the principal features of anisotropic creep deformation of single crystal superalloys. The present paper extends this model to simulate other types of high temperature deformation under strain controlled test conditions, such as stress relaxation and tension tests at constant strain rate in single crystals subject to axial loading along an arbitrary crystal direction. The approach is applied to the SRR99 single crystal superalloy where a model parameter database is available, determined via analysis of a database of constant stress creep curves. A software package has been generated to simulate the deformation behaviour under complex stress-strain conditions taking into account anisotropic elasticity. (orig.)

  4. Influence of temperature upon dislocation mobility and elastic limit of single crystal HgI2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milstein, F.; Farber, B.; Kim, K.; van den Berg, L.; Schnepple, W.

    1982-01-01

    The practical importance of studying mechanical properties and dislocation structure of HgI 2 is reviewed briefly. Specifically, the performance of single crystal HgI 2 radiation detectors is evidently sensitive to crystalline imperfections; the dislocation structure, in turn, can be altered during detector fabrication, depending upon the mechanical properties of the crystal and the stresses to which the crystal is subjected. The influence of temperature upon dislocation mobility and plasticity in vapor-grown crystals of mercuric iodide is examined. Dislocation mobiity is determined by measuring the lengths of the longest arms of dislocation etch pit rosettes on (001) surfaces following microhardness indentation and chemical etch. Measurements were made in the range from room temperature to the phase transition temperature of 127 0 C. Dislocation mobility was found to be an increasing function of temperature, with the effect accelerating as the phase transition is approached. Increasing temperature was also found to lower the critical resolved shear stress for plastic deformation on slip on (001) planes. In these contexts, the vapor-grown crystals are clearly softer at their elevated growth temperatures. The results are discussed in terms of a dislocation model involving soft and hard glide dislocations

  5. Communal nesting under climate change: fitness consequences of higher incubation temperatures for a nocturnal lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayananda, Buddhi; Gray, Sarah; Pike, David; Webb, Jonathan K

    2016-07-01

    Communal nesting lizards may be vulnerable to climate warming, particularly if air temperatures regulate nest temperatures. In southeastern Australia, velvet geckos Oedura lesueurii lay eggs communally inside rock crevices. We investigated whether increases in air temperatures could elevate nest temperatures, and if so, how this could influence hatching phenotypes, survival, and population dynamics. In natural nests, maximum daily air temperature influenced mean and maximum daily nest temperatures, implying that nest temperatures will increase under climate warming. To determine whether hotter nests influence hatchling phenotypes, we incubated eggs under two fluctuating temperature regimes to mimic current 'cold' nests (mean = 23.2 °C, range 10-33 °C) and future 'hot' nests (27.0 °C, 14-37 °C). 'Hot' incubation temperatures produced smaller hatchlings than did cold temperature incubation. We released individually marked hatchlings into the wild in 2014 and 2015, and monitored their survival over 10 months. In 2014 and 2015, hot-incubated hatchlings had higher annual mortality (99%, 97%) than cold-incubated (11%, 58%) or wild-born hatchlings (78%, 22%). To determine future trajectories of velvet gecko populations under climate warming, we ran population viability analyses in Vortex and varied annual rates of hatchling mortality within the range 78- 96%. Hatchling mortality strongly influenced the probability of extinction and the mean time to extinction. When hatchling mortality was >86%, populations had a higher probability of extinction (PE: range 0.52- 1.0) with mean times to extinction of 18-44 years. Whether future changes in hatchling survival translate into reduced population viability will depend on the ability of females to modify their nest-site choices. Over the period 1992-2015, females used the same communal nests annually, suggesting that there may be little plasticity in maternal nest-site selection. The impacts of climate change may

  6. Temperature sensitivity of void nucleation and growth parameters for single crystal copper: a molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawat, S; Chavan, V M; Warrier, M; Chaturvedi, S

    2011-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the void nucleation and growth is studied using the molecular dynamics (MD) code LAMMPS (Large-Scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator). Single crystal copper is triaxially expanded at 5 × 10 9  s −1 strain rate keeping the temperature constant. It is shown that the nucleation and growth of voids at these atomistic scales follows a macroscopic nucleation and growth (NAG) model. As the temperature increases there is a steady decrease in the nucleation and growth thresholds. As the melting point of copper is approached, a double-dip in the pressure–time profile is observed. Analysis of this double-dip shows that the first minimum corresponds to the disappearance of the long-range order due to the creation of stacking faults and the system no longer has a FCC structure. There is no nucleation of voids at this juncture. The second minimum corresponds to the nucleation and incipient growth of voids. We present the sensitivity of NAG parameters to temperature and the analysis of double-dip in the pressure–time profile for single crystal copper at 1250 K

  7. Characterization of biomass combustion at high temperatures based on an upgraded single particle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jun; Paul, Manosh C.; Younger, Paul L.; Watson, Ian; Hossain, Mamdud; Welch, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • High temperature rapid biomass combustion is studied based on single particle model. • Particle size changes in devolatilization and char oxidation models are addressed. • Time scales of various thermal sub-processes are compared and discussed. • Potential solutions are suggested to achieve better biomass co-firing performances. - Abstract: Biomass co-firing is becoming a promising solution to reduce CO 2 emissions, due to its renewability and carbon neutrality. Biomass normally has high moisture and volatile contents, complicating its combustion behavior, which is significantly different from that of coal. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) combustion model of a single biomass particle is employed to study high-temperature rapid biomass combustion. The two-competing-rate model and kinetics/diffusion model are used to model biomass devolatilization reaction and char burnout process, respectively, in which the apparent kinetics used for those two models were from high temperatures and high heating rates tests. The particle size changes during the devolatilization and char burnout are also considered. The mass loss properties and temperature profile during the biomass devolatilization and combustion processes are predicted; and the timescales of particle heating up, drying, devolatilization, and char burnout are compared and discussed. Finally, the results shed light on the effects of particle size on the combustion behavior of biomass particle

  8. Temperature dependent evolution of wrinkled single-crystal silicon ribbons on shape memory polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Yu, Kai; Qi, H Jerry; Xiao, Jianliang

    2017-10-25

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) can remember two or more distinct shapes, and thus can have a lot of potential applications. This paper presents combined experimental and theoretical studies on the wrinkling of single-crystal Si ribbons on SMPs and the temperature dependent evolution. Using the shape memory effect of heat responsive SMPs, this study provides a method to build wavy forms of single-crystal silicon thin films on top of SMP substrates. Silicon ribbons obtained from a Si-on-insulator (SOI) wafer are released and transferred onto the surface of programmed SMPs. Then such bilayer systems are recovered at different temperatures, yielding well-defined, wavy profiles of Si ribbons. The wavy profiles are shown to evolve with time, and the evolution behavior strongly depends on the recovery temperature. At relatively low recovery temperatures, both wrinkle wavelength and amplitude increase with time as evolution progresses. Finite element analysis (FEA) accounting for the thermomechanical behavior of SMPs is conducted to study the wrinkling of Si ribbons on SMPs, which shows good agreement with experiment. Merging of wrinkles is observed in FEA, which could explain the increase of wrinkle wavelength observed in the experiment. This study can have important implications for smart stretchable electronics, wrinkling mechanics, stimuli-responsive surface engineering, and advanced manufacturing.

  9. Effect of high temperature annealing on defects and optical properties of ZnO single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, M.; Wang, D.D.; Zou, B.; Chen, Z.Q.; Kawasuso, A.; Sekiguchi, T.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrothermal grown ZnO single crystals were annealed in N 2 or O 2 between 900 and 1300 C. Positron lifetime measurements reveal a single lifetime in all the ZnO samples before and after annealing. The positron lifetime is about 181 ps after annealing at 900 C in either N 2 or O 2 atmosphere. However, increase of the positron lifetime is observed after further annealing the sample at higher temperatures up to 1300 C, and it has a faster increase in O 2 ambient. Temperature dependence measurements show that the positron lifetime has very slight increase with temperature for the 900 C annealed sample, while it shows notable variation for the sample annealed at 1300 C. This implied that annealing at high temperature introduces additional defects. These defects are supposed to be Zn vacancy-related defects. Cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements indicates enhancement of both UV and green emission after annealing, and the enhancement of green emission is much stronger for the samples annealed in O 2 ambient. The possible origin of green emission is tentatively discussed. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Temperature induced Spin Switching in SmFeO3 Single Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shixun; Zhao, Huazhi; Kang, Baojuan; Zhang, Jincang; Ren, Wei

    2014-08-01

    The prospect of controlling the magnetization (M) of a material is of great importance from the viewpoints of fundamental physics and future applications of emerging spintronics. A class of rare-earth orthoferrites RFeO3 (R is rare-earth element) materials exhibit striking physical properties of spin switching and magnetization reversal induced by temperature and/or applied magnetic field. Furthermore, due to the novel magnetic, magneto-optic and multiferroic properties etc., RFeO3 materials are attracting more and more interests in recent years. We have prepared and investigated a prototype of RFeO3 materials, namely SmFeO3 single-crystal. And we report magnetic measurements upon both field cooling (FC) and zero-field cooling (ZFC) of the sample, as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field. The central findings of this study include that the magnetization of single-crystal SmFeO3 can be switched by temperature, and tuning the magnitude of applied magnetic field allows us to realize such spin switching even at room temperature.

  11. Specific-heat measurement of single metallic, carbon, and ceramic fibers at very high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradere, C.; Goyheneche, J.M.; Batsale, J.C.; Dilhaire, S.; Pailler, R.

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to present a method for measuring the specific heat of single metallic, carbon, and ceramic fibers at very high temperature. The difficulty of the measurement is due to the microscale of the fiber (≅10 μm) and the important range of temperature (700-2700 K). An experimental device, a modelization of the thermal behavior, and an analytic model have been developed. A discussion on the measurement accuracy yields a global uncertainty lower than 10%. The characterization of a tungsten filament with thermal properties identical to those of the bulk allows the validation of the device and the thermal estimation method. Finally, measurements on carbon and ceramic fibers have been done at very high temperature

  12. Room-temperature ferromagnetism observed in C-/N-/O-implanted MgO single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Ye, Bonian; Hao, Yingping; Liu, Jiandang; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Lijuan; Kong, Wei; Weng, Huimin; Ye, Bangjiao

    2013-01-01

    MgO single crystals were implanted with 70 keV C/N/O ions at room temperature with respective doses of 2 × 1016 and 2 × 1017 ions/cm2. All samples with high-dose implantation showed room temperature hysteresis in magnetization loops. Magnetization and slow positron annihilation measurements confirmed that room temperature ferromagnetism in O-implanted samples was attributed to the presence of Mg vacancies. Furthermore, the introduction of C or N played more effective role in ferromagnetic performance than Mg vacancies. Moreover, the magnetic moment possibly occurred from the localized wave function of unpaired electrons and the exchange interaction formed a long-range magnetic order.

  13. Evaluation of the marginal fit of single-unit, complete-coverage ceramic restorations fabricated after digital and conventional impressions: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirogiannis, Panagiotis; Reissmann, Daniel R; Heydecke, Guido

    2016-09-01

    In existing published reports, some studies indicate the superiority of digital impression systems in terms of the marginal accuracy of ceramic restorations, whereas others show that the conventional method provides restorations with better marginal fit than fully digital fabrication. Which impression method provides the lowest mean values for marginal adaptation is inconclusive. The findings from those studies cannot be easily generalized, and in vivo studies that could provide valid and meaningful information are limited in the existing publications. The purpose of this study was to systematically review existing reports and evaluate the marginal fit of ceramic single-tooth restorations after either digital or conventional impression methods by combining the available evidence in a meta-analysis. The search strategy for this systematic review of the publications was based on a Population, Intervention, Comparison, and Outcome (PICO) framework. For the statistical analysis, the mean marginal fit values of each study were extracted and categorized according to the impression method to calculate the mean value, together with the 95% confidence intervals (CI) of each category, and to evaluate the impact of each impression method on the marginal adaptation by comparing digital and conventional techniques separately for in vitro and in vivo studies. Twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis from the 63 identified records after database searching. For the in vitro studies, where ceramic restorations were fabricated after conventional impressions, the mean value of the marginal fit was 58.9 μm (95% CI: 41.1-76.7 μm), whereas after digital impressions, it was 63.3 μm (95% CI: 50.5-76.0 μm). In the in vivo studies, the mean marginal discrepancy of the restorations after digital impressions was 56.1 μm (95% CI: 46.3-65.8 μm), whereas after conventional impressions, it was 79.2 μm (95% CI: 59.6-98.9 μm) No significant difference was observed regarding

  14. Postprandial improvement in insulin sensitivity after a single exercise session in adolescents with low aerobic fitness and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Kevin R; Pratt, Lauren V; Teague, April M; Man, Chiara Dalla; Cobelli, Claudio

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the acute and residual impact of a single exercise bout on meal glucose control in adolescents with habitually low physical activity. Twelve adolescents (seven females/five males, 14 ± 2 yr) completed three trials. One trial [No Exercise (No Ex)] was completed after refraining from vigorous activity for ≥ 3 d. On the other two trials, a 45-min aerobic exercise bout at 75% peak heart rate was performed either 17-h Prior Day Exercise (Prior Day Ex) trial or 1-h Same Day Exercise (Same Day Ex) trial before consuming the test meal (2803 kJ, 45/40/15% energy as carbohydrate/fat/protein, respectively). Compared to No Ex, insulin sensitivity (SI) (minimal model analysis) was increased by 45% (p exercise in adolescents with habitually low physical activity and that the residual beneficial effect of exercise lasts at least 17 h. This finding highlights the plasticity of exercise responses in youth and the importance of daily exercise for metabolic health. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Single TCR-Vβ2 evaluation discloses the circulating T cell clone in Sezary syndrome: one family fits all!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Enrico; Abeni, Damiano; Pomponi, Debora; Russo, Nicoletta; Russo, Giandomenico; Narducci, Maria Grazia

    2015-08-01

    Sézary Syndrome (SS/L-CTCL) is a rare but aggressive variant of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL), characterized by erythroderma, lymphadenopathy, and the presence of a circulating memory CD4(+) T cell malignant clone with a skin homing behavior, lacking CD26 and CD49d and over-expressing CD60. The availability of a panel of monoclonal antibodies recognizing distinct TCR-Vβ families, allows to typify the clone by flow cytometry in about 70 % of cases. The TCR-Vβ repertoire of 533 individuals, comprising 308 patients affected by CTCL, 50 healthy donors, and subjects affected by various non-neoplastic dermatological affections was evaluated by flow cytometry. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical software package for Microsoft Windows (SPSS, version 21, Chicago, IL). TCR-Vβ2 levels below 5.4 % or above 39.5 %, within total CD4(+) T cells, showed the best balance between sensitivity (98.1 %) and specificity (96 %) to identify the presence of a clone in the peripheral blood of patients affected by SS. Based on this observation, a "two-step" procedure in the detection of the malignant T cell clone in CTCLs is herein suggested. TCR-Vβ2 assessment in all cases (first step). In the case of TCR-Vβ2 levels above 39.5 %, the presence of a clonal expansion of this family is suggested, deserving further confirmation by means of T cell gene rearrangement evaluation. In patients having a TCR-Vβ2 reactivity below 5.4 % (second step), the entire TCR-Vβ repertoire should be evaluated to typify the expanded clone. In conclusion, the single TCR-Vβ2 expression check, instead of the entire repertoire assessment, represents an easy and cost-effective method for the recognition of CTCL aggressive leukemic variant.

  16. Closely-related Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu stricto) strains exhibit similar fitness in single infections and asymmetric competition in multiple infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynkiewicz, Evelyn C; Brown, Julia; Tufts, Danielle M; Huang, Ching-I; Kampen, Helge; Bent, Stephen J; Fish, Durland; Diuk-Wasser, Maria A

    2017-02-06

    Wild hosts are commonly co-infected with complex, genetically diverse, pathogen communities. Competition is expected between genetically or ecologically similar pathogen strains which may influence patterns of coexistence. However, there is little data on how specific strains of these diverse pathogen species interact within the host and how this impacts pathogen persistence in nature. Ticks are the most common disease vector in temperate regions with Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, being the most common vector-borne pathogen in North America. Borrelia burgdorferi is a pathogen of high public health concern and there is significant variation in infection phenotype between strains, which influences predictions of pathogen dynamics and spread. In a laboratory experiment, we investigated whether two closely-related strains of B. burgdorferi (sensu stricto) showed similar transmission phenotypes, how the transmission of these strains changed when a host was infected with one strain, re-infected with the same strain, or co-infected with two strains. Ixodes scapularis, the black-legged tick, nymphs were used to sequentially infect laboratory-bred Peromyscus leucopus, white-footed mice, with one strain only, homologous infection with the same stain, or heterologous infection with both strains. We used the results of this laboratory experiment to simulate long-term persistence and maintenance of each strain in a simple simulation model. Strain LG734 was more competitive than BL206, showing no difference in transmission between the heterologous infection groups and single-infection controls, while strain BL206 transmission was significantly reduced when strain LG734 infected first. The results of the model show that this asymmetry in competition could lead to extinction of strain BL206 unless there was a tick-to-host transmission advantage to this less competitive strain. This asymmetric competitive interaction suggests that strain identity and

  17. Room-temperature current blockade in atomically defined single-cluster junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovat, Giacomo; Choi, Bonnie; Paley, Daniel W.; Steigerwald, Michael L.; Venkataraman, Latha; Roy, Xavier

    2017-11-01

    Fabricating nanoscopic devices capable of manipulating and processing single units of charge is an essential step towards creating functional devices where quantum effects dominate transport characteristics. The archetypal single-electron transistor comprises a small conducting or semiconducting island separated from two metallic reservoirs by insulating barriers. By enabling the transfer of a well-defined number of charge carriers between the island and the reservoirs, such a device may enable discrete single-electron operations. Here, we describe a single-molecule junction comprising a redox-active, atomically precise cobalt chalcogenide cluster wired between two nanoscopic electrodes. We observe current blockade at room temperature in thousands of single-cluster junctions. Below a threshold voltage, charge transfer across the junction is suppressed. The device is turned on when the temporary occupation of the core states by a transiting carrier is energetically enabled, resulting in a sequential tunnelling process and an increase in current by a factor of ∼600. We perform in situ and ex situ cyclic voltammetry as well as density functional theory calculations to unveil a two-step process mediated by an orbital localized on the core of the cluster in which charge carriers reside before tunnelling to the collector reservoir. As the bias window of the junction is opened wide enough to include one of the cluster frontier orbitals, the current blockade is lifted and charge carriers can tunnel sequentially across the junction.

  18. An In Vivo Evaluation of the Fit of Zirconium-Oxide Based, Ceramic Single Crowns with Vertical and Horizontal Finish Line Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigolo, Paolo; Mutinelli, Sabrina; Biscaro, Leonello; Stellini, Edoardo

    2015-12-01

    Different types of tooth preparations influence the marginal precision of zirconium-oxide based ceramic single crowns. In this in vivo study, the marginal fits of zirconium-oxide based ceramic single crowns with vertical and horizontal finish lines were compared. Forty-six teeth were chosen in eight patients indicated for extraction for implant placement. CAD/CAM technology was used for the production of 46 zirconium-oxide-based ceramic single crowns: 23 teeth were prepared with vertical finishing lines, 23 with horizontal finishing lines. One operator accomplished all clinical procedures. The zirconia crowns were cemented with glass ionomer cement. The teeth were extracted 1 month later. Marginal gaps along vertical planes were measured for each crown, using a total of four landmarks for each tooth by means of a microscope at 50× magnification. On conclusion of microscopic assessment, ESEM evaluation was completed on all specimens. The comparison of the gap between the two types of preparation was performed with a nonparametric test (two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum test) with a level of significance fixed at p zirconium-oxide-based ceramic CAD/CAM crowns with vertical and horizontal finish line preparations were not different. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  19. The Impact of Temperatures on the Stability of Rocks Surrounding a Single Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Ning; Dai, Jun

    2018-05-01

    Research on the influence of temperature and the accompanying stress on the stability of the rocks surrounding an underground tunnel has become ever more important. This paper constructs a geometric model of a single-fracture tunnel by combining a high-temperature underground tunnel as the object of study with an example that uses a high-temperature tunnel segment in the water diversion tunnel of a hydropower station in Xinjiang. Based on the relevant theoretical analysis, with the consideration of different working conditions, a numerical experimental analysis was conducted to determine the two-dimensional transient temperature field distribution of the tunnel rock mass by using a numerical analysis software. The experimental data was consistent with the measured data. The calculated results show the following: a. when the temperature difference is greater, the stress concentration is higher near the fracture of the surrounding rock; b. the degree of the stress concentration in the crack tip region is not positively correlated to the distance, and there is a sensitive region where the stress varies.

  20. Two convenient low-temperature routes to single crystals of plutonium dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meredith, Nathan A. [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Wang, Shuao; Diwu, Juan [School of Radiation Medicine and Protection and School of Radiological and Interdisciplinary Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E., E-mail: talbrechtschmitt@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Two low-temperature routes to the growth single crystals of plutonium dioxide. • Safer methods of preparing PuO{sub 2} single crystals that do not involve solid-state synthetic techniques. • Solvothermal crystal growth of plutonium dioxide. - Abstract: During the solvothermal synthesis of a low-dimensional borate, KB{sub 5}O{sub 7}(OH){sub 2}⋅2H{sub 2}O, in the presence of Pu(III), single crystals of plutonium dioxide unexpectedly formed. Single crystals of PuO{sub 2} also formed during the hydrothermal synthesis of another borate, Na{sub 2}B{sub 5}O{sub 8}(OH)⋅2H{sub 2}O, in the presence of Pu(III). The reactions were conducted at 170 °C and 150 °C, respectively, which are much lower temperature than previously reported preparations of crystalline PuO{sub 2}. Yellow–green crystals with a tablet habit were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and solid-state UV–vis–NIR absorption spectroscopy. The crystal structure was solved by direct methods with R{sub 1} = 1.26% for 19 unique observed reflections. PuO{sub 2} is cubic, space group Fm3{sup ‾}m, and adopts the fluorite structure type. The lattice parameter was determined to be a = 5.421(5) Å giving a volume of 159.3(2) Å{sup 3}. The absorption spectrum is consistent with Pu(IV)

  1. High temperature creep of single crystals of gold, silver and solid solution gold silver 50-50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorizzi, Paul

    1973-01-01

    We have studied in compression creep along a direction, single crystals of gold, silver and a 50-50 gold-silver solid solution. The experiments were made at temperatures above 0.7 Tf. We have shown that under these conditions and for these three metals a new slip system is operating: the deformation is due to the slip of dislocations having a 1/2 burgers vector on the {110} planes. For gold the activation energy for creep is equal to the self-diffusion energy. We found the same result for silver when the contribution of divacancies to the self-diffusion energy is taken into account. For the alloy the activation energy for creep is very close to the self-diffusion energy of gold in a 50-50 gold-silver alloy, gold being the slower diffusing species in the alloy. The curves giving the creep rate versus the stress can be fitted with the following laws: ε 0 = σ 5 for gold; ε 0 = σ 2,2 for silver and ε 0 = σ 2,5 for the alloy. The dislocation substructure was studied using the crystalline contrast given by the electron microprobe. This new method gives images which are very sensitive to the sub-grains misorientation. The substructure is made of parallelepipedic cells divided by tilt boundaries that are perpendicular to the {110} slip planes. (author) [fr

  2. Single-photon cesium Rydberg excitation spectroscopy using 318.6-nm UV laser and room-temperature vapor cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jieying; Bai, Jiandong; He, Jun; Wang, Junmin

    2017-09-18

    We demonstrate a single-photon Rydberg excitation spectroscopy of cesium (Cs) atoms in a room-temperature vapor cell. Cs atoms are excited directly from 6S 1/2 ground state to nP 3/2 (n = 70 - 100) Rydberg states with a 318.6 nm ultraviolet (UV) laser, and Rydberg excitation spectra are obtained by transmission enhancement of a probe beam resonant to Cs 6S 1/2 , F = 4 - 6P 3/2 , F' = 5 transition as partial population on F = 4 ground state are transferred to Rydberg state. Analysis reveals that the observed spectra are velocity-selective spectroscopy of Rydberg state, from which the amplitude and linewidth influenced by lasers' Rabi frequency have been investigated. Fitting to energies of Cs nP 3/2 (n = 70 -100) states, the determined quantum defect is 3.56671(42). The demodulated spectra can also be employed as frequency references to stabilize the UV laser frequency to specific Cs Rydberg transition.

  3. Use of Single-Tow Ceramic Matrix Minicomposites to Determine Fundamental Room and Elevated Temperature Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almansour, Amjad S.

    The room and high temperature mechanical properties of continuous ceramic fiber reinforced matrix composites makes them attractive for implementation in aerospace and nuclear applications. However, the effect of fiber content has not been addressed in previous work. Therefore, single tow composites with fiber content ranging from 3 to 47 % was studied. Single fiber tow minicomposite is the basic architectural feature of woven and laminate ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). An in depth understanding of the initiation and evolution of damage in various ceramic fiber reinforced minicomposites with different fiber volume fractions and interphases was investigated employing several non-destructive evaluation techniques. A new technique is used to determine matrix crack content based on a damage parameter derived from speed of sound measurements which is compared with the established method using cumulative energy of Acoustic Emission (AE) events. Also, a modified theoretical model was implemented to obtain matrix stress at the onset of matrix cracking. Room temperature tensile, high temperature creep rupture and high temperature oxidation degradation loading conditions were all considered and composites' constituents were characterized. Moreover, fibers/matrix load sharing was modeled in creep and fiber volume fraction effect on load transfer was investigated using derived theoretical models. Fibers and matrix creep parameters, load transfer model results and numerical model methodology were used to construct minicomposites' creep strain model to predict creep damage of the different fiber type and content minicomposites. Furthermore, different fiber volume fractions ceramic matrix minicomposites' electrical resistivity temperature dependence isn't well understood. Therefore, the influence of fiber content, heat treatment cycles and creep on electrical resistivity measurements of SiC/SiC minicomposites were also studied here. Next, minicomposites' testing and

  4. A new method to quantify and compare the multiple components of fitness--a study case with kelp niche partition by divergent microstage adaptations to temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco M N C S Vieira

    Full Text Available Management of crops, commercialized or protected species, plagues or life-cycle evolution are subjects requiring comparisons among different demographic strategies. The simpler methods fail in relating changes in vital rates with changes in population viability whereas more complex methods lack accuracy by neglecting interactions among vital rates.The difference between the fitness (evaluated by the population growth rate λ of two alternative demographies is decomposed into the contributions of the differences between the pair-wised vital rates and their interactions. This is achieved through a full Taylor expansion (i.e. remainder = 0 of the demographic model. The significance of each term is determined by permutation tests under the null hypothesis that all demographies come from the same pool.An example is given with periodic demographic matrices of the microscopic haploid phase of two kelp cryptic species observed to partition their niche occupation along the Chilean coast. The method provided clear and synthetic results showing conditional differentiation of reproduction is an important driver for their differences in fitness along the latitudinal temperature gradient. But it also demonstrated that interactions among vital rates cannot be neglected as they compose a significant part of the differences between demographies.This method allows researchers to access the effects of multiple effective changes in a life-cycle from only two experiments. Evolutionists can determine with confidence the effective causes for changes in fitness whereas population managers can determine best strategies from simpler experimental designs.

  5. Constitutive modeling of creep behavior in single crystal superalloys: Effects of rafting at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Ya-Nan, E-mail: fanyn12@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn; Shi, Hui-Ji, E-mail: shihj@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Qiu, Wen-Hui

    2015-09-17

    Rafting and creep modeling of single crystal superalloys at high temperatures are important for the safety assessment and life prediction in practice. In this research, a new model has been developed to describe the rafting evolution and incorporated into the Cailletaud single crystal plasticity model to simulate the creep behavior. The driving force of rafting is assumed to be the relaxation of the strain energy, and it is calculated with the local stress state, a superposition of the external and misfit stress tensors. In addition, the isotropic coarsening is introduced by the cube root dependence of the microstructure periodicity on creep time based on Ostwal ripening. Then the influence of rafting on creep deformation is taken into account as the Orowan stress in the single crystal plasticity model. The capability of the proposed model is validated with creep experiments of CMSX-4 at 950 °C and 1050 °C. It is able to predict the rafting direction at complex loading conditions and evaluate the channel width during rafting. For [001] tensile creep tests, good agreement has been shown between the model predictions and experimental results at different temperatures and stress levels. The creep acceleration can be captured with this model and is attributed to the microstructure degradation caused by the precipitate coarsening.

  6. Metal-Controlled Magnetoresistance at Room Temperature in Single-Molecule Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonès, Albert C; Aravena, Daniel; Valverde-Muñoz, Francisco J; Real, José Antonio; Sanz, Fausto; Díez-Pérez, Ismael; Ruiz, Eliseo

    2017-04-26

    The appropriate choice of the transition metal complex and metal surface electronic structure opens the possibility to control the spin of the charge carriers through the resulting hybrid molecule/metal spinterface in a single-molecule electrical contact at room temperature. The single-molecule conductance of a Au/molecule/Ni junction can be switched by flipping the magnetization direction of the ferromagnetic electrode. The requirements of the molecule include not just the presence of unpaired electrons: the electronic configuration of the metal center has to provide occupied or empty orbitals that strongly interact with the junction metal electrodes and that are close in energy to their Fermi levels for one of the electronic spins only. The key ingredient for the metal surface is to provide an efficient spin texture induced by the spin-orbit coupling in the topological surface states that results in an efficient spin-dependent interaction with the orbitals of the molecule. The strong magnetoresistance effect found in this kind of single-molecule wire opens a new approach for the design of room-temperature nanoscale devices based on spin-polarized currents controlled at molecular level.

  7. Temperature Dependent Surface Structures and Electronic Properties of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, M.-H.; Teague, M. L.; Huang, J.-S.; Tseng, W.-S.; Yeh, N.-C.

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, arising from research of low-cost high performance photovoltaics, have become promising materials not only for solar cells but also for various optoelectronic and spintronic applications. An interesting aspect of the hybrid perovskites is that their material properties, such as the band gap, can be easily tuned by varying the composition, temperature, and the crystalline phases. Additionally, the surface structure is critically important for their optoelectronic applications. It is speculated that different crystalline facets could show different trap densities, thus resulting in microscopically inhomogeneous performance. Here we report direct studies of the surface structures and electronic properties of hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/STS). We found long-range spatially homogeneous tunneling conductance spectra with a well-defined energy gap of (1.55 +/- 0.1) eV at 300 K in the tetragonal phase, suggesting high quality of the single crystals. The energy gap increased to (1.81 +/- 0.1) eV in the orthorhombic phase, below the tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transition temperature at 150 K. Detailed studies of the temperature evolution in the spatially resolved surface structures and local density of states will be discussed to elucidate how these properties may influence the optoelectronic performance of the hybrid perovskites. We thank the support from NTU in Taiwan and from NSF in the US.

  8. In vitro Evaluation of the Marginal Fit and Internal Adaptation of Zirconia and Lithium Disilicate Single Crowns: Micro-CT Comparison Between Different Manufacturing Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccitiello, Francesco; Amato, Massimo; Leone, Renato; Spagnuolo, Gianrico; Sorrentino, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Prosthetic precision can be affected by several variables, such as restorative materials, manufacturing procedures, framework design, cementation techniques and aging. Marginal adaptation is critical for long-term longevity and clinical success of dental restorations. Marginal misfit may lead to cement exposure to oral fluids, resulting in microleakage and cement dissolution. As a consequence, marginal discrepancies enhance percolation of bacteria, food and oral debris, potentially causing secondary caries, endodontic inflammation and periodontal disease. The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal and internal adaptation of zirconia and lithium disilicate single crowns, produced with different manufacturing procedures. Forty-five intact human maxillary premolars were prepared for single crowns by means of standardized preparations. All-ceramic crowns were fabricated with either CAD-CAM or heat-pressing procedures (CAD-CAM zirconia, CAD-CAM lithium disilicate, heat-pressed lithium disilicate) and cemented onto the teeth with a universal resin cement. Non-destructive micro-CT scanning was used to achieve the marginal and internal gaps in the coronal and sagittal planes; then, precision of fit measurements were calculated in a dedicated software and the results were statistically analyzed. The heat-pressed lithium disilicate crowns were significantly less accurate at the prosthetic margins (p0.05); nevertheless CAD-CAM zirconia copings presented the best marginal fit among the experimental groups. As to the thickness of the cement layer, reduced amounts of luting agent were noticed at the finishing line, whereas a thicker layer was reported at the occlusal level. Within the limitations of the present in vitro investigation, the following conclusions can be drawn: the recorded marginal gaps were within the clinical acceptability irrespective of both the restorative material and the manufacturing procedures; the CAD-CAM processing techniques for

  9. BP-ANN for fitting the temperature-germination model and its application in predicting sowing time and region for Bermudagrass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erxu Pi

    Full Text Available Temperature is one of the most significant environmental factors that affects germination of grass seeds. Reliable prediction of the optimal temperature for seed germination is crucial for determining the suitable regions and favorable sowing timing for turf grass cultivation. In this study, a back-propagation-artificial-neural-network-aided dual quintic equation (BP-ANN-QE model was developed to improve the prediction of the optimal temperature for seed germination. This BP-ANN-QE model was used to determine optimal sowing times and suitable regions for three Cynodon dactylon cultivars (C. dactylon, 'Savannah' and 'Princess VII'. Prediction of the optimal temperature for these seeds was based on comprehensive germination tests using 36 day/night (high/low temperature regimes (both ranging from 5/5 to 40/40°C with 5°C increments. Seed germination data from these temperature regimes were used to construct temperature-germination correlation models for estimating germination percentage with confidence intervals. Our tests revealed that the optimal high/low temperature regimes required for all the three bermudagrass cultivars are 30/5, 30/10, 35/5, 35/10, 35/15, 35/20, 40/15 and 40/20°C; constant temperatures ranging from 5 to 40°C inhibited the germination of all three cultivars. While comparing different simulating methods, including DQEM, Bisquare ANN-QE, and BP-ANN-QE in establishing temperature based germination percentage rules, we found that the R(2 values of germination prediction function could be significantly improved from about 0.6940-0.8177 (DQEM approach to 0.9439-0.9813 (BP-ANN-QE. These results indicated that our BP-ANN-QE model has better performance than the rests of the compared models. Furthermore, data of the national temperature grids generated from monthly-average temperature for 25 years were fit into these functions and we were able to map the germination percentage of these C. dactylon cultivars in the national scale

  10. Implementation of a kinematic fit of single top-quark production in association with a W boson and its application in a neural-network-based analysis in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loddenkoetter, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    In order to provide discrimination between the Wt-channel signal and its backgrounds for analyses that try to measure single top-quark production in the Wt-channel, a kinematic fit to the lepton+jets decay mode of the Wt-channel has been implemented using the KLFitter package. The fit has been validated by studying its performance in terms of the efficiency of the fit to correctly assign the final-state quarks of the fit model to the measured jets as a function of various parameters, as well as the improvement of the energy resolutions of the fitted particles due to the fit. By combining the output variables of the kinematic fitter using neural networks, it has been shown that the fit results are suitable to identify the decay mode of the top quark in Wt events and to identify whether the kinematic fit succeeded in correctly assigning the final-state quarks to the measured jets. In order to demonstrate the value of the kinematic fit for analysis, another neural network - again using strictly results of the kinematic fit as input - has been trained to separate to the Wt-channel signal from its backgrounds. A separation power comparable to a conventional neural-network-based Wt-channel analysis has been achieved.

  11. Implementation of a kinematic fit of single top-quark production in association with a W boson and its application in a neural-network-based analysis in ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loddenkoetter, Thomas

    2012-08-15

    In order to provide discrimination between the Wt-channel signal and its backgrounds for analyses that try to measure single top-quark production in the Wt-channel, a kinematic fit to the lepton+jets decay mode of the Wt-channel has been implemented using the KLFitter package. The fit has been validated by studying its performance in terms of the efficiency of the fit to correctly assign the final-state quarks of the fit model to the measured jets as a function of various parameters, as well as the improvement of the energy resolutions of the fitted particles due to the fit. By combining the output variables of the kinematic fitter using neural networks, it has been shown that the fit results are suitable to identify the decay mode of the top quark in Wt events and to identify whether the kinematic fit succeeded in correctly assigning the final-state quarks to the measured jets. In order to demonstrate the value of the kinematic fit for analysis, another neural network - again using strictly results of the kinematic fit as input - has been trained to separate to the Wt-channel signal from its backgrounds. A separation power comparable to a conventional neural-network-based Wt-channel analysis has been achieved.

  12. Insights from Synthetic Star-forming Regions. II. Verifying Dust Surface Density, Dust Temperature, and Gas Mass Measurements With Modified Blackbody Fitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koepferl, Christine M.; Robitaille, Thomas P. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Dale, James E., E-mail: koepferl@usm.lmu.de [University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Munich (Germany)

    2017-11-01

    We use a large data set of realistic synthetic observations (produced in Paper I of this series) to assess how observational techniques affect the measurement physical properties of star-forming regions. In this part of the series (Paper II), we explore the reliability of the measured total gas mass, dust surface density and dust temperature maps derived from modified blackbody fitting of synthetic Herschel observations. We find from our pixel-by-pixel analysis of the measured dust surface density and dust temperature a worrisome error spread especially close to star formation sites and low-density regions, where for those “contaminated” pixels the surface densities can be under/overestimated by up to three orders of magnitude. In light of this, we recommend to treat the pixel-based results from this technique with caution in regions with active star formation. In regions of high background typical in the inner Galactic plane, we are not able to recover reliable surface density maps of individual synthetic regions, since low-mass regions are lost in the far-infrared background. When measuring the total gas mass of regions in moderate background, we find that modified blackbody fitting works well (absolute error: + 9%; −13%) up to 10 kpc distance (errors increase with distance). Commonly, the initial images are convolved to the largest common beam-size, which smears contaminated pixels over large areas. The resulting information loss makes this commonly used technique less verifiable as now χ {sup 2} values cannot be used as a quality indicator of a fitted pixel. Our control measurements of the total gas mass (without the step of convolution to the largest common beam size) produce similar results (absolute error: +20%; −7%) while having much lower median errors especially for the high-mass stellar feedback phase. In upcoming papers (Paper III; Paper IV) of this series we test the reliability of measured star formation rate with direct and indirect

  13. Insights from Synthetic Star-forming Regions. II. Verifying Dust Surface Density, Dust Temperature, and Gas Mass Measurements with Modified Blackbody Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepferl, Christine M.; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Dale, James E.

    2017-11-01

    We use a large data set of realistic synthetic observations (produced in Paper I of this series) to assess how observational techniques affect the measurement physical properties of star-forming regions. In this part of the series (Paper II), we explore the reliability of the measured total gas mass, dust surface density and dust temperature maps derived from modified blackbody fitting of synthetic Herschel observations. We find from our pixel-by-pixel analysis of the measured dust surface density and dust temperature a worrisome error spread especially close to star formation sites and low-density regions, where for those “contaminated” pixels the surface densities can be under/overestimated by up to three orders of magnitude. In light of this, we recommend to treat the pixel-based results from this technique with caution in regions with active star formation. In regions of high background typical in the inner Galactic plane, we are not able to recover reliable surface density maps of individual synthetic regions, since low-mass regions are lost in the far-infrared background. When measuring the total gas mass of regions in moderate background, we find that modified blackbody fitting works well (absolute error: + 9%; -13%) up to 10 kpc distance (errors increase with distance). Commonly, the initial images are convolved to the largest common beam-size, which smears contaminated pixels over large areas. The resulting information loss makes this commonly used technique less verifiable as now χ 2 values cannot be used as a quality indicator of a fitted pixel. Our control measurements of the total gas mass (without the step of convolution to the largest common beam size) produce similar results (absolute error: +20%; -7%) while having much lower median errors especially for the high-mass stellar feedback phase. In upcoming papers (Paper III; Paper IV) of this series we test the reliability of measured star formation rate with direct and indirect techniques.

  14. Adsorption behavior of modified Iron stick yam skin with Polyethyleneimine as a potential biosorbent for the removal of anionic dyes in single and ternary systems at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Zhuo; Li, Jun; Zhao, Jing; Bian, Wei; Li, Yun; Wang, Xiu-Jie

    2016-12-01

    The skin of Iron stick yam (ISY) was modified with Polyethyleneimine (ISY@PEI) and evaluated for use as a potential biosorbent to remove the anionic dyes Sunset yellow (SY), Lemon yellow (LY), and Carmine (CM) from wastewater under low temperature conditions (5-15°C) in single and ternary dye systems. Both in the single and ternary systems, experimental data showed that adsorption capacity reached the highest value at 5°C, and adsorption capacity decreased when the temperature increased (10-50°C). The equilibrium data fitted very well to the Langmuir model and the extended Langmuir isotherm, for the single and ternary systems, respectively. The maximum adsorption capability was 138.92, 476.31, and 500.13mg/g for LY, SY, and CM, respectively, in a single system and 36.63, 303.31, and 294.12mg/g for LY, SY, and CM, respectively, in a ternary system. The adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that it was a spontaneous and exothermic process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of moisture on LiD single crystals studied by temperature-programmed decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh, L.N.; Cecala, C.M.; Leckey, J.H.; Balooch, M.

    2001-01-01

    Temperature-programmed decomposition (TPD) technique was performed on LiOH powders and LiD single crystals previously exposed to different moisture levels. Our results show that the LiOH decomposition process is rate-limited by an inward moving reaction front mechanism with an activation energy barrier of ∼122-149 kJ/mol. The LiOH structure is stable even if kept at 320 K. However, LiOH structures formed on the surface of LiD single crystals during moisture exposure at low dosages may have multiple activation energy barriers, some of which may be much lower than 122 kJ/mol. The rate-limiting mechanism for the decomposition of LiOH structures with reduced activation energy barriers is consistent with a unimolecular nucleation model. We attribute the lowering of the activation energy barrier for the LiOH decomposition to the existence of sub-stoichiometric Li(OH) x with x 2 O formation is observed. The release of H 2 O molecules from LiOH · H 2 O structure has small activation energy barriers in the range of 48-69 kJ/mol and follows a unimolecular nucleation process. The loosely bonded H 2 O molecules in the LiOH · H 2 O structure can be easily pumped away at room temperature in a reasonable amount of time. Our experiments also suggest that handling LiD single crystals at an elevated temperature of 340 K or more reduces the growth rate of LiOH and LiOH · H 2 O significantly

  16. Temperature Insensitive Current-Mode Four Quadrant Multiplier Using Single CFCTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuntrakool Sunti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A four quadrant multiplier of two current input signals using active building block, namely current follower cascaded transconductance amplifier (CFCTA is presented in this paper. The proposed multiplier consists of only single CFCTA without the use of any passive element. The presented circuit has low impedance at current input node and high impedance at current output node which is convenient for cascading in current mode circuit without the need of current buffer circuits. The output current can multiply two input currents with temperature insensitivity. Moreover, the magnitude of output current can be controlled electronically via DC bias current. With only single active building block, the presented multiplier is suitable for integrated circuit implementation for analog signal processing. Simulation results from a PSpice program are presented in order to demonstrate the multiplier proposed here.

  17. A variable-temperature scanning tunneling microscope capable of single-molecule vibrational spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stipe, B.C.; Rezaei, M.A.; Ho, W.

    1999-01-01

    The design and performance of a variable-temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is presented. The microscope operates from 8 to 350 K in ultrahigh vacuum. The thermally compensated STM is suspended by springs from the cold tip of a continuous flow cryostat and is completely surrounded by two radiation shields. The design allows for in situ dosing and irradiation of the sample as well as for the exchange of samples and STM tips. With the STM feedback loop off, the drift of the tip-sample spacing is approximately 0.001 Angstrom/min at 8 K. It is demonstrated that the STM is well-suited for the study of atomic-scale chemistry over a wide temperature range, for atomic-scale manipulation, and for single-molecule inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS). copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  18. Mass transfer intensification of nanofluid single drops with effect of temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saien, Javad; Zardoshti, Mahdi [Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    The hydrodynamics and mass transfer of organic nanofluid single drops in liquid-liquid extraction process were investigated within temperature range of 20 to 40 .deg. C. Nanofluid drops of toluene+acetic acid, containing surface modified magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) with concentration within the range of (0.0005-0.005) wt%, were conducted in aqueous continuous phase. The rate of solute mass transfer was generally enhanced with NPs until about 0.002wt%, and small drops benefited more. The enhancement reached 184.1% with 0.002 wt% of NPs at 40 .deg. C; however, adding more NPs led to the mass transfer to either remain constant or face a reduction, depending on the applied temperature. The mass transfer coefficient was nicely reproduced using a developed correlation for enhancement factor of molecular diffusivity as a function of Reynolds and Schmidt numbers.

  19. Room temperature strong coupling effects from single ZnO nanowire microcavity

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Ayan

    2012-05-01

    Strong coupling effects in a dielectric microcavity with a single ZnO nanowire embedded in it have been investigated at room temperature. A large Rabi splitting of ?100 meV is obtained from the polariton dispersion and a non-linearity in the polariton emission characteristics is observed at room temperature with a low threshold of 1.63 ?J/cm2, which corresponds to a polariton density an order of magnitude smaller than that for the Mott transition. The momentum distribution of the lower polaritons shows evidence of dynamic condensation and the absence of a relaxation bottleneck. The polariton relaxation dynamics were investigated by timeresolved measurements, which showed a progressive decrease in the polariton relaxation time with increase in polariton density. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

  20. Loading direction-dependent shear behavior at different temperatures of single-layer chiral graphene sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Dong, Shuhong; Yu, Peishi; Zhao, Junhua

    2018-06-01

    The loading direction-dependent shear behavior of single-layer chiral graphene sheets at different temperatures is studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Our results show that the shear properties (such as shear stress-strain curves, buckling strains, and failure strains) of chiral graphene sheets strongly depend on the loading direction due to the structural asymmetry. The maximum values of both the critical buckling shear strain and the failure strain under positive shear deformation can be around 1.4 times higher than those under negative shear deformation. For a given chiral graphene sheet, both its failure strain and failure stress decrease with increasing temperature. In particular, the amplitude to wavelength ratio of wrinkles for different chiral graphene sheets under shear deformation using present MD simulations agrees well with that from the existing theory. These findings provide physical insights into the origins of the loading direction-dependent shear behavior of chiral graphene sheets and their potential applications in nanodevices.

  1. The Integrity of ACSR Full Tension Single-Stage Splice Connector at Higher Operation Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; King Jr, Thomas J [ORNL

    2008-10-01

    Due to increases in power demand and limited investment in new infrastructure, existing overhead power transmission lines often need to operate at temperatures higher than those used for the original design criteria. This has led to the accelerated aging and degradation of splice connectors. It is manifested by the formation of hot-spots that have been revealed by infrared imaging during inspection. The implications of connector aging is two-fold: (1) significant increases in resistivity of the splice connector (i.e., less efficient transmission of electricity) and (2) significant reductions in the connector clamping strength, which could ultimately result in separation of the power transmission line at the joint. Therefore, the splice connector appears to be the weakest link in electric power transmission lines. This report presents a protocol for integrating analytical and experimental approaches to evaluate the integrity of full tension single-stage splice connector assemblies and the associated effective lifetime at high operating temperature.

  2. Temperature effects on drift of suspended single-domain particles induced by the Magnus force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, S. I.; Lyutyy, T. V.; Reva, V. V.; Yermolenko, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    We study the temperature dependence of the drift velocity of single-domain ferromagnetic particles induced by the Magnus force in a dilute suspension. A set of stochastic equations describing the translational and rotational dynamics of particles is derived, and the particle drift velocity that depends on components of the average particle magnetization is introduced. The Fokker-Planck equation for the probability density of magnetization orientations is solved analytically in the limit of strong thermal fluctuations for both the planar rotor and general models. Using these solutions, we calculate the drift velocity and show that the out-of-plane fluctuations of magnetization, which are not accounted for in the planar rotor model, play an important role. In the general case of arbitrary fluctuations, we investigate the temperature dependence of the drift velocity by numerically simulating a set of effective stochastic differential equations for the magnetization dynamics.

  3. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Fe-doped semiconductor ZrS2 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Zahir; Lv, Haifeng; Wu, Chuanqiang; Habib, Muhammad; Rehman, Zia ur; Khan, Rashid; Chen, Shuangming; Wu, Xiaojun; Song, Li

    2018-04-01

    Two dimensional (2D) layered magnetic materials have obtained much attention due to their intriguing properties with a potential application in the field of spintronics. Herein, room-temperature ferromagnetism with 0.2 emu g‑1 magnetic moment is realized in Fe-doped ZrS2 single crystals of millimeter size, in comparison with diamagnetic behaviour in ZrS2. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals that 5.2wt% Fe-doping ZrS2 crystal exhibit high spin value of g-factor about 3.57 at room temperature also confirmed this evidence, due to the unpaired electrons created by doped Fe atoms. First principle static electronic and magnetic calculations further confirm the increased stability of long range ferromagnetic ordering and enhanced magnetic moment in Fe-doped ZrS2, originating from the Fe spin polarized electron near the Fermi level.

  4. A comparison of fisheries biological reference points estimated from temperature-specific multi-species and single-species climate-enhanced stock assessment models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsman, Kirstin K.; Ianelli, James; Aydin, Kerim; Punt, André E.; Moffitt, Elizabeth A.

    2016-12-01

    Multi-species statistical catch at age models (MSCAA) can quantify interacting effects of climate and fisheries harvest on species populations, and evaluate management trade-offs for fisheries that target several species in a food web. We modified an existing MSCAA model to include temperature-specific growth and predation rates and applied the modified model to three fish species, walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus), Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) and arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias), from the eastern Bering Sea (USA). We fit the model to data from 1979 through 2012, with and without trophic interactions and temperature effects, and use projections to derive single- and multi-species biological reference points (BRP and MBRP, respectively) for fisheries management. The multi-species model achieved a higher over-all goodness of fit to the data (i.e. lower negative log-likelihood) for pollock and Pacific cod. Variability from water temperature typically resulted in 5-15% changes in spawning, survey, and total biomasses, but did not strongly impact recruitment estimates or mortality. Despite this, inclusion of temperature in projections did have a strong effect on BRPs, including recommended yield, which were higher in single-species models for Pacific cod and arrowtooth flounder that included temperature compared to the same models without temperature effects. While the temperature-driven multi-species model resulted in higher yield MBPRs for arrowtooth flounder than the same model without temperature, we did not observe the same patterns in multi-species models for pollock and Pacific cod, where variability between harvest scenarios and predation greatly exceeded temperature-driven variability in yield MBRPs. Annual predation on juvenile pollock (primarily cannibalism) in the multi-species model was 2-5 times the annual harvest of adult fish in the system, thus predation represents a strong control on population dynamics that exceeds temperature

  5. Formation of magnetite nanoparticles at low temperature: from superparamagnetic to stable single domain particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Baumgartner

    Full Text Available The room temperature co-precipitation of ferrous and ferric iron under alkaline conditions typically yields superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles below a size of 20 nm. We show that at pH  =  9 this method can be tuned to grow larger particles with single stable domain magnetic (> 20-30 nm or even multi-domain behavior (> 80 nm. The crystal growth kinetics resembles surprisingly observations of magnetite crystal formation in magnetotactic bacteria. The physicochemical parameters required for mineralization in these organisms are unknown, therefore this study provides insight into which conditions could possibly prevail in the biomineralizing vesicle compartments (magnetosomes of these bacteria.

  6. A confocal optical microscope for detection of single impurities in a bulk crystal at cryogenic temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Jenny; Rippe, Lars; Kröll, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    A compact sample-scanning confocal optical microscope for detection of single impurities below the surface of a bulk crystal at cryogenic temperatures is described. The sample, lens, and scanners are mounted inside a helium bath cryostat and have a footprint of only 19 × 19 mm. Wide field imaging and confocal imaging using a Blu-ray lens immersed in liquid helium are demonstrated with excitation at 370 nm. A spatial resolution of 300 nm and a detection efficiency of 1.6% were achieved.

  7. High proton polarization at high temperature with single crystals of aromatic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iinuma, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Shake, I.; Oda, M.; Masaike, A.; Yabuzaki, T.; Shimizu, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Protons in single crystals of naphthalene doped with pentacene and p-terphenyl doped with pentacene have been polarized up to 32% and 18%, respectively. Such polarization has been achieved at liquid nitrogen temperature in a magnetic field of 3 kG by means of microwave-induced optical nuclear polarization. We also measured the polarization by the neutron transmission method. The relaxation time at 77 K in 7 G was found to be about 3 h and the enhancement of the obtained polarization compared with thermal polarization reached 8x10 4 . This method is applicable to neutron experiments

  8. Single Vs Mixed Organic Cation for Low Temperature Processed Perovskite Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmud, Md Arafat; Elumalai, Naveen Kumar; Upama, Mushfika Baishakhi; Wang, Dian; Wright, Matthew; Chan, Kah Howe; Xu, Cheng; Haque, Faiazul; Uddin, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Low temperature processed ZnO based single & mixed organic cation perovskite device. • 37% higher PCE in mixed cation perovskite solar cells (PSCs) than single cation ones. • Mixed cation PSCs exhibit significantly reduced photocurrent hysteresis. • Mixed cation PSCs demonstrate three fold higher device stability than single cation PSCs. • Electronic properties are analyzed using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. - Abstract: The present work reports a comparative study between single and mixed organic cation based MAPbI 3 and MA 0.6 FA 0.4 PbI 3 perovskite devices fabricated in conjunction with low temperature processed (<150 °C) ZnO electron transport layers. MA 0.6 FA 0.4 PbI 3 perovskite devices demonstrate 37% higher power conversion efficiency compared to MAPbI 3 perovskite devices developed on the ZnO ETL. In addition, MA 0.6 FA 0.4 PbI 3 devices exhibit very low photocurrent hysteresis and they are three-fold more stable than conventional MAPbI 3 PSCs (perovskite solar cells). An in-depth analysis on the charge transport properties in both fresh and aged devices has been carried out using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis to comprehend the enhanced device stability of the mixed perovskite devices developed on the ZnO ETL. The study also investigates into the interfacial charge transfer characteristics associated with the ZnO/mixed organic cation perovskite interface and concomitant influence on the inherent electronic properties.

  9. Temperature and strain-rate dependence of the flow stress of ultrapure tantalum single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, M.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the temperature dependence of the cyclic flow stress of ultrapure tantalum single crystals (RRR >∼ 14000) are extended to lower temperatures. After cyclic deformation well into saturation at 400 K, the temperature dependence of the flow stress is measured between 80 and 450 K at five different plastic resolved shear-strain rates, ε pl , in the range 2 x 10 -5 to 6 x 10 -3 s -1 . Below a critical temperature T k the flow stress is dominantly controlled by the mobility of screw dislocations. A recent theory of Seeger describes the 'thermal' component, σ*, of the flow stress (resolved shear stress) in the temperature and stress regime where the strain rate is determined by the formation and migration of kink pairs. The analytical expressions are valid in well-defined ranges of stress and temperature. The evaluation of the experimental data yields a value for the formation enthalpy of two isolated kinks 2H k = 0.98 eV. From the low-stress (σ* k = 2.0 x 10 -6 m 2 s -1 . The product of the density of mobile screw dislocations and the distance between insurmountable obstacles is found to be 2 x 10 -5 m -1 . The stress dependence of the kink-pair formation enthalpy H kp follows the theoretically predicted curve in the elastic-interaction stress regime. At the transition to the line-tension approximation (near σ* ∼ 80 MPa) the activation volume increases rather abruptly. Moreover, the quantitative analysis involves kinks other than those of minimum height. The most likely candidates are kinks on {211} planes. (author)

  10. Temperature-dependent ordering phenomena in single crystals of germanium antimony tellurides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Philipp [Faculty of Chemistry and Mineralogy, Leipzig University, Scharnhorststr. 20, 04275 Leipzig (Germany); Schneider, Matthias N. [Department of Chemistry, LMU Munich, Butenandtstr. 5-13 (D), 81377 Munich (Germany); Oeckler, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.oeckler@gmx.de [Faculty of Chemistry and Mineralogy, Leipzig University, Scharnhorststr. 20, 04275 Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    The temperature-dependent behavior of quenched single-crystalline (GeTe){sub n}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} (n~2.8, n~5 and n~11) was investigated by semiquantitative modeling of diffuse X-ray scattering. The structure at room temperature exhibits trigonal twin domains, each comprising a stacking-disordered sequence of distorted rocksalt-type slabs with variable thicknesses. Ge and Sb share the cation position and vacancies are partially ordered in defect layers (van der Waals gaps) between the slabs. The average structure determined with resonant diffraction data corresponds to a rocksalt-type structure whose cation position is split along the stacking direction. Upon heating, cation ordering leads to a metastable superstructure of the rocksalt type at ~400 °C, which transforms to a rocksalt-type high-temperature phase with randomly distributed cations and vacancies at ~500 °C; this structure was also refined using resonant diffraction. Cooling at high or intermediate rates does not yield the long-range ordered phase, but directly leads to the twinned disordered phase. - Graphical abstract: Development of the diffraction patterns of (GeTe){sub ~11}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} upon heating; the insets symbolically sketch the real structure at the corresponding temperatures. - Highlights: • The structure of disordered (GeTe){sub n}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} is described as a function of temperature. • Structural changes are tracked by modeling diffuse X-ray scattering. • Quenched crystals exhibit distorted NaCl-type slabs with different thicknesses. • Vacancy ordering upon heating leads to a metastable superstructure of the NaCl type. • Further heating leads to an undistorted disordered NaCl-type high-temperature phase.

  11. Experimental and numerical study of the high-temperature structure of copper single crystal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loisel, Bertrand

    1989-01-01

    The structure of copper single crystal surfaces has been investigated on an atomic scale using two complementary tools: helium beam diffraction experiments and computer simulations by molecular dynamics. In the case of stepped surfaces, the roughening transition occurs at low temperature. Our helium beam diffraction experiments in the range 70-1000 K reveal this transition at 650±50 K and 150±50 K respectively on the (331) and (310) surfaces. We emphasize the role of the terrace and step structure on the thermal roughness, which is ruled by microscopic energies related to the creation and interaction of defects on the step edges. Adsorbing oxygen on a rough (310) surface gives rise to ordered superstructures. In our computer simulations, the interatomic forces are derived from an empiric N-body potential which leads to a realistic description of the static and dynamical properties of the bulk metal and its surfaces. We analyze the results of high-temperature simulations on the (110) surface. Two types of disorder are distinguished: the creation of adatom-vacancy pairs and the enhancement of the vibrational amplitudes of the atoms near their equilibrium site. We establish that both phenomena take place in the same temperature range. These simulations also indicate the very anisotropic behaviour of the surface at high temperatures (> 1000 K). (author) [fr

  12. Single-Crystal Tungsten Carbide in High-Temperature In-Situ Additive Manufacturing Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolopus, James A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boatner, Lynn A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-18

    Nanoindenters are commonly used for measuring the mechanical properties of a wide variety of materials with both industrial and scientific applications. Typically, these instruments employ an indenter made of a material of suitable hardness bonded to an appropriate shaft or holder to create an indentation on the material being tested. While a variety of materials may be employed for the indenter, diamond and boron carbide are by far the most common materials used due to their hardness and other desirable properties. However, as the increasing complexity of new materials demands a broader range of testing capabilities, conventional indenter materials exhibit significant performance limitations. Among these are the inability of diamond indenters to perform in-situ measurements at temperatures above 600oC in air due to oxidation of the diamond material and subsequent degradation of the indenters mechanical properties. Similarly, boron carbide also fails at high temperature due to fracture. [1] Transition metal carbides possess a combination of hardness and mechanical properties at high temperatures that offer an attractive alternative to conventional indenter materials. Here we describe the technical aspects for the growth of single-crystal tungsten carbide (WC) for use as a high-temperature indenter material, and we examine a possible approach to brazing these crystals to a suitable mount for grinding and attachment to the indenter instrument. The use of a by-product of the recovery process is also suggested as possibly having commercial value.

  13. Effects of temperature and torsion speed on torsional properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoei, A.R.; Ban, E.; Banihashemi, P.; Abdolhosseini Qomi, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are excellent candidates for torsional elements used in nanoelectro-mechanical systems (NEMS). Simulations show that after being twisted to a certain angle, they buckle and lose their mechanical strength. In this paper, classical molecular dynamics simulations are performed on single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to investigate the effects of torsion speed and temperature on CNT torsional properties. The AIREBO potential is employed to describe the bonded interactions between carbon atoms. The MD simulations clearly show that the buckling of CNTs in torsion is a reversible process, in which by unloading the buckled CNT in opposite direction, it returns to its original configuration. In addition, the numerical results reveal that the torsional shear modulus of CNTs increases by increasing the temperature and decreasing the torsion speed. Furthermore, the buckling torsion angle of CNTs increases by increasing the torsion speed and decreasing the temperature. Finally, it is observed that torsional properties of CNTs are highly affected by speed of twist and temperature of the nanotubes.

  14. Anode-supported SOFC operated under single-chamber conditions at intermediate temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, M.; Roa, J.J.; Segarra, M. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, University of Barcelona, E-08028, Barcelona (Spain); Capdevila, X.G. [Center of Design and Optimization in Avanced Materials, Parc Cientific of Barcelona, E-08028, Barcelona (Spain); Pinol, S. [Institute of Materials Science of Barcelona (CSIC), Campus of the UAB, Bellaterra E-08193, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    Anode-supported SOFC was fabricated using gadolinia doped ceria (GDC) as the electrolyte (15 {mu}m of thickness), Ni-GDC as the anode and La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3-{delta}}-GDC as the cathode. Catalytic activities of the electrodes and electrical properties of the cell were determined, using mixtures of methane + air, under single-chamber conditions. This work assessed with special and wide emphasis the effect of temperature, gas composition and total flow rate on the cell performance. As a result, operational temperature range of the fuel cell was approximately between 700 and 800 C, which agrees with the results corresponding to the catalytic activities of electrodes. While Ni-GDC anode was enough active towards methane partial oxidation at cell temperatures higher than 700 C, the LSC-GDC cathode was enough inactive towards partial and total oxidation of methane at cell temperatures lower than 800 C. Under optimised gas compositions (CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2}) ratio (1) and total flow rate (530 mL min {sup -1}), power densities of 145 and 235 mW cm {sup -2} were obtained at 705 and 764 C, respectively. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Competitive fitness in coronaviruses is not correlated with size or number of double-membrane vesicles under reduced-temperature growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mulla, Hawaa M N; Turrell, Lauren; Smith, Nicola M; Payne, Luke; Baliji, Surendranath; Züst, Roland; Thiel, Volker; Baker, Susan C; Siddell, Stuart G; Neuman, Benjamin W

    2014-04-01

    Positive-stranded viruses synthesize their RNA in membrane-bound organelles, but it is not clear how this benefits the virus or the host. For coronaviruses, these organelles take the form of double-membrane vesicles (DMVs) interconnected by a convoluted membrane network. We used electron microscopy to identify murine coronaviruses with mutations in nsp3 and nsp14 that replicated normally while producing only half the normal amount of DMVs under low-temperature growth conditions. Viruses with mutations in nsp5 and nsp16 produced small DMVs but also replicated normally. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) confirmed that the most strongly affected of these, the nsp3 mutant, produced more viral RNA than wild-type virus. Competitive growth assays were carried out in both continuous and primary cells to better understand the contribution of DMVs to viral fitness. Surprisingly, several viruses that produced fewer or smaller DMVs showed a higher fitness than wild-type virus at the reduced temperature, suggesting that larger and more numerous DMVs do not necessarily confer a competitive advantage in primary or continuous cell culture. For the first time, this directly demonstrates that replication and organelle formation may be, at least in part, studied separately during infection with positive-stranded RNA virus. IMPORTANCE The viruses that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), poliomyelitis, and hepatitis C all replicate in double-membrane vesicles (DMVs). The big question about DMVs is why they exist in the first place. In this study, we looked at thousands of infected cells and identified two coronavirus mutants that made half as many organelles as normal and two others that made typical numbers but smaller organelles. Despite differences in DMV size and number, all four mutants replicated as efficiently as wild-type virus. To better understand the relative importance of replicative organelles, we carried out competitive fitness experiments. None

  16. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2011-01-01

    General fitness Classes Enrolments are open for general fitness classes at CERN taking place on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday lunchtimes in the Pump Hall (building 216). There are shower facilities for both men and women. It is possible to pay for 1, 2 or 3 classes per week for a minimum of 1 month and up to 6 months. Check out our rates and enrol at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club fitness.club@cern.ch  

  17. Temperature- and excitation intensity-dependent photoluminescence in TlInSeS single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasanly, N M; Aydinli, A; Yuksek, N S

    2002-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of TlInSeS layered single crystals were investigated in the wavelength region 460-800 nm and in the temperature range 10-65 K. We observed one wide PL band centred at 584 nm (2.122 eV) at T=10 K and an excitation intensity of 7.5 W cm -2 . We have also studied the variation of the PL intensity versus excitation laser intensity in the range from 0.023 to 7.5 W cm -2 . The red shift of this band with increasing temperature and blue shift with increasing laser excitation intensity was observed. The PL was found to be due to radiative transitions from the moderately deep donor level located at 0.243 eV below the bottom of the conduction band to the shallow acceptor level at 0.023 eV located above the top of the valence band. The proposed energy-level diagram permits us to interpret the recombination processes in TlInSeS layered single crystals

  18. Defects of diamond single crystal grown under high temperature and high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Qingcai, E-mail: suqc@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan, P. R. China, 250061 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, P. R. China, 250061 (China); Shandong Engineering Research Center for Superhard Materials, Zoucheng, P. R. China 273500 (China); Zhang, Jianhua [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, P. R. China, 250061 (China); Li, Musen [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan, P. R. China, 250061 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, P. R. China, 250061 (China); Shandong Engineering Research Center for Superhard Materials, Zoucheng, P. R. China 273500 (China)

    2013-11-01

    The diamond single crystal, synthesized with Fe–Ni–C–B system of catalyst under high temperature and high pressure, had been observed by field emission scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The presence of a cellular structure suggested that the diamond grew from melted catalyst solution and there existed a zone of component supercooling zone in front of the solid–liquid interface. The main impurities in the diamond crystal was (FeNi){sub 23}C{sub 6}. The triangle screw pit revealed on the (111) plane was generated by the screw dislocation meeting the diamond (111) plane at the points of emergence of dislocations. A narrow twin plane was formed between the two (111) plane. - Highlights: • High pressure, high temperature synthesis of diamond single crystal. • Fe–Ni–C–B used as catalyst, graphite as carbon source. • The main impurity in the diamond crystal was (FeNi){sub 23}C{sub 6}. • Surface defects arose from screw dislocations and stacking faults.

  19. Temperature- and excitation intensity-dependent photoluminescence in TlInSeS single crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Gasanly, N M; Yuksek, N S

    2002-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of TlInSeS layered single crystals were investigated in the wavelength region 460-800 nm and in the temperature range 10-65 K. We observed one wide PL band centred at 584 nm (2.122 eV) at T=10 K and an excitation intensity of 7.5 W cm sup - sup 2. We have also studied the variation of the PL intensity versus excitation laser intensity in the range from 0.023 to 7.5 W cm sup - sup 2. The red shift of this band with increasing temperature and blue shift with increasing laser excitation intensity was observed. The PL was found to be due to radiative transitions from the moderately deep donor level located at 0.243 eV below the bottom of the conduction band to the shallow acceptor level at 0.023 eV located above the top of the valence band. The proposed energy-level diagram permits us to interpret the recombination processes in TlInSeS layered single crystals.

  20. Temperature response functions (G-functions) for single pile heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loveridge, Fleur; Powrie, William

    2013-01-01

    Foundation piles used as heat exchangers as part of a ground energy system have the potential to reduce energy use and carbon dioxide emissions from new buildings. However, current design approaches for pile heat exchangers are based on methods developed for boreholes which have a different geometry, with a much larger aspect (length to diameter) ratio. Current methods also neglect the transient behaviour of the pile concrete, instead assuming a steady state resistance for design purposes. As piles have a much larger volume of concrete than boreholes, this neglects the significant potential for heat storage within the pile. To overcome these shortcomings this paper presents new pile temperature response functions (G-functions) which are designed to reflect typical geometries of pile heat exchangers and include the transient response of the pile concrete. Owing to the larger number of pile sizes and pipe configurations which are possible with pile heat exchangers it is not feasible to developed a single unified G-function and instead upper and lower bound solutions are provided for different aspects ratios. - Highlights: • We present new temperature response functions for pile heat exchangers. • The functions include transient heat transfer within the pile concrete. • Application of the functions reduces the resulting calculated temperature ranges. • Greater energy efficiency is possible by accounting for heat storage in the pile

  1. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Fitness Club is organising Zumba Classes on the first Wednesday of each month, starting 7 September (19.00 – 20.00). What is Zumba®? It’s an exhilarating, effective, easy-to-follow, Latin-inspired, calorie-burning dance fitness-party™ that’s moving millions of people toward joy and health. Above all it’s great fun and an excellent work out. Price: 22 CHF/person Sign-up via the following form: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20Subscription/NewForm.aspx For more info: fitness.club@cern.ch

  2. Coherent Anti-Stokes and Coherent Stokes in Raman Scattering by Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector for Temperature Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annepu Venkata Naga Vamsi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have reported the measurement of temperature by using coherent anti-Stroke and coherent Stroke Raman scattering using superconducting nano wire single-photon detector. The measured temperatures by both methods (Coherent Anti-Raman scattering & Coherent Stroke Raman scattering and TC 340 are in good accuracy of ± 5 K temperature range. The length of the pipe line under test can be increased by increasing the power of the pump laser. This methodology can be widely used to measure temperatures at instantaneous positions in test pipe line or the entire temperature of the pipe line under test.

  3. Temperature-Dependent Mollow Triplet Spectra from a Single Quantum Dot: Rabi Frequency Renormalization and Sideband Linewidth Insensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Yu-Jia; He, Yu; He, Yu-Ming

    2014-01-01

    We investigate temperature-dependent resonance fluorescence spectra obtained from a single self- assembled quantum dot. A decrease of the Mollow triplet sideband splitting is observed with increasing temperature, an effect we attribute to a phonon-induced renormalization of the driven dot Rabi fr...

  4. Effects of low temperature neutron irradiation on the mechanical properties of iron single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitajima, K.; Abe, H.; Takamura, S.; Okuda, S.

    1975-01-01

    Measurements were made on tensile properties and their recovery characteristics of single crystals of pure iron and iron containing carbon of 4 to 60 ppm irradiated in reactor to the dose of 3 x 10 16 to approximately 3 x 10 17 nvt (greater than 0.1 MeV) at approximately 5 0 K. The yield stress showed large softening at less than or equal to 90 0 K saturating to a value nearly independent of orientations for greater than or equal to 1 x 10 17 nvt. The softening recovered and hardening set in at several temperature stages. The activation energies of the recovery and the activation parameters of plastic deformations at various annealing stages were determined. Carbon suppressed the softening and its recovery but much enhanced the hardening at the stage of 300 to approximately 400 0 K

  5. Integrated nanoplasmonic quantum interfaces for room-temperature single-photon sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyskens, Frédéric; Englund, Dirk; Chang, Darrick

    2017-12-01

    We describe a general analytical framework of a nanoplasmonic cavity-emitter system interacting with a dielectric photonic waveguide. Taking into account emitter quenching and dephasing, our model directly reveals the single-photon extraction efficiency η as well as the indistinguishability I of photons coupled into the waveguide mode. Rather than minimizing the cavity modal volume, our analysis predicts an optimum modal volume to maximize η that balances waveguide coupling and spontaneous emission rate enhancement. Surprisingly, our model predicts that near-unity indistinguishability is possible, but this requires a much smaller modal volume, implying a fundamental performance trade-off between high η and I at room temperature. Finally, we show that maximizing η I requires that the system has to be driven in the weak coupling regime because quenching effects and decreased waveguide coupling drastically reduce η in the strong coupling regime.

  6. SOLUBILITY PREDICTION OF SULFONAMIDES AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES USING A SINGLE DETERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JALAL HANAEE

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Solubility of sulphamethoxazole, sulphisoxazole and sulphasalazine in six solvents namely water,methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, acetone and chloroform were determined at 15, 25, 37 and 45 °C. Two models derived from the Hildebrand solubility approach are proposed for solubility prediction at different temperatures using a single determination. The experimental data of the present work as well as data gathered from the literature have been employed to investigate the accuracy and prediction capability of the proposed models. The overall percent deviations between the predicted and experimental values were 10.78 and 14.63% which were comparable to those of the classical two and three parameter models. The proposed models were much superior to the two pure predictive models i.e., the ones which do not require experimental solubility determination, as the overall percent deviations produced by the latter models were 150.09 and 161.00%.

  7. Single-Molecule Electronics with Cross- Conjugated Molecules: Quantum Interference, IETS and Non-Equilibrium "Temperatures"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jacob Lykkebo

    Abstract The idea of using single-molecules as components in electronic devices is fas- cinating. For this idea to come into fruition, a number of technical and theo- retical challenges must be overcome. In this PhD thesis, the electron-phonon interaction is studied for a special class of molecules......, which is characterised by destructive quantum interference. The molecules are cross-conjugated, which means that the two parts of the molecules are conjugated to a third part, but not to each other. This gives rise to an anti-resonance in the trans- mission. In the low bias and low temperature regime......-conjugated molecules. We nd that the vibrational modes that would be expected to dominate, following the propensity, rules are very weak. Instead, other modes are found to be the dominant ones. We study this phenomenon for a number of cross-conjugated molecules, and link these ndings to the anti...

  8. Comparative Analysis of Single and Dual Irradiation Pass of Deep Burn High Temperature Reactor Scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Jo, Chang Keun; Noh, Jae Man

    2012-01-01

    A concept of a deep-burn (DB) of trans uranic (TRU) elements in a high temperature reactor (HTR) has been proposed and studied with a single irradiation pass. However, there is still a significant amount of TRU after burn in an HTR. Therefore, it is necessary to burn more TRU in a fast reactor (FR) with repeated reprocessing such as a pyro-process. In this study, the fuel cycle calculations are performed and the results are compared for a singlepass DB-HHR scenario and a dual-pass sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) scenario. For the analysis, front-end and back-end parameters are compared. The calculations were performed by the DANESS (Dynamic Analysis of Nuclear Energy System Strategies), which is an integrated system dynamic fuel cycle analysis code

  9. Electronic properties of dislocations introduced mechanically at room temperature on a single crystal silicon surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Masatoshi; Kamiya, Shoji; Izumi, Hayato; Tokuda, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the effects of temperature and environment on the electronic properties of dislocations in n-type single crystal silicon near the surface. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) analyses were carried out with Schottky electrodes and p + -n junctions. The trap level, originally found at E C -0.50 eV (as commonly reported), shifted to a shallower level at E C -0.23 eV after a heat treatment at 350 K in an inert environment. The same heat treatment in lab air, however, did not cause any shift. The trap level shifted by the heat treatment in an inert environment was found to revert back to the original level when the specimens were exposed to lab air again. Therefore, the intrinsic trap level is expected to occur at E C -0.23 eV and shift sensitively with gas adsorption in air.

  10. Room-Temperature Single-photon level Memory for Polarization States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupchak, Connor; Mittiga, Thomas; Jordaan, Bertus; Namazi, Mehdi; Nölleke, Christian; Figueroa, Eden

    2015-01-01

    An optical quantum memory is a stationary device that is capable of storing and recreating photonic qubits with a higher fidelity than any classical device. Thus far, these two requirements have been fulfilled for polarization qubits in systems based on cold atoms and cryogenically cooled crystals. Here, we report a room-temperature memory capable of storing arbitrary polarization qubits with a signal-to-background ratio higher than 1 and an average fidelity surpassing the classical benchmark for weak laser pulses containing 1.6 photons on average, without taking into account non-unitary operation. Our results demonstrate that a common vapor cell can reach the low background noise levels necessary for polarization qubit storage using single-photon level light, and propels atomic-vapor systems towards a level of functionality akin to other quantum information processing architectures.

  11. Room-Temperature Single-Photon Emission from Micrometer-Long Air-Suspended Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, A.; Uda, T.; Kato, Y. K.

    2017-11-01

    Statistics of photons emitted by mobile excitons in individual carbon nanotubes are investigated. Photoluminescence spectroscopy is used to identify the chiralities and suspended lengths of air-suspended nanotubes, and photon-correlation measurements are performed at room temperature on telecommunication-wavelength nanotube emission with a Hanbury-Brown-Twiss setup. We obtain zero-delay second-order correlation g(2 )(0 ) less than 0.5, indicating single-photon generation. Excitation power dependence of the photon antibunching characteristics is examined for nanotubes with various chiralities and suspended lengths, where we find that the minimum value of g(2 )(0 ) is obtained at the lowest power. The influence of exciton diffusion and end quenching is studied by Monte Carlo simulations, and we derive an analytical expression for the minimum value of g(2 )(0 ). Our results indicate that mobile excitons in micrometer-long nanotubes can in principle produce high-purity single photons, leading to new design strategies for quantum photon sources.

  12. Mechanical energy losses in plastically deformed and electron plus neutron irradiated high purity single crystalline molybdenum at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelada, Griselda I. [Laboratorio de Materiales, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Avda. Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Lambri, Osvaldo Agustin [Laboratorio de Materiales, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Avda. Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Instituto de Fisica Rosario - CONICET, Member of the CONICET& #x27; s Research Staff, Avda. Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Bozzano, Patricia B. [Laboratorio de Microscopia Electronica, Unidad de Actividad Materiales, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avda. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin (Argentina); Garcia, Jose Angel [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Facultad de Ciencias y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao, Pais Vasco (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    Mechanical spectroscopy (MS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies have been performed in plastically deformed and electron plus neutron irradiated high purity single crystalline molybdenum, oriented for single slip, in order to study the dislocation dynamics in the temperature range within one third of the melting temperature. A damping peak related to the interaction of dislocation lines with both prismatic loops and tangles of dislocations was found. The peak temperature ranges between 900 and 1050 K, for an oscillating frequency of about 1 Hz. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Analytical solution and numerical simulation of the liquid nitrogen freezing-temperature field of a single pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Haibing; Xu, Liuxun; Yang, Yugui; Li, Longqi

    2018-05-01

    Artificial liquid nitrogen freezing technology is widely used in urban underground engineering due to its technical advantages, such as simple freezing system, high freezing speed, low freezing temperature, high strength of frozen soil, and absence of pollution. However, technical difficulties such as undefined range of liquid nitrogen freezing and thickness of frozen wall gradually emerge during the application process. Thus, the analytical solution of the freezing-temperature field of a single pipe is established considering the freezing temperature of soil and the constant temperature of freezing pipe wall. This solution is then applied in a liquid nitrogen freezing project. Calculation results show that the radius of freezing front of liquid nitrogen is proportional to the square root of freezing time. The radius of the freezing front also decreases with decreased the freezing temperature, and the temperature gradient of soil decreases with increased distance from the freezing pipe. The radius of cooling zone in the unfrozen area is approximately four times the radius of the freezing front. Meanwhile, the numerical simulation of the liquid nitrogen freezing-temperature field of a single pipe is conducted using the Abaqus finite-element program. Results show that the numerical simulation of soil temperature distribution law well agrees with the analytical solution, further verifies the reliability of the established analytical solution of the liquid nitrogen freezing-temperature field of a single pipe.

  14. Description of turbulent velocity and temperature fields of single phase flow through tight rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monir, C.

    1991-02-01

    A two-dimensional procedure, VANTACY-II, describing the turbulent velocity and temperature fields for single phase flow in tight lattices is presented and validated. The flow is assumed to be steady, incrompressible and hydraulic and thermal fully developed. First, the state of art of turbulent momentum and heat transport in tight lattices is documented. It is shown that there is a necessity for experimental investigations in the field of turbulent heat transport. The presented new procedure is based on the turbulence model VELASCO-TUBS by NEELEN. The numerical solution of the balance equations is done by the finite element method code VANTACY by KAISER. The validation of the new procedure VANTACY-II is done by comparing the numerically calculated data for the velocity and temperature fields and for natural mixing with the experimental data of SEALE. The comparison shows a good agreement of experimental and numerically computed data. The observed differences can be mainly attributed to the model of the turbulent PRANDTL number used in the new procedure. (orig.) [de

  15. A phenomenological creep model for nickel-base single crystal superalloys at intermediate temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Siwen; Wollgramm, Philip; Eggeler, Gunther; Ma, Anxin; Schreuer, Jürgen; Hartmaier, Alexander

    2018-07-01

    For the purpose of good reproduction and prediction of creep deformation of nickel-base single crystal superalloys at intermediate temperatures, a phenomenological creep model is developed, which accounts for the typical γ/γ‧ microstructure and the individual thermally activated elementary deformation processes in different phases. The internal stresses from γ/γ‧ lattice mismatch and deformation heterogeneity are introduced through an efficient method. The strain hardening, the Orowan stress, the softening effect due to dislocation climb along γ/γ‧ interfaces and the formation of dislocation ribbons, and the Kear–Wilsdorf-lock effect as key factors in the main flow rules are formulated properly. By taking the cube slip in \\{100\\} slip systems and \\{111\\} twinning mechanisms into account, the creep behavior for [110] and [111] loading directions are well captured. Without specific interaction and evolution of dislocations, the simulations of this model achieve a good agreement with experimental creep results and reproduce temperature, stress and crystallographic orientation dependences. It can also be used as the constitutive relation at material points in finite element calculations with complex boundary conditions in various components of superalloys to predict creep behavior and local stress distributions.

  16. Effects of single low-temperature sauna bathing in patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iiyama, Junichi; Matsushita, Kensuke; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Kawahira, Kazumi

    2008-07-01

    We have previously reported that thermal vasodilation following warm-water bathing and low-temperature sauna bathing (LTSB) at 60 degrees C for 15 min improves the cardiac function in patients with congestive heart failure. Through a comparative before-and-after study, we studied the hemodynamic and clinical effects of single exposure to LTSB in cerebral palsy (CP) patients who usually suffer from chilled extremities and low cardiac output. The study population comprised 16 patients ranging between 19 and 53 years with severe motor and intellectual disabilities. Noninvasive methods were used to estimate the systemic and peripheral circulatory changes before and after LTSB. Using blood flow velocity analysis, the pulsatile and resistive indexes of the peripheral arteries of the patients' lower limbs were calculated. Following LTSB, the patients' deep body temperature increased significantly by 1 degrees C. Their heart rates increased and blood pressure decreased slightly. The total peripheral resistance decreased by 11%, and the cardiac output increased by 14%. There was significant improvement in the parameters that are indicative of the peripheral circulatory status, including the skin blood flow, blood flow velocity, pulsatile index, and resistive index. Numbness and chronic myalgia of the extremities decreased. There were no adverse side effects. Thus, it can be concluded that LTSB improves the peripheral circulation in CP patients.

  17. Optical properties of CsI single crystals irradiated with neutrons at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, M.; Atobe, K.; Itatani, N.; Ozawa, K.

    1998-01-01

    Optical properties of the irradiation-induced-defects in neutron-irradiated CsI single crystals have been investigated. The nominally pure CsI crystals are irradiated by reactor fast neutrons (E>0.1 MeV) with a fluence of 1.4 x 10 15 n/cm 2 at 20 K and by γ-rays from 60 Co source to a dose of 1.5 x 10 4 Gy at liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT). After the irradiations, isochronal annealings are performed to investigate the thermal behavior of the defects. The glow peaks of the thermoluminescence (TL) in each sample irradiated with neutrons at 20 K and with γ-rays at LNT are observed at about 100, 160 and 220 K. In the neutron-irradiated samples at 20 K, the emission band at 338 nm is observed at LNT. It is supposed that this emission band occurs by an excitation of γ-rays from 134 Cs, which is radioactivated by thermal neutrons among the reactor radiations. It is confirmed that the temperature dependence of the 338 nm band is similar with that of the emission band due to the self-trapped exciton which is introduced into the non-irradiated samples illuminated by higher energy photons. (orig.)

  18. Optical properties of CsI single crystals irradiated with neutrons at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, M. [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.; Nakagawa, M. [Faculty of Education, Kagawa Univ., Takamatsu, Kagawa (Japan); Atobe, K. [Faculty of Science, Naruto Univ. of Education, Naruto, Tokushima (Japan); Itatani, N.; Ozawa, K. [Horiba Ltd., Minamiku, Kyoto (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    Optical properties of the irradiation-induced-defects in neutron-irradiated CsI single crystals have been investigated. The nominally pure CsI crystals are irradiated by reactor fast neutrons (E>0.1 MeV) with a fluence of 1.4 x 10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2} at 20 K and by {gamma}-rays from {sup 60}Co source to a dose of 1.5 x 10{sup 4} Gy at liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT). After the irradiations, isochronal annealings are performed to investigate the thermal behavior of the defects. The glow peaks of the thermoluminescence (TL) in each sample irradiated with neutrons at 20 K and with {gamma}-rays at LNT are observed at about 100, 160 and 220 K. In the neutron-irradiated samples at 20 K, the emission band at 338 nm is observed at LNT. It is supposed that this emission band occurs by an excitation of {gamma}-rays from {sup 134}Cs, which is radioactivated by thermal neutrons among the reactor radiations. It is confirmed that the temperature dependence of the 338 nm band is similar with that of the emission band due to the self-trapped exciton which is introduced into the non-irradiated samples illuminated by higher energy photons. (orig.) 13 refs.

  19. Very High Cycle Fatigue of Ni-Based Single-Crystal Superalloys at High Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervellon, A.; Cormier, J.; Mauget, F.; Hervier, Z.; Nadot, Y.

    2018-05-01

    Very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) properties at high temperature of Ni-based single-crystal (SX) superalloys and of a directionally solidified (DS) superalloy have been investigated at 20 kHz and a temperature of 1000 °C. Under fully reversed conditions (R = - 1), no noticeable difference in VHCF lifetimes between all investigated alloys has been observed. Internal casting pores size is the main VHCF lifetime-controlling factor whatever the chemical composition of the alloys. Other types of microstructural defects (eutectics, carbides), if present, may act as stress concentration sites when the number of cycles exceed 109 cycles or when porosity is absent by applying a prior hot isostatic pressing treatment. For longer tests (> 30 hours), oxidation also controls the main crack initiation sites leading to a mode I crack initiation from oxidized layer. Under such conditions, alloy's resistance to oxidation has a prominent role in controlling the VHCF. When creep damage is present at high ratios (R ≥ 0.8), creep resistance of SX/DS alloys governs VHCF lifetime. Under such high mean stress conditions, SX alloys developed to retard the initiation and creep propagation of mode I micro-cracks from pores have better VHCF lifetimes.

  20. PLA and single component silicone rubber blends for sub-zero temperature blown film packaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekum, Utai; Khiansanoi, Apichart

    2018-06-01

    The poly(lactic acid) (PLA) blend with single component silicone rubber in the presence of reactive amino silane coupling agent and polyester polyols plasticizer were studied. The manufacturing of film packaging for sub-zero temperature applications from the PLA blend was the main objective. The mechanical properties, especially the impact strengths, of PLA/silicone blends were significantly depended on the silicone loading. The outstanding impact strengths, tested at sub-zero temperature, of the blend having silicone content of 8.0 phr was achieved. It was chosen as the best candidate for the processability improvement. Adding the talc filler into the PLA/silicone blend to enhance the rheological properties was investigated. The ductility of the talc filled blends were decreased with increasing the filler contents. However, the shear viscosity of the blend was raised with talc loading. The blend loaded with 40 phr of talc filler was justified as the optimal formula for the blown film process testing and it was successfully performed with a few difficulties. The obtained blown film showed relative good flexibility in comparison with LDPE but it has low transparency.

  1. Fodbold Fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Søren

    Samfundet forandrer sig og ligeså gør danskernes idrætsmønstre. Fodbold Fitness, der er afhandlingens omdrejningspunkt, kan iagttages som en reaktion på disse forandringer. Afhandlingen ser nærmere på Fodbold Fitness og implementeringen af dette, der ingenlunde er nogen let opgave. Bennike bidrager...

  2. Temperature effect on phase states of quartz nano-crystals in silicon single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalanov, M.U.; Ibragimova, E.M.; Khamraeva, R.N.; Rustamova, V.M.; Ummatov, Kh.D.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Oxygen penetrates into the silicon lattice up to the concentration of 2·10 18 cm -3 in the course of growing [1]. By the author's opinion at a low oxygen content the formation of solid solution is possible in the local defect places of the silicon single crystal lattice due to the difference in effective ion radius of oxygen and silicon (r O 0.176 and r Si = 0.065 nm). Upon reaching some critical content (∼ 10 17 cm -3 ), it becomes favorable energetically for oxygen ions to form precipitates (SiO x ) and finally a dielectric layer (stoichiometric inclusions of SiO 2 ). It was shown later that depending on the growth conditions, indeed the quartz crystal inclusions are formed in the silicon single crystals at an amount of 0.3 /0.5 wt. % [2]. However the authors did not study a phase state of the quartz inclusions. Therefore the aim of this work was to study a phase state of the quartz inclusions in silicon crystal at various temperatures. We examined the silicon single crystals grown by Czochralski technique, which were cut in (111) plane in the form of disk of 20 mm diameter and 1.5 thickness and had hole conductivity with the specific resistance ρ o ≅ 1/10 Ohm cm. The dislocation density was N D ≅ 10 1 /10 3 cm -2 , the concentrations of oxygen and boron were N 0 ≅ 2/ 4·10 17 cm -3 and N B ≅ 3*10 15 cm -3 . Structure was analyzed at the set-up DRON-UM1 with high temperature supply UVD-2000 ( CuK = 0.1542 nm) at the temperatures of 300, 1173 and 1573 K measured with platinum-platinum-rhodium thermocouple. The high temperature diffraction spectrum measured at 1573 K in the angle range (2Θ≅10/70 d egree ) there is only one main structure reflection (111) with a high intensity and d/n ≅ 0.3136 nm (2 Θ≅ 28.5 d egree ) from the matrix lattice of silicon single crystal. The weak line at 2 Θ≅ 25.5 d egree ( d/n≅0.3136 nm) is β component of the main reflection (111), and the weak structure peak at 2Θ≅59 d egree ( d/n≅ 0.1568 nm

  3. Fitness cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Pedersen, Thomas M.; Udekwu, Klas I.

    2012-01-01

    phage types, predominantly only penicillin resistant. We investigated whether isolates of this epidemic were associated with a fitness cost, and we employed a mathematical model to ask whether these fitness costs could have led to the observed reduction in frequency. Bacteraemia isolates of S. aureus...... from Denmark have been stored since 1957. We chose 40 S. aureus isolates belonging to phage complex 83A, clonal complex 8 based on spa type, ranging in time of isolation from 1957 to 1980 and with varyous antibiograms, including both methicillin-resistant and -susceptible isolates. The relative fitness...... of each isolate was determined in a growth competition assay with a reference isolate. Significant fitness costs of 215 were determined for the MRSA isolates studied. There was a significant negative correlation between number of antibiotic resistances and relative fitness. Multiple regression analysis...

  4. Effects of chair yoga therapy on physical fitness in patients with psychiatric disorders: A 12-week single-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikai, Saeko; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Mizuno, Yuya; Tani, Hideaki; Nagaoka, Maki; Tsunoda, Kenichi; Mimura, Masaru; Suzuki, Takefumi

    2017-11-01

    Since falls may lead to fractures and have serious, potentially fatal outcomes, prevention of falls is an urgent public health issue. We examined the effects of chair yoga therapy on physical fitness among psychiatric patients in order to reduce the risk of falls, which has not been previously reported in the literature. In this 12-week single-blind randomized controlled trial with a 6-week follow-up, inpatients with mixed psychiatric diagnoses were randomly assigned to either chair yoga therapy in addition to ongoing treatment, or treatment-as-usual. Chair yoga therapy was conducted as twice-weekly 20-min sessions over 12 weeks. Assessments included anteflexion in sitting, degree of muscle strength, and Modified Falls Efficacy Scale (MFES) as well as QOL, psychopathology and functioning. Fifty-six inpatients participated in this study (36 men; mean ± SD age, 55.3 ± 13.7 years; schizophrenia 87.5%). In the chair yoga group, significant improvements were observed in flexibility, hand-grip, lower limb muscle endurance, and MFES at week 12 (mean ± SD: 55.1 ± 16.6 to 67.2 ± 14.0 cm, 23.6 ± 10.6 to 26.8 ± 9.7 kg, 4.9 ± 4.0 to 7.0 ± 3.9 kg, and 114.9 ± 29.2 to 134.1 ± 11.6, respectively). Additionally, these improvements were observable six weeks after the intervention was over. The QOL-VAS improved in the intervention group while no differences were noted in psychopathology and functioning between the groups. The intervention appeared to be highly tolerable without any notable adverse effects. The results indicated sustainable effects of 20-min, 12-week, 24-session chair yoga therapy on physical fitness. Chair yoga therapy may contribute to reduce the risk of falls and their unwanted consequences in psychiatric patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermal expansion, anharmonicity and temperature-dependent Raman spectra of single- and few-layer MoSe₂ and WSe₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Late, Dattatray J; Shirodkar, Sharmila N; Waghmare, Umesh V; Dravid, Vinayak P; Rao, C N R

    2014-06-06

    We report the temperature-dependent Raman spectra of single- and few-layer MoSe2 and WSe2 in the range 77-700 K. We observed linear variation in the peak positions and widths of the bands arising from contributions of anharmonicity and thermal expansion. After characterization using atomic force microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, the temperature coefficients of the Raman modes were determined. Interestingly, the temperature coefficient of the A(2)(2u) mode is larger than that of the A(1g) mode, the latter being much smaller than the corresponding temperature coefficients of the same mode in single-layer MoS2 and of the G band of graphene. The temperature coefficients of the two modes in single-layer MoSe2 are larger than those of the same modes in single-layer WSe2. We have estimated thermal expansion coefficients and temperature dependence of the vibrational frequencies of MoS2 and MoSe2 within a quasi-harmonic approximation, with inputs from first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. We show that the contrasting temperature dependence of the Raman-active mode A(1g) in MoS2 and MoSe2 arises essentially from the difference in their strain-phonon coupling. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Quantifying the effect of water activity and storage temperature on single spore lag times of three moulds isolated from spoiled bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnas, Stéphane; Gougouli, Maria; Onno, Bernard; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2017-01-02

    The inhibitory effect of water activity (a w ) and storage temperature on single spore lag times of Aspergillus niger, Eurotium repens (Aspergillus pseudoglaucus) and Penicillium corylophilum strains isolated from spoiled bakery products, was quantified. A full factorial design was set up for each strain. Data were collected at levels of a w varying from 0.80 to 0.98 and temperature from 15 to 35°C. Experiments were performed on malt agar, at pH5.5. When growth was observed, ca 20 individual growth kinetics per condition were recorded up to 35days. Radius of the colony vs time was then fitted with the Buchanan primary model. For each experimental condition, a lag time variability was observed, it was characterized by its mean, standard deviation (sd) and 5 th percentile, after a Normal distribution fit. As the environmental conditions became stressful (e.g. storage temperature and a w lower), mean and sd of single spore lag time distribution increased, indicating longer lag times and higher variability. The relationship between mean and sd followed a monotonous but not linear pattern, identical whatever the species. Next, secondary models were deployed to estimate the cardinal values (minimal, optimal and maximal temperatures, minimal water activity where no growth is observed anymore) for the three species. That enabled to confirm the observation made based on raw data analysis: concerning the temperature effect, A. niger behaviour was significantly different from E. repens and P. corylophilum: T opt of 37.4°C (standard deviation 1.4°C) instead of 27.1°C (1.4°C) and 25.2°C (1.2°C), respectively. Concerning the a w effect, from the three mould species, E. repens was the species able to grow at the lowest a w (aw min estimated to 0.74 (0.02)). Finally, results obtained with single spores were compared to findings from a previous study carried out at the population level (Dagnas et al., 2014). For short lag times (≤5days), there was no difference between lag

  7. Predicting long-term temperature increase for time-dependent SAR levels with a single short-term temperature response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carluccio, Giuseppe; Bruno, Mary; Collins, Christopher M

    2016-05-01

    Present a novel method for rapid prediction of temperature in vivo for a series of pulse sequences with differing levels and distributions of specific energy absorption rate (SAR). After the temperature response to a brief period of heating is characterized, a rapid estimate of temperature during a series of periods at different heating levels is made using a linear heat equation and impulse-response (IR) concepts. Here the initial characterization and long-term prediction for a complete spine exam are made with the Pennes' bioheat equation where, at first, core body temperature is allowed to increase and local perfusion is not. Then corrections through time allowing variation in local perfusion are introduced. The fast IR-based method predicted maximum temperature increase within 1% of that with a full finite difference simulation, but required less than 3.5% of the computation time. Even higher accelerations are possible depending on the time step size chosen, with loss in temporal resolution. Correction for temperature-dependent perfusion requires negligible additional time and can be adjusted to be more or less conservative than the corresponding finite difference simulation. With appropriate methods, it is possible to rapidly predict temperature increase throughout the body for actual MR examinations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Temperature dependence of photoconductivity at 0.7 eV in single-wall carbon nanotube films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukitaka Matsuoka, Akihiko Fujiwara, Naoki Ogawa, Kenjiro Miyano, Hiromichi Kataura, Yutaka Maniwa, Shinzo Suzuki and Yohji Achiba

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature dependence of photoconductivity has been investigated for single-wall carbon nanotube films at 0.7 eV. In order to clarify the effect of atmosphere on photoconductivity, measurements have been performed under helium and nitrogen gas flow in the temperature range from 10 K to room temperature (RT and from 100 K to RT, respectively. Photoconductive response monotonously increases with a decrease in temperature and tends to saturate around 10 K. No clear difference in photoconductive response under different atmosphere was observed. We discuss the mechanism of photoconductivity at 0.7 eV.

  9. Resistance Training with Single vs. Multi-joint Exercises at Equal Total Load Volume: Effects on Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Gentil, Paulo; Moro, Tatiana; Marcolin, Giuseppe; Bianco, Antonino

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training performed with single-joint (SJ) or multi-joint exercises (MJ) on VO 2 max, muscle strength and body composition in physically active males. Thirty-six participants were divided in two groups: SJ group ( n = 18, 182.1 ± 5.2, 80.03 ± 2.78 kg, 23.5 ± 2.7 years) exercised with only SJ exercises (e.g., dumbbell fly, knee extension, etc.) and MJ group ( n = 18, 185.3 ± 3.6 cm, 80.69 ± 2.98 kg, 25.5 ± 3.8 years) with only MJ exercises (e.g., bench press, squat, etc.). The total work volume (repetitions × sets × load) was equated between groups. Training was performed three times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training period, participants were tested for VO 2 max, body composition, 1 RM on the bench press, knee extension and squat. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare post training values between groups, using baseline values as covariates. According to the results, both groups decreased body fat and increased fat free mass with no difference between them. Whilst both groups significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal strength, the improvements in MJ group were higher than for SJ in VO 2 max (5.1 and 12.5% for SJ and MJ), bench press 1 RM (8.1 and 10.9% for SJ and MJ), knee extension 1 RM (12.4 and 18.9% for SJ and MJ) and squat 1 RM (8.3 and 13.8% for SJ and MJ). In conclusion, when total work volume was equated, RT programs involving MJ exercises appear to be more efficient for improving muscle strength and maximal oxygen consumption than programs involving SJ exercises, but no differences were found for body composition.

  10. Current sharing temperature of NbTi SULTAN samples compared to prediction using a single pinning mechanism parametrization for NbTi strand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pong, Ian; Vostner, Alexander; Devred, Arnaud; Bessette, Denis; Mitchell, Neil; Bordini, Bernardo; Bottura, Luca; Jewell, Matthew; Long Feng; Wu Yu

    2012-01-01

    NbTi strands to be used in four of the six ITER poloidal field (PF) coils, all the correction coils (CC) and all the superconducting feeder busbars are being produced in China. Short full-size qualification conductor (cabled and jacketed) samples have been developed at ASIPP and tested at CRPP. Single pinning mechanism parametrization for this Chinese strand (type S2) has been obtained using the Bottura scaling law. The determination of the scaling parameters using a Kramer-type regression method will be described. A comparison between the critical temperature at the operating current and field of a single strand as determined by the parametrization and the current sharing temperature (T CS ) of a few conductor samples tested at the SULTAN facility will be made. The validity and limitation of the estimation will be discussed. The estimated T CS dependence on various (superconducting critical as well as geometric and volumetric) parameters will be assessed using the modelled critical surface. Errors propagated from critical current (I c ) measurements of the strands and parameter fitting, and other uncertainties, will be quantified. (paper)

  11. Single-mode temperature and polarisation-stable high-speed 850nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaruk, D E; Blokhin, S A; Maleev, N A; Bobrov, M A; Pavlov, M M; Kulagina, M M; Vashanova, K A; Zadiranov, Yu M; Ustinov, V M; Kuzmenkov, A G; Vasil'ev, A P; Gladyshev, A G; Blokhin, A A; Salut, 7 Larina Str, N Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (JSV Salut, 7 Larina Str, N Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation))" >Fefelov, A G

    2014-01-01

    A new intracavity-contacted design to realize temperature and polarization-stable high-speed single-mode 850 nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) grown by molecular-beam epitaxy is proposed. Temperature dependences of static and dynamic characteristics of the 4.5 pm oxide aperture InGaAlAs VCSEL were investigated in detail. Due to optimal gain-cavity detuning and enhanced carrier localization in the active region the threshold current remains below 0.75 mA for the temperature range within 20-90°C, while the output power exceeds 1 mW up to 90°C. Single-mode operation with side-mode suppression ratio higher than 30 dB and orthogonal polarization suppression ratio more than 18 dB was obtained in the whole current and temperature operation range. Device demonstrates serial resistance less than 250 Ohm, which is rather low for any type of single-mode short- wavelength VCSELs. VCSEL demonstrates temperature robust high-speed operation with modulation bandwidth higher than 13 GHz in the entire temperature range of 20-90°C. Despite high resonance frequency the high-speed performance of developed VCSELs was limited by the cut-off frequency of the parasitic low pass filter created by device resistances and capacitances. The proposed design is promising for single-mode high-speed VCSEL applications in a wide spectral range

  12. Steady state RANS simulations of temperature fluctuations in single phase turbulent mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kickhofel, J.; Fokken, J.; Kapulla, R.; Prasser, H. M.

    2012-01-01

    Single phase turbulent mixing in nuclear power plant circuits where a strong temperature gradient is present is known to precipitate pipe failure due to thermal fatigue. Experiments in a square mixing channel offer the opportunity to study the phenomenon under simple and easily reproducible boundary conditions. Measurements of this kind have been performed extensively at the Paul Scherrer Inst. in Switzerland with a high density of instrumentation in the Generic Mixing Experiment (GEMIX). As a fundamental mixing phenomena study closely related to the thermal fatigue problem, the experimental results from GEMIX are valuable for the validation of CFD codes striving to accurately simulate both the temperature and velocity fields in single phase turbulent mixing. In the experiments two iso-kinetic streams meet at a shallow angle of 3 degrees and mix in a straight channel of square cross-section under various degrees of density, temperature, and viscosity stratification over a range of Reynolds numbers ranging from 5*10 3 to 1*10 5 . Conductivity measurements, using wire-mesh and wall sensors, as well as optical measurements, using particle image velocimetry, were conducted with high temporal and spatial resolutions (up to 2.5 kHz and 1 mm in the case of the wire mesh sensor) in the mixing zone, downstream of a splitter plate. The present paper communicates the results of RANS modeling of selected GEMIX tests. Steady-state CFD calculations using a RANS turbulence model represent an inexpensive method for analyzing large and complex components in commercial nuclear reactors, such as the downcomer and reactor pressure vessel heads. Crucial to real world applicability, however, is the ability to model turbulent heat fluctuations in the flow; the Turbulent Heat Flux Transport model developed by ANSYS CFX is capable, by implementation of a transport equation for turbulent heat fluxes, of readily modeling these values. Furthermore, the closure of the turbulent heat flux

  13. Design of indoor temperature and humidity detection system based on single chip microcomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiuwei; Fu, Li; Ma, Tianhui

    2018-03-01

    The indoor temperature and humidity detection system based on STC15F2K60S2 is designed in this paper. The temperature and humidity sensor DHT22 to monitor the indoor temperature and humidity are used, and the temperature and humidity data to the user's handheld device are wirelessly transmitted, when the temperature reaches or exceeds the user set the temperature alarm value, and the system sound and light alarm, to remind the user.

  14. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Open to All: http://cern.ch/club-fitness  fitness.club@cern.ch Boxing Your supervisor makes your life too tough ! You really need to release the pressure you've been building up ! Come and join the fit-boxers. We train three times a week in Bd 216, classes for beginners and advanced available. Visit our website cern.ch/Boxing General Fitness Escape from your desk with our general fitness classes, to strengthen your heart, muscles and bones, improve you stamina, balance and flexibility, achieve new goals, be more productive and experience a sense of well-being, every Monday, Wednesday and Friday lunchtime, Tuesday mornings before work and Thursday evenings after work – join us for one of our monthly fitness workshops. Nordic Walking Enjoy the great outdoors; Nordic Walking is a great way to get your whole body moving and to significantly improve the condition of your muscles, heart and lungs. It will boost your energy levels no end. Pilates A body-conditioning technique de...

  15. Effect of Temperature on the Prevalence of Saccharomyces Non cerevisiae Species against a S. cerevisiae Wine Strain in Wine Fermentation: Competition, Physiological Fitness, and Influence in Final Wine Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-del-Real, Javier; Lairón-Peris, María; Barrio, Eladio; Querol, Amparo

    2017-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the main microorganism responsible for the fermentation of wine. Nevertheless, in the last years wineries are facing new challenges due to current market demands and climate change effects on the wine quality. New yeast starters formed by non-conventional Saccharomyces species (such as S. uvarum or S. kudriavzevii) or their hybrids (S. cerevisiae x S. uvarum and S. cerevisiae x S. kudriavzevii) can contribute to solve some of these challenges. They exhibit good fermentative capabilities at low temperatures, producing wines with lower alcohol and higher glycerol amounts. However, S. cerevisiae can competitively displace other yeast species from wine fermentations, therefore the use of these new starters requires an analysis of their behavior during competition with S. cerevisiae during wine fermentation. In the present study we analyzed the survival capacity of non-cerevisiae strains in competition with S. cerevisiae during fermentation of synthetic wine must at different temperatures. First, we developed a new method, based on QPCR, to quantify the proportion of different Saccharomyces yeasts in mixed cultures. This method was used to assess the effect of competition on the growth fitness. In addition, fermentation kinetics parameters and final wine compositions were also analyzed. We observed that some cryotolerant Saccharomyces yeasts, particularly S. uvarum, seriously compromised S. cerevisiae fitness during competences at lower temperatures, which explains why S. uvarum can replace S. cerevisiae during wine fermentations in European regions with oceanic and continental climates. From an enological point of view, mixed co-cultures between S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus or S. eubayanus, deteriorated fermentation parameters and the final product composition compared to single S. cerevisiae inoculation. However, in co-inoculated synthetic must in which S. kudriavzevii or S. uvarum coexisted with S. cerevisiae, there were fermentation

  16. Sensitivity analysis of recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage with single well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Jun-Seo; Lee, Seung-Rae; Pasquinelli, Lisa; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2015-01-01

    High-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage system usually shows higher performance than other borehole thermal energy storage systems. Although there is a limitation in the widespread use of the HT-ATES system because of several technical problems such as clogging, corrosion, etc., it is getting more attention as these issues are gradually alleviated. In this study, a sensitivity analysis of recovery efficiency in two cases of HT-ATES system with a single well is conducted to select key parameters. For a fractional factorial design used to choose input parameters with uniformity, the optimal Latin hypercube sampling with an enhanced stochastic evolutionary algorithm is considered. Then, the recovery efficiency is obtained using a computer model developed by COMSOL Multiphysics. With input and output variables, the surrogate modeling technique, namely the Gaussian-Kriging method with Smoothly Clopped Absolute Deviation Penalty, is utilized. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is performed based on the variation decomposition. According to the result of sensitivity analysis, the most important input variables are selected and confirmed to consider the interaction effects for each case and it is confirmed that key parameters vary with the experiment domain of hydraulic and thermal properties as well as the number of input variables. - Highlights: • Main and interaction effects on recovery efficiency in HT-ATES was investigated. • Reliability depended on fractional factorial design and interaction effects. • Hydraulic permeability of aquifer had an important impact on recovery efficiency. • Site-specific sensitivity analysis of HT-ATES was recommended.

  17. Room temperature phosphorescence study on the structural flexibility of single tryptophan containing proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska-Baron, Agnieszka; Gałęcki, Krystian; Wysocki, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have undertaken efforts to find correlation between phosphorescence lifetimes of single tryptophan containing proteins and some structural indicators of protein flexibility/rigidity, such as the degree of tryptophan burial or its exposure to solvent, protein secondary and tertiary structure of the region of localization of tryptophan as well as B factors for tryptophan residue and its immediate surroundings. Bearing in mind that, apart from effective local viscosity of the protein/solvent matrix, the other factor that concur in determining room temperature tryptophan phosphorescence (RTTP) lifetime in proteins is the extent of intramolecular quenching by His, Cys, Tyr and Trp side chains, the crystallographic structures derived from the Brookhaven Protein Data Bank were also analyzed concentrating on the presence of potentially quenching amino acid side chains in the close proximity of the indole chromophore. The obtained results indicated that, in most cases, the phosphorescence lifetimes of tryptophan containing proteins studied tend to correlate with the above mentioned structural indicators of protein rigidity/flexibility. This correlation is expected to provide guidelines for the future development of phosphorescence lifetime-based method for the prediction of structural flexibility of proteins, which is directly linked to their biological function.

  18. How systems of single-molecule magnets magnetize at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Julio F.; Alonso, Juan J.

    2004-01-01

    We model magnetization processes that take place through tunneling in crystals of single-molecule magnets, such as Mn12 and Fe8. These processes take place when a field H is applied after quenching to very low temperatures. Magnetic dipolar interactions and spin-flipping rules are essential ingredients of the model. The results obtained follow from Monte Carlo simulations and from the stochastic model we propose for dipole field diffusion. Correlations established before quenching are shown to later drive the magnetization process. We also show that in simple cubic lattices, m∝√(t) at time t after H is applied, as observed in Fe8, but only for 1+2log10(hd/hw) time decades, where hd is some near-neighbor magnetic dipolar field, and a spin reversal can occur only if the magnetic field acting on it is within some field window (-hw,hw). However, the √(t) behavior is not universal. For bcc and fcc lattices, m∝tp, but p≃0.7. An expression for p in terms of lattice parameters is derived. At later times the magnetization levels off to a constant value. All these processes take place at approximately constant magnetic energy if the annealing energy ɛa is larger than the tunneling window’s energy width (i.e., if ɛa≳gμBhwS). Thermal processes come in only later on to drive further magnetization growth.

  19. Low-temperature synthesis of single-phase Co7Sb2O12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, M.S.L.; Escote, M.T.; Santos, C.O.P.; Lisboa-Filho, P.N.; Leite, E.R.; Oliveira, J.B.L.; Gama, L.; Longo, E.

    2004-01-01

    Polycrystalline Co 7 Sb 2 O 12 compounds have been synthesized by a chemical route, which is based on a modified polymeric precursor method. In order to study the physical properties of the samples, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analyses (TG and DSC), infrared spectroscopy (IR), specific surface area (BET), and magnetization measurements were performed on these materials. Characterization through XRD revealed that the samples are single-phase after a heat-treatment at 1100 deg. C for 2 h, while the X-ray patterns of the samples heat-treated at lower temperatures revealed the presence of additional Bragg reflections belonging to the Co 6 Sb 2 O 6 phase. These data were analyzed by means of Rietveld refinement and further analyze showed that Co 7 Sb 2 O 12 displays an inverse spinel crystalline structure. In this structure, the Co 2+ ions occupy the eight tetrahedral positions, and the sixteen octahedral positions are randomly occupied by the Sb 5+ and Co 2+ ions. IR studies disclosed two strong absorption bands, ν 1 and ν 2 , in the expected spectral range for a spinel-type binary oxide with space group Fd3m. Exploratory studies concerning the magnetic properties indicated that this sample presents a spin-glass transition at T f ∼ 64 K

  20. Simultaneous measurement of temperature and pressure by a single fiber Bragg grating with a broadened reflection spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tuan; Qiao, Xueguang; Jia, Zhenan; Zhao, Qida; Dong, Xiaoyi

    2006-05-01

    Simultaneous measurement of temperature and pressure with a single fiber Bragg grating (FBG) based on a broadened reflection spectrum is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A novel double-hole structure of a cantilever beam is designed, and a FBG is affixed on the nonuniform strain area of the cantilever beam. The Bragg reflection bandwidth is sensitive to the spatially gradient strain but is free from the spatially uniform temperature. The wavelength peak shift and the bandwidth broadening of the FBG with a change of temperature and pressure allow for simultaneous discrimination between the temperature and the pressure effects. Standard deviation errors of 1.4 degrees C and 1.8 kPa were obtained with temperature and pressure ranges of 20 degrees C-100 degrees C and 0-80 kPa, respectively. This novel and low-cost sensor approach has considerable potential applications for temperature-insensitive strain measurement.

  1. Temperature control system for the study of single event effects in integrated circuits using a cyclotron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakerenkov, A.S., E-mail: as_bakerenkov@list.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Belyakov, V.V. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Kozyukov, A.E. [Joint-Stock Company Institute of Space Device Engineering (JSC ISDE), Moscow (Russian Federation); Pershenkov, V.S.; Solomatin, A.V.; Shurenkov, V.V. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-02-11

    The temperature control system for the study of single event disruptions produced by hard ion impacts in integrated circuits is described. Heating and cooling of the irradiated device are achieved using thermoelectric modules (Peltier modules). The thermodynamic performance of the system is estimated. The technique for the numerical estimation of the main parameters of the temperature control system for cooling and heating is considered. The results of a test of the system in a vacuum cell of an accelerator are presented.

  2. Temperature control system for the study of single event effects in integrated circuits using a cyclotron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakerenkov, A.S.; Belyakov, V.V.; Kozyukov, A.E.; Pershenkov, V.S.; Solomatin, A.V.; Shurenkov, V.V.

    2015-01-01

    The temperature control system for the study of single event disruptions produced by hard ion impacts in integrated circuits is described. Heating and cooling of the irradiated device are achieved using thermoelectric modules (Peltier modules). The thermodynamic performance of the system is estimated. The technique for the numerical estimation of the main parameters of the temperature control system for cooling and heating is considered. The results of a test of the system in a vacuum cell of an accelerator are presented

  3. Diffraction and single-crystal elastic constants of Inconel 625 at room and elevated temperatures determined by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhuqing; Stoica, Alexandru D.; Ma, Dong; Beese, Allison M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, diffraction and single-crystal elastic constants of Inconel 625 have been determined by means of in situ loading at room and elevated temperatures using time-of-flight neutron diffraction. Theoretical models proposed by Voigt, Reuss, and Kroner were used to determine single-crystal elastic constants from measured diffraction elastic constants, with the Kroner model having the best ability to capture experimental data. The magnitude of single-crystal elastic moduli, computed from single-crystal elastic constants, decreases and the single crystal anisotropy increases as temperature increases, indicating the importance of texture in affecting macroscopic stress at elevated temperatures. The experimental data reported here are of great importance in understanding additive manufacturing of metallic components as: diffraction elastic constants are required for computing residual stresses from residual lattice strains measured using neutron diffraction, which can be used to validate thermomechanical models of additive manufacturing, while single-crystal elastic constants can be used in crystal plasticity modeling, for example, to understand mechanical deformation behavior of additively manufactured components.

  4. Diffraction and single-crystal elastic constants of Inconel 625 at room and elevated temperatures determined by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhuqing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Stoica, Alexandru D. [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Ma, Dong, E-mail: dongma@ornl.gov [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Beese, Allison M., E-mail: amb961@psu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-09-30

    In this work, diffraction and single-crystal elastic constants of Inconel 625 have been determined by means of in situ loading at room and elevated temperatures using time-of-flight neutron diffraction. Theoretical models proposed by Voigt, Reuss, and Kroner were used to determine single-crystal elastic constants from measured diffraction elastic constants, with the Kroner model having the best ability to capture experimental data. The magnitude of single-crystal elastic moduli, computed from single-crystal elastic constants, decreases and the single crystal anisotropy increases as temperature increases, indicating the importance of texture in affecting macroscopic stress at elevated temperatures. The experimental data reported here are of great importance in understanding additive manufacturing of metallic components as: diffraction elastic constants are required for computing residual stresses from residual lattice strains measured using neutron diffraction, which can be used to validate thermomechanical models of additive manufacturing, while single-crystal elastic constants can be used in crystal plasticity modeling, for example, to understand mechanical deformation behavior of additively manufactured components.

  5. Resistance Training with Single vs. Multi-joint Exercises at Equal Total Load Volume: Effects on Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Paoli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training performed with single-joint (SJ or multi-joint exercises (MJ on VO2max, muscle strength and body composition in physically active males. Thirty-six participants were divided in two groups: SJ group (n = 18, 182.1 ± 5.2, 80.03 ± 2.78 kg, 23.5 ± 2.7 years exercised with only SJ exercises (e.g., dumbbell fly, knee extension, etc. and MJ group (n = 18, 185.3 ± 3.6 cm, 80.69 ± 2.98 kg, 25.5 ± 3.8 years with only MJ exercises (e.g., bench press, squat, etc.. The total work volume (repetitions × sets × load was equated between groups. Training was performed three times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training period, participants were tested for VO2max, body composition, 1 RM on the bench press, knee extension and squat. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare post training values between groups, using baseline values as covariates. According to the results, both groups decreased body fat and increased fat free mass with no difference between them. Whilst both groups significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal strength, the improvements in MJ group were higher than for SJ in VO2max (5.1 and 12.5% for SJ and MJ, bench press 1 RM (8.1 and 10.9% for SJ and MJ, knee extension 1 RM (12.4 and 18.9% for SJ and MJ and squat 1 RM (8.3 and 13.8% for SJ and MJ. In conclusion, when total work volume was equated, RT programs involving MJ exercises appear to be more efficient for improving muscle strength and maximal oxygen consumption than programs involving SJ exercises, but no differences were found for body composition.

  6. A Caenorhabditis elegans wild type defies the temperature-size rule owing to a single nucleotide polymorphism in tra-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan E Kammenga

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Ectotherms rely for their body heat on surrounding temperatures. A key question in biology is why most ectotherms mature at a larger size at lower temperatures, a phenomenon known as the temperature-size rule. Since temperature affects virtually all processes in a living organism, current theories to explain this phenomenon are diverse and complex and assert often from opposing assumptions. Although widely studied, the molecular genetic control of the temperature-size rule is unknown. We found that the Caenorhabditis elegans wild-type N2 complied with the temperature-size rule, whereas wild-type CB4856 defied it. Using a candidate gene approach based on an N2 x CB4856 recombinant inbred panel in combination with mutant analysis, complementation, and transgenic studies, we show that a single nucleotide polymorphism in tra-3 leads to mutation F96L in the encoded calpain-like protease. This mutation attenuates the ability of CB4856 to grow larger at low temperature. Homology modelling predicts that F96L reduces TRA-3 activity by destabilizing the DII-A domain. The data show that size adaptation of ectotherms to temperature changes may be less complex than previously thought because a subtle wild-type polymorphism modulates the temperature responsiveness of body size. These findings provide a novel step toward the molecular understanding of the temperature-size rule, which has puzzled biologists for decades.

  7. The effects of changing the electrodes temperature on the tunnel magnetoresistance in the ferromagnetic single electron transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, N.; Pourali, N.; Kavaz, E.

    2018-01-01

    Ferromagnetic single electron transistor with electrodes having different temperatures is investigated and the effects of changing electrodes temperature on TMR of system are studied. A modified orthodox theory is used to study the system and to calculate the electron tunneling transition rate. The results show that the temperature of electrodes can be an effective tool to control and tune the tunnel magnetoresistance of FM-SET. Also, the effects of parameters such as resistance ratio of junctions, magnetic polarization and spin relaxation time on the behaviour of the system are studied.

  8. Research of resonant losses of ultrasonic sound in the deformed single crystals in temperature range 77...300 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petchenko, A.M.; Petchenko, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    The damped dislocation resonance in preliminary deformed up to 1 % single crystals KBr was investigated. The measurements of a frequency dependence of a dislocation damping decrement of ultrasonic sound were conducted in range of frequencies 7,5...217,5 MHz and temperature range 77...300 K. From the analysis of frequency spectrums the temperature course of a coefficient of phonon viscosity B was determined, which is agreed both with the theory and experimental literary data. The influencing temperature changes of length of a dislocation segment on parameters of a resonant maximum and dynamic drag of dislocations by phonons was revealed and analyzed

  9. The effect of irradiation temperature on the optical attenuation recovery in heavily Ge-doped single mode silica core fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolotti, M.; Mabrouk, M.A.; Ferrari, A.; Serra, A.; Viezzoli, G.

    1992-01-01

    The behaviour under irradiation of a single mode fiber heavily doped with germanium has been investigated at 0.85 μm and 1.3 μm under different irradiation temperatures in the range from -65degC to 60degC. The time behaviour of the recovery of the induced attenuation has been described using empirical equations, for different temperatures. An nth order kinetics seems appropriate to describe the results and the order of kinetics has been determined at different temperatures. (orig.)

  10. Prototyping and performance study of a single crystal diamond detector for operation at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Arvind; Topkar, Anita, E-mail: anita@barc.gov.in; Das, D.

    2017-06-21

    Prototype single crystal diamond detectors with different types of metallization and post metallization treatment were fabricated for the applications requiring fast neutron measurements in the Indian Test Blanket Module (TBM) at the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Experiment. The detectors were characterized by leakage current measurements to ascertain that the leakage currents are low and breakdown voltages are higher than the voltage required for full charge collection. The detector response to charged particles was evaluated using a {sup 238+239} Pu dual energy alpha source. The detectors showed an energy resolution of about 2% at 5.5 MeV. In order to study their suitability for the operation at higher temperatures, leakage current variation and alpha response were studied up to 300 °C. At 300 °C, peaks corresponding to 5.156 MeV and 5.499 MeV alphas could be separated and there was no significant degradation of energy resolution. Finally, the detector response to fast neutrons was evaluated using a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) neutron generator. The observed spectrum showed peaks corresponding to various channels of n-C interactions with a clear isolated peak corresponding to ~8.5 MeV alphas. The detectors also showed high sensitivity of 3.4×10{sup −2} cps/n/(cm{sup 2} s)–4.5×10{sup −2} cps/n/(cm{sup 2} s) and excellent linearity of response in terms of count rate at different neutron flux in the observed range of 3.2×10{sup 5} n/(cm{sup 2} s) to 2.0×10{sup 6} n/(cm{sup 2} s).

  11. Prototyping and performance study of a single crystal diamond detector for operation at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Arvind; Topkar, Anita; Das, D.

    2017-06-01

    Prototype single crystal diamond detectors with different types of metallization and post metallization treatment were fabricated for the applications requiring fast neutron measurements in the Indian Test Blanket Module (TBM) at the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Experiment. The detectors were characterized by leakage current measurements to ascertain that the leakage currents are low and breakdown voltages are higher than the voltage required for full charge collection. The detector response to charged particles was evaluated using a 238+239 Pu dual energy alpha source. The detectors showed an energy resolution of about 2% at 5.5 MeV. In order to study their suitability for the operation at higher temperatures, leakage current variation and alpha response were studied up to 300 °C. At 300 °C, peaks corresponding to 5.156 MeV and 5.499 MeV alphas could be separated and there was no significant degradation of energy resolution. Finally, the detector response to fast neutrons was evaluated using a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) neutron generator. The observed spectrum showed peaks corresponding to various channels of n-C interactions with a clear isolated peak corresponding to 8.5 MeV alphas. The detectors also showed high sensitivity of 3.4×10-2 cps/n/(cm2 s)-4.5×10-2 cps/n/(cm2 s) and excellent linearity of response in terms of count rate at different neutron flux in the observed range of 3.2×105 n/(cm2 s) to 2.0×106 n/(cm2 s).

  12. Electricity generation of single-chamber microbial fuel cells at low temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Shaoan; Xing, Defeng; Logan, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    Practical applications of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for wastewater treatment will require operation of these systems over a wide range of wastewater temperatures. MFCs at room or higher temperatures (20-35°C) are relatively well studied compared

  13. High-temperature sensor based on an abrupt-taper Michelson interferometer in single-mode fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Le; Jiang, Lan; Wang, Sumei; Li, Benye; Lu, Yongfeng

    2013-04-01

    This study proposes a high-temperature sensor based on an abrupt fiber-taper Michelson interferometer (FTMI) in single-mode fiber fabricated by a fiber-taper machine and electric-arc discharge. The proposed FTMI is applied to measure temperature and refractive index (RI). A high temperature sensitivity of 118.6 pm/°C is obtained in the temperature range of 500°C-800°C. The wavelength variation is only -0.335 nm for the maximum attenuation peak, with the external RI changed from 1.333 to 1.3902, which is desirable for high-temperature sensing to eliminate the cross sensitivity to RI.

  14. Study of the effect of doping on the temperature stability of the optical properties of germanium single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podkopaev, O. I. [Joint-Stock Company “Germanium” (Russian Federation); Shimanskiy, A. F., E-mail: shimanaf@mail.ru [Siberian Federal University (Russian Federation); Kopytkova, S. A.; Filatov, R. A. [Joint-Stock Company “Germanium” (Russian Federation); Golubovskaya, N. O. [Siberian Federal University (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    The effect of doping on the optical transmittance of germanium single crystals is studied by infrared Fourier spectroscopy. It is established that the introduction of silicon and tellurium additives into germanium doped with antimony provides a means for improving the temperature stability of the optical properties of the crystals.

  15. Study of the effect of doping on the temperature stability of the optical properties of germanium single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podkopaev, O. I.; Shimanskiy, A. F.; Kopytkova, S. A.; Filatov, R. A.; Golubovskaya, N. O.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of doping on the optical transmittance of germanium single crystals is studied by infrared Fourier spectroscopy. It is established that the introduction of silicon and tellurium additives into germanium doped with antimony provides a means for improving the temperature stability of the optical properties of the crystals.

  16. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2013-01-01

      Nordic Walking Classes Come join the Nordic walking classes and outings offered by the CERN Fitness Club starting September 2013. Our licensed instructor Christine offers classes for people who’ve never tried Nordic Walking and who would like to learn the technique, and outings for people who have completed the classes and enjoy going out as a group. Course 1: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 24 September, 1 October, 8 October, 15 October Course 2: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 5 November, 12 November, 19 November, 26 November Outings will take place on Thursdays (12:30 to 13:30) from 12 September 2013. We meet at the CERN Club Barracks car park (close to Entrance A) 10 minutes before departure. Prices: 50 CHF for 4 classes, including the 10 CHF Club membership. Payments made directly to instructor. Renting Poles: Poles can be rented from Christine at 5 CHF / hour. Subscription: Please subscribe at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Looking forward to seeing you among us! Fitness Club FitnessClub@c...

  17. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Get in Shape for Summer with the CERN Fitness Club Saturday 23 June 2012 from 14:30 to 16.30 (doors open at 14.00) Germana’s Fitness Workshop. Build strength and stamina, sculpt and tone your body and get your heart pumping with Germana’s workout mixture of Cardio Attack, Power Pump, Power Step, Cardio Combat and Cross-Training. Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 15 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Test_Subscription/NewForm.aspx? Join the Party and dance yourself into shape at Marco + Marials Zumba Masterclass. Saturday 30 June 2012 from 15:00 to 16:30 Marco + Mariel’s Zumba Masterclass Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 25 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20...

  18. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2010-01-01

    Nordic Walking Please note that the subscriptions for the general fitness classes from July to December are open: Subscriptions general fitness classes Jul-Dec 2010 Sign-up to the Fitness Club mailing list here Nordic Walking: Sign-up to the Nordic Walking mailing list here Beginners Nordic walking lessons Monday Lunchtimes (rdv 12:20 for 12:30 departure) 13.09/20.09/27.09/04.10 11.10/18.10/08.11/15.11 22.11/29.11/06.12/20.12 Nordic walking lessons Tuesday evenings (rdv 17:50 for 18:00 departure) 07.09/14.09/21.09/28.09 05.10/12.10/19.10/26.10 Intermediate/Advanced Nordic walking outings (follow the nordic walking lessons before signing up for the outings) every Thursday from 16.09 - 16.12, excluding 28.10 and 09.12 Subscriptions and info: fitness.club@cern.ch  

  19. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

      The CERN Fitness Club is pleased to announce its new early morning class which will be taking place on: Tuesdays from 24th April 07:30 to 08:15 216 (Pump Hall, close to entrance C) – Facilities include changing rooms and showers. The Classes: The early morning classes will focus on workouts which will help you build not only strength and stamina, but will also improve your balance, and coordination. Our qualified instructor Germana will accompany you throughout the workout  to ensure you stay motivated so you achieve the best results. Sign up and discover the best way to start your working day full of energy! How to subscribe? We invite you along to a FREE trial session, if you enjoy the activity, please sign up via our website: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Activities/SUBSCRIBE.aspx. * * * * * * * * Saturday 28th April Get in shape for the summer at our fitness workshop and zumba dance party: Fitness workshop with Germana 13:00 to 14:30 - 216 (Pump Hall) Price...

  20. LITGS: a new technique for single shot temperature and fuel concentration measurements in turbulent combusting environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantoni, Roberta; Giorgi, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione; De Risi, A.; Laforgia, D. [Lecce Univ., Lecce (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    In the present study the possibility to apply time resolved Laser Induced Thermal Grating Spectroscopy (LITGS) to detect fuel concentration and temperature in mixtures and flames at atmospheric pressure or higher is investigated. The resonant IR single photon absorption of two short pulse pump beams is used to initially generate a population grating, decaying into a thermal grating due to relaxation processes in the gas mixture. The thermal grating evolution is followed by monitoring the scattered signal of a cw visible probe beam after the end of the pump pulse. The use of the IR optical transition of diesel fuel assured a high species selectivity and a negligible influence of the visible emission background due to the presence of electronically excited species in flames. Fuel concentration and temperature measurements in a pressurized cell, with pressure ranging between 0.1 an 1.5 MPa, and in a diffusion turbulent flame generated by a burner feed with diesel fuel operating at atmospheric pressure are presented. The experimental investigation shows that LITGS signal increase linearly with gas density. This characteristic makes LITGS a very interesting technique for fuel distribution and temperature measurements in hostile (high-pressure and turbulent flow) environments. Detection limit for diesel fuel at atmospheric pressure is found to be about 40 ppm and it decreases with the increase of the pressure. The low detection limit which can be reached makes this technique suitable also for monitoring minor species and radicals. [Italian] Nel presente studio si investiga la possibilita' di applicare la tecnica LITGS (Laser Induced Thermal Grating Spectroscopy) per misurare la concentrazione e la temperatura di carburante in miscele e fiamme a pressiona atmosferica o superiore. L'assorbimento risonante di un singolo fotone IR proveniente da uno dei due laser impulsati di pompa e' utilizzato per generare inizialmente un reticolo di popolazione, che decade

  1. Study of the effects of elevated pressure and temperature on the evaporation of a single fuel droplet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, A.A.; Memon, M.A.; Durrani, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    The experimental studies were made on the evaporation of single fuel droplet in high pressure and high temperature gaseous environments. The time history of the size and the temperature of an evaporating droplet suspended on a fine quartz thread was recorded using a movie camera and an oscilloscope. The fuel used was n-heptane. The experimental range of conditions consists of gas pressure from 0 atg to 50 atg, gas temperature from 100 c to 500 c which correspond to the subcritical, critical and supercritical state of a droplet. The evaporation rate, the life time and the wet-bulb temperature of a droplet were obtained. The results showed that the temperature of an evaporating droplet increased with an increase in gas pressure and temperature, through it did not reach the critical temperature of fuel even at supercritical environments. It was evident that with an increase in gas pressure, the evaporation rate increased at high gas temperature while it decreased at low gas temperature. (author)

  2. Reliability of single aliquot regenerative protocol (SAR) for dose estimation in quartz at different burial temperatures: A simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, D.K.; Pagonis, V.; Patil, P.

    2016-01-01

    The single aliquot regenerative protocol (SAR) is a well-established technique for estimating naturally acquired radiation doses in quartz. This simulation work examines the reliability of SAR protocol for samples which experienced different ambient temperatures in nature in the range of −10 to 40 °C. The contribution of various experimental variables used in SAR protocols to the accuracy and precision of the method is simulated for different ambient temperatures. Specifically the effects of paleo-dose, test dose, pre-heating temperature and cut-heat temperature on the accuracy of equivalent dose (ED) estimation are simulated by using random combinations of the concentrations of traps and centers using a previously published comprehensive quartz model. The findings suggest that the ambient temperature has a significant bearing on the reliability of natural dose estimation using SAR protocol, especially for ambient temperatures above 0 °C. The main source of these inaccuracies seems to be thermal sensitization of the quartz samples caused by the well-known thermal transfer of holes between luminescence centers in quartz. The simulations suggest that most of this inaccuracy in the dose estimation can be removed by delivering the laboratory doses in pulses (pulsed irradiation procedures). - Highlights: • Ambient temperatures affect the reliability of SAR. • It overestimates the dose with increase in burial temperature and burial time periods. • Elevated temperature irradiation does not correct for these overestimations. • Inaccuracies in dose estimation can be removed by incorporating pulsed irradiation procedures.

  3. Single mode step-index polymer optical fiber for humidity insensitive high temperature fiber Bragg grating sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woyessa, Getinet; Fasano, Andrea; Stefani, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    We have fabricated the first single-mode step-index and humidity insensitive polymer optical fiber operating in the 850 nm wavelength ranges. The step-index preform is fabricated using injection molding, which is an efficient method for cost effective, flexible and fast preparation of the fiber...... preform. The fabricated single-mode step-index (SI) polymer optical fiber (POF) has a 4.8µm core made from TOPAS grade 5013S-04 with a glass transition temperature of 134°C and a 150 µm cladding made from ZEONEX grade 480R with a glass transition temperature of 138°C. The key advantages of the proposed...... SIPOF are low water absorption, high operating temperature and chemical inertness to acids and bases and many polar solvents as compared to the conventional poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) and polystyrene based POFs. In addition, the fiber Bragg grating writing time is short compared to microstructured...

  4. Molecular-dynamic simulations of the thermophysical properties of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane single crystal at high pressures and temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlova, S. A.; Gubin, S. A.; Maklashova, I. V.; Selezenev, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    Molecular dynamic simulations of isothermal compression parameters are performed for a hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane single crystal (C6H6O12N12) using a modified ReaxFF-log reactive force field. It is shown that the pressure-compression ratio curve for a single C6H6O12N12 crystal at constant temperature T = 300 K in pressure range P = 0.05-40 GPa is in satisfactory agreement with experimental compression isotherms obtained for a single C6H6O12N12 crystal. Hugoniot molecular-dynamic simulations of the shock-wave hydrostatic compression of a single C6H6O12N12 crystal are performed. Along with Hugoniot temperature-pressure curves, calculated shock-wave pressure-compression ratios for a single C6H6O12N12 crystal are obtained for a wide pressure range of P = 1-40 GPa. It is established that the percussive adiabat obtained for a single C6H6O12N12 crystal is in a good agreement with the experimental data. All calculations are performed using a LAMMPS molecular dynamics simulation software package that provides a ReaxFF-lg reactive force field to support the approach.

  5. Neural network-based preprocessing to estimate the parameters of the X-ray emission of a single-temperature thermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinohe, Y.; Yamada, S.; Miyazaki, N.; Saito, S.

    2018-04-01

    We present data preprocessing based on an artificial neural network to estimate the parameters of the X-ray emission spectra of a single-temperature thermal plasma. The method finds appropriate parameters close to the global optimum. The neural network is designed to learn the parameters of the thermal plasma (temperature, abundance, normalization and redshift) of the input spectra. After training using 9000 simulated X-ray spectra, the network has grown to predict all the unknown parameters with uncertainties of about a few per cent. The performance dependence on the network structure has been studied. We applied the neural network to an actual high-resolution spectrum obtained with Hitomi. The predicted plasma parameters agree with the known best-fitting parameters of the Perseus cluster within uncertainties of ≲10 per cent. The result shows that neural networks trained by simulated data might possibly be used to extract a feature built in the data. This would reduce human-intensive preprocessing costs before detailed spectral analysis, and would help us make the best use of the large quantities of spectral data that will be available in the coming decades.

  6. Low temperature time resolved photoluminescence in ordered and disordered Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raadik, Taavi, E-mail: taavi.raadik@ttu.ee [Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Krustok, Jüri; Kauk-Kuusik, M.; Timmo, K.; Grossberg, M. [Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Ernits, K. [crystalsol OÜ, Akadeemia tee 15a, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Bleuse, J. [CEA-CNRS-UGA group “Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs”, Univ. Grenoble Alpes, INAC-PHELIQS, CEA, INAC-PHELIQS, CNRS, PLUM, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2017-03-01

    In this work we performed time-resolved micro-photoluminescence (TRPL) studies of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) single crystals grown in molten KI salt. The order/disorder degree of CZTS was varied by the thermal post treatment temperature. Photoluminescence spectra measured at T=8 K showed an asymmetric band with a peak position of 1.33 eV and 1.27 eV for partially ordered and disordered structures, respectively. Thermal activation energies were found to be E{sub T} {sub (PO)} =65±9 meV for partially ordered and E{sub T(PD)} =27±4 meV for partially disordered. These low activation energy values indicating to the defect cluster recombination model for both partially ordered and disordered structures. TRPL was measured for both crystals and their decay curves were fitted with a stretched exponential function, in order to describe the charge carriers’ recombination dynamics at low temperature.

  7. Effectiveness of the custom-mold room temperature vulcanizing silicone toe separator on hallux valgus: A prospective, randomized single-blinded controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadchavalpanichaya, Navaporn; Prakotmongkol, Voraluck; Polhan, Nattapong; Rayothee, Pitchaya; Seng-Iad, Sirirat

    2018-04-01

    Silicone toe separator is considered as a conservative treatment for hallux valgus. The prefabricated toe separator does not fit all. However, effectiveness in prescription of the custom-mold toe separator is still unknown. To investigate the effect of using a custom-mold room temperature vulcanizing silicone toe separator to decrease hallux valgus angle and hallux pain. The compliances, complications, and satisfactions of toe separator were also explored. A prospective, randomized single-blinded controlled trial. A total of 90 patients with a moderate degree of hallux valgus were enrolled in a study at the Foot Clinic, Siriraj Hospital, Thailand. Patients were randomized into two groups; the study group was prescribed a custom-mold room temperature vulcanizing silicone toe separator for 6 h per night for 12 months. Patients in both groups received proper foot care and shoes and were permitted to continue drug treatment. In total, 40 patients in the study group and 39 patients in the control group completed the study. The hallux valgus angle was obtained through radiographic measurement. At month 12, both groups had significant differences in mean hallux valgus angle with a decrease of 3.3° ± 2.4° for the study group and increase of 1.9° ± 1.9° for the control group. There were statistically significant differences of hallux valgus angle between the two groups ( p Hallux pain was decreased in the study group. A custom-mold room temperature vulcanizing silicone toe separator can decrease hallux valgus angle and pain with no serious complications. Clinical relevance The custom-mold room temperature vulcanizing silicone toe separator for treatment of hallux valgus reduces deformity and hallux pain.

  8. Temperature and magnetic field dependence of the Yosida-Kondo resonance for a single magnetic atom adsorbed on a surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dino, Wilson Agerico; Kasai, Hideaki; Rodulfo, Emmanuel Tapas; Nishi, Mayuko

    2006-01-01

    Manifestations of the Kondo effect on an atomic length scale on and around a magnetic atom adsorbed on a nonmagnetic surface differ depending on the spectroscopic mode of operation of the scanning tunneling microscope. Two prominent signatures of the Kondo effect that can be observed at surfaces are the development of a sharp resonance (Yosida-Kondo resonance) at the Fermi level, which broadens with increasing temperature, and the splitting of this sharp resonance upon application of an external magnetic field. Until recently, observing the temperature and magnetic field dependence has been a challenge, because the experimental conditions strongly depend on the system's critical temperature, the so-called Kondo temperature T K . In order to clearly observe the temperature dependence, one needs to choose a system with a large T K . One can thus perform the experiments at temperatures T K . However, because the applied external magnetic field necessary to observe the magnetic field dependence scales with T K , one needs to choose a system with a very small T K . This in turn means that one should perform the experiments at very low temperatures, e.g., in the mK range. Here we discuss the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the Yosida-Kondo resonance for a single magnetic atom on a metal surface, in relation to recent experimental developments

  9. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Nordic Walking Classes Sessions of four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Session 1 =  11.09 / 18.09 / 25.09 / 02.10, 18:15 - 19:15 Session 2 = 25.09 / 02.10 / 09.10 / 16.10, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 3 = 23.10 / 30.10 / 06.11 / 13.11, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 4 = 20.11 / 27.11 / 04.12 / 11.12, 12:30 - 13:30 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at http://cern.ch/club-fitness   Hope to see you among us!  fitness.club@cern.ch In spring 2012 there was a long-awaited progress in CERN Fitness club. We have officially opened a Powerlifting @ CERN, and the number of members of the new section has been increasing since then reaching 70+ people in less than 4 months. Powerlifting is a strength sport, which is simple as 1-2-3 and efficient. The "1-2-3" are the three basic lifts (bench press...

  10. An analysis of the uncertainty in temperature and density estimates from fitting model spectra to data. 1998 summer research program for high school juniors at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. Student research reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubmehl, M.

    1999-03-01

    Temperature and density histories of direct-drive laser fusion implosions are important to an understanding of the reaction's progress. Such measurements also document phenomena such as preheating of the core and improper compression that can interfere with the thermonuclear reaction. Model x-ray spectra from the non-LTE (local thermodynamic equilibrium) radiation transport post-processor for LILAC have recently been fitted to OMEGA data. The spectrum fitting code reads in a grid of model spectra and uses an iterative weighted least-squares algorithm to perform a fit to experimental data, based on user-input parameter estimates. The purpose of this research was to upgrade the fitting code to compute formal uncertainties on fitted quantities, and to provide temperature and density estimates with error bars. A standard error-analysis process was modified to compute these formal uncertainties from information about the random measurement error in the data. Preliminary tests of the code indicate that the variances it returns are both reasonable and useful

  11. Magnetic field and temperature dependence of flux creep in oriented grained and single-crystalline YBa2Cu3Ox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, C.; Kuepfer, H.; Gurevich, A.; Meier-Hirmer, R.; Wolf, T.; Fluekiger, R.; Selvamanickam, V.; Salama, K.

    1990-01-01

    Thermally activated flux creep of oriented grained and single-crystalline YBa 2 Cu 3 O x was studied in fields up to 12 T and at temperatures ranging between 4 and 90 K. In fixed fields the activation energy U 0 of both samples was found to increase with temperature, pass through some maximum and drop to the order of k B T around the irreversibility line. While at constant temperature U 0 of the oriented grained sample showed a monotonous decrease with field; in the case of the single crystal it was found to follow a characteristic minimum-maximum structure paralleled by the previously observed field dependence of the shielding current. This clearly demonstrates the influence of the coupling properties, i.e., bulk behavior of the oriented grained sample and granularity of the single crystal, on relaxation. Therefore, models exclusively based either on a pinning or on a junction approach alone could not describe our experimental findings. A more appropriate explanation is based on the properties of the defect structure. Depending on field and temperature, defective regions are driven into the normal state whereby additional pinning centers are created which in turn give rise to increasing activation energies. The connectivity of the sample then depends on size and density of these defects

  12. Effects of temperature and other experimental variables on single molecule vibrational spectroscopy with the scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauhon, L. J.; Ho, W.

    2001-01-01

    Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) was performed on single molecules with a variable temperature scanning tunneling microscope. The peak intensity, width, position, and line shape of single molecule vibrational spectra were studied as a function of temperature, modulation bias, bias polarity, and tip position for the (C--H,C--D) stretching vibration of acetylene (C 2 H 2 ,C 2 D 2 ) on Cu(001). The temperature broadening of vibrational peaks was found to be a consequence of Fermi smearing as in macroscopic IETS. The modulation broadening of vibrational peaks assumed the expected form for IETS. Extrapolation of the peak width to zero temperature and modulation suggested an intrinsic width of ∼4 meV due primarily to instrumental broadening. The inelastic tunneling cross section at negative bias was reduced by a factor of 1.7 for the C--H stretch mode. Low energy modes of other molecules did not show such a reduction. There was no evidence of a tip-induced Stark shift in the peak positions. The spatial variation of the inelastic signal was measured to determine the junction stability necessary for the acquisition of single molecule vibrational spectra

  13. Creation of Single Chain of Nanoscale Skyrmion Bubbles with Record-high Temperature Stability in a Geometrically Confined Nanostripe

    KAUST Repository

    Hou, Zhipeng; Zhang, Qiang; Xu, Guizhou; Gong, Chen; Ding, Bei; Wang, Yue; Li, Hang; Liu, Enke; Xu, Feng; Zhang, Hongwei; Yao, Yuan; Wu, Guangheng; Zhang, Xixiang; Wang, Wenhong

    2018-01-01

    Nanoscale topologically nontrivial spin textures, such as magnetic skyrmions, have been identified as promising candidates for the transport and storage of information for spintronic applications, notably magnetic racetrack memory devices. The design and realization of a single skyrmion chain at room temperature (RT) and above in the low-dimensional nanostructures are of great importance for future practical applications. Here, we report the creation of a single skyrmion bubble chain in a geometrically confined Fe3Sn2 nanostripe with a width comparable to the featured size of a skyrmion bubble. Systematic investigations on the thermal stability have revealed that the single chain of skyrmion bubbles can keep stable at temperatures varying from RT up to a record-high temperature of 630 K. This extreme stability can be ascribed to the weak temperature-dependent magnetic anisotropy and the formation of edge states at the boundaries of the nanostripes. The realization of the highly stable skyrmion bubble chain in a geometrically confined nanostructure is a very important step toward the application of skyrmion-based spintronic devices.

  14. Preparation of single-crystal TiC (111) by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Q.; Zhang, W.Z.; Shi, L.Q.; Zhang, W.Y.; Zhang, W.; Zhang, B.

    2012-01-01

    Single-crystal films of TiC (111) have been synthesized at room temperature on Al 2 O 3 (0001) substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering using a compound Ti–C target. The substrate temperature and bias were varied to explore the influence of deposition parameters on the crystal structure. Both Al 2 O 3 (0001) and Si (100) substrates were used for epitaxial growth of TiC films. A series of characterizations of TiC films were carried out, including Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Single-crystal films of TiC (111) on the Al 2 O 3 (0001) were demonstrated. - Highlights: ► Single-crystal films of TiC (111) have been synthesized by RF magnetron sputtering. ► Both temperature and bias affect greatly the TiC crystal structure. ► Al 2 O 3 substrate is much better than Si substrate for TiC epitaxial growth. ► TiC (111) epitaxial film can be grown on Al 2 O 3 (0001) at room temperature.

  15. Creation of Single Chain of Nanoscale Skyrmion Bubbles with Record-high Temperature Stability in a Geometrically Confined Nanostripe

    KAUST Repository

    Hou, Zhipeng

    2018-01-04

    Nanoscale topologically nontrivial spin textures, such as magnetic skyrmions, have been identified as promising candidates for the transport and storage of information for spintronic applications, notably magnetic racetrack memory devices. The design and realization of a single skyrmion chain at room temperature (RT) and above in the low-dimensional nanostructures are of great importance for future practical applications. Here, we report the creation of a single skyrmion bubble chain in a geometrically confined Fe3Sn2 nanostripe with a width comparable to the featured size of a skyrmion bubble. Systematic investigations on the thermal stability have revealed that the single chain of skyrmion bubbles can keep stable at temperatures varying from RT up to a record-high temperature of 630 K. This extreme stability can be ascribed to the weak temperature-dependent magnetic anisotropy and the formation of edge states at the boundaries of the nanostripes. The realization of the highly stable skyrmion bubble chain in a geometrically confined nanostructure is a very important step toward the application of skyrmion-based spintronic devices.

  16. Thermal expansion and cooling rate dependence of transition temperature in ZrTiO4 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Thermal expansion in ZrTiO 4 single crystal was investigated in the temperature range covering the normal, incommensurate, and commensurate phases. Remarkable change was found at the normal-incommensurate phase transition (T I ) in all thermal expansion coefficients a, b, and c. The spontaneous strains χ as and χ bs along the a and b axes show linear temperature dependence, while the spontaneous strain χ cs along the c axis shows a nonlinear temperature dependence. Small discontinuity along the c direction was observed at the incommensurate-commensurate transition temperature, T c = 845 C. dT I /dP and dT c /dP depend on the cooling rate

  17. One size fits all? Mixed methods evaluation of the impact of 100% single-room accommodation on staff and patient experience, safety and costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maben, Jill; Penfold, Clarissa; Simon, Michael; Anderson, Janet E; Robert, Glenn; Pizzo, Elena; Hughes, Jane; Murrells, Trevor; Barlow, James

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives There is little strong evidence relating to the impact of single-room accommodation on healthcare quality and safety. We explore the impact of all single rooms on staff and patient experience; safety outcomes; and costs. Methods Mixed methods pre/post ‘move’ comparison within four nested case study wards in a single acute hospital with 100% single rooms; quasi-experimental before-and-after study with two control hospitals; analysis of capital and operational costs associated with single rooms. Results Two-thirds of patients expressed a preference for single rooms with comfort and control outweighing any disadvantages (sense of isolation) felt by some. Patients appreciated privacy, confidentiality and flexibility for visitors afforded by single rooms. Staff perceived improvements (patient comfort and confidentiality), but single rooms were worse for visibility, surveillance, teamwork, monitoring and keeping patients safe. Staff walking distances increased significantly post move. A temporary increase of falls and medication errors in one ward was likely to be associated with the need to adjust work patterns rather than associated with single rooms per se. We found no evidence that single rooms reduced infection rates. Building an all single-room hospital can cost 5% more with higher housekeeping and cleaning costs but the difference is marginal over time. Conclusions Staff needed to adapt their working practices significantly and felt unprepared for new ways of working with potentially significant implications for the nature of teamwork in the longer term. Staff preference remained for a mix of single rooms and bays. Patients preferred single rooms. PMID:26408568

  18. Electricity generation of single-chamber microbial fuel cells at low temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Shaoan

    2011-01-01

    Practical applications of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for wastewater treatment will require operation of these systems over a wide range of wastewater temperatures. MFCs at room or higher temperatures (20-35°C) are relatively well studied compared those at lower temperatures. MFC performance was examined here over a temperature range of 4-30°C in terms of startup time needed for reproducible power cycles, and performance. MFCs initially operated at 15°C or higher all attained a reproducible cycles of power generation, but the startup time to reach stable operation increased from 50h at 30°C to 210h at 15°C. At temperatures below 15°C, MFCs did not produce appreciable power even after one month of operation. If an MFC was first started up at temperature of 30°C, however, reproducible cycles of power generation could then be achieved at even the two lowest temperatures of 4°C and 10°C. Power production increased linearly with temperature at a rate of 33±4mW°C-1, from 425±2mWm-2 at 4°C to 1260±10mWm-2 at 30°C. Coulombic efficiency decreased by 45% over this same temperature range, or from CE=31% at 4°C to CE=17% at 30°C. These results demonstrate that MFCs can effectively be operated over a wide range of temperatures, but our findings have important implications for the startup of larger scale reactors where low wastewater temperatures could delay or prevent adequate startup of the system. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Ferroelectric InMnO{sub 3}: Growth of single crystals, structure and high-temperature phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekheet, Maged F., E-mail: maged.bekheet@ceramics.tu-berlin.de [Fachbereich Material‐ und Geowissenschaften, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Fachgebiet Keramische Werkstoffe / Chair of Advanced Ceramic Materials, Institut für Werkstoffwissenschaften und -technologien, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 40, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Svoboda, Ingrid; Liu, Na [Fachbereich Material‐ und Geowissenschaften, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Bayarjargal, Lkhamsuren [Institut für Geowissenschaften, Goethe-Universität, Altenhöferallee 1, d-60438 Frankfurt a.M. (Germany); Irran, Elisabeth [Institut für Chemie, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17, Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Dietz, Christian; Stark, Robert W.; Riedel, Ralf [Fachbereich Material‐ und Geowissenschaften, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Gurlo, Aleksander [Fachgebiet Keramische Werkstoffe / Chair of Advanced Ceramic Materials, Institut für Werkstoffwissenschaften und -technologien, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 40, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    To understand the origin of the ferroelectricity in InMnO{sub 3}, single crystals with average size of 1 mm were grown in PbF{sub 2} flux at 950 °C. The results of single crystal X-ray diffraction, second harmonic generation and piezoresponse force microscopy studies of high-quality InMnO{sub 3} single crystals reveal that the room-temperature state in this material is ferroelectric with P6{sub 3}cm symmetry. The polar InMnO{sub 3} specimen undergoes a reversible phase transition from non-centrosymmetric P6{sub 3}cm structure to a centrosymmetric P6{sub 3}/mmc structure at 700 °C as confirmed by the in situ high-temperature Raman spectroscopic and synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments. - Graphical abstract: Piezoresponse fore microscopy (PFM) studies of high quality InMnO{sub 3} single crystal revealed that the room-temperature state of this material is ferroelectric with a clear cloverleaf pattern corresponding to six antiphase ferroelectric domains with alternating polarization ±P{sub z}. Display Omitted - Highlights: • InMnO{sub 3} single crystals with average size of 1 mm were grown in PbF{sub 2} flux at 950 °C. • The room-temperature state of InMnO{sub 3} is ferroelectric with polar P6{sub 3}cm structure. • PolarInMnO{sub 3} reversibly transforms to a centrosymmetric P6{sub 3}/mmc structure above 700 °C.

  20. Room-temperature single-photon sources with definite circular and linear polarizations based on single-emitter fluorescence in liquid crystal hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Justin M; Lukishova, Svetlana G; Bissell, Luke J

    2013-01-01

    Definite circular and linear polarizations of room-temperature single-photon sources, which can serve as polarization bases for quantum key distribution, are produced by doping planar-aligned liquid crystal hosts with single fluorescence emitters. Chiral 1-D photonic bandgap microcavities for a single handedness of circularly polarized light were prepared from both monomeric and oligomeric cholesteric liquid crystals. Fluorescent emitters, such as nanocrystal quantum dots, nitrogen vacancy color centers in nanodiamonds, and rare-earth ions in nanocrystals, were doped into these microcavity structures and used to produce circularly polarized fluorescence of definite handedness. Additionally, we observed circularly polarized resonances in the spectrum of nanocrystal quantum dot fluorescence at the edge of the cholesteric microcavity's photonic stopband. For this polarization we obtained a ∼4.9 enhancement of intensity compared to the polarization of the opposite handedness that propagates without photonic bandgap microcavity effects. Such a resonance is indicative of coupling of quantum dot fluorescence to the cholesteric microcavity mode. We have also used planar-aligned nematic liquid crystal hosts to align DiI dye molecules doped into the host, thereby providing a single-photon source of linear polarization of definite direction. Antibunching is demonstrated for fluorescence of nanocrystal quantum dots, nitrogen vacancy color centers, and dye molecules in these liquid crystal structures.

  1. Contribution of a solute atoms in the relaxation phenomenon at high temperature in Cu-Al single crystal alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belamri, C.; Belhas, S.; Rivière, A.

    2009-11-01

    Two Cu-Al single crystals with 7 and 14 at. % Al respectively have been studied using isothermal mechanical spectroscopy (IMS) technique. After a 1% cold work by torsion, the samples have been progressively heated to 1140 K and then cooled until room temperature. IMS experiments allow to compare the isothermal internal friction spectra obtained during the heating (in this case, the annealing temperature is equal to the temperature of measurement) with the measurements performed at various temperature during the cooling after the annealing at 1140 K. Three relaxation peaks were observed. The first one at about 0.4 TM (TM: melting point) is a Zener relaxation peak (PZ) due to the reorientation under constraint of pairs of aluminium atoms. The high temperature annealing does not influence PZ. At about 0.6TM, a peak (P1) related to a dislocation mechanism is evidenced. The relaxation strength of P1 peak decreases with the temperature and a new relaxation peak (P2) is progressively developed. The IMS spectra obtained during the cooling evidenced only P2. The relaxation parameters obtained by the Arrhenius plots and the evolution with the annealing temperature allow to assign P1 and P2 to an interaction between the dislocations and the solute atoms according to the Darinskiy model.

  2. FISH & CHIPS: Single Chip Silicon MEMS CTDL Salinity, Temperature, Pressure and Light sensor for use in fisheries research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgård, Anders; Hansen, Ole; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2005-01-01

    A single-chip silicon MEMS CTDL multi sensor for use in aqueous environments is presented. The new sensor chip consists of a conductivity sensor based on platinum electrodes (C), an ion-implanted thermistor temperature sensor (T), a piezoresistive pressure sensor (D for depth/pressure) and an ion......-implanted p-n junction light sensor (L). The design and fabrication process is described. A temperature sensitivity of 0.8 × 10-3K-1 has been measured and detailed analysis of conductivity measurement data shows a cell constant of 81 cm-1....

  3. Three-dimensional single-channel thermal analysis of fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel via two-temperature homogenized model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoonhee; Cho, Nam Zin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Two-temperature homogenized model is applied to thermal analysis of fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) fuel. • Based on the results of Monte Carlo calculation, homogenized parameters are obtained. • 2-D FEM/1-D FDM hybrid method for the model is used to obtain 3-D temperature profiles. • The model provides the fuel-kernel and SiC matrix temperatures separately. • Compared to UO 2 fuel, the FCM fuel shows ∼560 K lower maximum temperatures at steady- and transient states. - Abstract: The fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) fuel, one of the accident tolerant fuel (ATF) concepts, consists of TRISO particles randomly dispersed in SiC matrix. This high heterogeneity in compositions leads to difficulty in explicit thermal calculation of such a fuel. For thermal analysis of a fuel element of very high temperature reactors (VHTRs) which has a similar configuration to FCM fuel, two-temperature homogenized model was recently proposed by the authors. The model was developed using particle transport Monte Carlo method for heat conduction problems. It gives more realistic temperature profiles, and provides the fuel-kernel and graphite temperatures separately. In this paper, we apply the two-temperature homogenized model to three-dimensional single-channel thermal analysis of the FCM fuel element for steady- and transient-states using 2-D FEM/1-D FDM hybrid method. In the analyses, we assume that the power distribution is uniform in radial direction at steady-state and that in axial direction it is in the form of cosine function for simplicity. As transient scenarios, we consider (i) coolant inlet temperature transient, (ii) inlet mass flow rate transient, and (iii) power transient. The results of analyses are compared to those of conventional UO 2 fuel having the same geometric dimension and operating conditions

  4. Temperature fluctuation of sodium in annular flow channel heated by single-pin with blockage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Keiji; Kimura, Jiro; Ogawa, Masuro; Okada, Toshio

    1978-01-01

    Root mean square (RMS) value and power spectral density (PSD) of temperature fluctuation were measured with use of forced-circulating sodium in an annular channel (6.5 mm I.D., 20mm O.D.) with concentric disk to simulate blockage (about 80%) of sodium flow. The experimental range of the heat flux was 40 -- 150 W/cm 2 and the bulk flow velocity 0.14--0.41m/sec (Re=7.7x10 3 --2.3x10 4 ) under a temperature of 500--800 0 C. The RMS value measured at the exit of heating section (150mm downstream from the blockage) is larger by a factor of 2 -- 3 than that in the wake (10 -- 20mm downstream from the blockage), marking a few deg.C for a heat flux of 105W/cm 2 and a flow velocity of 0.27m/sec. The RMS value is proportional to the wall-to-bulk-fluid temperature difference in heat transfer, presenting the similar dependence on the heat flux and flow velocity. The fluctuations of temperature are greatly attenuated in the upper unheated section where the radial temperature gradient is absent, and consequently it is suggested that the fluctuations of temperature should be caused by the local turbulence of flow, such as a vortex street due to blockage in the present experiment, under the presence of large gradient of temperature near the heating surface. (auth.)

  5. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2013-01-01

    Nordic Walking Classes New session of 4 classes of 1 hour each will be held on Tuesdays in May 2013. Meet at the CERN barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Dates and time: 07.05, 14.05, 21.05 and 28.05, fom  12 h 30 to 13 h 30 Prices: 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership – 5 CHF / hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! 

  6. SISGR: Room Temperature Single-Molecule Detection and Imaging by Stimulated Emission Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology

    2017-03-13

    Single-molecule spectroscopy has made considerable impact on many disciplines including chemistry, physics, and biology. To date, most single-molecule spectroscopy work is accomplished by detecting fluorescence. On the other hand, many naturally occurring chromophores, such as retinal, hemoglobin and cytochromes, do not have detectable fluorescence. There is an emerging need for single-molecule spectroscopy techniques that do not require fluorescence. In the last proposal period, we have successfully demonstrated stimulated emission microscopy, single molecule absorption, and stimulated Raman microscopy based on a high-frequency modulation transfer technique. These first-of-a- kind new spectroscopy/microscopy methods tremendously improved our ability to observe molecules that fluorescence weakly, even to the limit of single molecule detection for absorption measurement. All of these methods employ two laser beams: one (pump beam) excites a single molecule to a real or virtual excited state, and the other (probe beam) monitors the absorption/emission property of the single. We extract the intensity change of the probe beam with high sensitivity by implementing a high-frequency phase-sensitive detection scheme, which offers orders of magnitude improvement in detection sensitivity over direct absorption/emission measurement. However, single molecule detection based on fluorescence or absorption is fundamentally limited due to their broad spectral response. It is important to explore other avenues in single molecule detection and imaging which provides higher molecular specificity for studying a wide variety of heterogeneous chemical and biological systems. This proposal aimed to achieve single-molecule detection sensitivity with near resonance stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy. SRS microscopy was developed in our lab as a powerful technique for imaging heterogeneous samples based on their intrinsic vibrational contrasts, which provides much higher molecular

  7. Single uniform FBG for simultaneous measurement of liquid level and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Xuewen; Sugden, Kate; Bennion, Ian

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a novel scheme for simultaneous measurement of liquid level and temperature based on a simple uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG) by monitoring both the short-wavelength-loss peaks and its Bragg resonance. The liquid level can be measured from the amplitude changes of the short-wavelength-loss peaks, while temperature can be measured from the wavelength shift of the Bragg resonance. Both theoretical simulation results and experimental results are presented. Such a scheme has some advantages including robustness, simplicity, flexibility in choosing sensitivity and simultaneous temperature measurement capability

  8. Synthesis and temperature dependent Raman studies of large crystalline faces topological GeBi4Te7 single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mal, Priyanath; Bera, G.; Turpu, G. R.; Srivastava, Sunil K.; Das, Pradip

    2018-05-01

    We present a study of structural and vibrational properties of topological insulator GeBi4Te7. Modified Bridgeman technique is employed to synthesize the single crystal with relatively large crystalline faces. Sharp (0 0 l) reflection confirms the high crystallinity of the single crystal. We have performed temperature dependent Raman measurement for both parallel and perpendicular to crystallographic c axis geometry. In parallel configuration we have observed seven Raman modes whereas in perpendicular geometry only four of these are identified. Appearance and disappearance of Raman modes having different intensities for parallel and perpendicular to c measurement attribute to the mode polarization. Progressive blue shift is observed with lowering temperature, reflects the increase in internal stress.

  9. Observing the morphology of single-layered embedded silicon nanocrystals by using temperature-stable TEM membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gutsch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We use high-temperature-stable silicon nitride membranes to investigate single layers of silicon nanocrystal ensembles by energy filtered transmission electron microscopy. The silicon nanocrystals are prepared from the precipitation of a silicon-rich oxynitride layer sandwiched between two SiO2 diffusion barriers and subjected to a high-temperature annealing. We find that such single layers are very sensitive to the annealing parameters and may lead to a significant loss of excess silicon. In addition, these ultrathin layers suffer from significant electron beam damage that needs to be minimized in order to image the pristine sample morphology. Finally we demonstrate how the silicon nanocrystal size distribution develops from a broad to a narrow log-normal distribution, when the initial precipitation layer thickness and stoichiometry are below a critical value.

  10. High temperature defect equilibrium in ZnS:Cu single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lott, K.; Shinkarenko, S.; Tuern, L.; Nirk, T.; Oepik, A. [Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn (Estonia); Kallavus, U. [Centre for Materials Research, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn (Estonia); Gorokhova, E. [Scientific Research and Technological Institute of Optical Material Science, S. I. Vavilov State Optical Institute, All-Russia Science Center, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Grebennik, A.; Vishnjakov, A. [Department of Physical Chemistry, D. Mendelejev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-15

    High temperature investigations in ZnS:Cu crystals were performed under defined conditions. High temperature electrical conductivity and copper solubility data were obtained under different component vapour pressures and under different sample temperatures. The experimental data at sulphur vapour pressure can be explained by the inclusion of abnormal site occupation i.e. by antistructural disorder. Compensating association of copper with this antistructure defect may occur. Antistructure disorder disappears with increasing of zinc vapour pressure and with increasing role of holes in bipolar conductivity. The method for solving the system of quasichemical reactions without approximation was used to model high temperature defect equilibrium. This model contains antistructure disorder and copper solubility limitation. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Estimation of geothermal gradients from single temperature log-field cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutasov, I M; Eppelbaum, L V

    2009-01-01

    A geothermal gradient is one of the most frequently used parameters in logging geophysics. However, the drilling process greatly disturbs the temperature of the formations around the wellbore. For this reason, in order to determine with the required accuracy the formation temperatures and geothermal gradients, a certain length of shut-in time is required. It was shown earlier (Kutasov 1968 Freiberger Forshungshefte C 238 55–61, 1987 Geothermics 16 467–72) that at least two transient temperature surveys are needed to determine the geothermal gradient with adequate accuracy. However, in many cases only one temperature log is conducted in a shut-in borehole. For these cases, we propose an approximate method for the estimation of the geothermal gradient. The utilization of this method is demonstrated on four field examples

  12. An X-ray camera for single-crystal studies at high temperatures under controlled atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adlhart, W.; Tzafaras, N.; Sueno, S.; Jagodzinski, H.; Huber, H.

    1982-01-01

    A vacuum heating camera has been developed for extremely low background X-ray film work between room temperature and 2000 K. It can be used with modified conventional Weissenberg goniometers and with a specially designed focusing goniometer. The temperature control is maintained by a Pt/Pt-10% Rh thermocouple, a three-term proportional, integral and derivative (PID) controller and a programmable power supply. The accuracy in the absolute temperature setting is 10 K, the stability better than 1 K and the maximum thermal gradient over the crystal 7 K mm -1 at 1330 K. A small oxygen pressure can be applied, depending on the temperature, to control oxidation or reduction reactions of the sample. (Auth.)

  13. Dipolar molecules inside C-70: an electric field-driven room-temperature single-molecule switch

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Foroutan-Nejad, C.; Andrushchenko, Valery; Straka, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 48 (2016), s. 32673-32677 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03564S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : room-temperature single-molecule switch * electric field * endohedral fullerene * density functional calculations Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.123, year: 2016 http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlepdf/2016/cp/c6cp06986j

  14. BiI{sub 3} single crystal for room-temperature gamma ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T., E-mail: saito.tatsuya125@canon.co.jp [Frontier Research Center, Canon Inc., 3-30-2, Shimomaruko, Ohta-ku, Tokyo 146-8501 (Japan); Iwasaki, T. [Frontier Research Center, Canon Inc., 3-30-2, Shimomaruko, Ohta-ku, Tokyo 146-8501 (Japan); Kurosawa, S.; Yoshikawa, A. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe), Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Den, T. [Frontier Research Center, Canon Inc., 3-30-2, Shimomaruko, Ohta-ku, Tokyo 146-8501 (Japan)

    2016-01-11

    BiI{sub 3} single crystals were grown by the physical vapor transport method. The repeated sublimation of the starting material reduced impurities in the BiI{sub 3} single crystal to sub-ppm levels. The detector was fabricated by depositing Au electrodes on both surfaces of the 100-μm-thick BiI{sub 3} single crystal platelet. The resistivity of the BiI{sub 3} single crystal was increased by post-annealing in an iodine atmosphere (ρ=1.6×10{sup 11} Ω cm). Pulse height spectroscopy measurements showed clear peaks in the energy spectrum of alpha particles or gamma rays. It was estimated that the mobility-lifetime product was μ{sub e}τ{sub e}=3.4–8.5×10{sup −6} cm{sup 2}/V and the electron–hole pair creation energy was 5.8 eV. Our results show that BiI{sub 3} single crystals are promising candidates for detectors used in radiographic imaging or gamma ray spectroscopy.

  15. Temperature dependence of Ce:YAG single-crystal phosphors for high-brightness white LEDs/LDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjoca, Stelian; Víllora, Encarnación G.; Inomata, Daisuke; Aoki, Kazuo; Sugahara, Yoshiyuki; Shimamura, Kiyoshi

    2015-05-01

    The growth of Ce:Y3Al5O12(Ce:YAG) single-crystal phosphors (SCPs) by the Czochralski technique is analyzed in terms of segregation coefficient, solubility and absorption cross-section. The emission characteristics of these SCPs are investigated in a wide temperature range, from liquid He temperature up to 500 °C. The internal quantum efficiency of SCPs achieves its maximum at about 250 °C. Thermal quenching of SCPs at high temperature is attributed to the Mott-Seitz mechanism. In the case of ceramic powder phosphors, a continuous droop is observed with the temperature due to defect-related non-radiative recombination paths. It is shown that (Ce:YAG SCPs + blue LEDs/LDs) can cover a wide range of color temperatures 5500-7000 K, with color rendering indices around 70. In conclusion, it is shown that Ce:YAG SCPs are the most efficient and temperature stable converters to fabricate high-brightness white light sources with high-power blue LEDs and LDs.

  16. Temperature dependent admittance spectroscopy of GaAs/AlGaAs single-quantum-well laser diodes (SQWLDs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengi, A.; Uslu, H.; Asar, T.; Altindal, S.; Cetin, S.S.; Mammadov, T.S.; Ozcelik, S.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → It is well known the quantum-well (QW) lasers are the most important optoelectronic devices in many application fields. The temperature dependent I-V and C-V measurements allow us to understand the different aspects of conduction mechanisms of these devices. The C-V and G/ω-V measurements should be done over a wide range of temperature in order to have a better understanding of the nature of barrier height and conduction mechanisms. Therefore, in this study, the main electrical parameters of GaAs/Al x Ga 1-x As single quantum well (SQW) laser diodes were determined from the admittance spectroscopy C-V and G/ω-V method in the temperature range of 80-360 K. In addition, the capacitance and conductance values measured under both reverse and forward bias were corrected in order to eliminate the effect of R s to obtain the real diode capacitance. - Abstract: In this study, the main electrical parameters, such as doping concentration (N D ), barrier height (Φ CV ), depletion layer width (W D ), series resistance (R s ) and Fermi energy level (E F ), of GaAs/Al x Ga 1-x As single quantum well (SQW) laser diodes were investigated using the admittance spectroscopy (C-V and G/ω-V) method in the temperature range of 80-360 K. The reverse bias C -2 vs. V plots gives a straight line in a wide voltage region, especially in weak inversion region. The values of Φ CV at the absolute temperature (T = 0 K) and the temperature coefficient (α) of barrier height were found as 1.22 eV and -8.65 x 10 -4 eV/K, respectively. This value of α is in a close agreement with α of GaAs band gap (-5.45 x 10 -4 eV/K). Experimental results show that the capacitance-voltage (C-V) and conductance-voltage (G/ω-V) characteristics of the diode are affected by not only temperature but also R s . The capacitance-voltage-temperature (C-V-T) and conductance-voltage-temperature (G/ω-V-T) characteristics confirmed that temperature and R s of the diode have effects on the

  17. Temperature and Pressure Dependences of the Elastic Properties of Tantalum Single Crystals Under Tensile Loading: A Molecular Dynamics Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-bing; Li, Kang; Fan, Kan-qi; Zhang, Da-xing; Wang, Wei-dong

    2018-04-01

    Atomistic simulations are capable of providing insights into physical mechanisms responsible for mechanical properties of the transition metal of Tantalum (Ta). By using molecular dynamics (MD) method, temperature and pressure dependences of the elastic properties of Ta single crystals are investigated through tensile loading. First of all, a comparative study between two types of embedded-atom method (EAM) potentials is made in term of the elastic properties of Ta single crystals. The results show that Ravelo-EAM (Physical Review B, 2013, 88: 134101) potential behaves well at different hydrostatic pressures. Then, the MD simulation results based on the Ravelo-EAM potential show that Ta will experience a body-centered-cubic (BCC) to face-centered-cubic (FCC) phase transition before fracture under tensile loading at 1 K temperature, and model size and strain rate have no obvious effects on tensile behaviors of Ta. Next, from the simulation results at the system temperature from 1 to 1500 K, it can be derived that the elastic modulus of E 100 linearly decrease with the increasing temperature, while the yielding stress decrease with conforming a quadratic polynomial formula. Finally, the pressure dependence of the elastic properties is performed from 0 to 140 GPa and the observations show that the elastic modulus increases with the increasing pressure overall.

  18. An Improved Single-Channel Method to Retrieve Land Surface Temperature from the Landsat-8 Thermal Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Cristóbal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Land surface temperature (LST is one of the sources of input data for modeling land surface processes. The Landsat satellite series is the only operational mission with more than 30 years of archived thermal infrared imagery from which we can retrieve LST. Unfortunately, stray light artifacts were observed in Landsat-8 TIRS data, mostly affecting Band 11, currently making the split-window technique impractical for retrieving surface temperature without requiring atmospheric data. In this study, a single-channel methodology to retrieve surface temperature from Landsat TM and ETM+ was improved to retrieve LST from Landsat-8 TIRS Band 10 using near-surface air temperature (Ta and integrated atmospheric column water vapor (w as input data. This improved methodology was parameterized and successfully evaluated with simulated data from a global and robust radiosonde database and validated with in situ data from four flux tower sites under different types of vegetation and snow cover in 44 Landsat-8 scenes. Evaluation results using simulated data showed that the inclusion of Ta together with w within a single-channel scheme improves LST retrieval, yielding lower errors and less bias than models based only on w. The new proposed LST retrieval model, developed with both w and Ta, yielded overall errors on the order of 1 K and a bias of −0.5 K validated against in situ data, providing a better performance than other models parameterized using w and Ta or only w models that yielded higher error and bias.

  19. Rules, culture, and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, W M

    1995-01-01

    Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be "internalized," the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain ("If you'll do X, then I'll do Y"), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule ("Dress warmly; it's cold outside") can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior.

  20. Effects of Single and Multifactor Treatments with Elevated Temperature, CO2 and Ozone on Oilseed Rape and Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sabine Karin; Frenck, Georg; van der Linden, Leon Gareth

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effect of elevated [CO2], [O3] and temperature on plant productivity and if these climate factors interacted with each other in multifactor treatments. The climate effects were studied in 14 different cultivars/lines of European spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and spring...... barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Seven genotypes of each species were cultivated in six single- and multifactor treatments with ambient or elevated CO2 (385 ppm and 700 ppm), O3 (20 ppb and 60 ppb) and temperature (12/19 °C and 17/24 °C). Growth and production parameters were measured. Elevated CO2 increased....... A significantly decreased yield and thousand grain weight was also seen in barley due to elevated O3. The multifactor combination of elevated CO2, O3 and temperature showed a decrease in growth and production in the two species, though not statistically significant for all parameters. This trend suggests...

  1. Single-ion polymer electrolyte membranes enable lithium-ion batteries with a broad operating temperature range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weiwei; Zhang, Yunfeng; Li, Jing; Sun, Yubao; Cheng, Hansong

    2014-04-01

    Conductive processes involving lithium ions are analyzed in detail from a mechanistic perspective, and demonstrate that single ion polymeric electrolyte (SIPE) membranes can be used in lithium-ion batteries with a wide operating temperature range (25-80 °C) through systematic optimization of electrodes and electrode/electrolyte interfaces, in sharp contrast to other batteries equipped with SIPE membranes that display appreciable operability only at elevated temperatures (>60 °C). The performance is comparable to that of batteries using liquid electrolyte of inorganic salt, and the batteries exhibit excellent cycle life and rate performance. This significant widening of battery operation temperatures coupled with the inherent flexibility and robustness of the SIPE membranes makes it possible to develop thin and flexible Li-ion batteries for a broad range of applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. A temperature dependent tunneling study of the spin density wave gap in EuFe2As2 single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Anirban; Anupam; Hossain, Z; Gupta, Anjan K

    2013-09-18

    We report temperature dependent scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy measurements on single crystals of EuFe2As2 in the 15-292 K temperature range. The in situ cleaved crystals show atomic terraces with homogeneous tunnel spectra that correlate well with the spin density wave (SDW) transition at a temperature, TSDW ≈ 186 K. Above TSDW the local tunnel spectra show a small depression in the density of states (DOS) near the Fermi energy (EF). The gap becomes more pronounced upon entering the SDW state with a gap value ∼90 meV at 15 K. However, the zero bias conductance remains finite down to 15 K indicating a finite DOS at the EF in the SDW phase. Furthermore, no noticeable change is observed in the DOS at the antiferromagnetic ordering transition of Eu(2+) moments at 19 K.

  3. Mechanical properties and fracture behavior of single-layer phosphorene at finite temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha, Zhen-Dong; Pei, Qing-Xiang; Ding, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorene, a new two-dimensional (2D) material beyond graphene, has attracted great attention in recent years due to its superior physical and electrical properties. However, compared to graphene and other 2D materials, phosphorene has a relatively low Young’s modulus and fracture strength, which may limit its applications due to possible structure failures. For the mechanical reliability of future phosphorene-based nanodevices, it is necessary to have a deep understanding of the mechanical properties and fracture behaviors of phosphorene. Previous studies on the mechanical properties of phosphorene were based on first principles calculations at 0 K. In this work, we employ molecular dynamics simulations to explore the mechanical properties and fracture behaviors of phosphorene at finite temperatures. It is found that temperature has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of phosphorene. The fracture strength and strain reduce by more than 65% when the temperature increases from 0 K to 450 K. Moreover, the fracture strength and strain in the zigzag direction is more sensitive to the temperature rise than that in the armchair direction. More interestingly, the failure crack propagates preferably along the groove in the puckered structure when uniaxial tension is applied in the armchair direction. In contrast, when the uniaxial tension is applied in the zigzag direction, multiple cracks are observed with rough fracture surfaces. Our present work provides useful information about the mechanical properties and failure behaviors of phosphorene at finite temperatures. (paper)

  4. Experimental study of thermoacoustic effects on a single plate. Pt. 1. Temperature fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, M.; Herman, C. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA). Dept. of Mech. Eng.

    2000-03-01

    The thermal interaction between a heated solid plate and the acoustically driven working fluid was investigated by visualizing and quantifying the temperature fields in the neighbourhood of the solid plate. A combination of holographic interferometry and high-speed cinematography was applied in the measurements. A better knowledge of these temperature fields is essential to develop systematic design methodologies for heat exchangers in oscillatory flows. The difference between heat transfer in oscillatory flows with zero mean velocity and steady-state flows is demonstrated in the paper. Instead of heat transfer from a heated solid surface to the colder bulk fluid, the visualized temperature fields indicated that heat was transferred from the working fluid into the stack plate at the edge of the plate. In the experiments, the thermoacoustic effect was visualized through the temperature measurements. A novel evaluation procedure that accounts for the influence of the acoustic pressure variations on the refractive index was applied to accurately reconstruct the high-speed, two-dimensional oscillating temperature distributions. (orig.)

  5. 2D modeling of moderator flow and temperature distribution around a single channel after pressure tube/calandria tube contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behdadi, A.; Luxat, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    A 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed to calculate the moderator velocity field and temperature distribution around a single channel inside the moderator of a CANDU reactor after a postulated ballooning deformation of the pressure tube (PT) into contact with the calandria tube (CT). Following contact between the hot PT and the relatively cold CT, there is a spike in heat flux to the moderator surrounding the CT which may lead to sustained CT dryout. This can detrimentally affect channel integrity if the CT post-dryout temperature becomes sufficiently high to result in thermal creep strain deformation. The present research is focused on establishing the limits for dryout occurrence on the CTs for the situation in which pressure tube-calandria tube contact occurs. In order to consider different location of the channels inside the calandria, both upward and downward flow directions have been analyzed. The standard κ - ε turbulence model associated with logarithmic wall function is applied to predict the effects of turbulence. The governing equations are solved by the finite element software package COMSOL. The buoyancy driven natural convection on the outer surface of a CT has been analyzed to predict the flow and temperature distribution around the single CT considering the local moderator subcooling, wall temperature and heat flux. The model also shows the effect of high CT temperature on the flow and subcooling around the CTs at higher/lower elevation depending on the flow direction in the domain. According to the flow pattern and temperature distribution, it is predicted that stable film boiling generates in the stagnation region on the cylinder. (author)

  6. Vertical Magnetic Levitation Force Measurement on Single Crystal YBaCuO Bulk at Different Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Sukru; Guner, Sait Baris; Ozturk, Kemal; Ozturk, Ozgur

    Magnetic levitation force measurements of HTS samples are performed with the use of liquid nitrogen. It is both convenient and cheap. However, the temperature of the sample cannot be changed (77 K) and there is problem of frost. So, it is necessary to build another type of system to measure the levitation force high Tc superconductor at different temperatures. In this study, we fabricated YBaCuO superconducting by top-seeding-melting-growth (TSMG) technique and measured vertical forces of them at FC (Field Cooling) and ZFC (Zero Field Cooling) regimes by using our new designed magnetic levitation force measurement system. It was used to investigate the three-dimensional levitation force and lateral force in the levitation system consisting of a cylindrical magnet and a permanent cylindrical superconductor at different temperatures (37, 47, 57, 67 and 77 K).

  7. Room-temperature spin-polarized organic light-emitting diodes with a single ferromagnetic electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Baofu, E-mail: b.ding@ecu.edu.au; Alameh, Kamal, E-mail: k.alameh@ecu.edu.au [Electron Science Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup WA 6027 Australia (Australia); Song, Qunliang [Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2014-05-19

    In this paper, we demonstrate the concept of a room-temperature spin-polarized organic light-emitting diode (Spin-OLED) structure based on (i) the deposition of an ultra-thin p-type organic buffer layer on the surface of the ferromagnetic electrode of the Spin-OLED and (ii) the use of oxygen plasma treatment to modify the surface of that electrode. Experimental results demonstrate that the brightness of the developed Spin-OLED can be increased by 110% and that a magneto-electroluminescence of 12% can be attained for a 150 mT in-plane magnetic field, at room temperature. This is attributed to enhanced hole and room-temperature spin-polarized injection from the ferromagnetic electrode, respectively.

  8. Electrical properties of single crystal Yttrium Iron Garnet ultra-thin films at high temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Thiery, Nicolas; Naletov, Vladimir V.; Vila, Laurent; Marty, Alain; Brenac, Ariel; Jacquot, Jean-François; de Loubens, Grégoire; Viret, Michel; Anane, Abdelmadjid; Cros, Vincent; Youssef, Jamal Ben; Demidov, Vladislav E.; Demokritov, Sergej O.; Klein, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    We report a study on the electrical properties of 19 nm thick Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) films grown by liquid phase epitaxy. The electrical conductivity and Hall coefficient are measured in the high temperature range [300,400]~K using a Van der Pauw four-point probe technique. We find that the electrical resistivity decreases exponentially with increasing temperature following an activated behavior corresponding to a band-gap of $E_g\\approx 2$ eV, indicating that epitaxial YIG ultra-thin film...

  9. High-temperature and low-stress creep anisotropy of single-crystal superalloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jacome, L. A.; Nortershauser, P.; Heyer, J. K.; Lahni, A.; Frenzel, J.; Dlouhý, Antonín; Somsen, C.; Eggeler, G.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 8 (2013), s. 2926-2943 ISSN 1359-6454 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/09/2073 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : superalloy single crystals * creep anisotropy * rafting * dislocations * deformation mechanisms Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.940, year: 2013

  10. High-quality bulk hybrid perovskite single crystals within minutes by inverse temperature crystallization

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Abdelhady, Ahmed L.; Banavoth, Murali; Alarousu, Erkki; Burlakov, Victor M.; Peng, Wei; Dursun, Ibrahim; Wang, Lingfei; He, Yao; Maculan, Giacomo; Goriely, Alain; Wu, Tao; Mohammed, Omar F.; Bakr, Osman

    2015-01-01

    Single crystals of methylammonium lead trihalide perovskites (MAPbX3; MA=CH3NH3+, X=Br− or I−) have shown remarkably low trap density and charge transport properties; however, growth of such high-quality semiconductors is a time-consuming process

  11. Single-particle thermal diffusion of charged colloids: Double-layer theory in a temperature gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhont, J.K.G.; Briels, Willem J.

    2008-01-01

    The double-layer contribution to the single-particle thermal diffusion coefficient of charged, spherical colloids with arbitrary double-layer thickness is calculated and compared to experiments. The calculation is based on an extension of the Debye-Hückel theory for the double-layer structure that

  12. Bright trions in direct-bandgap silicon nanocrystals revealed bylow-temperature single-nanocrystal spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kůsová, Kateřina; Pelant, Ivan; Valenta, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 4, Oct (2015), e336 ISSN 2047-7538 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA ČR GPP204/12/P235 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : silicon nanocrystals * single-nanocrystal spectroscopy * luminescing trions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 13.600, year: 2015

  13. High Pressure Low Temperature X-Ray Diffraction Studies of UO2 and UN single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Daniel; Mast, Daniel; Lavina, Barbara; Gofryk, Krzysztof

    Uranium dioxide is the most commonly used nuclear fuel material in commercial reactors, while uranium nitride also has many thermal and physical properties that make it attractive for potential use in reactors. Both have a cubic fcc lattice structure at ambient conditions and transition to antiferromagnetic order at low temperature. UO2 is a Mott insulator that orders in a complex non-collinear 3k magnetic structure at about 30 K, while UN has appreciable conductivity and orders in a simpler 1k magnetic structure below 52 K. Both compounds are characterized by strong magneto-structural interactions, understanding of which is vital for modeling their thermo-physical properties. While UO2 and UN have been extensively studied at and above room temperature, little work has been done to directly study the structure of these materials at low temperatures where magnetic interactions are dominant. In the course of our systematic studies on magneto vibrational behavior of UO2 and UN, here we present our recent results of high pressure X-Ray Diffraction (up to 35 GPa) measured below the Neel temperature using synchrotron radiation. Work supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences, and Engineering Division.

  14. Room Temperature Monoclinic Phase in BaTiO3 Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denev, Sava; Kumar, Amit; Barnes, Andrew; Vlahos, Eftihia; Shepard, Gabriella; Gopalan, Venkatraman

    2010-03-01

    BaTiO3 is a well studied ferroelectric material for the last half century. It is well known to show phase transitions to tetragonal, orthorhombic and rhombohedral phases upon cooling. Yet, some old and some recent studies have argued that all these phases co-exist with a second phase with monoclinic distortion. Using optical second harmonic generation (SHG) at room temperature we directly present evidence for such monoclininc phase co-existing with tetragonal phase at room temperature. We observe domains with the expected tetragonal symmetry exhibiting 90^o and 180^o domain walls. However, at points of higher stress at the tips of the interpenetrating tetragonal domains we observe a well pronounced metastable ``staircase pattern'' with a micron-scale fine structure. Polarization studies show that this phase can be explained only by monoclinic symmetry. This phase is very sensitive to external perturbations such as temperature and fields, hence stabilizing this phase at room temperature could lead to large properties' tunability.

  15. Single temperature sensor based evaporator filling control using excitation signal harmonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Rasmussen, Henrik; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2012-01-01

    An important aspect of efficient and safe operation of refrigeration and air conditioning systems is superheat control for evaporators. This is conventionally controlled with a pressure sensor, a temperature sensor, an expansion valve and Proportional-Integral (PI) controllers or more advanced...

  16. Carbon monoxide oxidation on Pt single crystal electrodes: understanding the catalysis for low temperature fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Gonzalo; Koper, Marc T M

    2011-08-01

    Herein the general concepts of fuel cells are discussed, with special attention to low temperature fuel cells working in alkaline media. Alkaline low temperature fuel cells could well be one of the energy sources in the next future. This technology has the potential to provide power to portable devices, transportation and stationary sectors. With the aim to solve the principal catalytic problems at the anode of low temperature fuel cells, a fundamental study of the mechanism and kinetics of carbon monoxide as well as water dissociation on stepped platinum surfaces in alkaline medium is discussed and compared with those in acidic media. Furthermore, cations involved as promoters for catalytic surface reactions are also considered. Therefore, the aim of the present work is not only to provide the new fundamental advances in the electrocatalysis field, but also to understand the reactions occurring at fuel cell catalysts, which may help to improve the fabrication of novel electrodes in order to enhance the performance and to decrease the cost of low temperature fuel cells. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Kinetics and mechanisms of low temperature deformation in high purity niobium single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karam, N.H.

    1985-01-01

    This study included three main aspects: (1) an extensive examination of the temperature and strain rate dependence of the flow stress without any thermodynamic analysis; (2) detailed thermodynamic analysis of the experimental data with no specific models involved, and (3) testing the results against specific models as well as modification of Seeger's model (1981-1983) to account for the results. The temperature and strain rate dependence of the tau/sub f/, tau/sup */, and tau/sub μ/ was experimentally determined over the temperature range 300 to 4.2 K with intervals ΔT ≤ 20K. The value of tau/sub μ/(T/sub k/) was found experimentally by decremental unloading, stress relaxation, and back extrapolation techniques giving tau/sub μ/(T/sub k/) = 19 MPa in agreement with the analytical analysis. The knee temperature was found T/sub k/ = 300K and the Peierls stress was determined as taup = 370 MPa. The strain rate sensitivity λ was evaluated using both strain rate cycle and stress relaxation techniques which were in excellent agreement. λ reached its maximum at 77K. Experimental data are best described by double kink nucleation models where deformation occurs by the formation of double kinks on screw dislocations that are resisted by a lattice friction arising from the periodic lattice potential

  18. Estimating the Soil Temperature Profile from a single Depth Observation: A simple Empirical Heatflow Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmes, T.R.H.; Owe, M.; de Jeu, R.A.M.; Kooi, H.

    2008-01-01

    Two field data sets are used to model near-surface soil temperature profiles in a bare soil. It is shown that the commonly used solutions to the heat flow equations by Van Wijk perform well when applied at deeper soil layers, but result in large errors when applied to near surface layers, where more

  19. Calibration of the apparent temperature of silicon single crystals as a function of their true temperature and their thickness as determined by infrared measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smither, R.K.; Fernandez, P.B.

    1993-09-01

    Viewing the surface of objects subjected to high heat fluxes with an infrared camera or infrared sensor has proved to be a very effective method for monitoring the magnitude and distribution of surface temperature on the object. This approach has been quite useful in studies of cooling silicon crystals in monochromators subject to high heat loads. The main drawback to this method is that single crystals of silicon are partially transparent to the infrared radiation monitored in most infrared cameras. This means that the infrared radiation emitted from the surface contains a component that comes from the interior of the crystal and that the intensity of the emitted radiation and thus the apparent temperature of the surface of the crystal depends on the thickness of the crystal and the kind of coating on the back (and/or the front) of the crystal. The apparent temperature of the crystal increases as the crystal is made thicker. A series of experiments were performed at Argonne National Laboratory to calibrate the apparent surface temperature of the crystal as measured with an infrared camera as a function of the crystal thickness and the type of coating (if any) on the back side of the crystal. A good reflecting surface on the back side of the crystal increases the apparent temperature of the crystal and simulates the response of a crystal twice the thickness. These measurements make it possible to interpret the infrared signals from cooled silicon crystals used in past high heat load experiments. A number of examples are given for data taken in synchrotron experiments with high intensity x-ray beams

  20. ATP and phosphocreatine utilization in single human muscle fibres during the development of maximal power output at elevated muscle temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Stuart R; Söderlund, Karin; Ferguson, Richard A

    2008-05-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of muscle temperature (Tm) on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine utilization in single muscle fibres during the development of maximal power output in humans. Six male participants performed a 6-s maximal sprint on a friction-braked cycle ergometer under both normal (Tm = 34.3 degrees C, s = 0.6) and elevated (T(m) = 37.3 degrees C, s = 0.2) muscle temperature conditions. During the elevated condition, muscle temperature of the legs was raised, passively, by hot water immersion followed by wrapping in electrically heated blankets. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before and immediately after exercise. Freeze-dried single fibres were dissected, characterized according to myosin heavy chain composition, and analysed for ATP and phosphocreatine content. Single fibres were classified as: type I, IIA, IIAX25 (1 - 25% IIX isoform), IIAX50 (26 - 50% IIX), IIAX75 (51 - 75% IIX), or IIAX100 (76 - 100% IIX). Maximal power output and pedal rate were both greater (P < 0.05) during the elevated condition by 258 W (s = 110) and 22 rev . min(-1) (s = 6), respectively. In both conditions, phosphocreatine content decreased significantly in all fibre types, with a greater decrease during the elevated condition in type IIA fibres (P < 0.01). Adenosine triphosphate content was also reduced to a greater (P < 0.01) extent in type IIA fibres during the elevated condition. The results of the present study indicate that after passive elevation of muscle temperature, there was a greater decrease in ATP and phosphocreatine content in type IIA fibres than in the normal trial, which contributed to the higher maximal power output.

  1. Development of a new micro-furnace for "in situ" high-temperature single crystal X-ray diffraction measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvaro, Matteo; Angel, Ross J.; Marciano, Claudio; Zaffiro, Gabriele; Scandolo, Lorenzo; Mazzucchelli, Mattia L.; Milani, Sula; Rustioni, Greta; Domeneghetti, Chiara M.; Nestola, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    Several experimental methods to reliably determine elastic properties of minerals at non-ambient conditions have been developed. In particular, different techniques for generating high-pressure and high-temperature have been successfully adopted for single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction measurements. High temperature devices for "in-situ" measurements should provide the most controlled isothermal environment as possible across the entire sample. It is intuitive that in general, thermal gradients across the sample increase as the temperature increases. Even if the small isothermal volume required for single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments makes such phenomena almost negligible, the design of a furnace should also aim to reduce thermal gradients by including a large thermal mass that encloses the sample. However this solution often leads to complex design that results in a restricted access to reciprocal space or attenuation of the incident or diffracted intensity (with consequent reduction of the accuracy and/or precision in lattice parameter determination). Here we present a newly-developed H-shaped Pt-Pt/Rh resistance microfurnace for in-situ high-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements. The compact design of the furnace together with the long collimator-sample-detector distance allows us to perform measurements up to 2θ = 70° with no further restrictions on any other angular movement. The microfurnace is equipped with a water cooling system that allows a constant thermal gradient to be maintained that in turn guarantees thermal stability with oscillations smaller than 5°C in the whole range of operating T of room-T to 1200°C. The furnace has been built for use with a conventional 4-circle Eulerian geometry equipped with point detector and automated with the SINGLE software (Angel and Finger 2011) that allows the effects of crystal offsets and diffractometer aberrations to be eliminated from the refined peak positions by the 8

  2. Effect of heat shock and recovery temperature on variability of single cell lag time of Cronobacter turicensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y Zh; Métris, A; Stasinopoulos, D M; Forsythe, S J; Sutherland, J P

    2015-02-01

    The effect of heat stress and subsequent recovery temperature on the individual cellular lag of Cronobacter turicensis was analysed using optical density measurements. Low numbers of cells were obtained through serial dilution and the time to reach an optical density of 0.035 was determined. Assuming the lag of a single cell follows a shifted Gamma distribution with a fixed shape parameter, the effect of recovery temperature on the individual lag of untreated and sublethally heat treated cells of Cr. turicensis were modelled. It was found that the shift parameter (Tshift) increased asymptotically as the temperature decreased while the logarithm of the scale parameter (θ) decreased linearly with recovery temperature. To test the validity of the model in food, growth of low numbers of untreated and heat treated Cr. turicensis in artificially contaminated infant first milk was measured experimentally and compared with predictions obtained by Monte Carlo simulations. Although the model for untreated cells slightly underestimated the actual growth in first milk at low temperatures, the model for heat treated cells was in agreement with the data derived from the challenge tests and provides a basis for reliable quantitative microbiological risk assessments for Cronobacter spp. in infant milk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Single Transmembrane Segment of Minimal Sensor DesK Senses Temperature via a Membrane-Thickness Caliper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, Maria E; Oliveira, Rafael G; de Mendoza, Diego; Cybulski, Larisa E

    2016-11-01

    Thermosensors detect temperature changes and trigger cellular responses crucial for survival at different temperatures. The thermosensor DesK is a transmembrane (TM) histidine kinase which detects a decrease in temperature through its TM segments (TMS). Here, we address a key issue: how a physical stimulus such as temperature can be converted into a cellular response. We show that the thickness of Bacillus lipid membranes varies with temperature and that such variations can be detected by DesK with great precision. On the basis of genetic studies and measurements of in vitro activity of a DesK construct with a single TMS (minimal sensor DesK [MS-DesK]), reconstituted in liposomes, we propose an interplay mechanism directed by a conserved dyad, phenylalanine 8-lysine 10. This dyad is critical to anchor the only transmembrane segment of the MS-DesK construct to the extracellular water-lipid interphase and is required for the transmembrane segment of MS-DesK to function as a caliper for precise measurement of membrane thickness. The data suggest that positively charged lysine 10, which is located in the hydrophobic core of the membrane but is close to the water-lipid interface, pulls the transmembrane region toward the water phase to localize its charge at the interface. Nevertheless, the hydrophobic residue phenylalanine 8, located at the N-terminal extreme of the TMS, has a strong tendency to remain in the lipid phase, impairing access of lysine 10 to the water phase. The outcome of this interplay is a fine-tuned sensitivity to membrane thickness that elicits conformational changes that favor different signaling states of the protein. The ability to sense and respond to extracellular signals is essential for cell survival. One example is the cellular response to temperature variation. How do cells "sense" temperature changes? It has been proposed that the bacterial thermosensor DesK acts as a molecular caliper measuring membrane thickness variations that would occur

  4. Effect of reactor neutron radiation and temperature on the structure of InP single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojko, V.M.; Kolin, N.G.; Merkurisov, D.I.; Bublik, V.T.; Voronova, M.I.; Shcherbachev, K.D.

    2006-01-01

    The structural characteristics of InP single crystals have been investigated depending on the radiation effects produced by fast and full spectrum neutrons and subsequent heat treatment. A lattice period in InP single crystals decreases under neutron irradiation. Fast neutrons make the main contribution into the change of the lattice period. Availability of the thermal neutrons initiates the formation of Sn atoms, but does not make a significant influence on the change of the lattice period. Heat treatment of the irradiated samples up to 600 deg C causes the annealing of radiation defects and recovery of the lattice period. With increasing neutron fluences a lattice period becomes even higher than before irradiation [ru

  5. Interaction of high cycle fatigue with high temperature creep in superalloy single crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukáš, Petr; Kunz, Ludvík; Svoboda, Milan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 7 (2002), s. 661-665 ISSN 0044-3093 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2041002; GA AV ČR KSK1010104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : Single crystals * Creep/fatigue interaction * Persistent slip bands Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.636, year: 2002

  6. A highly crystalline single Au wire network as a high temperature transparent heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K. D. M.; Kulkarni, Giridhar U.

    2014-05-01

    A transparent conductor which can generate high temperatures finds important applications in optoelectronics. In this article, a wire network made of Au on quartz is shown to serve as an effective high temperature transparent heater. The heater has been fabricated by depositing Au onto a cracked sacrificial template. The highly interconnected Au wire network thus formed exhibited a transmittance of ~87% in a wide spectral range with a sheet resistance of 5.4 Ω □-1. By passing current through the network, it could be joule heated to ~600 °C within a few seconds. The extraordinary thermal performance and stability owe much to the seamless junctions present in the wire network. Furthermore, the wire network gets self-annealed through joule heating as seen from its increased crystallinity. Interestingly, both transmittance and sheet resistance improved following annealing to 92% and 3.2 Ω □-1, respectively. A transparent conductor which can generate high temperatures finds important applications in optoelectronics. In this article, a wire network made of Au on quartz is shown to serve as an effective high temperature transparent heater. The heater has been fabricated by depositing Au onto a cracked sacrificial template. The highly interconnected Au wire network thus formed exhibited a transmittance of ~87% in a wide spectral range with a sheet resistance of 5.4 Ω □-1. By passing current through the network, it could be joule heated to ~600 °C within a few seconds. The extraordinary thermal performance and stability owe much to the seamless junctions present in the wire network. Furthermore, the wire network gets self-annealed through joule heating as seen from its increased crystallinity. Interestingly, both transmittance and sheet resistance improved following annealing to 92% and 3.2 Ω □-1, respectively. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Optical micrographs, EDAX, XRD, SEM and TEM images of Au metal wires. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00869c

  7. Low temperature oxidative desulfurization with hierarchically mesoporous titaniumsilicate Ti-SBA-2 single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chengxiang; Wang, Wenxuan; Liu, Ni; Xu, Xueyan; Wang, Danhong; Zhang, Minghui; Sun, Pingchuan; Chen, Tiehong

    2015-07-21

    Hierarchically porous Ti-SBA-2 with high framework Ti content (up to 5 wt%) was firstly synthesized by employing organic mesomorphous complexes of a cationic surfactant (CTAB) and an anionic polyelectrolyte (PAA) as templates. The material exhibited excellent performance in oxidative desulfurization of diesel fuel at low temperature (40 °C or 25 °C) due to the unique hierarchically porous structure and high framework Ti content.

  8. Temperature dependences of the electrical conductivity and Hall coefficient of indium telluride single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Conductivity type, carrier concentration and carrier mobility of InTe samples grown by Bridgman technique were determined by the Hall effect and electrical conductivity measurements. The study was performed in the temperature range 150-480 K. Two samples with different growth rate were used in the investigation. The samples under test were P-type conducting, in accordance with previous measurements of undoped material. The Hall coefficient was found to be isotropic yielding room temperature hole concentration in the range 10 15 -10 16 cm -3 . The hole mobilities of InTe samples were in the range 1.17 x 10 3 -2.06 x 10 3 cm 2 /V · sec at room temperature. The band-gap of InTe determined from Hall coefficient studies has been obtained equal to 0.34 eV. The scattering mechanism was checked, and the electrical properties were found to be sensitive to the crystal growth rate. (author)

  9. Giant volume magnetostriction in the Y{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} single crystal at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, S. A., E-mail: nikitin@phys.msu.ru; Pankratov, N. Yu.; Smarzhevskaya, A. I.; Politova, G. A. [Physics Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Pastushenkov, Yu. G., E-mail: yupast@mail.ru; Skokov, K. P. [Physics Faculty, Tver State University, 170100 Tver (Russian Federation); Moral, A. del [Laboratorio de Magnetismo de Slidos, Departamento de Fisica de Materia Condensada and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragn, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza-C.S.I.C, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2015-05-21

    An investigation of the Y{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} compound belonging to the class of intermetallic alloys of rare-earth and 3d-transition metals is presented. The magnetization, magnetostriction, and thermal expansion of the Y{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} single crystal were studied. The forced magnetostriction and magnetostriction constants were investigated in the temperature range of the magnetic ordering close to the room temperature. The giant field induced volume magnetostriction was discovered in the room temperature region in the magnetic field up to 1.2 T. The contributions of both anisotropic single-ion and isotropic pair exchange interactions to the volume magnetostriction and magnetostriction constants were determined. The experimental results were interpreted within the framework of the Standard Theory of Magnetostriction and the Landau thermodynamic theory. It was found out that the giant values of the volume magnetostriction were caused by the strong dependence of the 3d-electron Coulomb charge repulsion on the deformations and width of the 3d-electron energy band.

  10. Impact of growth conditions and role of sigB on Listeria monocytogenes fitness in single and mixed biofilms cultured with Lactobacillus plantarum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saa Ibusquiza, P.; Nierop Groot, M.N.; Deban Valles, A.; Abee, T.; Besten, den H.M.W.

    2015-01-01

    The role of sigB, a major transcriptional regulator of stress response genes, was assessed in formation of single and mixed species biofilms of Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e and Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 as secondary species at 20 °C and 30 °C using different medium compositions (nutrient-rich

  11. Sensitivity analysis of recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage with single well

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeon, Jun-Seo; Lee, Seung-Rae; Pasquinelli, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    ., it is getting more attention as these issues are gradually alleviated. In this study, a sensitivity analysis of recovery efficiency in two cases of HT-ATES system with a single well is conducted to select key parameters. For a fractional factorial design used to choose input parameters with uniformity...... with Smoothly Clopped Absolute Deviation Penalty, is utilized. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is performed based on the variation decomposition. According to the result of sensitivity analysis, the most important input variables are selected and confirmed to consider the interaction effects for each case...

  12. Single fiber temperature probe configuration using anti-Stokes luminescence from Cr:GdAlO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.

    2018-06-01

    Single-photon excitation of anti-Stokes-shifted emission from a thermographic phosphor allows operation of a luminescence decay-based single fiber temperature probe with negligible interference from background fiber-generated Raman scattering. While single fiber probe configurations for luminescence-based fiber optic thermometers offer advantages of simple design, compactness, and superior emission light collection efficiency, their effective use has been limited by interference from Raman scattering in the fiber probe and excitation delivery fiber that produces distortion of the luminescence decay that follows the excitation pulse. The near elimination of interference by background fiber-generated Raman scattering was demonstrated by incorporating a Cr-doped GdAlO3 (Cr:GdAlO3) thermographic phosphor as the sensing element at the end of a single fiber luminescence decay-based thermometer and detecting anti-Stokes-shifted luminescence centered at 542 or 593 nm produced by 695 nm excitation. Measurements were performed using both silica (up to 1150 °C) and single-crystal YAG (up to 1200 °C) fiber-based thermometers. Selection of emission detection centered at 542 nm greatly benefited the YAG fiber probe measurements by practically eliminating detection of otherwise significant luminescence from Cr3+ impurities in the YAG fiber. For both the silica and YAG fiber probes, the relative benefit of adopting single-photon excitation of anti-Stokes-shifted luminescence was evaluated by comparison with results obtained by conventional 532 nm excitation of Stokes-shifted luminescence.

  13. Scaling of dynamical decoupling for a single electron spin in nanodiamonds at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Dong-Qi; Liu, Gang-Qin; Chang, Yan-Chun; Pan, Xin-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Overcoming the spin qubit decoherence is a challenge for quantum science and technology. We investigate the decoherence process in nanodiamonds by Carr–Purcell–Meiboom–Gill (CPMG) technique at room temperature. We find that the coherence time T 2 scales as n γ . The elongation effect of coherence time can be represented by a constant power of the number of pulses n. Considering the filter function of CPMG decoupling sequence as a δ function, the spectrum density of noise has been reconstructed directly from the coherence time measurements and a Lorentzian noise power spectrum model agrees well with the experiment. These results are helpful for the application of nanodiamonds to nanoscale magnetic imaging

  14. A new manganese-based single-molecule magnet with a record-high antiferromagnetic phase transition temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Yan; Li Yan-Rong; Li Rui-Yuan; Wang Yun-Ping

    2014-01-01

    We perform both dc and ac magnetic measurements on the single crystal of Mn 3 O(Et-sao) 3 (ClO 4 )(MeOH) 3 single-molecule magnet (SMM) when the sample is preserved in air for different durations. We find that, during the oxidation process, the sample develops into another SMM with a smaller anisotropy energy barrier and a stronger antiferromagnetic intermolecular exchange interaction. The antiferromagnetic transition temperature observed at 6.65 K in the new SMM is record-high for the antiferromagnetic phase transition in all the known SMMs. Compared to the original SMM, the only apparent change for the new SMM is that each molecule has lost three methyl groups as revealed by four-circle x-ray diffraction (XRD), which is thought to be the origin of the stronger antiferromagnetic intermolecular exchange interaction

  15. Materials process and applications of single grain (RE)-Ba-Cu-O bulk high-temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Beizhan; Zhou Difan; Xu Kun; Hara, Shogo; Tsuzuki, Keita; Miki, Motohiro; Felder, Brice; Deng Zigang [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology (TUMSAT), 2-1-6, Etchu-jima, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Izumi, Mitsuru, E-mail: izumi@kaiyodai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology (TUMSAT), 2-1-6, Etchu-jima, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan)

    2012-11-20

    This paper reviews recent advances in the melt process of (RE)-Ba-Cu-O [(RE)BCO, where RE represents a rare earth element] single grain high-temperature superconductors (HTSs), bulks and its applications. The efforts on the improvement of the magnetic flux pinning with employing the top-seeded melt-growth process technique and using a seeded infiltration and growth process are discussed. Which including various chemical doping strategies and controlled pushing effect based on the peritectic reaction of (RE)BCO. The typical experiment results, such as the largest single domain bulk, the clear TEM observations and the significant critical current density, are summarized together with the magnetization techniques. Finally, we highlight the recent prominent progress of HTS bulk applications, including Maglev, flywheel, power device, magnetic drug delivery system and magnetic resonance devices.

  16. Materials process and applications of single grain (RE)-Ba-Cu-O bulk high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Beizhan; Zhou, Difan; Xu, Kun; Hara, Shogo; Tsuzuki, Keita; Miki, Motohiro; Felder, Brice; Deng, Zigang; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2012-11-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in the melt process of (RE)-Ba-Cu-O [(RE)BCO, where RE represents a rare earth element] single grain high-temperature superconductors (HTSs), bulks and its applications. The efforts on the improvement of the magnetic flux pinning with employing the top-seeded melt-growth process technique and using a seeded infiltration and growth process are discussed. Which including various chemical doping strategies and controlled pushing effect based on the peritectic reaction of (RE)BCO. The typical experiment results, such as the largest single domain bulk, the clear TEM observations and the significant critical current density, are summarized together with the magnetization techniques. Finally, we highlight the recent prominent progress of HTS bulk applications, including Maglev, flywheel, power device, magnetic drug delivery system and magnetic resonance devices.

  17. Finite-temperature dynamic structure factor of the spin-1 XXZ chain with single-ion anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Florian; Ejima, Satoshi; Fehske, Holger

    2018-02-01

    Improving matrix-product state techniques based on the purification of the density matrix, we are able to accurately calculate the finite-temperature dynamic response of the infinite spin-1 XXZ chain with single-ion anisotropy in the Haldane, large-D , and antiferromagnetic phases. Distinct thermally activated scattering processes make a significant contribution to the spectral weight in all cases. In the Haldane phase, intraband magnon scattering is prominent, and the on-site anisotropy causes the magnon to split into singlet and doublet branches. In the large-D phase response, the intraband signal is separated from an exciton-antiexciton continuum. In the antiferromagnetic phase, holons are the lowest-lying excitations, with a gap that closes at the transition to the Haldane state. At finite temperatures, scattering between domain-wall excitations becomes especially important and strongly enhances the spectral weight for momentum transfer π .

  18. High temperature electron beam ion source for the production of single charge ions of most elements of the Periodic Table

    CERN Document Server

    Panteleev, V N; Barzakh, A E; Fedorov, D V; Ivanov, V S; Moroz, F V; Orlov, S Y; Seliverstov, D M; Stroe, L; Tecchio, L B; Volkov, Y M

    2003-01-01

    A new type of a high temperature electron beam ion source (HTEBIS) with a working temperature up to 2500 deg. C was developed for production of single charge ions of practically all elements. Off-line tests and on-line experiments making use of the developed ion source coupled with uranium carbide targets of different density, have been carried out. The ionization efficiency measured for stable atoms of many elements varied in the interval of 1-6%. Using the HTEBIS, the yields and on-line production efficiency of neutron rich isotopes of Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn and isotopes of heavy elements Pb, Bi, Po and some others have been determined. The revealed confinement effect of the ions produced in the narrow electron beam inside a hot ion source cavity has been discussed.

  19. Comparison of HYDRA predictions to temperature data from two single-assembly spent fuel heat transfer tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCann, R.A.

    1986-12-01

    The HYDRA computer code was used to simulate the thermal performance of an actual and a model spent fuel assembly. The HYDRA-predicted temperatures were then compared with measured data from two single-assembly test sections. The objective of this effort was to further verify the predictive capabilities of the HYDRA code for use in assessments of the hydrothermal performance of spent fuel dry storage systems. After HYDRA has been adequately evaluated and validated, the code will be documented to permit design and licensing safety analyses

  20. Influence of calcination temperature on sol-gel synthesized single-phase bismuth titanate for high dielectric capacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiruramanathan, Pandirengan; Marikani, Arumugam [Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Tamil Nadu (India). Dept. of Physics; Madhavan, Durairaj [Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Tamil Nadu (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Bharadwaj, Suresh; Awasthi, Anand Mohan [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore (India). Thermodynamics Lab.

    2016-05-15

    An inexpensive sol-gel combustion method using citric acid as fuel has been used to synthesize bismuth titanate, Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} nanopowders. Thermogravimetric analysis proved that a calcination temperature of 900 C is sufficient for the preparation of single-phase bismuth titanate. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are used to examine the influence of calcination temperature on the structural growth of the Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} nanopowder. The average crystallite size estimated by using the Scherrer method and the Williamson-Hall method was found to increase with calcination temperature. Photoluminescence behavior as a function of calcination temperature was observed at two different excitation wavelengths of 300 nm and 420 nm. The morphology of the particles analyzed using images obtained from field emission scanning electron microscopy displayed irregular, random sized, and spherical-shaped structures. The stoichiometry and purity of the nanopowder are confirmed by energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The broadband dielectric results established the highest dielectric constant (ε{sub r} = 450) for a frequency of 100 Hz achieved with a potential capacitance of 138 pF m{sup -2}. This establishes Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} as a promising dielectric material for achieving high energy density capacitors for the next-generation passive devices.

  1. Cyclic deformation of NI/sub 3/(Al,Nb) single crystals at ambient and elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonda, N.R.

    1985-01-01

    Cyclic tests were performed on Ni/sub 3/(Al,Nb) (..gamma..' phase) single crystals by using a servo-hydraulic machine under fully reversed plastic strain control at a frequency of 0.1-0.2 Hz at room temperature, 400/sup 0/C and 700/sup 0/C. Since the monotonic behavior is orientation dependent, three orientations were studied. Asymmetry in tensile and compressive stresses was observed in the cyclic hardening curves of specimens tested at these temperatures and they were discussed with regard to the model suggested by Paider et al for monotonic behavior. The stress levels in the cyclic stress-strain curves (CSSC) at room temperature depended on orientation and cyclic history. No CSSCs were established at 400/sup 0/C and 700/sup 0/C. The deformation in cyclic tests at small plastic strain amplitudes was found to be different from that in monotonic tests in the microplastic regions in which the deformation is believed to be carried by a small density of edge dislocations. But in cyclic deformation, to and from motion of dislocations trap the edge dislocations into dipoles and therefore screw dislocations will be forced to participate in the deformation. Cracks on the surfaces of specimens tested at room temperature and 400/sup 0/C were found to be of stage I type, whereas at 700/sup 0/C, they were of stage II type.

  2. Discovery of room-temperature spin-glass behaviors in two-dimensional oriented attached single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ji; Chen, Kezheng, E-mail: kchen@qust.edu.cn

    2016-05-15

    In this study, room-temperature spin-glass behaviors were observed in flake-like oriented attached hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and iron phosphate hydroxide hydrate (Fe{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 4}(OH){sub 3}·2H{sub 2}O) single crystals. Remarkably, their coercivity (H{sub C}) values were found to be almost invariable at various given temperatures from 5 to 300 K. The spin topographic map in these flakes was assumed as superparamagnetic (SPM) “islands” isolated by spin glass (SG)-like “bridges”. A spin-glass model was then proposed to demonstrate the spin frustration within these “bridges”, which were formed by the staggered atomic planes in the uneven surfaces belonging to different attached nanoparticles. Under the spatial limitation and coupling shield of these “bridges”, the SPM “islands” were found to be collectively frozen to form a superspin glass (SSG) state below 80 K in weak applied magnetic fields; whereas, when strong magnetic fields were applied, the magnetic coupling of these “islands” would become superferromagnetic (SFM) through tunneling superexchange, so that, these SFM spins could antiferromagnetically couple with the SG-like “bridges” to yield pronounced exchange bias (EB) effect. - Highlights: • Room-temperature spin-glass state was found in 2D oriented attached single crystals. • Coercivity values were found to be almost invariable at different temperatures. • The spin topographic map was assumed as SPM “islands” isolated by SG-like “bridges”.

  3. PIV and Rotational Raman-Based Temperature Measurements for CFD Validation in a Single Injector Cooling Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Locke, Randy J.

    2018-01-01

    Film cooling is used in a wide variety of engineering applications for protection of surfaces from hot or combusting gases. The design of more efficient thin film cooling geometries/configurations could be facilitated by an ability to accurately model and predict the effectiveness of current designs using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code predictions. Hence, a benchmark set of flow field property data were obtained for use in assessing current CFD capabilities and for development of better turbulence models. Both Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and spontaneous rotational Raman scattering (SRS) spectroscopy were used to acquire high quality, spatially-resolved measurements of the mean velocity, turbulence intensity and also the mean temperature and normalized root mean square (rms) temperatures in a single injector cooling flow arrangement. In addition to flowfield measurements, thermocouple measurements on the plate surface enabled estimates of the film effectiveness. Raman spectra in air were obtained across a matrix of radial and axial locations downstream from a 68.07 mm square nozzle blowing heated air over a range of temperatures and Mach numbers, across a 30.48cm long plate equipped with a single injector cooling hole. In addition, both centerline streamwise 2-component PIV and cross-stream 3-component Stereo PIV data at 15 axial stations were collected in the same flows. The velocity and temperature data were then compared against Wind-US CFD code predictions for the same flow conditions. The results of this and planned follow-on studies will support NASA's development and assessment of turbulence models for heated flows.

  4. Laser induced fluorescence lifetime characterization of Bacillus endospore species using time correlated single photon counting analysis with the multi-exponential fit method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Clint; Edwards, Jarrod; Fisher, Andmorgan

    2010-04-01

    Rapid detection of biological material is critical for determining presence/absence of bacterial endospores within various investigative programs. Even more critical is that if select material tests positive for bacillus endospores then tests should provide data at the species level. Optical detection of microbial endospore formers such as Bacillus sp. can be heavy, cumbersome, and may only identify at the genus level. Data provided from this study will aid in characterization needed by future detection systems for further rapid breakdown analysis to gain insight into a more positive signature collection of Bacillus sp. Literature has shown that fluorescence spectroscopy of endospores could be statistically separated from other vegetative genera, but could not be separated among one another. Results of this study showed endospore species separation is possible using laser-induce fluorescence with lifetime decay analysis for Bacillus endospores. Lifetime decays of B. subtilis, B. megaterium, B. coagulans, and B. anthracis Sterne strain were investigated. Using the Multi-Exponential fit method data showed three distinct lifetimes for each species within the following ranges, 0.2-1.3 ns; 2.5-7.0 ns; 7.5-15.0 ns, when laser induced at 307 nm. The four endospore species were individually separated using principle component analysis (95% CI).

  5. Room-temperature mid-infrared single-photon imaging using upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The mid-wave infrared (MWIR) region is a fast developing research area due to many possible applications. Indeed a lot of research has been put into the development of novel light sources in the MWIR. This has led to very powerful sources such as quantum cascade lasers (QCL) and optical parametric...... detectors, when compared to silicon based detectors available for the visible and near visible spectral range. In fact, camera sensitivities down to the single photon level have been developed for sub-μm wavelengths. This discrepancy in sensitivity makes it attractive to perform wavelength upconversion...... upconversion efficiencies of 20 % for polarized collinear MWIR light. To make the module truly portable the laser cavity is assembled in a closed mechanical unit which ensures that visible light cannot enter from the outside, and provides a very stable mount for the optical components. Figure 1 depicts...

  6. Current Analysis and Modeling of Fullerene Single-Electron Transistor at Room Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadem Hosseini, Vahideh; Ahmadi, Mohammad Taghi; Afrang, Saeid; Ismail, Razali

    2017-07-01

    Single-electron transistors (SETs) are interesting electronic devices that have become key elements in modern nanoelectronic systems. SETs operate quickly because they use individual electrons, with the number transferred playing a key role in their switching behavior. However, rapid transmission of electrons can cause their accumulation at the island, affecting the I- V characteristic. Selection of fullerene as a nanoscale zero-dimensional material with high stability, and controllable size in the fabrication process, can overcome this charge accumulation issue and improve the reliability of SETs. Herein, the current in a fullerene SET is modeled and compared with experimental data for a silicon SET. Furthermore, a weaker Coulomb staircase and improved reliability are reported. Moreover, the applied gate voltage and fullerene diameter are found to be directly associated with the I- V curve, enabling the desired current to be achieved by controlling the fullerene diameter.

  7. Optical properties of single wurtzite/zinc-blende ZnSe nanowires grown at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zannier, V. [IOM-CNR Laboratorio TASC, S. S. 14, Km. 163.5, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Via Valerio 2, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Cremel, T.; Kheng, K. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SP2M, « Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs » Group, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Artioli, A.; Ferrand, D. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Institut Néel, « Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs » Group, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Grillo, V. [IMEM-CNR, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, I-43010 Parma (Italy); S3 NANO-CNR, Via Campi 213/A, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Rubini, S. [IOM-CNR Laboratorio TASC, S. S. 14, Km. 163.5, I-34149 Trieste (Italy)

    2015-09-07

    ZnSe nanowires with a dominant wurtzite structure have been grown at low temperature (300 °C) by molecular beam epitaxy assisted by solid Au nanoparticles. The nanowires emission is polarized perpendicularly to their axis in agreement with the wurtzite selection rules. Alternations of wurtzite and zinc-blende regions have been observed by transmission electron microscopy, and their impact on the nanowires optical properties has been studied by microphotoluminescence. The nanowires show a dominant intense near-band-edge emission as well as the ZnSe wurtzite free exciton line. A type II band alignment between zinc-blende and wurtzite ZnSe is evidenced by time-resolved photoluminescence. From this measurement, we deduce values for the conduction and valence band offsets of 98 and 50 meV, respectively.

  8. Size and temperature dependent stability and phase transformation in single-crystal zirconium nanowire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutrakar, Vijay Kumar; Roy Mahapatra, D.

    2011-01-01

    A novel size dependent FCC (face-centered-cubic) → HCP (hexagonally-closed-pack) phase transformation and stability of an initial FCC zirconium nanowire are studied. FCC zirconium nanowires with cross-sectional dimensions 20 Å, in which surface stresses are not enough to drive the phase transformation, show meta-stability. In such a case, an external kinetic energy in the form of thermal heating is required to overcome the energy barrier and achieve FCC → HCP phase transformation. The FCC-HCP transition pathway is also studied using Nudged Elastic Band (NEB) method, to further confirm the size dependent stability/metastability of Zr nanowires. We also show size dependent critical temperature, which is required for complete phase transformation of a metastable-FCC nanowire.

  9. Scaling of dynamical decoupling for a single electron spin in nanodiamonds at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dong-Qi; Liu, Gang-Qin; Chang, Yan-Chun; Pan, Xin-Yu, E-mail: xypan@aphy.iphy.ac.cn

    2014-01-01

    Overcoming the spin qubit decoherence is a challenge for quantum science and technology. We investigate the decoherence process in nanodiamonds by Carr–Purcell–Meiboom–Gill (CPMG) technique at room temperature. We find that the coherence time T{sub 2} scales as n{sup γ}. The elongation effect of coherence time can be represented by a constant power of the number of pulses n. Considering the filter function of CPMG decoupling sequence as a δ function, the spectrum density of noise has been reconstructed directly from the coherence time measurements and a Lorentzian noise power spectrum model agrees well with the experiment. These results are helpful for the application of nanodiamonds to nanoscale magnetic imaging.

  10. A new single-moment microphysics scheme for cloud-resolving models using observed dependence of ice concentration on temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairoutdinov, M.

    2015-12-01

    The representation of microphysics, especially ice microphysics, remains one of the major uncertainties in cloud-resolving models (CRMs). Most of the cloud schemes use the so-called bulk microphysics approach, in which a few moments of such distributions are used as the prognostic variables. The System for Atmospheric Modeling (SAM) is the CRM that employs two such schemes. The single-moment scheme, which uses only mass for each of the water phases, and the two-moment scheme, which adds the particle concentration for each of the hydrometeor category. Of the two, the single-moment scheme is much more computationally efficient as it uses only two prognostic microphysics variables compared to ten variables used by the two-moment scheme. The efficiency comes from a rather considerable oversimplification of the microphysical processes. For instance, only a sum of the liquid and icy cloud water is predicted with the temperature used to diagnose the mixing ratios of different hydrometeors. The main motivation for using such simplified microphysics has been computational efficiency, especially in the applications of SAM as the super-parameterization in global climate models. Recently, we have extended the single-moment microphysics by adding only one additional prognostic variable, which has, nevertheless, allowed us to separate the cloud ice from liquid water. We made use of some of the recent observations of ice microphysics collected at various parts of the world to parameterize several aspects of ice microphysics that have not been explicitly represented before in our sing-moment scheme. For example, we use the observed broad dependence of ice concentration on temperature to diagnose the ice concentration in addition to prognostic mass. Also, there is no artificial separation between the pristine ice and snow, often used by bulk models. Instead we prescribed the ice size spectrum as the gamma distribution, with the distribution shape parameter controlled by the

  11. Bombardment of gas molecules on single graphene layer at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murugesan, Ramki [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Hyun [Department of Aerospace and System Engineering and Research Center for Aircraft Parts Technology, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Dong Sung [Future Propulsion Center, Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-09

    Graphite is widely used as a material for rocket-nozzle inserts due to its excellent thermo-physical properties as well as low density. During the operation of rockets, the surface of the graphite nozzle is subjected to very high heat fluxes and the undesirable erosion of the surface occurs due to the bombardment of gas molecules with high kinetic energy, which causes a significant reduction of nozzle performance. However, the understanding and quantification of such bombardment is not satisfactory due to its complexity: The bond breaking-forming happens simultaneously for the carbon atoms of graphene, some gas molecules penetrate through the surface, some of them are reflected from the surface, etc. In the present study, we perform extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to examine the bombardment phenomena in high temperature environment (several thousand Kelvin). Advanced from the previous studies that have focused on the bombardment by light molecules (e.g., H{sub 2}), we will concentrate on the impact by realistic molecules (e.g., CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O). LAMMPS is employed for the MD simulations with NVE ensemble and AIREBO potential for graphene. The molecular understanding of the interaction between graphene and highly energetic gas molecules will enable us to design an efficient thermo-mechanical protection system.

  12. Auger electron spectroscopy analysis for growth interface of cubic boron nitride single crystals synthesized under high pressure and high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Meizhe; Xu, Bin; Cai, Lichao; Guo, Xiaofei; Yuan, Xingdong

    2018-05-01

    After rapid cooling, cubic boron nitride (c-BN) single crystals synthesized under high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) are wrapped in the white film powders which are defined as growth interface. In order to make clear that the transition mechanism of c-BN single crystals, the variation of B and N atomic hybrid states in the growth interface is analyzed with the help of auger electron spectroscopy in the Li-based system. It is found that the sp2 fractions of B and N atoms decreases, and their sp3 fractions increases from the outer to the inner in the growth interface. In addition, Lithium nitride (Li3N) are not found in the growth interface by X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiment. It is suggested that lithium boron nitride (Li3BN2) is produced by the reaction of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and Li3N at the first step, and then B and N atoms transform from sp2 into sp3 state with the catalysis of Li3BN2 in c-BN single crystals synthesis process.

  13. Effects of temperature and void on the dynamics and microstructure of structural transition in single crystal iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jian-Li; Wang, Pei; Zhang, Feng-Guo; He, An-Min

    2018-06-01

    With classic molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the effects of temperature and void on the bcc to hcp/fcc structural transition in single crystal iron driven by 1D ([0 0 1]) and 3D (uniform) compressions. The results show that the pressure threshold does not reduce monotonously with temperature. The pressure threshold firstly increases and then decreases in the range of 60–360 K under 1D compression, while the variation trend is just opposite under 3D compression. As expected, the initial defect may lower the pressure threshold via heterogenous nucleation. This effect is found to be more distinct at lower temperature, and the heterogenous nucleation mainly results in hcp structure. Under the condition of strain constraint, the products of structural transition will respectively form flaky hcp twin structure ((1 0 0) or (0 1 0)) and lamellar structure ({1 1 0}) of mixed phases under 1D and 3D compressions. During the structural transition, we find the shear stress (1D compression) of hcp phase is always lower than that of bcc phase. The cold energy calculations indicate that the hcp phase is the most stable under high pressure. However, we observe the evident metastable state of bcc phase, whose energy will be much higher than both hcp and fcc phases, and then provides the possibility for the occurrence of fcc nucleation.

  14. ZrC Ceramics Prepared by Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis/Single Action Pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHENG Yong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ZrC ceramics were prepared by mechanical axial compression of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis/single action pressing (SHS/SAP.The effects of pressure on microstructure and densification of the products,as well as the relationship between displacement/variation of the load curve and SHS reaction,were studied.The structure and properties of the products were investigated by XRD and SEM.In addition,the density was measured by the drain away liquid method.Meanwhile,universal testing machine was used to record the displacement and load curve alternations.The results indicate that products are mainly composed of ZrC phase,the process of exhaust are accelerated as the increasing of pressure as well,leading to the smaller size of porosity and crystal particles.Density manifested as an increasing pattern by the elevated pressure with no longer change at 80MPa.Due to the strong attenuation of pressure at the peak of temperature,the density of the production is only 65.7% in 120MPa.The end point of the SHS reaction and the plastic time of the products can be monitored by displacement and load curve.The results provide evidence for the application of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis/pseudo-hot isostatic pressing to further improve the density of ceramics.

  15. Respirators. Does your face fit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, N M; Else, D

    1981-04-01

    The authors carried out a survey of face sizes of men and women of four different ethnic origins and carried out face-seal leakage trials on four corresponding test panels. No single respirator design is likely to fit all members of the workforce, and it may be necessary to stock respirators from more than one manufacturers.Three or four different respirators or size of respirator may be needed. However, the use of lossely-fitting respirators such as Airsteam helmets could remove the necessity for exhaustive fitting procedures.

  16. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness: a fitter fitness concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, James T

    2013-01-01

    In 1963-1964 W. D. Hamilton introduced the concept of inclusive fitness, the only significant elaboration of Darwinian fitness since the nineteenth century. I discuss the origin of the modern fitness concept, providing context for Hamilton's discovery of inclusive fitness in relation to the puzzle of altruism. While fitness conceptually originates with Darwin, the term itself stems from Spencer and crystallized quantitatively in the early twentieth century. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness, with Price's reformulation, provided the solution to Darwin's 'special difficulty'-the evolution of caste polymorphism and sterility in social insects. Hamilton further explored the roles of inclusive fitness and reciprocation to tackle Darwin's other difficulty, the evolution of human altruism. The heuristically powerful inclusive fitness concept ramified over the past 50 years: the number and diversity of 'offspring ideas' that it has engendered render it a fitter fitness concept, one that Darwin would have appreciated.

  17. Poisson-Fermi modeling of ion activities in aqueous single and mixed electrolyte solutions at variable temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinn-Liang; Eisenberg, Bob

    2018-02-01

    The combinatorial explosion of empirical parameters in tens of thousands presents a tremendous challenge for extended Debye-Hückel models to calculate activity coefficients of aqueous mixtures of the most important salts in chemistry. The explosion of parameters originates from the phenomenological extension of the Debye-Hückel theory that does not take steric and correlation effects of ions and water into account. By contrast, the Poisson-Fermi theory developed in recent years treats ions and water molecules as nonuniform hard spheres of any size with interstitial voids and includes ion-water and ion-ion correlations. We present a Poisson-Fermi model and numerical methods for calculating the individual or mean activity coefficient of electrolyte solutions with any arbitrary number of ionic species in a large range of salt concentrations and temperatures. For each activity-concentration curve, we show that the Poisson-Fermi model requires only three unchanging parameters at most to well fit the corresponding experimental data. The three parameters are associated with the Born radius of the solvation energy of an ion in electrolyte solution that changes with salt concentrations in a highly nonlinear manner.

  18. Comparison of single-stage and temperature-phased two-stage anaerobic digestion of oily food waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Li-Jie; Kobayashi, Takuro; Li, Yu-You; Xu, Kai-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A single-stage and two two-stage anaerobic systems were synchronously operated. • Similar methane production 0.44 L/g VS_a_d_d_e_d from oily food waste was achieved. • The first stage of the two-stage process became inefficient due to serious pH drop. • Recycle favored the hythan production in the two-stage digestion. • The conversion of unsaturated fatty acids was enhanced by recycle introduction. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion is an effective technology to recover energy from oily food waste. A single-stage system and temperature-phased two-stage systems with and without recycle for anaerobic digestion of oily food waste were constructed to compare the operation performances. The synchronous operation indicated the similar ability to produce methane in the three systems, with a methane yield of 0.44 L/g VS_a_d_d_e_d. The pH drop to less than 4.0 in the first stage of two-stage system without recycle resulted in poor hydrolysis, and methane or hydrogen was not produced in this stage. Alkalinity supplement from the second stage of two-stage system with recycle improved pH in the first stage to 5.4. Consequently, 35.3% of the particulate COD in the influent was reduced in the first stage of two-stage system with recycle according to a COD mass balance, and hydrogen was produced with a percentage of 31.7%, accordingly. Similar solids and organic matter were removed in the single-stage system and two-stage system without recycle. More lipid degradation and the conversion of long-chain fatty acids were achieved in the single-stage system. Recycling was proved to be effective in promoting the conversion of unsaturated long-chain fatty acids into saturated fatty acids in the two-stage system.

  19. Intensity Conserving Spectral Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Patsourakos, S.; Tripathi, D.

    2015-01-01

    The detailed shapes of spectral line profiles provide valuable information about the emitting plasma, especially when the plasma contains an unresolved mixture of velocities, temperatures, and densities. As a result of finite spectral resolution, the intensity measured by a spectrometer is the average intensity across a wavelength bin of non-zero size. It is assigned to the wavelength position at the center of the bin. However, the actual intensity at that discrete position will be different if the profile is curved, as it invariably is. Standard fitting routines (spline, Gaussian, etc.) do not account for this difference, and this can result in significant errors when making sensitive measurements. Detection of asymmetries in solar coronal emission lines is one example. Removal of line blends is another. We have developed an iterative procedure that corrects for this effect. It can be used with any fitting function, but we employ a cubic spline in a new analysis routine called Intensity Conserving Spline Interpolation (ICSI). As the name implies, it conserves the observed intensity within each wavelength bin, which ordinary fits do not. Given the rapid convergence, speed of computation, and ease of use, we suggest that ICSI be made a standard component of the processing pipeline for spectroscopic data.

  20. Space heating with ultra-low-temperature district heating - A case study of four single-family houses from the 1980s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Dorte Skaarup; Svendsen, Svend

    . These benefits can be maximized if district heating temperatures are lowered as much as possible. In this paper we report on a project where 18 Danish single-family houses from the 1980s were supplied by ultra-low-temperature district heating with a supply temperature as low as 45 °C for the main part...... the four houses were modelled in the building simulation tool IDA ICE. The simulation models included the actual radiator sizes and the models were used to simulate the expected thermal comfort in the houses and resulting district heating return temperatures. Secondly measurements of the actual district...... heating return temperatures in the houses were analysed for different times of the year. The study found that existing Danish single-family houses from the 1980s can be heated with supply temperatures as low as 45 °C for the main part of the year. Both simulation models and test measurements showed...

  1. Defect types and room temperature ferromagnetism in N-doped rutile TiO2 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiu-Bo; Li, Dong-Xiang; Li, Rui-Qin; Zhang, Peng; Li, Yu-Xiao; Wang, Bao-Yi

    2014-06-01

    The magnetic properties and defect types of virgin and N-doped TiO2 single crystals are probed by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and positron annihilation analysis (PAS). Upon N doping, a twofold enhancement of the saturation magnetization is observed. Apparently, this enhancement is not related to an increase in oxygen vacancy, rather to unpaired 3d electrons in Ti3+, arising from titanium vacancies and the replacement of O with N atoms in the rutile structure. The production of titanium vacancies can enhance the room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM), and substitution of O with N is the onset of ferromagnetism by inducing relatively strong ferromagnetic ordering.

  2. A Room-temperature Hydrogen Gas Sensor Using Palladium-decorated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Si Heterojunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Gang DU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We report a room-temperature (RT hydrogen gas (H2 sensor based on palladium-decorated single-walled carbon nanotube/Si (Pd-SWNTs/Si heterojunction. The current-voltage (I-V curves of the Pd-SWNTs/Si heterojunction in different concentrations of H2 were measured. The experimental results reveal that the Pd-SWNTs/Si heterojunction exhibits high H2 response. After exposure to 0.02 %, 0.05 %, and 0.1 % H2 for 10 min, the resistance of the heterojunction increases dramatically. The response is 122 %, 269 % and 457 %, respectively. A simple interfacial theory is used to understand the gas sensitivity results. This approach is a step toward future CNTs-based gas sensors for practical application.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.12925

  3. Polypeptide Translocation Through the Mitochondrial TOM Channel: Temperature-Dependent Rates at the Single-Molecule Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendran, Kozhinjampara R; Lamichhane, Usha; Romero-Ruiz, Mercedes; Nussberger, Stephan; Winterhalter, Mathias

    2013-01-03

    The TOM protein complex facilitates the transfer of nearly all mitochondrial preproteins across outer mitochondrial membranes. Here we characterized the effect of temperature on facilitated translocation of a mitochondrial presequence peptide pF1β. Ion current fluctuations analysis through single TOM channels revealed thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of substrate binding and allowed determining the energy profile of peptide translocation. The activation energy for the on-rate and off-rate of the presequence peptide into the TOM complex was symmetric with respect to the electric field and estimated to be about 15 and 22 kT per peptide. These values are above that expected for free diffusion of ions in water (6 kT) and reflect the stronger interaction in the channel. Both values are in the range for typical enzyme kinetics and suggest one process without involving large conformational changes within the channel protein.

  4. Single molecule manipulation at low temperature and laser scanning tunnelling photo-induced processes analysis through time-resolved studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, Damien

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes, firstly, the statistical analysis used to determine the processes that occur during the manipulation of a single molecule through electronically induced excitations with a low temperature (5 K) scanning tunnelling microscope (STM). Various molecular operation examples are described and the ability to probe the ensuing molecular manipulation dynamics is discussed within the excitation context. It is, in particular, shown that such studies can reveal reversible manipulation for tuning dynamics through variation of the excitation energy. Secondly, the photo-induced process arising from the irradiation of the STM junction is also studied through feedback loop dynamics analysis, allowing us to distinguish between photo-thermally and photo-electronically induced signals.

  5. Silver nanocrystal-decorated polyoxometalate single-walled nanotubes as nanoreactors for desulfurization catalysis at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Xu, Xiaobin; Lin, Haifeng; Ud Din, Muhammad Aizaz; Wang, Haiqing; Wang, Xun

    2017-09-14

    Ultrathin nanocrystals generally provide a remarkable catalytic performance due to their high specific surface area and exposure of certain active sites. However, deactivation caused by growth and gathering limits the catalytic application of ultrathin nanocrystals. Here we report Ag nanocrystal-decorated polyoxometalate (Ag-POM) single-walled nanotubes assembled via a concise, surfactant-free soaking method as a new kind of well-defined core-sheath nanoreactor. The diameter of Ag nanocrystals inside polyoxometalate nanotubes can be controlled via simply adjusting the reactant concentration. Ag-POM provided outstanding oxidative desulfurization (ODS) catalytic performance for aromatic sulfocompounds at room temperature. It was suggested that Ag nanocrystals decorated on the inner surface played a key role in adjusting the electronic distribution and enhancing the catalytic activity. The as-prepared Ag-POM nanotubes are promising candidate catalysts with enhanced performance for practical catalytic applications in the gasoline desulfurization industry.

  6. Single crystal growth and low-temperature properties of Er{sub 3}Al{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suttner, Christian; Benka, Georg; Bauer, Andreas; Pfleiderer, Christian [Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, topologically non-trivial spin whirls in condensed matter systems attracted great scientific interest. Lattices of these objects, so-called magnetic skyrmion lattices, were mainly observed in Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya driven chiral magnets with the non-centrosymmetric cubic space group P2{sub 1}3. Similar spin textures, however, may in principle also arise in a large number of further compounds. We report single-crystal growth of Er{sub 3}Al{sub 2} crystallizing in the tetragonal space group P4{sub 2}/mnm by means of optical float zoning under UHV-compatible conditions. We determined the magnetic phase diagram for fields applied along different crystallographic directions using magnetization, ac susceptibility, and specific heat measurements. Several phase pockets are observed below the Neel temperature T{sub N} = 27 K, consistent with earlier reports.

  7. Feasibility of efficient room-temperature solid-state sources of indistinguishable single photons using ultrasmall mode volume cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, Stephen; Lauk, Nikolai; Ghobadi, Roohollah; Simon, Christoph

    2018-05-01

    Highly efficient sources of indistinguishable single photons that can operate at room temperature would be very beneficial for many applications in quantum technology. We show that the implementation of such sources is a realistic goal using solid-state emitters and ultrasmall mode volume cavities. We derive and analyze an expression for photon indistinguishability that accounts for relevant detrimental effects, such as plasmon-induced quenching and pure dephasing. We then provide the general cavity and emitter conditions required to achieve efficient indistinguishable photon emission and also discuss constraints due to phonon sideband emission. Using these conditions, we propose that a nanodiamond negatively charged silicon-vacancy center combined with a plasmonic-Fabry-Pérot hybrid cavity is an excellent candidate system.

  8. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2005-11-01

    This report summarizes technical progress April-September 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report. The sensing system will be installed and tested at TECO's Polk Power Station. Following a site visit in June 2005, our efforts have been focused on preparing for that field test, including he design of the sensor mechanical packaging, sensor electronics, the data transfer module, and the necessary software codes to accommodate this application.. We are currently ready to start sensor fabrication.

  9. Analysis of Long-Term Global Solar Radiation, Sunshine Duration and Air Temperature Data of Ankara and Modeling with Curve Fitting Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet YEŞİLBUDAK

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The information about solar parameters is important in the installation of photovoltaic energy systems that are reliable, environmentally friendly and sustainable. In this study, initially, long-term global solar radiation, sunshine duration and air temperature data of Ankara are analyzed on the annual, monthly and daily basis, elaborately. Afterwards, three different empirical methods that are polynomial, Gaussian and Fourier are used for the purpose of modeling long-term monthly total global solar radiation, monthly total sunshine duration and monthly mean air temperature data. The coefficient of determination and the root mean square error are computed as statistical test metrics in order to compare data modeling performance of the mentioned empirical methods. The empirical methods that provide the best results enable to model the solar characteristics of Ankara more accurately and the achieved outcomes constitute the significant resource for other locations with similar climatic conditions.

  10. Room-temperature superparamagnetism due to giant magnetic anisotropy in Mo S defected single-layer MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. A.; Leuenberger, Michael N.

    2018-04-01

    Room-temperature superparamagnetism due to a large magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) of a single atom magnet has always been a prerequisite for nanoscale magnetic devices. Realization of two dimensional (2D) materials such as single-layer (SL) MoS2, has provided new platforms for exploring magnetic effects, which is important for both fundamental research and for industrial applications. Here, we use density functional theory (DFT) to show that the antisite defect (Mo S ) in SL MoS2 is magnetic in nature with a magnetic moment μ of  ∼2 μB and, remarkably, exhibits an exceptionally large atomic scale MAE =\\varepsilon\\parallel-\\varepsilon\\perp of  ∼500 meV. Our calculations reveal that this giant anisotropy is the joint effect of strong crystal field and significant spin–orbit coupling (SOC). In addition, the magnetic moment μ can be tuned between 1 μB and 3 μB by varying the Fermi energy \\varepsilonF , which can be achieved either by changing the gate voltage or by chemical doping. We also show that MAE can be raised to  ∼1 eV with n-type doping of the MoS2:Mo S sample. Our systematic investigations deepen our understanding of spin-related phenomena in SL MoS2 and could provide a route to nanoscale spintronic devices.

  11. The influence of cobalt, tantalum, and tungsten on the elevated temperature mechanical properties of single crystal nickel-base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathal, M. V.; Ebert, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of composition on the tensile and creep strength of 001-line oriented nickel-base superalloy single crystals at temperatures near 1000 C was investigated. Cobalt, tantalum, and tungsten concentrations were varied according to a matrix of compositions based on the single crystal version of MAR-M247. For alloys with the baseline refractory metal level of 3 wt pct Ta and 10 wt pct W, decreases in Co level from 10 to 0 wt pct resulted in increased tensile and creep strength. Substitution of 2 wt pct W for 3 wt pct Ta resulted in decreased creep life at high stresses, but improved life at low stresses. Substitution of Ni for Ta caused large reductions in tensile strength and creep resistance, and corresponding increases in ductility. For these alloys with low Ta-plus-W totals, strength was independent of Co level. The effects of composition on properties were related to the microstructural features of the alloys. In general, high creep strength was associated with high levels of gamma-prime volume fraction, gamma-gamma-prime lattice mismatch, and solid solution hardening.

  12. Using sea surface temperatures to improve performance of single dynamical downscaling model in flood simulation under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Y.; Cheng, C. T.; Hsiao, Y. H.; Hsu, C. T.; Yeh, K. C.; Liu, P. L.

    2017-12-01

    There are 5.3 typhoons hit Taiwan per year on average in last decade. Typhoon Morakot in 2009, the most severe typhoon, causes huge damage in Taiwan, including 677 casualties and roughly NT 110 billion (3.3 billion USD) in economic loss. Some researches documented that typhoon frequency will decrease but increase in intensity in western North Pacific region. It is usually preferred to use high resolution dynamical model to get better projection of extreme events; because coarse resolution models cannot simulate intense extreme events. Under that consideration, dynamical downscaling climate data was chosen to describe typhoon satisfactorily, this research used the simulation data from AGCM of Meteorological Research Institute (MRI-AGCM). Considering dynamical downscaling methods consume massive computing power, and typhoon number is very limited in a single model simulation, using dynamical downscaling data could cause uncertainty in disaster risk assessment. In order to improve the problem, this research used four sea surfaces temperatures (SSTs) to increase the climate change scenarios under RCP 8.5. In this way, MRI-AGCMs project 191 extreme typhoons in Taiwan (when typhoon center touches 300 km sea area of Taiwan) in late 21th century. SOBEK, a two dimensions flood simulation model, was used to assess the flood risk under four SSTs climate change scenarios in Tainan, Taiwan. The results show the uncertainty of future flood risk assessment is significantly decreased in Tainan, Taiwan in late 21th century. Four SSTs could efficiently improve the problems of limited typhoon numbers in single model simulation.

  13. Effect of heat-treatment on microstructure and high-temperature deformation behavior of a low rhenium-containing single crystal nickel-based superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Nairong; Zhang, Lanting; Li, Zhigang; Shan, Aidang

    2014-01-01

    A low rhenium-containing [001] oriented single crystal nickel-based superalloy with different γ′ morphologies induced by various aging treatments was compressed from room temperature to 1000 °C. All the single crystal samples with different γ′ morphologies exhibit anomalous yield behavior. The sample first aged at 1180 °C has the widest anomalous temperature domain and highest yield strengths. The sample first aged at 1000 °C has the highest anomalous peak stress temperature

  14. Room temperature single-crystal diffuse scattering and ab initio lattice dynamics in CaTiSiO5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, M J; Refson, K; Zimmermann, M V; Swainson, I P; Dabkowski, A; Dabkowska, H

    2013-08-07

    Single-crystal diffuse scattering data have been collected at room temperature on synthetic titanite using both neutrons and high-energy x-rays. A simple ball-and-springs model reproduces the observed diffuse scattering well, confirming its origin to be primarily due to thermal motion of the atoms. Ab initio phonons are calculated using density-functional perturbation theory and are shown to reproduce the experimental diffuse scattering. The observed diffuse x-ray and neutron scattering patterns are consistent with a summation of mode frequencies and displacement eigenvectors associated with the entire phonon spectrum, rather than with a simple, short-range static displacement. A band gap is observed between 600 and 700 cm(-1) with only two modes crossing this region, both associated with antiferroelectric Ti-O motion along a. One of these modes (of Bu symmetry), displays a large LO-TO mode-splitting (562-701.4 cm(-1)) and has a dominant component coming from Ti-O bond-stretching and, thus, the mode-splitting is related to the polarizability of the Ti-O bonds along the chain direction. Similar mode-splitting is observed in piezo- and ferroelectric materials. The calculated phonon dispersion model may be of use to others in future to understand the phase transition at higher temperatures, as well as in the interpretation of measured phonon dispersion curves.

  15. Electrochemically decorated ZnTe nanodots on single-walled carbon nanotubes for room-temperature NO2 sensor application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donguk; Park, Ki-Moon; Shanmugam, Rajakumar; Yoo, Bongyoung

    2014-11-01

    A gas sensor with ZnTe nanodot-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is demonstrated for NO2 detection at room temperature. ZnTe nanodots are electrochemically deposited in an aqueous solution containing ZnSO4, TeO2 and citrate. A deposition potential range of ZnTe formation of -0.65 to -0.9 V is determined by cyclic voltammetry, and an intermetallic ZnTe compound is formed at above 50 degrees C bath. SWCNT-based sensors show the highly sensitive response down to 1 ppm NO2 gas at room temperature. In particular, the sensitivity of ZnTe nanodot-modified SWCNTs is increased by 6 times as compared to that of pristine SWCNT sensors. A selectivity test of SWCNT-ZnTe nanodots sensors is carried out with ammonia gas (NH3) and methanol vapor (MeOH), and the result confirms an excellent selectivity to NO2 gas.

  16. Role of single-point mutations and deletions on transition temperatures in ideal proteinogenic heteropolymer chains in the gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Quiroz, L

    2016-07-01

    A coarse-grained statistical mechanics-based model for ideal heteropolymer proteinogenic chains of non-interacting residues is presented in terms of the size K of the chain and the set of helical propensities [Formula: see text] associated with each residue j along the chain. For this model, we provide an algorithm to compute the degeneracy tensor [Formula: see text] associated with energy level [Formula: see text] where [Formula: see text] is the number of residues with a native contact in a given conformation. From these results, we calculate the equilibrium partition function [Formula: see text] and characteristic temperature [Formula: see text] at which a transition from a low to a high entropy states is observed. The formalism is applied to analyze the effect on characteristic temperatures [Formula: see text] of single-point mutations and deletions of specific amino acids [Formula: see text] along the chain. Two probe systems are considered. First, we address the case of a random heteropolymer of size K and given helical propensities [Formula: see text] on a conformational phase space. Second, we focus our attention to a particular set of neuropentapeptides, [Met-5] and [Leu-5] enkephalins whose thermodynamic stability is a key feature on their coupling to [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] receptors and the triggering of biochemical responses.

  17. Single-resonance optical pumping spectroscopy and application in dressed-state measurement with atomic vapor cell at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qiangbing; Yang, Baodong; Zhang, Tiancai; Wang, Junmin

    2010-06-21

    By monitoring the transmission of probe laser beam (also served as coupling laser beam) which is locked to a cycling hyperfine transition of cesium D(2) line, while pumping laser is scanned across cesium D(1) or D(2) lines, the single-resonance optical pumping (SROP) spectra are obtained with atomic vapor cell. The SROP spectra indicate the variation of the zero-velocity atoms population of one hyperfine fold of ground state, which is optically pumped into another hyperfine fold of ground state by pumping laser. With the virtue of Doppler-free linewidth, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), flat background and elimination of crossover resonance lines (CRLs), the SROP spectra with atomic vapor cell around room temperature can be employed to measure dressed-state splitting of ground state, which is normally detected with laser-cooled atomic sample only, even if the dressed-state splitting is much smaller than the Doppler-broaden linewidth at room temperature.

  18. Low temperature magnetic properties and spin dynamics in single crystals of Cr{sub 8}Zn antiferromagnetic molecular rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelnia, Fatemeh [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano and INSTM, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Pavia and INSTM, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Chiesa, Alessandro; Bordignon, Sara; Carretta, Stefano [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Parma, I-43124 Parma (Italy); Ghirri, Alberto; Candini, Andrea [CNR Institute Nanosciences S3, I- 41125 Modena (Italy); Cervetti, Christian [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Informatiche, Matematiche, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Evangelisti, Marco [CNR Institute Nanosciences S3, I- 41125 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Informatiche, Matematiche, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón and Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Affronte, Marco [CNR Institute Nanosciences S3, I- 41125 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Informatiche, Matematiche, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Sheikin, Ilya [Grenoble High Magnetic Field Laboratory, CNRS-LNCMI, 25, B.P. 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Winpenny, Richard; Timco, Grigore [The Lewis Magnetism Laboratory, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom); Borsa, Ferdinando [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Pavia and INSTM, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); and others

    2015-12-28

    A detailed experimental investigation of the effects giving rise to the magnetic energy level structure in the vicinity of the level crossing (LC) at low temperature is reported for the open antiferromagnetic molecular ring Cr{sub 8}Zn. The study is conducted by means of thermodynamic techniques (torque magnetometry, magnetization and specific heat measurements) and microscopic techniques (nuclear magnetic resonance line width, nuclear spin lattice, and spin-spin relaxation measurements). The experimental results are shown to be in excellent agreement with theoretical calculations based on a minimal spin model Hamiltonian, which includes a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. The first ground state level crossing at μ{sub 0}H{sub c1} = 2.15 T is found to be an almost true LC while the second LC at μ{sub 0}H{sub c2} = 6.95 T has an anti-crossing gap of Δ{sub 12} = 0.19 K. In addition, both NMR and specific heat measurements show the presence of a level anti-crossing between excited states at μ{sub 0}H = 4.5 T as predicted by the theory. In all cases, the fit of the experimental data is improved by introducing a distribution of the isotropic exchange couplings (J), i.e., using a J strain model. The peaks at the first and second LCs in the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate are dominated by inelastic scattering and a value of Γ ∼ 10{sup 10} rad/s is inferred for the life time broadening of the excited state of the open ring, due to spin phonon interaction. A loss of NMR signal (wipe-out effect) is observed for the first time at LC and is explained by the enhancement of the spin-spin relaxation rate due to the inelastic scattering.

  19. Equivalence of donor and acceptor fits of temperature dependent Hall carrier density and Hall mobility data: Case of ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brochen, Stéphane; Feuillet, Guy; Pernot, Julien

    2014-01-01

    In this work, statistical formulations of the temperature dependence of ionized and neutral impurity concentrations in a semiconductor, needed in the charge balance equation and for carrier scattering calculations, have been developed. These formulations have been used in order to elucidate a confusing situation, appearing when compensating acceptor (donor) levels are located sufficiently close to the conduction (valence) band to be thermally ionized and thereby to emit (capture) an electron to (from) the conduction (valence) band. In this work, the temperature dependent Hall carrier density and Hall mobility data adjustments are performed in an attempt to distinguish the presence of a deep acceptor or a deep donor level, coexisting with a shallower donor level and located near the conduction band. Unfortunately, the present statistical developments, applied to an n-type hydrothermal ZnO sample, lead in both cases to consistent descriptions of experimental Hall carrier density and mobility data and thus do not allow to determine the nature, donor or acceptor, of the deep level. This demonstration shows that the emission of an electron in the conduction band, generally assigned to a (0/+1) donor transition from a donor level cannot be applied systematically and could also be attributed to a (−1/0) donor transition from an acceptor level. More generally, this result can be extended for any semiconductor and also for deep donor levels located close to the valence band (acceptor transition)

  20. Effect of temperature gradient in the solution on spiral growth of YBa2Cu3O7-x bulk single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, Y.; Shiohara, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Bulk single crystals of Y123 are required to clarify the superconductivity phenomena and develop electronic devices using unique superconductive properties. Only the Solute Rich Liquid endash Crystal Pulling (SRL-CP) method has succeeded in continuous growth of the Y123 single crystal. In this paper, we investigated the growth of Y123 single crystals under different temperature gradients in the solution in order to understand the growth mechanism of Y123. It was revealed that Y123 single crystals grow with a spiral growth mode, which is in good agreement with the BCF theory. copyright 1996 Materials Research Society

  1. Single Spatial-Mode Room-Temperature-Operated 3.0 to 3.4 micrometer Diode Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frez, Clifford F.; Soibel, Alexander; Belenky, Gregory; Shterengas, Leon; Kipshidze, Gela

    2010-01-01

    Compact, highly efficient, 3.0 to 3.4 m light emitters are in demand for spectroscopic analysis and identification of chemical substances (including methane and formaldehyde), infrared countermeasures technologies, and development of advanced infrared scene projectors. The need for these light emitters can be currently addressed either by bulky solid-state light emitters with limited power conversion efficiency, or cooled Interband Cascade (IC) semiconductor lasers. Researchers here have developed a breakthrough approach to fabrication of diode mid-IR lasers that have several advantages over IC lasers used for the Mars 2009 mission. This breakthrough is due to a novel design utilizing the strain-engineered quantum-well (QW) active region and quinternary barriers, and due to optimization of device material composition and growth conditions (growth temperatures and rates). However, in their present form, these GaSb-based laser diodes cannot be directly used as a part of sensor systems. The device spectrum is too broad to perform spectroscopic analysis of gas species, and operating currents and voltages are too high. In the current work, the emitters were fabricated as narrow-ridge waveguide index-guided lasers rather than broad stripe-gain guided multimode Fabry-Perot (FP) lasers as was done previously. These narrow-ridge waveguide mid-IR lasers exhibit much lower power consumptions, and can operate in a single spatial mode that is necessary for demonstration of single-mode distributed feedback (DBF) devices for spectroscopic applications. These lasers will enable a new generation of compact, tunable diode laser spectrometers with lower power consumption, reduced complexity, and significantly reduced development costs. These lasers can be used for the detection of HCN, C2H2, methane, and ethane.

  2. Identification of squid species by melting temperature shifts on fluorescence melting curve analysis (FMCA) using single dual-labeled probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eunjung; Song, Ha Jeong; Kwon, Na Young; Kim, Gi Won; Lee, Kwang Ho; Jo, Soyeon; Park, Sujin; Park, Jihyun; Park, Eun Kyeong; Hwang, Seung Yong

    2017-06-01

    Real time PCR is a standard method for identification of species. One of limitations of the qPCR is that there would be false-positive result due to mismatched hybridization between target sequence and probe depending on the annealing temperature in the PCR condition. As an alternative, fluorescence melting curve analysis (FMCA) could be applied for species identification. FMCA is based on a dual-labeled probe. Even with subtle difference of target sequence, there are visible melting temperature (Tm) shift. One of FMCA applications is distinguishing organisms distributed and consumed globally as popular food ingredients. Their prices are set by species or country of origin. However, counterfeiting or distributing them without any verification procedure are becoming social problems and threatening food safety. Besides distinguishing them in naked eye is very difficult and almost impossible in any processed form. Therefore, it is necessary to identify species in molecular level. In this research three species of squids which have 1-2 base pair differences each are selected as samples since they have the same issue. We designed a probe which perfectly matches with one species and the others mismatches 2 and 1 base pair respectively and labeled with fluorophore and quencher. In an experiment with a single probe, we successfully distinguished them by Tm shift depending on the difference of base pair. By combining FMCA and qPCR chip, smaller-scale assay with higher sensitivity and resolution could be possible, andc furthermore, enabling results analysis with smart phone would realize point-of-care testing (POCT).

  3. Investigation on structural distortions in NBCsub(x)-single crystals by means of temperature dependent channeling measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, R.

    1981-08-01

    Investigations using channeling-experiments were performed on the magnitude of the static displacements of the niobium and the carbon atoms around C-vacancies in NbCsub(x)-single crystals (x = 0.82-0.98). Rutherford backscattering with 2 MeV He + -particles and the 12 C(d,p) 13 C-nuclear reaction with 1.27 MeV deuterons were used for the determination of the interaction yields from Nb and C, respectively. As a function of temperature the half widths at half maximum psisub(1/2) of the angular scans for Nb clearly increased with decreasing temperature in the range from 295 K to 78 K and then remained nearly constant down to 4 K. As a function of C-vacancy concentration in the range x = 0.98-0.90 psisub(1/2) also clearly decreased and then remained approximately constant in the range of x = 0.90-0.82. The C-yield did not depend on the C-concentration. The results of the channeling experiments were interpreted by Monte-Carlo-simulation calculations. A linear increase of the mean static three-dimensional displacements of the Nb-atoms form 0.025 Angstroem to 0.10 Angstroem was found in the concentration range of x = 0.98-0.90 and then the values remained nearly constant in the range of 0.90-0.82. The static displacements of the C-atoms lay below the detection limit of 0.025 Angstroem. The strain field around a vacancy for low vacancy concentrations (x = 0.98-0.96) was calculated employing the Kanzaki-method. (orig./GSCH) [de

  4. Case study of low-temperature heating in an existing single-family house-A test of methods for simulation of heating system temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Dorte Skaarup; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    and the calculated indoor temperatures and radiator return temperatures were compared to temperatures measured in the case house. The results showed that the detail of the simulation model has a large influence on the results obtained. The estimated return temperatures from the radiators varied by up to 16 degrees C...... depending on the assumptions made in the simulation model. The results indicated that a detailed building simulation model can provide a good estimate of the actual heating system operation, provided that actual radiators and realistic indoor temperatures are taken into account in the model. (C) 2016......Low-temperature heating provides an efficient way of heating our buildings. To obtain a high efficiency it is important that the heating systems in the buildings are operated with both low supply and return temperatures. This study set out to investigate how typical assumptions in the modelling...

  5. Delayed Failure of Hi-Nicalon and Hi-Nicalon S Multi-filament Tows and Single Filaments at Intermediate Temperatures (500 degrees-800 degrees C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, W.; Lamon, J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous results have shown that tows of SiC Nicalon fibers are sensitive to the phenomenon of delayed failure, at temperatures below 700 C. The present paper examines the static fatigue of Hi-Nicalon and Hi-Nicalon S when subjected to constant load, at temperatures between 500 and 800 C in air. Multi-filament tows and single filaments were tested. Experimental data show that the rupture times of tows depend on the applied stress according to the conventional power law tσ n =A. In contrast, the stress-rupture time data obtained on single filaments exhibit significant scatter. A model based on slow crack growth in single filaments shows that the stress-rupture of fiber tows follows the conventional time power law. The dependence on temperature was introduced. The model allowed sound calculations of tow lifetimes and characteristics of the slow crack growth phenomenon to be extracted from the tow stress-rupture time data. (authors)

  6. High Temperature Deformation Mechanism in Hierarchical and Single Precipitate Strengthened Ferritic Alloys by In Situ Neutron Diffraction Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gian; Sun, Zhiqian; Li, Lin; Clausen, Bjørn; Zhang, Shu Yan; Gao, Yanfei; Liaw, Peter K

    2017-04-07

    The ferritic Fe-Cr-Ni-Al-Ti alloys strengthened by hierarchical-Ni 2 TiAl/NiAl or single-Ni 2 TiAl precipitates have been developed and received great attentions due to their superior creep resistance, as compared to conventional ferritic steels. Although the significant improvement of the creep resistance is achieved in the hierarchical-precipitate-strengthened ferritic alloy, the in-depth understanding of its high-temperature deformation mechanisms is essential to further optimize the microstructure and mechanical properties, and advance the development of the creep resistant materials. In the present study, in-situ neutron diffraction has been used to investigate the evolution of elastic strain of constitutive phases and their interactions, such as load-transfer/load-relaxation behavior between the precipitate and matrix, during tensile deformation and stress relaxation at 973 K, which provide the key features in understanding the governing deformation mechanisms. Crystal-plasticity finite-element simulations were employed to qualitatively compare the experimental evolution of the elastic strain during tensile deformation at 973 K. It was found that the coherent elastic strain field in the matrix, created by the lattice misfit between the matrix and precipitate phases for the hierarchical-precipitate-strengthened ferritic alloy, is effective in reducing the diffusional relaxation along the interface between the precipitate and matrix phases, which leads to the strong load-transfer capability from the matrix to precipitate.

  7. Theoretical overview of heating power and necessary heating supply temperatures in typical Danish single-family houses from the 1900s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Dorte Skaarup; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    in typical Danish single-family houses constructed in the 1900s. The study provides a simplified theoretical overview of typical building constructions and standards for the calculation of design heat loss and design heating power in Denmark in the 1900s. The heating power and heating demand in six typical...... Danish single-family houses constructed in the 1900s were estimated based on simple steady-state calculations. We found that the radiators in existing single-family houses should not necessarilrbe expected to be over-dimensioned compared to current design heat loss. However, there is considerable...... potential for using low-temperature space heating in existing single-family houses in typical operation conditions. Older houses were not always found to require higher heating system temperatures than newer houses. We found that when these houses have gone through reasonable energy renovations, most...

  8. Physical Fitness Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Alice

    This document presents baseline data on physical fitness that provides an outline for assessing the physical fitness of students. It consists of 4 tasks and a 13-item questionnaire on fitness-related behaviors. The fitness test evaluates cardiorespiratory endurance by a steady state jog; muscular strength and endurance with a two-minute bent-knee…

  9. Unge, sundhed og fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole

    2003-01-01

    Artiklen redegør for udbredelsen af fitness blandt unge og diskuterer, hvor det er blevet så populært at dyrke fitness.......Artiklen redegør for udbredelsen af fitness blandt unge og diskuterer, hvor det er blevet så populært at dyrke fitness....

  10. Switching Characteristics and High-Temperature Dielectric Relaxation Behaviours of Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)0.91Ti0.09O₃ Single Crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhi; Tang, Xingui; Jiang, Yanping; Liu, Qiuxiang; Zhang, Tianfu; Li, Wenhua

    2017-03-28

    This work evaluated the resistance switching characteristics in the (100)-oriented Pb(Zn 1/3 Nb 2/3 ) 0.91 Ti 0.09 O₃ (PZNT) single crystal. The current hysteresis can be closely related to the ferroelectric polarization and we provided a possible explanation using a model about oxygen vacancies to analyze the mechanism of switching. The obvious frequency dispersion of the relative permittivity signified the relaxer-type behavior of the sample. The value of the relaxation parameter γ = 1.48 was estimated from the linear fit of the modified Curie-Weiss law, indicating the relaxer nature. High-temperature dielectric relaxation behaviors were revealed in the temperature region of 400-650 °C. In addition, under the measuring frequency of 10 kHz, ε r was tunable by changing the electric field and the largest tunability of ε r reached 14.78%. At room temperature, the high pyroelectric coefficient and detectivity figure of merit were reported.

  11. Can we settle with single-band radiometric temperature monitoring during hyperthermia treatment of chestwall recurrence of breast cancer using a dual-mode transceiving applicator?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, Svein [Electrical Engineering Group, Department of Physics and Technology, Faculty of Science, University of Tromsoe, N-9037 Tromsoe (Norway); Stauffer, Paul R [Radiation Oncology Department, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States)

    2007-02-21

    The total thermal dose that can be delivered during hyperthermia treatments is frequently limited by temperature heterogeneities in the heated tissue volume. Reliable temperature information on the heated area is thus vital for the optimization of clinical dosimetry. Microwave radiometry has been proposed as an accurate, quick and painless temperature sensing technique for biological tissue. Advantages include the ability to sense volume-averaged temperatures from subsurface tissue non-invasively, rather than with a limited set of point measurements typical of implanted temperature probes. We present a procedure to estimate the maximum tissue temperature from a single radiometric brightness temperature which is based on a numerical simulation of 3D tissue temperature distributions induced by microwave heating at 915 MHz. The temperature retrieval scheme is evaluated against errors arising from unknown variations in thermal, electromagnetic and design model parameters. Whereas realistic deviations from base values of dielectric and thermal parameters have only marginal impact on performance, pronounced deviations in estimated maximum tissue temperature are observed for unanticipated variations of the temperature or thickness of the bolus compartment. The need to pay particular attention to these latter applicator construction parameters in future clinical implementation of the thermometric method is emphasized.

  12. Can we settle with single-band radiometric temperature monitoring during hyperthermia treatment of chestwall recurrence of breast cancer using a dual-mode transceiving applicator?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, Svein; Stauffer, Paul R

    2007-01-01

    The total thermal dose that can be delivered during hyperthermia treatments is frequently limited by temperature heterogeneities in the heated tissue volume. Reliable temperature information on the heated area is thus vital for the optimization of clinical dosimetry. Microwave radiometry has been proposed as an accurate, quick and painless temperature sensing technique for biological tissue. Advantages include the ability to sense volume-averaged temperatures from subsurface tissue non-invasively, rather than with a limited set of point measurements typical of implanted temperature probes. We present a procedure to estimate the maximum tissue temperature from a single radiometric brightness temperature which is based on a numerical simulation of 3D tissue temperature distributions induced by microwave heating at 915 MHz. The temperature retrieval scheme is evaluated against errors arising from unknown variations in thermal, electromagnetic and design model parameters. Whereas realistic deviations from base values of dielectric and thermal parameters have only marginal impact on performance, pronounced deviations in estimated maximum tissue temperature are observed for unanticipated variations of the temperature or thickness of the bolus compartment. The need to pay particular attention to these latter applicator construction parameters in future clinical implementation of the thermometric method is emphasized

  13. The influence of mold temperature on the fit of cast crowns with commercially pure titanium Influência de temperaturas do molde na adaptação de coroas fundidas em titânio comercialmente puro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Sotero Fragoso

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Commercially pure titanium (CP Ti has been widely applied to fabricate cast devices because of its favorable properties. However, the mold temperature recommended for the manufacture of casts has been considered relatively low, causing inadequate castability and poor marginal fit of cast crowns. This study evaluated and compared the influence of mold temperature (430°C - as control, 550°C, 670°C on the marginal discrepancies of cast CP Ti crowns. Eight bovine teeth were prepared on a mechanical grinding device and impressions were used to duplicate each tooth and produce eight master dies. Twenty-four crowns were fabricated using CP Ti in three different groups of mold temperature (n = 8: 430°C (as control, 550°C and 670°C. The gap between the crown and the bovine tooth was measured at 50 X magnification with a traveling microscope. The marginal fit values of the cast CP Ti crowns were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis test (p = 0.03. The 550°C group (95.0 µm showed significantly better marginal fit than the crowns of the 430°C group (203.4 µm and 670°C group (213.8 µm. Better marginal fit for cast CP Ti crowns was observed with the mold temperature of 550°C, differing from the 430°C recommended by the manufacturer.O titânio comercialmente puro (Ti c.p. tem sido largamente empregado na elaboração de estruturas protéticas fundidas devido às suas propriedades favoráveis. Entretanto, a temperatura do molde recomendada pelo fabricante tem sido considerada baixa, causando inadequada fundibilidade e precária adaptação marginal de coroas fundidas. Este estudo avaliou e comparou a influência de temperaturas do molde (430°C - como controle, 550°C, 670°C na discrepância marginal de coroas fundidas em Ti c.p. Oito dentes bovinos foram preparados em um torno mecânico e moldados para produzirem oito modelos-mestre. Vinte e quatro coroas foram confeccionadas em Ti c.p. para três grupos de temperatura do molde (n = 8: 430°C (como

  14. A Caenorhabditis elegans Wild Type Defies the Temperature-Size Rule Owing to a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in tra-3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kammenga, J.E.; Doroszuk, A.; Riksen, J.A.G.; Hazendonk, E.; Spiridon, L.N.; Petrescu, A.J.; Tijsterman, M.; Plasterk, R.H.A.; Bakker, J.

    2007-01-01

    Ectotherms rely for their body heat on surrounding temperatures. A key question in biology is why most ectotherms mature at a larger size at lower temperatures, a phenomenon known as the temperature¿size rule. Since temperature affects virtually all processes in a living organism, current theories

  15. Evidence for single-chain magnet behavior in a Mn(III)-Ni(II) chain designed with high spin magnetic units: a route to high temperature metastable magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clérac, Rodolphe; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Masahiro; Coulon, Claude

    2002-10-30

    We herein present the synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of a new heterometallic chain of MnIII and NiII ions, [Mn2(saltmen)2Ni(pao)2(py)2](ClO4)2 (1) (saltmen2- = N,N'-(1,1,2,2-tetramethylethylene) bis(salicylideneiminate) and pao- = pyridine-2-aldoximate). The crystal structure of 1 was investigated by X-ray crystallographic analysis: compound 1 crystallized in monoclinic, space group C2/c (No. 15) with a = 21.140(3) A, b = 15.975(1) A, c = 18.6212(4) A, beta = 98.0586(4) degrees , V = 6226.5(7) A3, and Z = 4. This compound consists of two fragments, the out-of-plane dimer [Mn2(saltmen)2]2+ as a coordination acceptor building block and the neutral mononuclear unit [Ni(pao)2(py)2] as a coordination donor building block, forming an alternating chain having the repeating unit [-Mn-(O)2-Mn-ON-Ni-NO-]n. In the crystal structure, each chain is well separated with a minimum intermetallic distance between Mn and Ni ions of 10.39 A and with the absence of interchain pi overlaps between organic ligands. These features ensure a good magnetic isolation of the chains. The dc and ac magnetic measurements were performed on both the polycrystalline sample and the aligned single crystals of 1. Above 30 K, the magnetic susceptibility of this one-dimensional compound was successfully described in a mean field approximation as an assembly of trimers (Mn...Ni...Mn) with a NiII...MnIII antiferromagnetic interaction (J = -21 K) connected through a ferromagnetic MnIII...MnIII interaction (J'). However, the mean field theory fails to describe the magnetic behavior below 30 K emphasizing the one-dimensional magnetic character of the title compound. Between 5 and 15 K, the susceptibility in the chain direction was fitted to a one-dimensional Ising model leading to the same value of J'. Hysteresis loops are observed below 3.5 K, indicating a magnet-type behavior. In the same range of temperature, combined ac and dc measurements show a slow relaxation of the magnetization

  16. Single-scattering properties of ice particles in the microwave regime: Temperature effect on the ice refractive index with implications in remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Jiachen; Bi, Lei; Yang, Ping; Kattawar, George W.; Weng, Fuzhong; Liu, Quanhua; Greenwald, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    An ice crystal single-scattering property database is developed in the microwave spectral region (1 to 874 GHz) to provide the scattering, absorption, and polarization properties of 12 ice crystal habits (10-plate aggregate, 5-plate aggregate, 8-column aggregate, solid hexagonal column, hollow hexagonal column, hexagonal plate, solid bullet rosette, hollow bullet rosette, droxtal, oblate spheroid, prolate spheroid, and sphere) with particle maximum dimensions from 2 µm to 10 mm. For each habit, four temperatures (160, 200, 230, and 270 K) are selected to account for temperature dependence of the ice refractive index. The microphysical and scattering properties include projected area, volume, extinction efficiency, single-scattering albedo, asymmetry factor, and six independent nonzero phase matrix elements (i.e. P_1_1, P_1_2, P_2_2, P_3_3, P_4_3 and P_4_4). The scattering properties are computed by the Invariant Imbedding T-Matrix (II-TM) method and the Improved Geometric Optics Method (IGOM). The computation results show that the temperature dependence of the ice single-scattering properties in the microwave region is significant, particularly at high frequencies. Potential active and passive remote sensing applications of the database are illustrated through radar reflectivity and radiative transfer calculations. For cloud radar applications, ignoring temperature dependence has little effect on ice water content measurements. For passive microwave remote sensing, ignoring temperature dependence may lead to brightness temperature biases up to 5 K in the case of a large ice water path. - Highlights: • Single-scattering properties of ice crystals are computed from 1 to 874 GHz. • Ice refractive index temperature dependence is considered at 160, 200, 230 and 270 K. • Potential applications of the database to microwave remote sensing are illustrated. • Ignoring temperature dependence of ice refractive index can lead to 5 K difference in IWP retrieval

  17. Native defect changes in CdS single crystal platelets induced by vacuum heat treatments at temperatures up to 600/sup 0/C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christmann, M H; Dierssen, G H; Salmon, O N; Taylor, A L; Thom, W H

    1975-12-01

    Physical properties of selected CdS single crystal platelets as-grown and after vacuum heat treatments at temperatures up to 600/sup 0/C were studied using uv excited edge emission, mass spectrometry, electrical resistivity, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). It was found that sulfur leaves the crystal at temperatures as low as 100/sup 0/C creating a depletion layer. The native defect changes were monitored by edge emission studies at 4.2/sup 0/K in combination with etch treatments. The defect structure throughout the crystal is not only dependent upon the temperature and atmosphere of the treatments, but is also strongly dependent upon the cooling rate. (auth)

  18. High Field Magnetization of Tb Single Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roeland, L. W.; Cock, G. J.; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1975-01-01

    Hamiltonian including isotropic exchange interactions, effective single-ion anisotropy and magnetoelastic contributions. The parameters of this Hamiltonian were determined by fitting the theoretical results for the spin wave dispersion and energy gap as a function of temperature and magnetic field to existing...... data on Tb. The conduction-electron polarization at zero field and temperature is (0.33+or-0.05) mu B/ion, and the susceptibility is greater than the Pauli susceptibility calculated from the band-structure....

  19. Interacting effects of temperature integration and light intensity on growth and development of single-stemmed cut rose plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, J.A.; Meinen, E.

    2007-01-01

    Energy conservation in horticulture can be achieved by allowing temperatures to fluctuate within predefined bandwidths instead of using rigid set points for heating and ventilation. In temperature integration, plants are supposed to compensate effects of temporarily deviations of the average

  20. Space heating with ultra-low-temperature district heating - a case study of four single-family houses from the 1980s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Dorte Skaarup; Svendsen, Svend

    2017-01-01

    . These benefits can be maximized if district heating temperatures are lowered as much as possible. In this paper we report on a project where 18 Danish single-family houses from the 1980s were supplied by ultra-low temperature district heating with a supply temperature as low as 45 degrees C for the main part...... of the year. The houses were heated by the existing hydraulic radiator systems, while domestic hot water was prepared by use of district heating and electric boosting. This paper evaluated the heating system temperatures that were necessary in order to maintain thermal comfort in four of the houses. First...... the four houses were modelled in the building simulation tool IDA ICE. The simulation models included the actual radiator sizes and the models were used to simulate the expected thermal comfort in the houses and resulting district heating return temperatures. Secondly measurements of the actual district...

  1. Interface-enhanced high-temperature superconductivity in single-unit-cell FeT e1 -xS ex films on SrTi O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangsen; Ding, Hao; Tang, Chenjia; Peng, Junping; Zhang, Qinghua; Zhang, Wenhao; Zhou, Guanyu; Zhang, Ding; Song, Can-Li; He, Ke; Ji, Shuaihua; Chen, Xi; Gu, Lin; Wang, Lili; Ma, Xu-Cun; Xue, Qi-Kun

    2015-06-01

    Recently discovered high-temperature superconductivity in single-unit-cell (UC) FeSe films on SrTi O3 (STO) substrate has stimulated tremendous research interest, both experimental and theoretical. Whether this scenario could be extended to other superconductors is vital in both identifying the enhanced superconductivity mechanism and further raising the critical transition temperature (Tc). Here we successfully prepared single-UC FeT e1 -xS ex(0.1 ≤x ≤0.6 ) films on STO substrates by molecular beam epitaxy and observed U -shaped superconducting gaps (Δ ) up to ˜16.5 meV , nearly ten times the gap value (Δ ˜1.7 meV ) of the optimally doped bulk FeT e0 .6S e0 .4 single crystal (Tc˜14.5 K ). No superconducting gap has been observed on the second UC and thicker FeT e1 -xS ex films at 5.7 K, indicating the important role of the interface. This interface-enhanced high-temperature superconductivity is further confirmed by ex situ transport measurements, which revealed an onset superconducting transition temperature above 40 K, nearly two times higher than that of the optimally doped bulk FeT e0 .6S e0 .4 single crystal. This work demonstrates that interface engineering is a feasible way to discover alternative superconductors with higher Tc.

  2. Micromechanical properties of single crystals and polycrystals of pure α-titanium: anisotropy of microhardness, size effect, effect of the temperature (77-300 K)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubenets, S. V.; Rusakova, A. V.; Fomenko, L. S.; Moskalenko, V. A.

    2018-01-01

    The anisotropy of microhardness of pure α-Ti single crystals, indentation size effect in single-crystal, course grained (CG) pure and nanocrystalline (NC) VT1-0 titanium, as well as the temperature dependences of the microhardness of single-crystal and CG Ti in the temperature range 77-300 K were studied. The minimum value of hardness was obtained when indenting into the basal plane (0001). The indentation size effect (ISE) was clearly observed in the indentation of soft high-purity single-crystal iodide titanium while it was the least pronounced in a sample of nanocrystalline VT1-0 titanium. It has been demonstrated that the ISE can be described within the model of geometrically necessary dislocations (GND), which follows from the theory of strain gradient plasticity. The true hardness and others parameters of the GND model were determined for all materials. The temperature dependence of the microhardness is in agreement with the idea of the governing role of Peierls relief in the dislocation thermally-activated plastic deformation of pure titanium as has been earlier established and justified in macroscopic tensile investigations at low temperatures. The activation energy and activation volume of dislocation motion in the strained region under the indenter were estimated.

  3. Inducing phase decomposition and superconductivity of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Oy single crystals treated in sulphur atmosphere at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Q.W.; China Univ. of Science and Technology, Hefei, AH; Wu, W.B.; Qian, Y.T.; China Univ. of Science and Technology, Hefei, AH; Wang, L.B.; Li, F.Q.; Zhou, G.E.; Chen, Z.Y.; Zhang, Y.H.

    1995-01-01

    As it has been pointed out, phase decomposition which may be hard to be detected in a polycrystalline system and is likely to correlate with changes in both oxygen content and microstructure, has been observed frequently in annealed single crystals especially at higher temperatures (> 500 C). This is still an open question to some degree because the mechanism of phase decomposition is very complex and is dominated by the composition of the Bi-2212 phase, the condition of heat treatment, and the atmosphere. Hence, inducing oxygen loss at low temperature to avoid the evaporation of Bi atoms and other undetected structure changes which would occur at higher temperature annealing undoubtedly provides important information about the relationship between oxygen loss and phase decomposition, as well as the relationship between oxygen content and superconductivity. In this note, we report on the results of treatments of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O y single crystals in sulphur atmosphere at 160 C. (orig.)

  4. FITS: a function-fitting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestrini, S.J.; Chezem, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    FITS is an iterating computer program that adjusts the parameters of a function to fit a set of data points according to the least squares criterion and then lists and plots the results. The function can be programmed or chosen from a library that is provided. The library can be expanded to include up to 99 functions. A general plotting routine, contained in the program but useful in its own right, is described separately in an Appendix.

  5. Family Activities for Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  6. Growth of Ca, Zr co-doped BaTiO3 lead-free ferroelectric single crystal and its room-temperature piezoelectricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donglin Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lead-free Ca, Zr co-doped BaTiO3 (BCZT single crystal with a dimension up to 2mm×2mm×2mm was grown by a spontaneous nucleation technique using KF as the flux. The composition of the studied single crystal was defined to be Ba0.798Ca0.202Zr0.006Ti0.994O3, corresponding to a tetragonal phase at room temperature. The oriented single crystal exhibited a quasi-static piezoelectric constant of approximately 232 pC/N. The effective piezoelectric coefficient d33* of the single domain crystal obtained under a unipolar electric field of 35 kV/cm was 179 pm/V. Rayleigh analysis was used to identify the intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to the room-temperature piezoelectricity of BCZT single crystal. The extrinsic contribution was estimated up to 40% due to the irreversible domain wall movement. Furthermore a sixth-order polynomial of Landau expansion was employed to analyze the intrinsic contribution to piezoelectricity of BCZT single crystal. The large energy barriers inhibited polarization rotations, leading to the relatively low piezoelectricity.

  7. Computer code FIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohmann, D.; Koehler, T.

    1987-02-01

    This is a description of the computer code FIT, written in FORTRAN-77 for a PDP 11/34. FIT is an interactive program to decude position, width and intensity of lines of X-ray spectra (max. length of 4K channels). The lines (max. 30 lines per fit) may have Gauss- or Voigt-profile, as well as exponential tails. Spectrum and fit can be displayed on a Tektronix terminal. (orig.) [de

  8. CH3NH3PbCl3 Single Crystals: Inverse Temperature Crystallization and Visible-Blind UV-Photodetector

    KAUST Repository

    Maculan, Giacomo; Sheikh, Arif D.; Abdelhady, Ahmed L.; Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Haque, Mohammed; Banavoth, Murali; Alarousu, Erkki; Mohammed, Omar F.; Wu, Tao; Bakr, Osman

    2015-01-01

    a new method of sizeable CH3NH3PbCl3 single crystal growth based on retrograde solubility behavior of hybrid perovskites. We show, for the first time, the energy band structure, charge-carrier recombination and transport properties of single crystal

  9. Selective detection of SO2 at room temperature based on organoplatinum functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube field effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cid, C.C.; Jimenez-Cadena, G.; Riu, J.; Maroto, A.; Rius, F.X.; Batema, G.D.; van Koten, G.

    2009-01-01

    We report a field effect transistor (FET) based on a network of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) that for the first time can selectively detect a single gaseous molecule in air by chemically functionalizing the SWCNTs with a selective molecular receptor. As a target model we used SO2. The

  10. Activation of surface lattice oxygen in single-atom Pt/CeO 2 for low-temperature CO oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Lei; Mei, Donghai; Xiong, Haifeng; Peng, Bo; Ren, Zhibo; Pereira Hernandez, Xavier I.; DelaRiva, Andrew; Wang, Meng; Engelhard, Mark H.; Kovarik, Libor; Datye, Abhaya K.; Wang, Yong

    2017-12-14

    While single-atom catalysts can provide high catalytic activity and selectivity, application in industrial catalysts demands long term performance and the ability to regenerate the catalysts. We have investigated the factors that lead to improved catalytic activity of a Pt/CeO2 catalyst for low temperature CO oxidation. Single-atom Pt/CeO2 becomes active for CO oxidation under lean condition only at elevated temperatures, because CO is strongly bound to ionic Pt sites. Reducing the catalyst, even under mild conditions, leads to onset of CO oxidation activity even at room temperature. This high activity state involves the transformation of mononuclear Pt species to sub-nanometer sized Pt particles. Under oxidizing conditions, the Pt can be restored to its stable, single-atom state. The key to facile regeneration is the ability to create mobile Pt species and suitable trapping sites on the support, making this a prototypical catalyst system for industrial application of single-atom catalysis.

  11. Flux mapping at 77 K and local measurement at lower temperature of thin-wall YBaCuO single-domain samples oxygenated under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaud, X., E-mail: Xavier.chaud@grenoble.cnrs.f [CRETA, CNRS, 25, Avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Noudem, J. [CRISMAT/ENSICAEN, CNRS, 6 bd Marechal Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Prikhna, T.; Savchuk, Y. [ISM, National Acad. of Sciences of Ukraine, 2 Avtozavodskaya Street, Kiev, 04074 (Ukraine); Haanappel, E. [LNCMP, UMR 5147, 143 avenue de Rangueil, 31400 Toulouse (France); Diko, P. [IEP, Slovak Acad. of Sciences, Watsonova 47, 043 53, Kosice (Slovakia); Zhang, C.P. [SMRC, NIN, 96 Weiyang Road, Xi' an 710016 (China)

    2009-10-15

    YBCO single-domain samples are suitable for the production of high trapped fields in the range 20-77 K using a cryocooler or liquid nitrogen. But the oxygenation process required to actually transform the single domains into superconductors induces an extensive crack network that is limiting the material performances. Thin-wall geometry has been introduced to reduce the diffusion paths and to enable a progressive oxygenation strategy. As a consequence cracks are drastically reduced. In addition the use of a high oxygen pressure (16 MPa) speeds up further the process by displacing the oxygen-temperature equilibrium towards the higher temperature of the phase diagram. The advantage of thin-wall geometry is that such an annealing can be applied directly to a much larger sample. Remarkable results are obtained without any doping by the combination of thin walls and oxygen high pressure. While classical plain samples yield 300-400 mT, a trapped field of 840 mT has been measured at 77 K on a 16 mm diameter Y123 thin-wall single-domain sample with an annealing time as short as 3 days. Local measurements with a fixed Hall probe on top of the sample were performed at lower temperature after magnetization either in a static field or in a pulse field. The trapped field is significantly higher at lower temperature. Cryocoolers become the key to compromise between performances and cryogenic cost around 40 K.

  12. Electronic setup for fluorescence emission measurements and long-time constant-temperature maintenance of Single-Walled Carbon Nano-Tubes in water solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Rosa Matteo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In our previous research we have observed that the fluorescence emission from water solutions of Single-Walled Carbon Nano-Tubes (SWCNT, excited by a laser with a wavelength of 830nm, diminishes with the time. We have already proved that such a fading is a function of the storage time and the storage temperature. In order to study the emission of the SWCNT as a function of these two parameters we have designed and realized a special measurement compartment with a cuvette holder where the SWCNT solutions can be measured and stored at a fixed constant temperature for periods of time as long as several weeks. To maintain the measurement setup under a constant temperature we have designed special experimental setup based on two Peltier cells with electronic temperature control.

  13. Thermal expansion behavior of empressite, AgTe: A structural study by means of in situ high-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindi, Luca

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structure of empressite, AgTe, a rare silver telluride, has been investigated by in situ X-ray single-crystal diffraction methods within the temperature range 298-463 K. AgTe remains orthorhombic, space group Pmnb (Pnma as standard), and shows only normal thermal expansion over the entire temperature range. The unit-cell parameters show a gradual increase with the increase of temperature. Slight adjustments in the geometry of Ag-tetrahedra and in the crystal-chemical environment of tellurium atoms occur in a continuous way without abrupt structural changes. The coefficients of thermal expansion along various axes are: α a = 1.5 x 10 -5 K -1 , α b = 3.0 x 10 -5 K -1 , α c = 2.2 x 10 -5 K -1 , and the bulk thermal expansion coefficient α V is 5.4 x 10 -5 K -1 for the temperature range 298-463 K

  14. Temperature dependent tunneling study of CaFe{sub 1.96}Ni{sub 0.04}As{sub 2} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Anirban, E-mail: adatta@iitk.ac.in; Gupta, Anjan K. [Department of Physics, IIT Kanpur, Kanpur-208 016 (India); Thamizhavel, A. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai-400 005 (India)

    2014-04-24

    We report on temperature dependent scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy studies on CaFe{sub 1.96}Ni{sub 0.04}As{sub 2} single crystals in 5.4 – 19.7 K temperature range across the normal metal - superconductor transition temperature, T{sub C} = 14K. The in-situ cleaved crystals show reasonably flat surface with signatures of atomic resolution. The tunnel spectra show significant spatial inhomogeneity below T{sub C}, which reduces significantly as the temperature goes above the T{sub C}. We discuss these results in terms of an inhomogeneous electronic phase that may exist due to the vicinity of this composition to the quantum critical point.

  15. Schottky barrier diode based on β-Ga2O3 (100) single crystal substrate and its temperature-dependent electrical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiming; Mu, Wenxiang; Dong, Hang; Long, Shibing; Jia, Zhitai; Lv, Hangbing; Liu, Qi; Tang, Minghua; Tao, Xutang; Liu, Ming

    2017-02-01

    The Pt/β-Ga2O3 Schottky barrier diode and its temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics were investigated for power device application. The edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) technique was utilized to grow the (100)-oriented β-Ga2O3 single crystal substrate that shows good crystal quality characterized by X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscope. Ohmic and Schottky electrodes were fabricated by depositing Ti and Pt metals on the two surfaces, respectively. Through the current-voltage (I-V) measurement under different temperature and the thermionic emission modeling, the fabricated Pt/β-Ga2O3 Schottky diode was found to show good performances at room temperature, including rectification ratio of 1010, ideality factor (n) of 1.1, Schottky barrier height (ΦB) of 1.39 eV, threshold voltage (Vbi) of 1.07 V, ON-resistance (RON) of 12.5 mΩ.cm2, forward current density at 2 V (J@2V) of 56 A/cm2, and saturation current density (J0) of 2 × 10-16 A/cm2. The effective donor concentration Nd - Na was calculated to be about 2.3 × 1014 cm3. Good temperature dependent performance was also found in the device. The Schottky barrier height was estimated to be about 1.3 eV-1.39 eV at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 150 °C. With increasing temperature, parameters such as RON and J@2V become better, proving that the diode can work well at high temperature. The EFG grown β-Ga2O3 single crystal is a promising material to be used in the power devices.

  16. Temperature dependence of the magnetic anisotropy of metallic Y-Ba-Cu-O single crystals in the normal phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miljak, M.; Zlatic, V.; Kos, I.; Aviani, I.; Hamzic, A.; Collin, G.

    1990-01-01

    The magnetic anisotropy measurements of metallic Y-Ba-Cu-O compounds in the normal phase reveal a temperature-dependent diamagnetic component of the susceptibility that increases with decreasing temperature. The temperature variation of the susceptibility anisotropy and its total change do not seem to be much affected by the presence of the superconductivity at some lower temperature and could not be accounted for by superconducting fluctuations. Rather, the data remind one of the behavior of some quasi-two-dimensional metals with anisotropic Fermi surfaces, reflecting the properties of the low-energy excitations in the normal phase. The anisotropy measurements above the bulk superconducting transition temperature T c reveal the nonlinear effects, which are due to the onset of superconductivity in disconnected grains. The existence of a two-step transition, typical for granular superconductors, should be taken into consideration if the normal-phase susceptibility data are compared with the theoretical predictions in the vicinity of T c

  17. Effect of temperature for synthesizing single-walled carbon nanotubes by catalytic chemical vapor deposition over Mo-Co-MgO catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Zhiqiang; Fang Yan

    2008-01-01

    The influence of temperature on synthesizing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by catalytic chemical vapor deposition of methane over Mo-Co-MgO catalyst was studied by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Raman scattering. The Mo-Co-MgO bimetallic catalyst was prepared by decomposing the mixture of magnesium nitrate, ammonium molybdate, citric acid, and cobalt nitrate. The results show that Mo-Co-MgO bimetallic catalyst is effective to synthesize SWCNTs. By using Mo-Co-MgO bimetallic catalyst, generation of SWCNTs even at 940 K was demonstrated. The optimum temperature of synthesizing SWCNTs over Mo-Co-MgO bimetallic catalyst may be about 1123 K. At 1123 K, the diameters of SWCNTs are in the range of 0.75-1.65 nm. The content of SWCNTs is increased with the increase of temperature below 1123 K and the carbon yield rate is also increased with the increase of synthesis temperature. Therefore, the amount of SWCNTs increases with the increase of temperature below 1123 K. However, above 1123 K, the content of SWCNTs is decreased with the increase of temperature; therefore, it is not effective to increase the amount of SWCNTs through increasing synthesis temperature above 1123 K

  18. Effect of Pilot Injection Timings on the Combustion Temperature Distribution in a Single-Cylinder CI Engine Fueled with DME and ULSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon Joonho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies of DiMethyl Ether (DME as an alternative fuel in Compression-Ignition (CI engines have been performed. Although diverse DME engine research has been conducted, the investigation of combustion behavior and temperature distribution in the combustion engine has not progressed due to the fact that there is no sooting flame in DME combustion. In order to investigate the combustion characteristics in this study, the KIVA-3 V code was implemented to research various pilot injection strategies on a single-cylinder CI engines with DME and Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel (ULSD fuels. The combustion distribution results obtained from the numerical investigation were validated when compared with the measurement of flame temperature behaviors in the experimental approach. This study showed that long intervals between two injection timings enhanced pilot combustion by increasing the ambient pressure and temperature before the start of the main combustion. Different atomization properties between DME and ULSD fuels contributed to the formation of a fuel-air mixture at the nozzle tip and piston lip regions, separately, which strongly affected the temperature distribution of the two fuels. In addition, the pilot injection timing played a vital role in regard to ignition delay and peak combustion temperatures. Exhaust emissions, such as NOx and soot, are related to the local equivalence ratio and temperature in the combustion chamber, also illustrated by the contrary result on a Φ (equivalence ratio – T (temperature map.

  19. Temperature and orientation dependence of the short-term strength characteristics, Young's modulus, and linear expansion coefficient of ZhS6F alloy single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svetlov, I L; Sukhanov, N N; Krivko, A I; Roshchina, I N; Khatsinskaia, I M

    1987-01-01

    Experimental data are presented on the temperature dependence of the short- term strength characteristics, Young's modulus, and linear expansion coefficients of single crystals of a nickel alloy, ZhS6F, with crystallographic orientations along the 001, 111, 011, and 112 lines. It is found that the mechanical properties and Young's modulus of the alloy crystals exibit anisotropy in the temperature range 20-900 C. The linear thermal expansion coefficient is isotropic up to 900 C and equal to that of the equiaxed alloy. 10 references.

  20. FITS: a function-fitting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestrini, S.J.; Chezem, C.G.

    1982-08-01

    FITS is an iterating computer program that adjusts the parameters of a function to fit a set of data points according to the least squares criterion and then lists and plots the results. The function can be programmed or chosen from a library that is provided. The library can be expanded to include up to 99 functions. A general plotting routine, contained in the program but useful in its own right, is described separately in Appendix A. An example problem file and its solution is given in Appendix B.

  1. Viral fitness does not correlate with three genotype displacement events involving infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Alison M.; Wargo, Andrew R.; Kurath, Gael

    2014-01-01

    Viral genotype displacement events are characterized by the replacement of a previously dominant virus genotype by a novel genotype of the same virus species in a given geographic region. We examine here the fitness of three pairs of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) genotypes involved in three major genotype displacement events in Washington state over the last 30 years to determine whether increased virus fitness correlates with displacement. Fitness was assessed using in vivo assays to measure viral replication in single infection, simultaneous co-infection, and sequential superinfection in the natural host, steelhead trout. In addition, virion stability of each genotype was measured in freshwater and seawater environments at various temperatures. By these methods, we found no correlation between increased viral fitness and displacement in the field. These results suggest that other pressures likely exist in the field with important consequences for IHNV evolution.

  2. Low-Temperature Band Transport and Impact of Contact Resistance in Organic Field-Effect Transistors Based on Single-Crystal Films of Ph-BTBT-C10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Joung-min; Mori, Takehiko

    2016-06-01

    Transistors based on single-crystal films of 2-decyl-7-phenyl-[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (Ph-BTBT-10) fabricated using the blade-coating method are investigated by the four-probe method down to low temperatures. The four-probe mobility is as large as 18 cm2/V s at room temperature, and increases to 45 cm2/V s at 80 K. At 60 K the two-probe mobility drops abruptly by about 50%, but the mobility drop is mostly attributed to the increase of the source resistance. The carrier transport in the present single-crystal film is regarded as essentially bandlike down to 30 K.

  3. Effect of a single 3-hour exposure to bright light on core body temperature and sleep in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijk, D J; Cajochen, C; Borbély, A A

    1991-01-02

    Seven human subjects were exposed to bright light (BL, approx. 2500 lux) and dim light (DL, approx. 6 lux) during 3 h prior to nocturnal sleep, in a cross-over design. At the end of the BL exposure period core body temperature was significantly higher than at the end of the DL exposure period. The difference in core body temperature persisted during the first 4 h of sleep. The latency to sleep onset was increased after BL exposure. Rapid-eye movement sleep (REMS) and slow-wave sleep (SWS; stage 3 + 4 of non-REMS) were not significantly changed. Eight subjects were exposed to BL from 20.30 to 23.30 h while their eyes were covered or uncovered. During BL exposure with uncovered eyes, core body temperature decreased significantly less than during exposure with covered eyes. We conclude that bright light immediately affects core body temperature and that this effect is mediated via the eyes.

  4. Inorganic Lead Halide Perovskite Single Crystals: Phase-Selective Low-Temperature Growth, Carrier Transport Properties, and Self-Powered Photodetection

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.

    2016-12-06

    A rapid, low-temperature, and solution-based route is developed for growing large-sized cesium lead halide perovskite single crystals under ambient conditions. An ultralow minority carrier concentration was measured in CsPbBr3 (≈108 holes per cm3, much lower than in any other lead halide perovskite and crystalline silicon), which enables to realize self-powered photodetectors with a high ON/OFF ratio (105).

  5. Temperature dependence of twinning stress – analogy between Cu–Ni–Al and Ni–Mn–Ga shape memory single crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vronka, Marek; Seiner, Hanuš; Heczko, Oleg

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 18 (2017), s. 1479-1497 ISSN 1478-6435 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G; GA ČR GA15-00262S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388998 Keywords : SMA * single crystal * twinning * martensite * twinning stress * temperature dependence Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.505, year: 2016

  6. Getting CSR communication fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeltz, Line

    2017-01-01

    Companies experience increasing legal and societal pressure to communicate about their corporate social responsibility (CSR) engagements from a number of different publics. One very important group is that of young consumers who are predicted to be the most important and influential consumer group...... in the near future. From a value- theoretical base, this article empirically explores the role and applicability of ‘fit’ in strategic CSR communication targeted at young consumers. Point of departure is taken in the well-known strategic fit (a logical link between a company’s CSR commitment and its core...... values) and is further developed by introducing two additional fits, the CSR- Consumer fit and the CSR-Consumer-Company fit (Triple Fit). Through a sequential design, the three fits are empirically tested and their potential for meeting young consumers’ expectations for corporate CSR messaging...

  7. Temperature and hydrostatic pressure effects on single dopant states in hollow cylindrical core-shell quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Yadri, M.; Aghoutane, N.; El Aouami, A.; Feddi, E.; Dujardin, F.; Duque, C. A.

    2018-05-01

    This work reports on theoretical investigation of the temperature and hydrostatic pressure effects on the confined donor impurity in a AlGaAs-GaAs hollow cylindrical core-shell quantum dot. The charges are assumed to be completely confined to the interior of the shell with approximately rigid walls. Within the framework of the effective-mass approximation and by using a variational approach, we have computed the donor binding energies as a function of the shell size in order to study the behavior of the electron-impurity attraction for a very small thickness under the influence of both temperature and hydrostatic pressure. Our results show that the temperature and hydrostatic pressure have a significant influence on the impurity binding energy for large shell quantum dots. It will be shown that the binding energy is more pronounced with increasing pressure and decreasing temperature for any impurity position and quantum dot size. The photoionization cross section is also analyzed by considering only the in-plane incident radiation polarization. Its behavior is investigated as a function of photon energy for different values of pressure and temperature. The opposite effects caused by temperature and hydrostatic pressure reveal a big practical interest and offer an alternative way to tuning of correlated electron-impurity transitions in optoelectronic devices.

  8. Fragment Impact Toolkit (FIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevitz, Daniel Wolf [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Key, Brian P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Garcia, Daniel B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The Fragment Impact Toolkit (FIT) is a software package used for probabilistic consequence evaluation of fragmenting sources. The typical use case for FIT is to simulate an exploding shell and evaluate the consequence on nearby objects. FIT is written in the programming language Python and is designed as a collection of interacting software modules. Each module has a function that interacts with the other modules to produce desired results.

  9. The Association Between Self-Rated Fitness and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karina Gregersen; Rosthøj, Susanne; Linneberg, Allan

    2018-01-01

    To assess criterion validity of a single item question on self-rated physical fitness against objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness. From the Health2008 study 749 men and women between 30 and 60 years of age rated their fitness as excellent, very good, good, fair or poor. Cardiorespiratory...... fitness was estimated with the watt-max test. Agreement between self-rated and objectively measured physical fitness was assessed by Cohen's weighted kappa coefficient. Correlation was determined by Goodman & Kruskal's gamma correlation coefficient. All analyses were stratified according to gender. Data...... from 323 men and 426 women were analysed. There was a slight agreement between self-rated and objectively measured fitness in men (weighted kappa: 0.18, [95%CI: 0.13;0.23]) and a fair agreement in women (weighted kappa: 0.27, [95%CI: 0.22;0.32]). In both genders, self-rated fitness was positively...

  10. CH3NH3PbCl3 Single Crystals: Inverse Temperature Crystallization and Visible-Blind UV-Photodetector

    KAUST Repository

    Maculan, Giacomo

    2015-09-02

    Single crystals of hybrid perovskites have shown remarkably improved physical properties compared to their polycrystalline film counterparts, underscoring their importance in the further development of advanced semiconductor devices. Here we present a new method of sizeable CH3NH3PbCl3 single crystal growth based on retrograde solubility behavior of hybrid perovskites. We show, for the first time, the energy band structure, charge-carrier recombination and transport properties of single crystal CH3NH3PbCl3. The chloride-based perovskite crystals exhibit trap-state density, charge carriers concentration, mobility and diffusion length comparable with the best quality crystals of methylammonium lead iodide or bromide perovskites reported so far. The high quality of the crystal along with its suitable optical bandgap enabled us to design and build an efficient visible-blind UV-photodetector, demonstrating the potential of this material to be employed in optoelectronic applications.

  11. Effect of temperature on current voltage characteristics in ZnO/CdS/CuGaSe2 single crystal solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.; Kassis, A.

    2005-03-01

    Current voltage characteristics of Zn O/CdS/CuGaSe 2 single crystal solar cells, which have gone through repetitive annealing treatment and have been measured at different values of temperature and illumination intensity, were analyzed using the two-diode equation. The analysis revealed that current transport in these cells is governed by two competing transport mechanisms relating strongly to interface states and that both mechanisms are thermally and light activated. These two mechanisms are interface recombination and tunneling enhanced interface recombination. The activation energy values of the saturation current density in both mechanisms were calculated from the temperature dependence of the parameters describing each of them. It was found that these values depend on temperature and illumination intensity. Furthermore, the behavior of the photovoltaic parameters could be explained relying on the results of the analysis. (Authors)

  12. Statistical evaluation of accelerated stability data obtained at a single temperature. I. Effect of experimental errors in evaluation of stability data obtained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, S; Aso, Y; Takeda, Y

    1990-06-01

    Accelerated stability data obtained at a single temperature is statistically evaluated, and the utility of such data for assessment of stability is discussed focussing on the chemical stability of solution-state dosage forms. The probability that the drug content of a product is observed to be within the lower specification limit in the accelerated test is interpreted graphically. This probability depends on experimental errors in the assay and temperature control, as well as the true degradation rate and activation energy. Therefore, the observation that the drug content meets the specification in the accelerated testing can provide only limited information on the shelf-life of the drug, without the knowledge of the activation energy and the accuracy and precision of the assay and temperature control.

  13. Pyroelectric Properties of Potassium and Rubidium Titanyl-Arsenate Single Crystals in the Temperature Range of 4.2-300 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaldin, Yu. V.; Matyjasik, S.; Novikova, N. E.; Tseitlin, M.; Mozhaev, E.; Roth, M.

    2010-01-01

    The temperature dependences of the pyroelectric coefficients of KTiOAsO 4 and RbTiOAsO 4 single crystals grown by flux crystallization have been investigated in the temperature range of 4.2-300 K. With an increase in temperature, superionic conductivity first arises in KTiOAsO4 (at T > 200 K) and then (at T > 270 K) in RbTiOAsO 4 . This conductivity is much higher in the samples polarized at T = 4.2 K. An exponential change in the crystal resistivity along the polar direction is simultaneously observed. The results of measurements in the range of 4.2-200 K indicate larger values of pyroelectric coefficients when compared with potassium and rubidium titanyl-phosphate crystals. A correlation between the pyroelectric coefficients and a change in the lattice constants at isomorphic substitutions of K atoms for Rb and P atoms for As has been revealed within the symmetry approach.

  14. Temperature field analysis of single layer TiO2 film components induced by long-pulse and short-pulse lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Zhang, Hongchao; Qin, Yuan; Wang, Xi; Ni, Xiaowu; Shen, Zhonghua; Lu, Jian

    2011-07-10

    To study the differences between the damaging of thin film components induced by long-pulse and short-pulse lasers, a model of single layer TiO(2) film components with platinum high-absorptance inclusions was established. The temperature rises of TiO(2) films with inclusions of different sizes and different depths induced by a 1 ms long-pulse and a 10 ns short-pulse lasers were analyzed based on temperature field theory. The results show that there is a radius range of inclusions that corresponds to high temperature rises. Short-pulse lasers are more sensitive to high-absorptance inclusions and long-pulse lasers are more easily damage the substrate. The first-damage decision method is drawn from calculations. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  15. Temperature field analysis of single layer TiO2 film components induced by long-pulse and short-pulse lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bin; Zhang Hongchao; Qin Yuan; Wang Xi; Ni Xiaowu; Shen Zhonghua; Lu Jian

    2011-01-01

    To study the differences between the damaging of thin film components induced by long-pulse and short-pulse lasers, a model of single layer TiO 2 film components with platinum high-absorptance inclusions was established. The temperature rises of TiO 2 films with inclusions of different sizes and different depths induced by a 1 ms long-pulse and a 10 ns short-pulse lasers were analyzed based on temperature field theory. The results show that there is a radius range of inclusions that corresponds to high temperature rises. Short-pulse lasers are more sensitive to high-absorptance inclusions and long-pulse lasers are more easily damage the substrate. The first-damage decision method is drawn from calculations.

  16. Growth mechanisms of plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of green emission InGaN/GaN single quantum wells at high growth temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W. C.; Wu, C. H.; Tseng, Y. T.; Chiu, S. Y.; Cheng, K. Y.

    2015-01-01

    The results of the growth of thin (∼3 nm) InGaN/GaN single quantum wells (SQWs) with emission wavelengths in the green region by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy are present. An improved two-step growth method using a high growth temperature up to 650 °C is developed to increase the In content of the InGaN SQW to 30% while maintaining a strong luminescence intensity near a wavelength of 506 nm. The indium composition in InGaN/GaN SQW grown under group-III-rich condition increases with increasing growth temperature following the growth model of liquid phase epitaxy. Further increase in the growth temperature to 670 °C does not improve the photoluminescence property of the material due to rapid loss of indium from the surface and, under certain growth conditions, the onset of phase separation

  17. From a Single-Band Metal to a High-Temperature Superconductor via Two Thermal Phase Transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, R.-H.; Hashimoto, M.; Karapetyan, H.; Koralek, J.D.; Hinton, J.P.; Testaud, J.P.; Nathan, V.; Yoshida, Y.; Yao, H.; Tanaka, K.; Meevasana, W.; Moore, R.G.; Lu, D.H.; Mo, S.-K.; Ishikado, M.; Eisaki, H.; Hussain, Z.; Devereaux, T.P.; Kivelson, S.A.; Orenstein, J.; Kapitulnik, A.

    2011-11-08

    The nature of the pseudogap phase of cuprate high-temperature superconductors is one of the most important unsolved problems in condensed matter physics. We studied the commencement of the pseudogap state at temperature T* using three different techniques (angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, polar Kerr effect, and time-resolved reflectivity) on the same optimally-doped Bi2201 crystals. We observe the coincident onset at T* of a particle-hole asymmetric antinodal gap, a non-zero Kerr rotation, and a change in the relaxational dynamics, consistent with a phase transition. Upon further cooling, spectroscopic signatures of superconductivity begin to grow close to the superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}), entangled in an energy-momentum dependent fashion with the pre-existing pseudogap features.

  18. Low-temperature positron lifetime and Doppler-broadening measurements for single-crystal nickel oxide containing cation vacancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waber, J.T.; Snead, C.L. Jr.; Lynn, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    Lifetime and Doppler-broadening measurements for positron annihilation in substoichiometric nickelous oxide have been made concomitantly from liquid-helium to room temperature. The concentration of cation vacancies is readily controlled by altering the ambient oxygen pressure while annealing the crystals at 1673 0 K. It was found that neither of the three lifetimes observed or their relative intensities varied significantly with the oxygen pressure, and the bulk rate only increased slightly when the specimen was cooled from room to liquid-helium temperatures. These results are interpreted as indicating that some of the positrons are trapped by the existing cation vacancies and a smaller fraction by vacancy clusters

  19. Single photon emission up to liquid nitrogen temperature from charged excitons confined in GaAs-based epitaxial nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusanowski, L.; Syperek, M.; Marynski, A.; Li, L.H.; Misiewicz, J.; Höfling, S.; Kamp, M.; Fiore, A.; Sek, G.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a non-classical photon emitter at near infrared wavelength based on a single (In,Ga)As/GaAs epitaxially grown columnar quantum dot. Charged exciton complexes have been identified in magneto-photoluminescence. Photon auto-correlation histograms from the recombination of a trion

  20. Influence of reactions heats on variation of radius, temperature, pressure and chemical species amounts within a single acoustic cavitation bubble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerboua, Kaouther; Hamdaoui, Oualid

    2018-03-01

    The scientific interest toward the study of acoustic bubble is mainly explained by its practical benefit in providing a reactional media favorable to the rapid evolution of chemical mechanism. The evolution of this mechanism is related to the simultaneous and dependent variation of the volume, temperature and pressure within the bubble, retrieved by the resolution of a differential equations system, including among others the thermal balance. This last one is subject to different assumptions, some authors deem simply that the temperature varies adiabatically during the collapsing phase, without considering the reactions heat of the studied mechanism. This paper aims to evaluate the pertinence of neglecting reactions heats in the thermal balance, by analyzing their effect on the variation of radius, temperature, pressure and chemical species amounts. The results show that the introduction of reactions heats conducts to a decrease of the temperature, an increase of the pressure and a reduction of the bubble volume. As a consequence, this leads to a drop of the quantities of free radicals produced by the chemical mechanism evolving within the bubble. This paper also proved that the impact of the consideration of reactions heats is dependent of the frequency and the acoustic amplitude of the ultrasonic wave. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fitness: Tips for Staying Motivated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Fitness is for life. Motivate yourself with these practical tips. By Mayo Clinic Staff Have ... 27, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/fitness/in-depth/fitness/art-20047624 . Mayo Clinic ...

  2. Fitting experimental data by using weighted Monte Carlo events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojnev, S.

    2003-01-01

    A method for fitting experimental data using modified Monte Carlo (MC) sample is developed. It is intended to help when a single finite MC source has to fit experimental data looking for parameters in a certain underlying theory. The extraction of the searched parameters, the errors estimation and the goodness-of-fit testing is based on the binned maximum likelihood method

  3. Variable-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction study of tetragonal and cubic perovskite-type barium titanate phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Tomotaka; Yoshiasa, Akira; Nakatsuka, Akihiko; Hiratoko, Tatsuya; Mashimo, Tsutomu; Okube, Maki; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-02-01

    A variable-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction study of a synthetic BaTiO3 perovskite has been performed over the temperature range 298-778 K. A transition from a tetragonal (P4mm) to a cubic (Pm3m) phase has been revealed near 413 K. In the non-centrosymmetric P4mm symmetry group, both Ti and O atoms are displaced along the c-axis in opposite directions with regard to the Ba position fixed at the origin, so that Ti(4+) and Ba(2+) cations occupy off-center positions in the TiO6 and BaO12 polyhedra, respectively. Smooth temperature-dependent changes of the atomic coordinates become discontinuous with the phase transition. Our observations imply that the cations remain off-center even in the high-temperature cubic phase. The temperature dependence of the mean-square displacements of Ti in the cubic phase includes a significant static component which means that Ti atoms are statistically distributed in the off-center positions.

  4. Ionothermal synthesis of β-NH4AlF4 and the determination by single crystal X-ray diffraction of its room temperature and low temperature phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parnham, Emily R.; Slawin, Alex M.Z.; Morris, Russell E.

    2007-01-01

    β-NH 4 AlF 4 has been synthesised ionothermally using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate as solvent and template provider. β-NH 4 AlF 4 crystals were produced which were suitable for single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. A phase transition occurs between room temperature (298 K) and low temperature (93 K) data collections. At 298 K the space group=I4/mcm (no. 140), α=11.642(5), c=12.661(5) A, Z=2 (10NH 4 AlF 4 ), wR(F 2 )=0.1278, R(F)=0.0453. At 93 K the space group=P4 2 /ncm (no. 138), α=11.616(3), c=12.677(3) A, Z=2 (10NH 4 AlF 4 ), wR(F 2 )=0.1387, R(F)=0.0443. The single crystal X-ray diffraction study of β-NH 4 AlF 4 shows the presence of two different polymorphs at low and room temperature, indicative of a phase transition. The [AlF 4/2 F 2 ] - layers are undisturbed except for a small tilting of the AlF 6 octahedra in the c-axis direction. -Ionothermal synthesis, the use of an ionic liquid as the solvent in materials preparation, has been used to prepare β-NH 4 AlF 4 , and structural characterisation indicates that there are two versions of the structure, a low temperature primitive phase at 93 K and a high temperature body-centered phase at 298 K

  5. Topology and temperature dependence of the diffuse X-ray scattering in Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 ferroelectric single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorfman, Semën; Keeble, Dean S; Bombardi, Alessandro; Thomas, Pam A

    2015-10-01

    The results of high-resolution measurements of the diffuse X-ray scattering produced by a perovskite-based Na 0.5 Bi 0.5 TiO 3 ferroelectric single crystal between 40 and 620 K are reported. The study was designed as an attempt to resolve numerous controversies regarding the average structure of Na 0.5 Bi 0.5 TiO 3 , such as the mechanism of the phase transitions between the tetragonal, P 4 bm , and rhombohedral | monoclinic, R 3 c  |  Cc , space groups and the correlation between structural changes and macroscopic physical properties. The starting point was to search for any transformations of structural disorder in the temperature range of thermal depoling (420-480 K), where the average structure is known to remain unchanged. The intensity distribution around the {032} pseudocubic reflection was collected using a PILATUS 100K detector at the I16 beamline of the Diamond Light Source (UK). The data revealed previously unknown features of the diffuse scattering, including a system of dual asymmetric L-shaped diffuse scattering streaks. The topology, temperature dependence, and relationship between Bragg and diffuse intensities suggest the presence of complex microstructure in the low-temperature R 3 c  |  Cc phase. This microstructure may be formed by the persistence of the higher-temperature P 4 bm phase, built into a lower-temperature R 3 c  |  Cc matrix, accompanied by the related long-range strain fields. Finally, it is shown that a correlation between the temperature dependence of the X-ray scattering features and the temperature regime of thermal depoling is present.

  6. Retrieval of land surface temperature (LST) from landsat TM6 and TIRS data by single channel radiative transfer algorithm using satellite and ground-based inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, R. S.; Singh, Narendra; Thapa, Shailaja; Sharma, Dravneeta; Kumar, Dheeraj

    2017-06-01

    The present study proposes land surface temperature (LST) retrieval from satellite-based thermal IR data by single channel radiative transfer algorithm using atmospheric correction parameters derived from satellite-based and in-situ data and land surface emissivity (LSE) derived by a hybrid LSE model. For example, atmospheric transmittance (τ) was derived from Terra MODIS spectral radiance in atmospheric window and absorption bands, whereas the atmospheric path radiance and sky radiance were estimated using satellite- and ground-based in-situ solar radiation, geographic location and observation conditions. The hybrid LSE model which is coupled with ground-based emissivity measurements is more versatile than the previous LSE models and yields improved emissivity values by knowledge-based approach. It uses NDVI-based and NDVI Threshold method (NDVITHM) based algorithms and field-measured emissivity values. The model is applicable for dense vegetation cover, mixed vegetation cover, bare earth including coal mining related land surface classes. The study was conducted in a coalfield of India badly affected by coal fire for decades. In a coal fire affected coalfield, LST would provide precise temperature difference between thermally anomalous coal fire pixels and background pixels to facilitate coal fire detection and monitoring. The derived LST products of the present study were compared with radiant temperature images across some of the prominent coal fire locations in the study area by graphical means and by some standard mathematical dispersion coefficients such as coefficient of variation, coefficient of quartile deviation, coefficient of quartile deviation for 3rd quartile vs. maximum temperature, coefficient of mean deviation (about median) indicating significant increase in the temperature difference among the pixels. The average temperature slope between adjacent pixels, which increases the potential of coal fire pixel detection from background pixels, is

  7. Low-temperature phase transition in γ-glycine single crystal. Pyroelectric, piezoelectric, dielectric and elastic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tylczyński, Zbigniew, E-mail: zbigtyl@amu.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Busz, Piotr [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Science, Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland)

    2016-11-01

    Temperature changes in the pyroelectric, piezoelectric, elastic and dielectric properties of γ-glycine crystals were studied in the range 100 ÷ 385 K. The pyroelectric coefficient increases monotonically in this temperature range and its value at RT was compared with that of other crystals having glycine molecules. A big maximum in the d14 component of piezoelectric tensor compared by maximum in attenuation of the resonant face-shear mode were observed at 189 K. The components of the elastic stiffness tensor and other components of the piezoelectric tensor show anomalies at this temperature. The components of electromechanical coupling coefficient determined indicate that γ-glycine is a weak piezoelectric. The real and imaginary part of the dielectric constant measured in the direction perpendicular to the trigonal axis show the relaxation anomalies much before 198 K and the activation energies were calculated. These anomalies were interpreted as a result of changes in the NH{sub 3}{sup +} vibrations through electron-phonon coupling of the so called “dynamical transition”. The anomalies of dielectric constant ε*{sub 11} and piezoelectric tensor component d{sub 14} taking place at 335 K are associated with an increase in ac conductivity caused by charge transfer of protons. - Graphical abstract: Imaginary part of dielectric constant in [100] direction. - Highlights: • Piezoelectric, elastic and dielectric constants anomalies were discovered at 189 K. • These anomalies were interpreted as a result of so called “dynamical transition”. • Relaxational dielectric anomaly was explained by the dynamics of glycine molecules. • Pyroelectric coefficient of γ-glycine was determined in a wide temperature range. • Complex dielectric & piezoelectric anomalies at 335 K were caused by protons hopping.

  8. Single-point relative process using Laser-Doppler velocimetry for calibration of flow sensors at temperatures above 100 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Due to technical difficulties, the calibration of flow sensors of heat meters above 100 C cannot be performed by the gravimetric standard method. A novel method using a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) was therefore developed, based on the gravimetric method below 100 C and on Reynolds' similarity law. This method allows a turbine meter to be calibrated as a secondary flowrate standard with a relative uncertainty below 0,2% for temperatures of up to 180 C. (orig.) [de

  9. ESR and ENDOR of free radicals in γ-irradiated single crystals of trimethoprim at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzyminiewski, R.; Kawacka, U.; Pietrzak, J.; Erickson, R.; Lund, A.

    1995-01-01

    Singe crystals of trimethoprim were examined after γ-irradiation at room temperature by ESR and ENDOR spectroscopy. A radicals is formed by abstraction of a hydrogen atom from the CH 2 group of the bridge. The unpaired electron is delocalized mainly onto the trimethoxybenzyl ring. It interacts with one proton of the bridge and with two protons in the trimethoxybenzyl ring. (au) (14 refs.)

  10. Single-pulse measurement of density and temperature in a turbulent, supersonic flow using UV laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, D. G.; Mckenzie, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    Nonintrusive measurements of density and temperature and their turbulent fluctuation levels have been obtained in the boundary layer of an unseeded, Mach 2 wind tunnel flow. The spectroscopic technique that was used to make the measurements is based on the combination of laser-induced oxygen fluorescence and Raman scattering by oxygen and nitrogen from the same laser pulse. Results from this demonstration experiment compare favorably with previous measurements obtained in the same facility from conventional probes and an earlier spectroscopic technique.

  11. Limitations of inclusive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A; Wilson, Edward O

    2013-12-10

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed.

  12. Determination of temperature-dependent thermal conductivity of a BaSnO{sub 3−δ} single crystal by using the 3ω method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Joon; Kim, Tai Hoon; Lee, Woong-Jhae; Chai, Yisheng; Kim, Jae Wook; Jwa, Yeon Jae; Chung, Sukhwan; Kim, Seon Joong; Sohn, Egon [Center for Novel States of Complex Materials Research, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Applied Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Min [Hanbeam Corporation Ltd, Iui-dong 906-5, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ki-Young [Center for Novel States of Complex Materials Research, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Applied Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kee Hoon, E-mail: khkim@phya.snu.ac.kr [Center for Novel States of Complex Materials Research, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Applied Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • This is the first report about thermal conductivity of BaSnO{sub 3−δ} single crystals. • We report the successful κ measurement of the crystals by employing the 3ω method. • The BaSnO{sub 3−δ} single crystal can be a good perovskite substrate with high κ. • We found that phonons mainly contribute to the heat transport in BaSnO{sub 3−δ}. - Abstract: The single crystal of the electron doped BaSnO{sub 3−δ} system has been recently found to have high electrical mobility (up to 320 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}) at room temperature and excellent oxygen stability. Although thermal conductivity (κ) of the BaSnO{sub 3−δ} single crystal is an important physical quantity, the κ measurement by the conventional DC method has been difficult due to the limited crystal size. Herein, we report the first measurement of κ by using the 3ω method from ∼20 to 300 K in the oxygen deficient BaSnO{sub 3−δ} single crystal with carrier concentration of ∼10{sup 18} cm{sup −3}. We found that κ is proportional to T{sup −1} above 50 K, indicating that phonons mainly contribute to the heat transport. Moreover, the electronic contribution is determined as ∼4% of the measured κ from the Wiedemann–Franz law. The κ value is 0.132 W cm{sup −1} K{sup −1} at room temperature and is increased progressively at lower temperatures, becoming overall larger than that of the SrTiO{sub 3} single crystal. Our results thus point out that BaSnO{sub 3−δ} can be a good substrate for growing transparent electronic thin films with the perovskite structure.

  13. Single-crystal-like GdNdO{sub x} thin films on silicon substrates by magnetron sputtering and high-temperature annealing for crystal seed layer application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ziwei; Xiao, Lei; Liang, Renrong, E-mail: wang-j@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: liangrr@tsinghua.edu.cn; Shen, Shanshan; Xu, Jun; Wang, Jing, E-mail: wang-j@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: liangrr@tsinghua.edu.cn [Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-06-15

    Single-crystal-like rare earth oxide thin films on silicon (Si) substrates were fabricated by magnetron sputtering and high-temperature annealing processes. A 30-nm-thick high-quality GdNdO{sub x} (GNO) film was deposited using a high-temperature sputtering process at 500°C. A Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} mixture was used as the sputtering target, in which the proportions of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} were controlled to make the GNO’s lattice parameter match that of the Si substrate. To further improve the quality of the GNO film, a post-deposition annealing process was performed at a temperature of 1000°C. The GNO films exhibited a strong preferred orientation on the Si substrate. In addition, an Al/GNO/Si capacitor was fabricated to evaluate the dielectric constant and leakage current of the GNO films. It was determined that the single-crystal-like GNO films on the Si substrates have potential for use as an insulator layer for semiconductor-on-insulator and semiconductor/insulator multilayer applications.

  14. Shape evolution of new-phased lepidocrocite VOOH from single-shelled to double-shelled hollow nanospheres on the basis of programmed reaction-temperature strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changzheng; Zhang, Xiaodong; Ning, Bo; Yang, Jinlong; Xie, Yi

    2009-07-06

    Solid templates have been long regarded as one of the most promising ways to achieve single-shelled hollow nanostructures; however, few effective methods for the construction of multishelled hollow objects from their solid template counterparts have been developed. We report here, for the first time, a novel and convenient route to synthesizing double-shelled hollow spheres from the solid templates via programming the reaction-temperature procedures. The programmed temperature strategy developed in this work then provides an essential and general access to multishelled hollow nanostructures based on the designed extension of single-shelled hollow objects, independent of their outside contours, such as tubes, hollow spheres, and cubes. Starting from the V(OH)(2)NH(2) solid templates, we show that the relationship between the hollowing rate and the reaction temperature obey the Van't Hoff rule and Arrhenius activation-energy equation, revealing that it is the chemical reaction rather than the diffusion process that guided the whole hollowing process, despite the fact that the coupled reaction/diffusion process is involved in the hollowing process. Using the double-shelled hollow spheres as the PCM (CaCl(2).6H(2)O) matrix grants much better thermal-storage stability than that for the nanoparticles counterpart, revealing that the designed nanostructures can give rise to significant improvements for the energy-saving performance in future "smart house" systems.

  15. Single-crystal-like GdNdOx thin films on silicon substrates by magnetron sputtering and high-temperature annealing for crystal seed layer application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziwei Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Single-crystal-like rare earth oxide thin films on silicon (Si substrates were fabricated by magnetron sputtering and high-temperature annealing processes. A 30-nm-thick high-quality GdNdOx (GNO film was deposited using a high-temperature sputtering process at 500°C. A Gd2O3 and Nd2O3 mixture was used as the sputtering target, in which the proportions of Gd2O3 and Nd2O3 were controlled to make the GNO’s lattice parameter match that of the Si substrate. To further improve the quality of the GNO film, a post-deposition annealing process was performed at a temperature of 1000°C. The GNO films exhibited a strong preferred orientation on the Si substrate. In addition, an Al/GNO/Si capacitor was fabricated to evaluate the dielectric constant and leakage current of the GNO films. It was determined that the single-crystal-like GNO films on the Si substrates have potential for use as an insulator layer for semiconductor-on-insulator and semiconductor/insulator multilayer applications.

  16. Isolating the Roles of Different Forcing Agents in Global Stratospheric Temperature Changes Using Model Integrations with Incrementally Added Single Forcings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, V.; Swartz, W. H.; Waugh, D. W.; Colarco, P. R.; Pawson, S.; Polvani, L. M.; Stolarski, R. S.

    2016-01-01

    Satellite instruments show a cooling of global stratospheric temperatures over the whole data record (1979-2014). This cooling is not linear and includes two descending steps in the early 1980s and mid-1990s. The 1979-1995 period is characterized by increasing concentrations of ozone depleting substances (ODS) and by the two major volcanic eruptions of El Chichon (1982) and Mount Pinatubo (1991). The 1995-present period is characterized by decreasing ODS concentrations and by the absence of major volcanic eruptions. Greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations increase over the whole time period. In order to isolate the roles of different forcing agents in the global stratospheric temperature changes, we performed a set of AMIP-style simulations using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOSCCM). We find that in our model simulations the cooling of the stratosphere from 1979 to present is mostly driven by changes in GHG concentrations in the middle and upper stratosphere and by GHG and ODS changes in the lower stratosphere. While the cooling trend caused by increasing GHGs is roughly constant over the satellite era, changing ODS concentrations cause a significant stratospheric cooling only up to the mid-1990s, when they start to decrease because of the implementation of the Montreal Protocol. Sporadic volcanic events and the solar cycle have a distinct signature in the time series of stratospheric temperature anomalies but do not play a statistically significant role in the long-term trends from 1979 to 2014. Several factors combine to produce the step-like behavior in the stratospheric temperatures: in the lower stratosphere, the flattening starting in the mid-1990s is due to the decrease in ozone-depleting substances; Mount Pinatubo and the solar cycle cause the abrupt steps through the aerosol-associated warming and the volcanically induced ozone depletion. In the middle and upper stratosphere, changes in solar irradiance are largely

  17. GOSSIP: SED fitting code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzetti, Paolo; Scodeggio, Marco

    2012-10-01

    GOSSIP fits the electro-magnetic emission of an object (the SED, Spectral Energy Distribution) against synthetic models to find the simulated one that best reproduces the observed data. It builds-up the observed SED of an object (or a large sample of objects) combining magnitudes in different bands and eventually a spectrum; then it performs a chi-square minimization fitting procedure versus a set of synthetic models. The fitting results are used to estimate a number of physical parameters like the Star Formation History, absolute magnitudes, stellar mass and their Probability Distribution Functions.

  18. Fitness Club / Nordic Walking

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2011-01-01

    Nordic Walking at CERN Enrollments are open for Nordic Walking courses and outings at CERN. Classes will be on Tuesdays as of 20 September, and outings for the more experienced will be on Thursdays as of 15 September. We meet at the CERN Club barracks car park (near entrance A). • 18:00 to 19:00 on 20 & 27 September, as well as 4 & 11 October. Check out our schedule and rates and enroll at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club fitness.club@cern.ch  

  19. Measuring Your Fitness Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... online calculator. If you'd rather do the math yourself, divide your weight in pounds by your ... Human Services recommends one of the following activity levels for adult fitness and health benefits: 150 minutes ...

  20. The universal Higgs fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giardino, P. P.; Kannike, K.; Masina, I.

    2014-01-01

    We perform a state-of-the-art global fit to all Higgs data. We synthesise them into a 'universal' form, which allows to easily test any desired model. We apply the proposed methodology to extract from data the Higgs branching ratios, production cross sections, couplings and to analyse composite...... Higgs models, models with extra Higgs doublets, supersymmetry, extra particles in the loops, anomalous top couplings, and invisible Higgs decays into Dark Matter. Best fit regions lie around the Standard Model predictions and are well approximated by our 'universal' fit. Latest data exclude the dilaton...... as an alternative to the Higgs, and disfavour fits with negative Yukawa couplings. We derive for the first time the SM Higgs boson mass from the measured rates, rather than from the peak positions, obtaining M-h = 124.4 +/- 1.6 GeV....

  1. ACSM Fit Society Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fitness topics. Expert commentary and features on exercise, nutrition, sports and health offer tips and techniques for maintaining ... Special Populations 2011 -- Behavior Change & Exercise Adherence 2011 -- ... Preparing for Fall Sports 2009 -- Cancer and Exercise 2008 -- Group Exercise 2008 -- ...

  2. Driver fitness medical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This guide provides guidance to assist licensing agencies in making decisions about an individuals fitness for driving. This is the first attempt to produce a consolidated document covering medical conditions included in the task agreement between...

  3. Single-phase {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} thin films prepared on Si wafer by femtosecond laser ablation and its photoluminescence at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Peixiang [State Key Laboratory of Laser Technology and Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)]. E-mail: lupeixiang@mail.hust.edu.cn; Zhou Youhua [State Key Laboratory of Laser Technology and Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China) and Physics and Information School, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056 (China)]. E-mail: yhzhou@jhun.edu.cn; Zheng Qiguang [State Key Laboratory of Laser Technology and Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yang Guang [State Key Laboratory of Laser Technology and Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2006-02-06

    Single-phase {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} thin films were prepared on Si(100) and Si(111) wafers by using femtosecond laser deposition with a FeSi{sub 2} alloy target for the first time. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field scanning electron microscopy (FSEM), scanning probe microscopy (SPM), electron backscattered diffraction pattern (EBSD), and Fourier-transform Raman infrared spectroscopy (FTRIS) were used to characterize the structure, composition, and properties of the {beta}-FeSi{sub 2}/Si films. The orientation of {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} grains was found to depend on the orientation of the Si substrates, and photoluminescence at wavelength of 1.53 {mu}m was observed from the single-phase {beta}-FeSi{sub 2}/Si thin film at room temperature (20 {sup o}C)

  4. Temperature-phased anaerobic digestion of food waste: A comparison with single-stage digestions based on performance and energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Benyi; Qin, Yu; Zhang, Wenzhe; Wu, Jing; Qiang, Hong; Liu, Junxin; Li, Yu-You

    2018-02-01

    The temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) of food waste was studied for the purpose of comparing with single-stage mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion. The biogas and methane yields in the TPAD during the steady period were 0.759 ± 0.115 L/g added VS and 0.454 ± 0.201 L/g added VS, which were lower than those in the two single-stage anaerobic digestion. The improper sludge retention time may be the reason for the lower biogas and methane production in TPAD. The removal of volatile solids in the TPAD was 78.55 ± 4.59% and the lowest among the three anaerobic digestion processes. The reaction ratios of the four anaerobic digestion steps in the TPAD were all lower than those in the two single-stage anaerobic digestion. The energy conversion efficiency of the degraded substrate in the TPAD was similar with those in single-stage mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Langley Fitness Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    NASA Langley recognizes the importance of healthy employees by committing itself to offering a complete fitness program. The scope of the program focuses on promoting overall health and wellness in an effort to reduce the risks of illness and disease and to increase productivity. This is accomplished through a comprehensive Health and Fitness Program offered to all NASA employees. Various aspects of the program are discussed.

  6. dftools: Distribution function fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obreschkow, Danail

    2018-05-01

    dftools, written in R, finds the most likely P parameters of a D-dimensional distribution function (DF) generating N objects, where each object is specified by D observables with measurement uncertainties. For instance, if the objects are galaxies, it can fit a mass function (D=1), a mass-size distribution (D=2) or the mass-spin-morphology distribution (D=3). Unlike most common fitting approaches, this method accurately accounts for measurement in uncertainties and complex selection functions.

  7. Growth of (CH 3) 2NH 2CuCl 3 single crystals using evaporation method with different temperatures and solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L. M.; Tao, W.; Zhao, Z. Y.; Li, Q. J.; Ke, W. P.; Wang, X. M.; Liu, X. G.; Fan, C.; Sun, X. F.

    2010-10-01

    The bulk single crystals of low-dimensional magnet (CH 3) 2NH 2CuCl 3 (DMACuCl 3 or MCCL) are grown by a slow evaporation method with different kinds of solvents, different degrees of super-saturation of solution and different temperatures of solution, respectively. Among three kinds of solvent, methanol, alcohol and water, alcohol is found to be the best one for growing MCCL crystals because of its structural similarity to the raw materials and suitable evaporation rate. The best growth temperature is in the vicinity of 35 °C. The problem of the crystals deliquescing in air has been solved through recrystallization process. The crystals are characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, specific heat and magnetic susceptibility.

  8. Oxygen vacancy-induced room-temperature ferromagnetism in D—D neutron irradiated single-crystal TiO2 (001) rutile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nan-Nan; Li, Gong-Ping; Pan, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Yun-Bo; Chen, Jing-Sheng; Bao, Liang-Man

    2014-10-01

    Remarkable room temperature ferromagnetism in pure single-crystal rutile TiO2 (001) samples irradiated by D—D neutron has been investigated. By combining X-ray diffraction and positron annihilation lifetime, the contracted lattice has been clearly identified in irradiated TiO2, where Ti4+ ions can be easily reduced to the state of Ti3+. As there were no magnetic impurities that could contaminate the samples during the whole procedure, some Ti3+ ions reside on interstitial or substituted sites accompanied by oxygen vacancies should be responsible for the ferromagnetism.

  9. Growth of (CH$_3$)$_2$NH$_2$CuCl$_3$ single crystals using evaporation method with different temperatures and solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, L. M.; Tao, W.; Zhao, Z. Y.; Li, Q. J.; Ke, W. P.; Wang, X. M.; Liu, X. G.; Fan, C.; Sun, X. F.

    2013-01-01

    The bulk single crystals of of low-dimensional magnet (CH$_3$)$_2$NH$_2$CuCl$_3$ (DMACuCl$_3$ or MCCL) are grown by a slow evaporation method with different kinds of solvents, different degrees of super-saturation of solution and different temperatures of solution, respectively. Among three kinds of solvent, methanol, alcohol and water, alcohol is found to be the best one for growing MCCL crystals because of its structural similarity to the raw materials and suitable evaporation rate. The bes...

  10. Room-temperature heteroepitaxy of single-phase Al1−xInxN films with full composition range on isostructural wurtzite templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, Ching-Lien; Palisaitis, Justinas; Junaid, Muhammad; Persson, Per O.Å.; Jensen, Jens; Zhao, Qing-Xiang; Hultman, Lars; Chen, Li-Chyong; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Birch, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Al 1−x In x N heteroepitaxial layers covering the full composition range have been realized by magnetron sputter epitaxy on basal-plane AlN, GaN, and ZnO templates at room temperature (RT). Both Al 1−x In x N single layers and multilayers grown on these isostructural templates show single phase, single crystal wurtzite structure. Even at large lattice mismatch between the film and the template, for instance InN/AlN (∼ 13% mismatch), heteroepitaxy is achieved. However, RT-grown Al 1−x In x N films directly deposited on non-isostructural c-plane sapphire substrate exhibit a polycrystalline structure for all compositions, suggesting that substrate surface structure is important for guiding the initial nucleation. Degradation of Al 1−x In x N structural quality with increasing indium content is attributed to the formation of more point- and structural defects. The defects result in a prominent hydrostatic tensile stress component, in addition to the biaxial stress component introduced by lattice mismatch, in all RT-grown Al 1−x In x N films. These effects are reflected in the measured in-plane and out-of-plane strains. The effect of hydrostatic stress is negligible compared to the effects of lattice mismatch in high-temperature grown AlN layers thanks to their low amount of defects. We found that Vegard’s rule is applicable to determine x in the RT-grown Al 1−x In x N epilayers if the lattice constants of RT-sputtered AlN and InN films are used instead of those of the strain-free bulk materials. - Highlights: ► Magnetron sputter epitaxy of single-phase Al 1−x In x N(0001) at room temperature ► Growing Al 1−x In x N onto temperature sensitive substrates is desirable. ► Substrate surface structure plays a vital role at nucleation stage. ► Point and extended defects produce hydrostatic tensile stress. ► The applicability of Vegard's rule for these compounds is confirmed.

  11. Single-source-precursor Synthesis and High-temperature Behavior of SiC Ceramics Containing Boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Miaomiao; Fang, Yunhui; Yu, Zhaoju

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a hyperbranched polyborocarbosilane (HPBCS) was prepared by a one-pot synthesis with Cl2Si(CH3)CH2Cl, Cl3SiCH2Cl and BCl3 as the starting materials. The obtained HPBCS was characterized by GPC, FT-IR and NMR, and was confirmed to have hyperbranched structures. The thermal property of the resulting HPBCS was investigated by TGA. The ceramic yield of the HPBCS is about 84% and that of the counterpart hyperbranched hydridopolycarbosilane is only 45%, indicating that the introduction of boron into the preceramic polymer significantly improved the ceramic yield. With the polymer-derived ceramic route, the final ceramics were annealed at 1800 °C in argon atmosphere for 2 h in order to characterize the microstructure and to evaluate the high-temperature behavior. The final ceramic microstructure was studied by XRD and SEM, indicating that the introduction of boron dramatically inhibits SiC crystallization. The boron-containing SiC ceramic shows excellent high-temperature behavior against decomposition and crystallization at 1800 °C.

  12. Large room-temperature tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance and electroresistance in single ferromagnet/Nb:SrTiO3 Schottky devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamerbeek, Alexander M; Ruiter, Roald; Banerjee, Tamalika

    2018-01-22

    There is a large effort in research and development to realize electronic devices capable of storing information in new ways - for instance devices which simultaneously exhibit electro and magnetoresistance. However it remains a challenge to create devices in which both effects coexist. In this work we show that the well-known electroresistance in noble metal-Nb:SrTiO 3 Schottky junctions can be augmented by a magnetoresistance effect in the same junction. This is realized by replacing the noble metal electrode with ferromagnetic Co. This magnetoresistance manifests as a room temperature tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance (TAMR). The maximum room temperature TAMR (1.6%) is significantly larger and robuster with bias than observed earlier, not using Nb:SrTiO 3 . In a different set of devices, a thin amorphous AlO x interlayer inserted between Co and Nb:SrTiO 3 , reduces the TAMR by more than 2 orders of magnitude. This points to the importance of intimate contact between the Co and Nb:SrTiO 3 for the TAMR effect. This is explained by electric field enhanced spin-orbit coupling of the interfacial Co layer in contact with Nb:SrTiO 3 . We propose that the large TAMR likely has its origin in the 3d orbital derived conduction band and large relative permittivity of Nb:SrTiO 3 and discuss ways to further enhance the TAMR.

  13. Temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy studies of the interface coupling effect of monolayer ReSe2 single crystals on Au foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shaolong; Zhao, Liyun; Shi, Yuping; Xie, Chunyu; Zhang, Na; Zhang, Zhepeng; Huan, Yahuan; Yang, Pengfei; Hong, Min; Zhou, Xiebo; Shi, Jianping; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2018-05-01

    Rhenium diselenide (ReSe2), which bears in-plane anisotropic optical and electrical properties, is of considerable interest for its excellent applications in novel devices, such as polarization-sensitive photodetectors and integrated polarization-controllers. However, great challenges to date in the controllable synthesis of high-quality ReSe2 have hindered its in-depth investigations and practical applications. Herein, we report a feasible synthesis of monolayer single-crystal ReSe2 flakes on the Au foil substrate by using a chemical vapor deposition route. Particularly, we focus on the temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy investigations of monolayer ReSe2 grown on Au foils, which present concurrent red shifts of Eg-like and Ag-like modes with increasing measurement temperature from 77–290 K. Linear temperature dependences of both modes are revealed and explained from the anharmonic vibration of the ReSe2 lattice. More importantly, the strong interaction of ReSe2 with Au, with respect to that with SiO2/Si, is further confirmed by temperature-dependent Raman characterization. This work is thus proposed to shed light on the optical and thermal properties of such anisotropic two-dimensional three-atom-thick materials.

  14. Thermal expansion behavior of empressite, AgTe: A structural study by means of in situ high-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindi, Luca [Museo di Storia Naturale, sez. di Mineralogia, Universita di Firenze, Via La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze (Italy)], E-mail: luca.bindi@unifi.it

    2009-04-03

    The crystal structure of empressite, AgTe, a rare silver telluride, has been investigated by in situ X-ray single-crystal diffraction methods within the temperature range 298-463 K. AgTe remains orthorhombic, space group Pmnb (Pnma as standard), and shows only normal thermal expansion over the entire temperature range. The unit-cell parameters show a gradual increase with the increase of temperature. Slight adjustments in the geometry of Ag-tetrahedra and in the crystal-chemical environment of tellurium atoms occur in a continuous way without abrupt structural changes. The coefficients of thermal expansion along various axes are: {alpha}{sub a} = 1.5 x 10{sup -5} K{sup -1}, {alpha}{sub b} = 3.0 x 10{sup -5} K{sup -1}, {alpha}{sub c} = 2.2 x 10{sup -5} K{sup -1}, and the bulk thermal expansion coefficient {alpha}{sub V} is 5.4 x 10{sup -5} K{sup -1} for the temperature range 298-463 K.

  15. High-Q energy trapping of temperature-stable shear waves with Lamé cross-sectional polarization in a single crystal silicon waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizian, R.; Daruwalla, A.; Ayazi, F.

    2016-03-01

    A multi-port electrostatically driven silicon acoustic cavity is implemented that efficiently traps the energy of a temperature-stable eigen-mode with Lamé cross-sectional polarization. Dispersive behavior of propagating and evanescent guided waves in a ⟨100⟩-aligned single crystal silicon waveguide is used to engineer the acoustic energy distribution of a specific shear eigen-mode that is well known for its low temperature sensitivity when implemented in doped single crystal silicon. Such an acoustic energy trapping in the central region of the acoustic cavity geometry and far from substrate obviates the need for narrow tethers that are conventionally used for non-destructive and high quality factor (Q) energy suspension in MEMS resonators; therefore, the acoustically engineered waveguide can simultaneously serve as in-situ self-oven by passing large uniformly distributed DC currents through its body and without any concern about perturbing the mode shape or deforming narrow supports. Such a stable thermo-structural performance besides large turnover temperatures than can be realized in Lamé eigen-modes make this device suitable for implementation of ultra-stable oven-controlled oscillators. 78 MHz prototypes implemented in arsenic-doped single crystal silicon substrates with different resistivity are transduced by in- and out-of-plane narrow-gap capacitive ports, showing high Q of ˜43k. The low resistivity device shows an overall temperature-induced frequency drift of 200 ppm over the range of -20 °C to 80 °C, which is ˜15× smaller compared to overall frequency drift measured for the similar yet high resistivity device in the same temperature range. Furthermore, a frequency tuning of ˜2100 ppm is achieved in high resistivity device by passing 45 mA DC current through its body. Continuous operation of the device under such a self-ovenizing current over 10 days did not induce frequency instability or degradation in Q.

  16. Enhancing the blocking temperature in single-molecule magnets by incorporating 3d-5d exchange interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kasper Søndergaard; Schau-Magnussen, Magnus; Bendix, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    We report the first single-molecule magnet (SMM) to incorporate the [Os(CN)(6)](3-) moiety. The compound (1) has a trimeric, cyanide-bridged Mn(III)-Os(III)-Mn(III) skeleton in which Mn(III) designates a [Mn(5-Brsalen)(MeOH)](+) unit (5-Brsalen=N,N'-ethylenebis(5-bromosalicylideneiminato)). X......-ray crystallographic experiments reveal that 1 is isostructural with the Mn(III)-Fe(III)-Mn(III) analogue (2). Both compounds exhibit a frequency-dependent out-of-phase ¿''(T) alternating current (ac) susceptibility signal that is suggestive of SMM behaviour. From the Arrhenius expression, the effective barrier for 1...... for the design of a new generation of SMMs with enhanced SMM properties....

  17. High temperature oxidation behavior of aluminide on a Ni-based single crystal superalloy in different surface orientations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fahamsyah H.Latief; Koji Kakehi; El-Sayed M.Sherif

    2014-01-01

    An investigation on oxidation behavior of coated Ni-based single crystal superalloy in different surface orientations has been carried out at 1100 1C. It has been found that the {100} surface shows a better oxidation resistance than the {110} one, which is attributed that the {110}surface had a slightly higher oxidation rate when compared to the {100} surface. The experimental results also indicated that the anisotropic oxidation behavior took place even with a very small difference in the oxidation rates that was found between the two surfaces. The differences of the topologically close packed phase amount and its penetration depth between the two surfaces, including the ratio of α-Al2O3 after 500 h oxidation, were responsible for the oxidation anisotropy.

  18. A combined temperature-dependent electron and single-crystal X-ray diffraction study of the fresnoite compound Rb2V4+V25+O8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withers, R.L.; Hoeche, Thomas; Liu Yun; Esmaeilzadeh, Saeid; Keding, Ralf; Sales, Brian

    2004-01-01

    High-purity Rb 2 V 3 O 8 has been grown and temperature-dependent electron and single-crystal X-ray diffraction used to carefully investigate its fresnoite-type reciprocal lattice. In contrast to other recently investigated representatives of the fresnoite family of compounds, Rb 2 V 3 O 8 is not incommensurately modulated with an incommensurate basal plane primary modulation wave vector given by q∼0.3 *. A careful low-temperature electron diffraction study has, however, revealed the existence of weak incommensurate satellite reflections characterized by the primitive primary modulation wave vector q 1 ∼0.16c*. The reciprocal space positioning of these incommensurate satellite reflections, the overall (3+1)-d superspace group symmetry, as well as the shapes of the refined displacement ellipsoids determined from single-crystal XRD refinement, are all consistent with their arising from a distinct type of condensed rigid unit modes (RUMs) of distortion of the Rb 2 V 3 O 8 parent structure

  19. Performance optimization of apodized FBG-based temperature sensors in single and quasi-distributed DWDM systems with new and different apodization profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Nazmi A.; Ali, Taha A.; Aly, Moustafa H.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, different FBG temperature sensors are designed and evaluated with various apodization profiles. Evaluation is done under a wide range of controlling design parameters like sensor length and refractive index modulation amplitude, targeting a remarkable temperature sensing performance. New judgment techniques are introduced such as apodization window roll-off rate, asymptotic sidelobe (SL) decay level, number of SLs, and average SL level (SLav). Evaluation techniques like reflectivity, Full width at Half Maximum (FWHM), and Sidelobe Suppression Ratio (SLSR) are also used. A “New” apodization function is proposed, which achieves better performance like asymptotic decay of 18.4 dB/nm, high SLSR of 60 dB, high channel isolation of 57.9 dB, and narrow FWHM less than 0.15 nm. For a single accurate temperature sensor measurement in extensive noisy environment, optimum results are obtained by the Nuttall apodization profile and the new apodization function, which have remarkable SLSR. For a quasi-distributed FBG temperature sensor the Barthann and the new apodization profiles obtain optimum results. Barthann achieves a high asymptotic decay of 40 dB/nm, a narrow FWHM (less than 25 GHZ), a very low SLav of −45.3 dB, high isolation of 44.6 dB, and a high SLSR of 35 dB. The new apodization function achieves narrow FWHM of 0.177 nm, very low SL of −60.1, very low SLav of −63.6 dB, and very high SLSR of −57.7 dB. A study is performed on including an unapodized sensor among apodized sensors in a quasi-distributed sensing system. Finally, an isolation examination is performed on all the discussed apodizations and a linear relation between temperature and the Bragg wavelength shift is observed experimentally and matched with the simulated results

  20. Replacing critical radiators to increase the potential to use low-temperature district heating – A case study of 4 Danish single-family houses from the 1930s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Dorte Skaarup; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    radiator sizes and heating demands in 4 existing Danish single-family houses from the 1930s. A year-long dynamic simulation was performed for each of the houses to evaluate the potential to lower the heating system temperatures. The results indicate that there is a large potential to use low......-temperature district heating in existing single-family houses. In order to obtain the full potential of low-temperature district heating, critical radiators must be replaced. Based on a novel method, a total of nine radiators were identified to be critical to ensure thermal comfort and low return temperatures in two...

  1. Metamagnetism, sign reversal and low temperature magnetocaloric effect in single-crystalline EuV2Al20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh Kumar, K.; Nair, Harikrishnan S.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Thamizhavel, A.; Strydom, André M.

    2018-04-01

    The Frank-Kasper cage compound EuV2Al20 crystallizes in the cubic structure with Fd 3 ‾ m space group and exhibits unusual magnetic and transport properties. The system undergoes an antiferromagnetic transition below 5.6 K wherein the Eu2+ moments are aligned anti-parallel along 〈1 1 1〉 direction and the system exhibits a weak metamagetic transition at the field of 1 T. Arrott plots (M2 vs H / M) show a "S" shaped variation in the low fields below TN and the plausible reason for the occurrence of negative slope is discussed. Isothermal magnetic entropy change is estimated from both magnetization and heat capacity measurements invoking the Maxwell's thermodynamic relations. Temperature variation of ΔSm showed a weak negative minimum and a sign reversal at the field value of 1 T due to field induced metamagnetic transition. Universal master curve is constructed by rescaling the ΔSm vs T curves in the context of analysing the nature of the magnetic transition.

  2. Low temperature EPR investigation of Co2+ ion doped into rutile TiO2 single crystal: Experiments and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerentürk, A.; Açıkgöz, M.; Kazan, S.; Yıldız, F.; Aktaş, B.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we present the results of X-band EPR spectra of Co2+ ion doped rutile (TiO2) which is one of the most promising memristor material. We obtained the angular variation of spectra in three mutually perpendicular planes at liquid helium (7-13 K) temperatures. Since the impurity ions have ½ effective spin and 7/2 nuclear spin, a relatively simple spin Hamiltonian containing only electronic Zeeman and hyperfine terms was utilized. Two different methods were used in theoretical analysis. Firstly, a linear regression analysis of spectra based on perturbation theory was studied. However, this approach is not sufficient for analyzing Co+2 spectra and leads to complex eigenvectors for G and A tensors due to large anisotropy of eigenvalues. Therefore, all spectra were analyzed again with exact diagonalization of spin Hamiltonian and the high accuracy eigenvalues and eigenvectors of G and A tensors were obtained by taking into account the effect of small sample misalignment from the exact crystallographic planes due to experimental conditions. Our results show that eigen-axes of g and A tensors are parallel to crystallographic directions. Hence, our EPR experiments proves that Co2+ ions substitute for Ti4+ ions in lattice. The obtained principal values of g tensor are gx=2.110(6), gy=5.890(2), gz=3.725(7) and principal values of hyperfine tensor are Ax=42.4, Ay=152.7, Az=26 (in 10-4/cm).

  3. A single polymerase (L) mutation in avian metapneumovirus increased virulence and partially maintained virus viability at an elevated temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Paul A; Lupini, Caterina; Catelli, Elena; Clubbe, Jayne; Ricchizzi, Enrico; Naylor, Clive J

    2011-02-01

    Previously, a virulent avian metapneumovirus, farm isolate Italy 309/04, was shown to have been derived from a live vaccine. Virulence due to the five nucleotide mutations associated with the reversion to virulence was investigated by their addition to the genome of the vaccine strain using reverse genetics. Virulence of these recombinant viruses was determined by infection of 1-day-old turkeys. Disease levels resulting from the combined two matrix mutations was indistinguishable from that produced by the recombinant vaccine, whereas the combined three L gene mutations increased disease to a level (P<0.0001) that was indistinguishable from that caused by the revertant Italy 309/04 virus. Testing of the L mutations individually showed that two mutations did not increase virulence, while the third mutation, corresponding to an asparagine to aspartic acid substitution, produced virulence indistinguishable from that caused by Italy 309/04. In contrast to the vaccine, the virulent mutant also showed increased viability at temperatures typical of turkey core tissues. The notion that increased viral virulence resulted from enhanced ability to replicate in tissues away from the cool respiratory tract, cannot be discounted.

  4. Fitting the Phenomenological MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    AbdusSalam, S S; Quevedo, F; Feroz, F; Hobson, M

    2010-01-01

    We perform a global Bayesian fit of the phenomenological minimal supersymmetric standard model (pMSSM) to current indirect collider and dark matter data. The pMSSM contains the most relevant 25 weak-scale MSSM parameters, which are simultaneously fit using `nested sampling' Monte Carlo techniques in more than 15 years of CPU time. We calculate the Bayesian evidence for the pMSSM and constrain its parameters and observables in the context of two widely different, but reasonable, priors to determine which inferences are robust. We make inferences about sparticle masses, the sign of the $\\mu$ parameter, the amount of fine tuning, dark matter properties and the prospects for direct dark matter detection without assuming a restrictive high-scale supersymmetry breaking model. We find the inferred lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass as an example of an approximately prior independent observable. This analysis constitutes the first statistically convergent pMSSM global fit to all current data.

  5. Orientation and temperature dependence of yield stress and slip geometry of Ti3Al and Ti3Al-V single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umakoshi, Y.; Nakano, T.; Takenaka, T.; Sumimoto, K.; Yamane, T.

    1993-01-01

    Single crystals of binary Ti 3 Al and ternary Ti 3 Al-V alloys with the D0 19 structure were deformed in compression at 20-900 C. Slip systems of the (10 bar 10) -type and the (11 bar 21) -type were observed in these alloys throughout the entire temperature range depending on orientation, but the (11 bar 21) -slip was limited to orientations near [0001]. The basal (0001) -slip was also activated in quenched Ti 3 Al. The CRSS for the (10 bar 10) -slip in the binary and ternary alloys decreases monotonically with increasing temperature. In the ternary alloy the CRSS for the (10 bar 10) -slip shows a violation of Schmid's law, while the binary alloy obeys the CRSS law. When Ti 3 Al is deformed by (11 bar 21) -slip the CRSS for the slip exhibits an anomalous peak in the temperature-CRSS curve but the addition of vanadium suppresses the extent of the anomalous strengthening

  6. Post test investigation of the single rod tests ESSI 1-11 on temperature escalation in PWR fuel rod simulators due to the Zircaloy/steam reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, S.; Kapulla, H.; Malauschek, H.; Katanishi, S.

    1987-03-01

    This KfK-report describes the posttest investigation of the single rod tests ESSI-1 to ESSI-11. The objective of these tests was to investigate the temperature escalation behaviour of Zircaloy clad PWR-fuel rods in steam. The investigation of the temperature escalation is part of the program of out-of-pile experiments (CORA) performed within the frame work of the PNS Severe Fuel Damage Program. The experimental arrangement consisted of fuel rod simulator (central tungsten heater, UO 2 ring pellets and Zircaloy cladding), Zircaloy shroud and fiber ceramic insulation. The introductory test ESSI-1 to ESSI-3 were scoping tests designed to obtain information on the temperature escalation of zircaloy in steam. ESSI-4 to ESSI-8 were run with increasing heating rates to investigate the influence of the oxide layer thickness at the start of the escalation. ESSI-9 to ESSI-11 were performed to investigate the influence of the insulation thickness on the escalation behaviour. In these tests we also learned that the gap between removed shroud and insulation has a remarkable influence due to heat removal by convection in the gap. After the test the fuel rod simulator was embedded into epoxy and cut by a diamond saw. The cross sections were photographed and investigated by metalograph microscope, SEM and EMP examinations. (orig./GL) [de

  7. Pyroelectric Properties of Potassium and Rubidium Titanyl-Arsenate Single Crystals in the Temperature Range of 4.2-300 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaldin, Yu. V., E-mail: yuri1999@rambler.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Matyjasik, S. [International Laboratory of Strong Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures (Poland); Novikova, N. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Tseitlin, M.; Mozhaev, E. [Ariel University Center of Samaria (Israel); Roth, M. [Hebrew University, School of Applied Sciences (Israel)

    2010-11-15

    The temperature dependences of the pyroelectric coefficients of KTiOAsO{sub 4} and RbTiOAsO{sub 4} single crystals grown by flux crystallization have been investigated in the temperature range of 4.2-300 K. With an increase in temperature, superionic conductivity first arises in KTiOAsO4 (at T > 200 K) and then (at T > 270 K) in RbTiOAsO{sub 4}. This conductivity is much higher in the samples polarized at T = 4.2 K. An exponential change in the crystal resistivity along the polar direction is simultaneously observed. The results of measurements in the range of 4.2-200 K indicate larger values of pyroelectric coefficients when compared with potassium and rubidium titanyl-phosphate crystals. A correlation between the pyroelectric coefficients and a change in the lattice constants at isomorphic substitutions of K atoms for Rb and P atoms for As has been revealed within the symmetry approach.

  8. Fertilisation rate obtained with frozen-thawed boar semen supplemented with rosmarinic acid using a single insemination timed according to vulvar skin temperature changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luño, Victoria; Gil, Lydia; Olaciregui, Maite; Grandía, Juan; Ansó, Trinidad; De Blas, Ignacio

    2015-03-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) of sows with frozen-thawed semen usually results in lower pregnancy rates and litter sizes than the use of liquid preserved semen. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of vulvar skin temperature changes as a predictor of ovulation in sows and determined the fertility rates obtained after AI with frozen-thawed semen supplemented with rosmarinic acid (RA). Semen was collected from mature boars and cryopreserved in experimental extenders supplemented with or without 105 μM of RA. Multiparous sows were inseminated with a single dose of semen when vulvar skin temperature decreased to a value below 35 °C. Intrauterine insemination was performed using 1.5 × 109 spermatozoa. The sows were slaughtered 48 h after AI and the embryos and oocytes were recovered from the oviducts. Total and progressive motility, viability and acrosome integrity were significantly (P semen samples compared with the control. Fertilisation occurred in all sows inseminated in the study, although there were no significant differences between the experimental groups. Sows inseminated with RA-supplemented semen showed a slight increase in the number of embryos recovered as compared to sows inseminated with control semen. In conclusion, insemination according to vulvar skin temperature changes resulted in successful fertilisation in all sows, although supplementation of the freezing media with RA did not improve the fertilising ability of frozen-thawed boar sperm.

  9. Strength Training: For Overall Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Strength training is an important part of an overall fitness program. Here's what strength training can do for ... is a key component of overall health and fitness for everyone. Lean muscle mass naturally diminishes with ...

  10. Measurement of the (pressure, density, temperature) relation of two (methane + nitrogen) gas mixtures at temperatures between 240 and 400 K and pressures up to 20 MPa using an accurate single-sinker densimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamorro, C.R. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain)]. E-mail: cescha@eis.uva.es; Segovia, J.J. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Martin, M.C. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Villamanan, M.A. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Estela-Uribe, J.F. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Javeriana-Cali, Calle 18, 118-250 Cali (Colombia); Trusler, J.P.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-15

    Comprehensive (p, {rho}, T) measurements on two gas mixtures of (0.9CH{sub 4} + 0.1N{sub 2}) and (0.8CH{sub 4} + 0.2N{sub 2}) have been carried out at six temperatures between 240 and 400 K and at pressures up to 20 MPa. A total of 108 (p, {rho}, T) data for the first mixture and 134 for the second one are given. These measurements were performed using a compact single-sinker densimeter based on Archimedes' buoyancy principle. The overall uncertainty in density {rho} is estimated to be (1.5 . 10{sup -4} . {rho} + 2 . 10{sup -3} kg . m{sup -3}) (coverage factor k = 2), the uncertainty in temperature T is estimated to be 0.006 K (coverage factor k = 2), and the uncertainty in pressure p is estimated to be 1 . 10{sup -4}.p (coverage factor k = 2). The equipment has been previously checked with pure nitrogen over the whole temperature and pressure working ranges and experimental results (35 values) are given and a comparison with the reference equation of state for nitrogen is presented.

  11. Measurement of the (pressure, density, temperature) relation of two (methane + nitrogen) gas mixtures at temperatures between 240 and 400 K and pressures up to 20 MPa using an accurate single-sinker densimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamorro, C.R.; Segovia, J.J.; Martin, M.C.; Villamanan, M.A.; Estela-Uribe, J.F.; Trusler, J.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Comprehensive (p, ρ, T) measurements on two gas mixtures of (0.9CH 4 + 0.1N 2 ) and (0.8CH 4 + 0.2N 2 ) have been carried out at six temperatures between 240 and 400 K and at pressures up to 20 MPa. A total of 108 (p, ρ, T) data for the first mixture and 134 for the second one are given. These measurements were performed using a compact single-sinker densimeter based on Archimedes' buoyancy principle. The overall uncertainty in density ρ is estimated to be (1.5 . 10 -4 . ρ + 2 . 10 -3 kg . m -3 ) (coverage factor k = 2), the uncertainty in temperature T is estimated to be 0.006 K (coverage factor k = 2), and the uncertainty in pressure p is estimated to be 1 . 10 -4 .p (coverage factor k = 2). The equipment has been previously checked with pure nitrogen over the whole temperature and pressure working ranges and experimental results (35 values) are given and a comparison with the reference equation of state for nitrogen is presented

  12. Effects of ambient temperature and oxygen concentration on diesel spray combustion using a single-nozzle injector in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei; Roberts, William L.; Fang, Tiegang

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the effects of ambient conditions on diesel spray combustion in an optically accessible, constant volume chamber using a single-nozzle fuel injector. The ambient O2 concentration was varied between five discrete values from 10% to 21% and three different ambient temperatures (800 K, 1000 K, and 1200 K). These conditions simulate different exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels and ambient temperatures in diesel engines. Both conventional diesel combustion and low temperature combustion (LTC) modes were observed under these conditions. A transient analysis and a quasi-steady state analysis are employed in this article. The transient analysis focuses on the flame development from beginning to the end, illustrating how the flame structure changes during this process; the quasi-steady state analysis focuses on the stable flame structure. The transient analysis was conducted using high-speed imaging of both OH* chemiluminescence and natural luminosity (NL). In addition, three different images were acquired using an ICCD camera, corresponding to OH* chemiluminescence, narrow-band flame emission at 430 nm (Band A) and at 470 nm (Band B), and were used to investigate the quasi-steady state combustion process. From the transient analysis, it was found that the NL signal becomes stronger and confined to narrow regions when the temperature and O2 concentration increase during the development of flame. The OH* intensity is much lower for the 10% ambient O2 and 800 K conditions compared to the higher temperatures and O2 levels. This implies the occurrence of LTC under these conditions. Results from the quasi-steady combustion stage indicate that high-temperature reactions effectively oxidize the soot in the downstream locations where only OH* signal is observed. In addition, an area was calculated for each spectral region, and results show that the area of Band A and Band B emissions in these images is larger than the area of OH* emissions at the lower O2

  13. Effects of ambient temperature and oxygen concentration on diesel spray combustion using a single-nozzle injector in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2013-09-02

    This work investigates the effects of ambient conditions on diesel spray combustion in an optically accessible, constant volume chamber using a single-nozzle fuel injector. The ambient O2 concentration was varied between five discrete values from 10% to 21% and three different ambient temperatures (800 K, 1000 K, and 1200 K). These conditions simulate different exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels and ambient temperatures in diesel engines. Both conventional diesel combustion and low temperature combustion (LTC) modes were observed under these conditions. A transient analysis and a quasi-steady state analysis are employed in this article. The transient analysis focuses on the flame development from beginning to the end, illustrating how the flame structure changes during this process; the quasi-steady state analysis focuses on the stable flame structure. The transient analysis was conducted using high-speed imaging of both OH* chemiluminescence and natural luminosity (NL). In addition, three different images were acquired using an ICCD camera, corresponding to OH* chemiluminescence, narrow-band flame emission at 430 nm (Band A) and at 470 nm (Band B), and were used to investigate the quasi-steady state combustion process. From the transient analysis, it was found that the NL signal becomes stronger and confined to narrow regions when the temperature and O2 concentration increase during the development of flame. The OH* intensity is much lower for the 10% ambient O2 and 800 K conditions compared to the higher temperatures and O2 levels. This implies the occurrence of LTC under these conditions. Results from the quasi-steady combustion stage indicate that high-temperature reactions effectively oxidize the soot in the downstream locations where only OH* signal is observed. In addition, an area was calculated for each spectral region, and results show that the area of Band A and Band B emissions in these images is larger than the area of OH* emissions at the lower O2

  14. Comparison of ductile-to-brittle transition curve fitting approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, L.W.; Wu, S.J.; Flewitt, P.E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Ductile-to-brittle transition (DBT) curve fitting approaches are compared over the transition temperature range for reactor pressure vessel steels with different kinds of data, including Charpy-V notch impact energy data and fracture toughness data. Three DBT curve fitting methods have been frequently used in the past, including the Burr S-Weibull and tanh distributions. In general there is greater scatter associated with test data obtained within the transition region. Therefore these methods give results with different accuracies, especially when fitting to small quantities of data. The comparison shows that the Burr distribution and tanh distribution can almost equally fit well distributed and large data sets extending across the test temperature range to include the upper and lower shelves. The S-Weibull distribution fit is poor for the lower shelf of the DBT curve. Overall for both large and small quantities of measured data the Burr distribution provides the best description. - Highlights: ► Burr distribution offers a better fit than that of a S-Weibull and tanh fit. ► Burr and tanh methods show similar fitting ability for a large data set. ► Burr method can fit sparse data well distributed across the test temperature. ► S-Weibull method cannot fit the lower shelf well and show poor fitting quality.

  15. Improving NEC Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    TAD Temporary Additional Duty TFMMS Total Force Manpower Management System UIC Unit Identification Code USFFC United States Fleet Forces Command...not include sailors on temporary additional duty ( TAD ). In addition, for class average Fit, we excluded units that had billets but no onboard

  16. Reliability and Model Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Leanne M.; Edwards, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the distinction between the reliability of test scores and the fit of psychometric measurement models, reminding readers why it is important to consider both when evaluating whether test scores are valid for a proposed interpretation and/or use. It is often the case that an investigator judges both the…

  17. The Soldier Fitness Tracker: global delivery of Comprehensive Soldier Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fravell, Mike; Nasser, Katherine; Cornum, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    Carefully implemented technology strategies are vital to the success of large-scale initiatives such as the U.S. Army's Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program. Achieving the U.S. Army's vision for CSF required a robust information technology platform that was scaled to millions of users and that leveraged the Internet to enable global reach. The platform needed to be agile, provide powerful real-time reporting, and have the capacity to quickly transform to meet emerging requirements. Existing organizational applications, such as "Single Sign-On," and authoritative data sources were exploited to the maximum extent possible. Development of the "Soldier Fitness Tracker" is the most recent, and possibly the best, demonstration of the potential benefits possible when existing organizational capabilities are married to new, innovative applications. Combining the capabilities of the extant applications with the newly developed applications expedited development, eliminated redundant data collection, resulted in the exceeding of program objectives, and produced a comfortable experience for the end user, all in less than six months. This is a model for future technology integration. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Flux free growth of large FeSe1/2Te1/2 superconducting single crystals by an easy high temperature melt and slow cooling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Maheshwari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report successful growth of flux free large single crystals of superconducting FeSe1/2Te1/2 with typical dimensions of up to few cm. The AC and DC magnetic measurements revealed the superconducting transition temperature (Tc value of around 11.5K and the isothermal MH showed typical type-II superconducting behavior. The lower critical field (Hc1 being estimated by measuring the low field isothermal magnetization in superconducting regime is found to be above 200Oe at 0K. The temperature dependent electrical resistivity ρ(T  showed the Tc (onset to be 14K and the Tc(ρ = 0 at 11.5K. The electrical resistivity under various magnetic fields i.e., ρ(TH for H//ab and H//c demonstrated the difference in the width of Tc with applied field of 14Tesla to be nearly 2K, confirming the anisotropic nature of superconductivity. The upper critical and irreversibility fields at absolute zero temperature i.e., Hc2(0 and Hirr(0 being determined by the conventional one-band Werthamer–Helfand–Hohenberg (WHH equation for the criteria of normal state resistivity (ρn falling to 90% (onset, and 10% (offset is 76.9Tesla, and 37.45Tesla respectively, for H//c and 135.4Tesla, and 71.41Tesla respectively, for H//ab. The coherence length at the zero temperature is estimated to be above 20Å ´ by using the Ginsburg-Landau theory. The activation energy for the FeSe1/2Te1/2 in both directions H//c and H//ab is determined by using Thermally Activation Flux Flow (TAFF model.

  19. Precipitation in solid solution and structural transformations in single crystals of high rhenium ruthenium-containing nickel superalloys at high-temperature creep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, A.A.; Petrushin, N.V.; Zaitsev, D.V.; Treninkov, I.A.; Filonova, E.V. [All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Aviation Materials (VIAM), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    The phase composition and structure of single crystals of two superalloys (alloy 1 and alloy 2) were investigated in this work. For alloy 1 (Re - 9 wt%) the kinetics of precipitation in solid solution at heat treatment (HT) was investigated. TEM and X-Ray examinations have revealed that during HT rhombic phase (R-phase) precipitation (Immm class (BCR)) occurs. The TTT diagram is plotted, it contains the time-temperature area of the existence of R-phase particles. The element content of R-phase is identified (at. %): Re- 51.5; Co- 23.5; Cr- 14.8; Mo- 4.2; W- 3.3; Ta- 2.7. For alloy 2 (Re - 6.5 wt %, Ru - 4 wt %) structural transformations at high-temperature creep are investigated. By dark-field TEM methods it is established, that in alloy 2 the additional phase with a rhombic lattice is formed during creep. Particles of this phase precipitate in {gamma}-phase and their quantity increases during high-temperature creep. It is revealed that during creep 3-D dislocation network is formed in {gamma}-phase. At the third stage of creep the process of inversion structure formation is observed in the alloy, i.e. {gamma}'-phase becomes a matrix. Thus during modeling creep the volume fraction of {gamma}'-phase in the samples increases from 30% (at creep duration of 200 hrs) up to 55% (at 500 hrs). The processes of structure formation in Re and Ru-containing nickel superalloys are strongly affected by decomposition of solid solution during high-temperature creep that includes precipitation of additional TCP-phases. (orig.)

  20. Sensitivity of Satellite-Based Skin Temperature to Different Surface Emissivity and NWP Reanalysis Sources Demonstrated Using a Single-Channel, Viewing-Angle-Corrected Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarino, B. R.; Minnis, P.; Yost, C. R.; Chee, T.; Palikonda, R.

    2015-12-01

    Single-channel algorithms for satellite thermal-infrared- (TIR-) derived land and sea surface skin temperature (LST and SST) are advantageous in that they can be easily applied to a variety of satellite sensors. They can also accommodate decade-spanning instrument series, particularly for periods when split-window capabilities are not available. However, the benefit of one unified retrieval methodology for all sensors comes at the cost of critical sensitivity to surface emissivity (ɛs) and atmospheric transmittance estimation. It has been demonstrated that as little as 0.01 variance in ɛs can amount to more than a 0.5-K adjustment in retrieved LST values. Atmospheric transmittance requires calculations that employ vertical profiles of temperature and humidity from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Selection of a given NWP model can significantly affect LST and SST agreement relative to their respective validation sources. Thus, it is necessary to understand the accuracies of the retrievals for various NWP models to ensure the best LST/SST retrievals. The sensitivities of the single-channel retrievals to surface emittance and NWP profiles are investigated using NASA Langley historic land and ocean clear-sky skin temperature (Ts) values derived from high-resolution 11-μm TIR brightness temperature measured from geostationary satellites (GEOSat) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR). It is shown that mean GEOSat-derived, anisotropy-corrected LST can vary by up to ±0.8 K depending on whether CERES or MODIS ɛs sources are used. Furthermore, the use of either NOAA Global Forecast System (GFS) or NASA Goddard Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) for the radiative transfer model initial atmospheric state can account for more than 0.5-K variation in mean Ts. The results are compared to measurements from the Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD), an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program ground